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Sample records for achieve long-term control

  1. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  2. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions of ... form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute symptoms. ...

  3. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  4. Motivation and Long-Term Language Achievement: Understanding Motivation to Persist in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Achieving native-like proficiency in a foreign language is a long-term process; therefore, designing and implementing a plan for long-term language achievement may help more learners achieve their long-term language goals of fluency as well as related career goals. This study presents recommendations that may be incorporated into the college…

  5. Perceptions of control and long-term recovery from rape.

    PubMed

    Regehr, C; Cadell, S; Jansen, K

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between perceptions of control and symptoms of both long-term depression and post-traumatic stress was examined. Enduring beliefs of personal competence and control were found to be associated with lower rates of depression and stress and to be stronger predictors of long-term recovery than were rape-specific attributions. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  6. Long-term control of diabetes mellitus and periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Tervonen, T; Oliver, R C

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between long-term control of diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis. A total of 75 diabetics (Type I or II) aged 20-70 years with long-term records of their diabetic control were selected for the study. The following periodontal variables were recorded in a randomized half-mouth examination: plaque, calculus (+/-), probing depth (pd) and attachment loss (al). The mean of glycosylated hemoglobin measurements (HbAlc) over the past 2-5 years was used to indicate the long-term control of DM. The study participants were divided into well-, moderately- and poorly-controlled diabetics. An increase in the prevalence, severity and extent of periodontitis with poorer control of diabetes was observed. The extent of calculus also increased with poorer control. In a multiple regression analysis, calculus and long-term control of diabetes were significant variables when pd > or = 4 mm was used as the dependent variable. Age was a significant predictor for al > or = 3 mm but not for pd > or = 4 mm. Sex, duration and type of DM were not significant variables in the regression models. Less than 2% of sites with no calculus demonstrated pd > or = 4 mm. When calculus was present, the frequency of pd > or = 4 mm increased from 6% in the well-controlled diabetics to 16% in the poorly-controlled ones. We conclude that periodontitis in diabetics is associated with long-term metabolic control and presence of calculus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Enablers of Physician Prescription of a Long-Term Asthma Controller in Patients with Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Martha L.; Desplats, Eve; Ernst, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to identify key enablers of physician prescription of a long-term controller in patients with persistent asthma. Methods. We conducted a mailed survey of randomly selected Quebec physicians. We sent a 102-item questionnaire, seeking reported management regarding one of 4 clinical vignettes of a poorly controlled adult or child and endorsement of enablers to prescribe long-term controllers. Results. With a 56% participation rate, 421 physicians participated. Most (86%) would prescribe a long-term controller (predominantly inhaled corticosteroids, ICS) to the patient in their clinical vignette. Determinants of intention were the recognition of persistent symptoms (OR 2.67), goal of achieving long-term control (OR 5.31), and high comfort level in initiating long-term ICS (OR 2.33). Decision tools, pharmacy reports, reminders, and specific training were strongly endorsed by ≥60% physicians to support optimal management. Physicians strongly endorsed asthma education, lung function testing, specialist opinion, accessible asthma clinic, and paramedical healthcare professionals to guide patients, as enablers to improve patient adherence to and physicians' comfort with long-term ICS. Interpretation. Tools and training to improve physician knowledge, skills, and perception towards long-term ICS and resources that increase patient adherence and physician comfort to facilitate long-term ICS prescription should be considered as targets for implementation. PMID:27445537

  8. Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…

  9. Long-Term Antecedents and Outcomes of Perceived Control

    PubMed Central

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived control plays an important role in shaping development throughout adulthood and old age. Using data from the adult lifespan sample of the national German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP; N > 10,000, covering 25 years of measurement), we explored long-term antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of perceived control and examined if associations differ with age. Targeting correlates and antecedents of control, findings indicated that higher concurrent levels of social participation, life satisfaction, and self-rated health as well as more positive changes in social participation over the preceding 11 years were each predictive of between-person differences in perceived control. Targeting health outcomes of control, survival analyses revealed that perceived control predicted 14-year hazard rates for disability (n = 996 became disabled) and mortality (n = 1,382 died). The effect for mortality, but not for disability, was independent of socio-demographic and psychosocial factors. Overall, we found very limited support for age-differential associations. Our results provide further impetus to thoroughly examine processes involved in antecedent-consequent relations among perceived control, facets of social life, well-being, and health. PMID:21517184

  10. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a residual risk factor associated with long-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease who achieve optimal control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shinya; Kurata, Takeshi; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is recognized an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Clinical trials have shown that statins significantly reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statin. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established coronary risk factor that is independent of LDL-C levels. We evaluated the impact of HDL-C on long-term mortality in diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieved optimal LDL-C. We enrolled 438 consecutive diabetic patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention between 2004 and 2007 at our institution. We identified 165 patients who achieved target LDL-C <100 mg/dl. Patients were stratified into two groups according to HDL-C levels (low HDL-C group, baseline HDL-C <40 mg/dl; high HDL-C group, ≥40 mg/dl). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) that included all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome, and target lesion revascularization were evaluated between the two groups. The median follow-up period was 946 days. The rate of MACE was significantly higher in diabetic patients with low-HDL-C who achieved optimal LDL-C (6.9 vs 17.9 %, log-rank P = 0.030). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C is significantly associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for MACE 1.33, 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.75, P = 0.042). Low HDL-C is a residual risk factor that is significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieve optimal LDL-C levels.

  11. Long-term litter decomposition controlled by manganese redox cycling

    PubMed Central

    Keiluweit, Marco; Nico, Peter; Harmon, Mark E.; Mao, Jingdong; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is a keystone ecosystem process impacting nutrient cycling and productivity, soil properties, and the terrestrial carbon (C) balance, but the factors regulating decomposition rate are still poorly understood. Traditional models assume that the rate is controlled by litter quality, relying on parameters such as lignin content as predictors. However, a strong correlation has been observed between the manganese (Mn) content of litter and decomposition rates across a variety of forest ecosystems. Here, we show that long-term litter decomposition in forest ecosystems is tightly coupled to Mn redox cycling. Over 7 years of litter decomposition, microbial transformation of litter was paralleled by variations in Mn oxidation state and concentration. A detailed chemical imaging analysis of the litter revealed that fungi recruit and redistribute unreactive Mn2+ provided by fresh plant litter to produce oxidative Mn3+ species at sites of active decay, with Mn eventually accumulating as insoluble Mn3+/4+ oxides. Formation of reactive Mn3+ species coincided with the generation of aromatic oxidation products, providing direct proof of the previously posited role of Mn3+-based oxidizers in the breakdown of litter. Our results suggest that the litter-decomposing machinery at our coniferous forest site depends on the ability of plants and microbes to supply, accumulate, and regenerate short-lived Mn3+ species in the litter layer. This observation indicates that biogeochemical constraints on bioavailability, mobility, and reactivity of Mn in the plant–soil system may have a profound impact on litter decomposition rates. PMID:26372954

  12. Long-term litter decomposition controlled by manganese redox cycling.

    PubMed

    Keiluweit, Marco; Nico, Peter; Harmon, Mark E; Mao, Jingdong; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus

    2015-09-22

    Litter decomposition is a keystone ecosystem process impacting nutrient cycling and productivity, soil properties, and the terrestrial carbon (C) balance, but the factors regulating decomposition rate are still poorly understood. Traditional models assume that the rate is controlled by litter quality, relying on parameters such as lignin content as predictors. However, a strong correlation has been observed between the manganese (Mn) content of litter and decomposition rates across a variety of forest ecosystems. Here, we show that long-term litter decomposition in forest ecosystems is tightly coupled to Mn redox cycling. Over 7 years of litter decomposition, microbial transformation of litter was paralleled by variations in Mn oxidation state and concentration. A detailed chemical imaging analysis of the litter revealed that fungi recruit and redistribute unreactive Mn(2+) provided by fresh plant litter to produce oxidative Mn(3+) species at sites of active decay, with Mn eventually accumulating as insoluble Mn(3+/4+) oxides. Formation of reactive Mn(3+) species coincided with the generation of aromatic oxidation products, providing direct proof of the previously posited role of Mn(3+)-based oxidizers in the breakdown of litter. Our results suggest that the litter-decomposing machinery at our coniferous forest site depends on the ability of plants and microbes to supply, accumulate, and regenerate short-lived Mn(3+) species in the litter layer. This observation indicates that biogeochemical constraints on bioavailability, mobility, and reactivity of Mn in the plant-soil system may have a profound impact on litter decomposition rates.

  13. Long-term behaviour of timber structures in torrent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Timber is widely used for protection measures in torrent control. However, life span of woody constructions such as timber check dams is limited due to fungal decay. However, only sparse scientific information is available on the long-term behaviour of timber structures and the colonisation with decay fungi. Related to this, in practice a controversial discussion has been going on if either Norway Spruce (Picea abies) or Silver Fir (Abies alba) is more enduring and if bark removal increases resistance against fungal decay. In order to going into this matter a series of 15 timber check dams built in 1996 has been monitored. The constructions were alternatively realised with Norway Spruce and Silver Fir, half of them each with remaining and removed bark, respectively. The scientific investigations included the documentation of colonisation with rot fungi and the identification of decayed zones with a simple practical approach as well as based on drilling resistance. Colonisation by decay fungi started three years after construction (e.g. Gloeophyllum sepiarium), detecting two years later first parts with reduced wood resistance. Sixteen years after construction decay was found on all check dams but two. Wood quality was markedly better in watered sections compared to the occasionally dry lateral abutment sections. Taking the whole check dams into consideration, slightly more decay was detected in Norway Spruce compared to logs in Silver Fir and both the practical approach and the drilling resistance measurement yielded in more defects on logs without bark. However, due to limited number of replications and fungal data, it was not possible to statistically verify these results. Statistical analysis was restricted to the drilling resistance data and fruit-bodies of decay fungi of the uppermost log of each check dam. Based on this limited analysis significant differences in the effect on the drilling resistance were found for watered sections and lateral abutments

  14. Automatic lighting controls demonstration: Long-term results

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F. )

    1991-10-18

    An advanced electronically ballasted lighting control system was installed in a portion of an office building to measure the energy and demand savings. The lighting control system used an integrated lighting control scenario that included daylight following, lumen depreciation correction, and scheduling. The system reduced lighting energy on weekdays by 62% and 51% in the north and south daylit zones, respectively, compared to a reference zone that did not have controls. During the summer, over 75% energy savings were achieved on weekdays in the north daylit zone. Even in the south interior zone, which benefitted lime from daylight, correction strategies and adjustment of the aisleway lights to a low level resulted in energy use of only half that of the reference zone. Although, in general, the savings varied over the year due to changing daylight conditions, the energy reduction achieved with controls could be fit using a simple analytical model. Significant savings also occurred during core operating hours when it is more expensive to supply and use energy. Compared to the usage in the reference zone, energy reductions of 49%, 44%, and 62% were measured in the south daylight, south interior, and north daylight zones, respectively, during core operating hours throughout the year. Lighting energy usage on weekends decreased dramatically in the zones with controls, with the usage in the north daylit zone only 10% that of the reference zone. A simple survey developed to assess occupant response to the lighting control system showed that the occupants were satisfied with the light levels provided.

  15. Dopamine controls persistence of long-term memory storage.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Janine I; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Izquierdo, Iván; Medina, Jorge H; Cammarota, Martín

    2009-08-21

    The paradigmatic feature of long-term memory (LTM) is its persistence. However, little is known about the mechanisms that make some LTMs last longer than others. In rats, a long-lasting fear LTM vanished rapidly when the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 was injected into the dorsal hippocampus 12 hours, but not immediately or 9 hours, after the fearful experience. Conversely, intrahippocampal application of the D1 agonist SK38393 at the same critical post-training time converted a rapidly decaying fear LTM into a persistent one. This effect was mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and regulated by the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Thus, the persistence of LTM depends on activation of VTA/hippocampus dopaminergic connections and can be specifically modulated by manipulating this system at definite post-learning time points.

  16. Preterm Birth, Age at School Entry and Long Term Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Odd, David; Evans, David; Emond, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate if the detrimental impact of year of entering education in preterm infants persists into adolescence. Background Preterm infants are often enrolled in school a year earlier than would be expected if this decision is based on their actual date of birth rather than their due date. Initially these infants appear to do disproportionately worse than those who do not ‘skip’ a year. However, it is unclear if this effect remains as the infants grow, to have an important effect on long term achievements in education. Design A cohort study, drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The exposure measurement was gestational age (defined as preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or term (37–42 weeks)). The primary outcome was a low score at the Key Stage 4 (KS4) educational assessment or receiving special educational needs support (both at age 16). We derived conditional regression models matching preterm to term infants on their date of birth (DOB), their expected date of delivery (EDD), or their expected date of delivery and year of school entry. Results After matching for DOB, preterm infants had an increased odds of SEN (OR 1.57 (1.33–1.86)) and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.39 (1.14–1.68)). The association remained in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.43 (1.17–1.74)) but attenuated after restricting to those infants who were enrolled in school in the same year as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.21 (0.97–1.52)). There was less evidence for an impact of prematurity on the KS4 score (Matched for DOB; OR 1.10 (0.91 to 1.34), matched for EDD OR 1.17 (0.96 to 1.42) and EDD and same year of schooling, OR 1.00 (0.80 to 1.26)). Conclusions This modifiable effect of going to school a year earlier than predicted by their due date appears to have measurable consequences for ex-preterm infants in adolescence and is likely to limit adulthood opportunities

  17. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence

    PubMed Central

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-01-01

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  18. Long term dynamics and optimal control of nano-satellite deorbit using a short electrodynamic tether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, R.; Zhu, Z. H.

    2013-10-01

    This paper studies the long term dynamics and optimal control of a nano-satellite deorbit by a short electrodynamic tether. The long term deorbit process is discretized into intervals and within each interval a two-phase optimal control law is proposed to achieve libration stability and fast deorbit simultaneously. The first-phase formulates an open-loop fast-deorbit control trajectory by a simplified model that assumes the slow-varying orbital elements of electrodynamic tethered system as constant and ignores perturbation forces other than the electrodynamic force. The second phase tracks the optimal trajectory derived in the first phase by a finite receding horizon control method while considering a full dynamic model of electrodynamic tether system. Both optimal control problems are solved by direct collocation method base on the Hermite-Simpson discretization schemes with coincident nodes. The resulting piecewise nonlinear programing problems in the sequential intervals reduces the problem size and improve the computational efficiency, which enable an on-orbit control application. Numerical results for deorbit control of a short electrodynamic tethered nano-satellite system in both equatorial and highly inclined orbits demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed control method. An optimal balance between the libration stability and a fast deorbit of satellite with minimum control efforts is achieved.

  19. Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: the unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage  = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies.

  20. Quantitative analysis of motion control in long term microgravity.

    PubMed

    Baroni, G; Ferrigno, G; Anolli, A; Andreoni, G; Pedotti, A

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the 179-days EUROMIR '95 space mission, two in-flight experiments have foreseen quantitative three-dimensional human movement analysis in microgravity. For this aim, a space qualified opto-electronic motion analyser based on passive markers has been installed onboard the Russian Space Station MIR and 8 in flight sessions have been performed. Techhology and method for the collection of kinematics data are described, evaluating the accuracy in three-dimensional marker localisation. Results confirm the suitability of opto-electronic technology for quantitative human motion analysis on orbital modules and raise a set of "lessons learned", leading to the improvement of motion analyser performance with a contemporary swiftness of the on-board operations. Among the experimental program of T4, results of three voluntary posture perturbation protocols are described. The analysis suggests that a short term reinterpretation of proprioceptive information and re-calibration of sensorimotor mechanisms seem to end within the first weeks of flight, while a continuous long term adaptation process allows the refinement of motor performance, in the frame of never abandoned terrestrial strategies.

  1. Risk Assessment and Control through Countermeasure System Iplementation for Long-term Crew Exposure to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernand, Jeremy M.

    2004-01-01

    Experience with the International Space Station (ISS) program demonstrates the degree to which engineering design and operational solutions must protect crewmembers from health risks due to long-term exposure to the microgravity environment. Risks to safety and health due to degradation in the microgravity environment include crew inability to complete emergency or nominal activities, increased risk of injury, and inability to complete safe return to the ground due to reduced strength or embrittled bones. These risks without controls slowly increase in probability for the length of the mission and become more significant for increasing mission durations. Countermeasures to microgravity include hardware systems that place a crewmember s body under elevated stress to produce an effect similar to daily exposure to gravity. The ISS countermeasure system is predominately composed of customized exercise machines. Historical treatment of microgravity countermeasure systems as medical research experiments unintentionally reduced the foreseen importance and therefore the capability of the systems to function in a long-term operational role. Long-term hazardous effects and steadily increasing operational risks due to non-functional countermeasure equipment require a more rigorous design approach and incorporation of redundancy into seemingly non- mission-critical hardware systems. Variations in the rate of health degradation and responsiveness to countermeasures among the crew population drastically increase the challenge for design requirements development and verification of the appropriate risk control strategy. The long-term nature of the hazards and severe limits on logistical re-supply mass, volume and frequency complicates assessment of hardware availability and verification of an adequate maintenance and sparing plan. Design achievement of medically defined performance requirements by microgravity countermeasure systems and incorporation of adequate failure tolerance

  2. A microfluidic-based cell encapsulation platform to achieve high long-term cell viability in photopolymerized PEGNB hydrogel microspheres.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongliang; Xia, Bingzhao; McBride, Ralph; Oakey, John

    2017-01-07

    Cell encapsulation within photopolymerized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel scaffolds has been demonstrated as a robust strategy for cell delivery, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and developing in vitro platforms to study cellular behavior and fate. Strategies to achieve spatial and temporal control over PEG hydrogel mechanical properties, chemical functionalization, and cytocompatibility have advanced considerably in recent years. Recent microfluidic technologies have enabled the miniaturization of PEG hydrogels, thus enabling the fabrication of miniaturized cell-laden vehicles. However, rapid oxygen diffusive transport times on the microscale dramatically inhibit chain growth photopolymerization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), thus decreasing the viability of cells encapsulated within these microstructures. Another promising PEG-based scaffold material, PEG norbornene (PEGNB), is formed by a step-growth photopolymerization and is not inhibited by oxygen. PEGNB has also been shown to be more cytocompatible than PEGDA and allows for orthogonal addition reactions. The step-growth kinetics, however, are slow and therefore challenging to fully polymerize within droplets flowing through microfluidic devices. Here, we describe a microfluidic-based droplet fabrication platform that generates consistently monodisperse cell-laden water-in-oil emulsions. Microfluidically generated PEGNB droplets are collected and photopolymerized under UV exposure in bulk emulsions. In this work, we compare this microfluidic-based cell encapsulation platform with a vortex-based method on the basis of microgel size, uniformity, post-encapsulation cell viability and long-term cell viability. Several factors that influence post-encapsulation cell viability were identified. Finally, long-term cell viability achieved by this platform was compared to a similar cell encapsulation platform using PEGDA. We show that this PEGNB microencapsulation platform is capable of

  3. Realising the Real Benefits of Outsourcing: Measurement Excellence and Its Importance in Achieving Long Term Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshri, Ilan; Kotlarsky, Julia

    These days firms are, more than ever, pressed to demonstrate returns on their investment in outsourcing. While the initial returns can always be associated with one-off cost cutting, outsourcing arrangements are complex, often involving inter-related high-value activities, which makes the realisation of long-term benefits from outsourcing ever more challenging. Executives in client firms are no longer satisfied with the same level of service delivery through the outsourcing lifecycle. They seek to achieve business transformation and innovation in their present and future services, beyond satisfying service level agreements (SLAs). Clearly the business world is facing a new challenge: an outsourcing delivery system of high-value activities that demonstrates value over time and across business functions. However, despite such expectations, many client firms are in the dark when trying to measure and quantify the return on outsourcing investments: results of this research show that less than half of all CIOs and CFOs (43%) have attempted to calculate the financial impact of outsourcing to their bottom line, indicating that the financial benefits are difficult to quantify (51%).

  4. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change. PMID:22385818

  5. Long-term microfouling on commercial biocidal fouling control coatings.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishnan, Thirumahal; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey; Kidd, Barry; Finnie, Alistair A

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the microbial community composition of the biofilms that developed on 11 commercial biocidal coatings, including examples of the three main historic types, namely self-polishing copolymer (SPC), self-polishing hybrid (SPH) and controlled depletion polymer (CDP), after immersion in the sea for one year. The total wet weight of the biofilm and the total bacterial density were significantly influenced by all coatings. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed distinct bacterial community structures on the different types of coatings. Flavobacteria accounted for the dissimilarity between communities developed on the control and SPC (16%) and the control and SPH coatings (17%), while Alphaproteobacteria contributed to 14% of the dissimilarity between the control and CDP coatings. The lowest number of operational taxonomic units was found on Intersmooth 100, while the lowest biomass and density of bacteria was detected on other SPC coatings. The experiments demonstrated that the nature and quantity of biofilm present differed from coating to coating with clear differences between copper-free and copper-based biocidal coatings.

  6. LONG-TERM EVALUATION OF REGIONAL EROSION CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under legislation passed in 1984, three federal agencies constructed more than $300 million worth of channel erosion control measures in 16 watersheds in northern Mississippi between 1985 and 2003. Most work was completed between 1985 and 1995, and was confined to six larger watersheds. Flows of w...

  7. Air Traffic Controllers’ Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training Effects: A Control Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaballos, María T.P.; Plasencia, Daniel P.; González, María L.Z.; de Miguel, Angel R.; Macías, Ángel R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=−5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. Discussion: ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Conclusion: Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions. PMID:27991470

  8. A Long-Term Experimental Case Study of the Ecological Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Invasive Plant Management in Achieving Conservation Goals: Bitou Bush Control in Booderee National Park in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J.; Catford, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  9. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  10. Learner-Centered Inquiry in Undergraduate Biology: Positive Relationships with Long-Term Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derting, Terry L.; Ebert-May, Diane

    2010-01-01

    We determined short- and long-term correlates of a revised introductory biology curriculum on understanding of biology as a process of inquiry and learning of content. In the original curriculum students completed two traditional lecture-based introductory courses. In the revised curriculum students completed two new learner-centered,…

  11. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  12. Long-term management strategies to achieve optimal function in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Keck, Paul E

    2006-01-01

    Functional impairment is a problem for people with bipolar disorder. Predictors of poor functional outcome are psychiatric and medical comorbidity, interepisode subsyndromal symptoms, psychosis during a manic or mixed episode, and low premorbid functioning. Cognitive dysfunction may also be a contributory factor in functional impairment. Several psychosocial interventions designed for people with bipolar disorder have demonstrated success in improving syndromal outcomes, but the effects of psychosocial interventions on functioning and cognition have not been examined. Among pharmacologic interventions available for long-term treatment of bipolar disorder, there is a strong clinical trend away from monotherapy and toward combination therapy. Lithium, lamotrigine, olanzapine, and aripiprazole have all shown substantial improvements in relapse rates compared with placebo. Although some of these medications show superior results compared with the others in preventing the recurrence of either depressive or manic episodes, only anecdotal evidence exists regarding their effect on cognition. Combination therapy with antipsychotics or antidepressants has also been shown to produce better syndromal outcomes in people with bipolar disorder, but inadequate evidence is available on cognitive outcomes. Substantial information is needed regarding the prevalence and causes of cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder, the effects of existing treatments on cognition, and long-term treatments to improve cognition and functioning.

  13. Rapid, simple, and cost-effective treatments to achieve long-term hydrophilic PDMS surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmilä, Samu; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V.; Kreutzer, Joose; Kallio, Pasi

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes rapid, simple, and cost-effective treatments for producing biocompatible and long-term hydrophilic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces identified in an experimental study investigating 39 treatments in all. The wetting of the surfaces was monitored during six months. Changes in surface morphology and chemical composition were also analyzed. Some of the treatments are presented here for the first time, while for earlier presented treatments the selection of investigated parameters was wider and the observation period for the surface wetting longer. The PDMS surfaces were modified by surface activation, physisorption, and synthesis of both “grafting to” and “grafting from” polymer brushes. In surface activation, the PDMS sample was exposed to oxygen plasma, with several combinations of exposure time and RF power. In the physisorption and synthesis of polymer brushes, three commercially available and biocompatible chemicals were used: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Thirty-three of the 39 treatments rendered the PDMS hydrophilic, and in 12 cases the hydrophilicity lasted at least six months. Seven of these long-term hydrophilic coatings supported a contact angle of 30° or less. Three of the long-lasting hydrophilic coatings required only minutes to prepare.

  14. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: changing the focus from glycemic control to improving long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cecilia C Low; Reusch, Jane E B

    2012-11-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the fifth-leading cause of death worldwide and contributes to leading causes of death, cancer and cardiovascular disease, including CAD, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and other vascular disease. While glycemic management remains a cornerstone of DM care, the co-management of hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular risk reduction, and prevention of long-term consequences associated with DM are now well recognized as essential to improve long-term survival. Clinical trial evidence substantiates the importance of glycemic control, low-density cholesterol-lowering therapy, blood pressure lowering, control of albuminuria, and comprehensive approaches targeting multiple risk factors to reduce cardiovascular risk. This article presents a review of the role of DM in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction, recent evidence on the degree of glycemic control and mortality, and available evidence for a multifaceted approach to improve long-term outcomes for patients.

  15. Long-term management strategies to achieve optimal function in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Keck, Paul E

    2006-12-01

    Predictors of poor functional outcome in patients with bipolar disorder include psychiatric and medical comorbidity, interepisode subsyndromal symptoms, psychosis during manic or mixed episode, and low premorbid functioning. Cognitive dysfunction may also contribute to functional impairment. Psychosocial intervention has shown success in improving syndromal outcomes for people with bipolar disorder. Lithium, lamotrigine, olanzapine, and aripiprazole have all shown substantial improvements in relapse rates compared with placebo. Combination therapy with antipsychotics and antidepressants has also been shown to produce improvement in symptoms in people with bipolar disorder. However, limited evidence is available for the effects of these treatments on cognitive outcomes. This review discusses treatment strategies for the long-term management of bipolar disorder and functional outcome measures associated with these treatments.

  16. Long-term stability of GOES-8 and -9 attitude control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, James L.

    1996-10-01

    An independent audit of the in-orbit behavior of the GOES-8 and GOES-9 satellites has been conducted for the NASA/GSFC. This audit utilized star and landmark observations from the GOES imager to determine long-term histories for spacecraft attitude, orbital position, and instrument internal misalignments. The paper presents results from this audit. Long-term drifts are found in the attitude histories, whereas the misalignment histories are shown to be diurnally stable. The GOES image navigation and registration system is designed to compensate for instrument internal misalignments, and both the diurnally repeatable and drift components of the attitude. Correlations between GOES-8 and GOES-9 long-term roll and pitch drifts implicate the Earth sensor as the origin of these observed drifts. This results clearly demonstrates the enhanced registration stability to be obtained with stellar inertial attitude determination replacing or supplementing Earth sensor control on future GOES missions.

  17. Long-Term Effectiveness of the Response Restriction Method for Establishing Diurnal Bladder Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oorsouw, Wietske M. W. J.; Duker, P. C.; Melein, L.; Averink, M.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term effectiveness of the response restriction method for establishing diurnal bladder control was assessed with 48 participants with intellectual disabilities. Intervals of assessment ranged from 28 to 66 months across the individuals following initial baseline. Difference scores in terms of the mean number of toileting accidents per…

  18. Long-Term Follow Up of CSRP: Understanding Students' Academic Achievement Post-Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Li-Grining, Christine; Raver, C. Cybele; Pess, Rachel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this poster presentation, the authors examine the impact of Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP) on students' academic achievement in elementary school. First, they provide upper- and lower-bound estimates of the impact of CSRP on students' academic achievement, taking into account their subsequent nonrandom selection into higher versus…

  19. Selection on multiple QTL with control of gene diversity and inbreeding for long-term benefit.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Kadarmideen, H N; Dekkers, J C M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate selection strategies that aim at maximizing long-term genetic response while conserving gene diversity and controlling inbreeding in populations of limited effective size, assuming complete knowledge of all genes affecting a quantitative trait. Three selection strategies were proposed to select on 100 quantitative trait loci (QTL) and compared with truncation selection on breeding value. Alternative selection strategies aimed at maximizing the average breeding value of parents with a penalty on (1) the number of unfavourable QTL genotypes among parents (OS-I), (2) the negative of the logarithm of the frequency of the favourable allele at each QTL among parents (OS-II), and (3) the average pedigree relationship among parents (OS-III). When all QTL and their effects were known, the strategies examined were able to obtain extra long-term responses, conserve QTL diversity and reduce inbreeding, compared with truncation selection. Strategy OS-II was the most effective in conserving QTL diversity and OS-III in reducing inbreeding. By changing the magnitude of the penalties applied, the impact on long-term response, inbreeding and diversity can be controlled. Extra long-term responses over truncation selection of OS-I and OS-II were even greater when effects of QTL were estimated rather than assumed known, indicating the applicability of results to practical strategies for marker-assisted selection. Extra responses are expected to be reduced for larger population sizes.

  20. Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Affects Conflict Control in the Conflict-Resolving Stage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hailin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jianhui; Wang, Baoxi; Guo, Shichun; Luo, Ping; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive basis of the effect of long-term high altitude exposure on conflict control is unclear. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a flanker task to investigate the influence of high altitude on conflict control in the high-altitude group (who had lived at high altitude for three years but were born at low altitude) and the low-altitude group (living in low altitude only). Although altitude effect was not significant at the behavioral level, ERPs showed cognitive conflict modulation. The interaction between group and trial type was significant: P3 amplitude was greater in the low-altitude group than in the high-altitude group in the incongruent trial. This result suggests that long-term exposure to high altitude affects conflict control in the conflict-resolving stage, and that attentional resources are decreased to resist the conflict control in the high-altitude group.

  1. A wearable wireless ECG monitoring system with dynamic transmission power control for long-term homecare.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a wearable wireless ECG monitoring system based on novel 3-Lead electrode placements for long-term homecare. The experiment for novel 3-Lead electrode placements is carried out, and the results show that the distance between limb electrodes can be significantly reduced. Based on the new electrode position, a small size sensor node, which is powered by a rechargeable battery, is designed to detect, amplify, filter and transmit the ECG signals. The coordinator receives the data and sends it to PC. Finally the signals are displayed on the GUI. In order to control the power consumption of sensor node, a dynamic power adjustment method is applied to automatically adjust the transmission power of the sensor node according to the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which is related to the distance and obstacle between sensor node and coordinator. The system is evaluated when the user, who wears the sensor, is walking and running. A promising performance is achieved even under body motion. The power consumption can be significantly reduced with this dynamic power adjustment method.

  2. Cerasomal doxorubicin with long-term storage stability and controllable sustained release.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yushen; Yue, Xiuli; Zhang, Qingyuan; Wu, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zhong; Dai, Zhifei

    2012-09-01

    Liposomal nanohybrid cerasomes display a remarkable ability to maintain their size and retain encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) over a period of 90days under storage conditions in solution compared with liposomes and liposils. Cerasomes retained 92.1±2.9% of the drug payload after 90days storage, much more than liposomes (35.2±2.5%) and liposils (53.2±5.5%). Under physiologically relevant conditions cerasomes exhibit a low initial burst in the first 5h and subsequent sustained release of DOX over the next 150h. Moreover, the magnitude of the initial burst and the rate of sustained release of DOX from cerasomes can be modulated by incorporating dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) in the cerasome structure and altering the ratios of the cerasome-forming lipid and phospholipids. Consequently, a wide range of release profiles can be achieved by altering the vesicle composition. Finally, human ovarian cancer cells are effectively killed by DOX released from cerasomes. Together these results suggest that cerasomes may be a promising drug delivery system for the long-term storage and controllable sustained release of the anticancer drug DOX.

  3. Specific Therapy Regimes Could Lead to Long-Term Immunological Control of HIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Nowak, Martin A.

    1999-12-01

    We use mathematical models to study the relationship between HIV and the immune system during the natural course of infection and in the context of different antiviral treatment regimes. The models suggest that an efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) memory response is required to control the virus. We define CTL memory as long-term persistence of CTL precursors in the absence of antigen. Infection and depletion of CD4+ T helper cells interfere with CTL memory generation, resulting in persistent viral replication and disease progression. We find that antiviral drug therapy during primary infection can enable the development of CTL memory. In chronically infected patients, specific treatment schedules, either including deliberate drug holidays or antigenic boosts of the immune system, can lead to a re-establishment of CTL memory. Whether such treatment regimes would lead to long-term immunologic control deserves investigation under carefully controlled conditions.

  4. Spontaneous nonneoplastic lesions in control Syrian hamsters in three 24-month long-term carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Elizabeth F; Ernst, Heinrich; Germann, Paul-Georg

    2015-02-01

    Information about the incidence of spontaneously occurring, nonneoplastic background findings in Syrian hamsters is essential if Syrian hamsters are to be used for toxicity studies. Male and female Syrian hamsters of the strain Han:AURA from the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM) breeding colony were maintained as control animals for carcinogenicity studies and were examined for the presence of nonneoplastic background findings either when they died or when the study was terminated. The nonneoplastic background lesions observed at an incidence of >50% (high), >25% (moderate), and >10% (low) in either male or female animals or in both sexes in one or more long-term studies are detailed. The results are compared to previous published reports of nonneoplastic, spontaneous background lesions in Syrian hamsters. Background information about the incidence of background lesions in Syrian hamsters on short- and long-term studies is useful to both toxicologists and toxicological pathologists.

  5. Interactions between short-term and long-term cardiovascular control mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Dirk; Frank, Birgit; Götze, Christine; Stein, Phyllis K.; Żebrowski, Jan J.; Baranowski, Rafal; Palacios, Manuel; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Caminal, Pere; Bayés de Luna, Anthony; Schmidt, Georg; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2007-03-01

    The cardiovascular system incorporates several controlling mechanisms acting as feedback loops over different time horizons. Because of their complex interrelationships, information-based methods such as autonomic information flow (AIF) functions promise to be useful in identifying normal and pathological behavior. Optimal adjustment between those controllers is necessary for healthy global behavior of the organism. We investigated the question as to whether there are typical relationships between short-term and long-term AIF by means of a meta-analysis of several of our own clinical studies of the mortality of patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, heart failure, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and the length of stay in hospital after abdominal aorta surgery. We found a fundamental association of increased short-term randomness (decreased AIF) and decreased long-term randomness (increased AIF) due to pathology. A systems theoretic validation of this fundamental type of association was done by an appropriate mathematical model using a dissipative system with two feedback loops over different time horizons. The systematic simulation of an increasing collapse of the short feedback loop confirmed the inverse association between short-term and long-term information flow as a fundamental, system inherent type of readjustment that occurs under pathological conditions.

  6. Interactions between short-term and long-term cardiovascular control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dirk; Frank, Birgit; Götze, Christine; Stein, Phyllis K; Zebrowski, Jan J; Baranowski, Rafal; Palacios, Manuel; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Caminal, Pere; Bayés de Luna, Anthony; Schmidt, Georg; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2007-03-01

    The cardiovascular system incorporates several controlling mechanisms acting as feedback loops over different time horizons. Because of their complex interrelationships, information-based methods such as autonomic information flow (AIF) functions promise to be useful in identifying normal and pathological behavior. Optimal adjustment between those controllers is necessary for healthy global behavior of the organism. We investigated the question as to whether there are typical relationships between short-term and long-term AIF by means of a meta-analysis of several of our own clinical studies of the mortality of patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, heart failure, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and the length of stay in hospital after abdominal aorta surgery. We found a fundamental association of increased short-term randomness (decreased AIF) and decreased long-term randomness (increased AIF) due to pathology. A systems theoretic validation of this fundamental type of association was done by an appropriate mathematical model using a dissipative system with two feedback loops over different time horizons. The systematic simulation of an increasing collapse of the short feedback loop confirmed the inverse association between short-term and long-term information flow as a fundamental, system inherent type of readjustment that occurs under pathological conditions.

  7. Adaptation of postural control to perturbations--a process that initiates long-term motor memory.

    PubMed

    Tjernström, F; Fransson, P-A; Hafström, A; Magnusson, M

    2002-02-01

    The objective was to investigate postural control adaptation during daily repeated posturography with vibratory calf stimulation. The posturography was performed with eyes open and closed daily for 5 days and after 90 days on 12 healthy subjects. The postural control adaptation could be described as two separate processes, a rapid adaptation during the test progress and a long-term habituation between consecutive test days. The adaptive improvements gained during the 5 days consecutive testing, largely remained 90 days later but seemed restricted to the same test situation. The findings suggest that balance rehabilitation should include a variety of repeated exercises, which are sufficiently long to induce habituation.

  8. Achieving college student possible selves: navigating the space between commitment and achievement of long-term identity goals.

    PubMed

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the possible-self construction and achievement process in students of color from low-income communities by investigating these processes in 28 college students. Findings suggest that while parental encouragement of college aspirations may affect age at which the college student possible self is constructed and expectancy level, development of schematic possible selves is more crucial to achievement of possible-self goals. Furthermore, findings point out a need to include conceptual schemas, in addition to procedural schemas, as potential predictors of possible-self achievement.

  9. Medication Adherence and Blood Pressure Control Among Hypertensive Patients With Coexisting Long-Term Conditions in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu Ting; Wang, Harry H.X.; Liu, Kirin Q.L.; Lee, Gabrielle K.Y.; Chan, Wai Man; Griffiths, Sian M.; Chen, Ruo Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is a typical example of long-term disease posing formidable challenges to health care. One goal of antihypertensive therapy is to achieve optimal blood pressure (BP) control and reduce co-occurring chronic conditions (multimorbidity). This study aimed to assess the influence of multimorbidity on medication adherence, and to explore the association between poor BP control and multimorbidity, with implications for hypertension management. A cross-sectional design with multistage sampling was adopted to recruit Chinese hypertensive patients attending general out-patient clinics from 3 geographic regions in Hong Kong. A modified systemic sampling methodology with 1 patient as a sampling unit was used to recruit consecutive samples in each general out-patient clinic. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a standardized protocol. Poor BP control was defined as having systolic BP/diastolic BP ≥130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease; and ≥140/90 mm Hg for others. Medication adherence was assessed by a validated Chinese version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. A simple unweighted enumeration was adopted to measure the combinations of coexisting long-term conditions. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted with medication adherence and multimorbidity as outcome variables, respectively, after controlling for effects of patient-level covariates. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 47.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 45.4%–49.4%) among a total of 2445 hypertensive patients. The proportion of subjects having 0, 1, and ≥2 additional long-term conditions was 52.6%, 29.1%, and 18.3%, respectively. The overall rate of poor adherence to medication was 46.6%, whereas the rate of suboptimal BP control was 48.7%. Albeit the influence of multimorbidity on medication adherence was not found to be statistically significant, patients with poorly controlled BP were more likely to have multimorbidity

  10. Photo-induced electrochemical anodization of p-type silicon: achievement and demonstration of long term surface stability.

    PubMed

    Dhanekar, Saakshi; Islam, S S; Harsh

    2012-06-15

    Surface stability is achieved and demonstrated by porous silicon (PS) fabricated using a wavelength-dependent photo-electrochemical (PEC) anodization technique. During anodization, the photon flux for all wavelengths was kept constant while only the effect of light wavelength on the surface morphology of PS was investigated. PS optical sensors were realized, characterized and tested using a photoluminescence (PL) quenching technique. An aliphatic chain of alcohols (methanol to n-octanol) was detected in the range of 10-200 ppm. Long term surface stability was observed from samples prepared under red (750-620 nm) and green illumination (570-495 nm), where the PL quenching cycles evoke the possibility of using PS for stable sensor device applications. This study provides a route for preparing highly sensitive organic vapour sensors with a precise selection of the fabrication parameters and demonstrating their prolonged performance.

  11. [A patient with invasive carcinoma derived from IPMN who achieved long-term survival despite lymph node metastasis].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Nobuhiko; Kaida, Daisuke; Tomita, Yasuto; Ohnishi, Toshio; Funaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideto; Kinami, Shinichi; Nakano, Yasuharu; Kosaka, Takeo

    2014-11-01

    A woman in her 70s was referred for examination of liver dysfunction. A cystic lesion with irregular contrast was observed at the pancreas head. The bile and pancreatic ducts were obstructed by the lesion. Part of the branch of the pancreatic duct at the pancreas head, continuous with the main pancreatic duct, was observed to be extended by using pancreatography. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed, and a diagnosis of invasive carcinoma from an intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) was made. Postoperative pathological diagnosis showed 16b1 inter-node metastasis. Liver and lung metastases were also detected after surgery; nevertheless, long-term survival was achieved for 5 years and 2 months by using various treatment modalities.

  12. Smart Structures for Vibration Control on Long-Term Space Exploration and Habitation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gattis, Christy B.; Shepard, W. Steve, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The current vision for space exploration focuses on human missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support these goals, it is certain that new vehicles and intermediate bases will be developed, whether that means simply re-direction of the ISS as a "mission research facility" or construction of a lunar base. Since these facilities are expected to be constructed from inherently light-weight materials, this work examines some of the potential sources of vibration and noise as well as means for controlling these vibrations. Many of the operating components within these facilities, such as pumps, fans, and motors, will produce vibrations during operation. These vibrations become structure in which they are housed. Resonances can impact acoustic noise levels and noise quality within the environment, possibly affecting crew health and productivity. For long-term missions in particular, it is expected that crew members will spend significant portions of their time restrained in the structure, such as in seats. As a result, the general health and well-being of the crew can be improved by limiting the harmful effects of human exposure to long-term audible and tactile vibration input. Besides the human factor, this work also examines some operational considerations in which vibrations play an important role. Vibrations can impact the environment for science and in-situ manufacturing research within these vehicles. Since a benign vibratory environment is beneficial for most types of science experiments, there is a need for various forms of vibration control. Because the operational characteristics of a vehicle can change during a long-term mission, it is further expected that the characteristics of many of the vibratory excitations will change with time. Consequently, the form of vibration control needed to improve overall habitability and usefulness of the vehicle or element for exploration missions will rely to some degree on the vibration control system's ability to

  13. Determining the amount of physical activity needed for long-term weight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Jackson, A. S.; Rossum, A. C.; Poston, W. S.; Foreyt, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the influence of habitual physical activity on body weight of men and women and to develop a model that defines the role of physical activity on longitudinal weight change. DESIGN AND SETTING: Occupational cohort study conducted for a mean of 5.5 y. SUBJECTS: A total of 496 (341 male and 155 female) NASA/Johnson Space Center employees who completed the 3 month education component of the employee health-related fitness program and remained involved for a minimum of 2 y. MEASUREMENTS: Body weights were measured at baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2), and habitual physical activity was obtained from the mean of multiple ratings of the 11-point (0-10) NASA Activity Scale (NAS) recorded quarterly between T1 and T2. Other measures included age, gender, VO(2 max) obtained from maximal treadmill testing, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. RESULTS: Multiple regression demonstrated that mean NAS, T1 weight, aging and gender all influence long-term T2 weight. T1 age was significant for the men only. Independently, each increase in mean NAS significantly (P<0.01) reduced T2 weight in men (b=-0.91 kg; 95% CI:-1.4 to-0.42 kg) and women (b=-2.14 kg; 95% CI:-2.93 to-1.35 kg). Mean NAS had a greater effect on T2 weight as T1 weight increased, and the relationship was dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Habitual physical activity is a significant source of long-term weight change. The use of self-reported activity level is helpful in predicting long-term weight changes and may be used by health care professionals when counseling patients about the value of physical activity for weight control.

  14. Long-term training modifies the modular structure and organization of walking balance control.

    PubMed

    Sawers, Andrew; Allen, Jessica L; Ting, Lena H

    2015-12-01

    How does long-term training affect the neural control of movements? Here we tested the hypothesis that long-term training leading to skilled motor performance alters muscle coordination during challenging, as well as nominal everyday motor behaviors. Using motor module (a.k.a., muscle synergy) analyses, we identified differences in muscle coordination patterns between professionally trained ballet dancers (experts) and untrained novices that accompanied differences in walking balance proficiency assessed using a challenging beam-walking test. During beam walking, we found that experts recruited more motor modules than novices, suggesting an increase in motor repertoire size. Motor modules in experts had less muscle coactivity and were more consistent than in novices, reflecting greater efficiency in muscle output. Moreover, the pool of motor modules shared between beam and overground walking was larger in experts compared with novices, suggesting greater generalization of motor module function across multiple behaviors. These differences in motor output between experts and novices could not be explained by differences in kinematics, suggesting that they likely reflect differences in the neural control of movement following years of training rather than biomechanical constraints imposed by the activity or musculoskeletal structure and function. Our results suggest that to learn challenging new behaviors, we may take advantage of existing motor modules used for related behaviors and sculpt them to meet the demands of a new behavior.

  15. New kind of injection-locked oscillator and its corresponding long-term stability control.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun; Liu, An; Wang, Xiao-hu; Yao, Sheng-xing; Li, Zu-ling

    2015-09-20

    A new type of opto-electronic hybrid oscillator is proposed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, and verified by experiments in this paper. Typical electronic oscillator-dielectric resonator oscillator as the first injection source is used to injection lock the first long-fiber loop-based opto-electronic oscillator (OEO); then its output is used to injection lock the second long-fiber opto-electronic oscillator. Using this method, low-phase noise output signal can be obtained. Experiments show that single side-band (SSB) phase noise of a 9.5 GHz oscillation signal at 10 kHz offset frequency decreases from -123 to -135  dBc/Hz after the first injection, then, through the second injection, the SSB phase noise drops down to -146  dBc/Hz. In order to solve the long-term stability problem of the above oscillator, a new stability-control circuit also is designed and verified by experiments. Experiments show that the Allan deviation decreases from 9.0×10(-11) to 2.2×10(-12) during 1 s after the long-term stability-control circuit being used.

  16. Prefrontal dopamine and the dynamic control of human long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Wimber, M; Schott, B H; Wendler, F; Seidenbecher, C I; Behnisch, G; Macharadze, T; Bäuml, K-H T; Richardson-Klavehn, A

    2011-01-01

    Dopaminergic projections to the prefrontal cortex support higher-order cognitive functions, and are critically involved in many psychiatric disorders that involve memory deficits, including schizophrenia. The role of prefrontal dopamine in long-term memory, however, is still unclear. We used an imaging genetics approach to examine the hypothesis that dopamine availability in the prefrontal cortex selectively affects the ability to suppress interfering memories. Human participants were scanned via functional magnetic resonance imaging while practicing retrieval of previously studied target information in the face of interference from previously studied non-target information. This retrieval practice (RP) rendered the non-target information less retrievable on a later final test—a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). In total, 54 participants were genotyped for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val108/158Met polymorphism. The COMT Val108/158Met genotype showed a selective and linear gene-dose effect on RIF, with the Met allele, which leads to higher prefrontal dopamine availability, being associated with greater RIF. Mirroring the behavioral pattern, the functional magnetic resonance imaging data revealed that Met allele carriers, compared with Val allele carriers, showed a greater response reduction in inhibitory control areas of the right inferior frontal cortex during RP, suggesting that they more efficiently reduced interference. These data support the hypothesis that the cortical dopaminergic system is centrally involved in the dynamic control of human long-term memory, supporting efficient remembering via the adaptive suppression of interfering memories. PMID:22832518

  17. Long-term training modifies the modular structure and organization of walking balance control

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    How does long-term training affect the neural control of movements? Here we tested the hypothesis that long-term training leading to skilled motor performance alters muscle coordination during challenging, as well as nominal everyday motor behaviors. Using motor module (a.k.a., muscle synergy) analyses, we identified differences in muscle coordination patterns between professionally trained ballet dancers (experts) and untrained novices that accompanied differences in walking balance proficiency assessed using a challenging beam-walking test. During beam walking, we found that experts recruited more motor modules than novices, suggesting an increase in motor repertoire size. Motor modules in experts had less muscle coactivity and were more consistent than in novices, reflecting greater efficiency in muscle output. Moreover, the pool of motor modules shared between beam and overground walking was larger in experts compared with novices, suggesting greater generalization of motor module function across multiple behaviors. These differences in motor output between experts and novices could not be explained by differences in kinematics, suggesting that they likely reflect differences in the neural control of movement following years of training rather than biomechanical constraints imposed by the activity or musculoskeletal structure and function. Our results suggest that to learn challenging new behaviors, we may take advantage of existing motor modules used for related behaviors and sculpt them to meet the demands of a new behavior. PMID:26467521

  18. Long-term effectiveness of the response restriction method for establishing diurnal bladder control.

    PubMed

    van Oorsouw, Wietske M W J; Duker, P C; Melein, L; Averink, M

    2009-01-01

    The long-term effectiveness of the response restriction method for establishing diurnal bladder control was assessed with 48 participants with intellectual disabilities. Intervals of assessment ranged from 28 to 66 months across the individuals following initial baseline. Difference scores in terms of the mean number of toileting accidents per hour were related to participants' stereotypic behaviour and their housing conditions, as these were hypothesized to differentially influence the maintenance of diurnal bladder control. It was found that (a) across all participants there was a statistically significant decrease of the mean number of toileting accidents during follow-up as compared to initial baseline (b) stereotypic behaviour failed to be related to maintenance of bladder control, and (c) housing condition was significantly related to the above dependent variable, in that those living in a residential facility were more likely to wear a diaper again as compared to those living with their family. Implications for the clinical practice are discussed.

  19. Long-term evaluation of the controlled pressure method for assessment of the vapor intrusion pathway.

    PubMed

    Holton, Chase; Guo, Yuanming; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-02-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) investigations often require sampling of indoor air for evaluating occupant risks, but can be confounded by temporal variability and the presence of indoor sources. Controlled pressure methods (CPM) have been proposed as an alternative, but temporal variability of CPM results and whether they are indicative of impacts under natural conditions have not been rigorously investigated. This study is the first involving a long-term CPM test at a house having a multiyear high temporal resolution indoor air data set under natural conditions. Key observations include (a) CPM results exhibited low temporal variability, (b) false-negative results were not obtained, (c) the indoor air concentrations were similar to the maximum concentrations under natural conditions, and (d) results exceeded long-term average concentrations and emission rates under natural conditions by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Thus, the CPM results were a reliable indicator of VI occurrence and worst-case exposure regardless of day or time of year of the CPM test.

  20. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Taotao-Wini, Betty; Satorara, Lorraine; Engelman, Daniel; Nasi, Titus; Mabey, David C.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections. Methods We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo. Results Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less. Discussion We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts. PMID:26624616

  1. Long-term effectiveness of four pulpotomy techniques: 3-year randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huth, Karin Christine; Hajek-Al-Khatar, Niran; Wolf, Petra; Ilie, Nicoleta; Hickel, Reinhard; Paschos, Ekaterini

    2012-08-01

    A pulpotomy is the therapy for management of pulp exposures due to caries in symptom-free primary molars. The aim was to longitudinally compare the relative effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser, calcium hydroxide and ferric sulphate techniques with dilute formocresol in retaining symptom-free molars. Two hundred primary molars in 107 healthy children were included and randomly allocated to one technique. The treated teeth were blindly reevaluated after 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. Descriptive data analysis and logistic regression analysis accounting for multiple observations per patient by generalised estimating equation were used. Additionally, various influences including tooth type, upper and lower jaws, type of anaesthesia, operator and the final restoration on treatment success were evaluated (Wald chi-square test). After 36 months, the following total (considering clinical and clinically symptom-free radiographic failures) and clinical success rates were determined (in percent): Formocresol 72 (92), laser 73 (89), calcium hydroxide 46 (75), ferric sulphate 76 (97). No significant differences were detected between formocresol and any other technique after 36 months. However, the odds ratio of failure appeared to be three times higher for calcium hydroxide than for formocresol. No significant differences in total success rates were seen regarding the aforementioned influencing clinical parameters. The correct diagnosis of the pulpal status, bleeding control and the specific technique are highly important for long-term success of pulpotomies in primary molars. According to the presented long-term data, pulpotomies using ferric sulphate revealed the best treatment outcome among the used techniques, while calcium hydroxide resulted in the lowest success rates after 3 years. Therefore, we can recommend ferric sulphate for easy and successful treatment of primary molars with caries-exposed pulps.

  2. Benefits of repeated individual dietary counselling in long-term weight control in women after delivery.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Johanna; Isolauri, Erika; Poussa, Tuija; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    As pregnancy may trigger overweight in women, new means for its prevention are being sought. The aim here was to investigate the effect of individual dietary counselling during and after pregnancy on post-partum weight and waist circumference up to 4 years post-partum. A cohort of women (n = 256) were randomized to receive repeated individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist during and after pregnancy, or as controls not receiving dietary counselling, from the first trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery. Counselling aimed to bring dietary intake into line with recommendations, with particular focus on the increase in the intake of unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated. Pre-pregnancy weight was taken from welfare clinic records. Weight and waist circumference were measured at 4 years after delivery. The proportion of overweight women increased from 26% prior to pregnancy to 30% at 4 years after delivery among women receiving dietary counselling, as against considerably more, from 32% to 57%, among controls. The prevalence of central adiposity was 31% in women receiving dietary counselling, 64% in controls. Likewise, both the risk of overweight (odds ratio: 0.23, 0.08-0.63, P = 0.005) and central adiposity (odds ratio: 0.18, 0.06-0.52, P = 0.002) were lower in women receiving dietary counselling compared with controls. Repeated dietary counselling initiated in early pregnancy can be beneficial in long-term weight control after delivery.

  3. Long-term efficacy of resilient appliance therapy in TMD pain patients: a randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Håkan; Vallon, D; Ekberg, E C

    2011-10-01

    The aim was to investigate long-term efficacy of a resilient appliance in patients with pain due to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A randomised, controlled trial was performed in 80 recruited TMD pain patients. They were randomly allocated to one of two groups: treatment with a resilient appliance or treatment with a hard, palatal, non-occluding appliance. The primary treatment outcome was judged positive when patients' characteristic pain intensity decreased by at least 30%. Additional treatment outcomes were physical functioning, emotional functioning and headache. At the 12-month follow-up 50% of the patients in the treatment group and 42% in the control group had a 30% reduction of characteristic pain intensity, when calculated in an intent-to-treat analysis. Jaw function improved in both groups at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. Emotional functioning improved in both groups at the 6-month follow-up; an improvement concerning grade of depression was found in the control group at 12 months. Headache decreased in both groups at both follow-ups. There were no statistically significant differences found regarding primary and additional outcomes between groups at the 6- and 12-months follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference between the resilient appliance and the non-occluding control appliance in reducing TMD pain, physical functioning, emotional functioning and headache in a 12 months perspective.

  4. Blood, sweat, tears and success of technology transfer long-term controlled-release of herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Van Voris, P.; Cataldo, D.A.; Burton, F.G.; Skeins, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    The problems encountered, the technical difficulties that had to be overcome, and the successful transfer of technology related to controlled-release of pesticides is reviewed. Research on control-release of pesticides to date has resulted in products designed to extend bioactivity for periods of several days, months, or at most, several years. However, research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy directed toward solving problems associated with plant-root penetration through caps and liners engineered to minimize leaching or movement of buried nuclear and chemical wastes has resulted in development of a long-term controlled-release herbicide delivery system designed to stop root growth for periods of up to 100 years. Through the unique combination of polymers with a herbicidally active dinitroaniline, a cylindrical pellet was developed that continuously releases a herbicide for a period of up to 100 years. Equilibrium concentration of the herbicide in soil adjacent to the pellet and the bioactive lifetime of the device can be adjusted by changing the size of the pellet; the type of polymer; the type, quality, and quantity of carrier; and/or the concentration and type of dinitroaniline was used.

  5. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Iijima, Y; Sakatani, N; Otake, H; Tanaka, S

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  6. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  7. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.

    2014-03-15

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  8. Control of variation of properties of maraging chromium-nickel steels in long-term heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, L. V.; Titov, V. I.; Elyutina, L. A.

    2010-11-01

    Variation of the phase composition and mechanical properties of maraging steels of the Fe - Cr - Ni - Mo - Ti system after heat treatment (hardening and aging) and long-term heating for up to 1500 h at a temperature of 400 - 450°C is studied. It is shown that the degree of variation of the properties of steels with different contents of titanium after long-term heating can be regulated by changing the mode of the aging.

  9. A comparative study on long-term MTX controlled release from intercalated nanocomposites for nanomedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Iuliana Florentina; Pastravanu, Cristina Giorgiana; Ignat, Maria; Popovici, Evelini

    2013-06-01

    The feasibility of some mesoporous materials such as SBA-15 and MCM-41 silica, LDH (layered double hydroxide) (Mg3Al-NO3) and MC (mesoporous carbon) have been comparatively evaluated for oral drug delivery applications, in order to broaden the range of matrices and implicitly to develop the class of drug delivery systems based on diffusion mechanism. As well known, methotrexate (MTX) is used widely to treat various neoplastic diseases such as acute lymphoblast leukemia, lymphoma and solid cancers and autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. The commercially available formulations of this drug have disadvantages due to the traditional release process that occurs in the body. Thus, this work is focused on the long-term controlled MTX delivery because this one could eliminate over or underdosing, could maintain drug levels in desired range, could increase patient compliance and prevent the side effects. Therefore, the mesoporous materials are used and efficient MTX-delivery systems, based on above-mentioned mesoporous materials, are successfully prepared by intercalation. The obtained drug carriers were tested in the controlled MTX-drug release process and the influence of the pore morphology and geometry on MTX release profiles was extensively studied comparatively. The prepared MTX delivery systems were characterized by FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy, N2 sorption measurements. Then, the data obtained from the in vitro release studies have been analyzed, and in order to evaluate the MTX-release mechanism and kinetics, the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation has been applied.

  10. Long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control residues: leaching characterization and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-02-15

    Long-term leaching of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, S, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Sb, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, P, Cl, and dissolved organic carbon from two different municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control residues was monitored during 24 months of column percolation experiments; liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios of 200-250L/kg corresponding to more than 10,000 years in a conventional landfill were reached. Less than 2% of the initially present As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Sb had leached during the course of the experiments. Concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mg, Hg, Mn, Ni, Co, Sn, Ti, and P were generally bellow 1microg/L; overall less than 1% of their mass leached. Column leaching data were further used in a two-step geochemical modeling in PHREEQC in order to (i) identify solubility controlling minerals and (ii) evaluate their interactions in a water-percolated column system over L/S of 250L/kg. Adequate predictions of pH, alkalinity, and the leaching of Ca, S, Al, Si, Ba, and Zn were obtained in a simultaneous calculation. Also, it was suggested that removal of Ca and S together with depletion of several minerals apparently caused dissolution of ettringite-like phases. In turn, significant increase in leaching of oxyanions (especially Sb and Cr) was observed at late stage of leaching experiments.

  11. Sand dune patterns on Titan controlled by long-term climate cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Hayes, Alex G.; Lucas, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Linear sand dunes cover the equatorial latitudes of Saturn's moon Titan and are shaped by global wind patterns. These dunes are thought to reflect present-day diurnal, tidal and seasonal winds, but climate models have failed to reproduce observed dune morphologies with these wind patterns. Dunes diagnostic of a specific wind or formative timescale have remained elusive. Here we analyse radar imagery from NASA's Cassini spacecraft and identify barchan, star and reoriented dunes in sediment-limited regions of Titan's equatorial dune fields that diverge by 23° on average from the orientation of linear dunes. These morphologies imply shifts in wind direction and sediment availability. Using a numerical model, we estimate that the observed reorientation of dune crests to a change in wind direction would have taken around 3,000 Saturn years (1 Saturn year ~ 29.4 Earth years) or longer--a timescale that exceeds diurnal, seasonal or tidal cycles. We propose that shifts in winds and sediment availability are the product of long-term climate cycles associated with variations in Saturn's orbit. Orbitally controlled landscape evolution--also proposed to explain the distribution of Titan's polar lakes--implies a dune-forming climate on equatorial Titan that is analogous to Earth.

  12. What controls deep tropical long-term hydroclimate change: a view from speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The driving mechanism of long-term monsoon rainfall changes remains debated. Studies on deep sea sediments and on land archives, such as lake sediments and aeolian dusts, have traditionally suggested that monsoon records are characterized by a strong ~100,000-year cycle, similar to those in global ice volume, greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere. Hence, it has been postulated that monsoon rainfall should be largely modulated by changes of glacial boundary conditions. However, the relatively poor geochronology constrains in record age models often complicate a correct data evaluation. The other school of thought proposed that monsoon rainfall changes should directly response to insolation. Oxygen isotopic records from speleothems, aided by precise U/Th age control have often shown a dominant ~20,000-year periodicity, while the ~100,000-year periodicity is rather weak or non-existent in the records. However, it has been argued that calcite speleothem δ18O may not simply represent monsoonal rainfall change. Here, we compare our newly reconstructed speleothem records with published data. These records are from the deep tropics, and their δ18O values are unequivocal indicators of regional rainfall changes. We found that very few speleothem δ18O records from the deep tropics follow rainy-season insolation changes. Instead, their δ18O values were mostly low during the last glacial period, and the values were high during the Holocene, which suggest that glacial boundary conditions can indeed play a key role in monsoon changes.

  13. Long-term Controlled Drug Release from bi-component Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shanshan; Zhang, Zixin; Xia, Qinghua; Han, Charles

    Multi-drug delivery systems with timed programmed release are hard to be produced due to the complex drug release kinetics which mainly refers to the diffusion of drug molecules from the fiber and the degradation of the carrier. This study focused on the whole life-time story of the long-term drug releasing fibrous systems. Electrospun membrane utilizing FDA approved polymers and broad-spectrum antibiotics showed specific drug release profiles which could be divided into three stages based on the profile slope. With throughout morphology observation, cumulative release amount and releasing duration, releasing kinetics and critical factors were fully discussed during three stages. Through changing the second component, approximately linear drug release profile and a drug release duration about 13 days was prepared, which is perfect for preventing post-operative infection. The addition of this semi-crystalline polymer in turn influenced the fiber swelling and created drug diffusion channels. In conclusion, through adjusting and optimization of the blending component, initial burst release, delayed release for certain duration, and especially the sustained release profile could all be controlled, as well as specific anti-bacterial behavior could be obtained.

  14. Medium to long term behavior of MR dampers for structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caterino, N.; Azmoodeh, B. M.; Occhiuzzi, A.

    2014-10-01

    The medium to long term behavior of a prototype magnetorheological (MR) damper for structural control of earthquake induced vibrations is investigated herein. Unlike some applications for which MR devices experience frequent dynamic loads, seismic dampers might not be used for most of their life, staying dormant for a long period until an earthquake hits the hosting structure. This work aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a MR damper after years of inactivity. A MR device has been tested twice, first in 2008 and then in 2013, after five years of absolute inactivity. The comparison between the results of the two tests is made in terms of force-displacement loops. It is shown that, after a 5-year rest, only part of the first stroke of the damper is characterized by an unexpected response of the damper. After half a stroke, the damper quickly returned to behave like in 2008, even if a slight non-reversible decrease of the reacting force has been recorded. The latter is found to be more evident (5-7%) for larger currents, less visible in the case of zero magnetic field. From the point of view of civil engineering, this decay of performance is definitely acceptable, being largely bounded within the limits of the uncertainties typically involved and taken into account in the structural design. Finally, starting from a literature review, the paper discusses the possible causes of the observed changes in the mechanical response of the damper over time.

  15. Long-term effects of daily postprandial physical activity on blood glucose: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Håvard; Grindaker, Eirik; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn

    2017-01-03

    Previous studies have shown that a bout of moderate or light postprandial physical activity effectively blunts the postprandial increase in blood glucose. The objective of this study was to test whether regular light postprandial physical activity can improve glycemia in persons with hyperglycemia or with a high risk of hyperglycemia. We randomized 56 participants to an intervention or a control group. They were diagnosed as hyperglycemic, not using antidiabetics, or were categorized as high-risk individuals for type 2 diabetes. The intervention group was instructed to undertake a minimum 30 min of daily light physical activity, starting a maximum of 30 min after a meal in addition to their usual physical activity for 12 weeks. The control group maintained their usual lifestyle. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-test. Forty participants completed the study and are included in the results. The self-reported increase in daily physical activity from before to within the study period was higher in the intervention group compared with control (41 ± 25 vs. 2 ± 16 min, p < 0.001). Activity diaries and accelerometer recordings supported this observation. The activity in the intervention group started earlier after the last meal compared with control (30 ± 13 vs. 100 ± 57 min, p = 0.001). There were no within- or between-group differences in any glycemic variable from pre- to post-test. In conclusion, the present study does not seem to support the notion that regular light postprandial physical activity improves blood glucose in the long term in persons with hyperglycemia or with high risk of hyperglycemia.

  16. Control Design Strategies to Enhance Long-Term Aircraft Structural Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Brett A.

    1999-01-01

    Over the operational lifetime of both military and civil aircraft, structural components are exposed to hundreds of thousands of low-stress repetitive load cycles and less frequent but higher-stress transient loads originating from maneuvering flight and atmospheric gusts. Micro-material imperfections in the structure, such as cracks and debonded laminates, expand and grow in this environment, reducing the structural integrity and shortening the life of the airframe. Extreme costs associated with refurbishment of critical load-bearing structural components in a large fleet, or altogether reinventoring the fleet with newer models, indicate alternative solutions for life extension of the airframe structure are highly desirable. Increased levels of operational safety and reliability are also important factors influencing the desirability of such solutions. One area having significant potential for impacting crack growth/fatigue damage reduction and structural life extension is flight control. To modify the airframe response dynamics arising from command inputs and gust disturbances, feedback loops are routinely applied to vehicles. A dexterous flight control system architecture senses key vehicle motions and generates critical forces/moments at multiple points distributed throughout the airframe to elicit the desired motion characteristics. In principle, these same control loops can be utilized to influence the level of exposure to harmful loads during flight on structural components. Project objectives are to investigate and/or assess the leverage control has on reducing fatigue damage and enhancing long-term structural integrity, without degrading attitude control and trajectory guidance performance levels. In particular, efforts have focused on the effects inner loop control parameters and architectures have on fatigue damage rate. To complete this research, an actively controlled flexible aircraft model and a new state space modeling procedure for crack growth

  17. BP Control and Long-Term Risk of ESRD and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Ku, Elaine; Gassman, Jennifer; Appel, Lawrence J; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw; Sarnak, Mark J; Glidden, David V; Bakris, George; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Hebert, Lee A; Ix, Joachim H; Lea, Janice; Lipkowitz, Michael S; Norris, Keith; Ploth, David; Pogue, Velvie A; Rostand, Stephen G; Siew, Edward D; Sika, Mohammed; Tisher, C Craig; Toto, Robert; Wright, Jackson T; Wyatt, Christina; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    We recently showed an association between strict BP control and lower mortality risk during two decades of follow-up of prior participants in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) trial. Here, we determined the risk of ESRD and mortality during extended follow-up of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial. We linked 1067 former AASK participants with CKD previously randomized to strict or usual BP control (mean arterial pressure ≤92 mmHg or 102-107 mmHg, respectively) to the US Renal Data System and Social Security Death Index; 397 patients had ESRD and 475 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 14.4 years from 1995 to 2012. Compared with the usual BP arm, the strict BP arm had unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of ESRD of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.12) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.16; P=0.64), respectively, and unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of death of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.10) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.98; P=0.03), respectively. In meta-analyses of individual-level data from the MDRD and the AASK trials, unadjusted relative risk of ESRD was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.00) and unadjusted relative risk of death was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.99) for strict versus usual BP arms. Our findings suggest that, during long-term follow-up, strict BP control does not delay the onset of ESRD but may reduce the relative risk of death in CKD.

  18. A Broad Range of Dose Optima Achieve High-level, Long-term Gene Expression After Hydrodynamic Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposons Using Hyperactive SB100x Transposase

    PubMed Central

    Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M; Olson, Erik R; Somia, Nikunj V; Russell, Stephen J; McIvor, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been shown to enable long-term gene expression by integrating new sequences into host cell chromosomes. We found that the recently reported SB100x hyperactive transposase conferred a surprisingly high level of long-term expression after hydrodynamic delivery of luciferase-encoding reporter transposons in the mouse. We conducted dose-ranging studies to determine the effect of varying the amount of SB100x transposase-encoding plasmid (pCMV-SB100x) at a set dose of luciferase transposon and of varying the amount of transposon-encoding DNA at a set dose of pCMV-SB100x in hydrodynamically injected mice. Animals were immunosuppressed using cyclophosphamide in order to prevent an antiluciferase immune response. At a set dose of transposon DNA (25 µg), we observed a broad range of pCMV-SB100x doses (0.1–2.5 µg) conferring optimal levels of long-term expression (>1011 photons/second/cm2). At a fixed dose of 0.5 μg of pCMV-SB100x, maximal long-term luciferase expression (>1010 photons/second/cm2) was achieved at a transposon dose of 5–125 μg. We also found that in the linear range of transposon doses (100 ng), co-delivering the CMV-SB100x sequence on the same plasmid was less effective in achieving long-term expression than delivery on separate plasmids. These results show marked flexibility in the doses of SB transposon plus pCMV-SB100x that achieve maximal SB-mediated gene transfer efficiency and long-term gene expression after hydrodynamic DNA delivery to mouse liver. PMID:26784638

  19. Current computational models do not reveal the importance of the nervous system in long-term control of arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Osborn, John W; Averina, Viktoria A; Fink, Gregory D

    2009-04-01

    Arterial pressure is regulated over long periods of time by neural, hormonal and local control mechanisms, which ultimately determine the total blood volume and how it is distributed between the various vascular compartments of the circulation. A full understanding of the complex interplay of these mechanisms can be greatly facilitated by the use of mathematical models. In 1967, Guyton and Coleman published a model for long-term control of arterial pressure that focused on renal control of body sodium and water and thus total blood volume. The central point of their model is that the long-term level of arterial pressure is determined exclusively by the 'renal function curve', which relates arterial pressure to urinary excretion of salt and water. The contribution of the sympathetic nervous system to setting the long-term level of arterial pressure in the model is limited. In light of the overwhelming evidence for a major role of the sympathetic nervous system in long-term control of arterial pressure and the pathogenesis of hypertension, new mathematical models for long-term control of arterial pressure may be necessary. Despite the prominence and general acceptance of the Guyton-Coleman model in the field of hypertension research, we argue here that it overestimates the importance of renal control of body fluids and total blood volume in blood pressure regulation. Furthermore, we suggest that it is possible to construct an alternative model in which sympathetic nervous system activity plays an important role in long-term control of arterial pressure independent of its effects on total blood volume.

  20. Attention Problems, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory: Differential Effects on Near- and Long-Term Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarver, Dustin E.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Scanlan, Sean W.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Altro, Thomas A.; Bolden, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in children's phonological and visuospatial short-term memory as potential mediators of the relationship among attention problems and near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Nested structural equation models revealed that teacher-reported attention problems were associated negatively with…

  1. Developing Long-Term Computing Skills among Low-Achieving Students via Web-Enabled Problem-Based Learning and Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Lee, Tsang-Hsiung; Shen, Pei-Di

    2013-01-01

    Many private vocational schools in Taiwan have taken to enrolling students with lower levels of academic achievement. The authors re-designed a course and conducted a series of quasi-experiments to develop students' long-term computing skills, and examined the longitudinal effects of web-enabled, problem-based learning (PBL) and self-regulated…

  2. Induced neural stem cells achieve long-term survival and functional integration in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Kathrin; Zhang, Mingyue; van Wüllen, Thea; Sakalem, Marna; Tapia, Natalia; Baumuratov, Aidos; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Schöler, Hans R; Zhang, Weiqi; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2014-09-09

    Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]). iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications.

  3. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Thomas; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970’s vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE’s program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a

  4. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970's vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE's program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a seamless

  5. A Derivation of the Long-Term Degradation of a Pulsed Atomic Frequency Standard from a Control-Loop Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    The phase of a frequency standard that uses periodic interrogation and control of a local oscillator (LO) is degraded by a long-term random-walk component induced by downconversion of LO noise into the loop passband. The Dick formula for the noise level of this degradation is derived from an explicit solution of an LO control-loop model.

  6. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Veerus, Piret; Rahu, Mati; Hemminki, Elina

    2008-01-01

    Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT), originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM) in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old) drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may donate drugs but they take a

  7. Combining radiofrequency ablation and ethanol injection may achieve comparable long-term outcomes in larger hepatocellular carcinoma (3.1-4 cm) and in high-risk locations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji-Wei; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Shi-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is more effective for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) < 3 cm. Combining percutaneous ethanol injection and RFA for HCC can increase ablation; however, the long-term outcome remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare long-term outcomes between patients with HCC of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4 cm and in high-risk versus non-high-risk locations after combination therapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival and the secondary endpoint was local tumor progression (LTP). Fifty-four consecutive patients with 72 tumors were enrolled. Twenty-two (30.6%) tumors and 60 (83.3%) tumors were of 3.1-4 cm and in high-risk locations, respectively. Primary technique effectiveness was comparable between HCC of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4 cm (98% vs. 95.5%, p = 0.521), and HCC in non-high risk and high-risk locations (100% vs. 96.7%, p = 1.000). The cumulative survival rates at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 90.3%, 78.9%, and 60.3%, respectively, in patients with HCC of 2-3 cm; 95.0%, 84.4%, and 69.3% in HCC of 3.1-4.0 cm (p = 0.397); 90.0%, 71.1%, and 71.1% in patients with HCC in non-high-risk locations; and 92.7%, 81.6%, and 65.4% in high-risk locations (p = 0.979). The cumulative LTP rates at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 10.2%, 32.6%, and 32.6%, respectively, in all HCCs; 12.6%, 33.9%, and 33.9% in HCC of 2-3 cm; 4.8%, 29.5%, and 29.5% in HCC of 3.1-4 cm (p = 0.616); 16.7%, 50.0%, and 50.0% in patients with HCC in non-high-risk locations; and 8.8%, 29.9%, and 29.9% in patients with HCC in high-risk locations (p = 0.283). The cumulative survival and LTP rates were not significantly different among the various subgroups. Combining RFA and percutaneous ethanol injection achieved comparable long-term outcomes in HCCs of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4.0 cm and in high-risk versus non-high-risk locations. A randomized controlled or cohort studies with larger sample size are warranted.

  8. Long-term survival and T-cell kinetics in relapsed/refractory ALL patients who achieved MRD response after blinatumomab treatment.

    PubMed

    Zugmaier, Gerhard; Gökbuget, Nicola; Klinger, Matthias; Viardot, Andreas; Stelljes, Matthias; Neumann, Svenja; Horst, Heinz-A; Marks, Reinhard; Faul, Christoph; Diedrich, Helmut; Reichle, Albrecht; Brüggemann, Monika; Holland, Chris; Schmidt, Margit; Einsele, Hermann; Bargou, Ralf C; Topp, Max S

    2015-12-10

    This long-term follow-up analysis evaluated overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in a phase 2 study of the bispecific T-cell engager antibody construct blinatumomab in 36 adults with relapsed/refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the primary analysis, 25 (69%) patients with relapsed/refractory ALL achieved complete remission with full (CR) or partial (CRh) hematologic recovery of peripheral blood counts within the first 2 cycles. Twenty-five patients (69%) had a minimal residual disease (MRD) response (<10(-4) blasts), including 22 CR/CRh responders, 2 patients with hypocellular bone marrow, and 1 patient with normocellular bone marrow but low peripheral counts. Ten of the 36 patients (28%) were long-term survivors (OS ≥30 months). Median OS was 13.0 months (median follow-up, 32.6 months). MRD response was associated with significantly longer OS (Mantel-Byar P = .009). All 10 long-term survivors had an MRD response. Median RFS was 8.8 months (median follow-up, 28.9 months). A plateau for RFS was reached after ∼18 months. Six of the 10 long-term survivors remained relapse-free, including 4 who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) as consolidation for blinatumomab and 2 who received 3 additional cycles of blinatumomab instead of allo-SCT. Three long-term survivors had neurologic events or cytokine release syndrome, resulting in temporary blinatumomab discontinuation; all restarted blinatumomab successfully. Long-term survivors had more pronounced T-cell expansion than patients with OS <30 months.

  9. Long-term survival and T-cell kinetics in relapsed/refractory ALL patients who achieved MRD response after blinatumomab treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gökbuget, Nicola; Klinger, Matthias; Viardot, Andreas; Stelljes, Matthias; Neumann, Svenja; Horst, Heinz-A.; Marks, Reinhard; Faul, Christoph; Diedrich, Helmut; Reichle, Albrecht; Brüggemann, Monika; Holland, Chris; Schmidt, Margit; Einsele, Hermann; Bargou, Ralf C.; Topp, Max S.

    2015-01-01

    This long-term follow-up analysis evaluated overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in a phase 2 study of the bispecific T-cell engager antibody construct blinatumomab in 36 adults with relapsed/refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the primary analysis, 25 (69%) patients with relapsed/refractory ALL achieved complete remission with full (CR) or partial (CRh) hematologic recovery of peripheral blood counts within the first 2 cycles. Twenty-five patients (69%) had a minimal residual disease (MRD) response (<10−4 blasts), including 22 CR/CRh responders, 2 patients with hypocellular bone marrow, and 1 patient with normocellular bone marrow but low peripheral counts. Ten of the 36 patients (28%) were long-term survivors (OS ≥30 months). Median OS was 13.0 months (median follow-up, 32.6 months). MRD response was associated with significantly longer OS (Mantel-Byar P = .009). All 10 long-term survivors had an MRD response. Median RFS was 8.8 months (median follow-up, 28.9 months). A plateau for RFS was reached after ∼18 months. Six of the 10 long-term survivors remained relapse-free, including 4 who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) as consolidation for blinatumomab and 2 who received 3 additional cycles of blinatumomab instead of allo-SCT. Three long-term survivors had neurologic events or cytokine release syndrome, resulting in temporary blinatumomab discontinuation; all restarted blinatumomab successfully. Long-term survivors had more pronounced T-cell expansion than patients with OS <30 months. PMID:26480933

  10. Long-term costs of inflated self-estimate on academic performance among adolescent students: a case of second-language achievements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.

  11. Automatic lighting controls demonstration: Long-term results. Final report, July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.

    1991-10-18

    An advanced electronically ballasted lighting control system was installed in a portion of an office building to measure the energy and demand savings. The lighting control system used an integrated lighting control scenario that included daylight following, lumen depreciation correction, and scheduling. The system reduced lighting energy on weekdays by 62% and 51% in the north and south daylit zones, respectively, compared to a reference zone that did not have controls. During the summer, over 75% energy savings were achieved on weekdays in the north daylit zone. Even in the south interior zone, which benefitted lime from daylight, correction strategies and adjustment of the aisleway lights to a low level resulted in energy use of only half that of the reference zone. Although, in general, the savings varied over the year due to changing daylight conditions, the energy reduction achieved with controls could be fit using a simple analytical model. Significant savings also occurred during core operating hours when it is more expensive to supply and use energy. Compared to the usage in the reference zone, energy reductions of 49%, 44%, and 62% were measured in the south daylight, south interior, and north daylight zones, respectively, during core operating hours throughout the year. Lighting energy usage on weekends decreased dramatically in the zones with controls, with the usage in the north daylit zone only 10% that of the reference zone. A simple survey developed to assess occupant response to the lighting control system showed that the occupants were satisfied with the light levels provided.

  12. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  13. Controllable fabrication of large-scale hierarchical silver nanostructures for long-term stable and ultrasensitive SERS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Fang, Jinghuai; Cheng, Mingfei; Gong, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we aim to prepare effective and long-term stable hierarchical silver nanostructures serving as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates simply via displacement reaction on Aluminum foils. In our experiments, Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is used as cationic surfactant to control the velocity of displacement reaction as well as the hierarchical morphology of the resultant. We find that the volume ratio of CTAB to AgNO3 plays a dominant role in regulating the hierarchical structures besides the influence of displacement reaction time. These as-prepared hierarchical morphologies demonstrate excellent SERS sensitivity, structural stability and reproducibility with low values of relative standard deviation less than 20 %. The high SERS analytical enhancement factor of ~6.7 × 108 is achieved even at the concentration of Crystal Violet (CV) as low as 10-7 M, which is sufficient for single-molecule detection. The detection limit of CV is 10-9 M in this study. We believe that this simple and rapid approach integrating advantages of low-cost production and high reproducibility would be a promising way to facilitate routine SERS detection and will get wide applications in chemical synthesis.

  14. Short-term and long-term reproducibility of lung tumor position using active breathing control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Koshani, Rojano . E-mail: rkashani@umich.edu; Balter, James M.; Hayman, James A.; Henning, George T.; Herk, Marcel van

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the short-term and long-term reproducibility of lung tumor position for scans acquired using an active breathing control (ABC) device. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with lung cancer were scanned over three sessions during the course of treatment. For each session, two scans were acquired at deep inhale, and one scan each at half of deep inhale and at exhale. Long-term reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the same breathing state scans from two sessions, with setup variation removed by skeletal alignment. Tumor alignment was based on intensity matching of a small volume around the tumor. For short-term reproducibility, the two inhale volumes from the same session were compared. Results: For the short-term reproducibility, the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of the displacement of the center of tumor were 0.0 (1.5) mm in anteroposterior (AP), 0.3 (1.4) mm in superior/inferior (SI), and 0.2 (0.7) mm in right/left (RL) directions. For long-term reproducibility, the mean (SD) were -1.3 (3.1) mm AP, -0.5 (3.8) mm SI, and 0.3 (1.6) mm RL for inhale and -0.2 (2.8) mm AP, 0.2 (2.1) mm SI, and -0.7 (1.1) mm RL for exhale. Conclusion: The ABC device demonstrates very good short-term and long-term reproducibility. Increased long-term variability in position, primarily in the SI and AP directions, indicates the role of tumor-directed localization in combination with breath-held immobilization.

  15. Modeling the integration of parasitoid, insecticide, and transgenic insecticidal crop for the long-term control of an insect pest.

    PubMed

    Onstad, David W; Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-06-01

    The tools of insect pest management include host plant resistance, biological control, and insecticides and how they are integrated will influence the durability of each. We created a detailed model of the population dynamics and population genetics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and its parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), to study long-term pest management in broccoli Brassica oleracea L. Given this pest's history of evolving resistance to various toxins, we also evaluated the evolution of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt broccoli (expressing Cry1Ac) and two types of insecticides. Simulations demonstrated that parasitism provided the most reliable, long-term control of P. xylostella populations. Use of Bt broccoli with a 10% insecticide-free refuge did not reduce the long-term contribution of parasitism to pest control. Small refuges within Bt broccoli fields can delay evolution of resistance > 30 generations if resistance alleles are rare in the pest population. However, the effectiveness of these refuges can be compromised by insecticide use. Rainfall mortality during the pest's egg and neonate stages significantly influences pest control but especially resistance management. Our model results support the idea that Bt crops and biological control can be integrated in integrated pest management and actually synergistically support each other. However, the planting and maintenance of toxin-free refuges are critical to this integration.

  16. Absence of center of mass control for leg abduction in long-term weightlessness in humans.

    PubMed

    Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Baroni, Guido; Mouchnino, Laurence; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedotti, Antonio; Massion, Jean

    2002-02-22

    The present investigation describes for the first time leg lateral abduction performance during long-term microgravity exposure. Two astronauts took part in the experiments, starting 2 weeks into the mission and lasting for 5 months. Results on joint angles kinematics confirm previous investigations on parabolic flights, showing good task fulfillment for both subjects. Special interest was focused on whole body center of mass (CM) positioning. As in short-term microgravity, no initial CM lateral shift toward the 'supporting' leg was observed. In contrast with short-term microgravity and ground-based experiments, no stabilization of the CM medio-lateral position was found but a significant shift of CM toward the moving leg was observed. This suggests that the adaptation to sustained weightlessness might have led to a microgravity-specific motor strategy for leg abduction, which was not focused on CM strategy.

  17. Do erosion rates control the long-term carbon isotope mass balance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields-Zhou, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term marine carbon isotope record responds to changes in the proportional burial rates of organic carbon relative to carbonate carbon on a global scale. For this reason, high δ13C values in marine carbonate rocks are normally interpreted to reflect faster rates of organic burial and increased atmospheric oxygenation. Geochemical redox tracers fail to support this paradigm for sustained deviations from the long-term δ13C mean, indicating perhaps that proportionally high organic burial may be associated with lower overall flux rates. Here I propose that ~107-108 year trends in average δ13C, as with seawater 87Sr/86Sr, are driven by changes in the balance between volcanism and denudation (~uplift). In other words, high proportional organic burial may be related to increases in the net CO2 flux (= organic carbon burial + Ca-Mg silicate weathering) relative to the carbonate weathering flux. According to this model, high baseline δ13C values will be associated with periods of heightened volcanic activity and/or diminished tectonic uplift. Conversely, lower baseline δ13C values can be related to times when the global carbon cycle was dominated by carbonate and oxidative weathering due to high rates of physical erosion. Shorter 105-106 year positive δ13C excursions have also been interpreted as the 'smoking gun' to extreme oxygenation events. However, large increases in organic burial are difficult to sustain under steady-state conditions without very high volcanic fluxes, indicating that some of these excursions might be better explained by transient changes to the isotopic composition of carbon sources and sinks.

  18. Obesity: a systematic review on parental involvement in long-term European childhood weight control interventions with a nutritional focus.

    PubMed

    van der Kruk, J J; Kortekaas, F; Lucas, C; Jager-Wittenaar, H

    2013-09-01

    In Europe, about 20% of children are overweight. Focus on parental responsibility is an effective method in weight control interventions in children. In this systematic review we describe the intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change aimed at parents in long-term European childhood weight control interventions. We include European Union studies targeting parents in order to improve children's weight status in multi-component (parental, behaviour change and nutrition) health promotion or lifestyle interventions. The included studies have at least one objectively measured anthropometric outcome in the weight status of the child. Parental involvement was described and categorized based on the intensity of parental involvement and coded using a validated behaviour change taxonomy specific to childhood obesity. Twenty-four studies were analysed. In effective long-term treatment studies, medium and high intensity parental involvement were identified most frequently; whereas in prevention studies low intensity parental involvement was identified most frequently. Parenting skills, generic and specific to lifestyle behaviour, scored frequently in effective weight control interventions. To list parental skills in generic and specific to lifestyle, descriptions of the included studies were summarized. We conclude that intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change techniques are important issues in the effectiveness of long-term childhood weight control interventions.

  19. Long-term stability of neural prosthetic control signals from silicon cortical arrays in rhesus macaque motor cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin D.; Fan, Joline M.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Churchland, Mark M.; Rivera-Alvidrez, Zuley; Cunningham, John P.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2011-08-01

    Cortically-controlled prosthetic systems aim to help disabled patients by translating neural signals from the brain into control signals for guiding prosthetic devices. Recent reports have demonstrated reasonably high levels of performance and control of computer cursors and prosthetic limbs, but to achieve true clinical viability, the long-term operation of these systems must be better understood. In particular, the quality and stability of the electrically-recorded neural signals require further characterization. Here, we quantify action potential changes and offline neural decoder performance over 382 days of recording from four intracortical arrays in three animals. Action potential amplitude decreased by 2.4% per month on average over the course of 9.4, 10.4, and 31.7 months in three animals. During most time periods, decoder performance was not well correlated with action potential amplitude (p > 0.05 for three of four arrays). In two arrays from one animal, action potential amplitude declined by an average of 37% over the first 2 months after implant. However, when using simple threshold-crossing events rather than well-isolated action potentials, no corresponding performance loss was observed during this time using an offline decoder. One of these arrays was effectively used for online prosthetic experiments over the following year. Substantial short-term variations in waveforms were quantified using a wireless system for contiguous recording in one animal, and compared within and between days for all three animals. Overall, this study suggests that action potential amplitude declines more slowly than previously supposed, and performance can be maintained over the course of multiple years when decoding from threshold-crossing events rather than isolated action potentials. This suggests that neural prosthetic systems may provide high performance over multiple years in human clinical trials.

  20. Long-Term Effects of Neonatal Morphine Infusion on Pain Sensitivity: Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Abraham J; van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; de Graaf, Joke; van Lingen, Richard A; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; van Rosmalen, Joost; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth J M; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2015-09-01

    Short-term and long-term effects of neonatal pain and its analgesic treatment have been topics of translational research over the years. This study aimed to identify the long-term effects of continuous morphine infusion in the neonatal period on thermal pain sensitivity, the incidence of chronic pain, and neurological functioning. Eighty-nine of the 150 participants of a neonatal randomized controlled trial on continuous morphine infusion versus placebo during mechanical ventilation underwent quantitative sensory testing and neurological examination at the age of 8 or 9 years. Forty-three children from the morphine group and 46 children from the placebo group participated in this follow-up study. Thermal detection and pain thresholds were compared with data from 28 healthy controls. Multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant differences in thermal detection thresholds and pain thresholds between the morphine and placebo groups. The incidence of chronic pain was comparable between both groups. The neurological examination was normal in 29 (76%) of the children in the morphine group and 25 (61%) of the children in the control group (P = .14). We found that neonatal continuous morphine infusion (10 μg/kg/h) has no adverse effects on thermal detection and pain thresholds, the incidence of chronic pain, or overall neurological functioning 8 to 9 years later. Perspective: This unique long-term follow-up study shows that neonatal continuous morphine infusion (10 μg/kg/h) has no long-term adverse effects on thermal detection and pain thresholds or overall neurological functioning. These findings will help clinicians to find the most adequate and safe analgesic dosing regimens for neonates and infants.

  1. Definitive Radiotherapy for Ewing Tumors of Extremities and Pelvis: Long-Term Disease Control, Limb Function, and Treatment Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, Daniel J. Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: More than 70% of Ewing tumors occur in the extremities and pelvis. This study identified factors influencing local control and functional outcomes after management with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: A total of 75 patients with a localized Ewing tumor of the extremity or pelvis were treated with definitive RT at the University of Florida between 1970 and 2006 (lower extremity tumors in 30, pelvic tumors in 26, and upper extremity tumors in 19). RT was performed on a once-daily (40%) or twice-daily (60%) basis. The median dose was 55.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy daily fractions or 55.0 Gy in 1.2-Gy twice-daily fractions. The median observed follow-up was 4.7 years. Functional outcome was assessed using the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score. Results: The 10-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, freedom from relapse, and local control rate was 48%, 48%, 42%, and 71%, respectively. Of the 72 patients, 3 required salvage amputation. Inferior cause-specific survival was associated with larger tumors (81% for tumors <8 cm vs. 39% for tumors {>=}8 cm, p <0.05). No patient characteristics or treatment variables were predictive of local failure. No fractures occurred in patients treated with hyperfractionation or with tumors of the distal extremities. Severe late complications were more frequently associated with use of <8-MV photons and fields encompassing the entire bone or hemipelvis. A significantly better Toronto Extremity Salvage Score was associated with a late-effect biologically effective dose of <91.7 Gy{sub 3}. Conclusions: Limb preservation was effectively achieved through definitive RT. Treating limited field sizes with hyperfractionated high-energy RT could minimize long-term complications and provides superior functional outcomes.

  2. Short- and long-term control of Vespula pensylvanica in Hawaii by fipronil baiting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive western yellowjacket wasp, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), has significantly impacted the ecological integrity and human welfare of Hawaii. The goals of the present study were (1) to evaluate the immediate and long-term efficacy of a 0.1% fipronil chicken bait on V. pensylvanica populations in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, (2) to quantify gains in efficacy using the attractant heptyl butyrate in the bait stations and (3) to measure the benefits of this approach for minimizing non-target impacts to other arthropods. RESULTS: The 0.1% fipronil chicken bait reduced the abundance of V. pensylvanica by 95 ± 1.2% during the 3 months following treatment and maintained a population reduction of 60.9 ± 3.1% a year after treatment in the fipronil-treated sites when compared with chicken-only sites. The addition of heptyl butyrate to the bait stations significantly increased V. pensylvanica forager visitation and bait take and significantly reduced the non-target impacts of fipronil baiting. CONCLUSION: In this study, 0.1% fipronil chicken bait with the addition of heptyl butyrate was found to be an extremely effective large-scale management strategy and provided the first evidence of a wasp suppression program impacting Vepsula populations a year after treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

  3. Controlled Adhesion and Growth of Long Term Glial and Neuronal Cultures on Parylene-C

    PubMed Central

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Murray, Alan F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the long term development of networks of glia and neurons on patterns of Parylene-C on a SiO2 substrate. We harvested glia and neurons from the Sprague-Dawley (P1–P7) rat hippocampus and utilized an established cell patterning technique in order to investigate cellular migration, over the course of 3 weeks. This work demonstrates that uncontrolled glial mitosis gradually disrupts cellular patterns that are established early during culture. This effect is not attributed to a loss of protein from the Parylene-C surface, as nitrogen levels on the substrate remain stable over 3 weeks. The inclusion of the anti-mitotic cytarabine (Ara-C) in the culture medium moderates glial division and thus, adequately preserves initial glial and neuronal conformity to underlying patterns. Neuronal apoptosis, often associated with the use of Ara-C, is mitigated by the addition of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We believe that with the right combination of glial inhibitors and neuronal promoters, the Parylene-C based cell patterning method can generate structured, active neural networks that can be sustained and investigated over extended periods of time. To our knowledge this is the first report on the concurrent application of Ara-C and BDNF on patterned cell cultures. PMID:21966523

  4. Executive Functioning Skills in Long-Term Users of Cochlear Implants: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pisoni, David B.; Henning, Shirley C.; Colson, Bethany G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in executive functioning between deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. The cognitive effects of auditory deprivation in childhood may extend beyond speech–language skills to more domain-general areas including executive functioning. Methods Executive functioning skills in a sample of 53 prelingually deaf children, adolescents, and young adults who received CIs prior to age 7 years and who had used their CIs for ≥7 years were compared with age- and nonverbal IQ-matched NH peers and with scale norms. Results Despite having above average nonverbal IQ, the CI sample scored lower than the NH sample and test norms on several measures of short-term/working memory, fluency–speed, and inhibition–concentration. Executive functioning was unrelated to most demographic and hearing history characteristics. Conclusions Prelingual deafness and long-term use of CIs was associated with increased risk of weaknesses in executive functioning. PMID:23699747

  5. Long-term corrosion/oxidation studies under controlled humidity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-10-13

    Independent of thermal loading scenarios, the waste packages at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will be exposed to environmental conditions where there is the possibility of significant water film formation occurring on the waste packages. Water films can cause aggressive aqueous film electrochemical corrosion on susceptible metals or alloys. Water film formation will be facilitated when relative humidities are high, when hygroscopic salts are present on the surfaces, when corrosion products are hygroscopic, and when particles form crevices with the surfaces (capillary effect). Also certain gaseous contaminants, such as, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, can facilitate water film formation. It should be noted that water film formation can occur at isolated spots (e.g. surface defects and salt particles) and need not cover the entire surface for electrochemical corrosion to occur. This activity will characterize the long term corrosion of metal specimens at two nominal relative humidities (50 and 85%) and at 80 C. Under the low relative humidity (50%) condition, water film formation is expected to be limited and therefore aqueous film electrochemical corrosion is expected also to be limited. Under the high relative humidity (85%) condition, significant water film formation is expected to occur under some test conditions, and subsequently aqueous film electrochemical corrosion will occur on susceptible materials.

  6. Immediate and Long-Term Effects of a Cognitive Intervention on Intelligence, Self-Regulation, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. Luisa; Ugarte, M. Dolores; Iriarte, M. Dolores; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a package of activities, known as "Portfolio", on cognitive functioning, self-regulation, and academic achievement. The study was carried out with a group of 40 students from Compulsory Secondary Education (mean age 13 years old) during 120 hours distributed over two school years. A…

  7. The Long-Term Differential Achievement Effects of School Socioeconomic Composition in Primary Education: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfi, Barbara; Haelermans, Carla; De Fraine, Bieke

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of school socio-economic composition on student achievement growth trajectories have been a hot topic of discussion among politicians around the world for many years. However, the bulk of research investigating school socio-economic composition effects has been limited in important ways. Aims: In an attempt to overcome the…

  8. Connectivity of runoff and sediments in reclaimed Mediterranean-dry slopes: controlling factors and long-term ecological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Saco, Patricia M.; Espigares, Tíscar; Nicolau, José M.; Merino Martín, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Hydrological connectivity has emerged in recent years as a critical factor for understanding the transference of runoff, sediments and nutrients across scales. Here we examine its relevance for the successful reclamation of water-limited environments in which vegetation stability largely depends on optimal redistribution of water and soil resources for plant production. We studied the connectivity of runoff and sediments across plot to slope scales in three Mediterranean-dry reclaimed slopes that were restored about 25 years ago and have developed different levels of vegetation cover (24-51%) and rill density (0.5-0.0 m m-2), along a gradient of overland flow (slope-scale runoff coefficient 11.2%-0.5%). Event-based connectivity of runoff and sediments was controlled by the spatial organization of vegetation and rills, and at the same time was modulated by storm intensity. In absence of rill networks, both runoff and sediment yield per unit area decreased from patch to slope scales due to internal redistribution of both water and sediment fluxes. However, the connectivity of the slopes increased with rainfall intensity. Additionally, the presence of rills largely increased the connectivity of runoff and sediments, leading to increases in sediment yield across scales due to active rilling under high intensity storm conditions. Further simulations using an eco-geomorphic modelling approach showed that the development of rill networks structurally enhances the hydrological connectivity in these systems, providing persistent pathways for the routing of water and soil resources out of the slopes that can compromise the development and long-term stability of reclaimed vegetation. Overall, our results confirm the relevance and efficiency of using a surface connectivity analysis for understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of water-limited eco-geomorphic systems, and call for its application in order to achieve a successful restoration of Mediterranean slopes.

  9. A Hybrid Adenoviral Vector System Achieves Efficient Long-Term Gene Expression in the Liver via piggyBac Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan P.; Riordan, Jesse D.; Feddersen, Charlotte R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Much research has gone into the development of hybrid gene delivery systems that combine the broad tropism and efficient transduction of adenoviral vectors with the ability to achieve stable expression of cargo genes. In addition to gene therapy applications, such a system has considerable advantages for studies of gene function in vivo, permitting fine-tuned genetic manipulation with higher throughput than can be achieved using standard transgenic and DNA targeting techniques. Existing strategies are limited, however, by low integration efficiencies, small cargo capacity, and/or a dependence on target cell division. The utility of this approach could be enhanced by a system that provides all of the following: (1) efficient delivery, (2) stable expression in a high percentage of target cells (whether mitotic or not), (3) large cargo capacity, (4) flexibility to use with a wide range of additional experimental conditions, and (5) simple experimental technique. Here we report the initial characterization of a hybrid system that meets these criteria by utilizing piggyBac (PB) transposition to achieve genomic integration from adenoviral vectors. We demonstrate stable expression of an adenovirus (Ad)-PB-delivered reporter gene in ∼20–40% of hepatocytes following standard tail vein injection. Its high efficiency and flexibility relative to existing hybrid adenoviral gene delivery approaches indicate a considerable potential utility of the Ad-PB system for therapeutic gene delivery and in vivo studies of gene function. PMID:25808258

  10. Classifying Academically At-Risk First Graders into Engagement Types: Association with Long-Term Achievement Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen; Hughes, Jan N; Liew, Jeffrey; Kwok, Oiman

    2009-03-01

    Based on a sample of 480 academically at-risk first graders, we used a cluster analysis involving multimethod assessment (i.e., teacher-report, peer-evaluation, and self-report) of behavioral and psychological engagement to identify subtypes of academic engagement. Four theoretically and practically meaningful clusters were identified and labeled as cooperative (n = 95), resistive (n =96), enthusiastic (n = 188), and disaffected (n = 101). The four types did not differ in IQ measured with the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test. The cooperative group consisted of more female and Hispanic students, whereas the resistive group consisted of more male and African American students. The cooperative group was the most popular among peers, followed by the enthusiastic group. The disaffected and resistive groups had more emotional symptoms than the cooperative and enthusiastic groups. Academic engagement types also differed in growth trajectories of academic achievement measured with Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement from second to fourth grade. For reading, the cooperative and enthusiastic groups outperformed the resistive and disaffected groups at the beginning. However, the growth rate was similar across engagement types. For math, the engagement types did not differ at the beginning. However, the cooperative group developed at a faster rate and had higher math achievement by fourth grade than the other types. The findings support the importance of teaching temperament-based regulatory skills and of providing a positive psychological climate for children's academic learning.

  11. Dissecting Rice Polyamine Metabolism under Controlled Long-Term Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Do, Phuc Thi; Degenkolbe, Thomas; Erban, Alexander; Heyer, Arnd G.; Kopka, Joachim; Köhl, Karin I.; Hincha, Dirk K.; Zuther, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A selection of 21 rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and japonica) was characterized under moderate long-term drought stress by comprehensive physiological analyses and determination of the contents of polyamines and selected metabolites directly related to polyamine metabolism. To investigate the potential regulation of polyamine biosynthesis at the transcriptional level, the expression of 21 genes encoding enzymes involved in these pathways were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Analysis of the genomic loci revealed that 11 of these genes were located in drought-related QTL regions, in agreement with a proposed role of polyamine metabolism in rice drought tolerance. The cultivars differed widely in their drought tolerance and parameters such as biomass and photosynthetic quantum yield were significantly affected by drought treatment. Under optimal irrigation free putrescine was the predominant polyamine followed by free spermidine and spermine. When exposed to drought putrescine levels decreased markedly and spermine became predominant in all cultivars. There were no correlations between polyamine contents and drought tolerance. GC-MS analysis revealed drought-induced changes of the levels of ornithine/arginine (substrate), substrates of polyamine synthesis, proline, product of a competing pathway and GABA, a potential degradation product. Gene expression analysis indicated that ADC-dependent polyamine biosynthesis responded much more strongly to drought than the ODC-dependent pathway. Nevertheless the fold change in transcript abundance of ODC1 under drought stress was linearly correlated with the drought tolerance of the cultivars. Combining metabolite and gene expression data, we propose a model of the coordinate adjustment of polyamine biosynthesis for the accumulation of spermine under drought conditions. PMID:23577102

  12. Long-Term Controls on Solute and Sediment Fluxes From a Rapidly Weathering Tropical Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, J. B.; McDowell, W. H.; Stallard, R. F.

    2006-12-01

    The 326-ha Rio Icacos watershed in the tropical wet forest of the Luquillo Mountains, northeastern Puerto Rico, is underlain by granodiorite bedrock with weathering rates among the highest in the world. We pooled stream chemistry and suspended sediment datasets from three discrete periods: 1983-87; 1991-97; and 2000-05, which bracket two major hurricanes that crossed the site; Hugo in 1988 and Georges in 1998. This mountainous landscape is also subject to frequent disturbance by landslides. Stream major ion chemistry reflects weathering of the granodiorite, but dilutes by as much as 90% during the largest storms. This dilution reflects the increasing dominance of rainwater (and cloud water) with increasing streamflow, as major ion stoichiometry is maintained except when precipitation is high in sea salt. Given the broad area of surface saturation, low-permeability soils, and flashy stream hydrograph which quickly returns to base flow, it appears that precipitation moves to the stream by saturation overland flow. Piping and rapid shallow subsurface flow through the rooting zone may also facilitate precipitation movement off hillslopes. Concentration-discharge relations for most major ions were fairly stable through time, suggesting minimal long-term effects from disturbance. The exception was nitrate, which increased from near 5 μmol L-1 during the 1983-87 period to greater than 12 μmol L-1 and remaining elevated for several years following each of the two hurricanes. The relation between suspended sediment concentration and discharge was also stable over time but exhibited more variability, some due to hysteresis but some likely caused by pulsed sediment from discrete disturbances.

  13. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  14. Short- and Long-Term Optimal Control of a Mathematical Model for HIV Infection of CD4+T Cells.

    PubMed

    Croicu, Ana-Maria

    2015-11-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a theoretical short- and long-term optimal control treatment of HIV infection of [Formula: see text] cells. The aim of the mathematical model used herein is to make the free HIV virus particles in the blood decrease, while administering a treatment that is less toxic to patients. Pontryagin's classical control theory is applied to a mathematical model of HIV infection of [Formula: see text] cells characterized by a system of nonlinear differential equations with the following unknown functions: the concentration of susceptible [Formula: see text] cells, [Formula: see text] cells infected by the HIV viruses and free HIV virus particles in the blood.

  15. Transient antiretroviral treatment during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection facilitates long-term control of the virus.

    PubMed

    Wodarz, D; Arnaout, R A; Nowak, M A; Lifson, J D

    2000-08-29

    Experimental evidence and mathematical models indicate that CD4+ T-cell help is required to generate memory cytotoxicT-lymphocyte precursors (CTLp) that are capable of persisting without ongoing antigenic stimulation, and that such responses are necessary to clear an infection or to control it in the long term. Here we analyse mathematical models of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in macaques, assuming that SIV impairs specific CD4+ T-cell responses. According to the models, fast viral replication during the initial stages of primary infection can result in failure to generate sufficient long-lived memory CTLp required to control the infection in the long term. Modelling of drug therapy during the acute phase of the infection indicates that transient treatment can minimize the amount of virus-induced immune impairment, allowing a more effective initial immune sensitization. The result is the development of high levels of memory CTLp that are capable of controlling SIV replication in the long term, in the absence of continuous treament. In the model, the success of treatment depends crucially on the timing and duration of antiretroviral therapy. Data on SIV-infected macaques receiving transient drug therapy during acute infection support these theoretical predictions. The data and modelling suggest that among subjects controlling SIV replication most efficiently after treatment, there is a positive correlation between cellular immune responses and virus load in the post-acute stage of infection. Among subjects showing less-efficient virus control, the correlation is negative. We discuss our findings in relation to previously published data on HIV infection.

  16. Long-term far-transfer effects of working memory training in children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bigorra, Aitana; Garolera, Maite; Guijarro, Silvina; Hervás, Amaia

    2016-08-01

    ADHD affects working memory (WM) and other executive functions (EFs) and thereby negatively impacts school performance, clinical symptoms and functional impairment. The main aim of this study was to analyse the efficacy of computerized WM training (CWMT) on EF rating scales. A secondary objective was to assess its efficacy on performance-based measures of EF (PBMEF), learning, clinical symptoms and functional impairment. 66 children with combined-type ADHD between 7 and 12 years of age from the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit (Spain) were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial. The participants were randomized (1:1) to an experimental group (EG) (CWMT) (n = 36) or a control group (CG) (placebo training). Assessments were conducted at baseline (T0), 1-2 weeks (T1), and 6 months post-intervention (T2) with the administration of EF rating scales, PBMEF, measures of academic achievement, and questionnaires regarding clinical symptoms and functional impairment. Participants, parents, teachers and professionals who performed the cognitive assessments were blinded. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed significant improvements in EF scales-parent version, from T1 to T2, on the metacognition index [p = 0.03, d' = -0.78 (95 % CI -1.28 to -0.27)] and on WM (also significant at T2-T0) and plan/organize subscales. Significant improvements were also noted in EF scales-teacher version, from T0 to T1 and T2, on the metacognitive index [p = 0.05, d' = -0.37 (95 % CI -0.86 to 0.12) T1-T0, p = 0.02, d' = -0.81 (95 % CI -1.31 to -0.30) T2-T0] and on the initiate, WM, monitor and shift subscales. There were also significant improvements in PBMEF, ADHD symptoms, and functional impairment. CWMT had a significant impact on ADHD deficits by achieving long-term far-transfer effects.

  17. Long-Term Aftereffects of Response Inhibition: Memory Retrieval, Task Goals, and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive control theories attribute control to executive processes that adjust and control behavior online. Theories of automaticity attribute control to memory retrieval. In the present study, online adjustments and memory retrieval were examined, and their roles in controlling performance in the stop-signal paradigm were elucidated. There was…

  18. Visual thinking networking promotes long-term meaningful learning and achievement for 9th grade earth science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Palma Joni

    2001-12-01

    An experimental and interview-based design was used to test the efficacy of visual thinking networking (VTN), a new generation of metacognitive learning strategies. Students constructed network diagrams using semantic and figural elements to represent knowledge relationships. The findings indicated the importance of using color in VTN strategies. The use of color promoted the encoding and reconstruction of earth science knowledge in memory and enhanced higher order thinking skills of problem solving. Fifty-six ninth grade earth science students (13--15 years of age) in a suburban school district outside New York City were randomly assigned to three classes with the same instructor. Five major positive findings emerged in the areas of problem solving achievement, organization of knowledge in memory, problem solving strategy dimensionality, conceptual understanding, and gender differences. A multi-covariate analysis was conducted on the pre-post gain scores of the AGI/NSTA Earth Science Examination (Part 1). Students who used the color VTN strategies had a significantly higher mean gain score on the problem solving criterion test items than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .003) and the writing strategies for learning science (p < .001). During a think-out-loud problem solving interview, students who used the color VTN strategies: (1) significantly recalled more earth science knowledge than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .021) and the writing strategies (p < .001); (2) significantly recalled more interrelated earth science knowledge than students who used black/white VTN strategies (p = .048) and the writing strategy (p < .001); (3) significantly used a greater number of action verbs than students who used the writing strategy (p = .033). Students with low abstract reasoning aptitude who used the color VTNs had a significantly higher mean number of conceptually accurate propositions than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .018) and the

  19. Selective CD28 Antagonist Blunts Memory Immune Responses and Promotes Long-Term Control of Skin Inflammation in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Nicolas; Chevalier, Melanie; Mary, Caroline; Hervouet, Jeremy; Minault, David; Baker, Paul; Ville, Simon; Le Bas-Bernardet, Stephanie; Dilek, Nahzli; Belarif, Lyssia; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Scobie, Linda; Blancho, Gilles; Vanhove, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapies that specifically target activation and expansion of pathogenic immune cell subsets responsible for autoimmune attacks are needed to confer long-term remission. Pathogenic cells in autoimmunity include memory T lymphocytes that are long-lived and present rapid recall effector functions with reduced activation requirements. Whereas the CD28 costimulation pathway predominantly controls priming of naive T cells and hence generation of adaptive memory cells, the roles of CD28 costimulation on established memory T lymphocytes and the recall of memory responses remain controversial. In contrast to CD80/86 antagonists (CTLA4-Ig), selective CD28 antagonists blunt T cell costimulation while sparing CTLA-4 and PD-L1-dependent coinhibitory signals. Using a new selective CD28 antagonist, we showed that Ag-specific reactivation of human memory T lymphocytes was prevented. Selective CD28 blockade controlled both cellular and humoral memory recall in nonhuman primates and induced long-term Ag-specific unresponsiveness in a memory T cell-mediated inflammatory skin model. No modification of memory T lymphocytes subsets or numbers was observed in the periphery, and importantly no significant reactivation of quiescent viruses was noticed. These findings indicate that pathogenic memory T cell responses are controlled by both CD28 and CTLA-4/PD-L1 cosignals in vivo and that selectively targeting CD28 would help to promote remission of autoimmune diseases and control chronic inflammation.

  20. A factor controlling long-term variations of the Siberian water cycles during the past two centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Kazuhiro; Ogata, Koto; Park, Hotaek; Tachibana, Yoshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Among all the rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean, the three great Siberian rivers; Lena, Yenisei and Ob, are the three largest in terms of discharge (R), and are sources of freshwater, organic matter and heat into the ocean. While long-term variation and trend of the Rs have been examined in a lot of previous studies, causes of the R variations are still unclear. A previous study indicated the negative correlation between the Lena and Ob Rs during the 1980s to mid-1990s and it was affected by an east-west seesaw pattern of atmospheric circulation over Siberia. Our analysis indicated that 15-year running correlations between observed Rs of the Lena and Ob becomes weak after the mid-1990s and it was positive in mid-1950s to 1960s. The similar relationships were seen in precipitation (P) over the two basins. As in the observed Rs, more long-term record of reconstructed Rs of the Lena and Ob based on the tree-ring showed positive, negative and weak correlations in each of the epochs during the past two centuries. Interestingly, the correlations of the reconstructed Rs tend to be distributed on the negative side. These negative correlations were associated with the east-west seesaw pattern, as in the previous study. In addition, the correlations of Ps over eastern and western Siberia in an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) control simulation were distributed on more negative side compared to those in the CMIP3 multi-coupled models' simulations. The results of the AGCM and CMIP3 models reveal that the seesaw pattern frequently appears as an atmospheric internal variability over Siberia. Therefore, our results indicated that the east-west seesaw pattern as an atmospheric internal variability is a key factor controlling the long-term variation of water cycles in Siberia region.

  1. GABAergic Activities Control Spike Timing- and Frequency-Dependent Long-Term Depression at Hippocampal Excitatory Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Makoto; Togashi, Kazunobu; Aihara, Takeshi; Hong, Kyonsoo

    2010-01-01

    GABAergic interneuronal network activities in the hippocampus control a variety of neural functions, including learning and memory, by regulating θ and γ oscillations. How these GABAergic activities at pre- and postsynaptic sites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differentially contribute to synaptic function and plasticity during their repetitive pre- and postsynaptic spiking at θ and γ oscillations is largely unknown. We show here that activities mediated by postsynaptic GABAARs and presynaptic GABABRs determine, respectively, the spike timing- and frequency-dependence of activity-induced synaptic modifications at Schaffer collateral-CA1 excitatory synapses. We demonstrate that both feedforward and feedback GABAAR-mediated inhibition in the postsynaptic cell controls the spike timing-dependent long-term depression of excitatory inputs (“e-LTD”) at the θ frequency. We also show that feedback postsynaptic inhibition specifically causes e-LTD of inputs that induce small postsynaptic currents (<70 pA) with LTP-timing, thus enforcing the requirement of cooperativity for induction of long-term potentiation at excitatory inputs (“e-LTP”). Furthermore, under spike-timing protocols that induce e-LTP and e-LTD at excitatory synapses, we observed parallel induction of LTP and LTD at inhibitory inputs (“i-LTP” and “i-LTD”) to the same postsynaptic cells. Finally, we show that presynaptic GABABR-mediated inhibition plays a major role in the induction of frequency-dependent e-LTD at α and β frequencies. These observations demonstrate the critical influence of GABAergic interneuronal network activities in regulating the spike timing- and frequency-dependences of long-term synaptic modifications in the hippocampus. PMID:21423508

  2. Renewal of the Control System and Reliable Long Term Operation of the LHD Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mito, T.; Iwamoto, A.; Oba, K.; Takami, S.; Moriuchi, S.; Imagawa, S.; Takahata, K.; Yamada, S.; Yanagi, N.; Hamaguchi, S.; Kishida, F.; Nakashima, T.

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) is a heliotron-type fusion plasma experimental machine which consists of a fully superconducting magnet system cooled by a helium refrigerator having a total equivalent cooling capacity of 9.2 kW@4.4 K. Seventeenplasma experimental campaigns have been performed successfully since1997 with high reliability of 99%. However, sixteen years have passed from the beginning of the system operation. Improvements are being implementedto prevent serious failures and to pursue further reliability.The LHD cryogenic control system was designed and developed as an open system utilizing latest control equipment of VME controllers and UNIX workstations at the construction time. Howeverthe generation change of control equipment has been advanced. Down-sizing of control deviceshas beenplanned from VME controllers to compact PCI controllers in order to simplify the system configuration and to improve the system reliability. The new system is composed of compact PCI controller and remote I/O connected with EtherNet/IP. Making the system redundant becomes possible by doubling CPU, LAN, and remote I/O respectively. The smooth renewal of the LHD cryogenic controlsystem and the further improvement of the cryogenic system reliability are reported.

  3. 75 FR 13559 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Long Term...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ....'' For More Information Contact: Gregory Anderson, M.S., M.P.H., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, 1600... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 12 p.m.-2 p.m., June 8..., Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  4. Long-Term Data Reveal Patterns and Controls on Stream Water Chemistry in a Forested Stream: Walker Branch, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, Brian D; Mulholland, Patrick J; Bernhardt, Emily

    2012-01-01

    We present 20 years of weekly stream water chemistry, hydrology, and climate data for the Walker Branch watershed in eastern Tennessee, USA. Since 1989, the watershed has experienced a similar to 1.08 degrees C increase in mean annual temperature, a similar to 20% decline in precipitation, and a similar to 30% increase in forest evapotranspiration rates. As a result, stream runoff has declined by similar to 34%. We evaluate long-term trends in stream water concentrations and fluxes for nine solutes and use wet deposition data to calculate approximate watershed input-output budgets. Dissolved constituents were classified as geochemical solutes (Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42-) or nutrients (NH4+, NO3-, soluble reactive phosphorus [SRP], total soluble nitrogen [TSN], total soluble phosphorus [TSP], and dissolved organic carbon [DOC]). Geochemical solutes are predominantly controlled by discharge, and the long-term changes in catchment hydrology have led to significant trends in the concentrations and fluxes of these solutes. Further, the trends in geochemical solute concentrations indicate shifting soil flowpath contributions to streamflow generation through time, with deep groundwater having a greater proportional contribution in recent years. Despite dramatic changes in watershed runoff, there were no trends in inorganic nutrient concentrations (NH4+, NO3-, and SRP). While most nutrients entering the watershed are retained, stream fluxes of nutrient solutes have declined significantly as a result of decreasing runoff. Nutrient concentrations in the stream exhibit large seasonality controlled by in-stream biological uptake. Stream benthic communities are sensitive to hydrologic disturbance, and changes in the frequency or intensity of storm events through time can affect nutrient fluxes. Stream NO3- concentrations are also sensitive to drought, with concentrations decreasing (increasing) if conditions during the three years prior to the time of sampling were drier (wetter

  5. Factors Associated with Long-Term Control of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sabai, Abdullah; Alamodi, Saleh; Alsabaani, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study assessed factors associated with glycemic control among Saudi patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study, which included a random sample of 288 patients with T2DM proportional to the diabetes population of each primary health care center in Jazan city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results. More than two-thirds (74%) of patients had poor glycemic control. Lack of education, polypharmacy, and duration of diabetes ≥ 7 years were significantly associated with higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Moreover, patients who were smoker or divorced were significantly more likely to have higher HbA1c. The patients who did not comply with diet or take their medications as prescribed had poor glycemic control. The study found lower HbA1c levels among patients who received family support or had close relationship with their physicians. Similarly, knowledgeable patients towards diabetes or those with greater confidence in ability to manage self-care behaviors had a lower HbA1c. In contrast, risk factors such as depression or stress were significantly correlated with poorer glycemic control. Conclusion. The majority of T2DM patients had poor glycemic control. The study identified several factors associated with glycemic control. Effective and tailored interventions are needed to mitigate exposure to these risk factors. This would improve glycemic control and reduce the risks inherent to diabetes complications. PMID:28090538

  6. Long-term Exercise After Pulmonary Rehabilitation (LEAP): design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Litrownik, Daniel; Beach, Douglas; Klings, Elizabeth S.; Davis, Roger B.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have reduced exercise capacity and levels of physical activity. Supervised, facility-based pulmonary rehabilitation programs improve exercise capacity and reduce dyspnea, but novel long-term strategies are needed to maintain the benefits gained. Mind-body modalities such as Tai Chi which combine aerobic activity, coordination of breathing, and cognitive techniques that alleviate the physical inactivity, dyspnea, and anxiety and depression that are the hallmarks of COPD are promising strategies. Methods/Design We have designed a randomized controlled study to examine whether Tai Chi will maintain exercise capacity in persons with COPD who have recently completed a supervised pulmonary rehabilitation program, compared to standard care. The primary outcome is 6-minute walk test distance at 6 months. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life, dyspnea, mood, occurrence of acute exacerbations, engagement in physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and exercise adherence. Simultaneously, we are conducting a pilot study of group walking. We will enroll 90 persons who will be randomized to one of 3 arms in a 2:2:1 ratio: Tai Chi, standard care, or group-based walking. Discussion The Long-term Exercise After Pulmonary Rehabilitation (LEAP) study is a novel and clinically relevant trial. We will enroll a well-characterized cohort of persons with COPD and will comprehensively assess physiological and psychosocial outcomes. Results of this study will provide the evidence base for persons with COPD to engage in Tai Chi as a low-cost, long-term modality to sustain physical activity in persons who have completed a standard short-term pulmonary rehabilitation program. PMID:26362690

  7. Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Zenghu [Manhattan, KS; Yun, Chenxia [Manhattan, KS; Chen, Shouyuan [Manhattan, KS; Wang, He [Manhattan, KS; Chini, Michael [Manhattan, KS

    2012-07-24

    A feedback control module for stabilizing a carrier-envelope phase of an output of a laser oscillator system comprises a first photodetector, a second photodetector, a phase stabilizer, an optical modulator, and a thermal control element. The first photodetector may generate a first feedback signal corresponding to a first portion of a laser beam from an oscillator. The second photodetector may generate a second feedback signal corresponding to a second portion of the laser beam filtered by a low-pass filter. The phase stabilizer may divide the frequency of the first feedback signal by a factor and generate an error signal corresponding to the difference between the frequency-divided first feedback signal and the second feedback signal. The optical modulator may modulate the laser beam within the oscillator corresponding to the error signal. The thermal control unit may change the temperature of the oscillator corresponding to a signal operable to control the optical modulator.

  8. Long-term effects of the perinatal environment on respiratory control.

    PubMed

    Bavis, Ryan W; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2008-04-01

    The respiratory control system exhibits considerable plasticity, similar to other regions of the nervous system. Plasticity is a persistent change in system behavior triggered by experiences such as changes in neural activity, hypoxia, and/or disease/injury. Although plasticity is observed in animals of all ages, some forms of plasticity appear to be unique to development (i.e., "developmental plasticity"). Developmental plasticity is an alteration in respiratory control induced by experiences during "critical" developmental periods; similar experiences outside the critical period will have little or no lasting effect. Thus complementary experiments on both mature and developing animals are generally needed to verify that the observed plasticity is unique to development. Frequently studied models of developmental plasticity in respiratory control include developmental manipulations of respiratory gas concentrations (O(2) and CO(2)). Environmental factors not specifically associated with breathing may also trigger developmental plasticity, however, including psychological stress or chemicals associated with maternal habits (e.g., nicotine, cocaine). Despite rapid advances in describing models of developmental plasticity in breathing, our understanding of fundamental mechanisms giving rise to such plasticity is poor; mechanistic studies of developmental plasticity are of considerable importance. Developmental plasticity may enable organisms to "fine tune" their phenotype to optimize the performance of this critical homeostatic regulatory system. On the other hand, developmental plasticity could also increase the risk of disease later in life. Future directions for studies concerning the mechanisms and functional implications of developmental plasticity in respiratory motor control are discussed.

  9. Evaluating Long-Term Complex Professional Development: Using a Variation of the Cohort Control Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sample Mcmeeking, Laura B.; Cobb, R. Brian; Basile, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a variation on the post-test only cohort control design and addresses questions concerning both the methodological credibility and the practical utility of employing this design variation in evaluations of large-scale complex professional development programmes in mathematics education. The original design and design…

  10. Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01

    An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

  11. Long-term blood pressure and metabolic effects of vasopressin with servo-controlled fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Cowley, A W; Merrill, D C; Quillen, E W; Skelton, M M

    1984-09-01

    Studies were performed in normal mongrel dogs (n = 8) to assess whether changes observed with chronic administration of vasopressin (AVP) were a result of direct actions of AVP or the consequence of changes in body fluid volume. AVP was infused continuously for 2 wk (0.36 ng X kg-1 X min-1 iv), while total body weight and body water (TBW) were maintained constant (+/- 50 g) using a servo-controlled system. A metabolic cage was mounted on sensitive force transducers for continuous monitoring of TBW. The summed voltage output of these transducers was used to servo control an intravenous infusion pump that adjusted the rate of water intake required for maintenance of a constant TBW. AVP infused under these conditions chronically increased plasma AVP levels from 2 to 22 pg/ml but resulted in no change of average 24-h mean arterial pressure, plasma sodium, or osmolality. Urine excretion decreased from 800 to 200 ml/day, whereas urine osmolality increased from 430 to 1,200 mosmol/kg and remained at these levels throughout the 2-wk AVP infusion. A net loss of 20 meq sodium occurred during the 1st day of AVP infusion but thereafter was unchanged. Plasma sodium and osmolality were unchanged from control during AVP infusions. We conclude that AVP-induced changes of arterial pressure, plasma sodium concentration and osmolality, renal escape, suppression of renin activity, and most of the observed natriuresis are events normally dependent on volume expansion.

  12. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of moderate scalp psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Barber, Kirk; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated in this study the efficacy and safety of an alternate regimen using clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo (CP shampoo) for long-term control of scalp psoriasis. Patients with moderate scalp psoriasis (Global Severity Score [GSS] of 3 on a 0-5 scale) first received CP shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Patients with a GSS 2) occurred, patients received the 4-week daily CP shampoo treatment. Patients who had a GSS long-term management of moderate scalp psoriasis.

  13. Neural interfaces for upper-limb prosthesis control: opportunities to improve long-term reliability.

    PubMed

    Judy, Jack W

    2012-03-01

    Building on a long history of innovation in neural-recording interfaces, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has launched a program to address the key challenges related to transitioning advanced neuroprosthesis technology to clinical use for amputated service members. The goal of the Reliable Neural Technology (RE-NET) Program is to develop new technology to extract information from the nervous system at a scale and rate needed to reliably control modern robotic prostheses over the lifetime of the amputee. The RE-NET program currently encompasses three separate efforts: histology for interface stability over time (HIST), reliable peripheral interfaces (RPIs), and reliable central nervous system (CNS) interfaces (RCIs).

  14. An intelligent flow control system for long term fluid restriction in small animals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Can; Li, Meihua; Kawada, Toru; Uemura, Kazunori; Inagaki, Masashi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Fluid retention is one of the most common symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure. Although fluid restriction may be a therapeutic strategy, the degree of fluid restriction necessary for the best therapeutic outcome remains unknown partly due to the lack of proper experimental method to restrict water consumption in small animals. The traditional methods that allow animals to access water only in a limited time window or within pre-determined daily volume can be stressful because the animals may become thirsty during the time of water deprivation. To provide a less stressful water restriction paradigm, we designed a feedback-control system of drinking flow to modulate the drinking behavior of small animals. This system consisted of an infrared droplet sensor for monitoring the drinking flow and a computer controlled electric valve to regulate the water availability. A light signal which synchronized with the command for opening the valve was set to establish a conditioned reflex. An animal test indicated that rats were adaptable to a precisely programmed water supply. This system may warrant investigation into the consequences of fluid restriction in chronic experimental animal study.

  15. Prospective analysis of long term control of mild hypertension on cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Rogers, R.L.; Mortel, K.F.

    1985-11-01

    A group of 12 otherwise normal elderly volunteers (mean age = 69.8 years), were detected to have mild hypertension. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) values were measured using 133Xe inhalation method prior to initiating medical treatment and repeated at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after BP was adequately controlled and restored to normal (below 150/90). Results indicate that CBF values increased markedly during follow-up intervals at 6, 12 and 24 months but not at 36 months. Hypertension is known to be a risk factor for stroke and 4 of the 12 subjects subsequently developed symptoms of cerebrovascular disease (stroke, multi-infarct dementia or transient ischemic attacks) despite control of hypertension. Analyses separating asymptomatic and symptomatic groups indicated that the eight asymptomatic patients continued to maintain increased CBF levels throughout the entire three year interval, whereas the 4 symptomatic patients developed declines in CBF which began, and progressively decreased below the initial pretreatment values, during the second and third years.

  16. Long-term effects of tongue piercing--a case control study.

    PubMed

    Ziebolz, Dirk; Hildebrand, Aick; Proff, Peter; Rinke, Sven; Hornecker, Else; Mausberg, Rainer F

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth and periodontal damage in subjects wearing a tongue piercing (TP) in comparison to matched control subjects without tongue piercing. Members of the German Federal Armed Forces who had TP (group TP) and a matched control group (group C) volunteered to take part in the study. The time in situ, localization and material of TP were documented. Dental examinations included DMF-T, oral hygiene, enamel fissures (EF), enamel cracks (EC) and recessions. Statistical analysis was determined by χ (2) test and the t test. Both groups had 46 male subjects (mean age 22.1 years). The piercings had been in situ for 3.8 ± 3.1 years. Subjects in the TP group had a total of 1,260 teeth. Twenty-nine subjects had 115 teeth (9.1%) with EF (67% lingual). In group C (1,243 teeth), 30 subjects had 60 teeth with EF (4.8%, 78% vestibular) (p < 0.01). Thirty-eight subjects belonging to group TP had EC in 186 teeth (15%). In group C, 26 subjects with 56 teeth (4.5%) were affected by EC (p < 0.001). Twenty-seven subjects in group TP had 97 teeth (7.7%) with recessions. Lingual surfaces of anterior teeth in the lower jaw were affected most frequently (74%). In group C, 8 subjects had 19 teeth (1.5%) with recessions (65% vestibular). Differences between the two groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Tongue piercing is correlated with an increased occurrence of enamel fissures, enamel cracks and lingual recessions. Patients need better information on the potential complications associated with tongue piercing.

  17. Beyond deficit or compensation: new insights on postural control after long-term total visual loss.

    PubMed

    Russo, Maitê M; Lemos, Thiago; Imbiriba, Luís A; Ribeiro, Nathalia L; Vargas, Claudia D

    2017-02-01

    Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects. Additional to the quantification of center of pressure (COP) displacement, measurements of body motion (COG) and the correspondent net neuromuscular response (COP-COG) were evaluated in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Thirty-eight completely blind and thirty-two sighted subjects participated of this study. The volunteers were asked to stand barefoot on a force platform for 60 s in two different conditions: feet apart and feet together. Sighted participants performed the tests with both the eyes open and eyes closed. Results showed that the COP-COG displacements in the blind group were greater than those of the sighted group with eyes open in almost all conditions tested, but not in eyes closed condition. However, the COP and COG results confirmed that the postural responses were context dependent. Together these results suggest that total visual loss does not just lead to a balance deficit or compensation, but to a specific postural signature that might imply in enhancing COP, COG and/or COP-COG in specific postural conditions.

  18. Thermoregulatory consequences of long-term microwave exposure at controlled ambient temperatures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, E.R.; Spiers, D.E.; Rawson, R.O.; Adams, B.W.; Sheldon, D.K.

    1984-08-01

    The study was designed to identify and measure changes in thermoregulatory response systems, both behavioral and physiological, that may occur when squirrel monkeys are exposed to 2450-MHz CW microwaves 40 hours/week for 15 weeks. Microwave power densities explored were 1 and 5 mW/sq. cm. (SAR = 0.16 W/kg per mW/sq. cm.) and were presented at controlled environmental temperatures of 25, 30, and 35 C. Standardized tests, conducted periodically, assessed changes in thermoregulatory responses. Dependent variables measured included body mass, certain blood properties, metabolic heat production, sweating, skin temperatures, deep body temperature, and behavioral responses by which the monkeys selected a preferred environmental temperature. Results showed no alteration of metabolic rate, internal body temperature, or thermoregulatory behavior by microwave exposure although the ambient temperature prevailing during chronic exposure could exert an effect. An increase in sweating rate occurred in the 35 C environment, not enhanced significantly by microwave exposure. Skin temperature, reflecting vasomotor state, was reliably influenced by both ambient temperature and microwaves. The most robust consequence of microwave exposure was a reduction in body mass which appeared to be a function of microwave power density.

  19. Separating physical and biological controls on long-term evapotranspiration fluctuations in a tropical deciduous forest subjected to monsoonal rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Yasunori; Katul, Gabriel G.; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Yoshifuji, Natsuko; Sato, Takanori; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Katsunori; Fujinami, Hatsuki; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tantasirin, Chatchai

    2015-07-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), especially in the mainland of the Indochina Peninsula, can impact and is impacted by the Asian monsoonal (AM) system, thereby prompting interest in its long-term variability. To separate the physical and biological factors controlling ET variability in a tropical deciduous forest under the AM influence, 7 year eddy covariance and ancillary measurements were collected and analyzed. The 7 year mean rainfall (Pr) and ET along with their standard deviations were 1335 ± 256 and 977 ± 108 mm (about 73% of Pr), respectively, suggesting close coupling between these two hydrologic fluxes. However, other physical and biological drivers decouple seasonal and annual variations of ET from Pr. To explore them, a big-leaf model complemented by perturbation analysis was employed. The big-leaf model agreed well with the measured ET at daily to multiyear time scales, lending confidence in its ability to separate biological and physical controls on ET. Using this formulation, both first-order and second-order Taylor series expansions of the total ET derivatives were applied to the big-leaf model and compared with measured changes in ET (dET). Higher-order and joint terms in the second-order expansion were necessary for matching measured and analyzed dET. Vapor pressure deficit (D) was the primary external physical controlling driver of ET. Leaf area index (LAI) and bulk stomatal conductance (gs) were shown to be the main significant biological drivers of the transpiration component of ET. It can be surmised that rainfall variability controls long-term ET through physical (mainly D) and biological (mainly LAI and gs) factors in this ecosystem.

  20. Mice genetically inactivated in interleukin-17A receptor are defective in long-term control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Freches, Danielle; Korf, Hannelie; Denis, Olivier; Havaux, Xavier; Huygen, Kris; Romano, Marta

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), a pro-inflammatory cytokine acting on neutrophil recruitment, is known to play an important role during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but the role of IL-17A receptor signalling in immune defence against this intracellular pathogen remains poorly documented. Here we have analysed this signalling using C57BL/6 mice genetically inactivated in the IL-17 receptor A subunit (IL-17RA(-/-) ). Although early after infection bacterial growth was controlled to the same extent as in wild-type mice, IL-17RA(-/-) mice were defective in exerting long-term control of M. tuberculosis infection, as demonstrated by a progressively increasing pulmonary bacterial burden and shortened survival time. Compared with infected wild-type mice, IL-17RA(-/-) mice showed impaired recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs at the early but not the late stage of infection. Pulmonary tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-6 and particularly IL-10 levels were decreased in the absence of IL-17RA signalling, whereas IL-1β was increased. CD4(+) -mediated and γδ-mediated IL-17A production was dramatically increased in IL-17RA(-/-) mice (confirming part of their phenotype), whereas production of interferon-γ and expression of the bactericidal enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase were not affected. Collectively, our data suggest that early but not late neutrophil recruitment is essential for IL-17A-mediated long-term control of M. tuberculosis infection and that a functional interferon-γ response is not sufficient to control M. tuberculosis growth when the IL-17RA pathway is deficient. As treatment of auto-immune diseases with anti-IL-17A antibodies is actually being tested in clinical studies, our data suggest that caution should be taken with respect to possible reactivation of tuberculosis.

  1. The role of genetic factors and kidney and liver function in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients on long-term metformin and sulphonylurea cotreatment.

    PubMed

    Klen, Jasna; Goričar, Katja; Janež, Andrej; Dolžan, Vita

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms of metformin transporters on long-term glycemic control and lipid status in type 2 diabetes patients in the everyday clinical setting. In total 135 patients treated with combination of metformin and sulphonylurea for at least 6 months were genotyped for SLC22A1 rs628031 and SLC47A1 rs2289669 polymorphisms. Relatively good blood glucose control with median HbA1c 6.9 (6.4-7.6) % was achieved on prescribed metformin dosage of 2550 (2000-2550) mg per day. Only 28 (20.7%) patients experienced mild hypoglycemia events, while no severe hypoglycemia events were observed. Most patients had normal or mildly impaired renal function. Parameters indicating renal function were not correlated with fasting glucose, HbA1c, or lipid parameters. Rs628031 and rs2289669 had minor allele frequencies of 0.385 and 0.355, respectively, and were not associated with HbA1c levels. Rs628031 was marginally associated with risk for hypoglycemia events (P = 0.046; OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99), while significant correlation was observed between rs2289669 and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.018). In conclusion, in patients on long-term metformin and sulphonylurea combination treatment, metformin transporters polymorphisms do not play a major role in glycemic control; however, they may influence lipid status.

  2. The Role of Genetic Factors and Kidney and Liver Function in Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients on Long-Term Metformin and Sulphonylurea Cotreatment

    PubMed Central

    Klen, Jasna; Janež, Andrej; Dolžan, Vita

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms of metformin transporters on long-term glycemic control and lipid status in type 2 diabetes patients in the everyday clinical setting. In total 135 patients treated with combination of metformin and sulphonylurea for at least 6 months were genotyped for SLC22A1 rs628031 and SLC47A1 rs2289669 polymorphisms. Relatively good blood glucose control with median HbA1c 6.9 (6.4–7.6) % was achieved on prescribed metformin dosage of 2550 (2000–2550) mg per day. Only 28 (20.7%) patients experienced mild hypoglycemia events, while no severe hypoglycemia events were observed. Most patients had normal or mildly impaired renal function. Parameters indicating renal function were not correlated with fasting glucose, HbA1c, or lipid parameters. Rs628031 and rs2289669 had minor allele frequencies of 0.385 and 0.355, respectively, and were not associated with HbA1c levels. Rs628031 was marginally associated with risk for hypoglycemia events (P = 0.046; OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26–0.99), while significant correlation was observed between rs2289669 and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.018). In conclusion, in patients on long-term metformin and sulphonylurea combination treatment, metformin transporters polymorphisms do not play a major role in glycemic control; however, they may influence lipid status. PMID:25025077

  3. A controlled trial of an intervention to increase resident choice in long-term care

    PubMed Central

    Schnelle, John F.; Rahman, Annie; Durkin, Daniel W.; Beuscher, Linda; Choi, Leena; Simmons, Sandra F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate an intervention to improve staff offers of choice to nursing home (NH) residents during morning care. Design A controlled trial with a delayed intervention design. Setting Four community, for-profit nursing homes. Participants A total of 169 long-stay NH residents who required staff assistance with morning care and were able to express their care preferences. Intervention Research staff held weekly training sessions with nurse aides (NAs) for 12 consecutive weeks focused on how to offer choice during four targeted morning care areas: when to get out of bed, when to get dressed/what to wear, incontinence care (changing and/or toileting), and where to dine. Training sessions consisted of brief video vignettes illustrating staff-resident interactions followed by weekly feedback about how often choice was being provided based on standardized observations of care conducted weekly by research staff. Measurements Research staff conducted standardized observations during a minimum of 4 consecutive morning hours per participant per week for 12-weeks of baseline and 12-weeks of intervention. Results There was a significant increase in the frequency that choice was offered for three of the four targeted morning care areas from baseline to intervention: (1) out of bed, 21% to 33% (p< .001); dressing, 20% to 32% (p< .001); incontinence care, 18% to 23%, (p< .014). Dining location (8% to 13%) was not significant. There was also a significant increase in the amount of NA staff time to provide care from baseline to intervention (8.01 ± 9.0 to 9.68 ± 9.9 minutes per person, p< .001). Conclusion A staff training intervention improved the frequency with which NAs offered choice during morning care but also required more time. Despite significant improvements, choice was still offered one-third or less of the time during morning care. PMID:23294967

  4. Long-term effects of an educational seminar on antibiotic prescribing by GPs: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Renard, Vincent; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Cazalens, Thierry; Veerabudun, Kalaivani; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence; Montagne, Olivier; Attali, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of outpatient antibiotic use remain observed in many European countries. Several studies have shown a strong relationship between antibiotic use and bacterial resistance. Aim To assess the long-term effect of a standardised educational seminar on antibiotic prescriptions by GPs. Design and setting Randomised controlled trial of 171 GPs (of 203 initially randomised) in France. Method GPs in the control group (n = 99) received no antibiotic prescription recommendation. Intervention group GPs (n = 72) attended an interactive seminar presenting evidence-based guidelines on antibiotic prescription for respiratory infections. The proportion of prescriptions containing an antibiotic in each group and related costs were compared to the baseline up to 30 months following the intervention. Data were obtained from the National Health Insurance System database. Results In the intervention group, 4–6 months after the intervention, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of prescriptions containing an antibiotic from 15.2 ± 5.4% to 12.3 ± 5.8% (−2.8% [95% CI = −3.8 to −1.9], P<0.001). By contrast, an increase was observed in controls from 15.3 ± 6.0 to 16.4 ± 6.7% (+1.1% [95% CI = +0.4 to +1.8], P<0.01), resulting in a between-group difference of 3.93% ([95% CI = 2.75 to 5.11], P<0.001). The between-group difference was maintained 30 months after intervention (1.99% [95% CI = 0.56 to 3.42], P<0.01). Persistence of the intervention effect over the entire study period was confirmed in a hierarchical multivariate analysis. Conclusion This randomised trial shows that a standardised and interactive educational seminar results in a long-term reduction in antibiotic prescribing and could justify a large-scale implementation of this intervention. PMID:23834882

  5. The Sodium Channel β4 Auxiliary Subunit Selectively Controls Long-Term Depression in Core Nucleus Accumbens Medium Spiny Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xincai; Saha, Sucharita; Gao, Guangping; Lasek, Amy W.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Guildford, Melissa; Tapper, Andrew R.; Martin, Gilles E.

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for generating the initial rapid depolarization of neuronal membrane potential during action potentials (APs) that enable cell-to-cell communication, the propagation of signals throughout the brain, and the induction of synaptic plasticity. Although all brain neurons express one or several variants coding for the core pore-forming sodium channel α subunit, the expression of the β (β1–4) auxiliary subunits varies greatly. Of particular interest is the β4 subunit, encoded by the Scn4b gene, that is highly expressed in dorsal and ventral (i.e., nucleus accumbens – NAc) striata compared to other brain regions, and that endows sodium channels with unique gating properties. However, its role on neuronal activity, synaptic plasticity, and behaviors related to drugs of abuse remains poorly understood. Combining whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with two-photon calcium imaging in Scn4b knockout (KO) and knockdown mice, we found that Scn4b altered the properties of APs in core accumbens medium spiny neurons (MSNs). These alterations are associated with a reduction of the probability of MSNs to evoke spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (tLTD) and a reduced ability of backpropagating APs to evoke dendritic calcium transients. In contrast, long-term potentiation (tLTP) remained unaffected. Interestingly, we also showed that amphetamine-induced locomotor activity was significantly reduced in male Scn4b KO mice compared to wild-type controls. Taken together, these data indicate that the Scn4b subunit selectively controls tLTD by modulating dendritic calcium transients evoked by backpropagating APs. PMID:28243192

  6. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of scalp psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Guenther, Lyn; Tan, Jerry; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Clobetasol propionate (CP) shampoo 0.05% is an efficacious and safe treatment for scalp psoriasis. The aim of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to determine if CP shampoo is suitable for long-term disease control. Participants with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis (global severity score [GSS] of 3 or 4 on a scale of 0 [clear] to 5 [very severe]) first received once daily CP shampoo treatment for up to 4 weeks. Responders were subsequently randomized to receive the CP shampoo or vehicle twice weekly maintenance regimen for up to 6 months. When relapse occurred (defined as GSS > 2), participants resumed once daily CP shampoo treatment; when symptoms diminished (GSS < or = 2), they readopted the twice weekly maintenance regimen. At all visits significantly more participants treated with CP shampoo did not relapse compared with participants treated with vehicle (P < .001). Only approximately one-third of participants treated with vehicle remained relapse free at 1 month, while this rate was observed approximately 3.5 months later (4.5 months after baseline of maintenance phase) in the CP shampoo group. After 6 months 31.1% (33/106) of participants in the CP shampoo group were still relapse free versus 8.1% (9/111) of participants in the vehicle group. There was no greater incidence of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in the CP shampoo group compared with the vehicle group. Clobetasol propionate shampoo is efficacious and safe for acute management and long-term maintenance of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  7. Long-term ecological consequences of herbicide treatment to control the invasive grass, Spartina anglica, in an Australian saltmarsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimeta, Jeff; Saint, Lynnette; Verspaandonk, Emily R.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Howe, Steffan

    2016-07-01

    Invasive plants acting as habitat modifiers in coastal wetlands can have extensive ecological impacts. Control of invasive plants often relies on herbicides, although little is known about subsequent environmental impacts. Studying effects of herbicides on non-target species and long-term cascading consequences may yield insights into the ecology of invasive species by revealing interactions with native species. We conducted a long-term field experiment measuring effects of treating the invasive saltmarsh grass, Spartina anglica, with the herbicide Fusilade Forte®. No changes in sedimentary macrofaunal abundances or species richness, diversity, or assemblages were detected 1-2 months after spraying, despite known toxicity of Fusilade Forte® to fauna. This lack of impact may have been due to low exposure, since the herbicide was taken up primarily by plant leaves, with the small amount that reached the sediment hydrolyzing rapidly. Six months after spraying, however, total macrofauna in treated plots was more than four times more abundant than in unsprayed control plots, due to a fifteen-fold increase in annelids. This population growth correlated with increased sedimentary organic matter in treated plots, likely due to decomposition of dead S. anglica leaves serving as food for annelids. After another year, no differences in macrofauna or organic matter remained between treatments. The indirect effect on annelid populations from herbicide treatment could benefit management efforts by providing greater food resources for wading birds, in addition to improving birds' access to sediments by reducing plant cover. This study shows that an invasive grass can have a significant impact on native fauna through food-web interactions, influenced by herbicide usage.

  8. Totomatix: a novel automatic set-up to control diurnal, diel and long-term plant nitrate nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Adamowicz, Stéphane; Le Bot, Jacques; Huanosto Magaña, Ruth; Fabre, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Stand-alone nutritional set-ups are useful tools to grow plants at defined nutrient availabilities and to measure nutrient uptake rates continuously, in particular that for nitrate. Their use is essential when the measurements are meant to cover long time periods. These complex systems have, however, important drawbacks, including poor long-term reliability and low precision at high nitrate concentration. This explains why the information dealing with diel dynamics of nitrate uptake rate is scarce and concerns mainly young plants grown at low nitrate concentration. Scope The novel system detailed in this paper has been developed to allow versatile use in growth rooms, greenhouses or open fields at nitrate concentrations ranging from a few micro- to several millimoles per litres. The system controls, at set frequencies, the solution nitrate concentration, pH and volumes. Nitrate concentration is measured by spectral deconvolution of UV spectra. The main advantages of the set-up are its low maintenance (weekly basis), an ability to diagnose interference or erroneous analyses and high precision of nitrate concentration measurements (0·025 % at 3 mm). The paper details the precision of diurnal nitrate uptake rate measurements, which reveals sensitivity to solution volume at low nitrate concentration, whereas at high concentration, it is mostly sensitive to the precision of volume estimates. Conclusions This novel set-up allows us to measure and characterize the dynamics of plant nitrate nutrition at high temporal resolution (minutes to hours) over long-term experiments (up to 1 year). It is reliable and also offers a novel method to regulate up to seven N treatments by adjusting the daily uptake of test plants relative to controls, in variable environments such as open fields and glasshouses. PMID:21985796

  9. Long-term complications in Estonian galactosemia patients with a less strict lactose-free diet and metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Krabbi, K; Uudelepp, M-L; Joost, K; Zordania, R; Õunap, K

    2011-07-01

    The main aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate long-term complications and measure urinary galactose and galactitol excretion in classical galactosemia patients in Estonia who have been treated with a less restricted lactose-free diet and metabolic control. Our study group consisted of five classical galactosemia patients aged 7-14 years and diagnosed since 1996 in Estonia. Their diet eliminates lactose present in dairy foods, but we did not restrict the consumption of mature cheeses, fruits and vegetables. All patients had normal growth, except for one patient who was overweight at the last evaluation. In three patients mental and speech development was normal. One patient, number 1, who was diagnosed latest (at 6 weeks of age), had moderate mental retardation, verbal dyspraxia, extrapyramidal signs and bilateral cataracts. In both patients with developmental problems, a brain MRI showed bilateral subcortical changes in the cerebral white matter. Of four females, only patient 4 (p.Q188R homozygote) has premature ovarian insufficiency. Urinary galactose and galactitol content were retrospectively measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and refractive-index detection from urinary samples that were preserved during the years 1996-2009. Galactose ranged from 60 to 600 mmol/mol creatinine (normal=4-6), and galactitol ranged from 70 to 1200 mmol/mol creatinine (normal=2-4), which was 10-100 and 17-300 times higher than the respective reference ranges for galactose and galactitol. We conclude that a less strict lactose-free diet and metabolic control performed in Estonian classical galactosemia patients does not change long-term outcome compared to previously published studies.

  10. Long-term antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang; Teng, Monica; Khoo, Ai Leng; Soh, Lay Beng; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Lim, Boon Peng; Sim, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Background For treatment of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, comparative long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs to reduce relapses when minimising adverse effects is of clinical interest, hence prompting this review. Aims To evaluate the comparative long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs. Method We systematically searched electronic databases for reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotic monotherapy aimed at reducing relapse risks in schizophrenia. We conducted network meta-analysis of 18 antipsychotics and placebo. Results Studies of 10 177 patients in 56 reports were included; treatment duration averaged 48 weeks (range 4–156). Olanzapine was significantly more effective than chlorpromazine (odds ratio (OR) 0.35, 95% CI 0.14–0.88) or haloperidol (OR=0.50, 95% CI 0.30–0.82); and fluphenazine decanoate was more effective than chlorpromazine (OR=0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.88) in relapse reduction. Fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol, haloperidol decanoate and trifluoperazine produced more extrapyramidal adverse effects than olanzapine or quetiapine; and olanzapine was associated with more weight gain than other agents. Conclusions Except for apparent superiority of olanzapine and fluphenazine decanoate over chlorpromazine, most agents showed intermediate efficacy for relapse prevention and differences among them were minor. Typical antipsychotics yielded adverse neurological effects, and olanzapine was associated with weight gain. The findings may contribute to evidence-based treatment selection for patients with chronic psychotic disorders. Declaration of interest R.J.B. received grants from the Bruce J. Anderson Foundation and the McLean Private Donors Psychopharmacology Research Fund. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703755

  11. LONG-TERM STABILITY OF THE LOCAL GROUND CONTROL NETWORK AT THE CO-LOCATION SITE OF MEDICINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, C.; Sarti, P.; Legrand, J.

    2009-12-01

    ITRF combinations rely on the availability of accurate tie vectors linking reference points of space geodetic techniques. Co-located instruments are assumed to move consistently and no local relative motion is taken into account. Instabilities may degrade the quality of the co-location itself and perturb the result of ITRF combinations. This work aims to determine the stability of the local ground control network at Medicina (Italy) with independent surveying methods. The observatory hosts a co-location between a VLBI telescope and two GPS antennas, MEDI and MSEL. It is located in the Po Plain where thick layers of clays are the prevalent soil characteristics. Hence, provision of long term stability of geodetic monuments is a challenge and monitoring their stability is an issue. MEDI and the VLBI station regularly contribute to the determination of ITRF, while MSEL is part of the EUREF network. A set of five tie vectors observations linking the VLBI and MEDI reference points was acquired between 2001 and 2007. It is our main tool for performing local deformation analysis. Additionally, the GPS time series of MEDI and MSEL were used to cross check and confirm the local instability detected by terrestrial methods. To achieve a rigorous and reliable investigation of the local stability, multi-epoch terrestrial observations were homogeneously processed according to common parameterizations in a consistent reference frame. Similarly, continuous GPS observations from MEDI and MSEL were analysed according to the new EPN reprocessing strategy in order to monitor the short baseline between MEDI and MSEL; to spotlight any change in its length. Both approaches confirm differential motions at the site which can be related to monument instabilities originated by the particularly unfavourable local geological setting and the inapt design of the monuments foundation. The monuments move non homogeneously at rates reaching up to 1.6 mm/year, this value being comparable to intra

  12. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.

  13. Behavioral and electrophysiological auditory processing measures in traumatic brain injury after acoustically controlled auditory training: a long-term study

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Carolina Calsolari; de Andrade, Adriana Neves; Marangoni-Castan, Andréa Tortosa; Gil, Daniela; Suriano, Italo Capraro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the long-term efficacy of acoustically controlled auditory training in adults after tarumatic brain injury. Methods A total of six audioogically normal individuals aged between 20 and 37 years were studied. They suffered severe traumatic brain injury with diffuse axional lesion and underwent an acoustically controlled auditory training program approximately one year before. The results obtained in the behavioral and electrophysiological evaluation of auditory processing immediately after acoustically controlled auditory training were compared to reassessment findings, one year later. Results Quantitative analysis of auditory brainsteim response showed increased absolute latency of all waves and interpeak intervals, bilaterraly, when comparing both evaluations. Moreover, increased amplitude of all waves, and the wave V amplitude was statistically significant for the right ear, and wave III for the left ear. As to P3, decreased latency and increased amplitude were found for both ears in reassessment. The previous and current behavioral assessment showed similar results, except for the staggered spondaic words in the left ear and the amount of errors on the dichotic consonant-vowel test. Conclusion The acoustically controlled auditory training was effective in the long run, since better latency and amplitude results were observed in the electrophysiological evaluation, in addition to stability of behavioral measures after one-year training. PMID:26676270

  14. The effects of long-term noninvasive ventilation in hypercapnic COPD patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    De Backer, L; Vos, W; Dieriks, B; Daems, D; Verhulst, S; Vinchurkar, S; Ides, K; De Backer, J; Germonpre, P; De Backer, W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a well-established treatment for acute-on- chronic respiratory failure in hypercapnic COPD patients. Less is known about the effects of a long-term treatment with NIV in hypercapnic COPD patients and about the factors that may predict response in terms of improved oxygenation and lowered CO2 retention. Methods In this study, we randomized 15 patients to a routine pharmacological treatment (n = 5, age 66 [standard deviation ± 6] years, FEV1 30.5 [±5.1] %pred, PaO2 65 [±6] mmHg, PaCO2 52.4 [±6.0] mmHg) or to a routine treatment and NIV (using the Synchrony BiPAP device [Respironics, Inc, Murrsville, PA]) (n = 10, age 65 [±7] years, FEV1 29.5 [±9.0] %pred, PaO2 59 [±13] mmHg, PaCO2 55.4 [±7.7] mmHg) for 6 months. We looked at arterial blood gasses, lung function parameters and performed a low-dose computed tomography of the thorax, which was later used for segmentation (providing lobe and airway volumes, iVlobe and iVaw) and post-processing with computer methods (providing airway resistance, iRaw) giving overall a functional image of the separate airways and lobes. Results In both groups there was a nonsignificant change in FEV1 (NIV group 29.5 [9.0] to 38.5 [14.6] %pred, control group 30.5 [5.1] to 36.8 [8.7] mmHg). PaCO2 dropped significantly only in the NIV group (NIV: 55.4 [7.7] → 44.5 [4.70], P = 0.0076; control: 52.4 [6.0] → 47.6 [8.2], NS). Patients actively treated with NIV developed a more inhomogeneous redistribution of mass flow than control patients. Subsequent analysis indicated that in NIV-treated patients that improve their blood gases, mass flow was also redistributed towards areas with higher vessel density and less emphysema, indicating that flow was redistributed towards areas with better perfusion. There was a highly significant correlation between the % increase in mass flow towards lobes with a blood vessel density of >9% and the increase in PaO2. Improved ventilation–perfusion match and

  15. Impact of weed control on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical agroecosystem: a long-term experiment.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zapata, José A; Marrufo-Zapata, Denis; Guadarrama, Patricia; Carrillo-Sánchez, Lilia; Hernández-Cuevas, Laura; Caamal-Maldonado, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    Cover crop species represent an affordable and effective weed control method in agroecosystems; nonetheless, the effect of its use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been scantily studied. The goal of this study was to determine root colonization levels and AMF species richness in the rhizosphere of maize plants and weed species growing under different cover crop and weed control regimes in a long-term experiment. The treatment levels used were (1) cover of Mucuna deeringian (Muc), (2) "mulch" of Leucaena leucocephala (Leu), (3) "mulch" of Lysiloma latisiliquum (Lys), (4) herbicide (Her), (5) manual weeding (CD), (6) no weeding (SD), and (7) no maize and no weeding (B). A total of 18 species of AMF belonging to eight genera (Acaulospora, Ambispora, Claroideoglomus, Funneliformis, Glomus, Rhizophagus, Sclerocystis, and Scutellospora) were identified from trap cultures. Muc and Lys treatments had a positive impact on AMF species richness (11 and seven species, respectively), while Leu and B treatments on the other hand gave the lowest richness values (six species each). AMF colonization levels in roots of maize and weeds differed significantly between treatment levels. Overall, the use of cover crop species had a positive impact on AMF species richness as well as on the percentage of root colonized by AMF. These findings have important implications for the management of traditional agroecosystems and show that the use of cover crop species for weed control can result in a more diverse AMF community which should potentially increase crop production in the long run.

  16. Implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in China: An arduous and long-term task.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dan; Bai, Chun-Xue; Chen, Zheng-Ming; Wang, Chen

    2015-09-01

    China is the largest producer and consumer of tobacco in the world. Consequently, the burden of tobacco-related diseases in China is enormous. Implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) may lead to a significant reduction in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality both in China and globally. In this review, the authors summarize the epidemic of tobacco use and the progress made in implementing the WHO FCTC, including the promotion of legislation for smoke-free public places; smoking-cessation assistance; labeling of tobacco packaging; enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; increased taxes on tobacco products; increased tobacco prices; improvements in public awareness of the dangers of smoking; and identifying the barriers to implementing effective tobacco-control measures in China. Since the WHO FCTC officially took effect in China on January 9, 2006, China has taken some important steps, especially in promoting legislation for smoke-free public places. Because tobacco permeates the fabric of society, business, commerce, and politics in China, commitments and actions from the government are crucial, and implementing the WHO FCTC in China will be an arduous and long-term task.

  17. User adaptation in long-term, open-loop myoelectric training: implications for EMG pattern recognition in prosthesis control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiayuan; Zhang, Dingguo; Jiang, Ning; Sheng, Xinjun; Farina, Dario; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recent studies have reported that the classification performance of electromyographic (EMG) signals degrades over time without proper classification retraining. This problem is relevant for the applications of EMG pattern recognition in the control of active prostheses. Approach. In this study we investigated the changes in EMG classification performance over 11 consecutive days in eight able-bodied subjects and two amputees. Main results. It was observed that, when the classifier was trained on data from one day and tested on data from the following day, the classification error decreased exponentially but plateaued after four days for able-bodied subjects and six to nine days for amputees. The between-day performance became gradually closer to the corresponding within-day performance. Significance. These results indicate that the relative changes in EMG signal features over time become progressively smaller when the number of days during which the subjects perform the pre-defined motions are increased. The performance of the motor tasks is thus more consistent over time, resulting in more repeatable EMG patterns, even if the subjects do not have any external feedback on their performance. The learning curves for both able-bodied subjects and subjects with limb deficiencies could be modeled as an exponential function. These results provide important insights into the user adaptation characteristics during practical long-term myoelectric control applications, with implications for the design of an adaptive pattern recognition system.

  18. The Importance of Long-Term Social Research in Enabling Participation and Developing Engagement Strategies for New Dengue Control Technologies

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, new strategies aimed at reducing the capacity of mosquito vectors to transmit dengue fever have emerged. As with earlier control methods, they will have to be employed in a diverse range of communities across the globe and into the main settings for disease transmission, the homes, businesses and public buildings of residents in dengue-affected areas. However, these strategies are notably different from previous methods and draw on technologies that are not without controversy. Public engagement and authorization are critical to the future success of these programs. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper reports on an Australian case study where long-term social research was used to enable participation and the design of an engagement strategy tailored specifically to the sociopolitical setting of a potential trial release site of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegytpi mosquitoes. Central themes of the social research, methods used and conclusions drawn are briefly described. Results indicate that different communities are likely to have divergent expectations, concerns and cultural sensibilities with regard to participation, engagement and authorization. Conclusions/Significance The findings show that a range of issues need to be understood and taken into account to enable sensitive, ethical and effective engagement when seeking public support for new dengue control methods. PMID:22953011

  19. Long-term financing needs for HIV control in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015–2050: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Atun, Rifat; Chang, Angela Y; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Silva, Sachin; Resch, Stephen; Hontelez, Jan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the present value of current and future funding needed for HIV treatment and prevention in 9 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries that account for 70% of HIV burden in Africa under different scenarios of intervention scale-up. To analyse the gaps between current expenditures and funding obligation, and discuss the policy implications of future financing needs. Design We used the Goals module from Spectrum, and applied the most up-to-date cost and coverage data to provide a range of estimates for future financing obligations. The four different scale-up scenarios vary by treatment initiation threshold and service coverage level. We compared the model projections to current domestic and international financial sources available in selected SSA countries. Results In the 9 SSA countries, the estimated resources required for HIV prevention and treatment in 2015–2050 range from US$98 billion to maintain current coverage levels for treatment and prevention with eligibility for treatment initiation at CD4 count of <500/mm3 to US$261 billion if treatment were to be extended to all HIV-positive individuals and prevention scaled up. With the addition of new funding obligations for HIV—which arise implicitly through commitment to achieve higher than current treatment coverage levels—overall financial obligations (sum of debt levels and the present value of the stock of future HIV funding obligations) would rise substantially. Conclusions Investing upfront in scale-up of HIV services to achieve high coverage levels will reduce HIV incidence, prevention and future treatment expenditures by realising long-term preventive effects of ART to reduce HIV transmission. Future obligations are too substantial for most SSA countries to be met from domestic sources alone. New sources of funding, in addition to domestic sources, include innovative financing. Debt sustainability for sustained HIV response is an urgent imperative for affected countries and donors

  20. Effects of Long-Term Exercise Interventions on Glycaemic Control in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Röhling, M; Herder, C; Roden, M; Stemper, T; Müssig, K

    2016-09-01

    Aim: Physical activity is one of the cornerstones in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus, but the effects of different training forms on metabolic control still remain unclear. The aims of this review are to summarize the recommendations of 5 selected diabetes associations and to systematically review the effects of long-term supervised exercise interventions without calorie-restriction on glycemic control in people with type 1 and 2 diabetes focusing on resistance, endurance and combined training consisting of both endurance and resistance training. Methods: Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE for articles published between January 1, 2000 and March 17, 2015. Of 76 articles retrieved, 15 randomized and controlled studies met the inclusion criteria and allowed for examining the effect of exercise training in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Results: Diabetes associations recommend volume-focused exercise in their guidelines. In our analysis, all 3 training forms have the potential to improve the glycemic control, as assessed by HbA1c (absolute changes in HbA1c ranging from -0.1% to -1.1% (-1.1 to -12 mmol/mol) in resistance training, from -0.2% to -1.6% (-2.2 to -17.5 mmol/mol) in endurance training and from +0.1% to -1.5% (+1.1 to -16.4 mmol/mol) in combined training, respectively). Conclusions: There is evidence that combined exercise training may improve glycemic control to a greater extent than single forms of exercise, especially under moderate-intensive training conditions with equal training durations. In addition, intensity of training appears to be an important determinant of the degree of metabolic improvement. Nonetheless, it is still unknown to what extent exercise effects glycemic homeostasis.

  1. Capsaicin-sensitive C- and A-fibre nociceptors control long-term potentiation-like pain amplification in humans.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Florian; Magerl, Walter; Klein, Thomas; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2015-09-01

    Long-term potentiation in the spinal dorsal horn requires peptidergic C-fibre activation in animals. Perceptual correlates of long-term potentiation following high-frequency electrical stimulation in humans include increased sensitivity to electrical stimuli at the high frequency stimulation site (homotopic pain-long-term potentiation) and increased sensitivity to pinprick surrounding the high frequency stimulation site (heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation, equivalent to secondary hyperalgaesia). To characterize the peripheral fibre populations involved in induction of pain-long-term potentiation, we performed two selective nerve block experiments in 30 healthy male volunteers. Functional blockade of TRPV1-positive nociceptors by high-concentration capsaicin (verified by loss of heat pain) significantly reduced pain ratings to high frequency stimulation by 47% (P < 0.001), homotopic pain-long-term potentiation by 71% (P < 0.01), heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation by 92% (P < 0.001) and the area of secondary hyperalgesia by 76% (P < 0.001). The selective blockade of A-fibre conduction by nerve compression (verified by loss of first pain to pinprick) significantly reduced pain ratings to high frequency stimulation by 37% (P < 0.01), but not homotopic pain-long-term potentiation (-5%). It had a marginal effect on heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation (-35%, P = 0.059), while the area of secondary hyperalgesia remained unchanged (-2%, P = 0.88). In conclusion, all nociceptor subclasses contribute to high frequency stimulation-induced pain (with a relative contribution of C > Aδ fibres, and an equal contribution of TRPV1-positive and TRPV1-negative fibres). TRPV1-positive C-fibres are the main inducers of both homotopic and heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation. TRPV1-positive A-fibres contribute substantially to the induction of heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation. TRPV1-negative C-fibres induce a component of homotopic self-facilitation but not

  2. Long-term field trial to control the invasive Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with synthetic trail pheromone.

    PubMed

    Nishisue, K; Sunamura, E; Tanaka, Y; Sakamoto, H; Suzuki, S; Fukumoto, T; Terayama, M; Tatsuki, S

    2010-10-01

    Previous short-term experiments showed that trail following behavior of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), can be disrupted by a high concentration of synthetic trail pheromone component (Z)-9-hexadecenal. In this study, a long-term field trial was conducted in 100-m2 plots of house gardens in an urban area of Japan to see whether the control effect on Argentine ants can be obtained by permeating synthetic trail pheromone from dispensers. The dispensers were placed in the experimental plots during the ant's active season (April-November) for 2 yr with monthly renewal. To estimate Argentine ant population density, foraging activity of Argentine ants in the study plots was monitored by monthly bait surveys. Throughout the study period, Argentine ant foraging activity was suppressed in the presence of the dispensers, presumably via trail forming inhibition. In contrast, the level of foraging activity was not different between treatment and no-treatment plots when the dispensers were temporarily removed, suggesting that treatment with pheromone dispensers did not suppress Argentine ant density in the treatment plots. Population decline may be expected with larger-scale treatment that covers a significant portion of the ant colony or with improvement in the potency of the disruptant.

  3. Automated and temperature-controlled micro-PIV measurements enabling long-term-stable microchannel acoustophoresis characterization.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, Per; Barnkob, Rune; Wereley, Steven T; Bruus, Henrik; Laurell, Thomas

    2011-12-21

    We present a platform for micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV), capable of carrying out full-channel, temperature-controlled, long-term-stable, and automated μPIV-measurement of microchannel acoustophoresis with uncertainties below 5% and a spatial resolution in the order of 20 μm. A method to determine optimal μPIV-settings for obtaining high-quality results of the spatially inhomogeneous acoustophoretic velocity fields of large dynamical range is presented. In particular we study the dependence of the results on the μPIV interrogation window size and the number of repeated experiments. The μPIV-method was further verified by comparing it with our previously published particle tracking method. Using the μPIV platform we present a series of high-resolution measurements of the acoustophoretic velocity field as a function of the driving frequency, the driving voltage, and the resonator temperature. Finally, we establish a direct and consistent connection between the obtained acoustophoretic velocity fields, and continuous flow mode acoustophoresis, commonly used in applications.

  4. Long-term fertility control in female cats with GonaCon™, a GnRH immunocontraceptive.

    PubMed

    Levy, Julie K; Friary, John A; Miller, Lowell A; Tucker, Sylvia J; Fagerstone, Kathleen A

    2011-11-01

    The uncontrolled reproduction of free-roaming feral cats contributes to overpopulation and associated concerns regarding their welfare and impact on public health and the environment. Nonsurgical fertility control that could be administered to feral cats in the field would be a powerful tool for cat population control. The objective was to test the efficacy and duration of activity of a single-dose GnRH immunocontraceptive vaccine (GonaCon™) on the fertility of adult female laboratory cats. Vaccinated cats (n = 15) received a single injection of vaccine containing a GnRH-KLH conjugate (200 μg) emulsified in a mycobacterial and oil adjuvant on study Day 0. Sham-treated cats (n = 5) received a single injection containing all vaccine components except the GnRH-KLH conjugate. A breeding trial started on study Day 120. Vaccinated cats had a longer time to conception (median 39.7 mo) compared to sham-treated cats (4.4 mo; P < 0.001). A total of 93% of vaccinated cats remained infertile for the first year following vaccination, whereas 73, 53, and 40% were infertile for 2, 3, and 4 y, respectively. At study termination (5 y after a single GnRH vaccine was administered), four cats (27%) remained infertile. The GnRH antibody titers declined more rapidly in short-term responding cats with < 2 y of infertility (n = 4), compared to long-term responding cats that experienced fertility control for >2 y (n = 11) (P < 0.05). Non-painful but persistent late-onset granulomatous injection site masses appeared 2 y after initial vaccination in five cats. We concluded that GnRH immunocontraception is an ideal candidate for further development for feral cat control.

  5. Long-term effects of self-control on alcohol use and sexual behavior among urban minority young women.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Kenneth W; Scheier, Lawrence M; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2012-01-01

    High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors.

  6. Wearing shoes increasing dorsiflexion improves short-term but not long-term balance control in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rougier, P R; Lachaume, F; Bourse, J; Rogeon, M; Monti, A; Regueme, S C

    2009-10-16

    Wearing sport shoes inducing ankle dorsiflexion has been shown to alter the biomechanical specificities of the stretched muscles. The possible effect over the short and long term upon the sensorial capacities induced by such stretching has not been addressed yet. Fourteen healthy individuals were involved to assess the proprioceptive repercussion and their effects upon postural control strategies. Postural control and proprioceptive assessment were measured twice: when receiving sport shoes inducing ankle dorsiflexion and 18 days later. Proprioceptive effects were assessed using an ad-hoc device through which the seated and blindfolded subjects were required to reposition their feet in a starting position after the ankles were passively displaced to dorsiflexed and plantarflexed positions. Center-of-gravity horizontal displacements (CG(v)), estimated from center-of-pressure (CP) displacements, and CP-CG(v) displacements were measured through a force platform during upright quiet stance maintenance. The initial session was recorded with the subjects barefoot and wearing the shoes with a set of chocks with 0 degrees (horizontal) and -5 degrees (dorsiflexion) tilting angles. The second session included only barefoot performance in horizontal and dorsiflexion conditions. Dorsiflexion had no immediate effect on the postural control strategies along the anteroposterior axis. In contrast, barefoot or wearing shoes, stability was increased along the mediolateral axis during the dorsiflexion conditions. No ankle proprioceptive or postural change was observed after wearing the shoes for 18 days. Wearing dorsiflexion sport shoes induces short-term effects probably by inducing a backward tilt of the pelvis. A muscular adaptation likely prevents this effect from being prolonged.

  7. Mixing-controlled uncertainty in long-term predictions of acid rock drainage from heterogeneous waste-rock piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedretti, D.; Beckie, R. D.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    The chemistry of drainage from waste-rock piles at mine sites is difficult to predict because of a number of uncertainties including heterogeneous reactive mineral content, distribution of minerals, weathering rates and physical flow properties. In this presentation, we examine the effects of mixing on drainage chemistry over timescales of 100s of years. We use a 1-D streamtube conceptualization of flow in waste rocks and multicomponent reactive transport modeling. We simplify the reactive system to consist of acid-producing sulfide minerals and acid-neutralizing carbonate minerals and secondary sulfate and iron oxide minerals. We create multiple realizations of waste-rock piles with distinct distributions of reactive minerals along each flow path and examine the uncertainty of drainage geochemistry through time. The limited mixing of streamtubes that is characteristic of the vertical unsaturated flow in many waste-rock piles, allows individual flowpaths to sustain acid or neutral conditions to the base of the pile, where the streamtubes mix. Consequently, mixing and the acidity/alkalinity balance of the streamtube waters, and not the overall acid- and base-producing mineral contents, control the instantaneous discharge chemistry. Our results show that the limited mixing implied by preferential flow and the heterogeneous distribution of mineral contents lead to large uncertainty in drainage chemistry over short and medium time scales. However, over longer timescales when one of either the acid-producing or neutralizing primary phases is depleted, the drainage chemistry becomes less controlled by mixing and in turn less uncertain. A correct understanding of the temporal variability of uncertainty is key to make informed long-term decisions in mining settings regarding the management of waste material.

  8. Long-term sequential monitoring of controlled graves representing common burial scenarios with ground penetrating radar: Years 2 and 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, John J.; Walter, Brittany S.; Healy, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Geophysical techniques such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been successfully used for forensic searches to locate clandestine graves and physical evidence. However, additional controlled research is needed to fully understand the applicability of this technology when searching for clandestine graves in various environments, soil types, and for longer periods of time post-burial. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of GPR for detecting controlled graves in a Spodosol representing multiple burial scenarios for Years 2 and 3 of a three-year monitoring period. Objectives included determining how different burial scenarios are factors in producing a distinctive anomalous response; determining how different GPR imagery options (2D reflection profiles and horizontal time slices) can provide increased visibility of the burials; and comparing GPR imagery between 500 MHz and 250 MHz dominant frequency antennae. The research site contained a grid with eight graves representing common forensic burial scenarios in a Spodosol, a common soil type of Florida, with six graves containing a pig carcass (Sus scrofa). Burial scenarios with grave items (a deep grave with a layer of rocks over the carcass and a carcass wrapped in a tarpaulin) produced a more distinctive response with clearer target reflections over the duration of the monitoring period compared to naked carcasses. Months with increased precipitation were also found to produce clearer target reflections than drier months, particularly during Year 3 when many grave scenarios that were not previously visible became visible after increased seasonal rainfall. Overall, the 250 MHz dominant frequency antenna imagery was more favorable than the 500 MHz. While detection of a simulated grave may be difficult to detect over time, long term detection of a grave in a Spodosol may be possible if the disturbed spodic horizon is detected. Furthermore, while grave visibility increased with the 2D

  9. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of long-term selenium supplementation on plasma cholesterol in an elderly Danish population.

    PubMed

    Cold, Frederik; Winther, Kristian H; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rayman, Margaret P; Guallar, Eliseo; Nybo, Mads; Griffin, Bruce A; Stranges, Saverio; Cold, Søren

    2015-12-14

    Although cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between Se and cholesterol concentrations, a recent randomised controlled trial in 501 elderly UK individuals of relatively low-Se status found that Se supplementation for 6 months lowered total plasma cholesterol. The Danish PRECISE (PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with Selenium) pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01819649) was a 5-year randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with four groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1:1). Men and women aged 60-74 years (n 491) were randomised to 100 (n 124), 200 (n 122) or 300 (n 119) μg Se-enriched yeast or matching placebo-yeast tablets (n 126) daily for 5 years. A total of 468 participants continued the study for 6 months and 361 participants, equally distributed across treatment groups, continued for 5 years. Plasma samples were analysed for total and HDL-cholesterol and for total Se concentrations at baseline, 6 months and 5 years. The effect of different doses of Se supplementation on plasma lipid and Se concentrations was estimated by using linear mixed models. Plasma Se concentration increased significantly and dose-dependently in the intervention groups after 6 months and 5 years. Total cholesterol decreased significantly both in the intervention groups and in the placebo group after 6 months and 5 years, with small and nonsignificant differences in changes in plasma concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and total:HDL-cholesterol ratio between intervention and placebo groups. The effect of long-term supplementation with Se on plasma cholesterol concentrations or its sub-fractions did not differ significantly from placebo in this elderly population.

  10. Geomagnetic control of the midlatitude daytime foF1 and foF2 long-term variations: Physical interpretation using European observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Perrone, L.

    2016-07-01

    Morphological analysis of Slough/Chilton and Juliusruh foF2 and foF1 long-term variations for the period including recent observations made in the previous paper (PM) has shown that the geomagnetic control is valid in the 21st century, moreover, the dependence on geomagnetic activity has become more pronounced and explicit after 1990. A new method to retrieve thermospheric neutral composition (O, O2, and N2), exospheric temperature Tex, and the total solar EUV flux with λ < 1050 Å from routine foF1 ionosonde observations has been developed to understand the mechanism of this geomagnetic control. The method was tested using CHAMP/STAR neutral gas density measurements. The retrieved for the first time thermospheric parameters at Slough/Chilton and Juliusruh over the period of ~ 5 solar cycles were used to analyze the mechanism of foF1 and foF2 long-term variations in the light of the geomagnetic control concept. It was shown that the control was provided via two channels: [O] and [O]/[N2] variations. Geomagnetic activity presented by 11 year running mean weighted index Ap11y controls the (O/N2)11y ratio variations, while solar activity presented by (F10.7)11y controls atomic oxygen [O]11y variations. Atomic oxygen, the main aeronomic parameter controlling daytime foF1 and foF2 variations, manifests solar cycle and long-term (for some solar cycles) variations with the rising phase in 1965-1985 and the falling phase in 1985-2008. These long-term [O] variations are reflected in foF2 and foF1 long-term variations. The origin of these long-term variations is in the Sun. The empirical thermospheric model Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter-86 driven by Ap and F10.7 indices manifests [O]11y and (O/N2 )11y variations similar to the retrieved ones including the period of deep solar minimum with a very low atomic oxygen concentration in 2008. This confirms the basic idea of the geomagnetic control concept that ionospheric long-term variations have a natural (not

  11. Acute and long-term dysphagia in critically ill patients with severe sepsis: results of a prospective controlled observational study.

    PubMed

    Zielske, Joerg; Bohne, Silvia; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Axer, Hubertus; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-11-01

    Dysphagia is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Structured otorhinolaryngological data on dysphagia in ICU survivors with severe sepsis are missing. In a prospective study, 30 ICU patients with severe sepsis and thirty without sepsis as control group were examined using bedside fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing after 14 days in the ICU (T1) and 4 months after onset of critical illness (T2). Swallowing dysfunction was assessed using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). The Functional Oral Intake Scale was applied to evaluate the diet needed. Primary endpoint was the burden of dysphagia defined as PAS score >5. At T1, 19 of 30 severe sepsis patients showed aspiration with a PAS score >5, compared to 7 of 30 in critically ill patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.002). Severe sepsis and tracheostomy were independent risk factors for severe dysphagia with aspiration (PAS > 5) at T1 (p = 0.042 and 0.006, respectively). 4-month mortality (T2) was 57 % in severe sepsis patients compared to 20 % in patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.006). At T2, more severe sepsis survivors were tracheostomy-dependent and needed more often tube or parenteral feeding (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed tracheostomy at T1 as independent risk factor for severe dysphagia at T2 (p = 0.030). Severe sepsis appears to be a relevant risk factor for long-term dysphagia. An otorhinolaryngological evaluation of dysphagia at ICU discharge is mandatory for survivors of severe critical illness to plan specific swallowing rehabilitation programs.

  12. A controlled study of the short- and long-term effects of a Train the Trainers course.

    PubMed

    Rubak, Sune; Mortensen, Lene; Ringsted, Charlotte; Malling, Bente

    2008-07-01

    Objectives This study aimed to establish the longterm effects of a 3-day 'Training for Trainers' course (TTC) on doctors' knowledge, teaching behaviour and clinical learning climate. Methods The study was designed as an intervention study with pre-, post- and long-term measurements. The intervention group (I-group) included 118 doctors from the departments of internal medicine and orthopaedic surgery at one university hospital. The control group (C-group) consisted of 125 doctors from the corresponding departments at another university hospital. Gains in knowledge about teaching skills were assessed by a written test. Teaching behaviour and learning climate were evaluated by questionnaires. Results In the I-group, 98.4% of doctors, both specialists and trainees, participated in a TTC. Response rates on the written test varied from 90% at baseline to 70% at 6 months after the intervention. Knowledge about teaching skills increased in the I-group by 25% after the TTC and was sustained at 6 months. Questionnaire response rates varied from 98.4% at baseline to 84.8% at 6 months. Post-course, the teaching behaviour of the I-group significantly changed and its learning climate improved compared with the C-group. Scores for use of feedback and supervision in the I-group increased from 4-5 to 6-7 (maximum score = 9). This was significantly higher than in the C-group. Conclusions A 3-day residential TTC has a significant impact in terms of gains of knowledge concerning teaching skills, teaching behaviour and learning climate after 6 months. The positive effects demonstrated in this study were rooted in both the specialists and trainees who attended the course.

  13. A Controlled Single-Case Treatment of Severe Long-Term Selective Mutism in a Child with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facon, Bruno; Sahiri, Safia; Riviere, Vinca

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the efficacy of combining two operant learning procedures--shaping and fading--for treating selective mutism. The participant was a 12-year-old boy with mental retardation presenting a severe long-term selective mutism. The treatment was aimed at increasing the loudness of his vocalizations in an…

  14. Fluoxetine for the Treatment of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Open-Label, Long-Term Extension to a Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Duncan B.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Ehmann, Mary; Bridge, Jeffrey; Wood, D. Scott; Muthen, Bengt; Brent, David

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of fluoxetine for the long-term treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Method: Children and adolescents (7-17 years old) with anxiety disorders were studied in open treatment for 1 year after they…

  15. Long-Term Effects of Low-Dose Spironolactone on Chronic Dialysis Patients: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, ChongTing; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, HuiFang; Lin, AiXia

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this 2-year multicentric, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the long-term effects and adverse effects of spironolactone on chronic dialysis patients. A total of 253 non-heart failure dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease were randomly assigned to 2-year treatment with spironolactone (25 mg once daily, n=125) or a matching placebo (n=128) as add-on therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiocerebrovascular (CCV) events, aborted cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death, and the secondary outcome was death from all causes. Other CCV-related indexes such as left ventricular mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate variability, vascular endothelial function, and blood pressure-lowering effect were analyzed for patients who completed the whole 2-year follow-up study. Sociodemographic, clinical, and relevant laboratory data were also collected. During the 2-year follow-up, the primary outcome occurred less frequently in the spironolactone group vs the control group (7.2% vs 18.0%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.78). Death from CCV events occurred in 4.0% of patients in the spironolactone group and in 11.7% of patients in the control group. Neither aborted cardiac arrest nor sudden cardiac death was significantly reduced by spironolactone treatment. The secondary outcome occurred less frequently in the spironolactone group vs the control group (9.6% vs 19.5%; adjusted HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29-0.94). Other CCV-related indexes except for heart rate variability were significantly improved. This study demonstrates that use of low-dose spironolactone in non-heart failure dialysis patients can effectively reduce the risks of both CCV morbidity and mortality with few side effects. Moreover, the beneficial effect was mediated through improving the endothelial function or reducing left ventricular size independent of blood pressure changes, rather than mediation

  16. Brain Changes in Long-Term Zen Meditators Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Fayed, Nicolás; Lopez del Hoyo, Yolanda; Andres, Eva; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Bellón, Juan; Aguilar, Keyla; Cebolla, Ausias; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This work aimed to determine whether 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. Materials and Methods Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. 1H-MRS (1.5 T) of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL) and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) by MR-DTI. Results Myo-inositol (mI) was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr) was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019). We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = −0.452; p = .045), NAA (r = −0.617; p = .003) and NAA/Cr (r = −0.448; P = .047) in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = −0.4850, p = .0066). Conclusions The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators. PMID:23536796

  17. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Samantha M.; Schmok, Jonathan C.; Liu, Meng-Chi (Andy); Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia. PMID:26287202

  18. Workshop on long-term contraceptives.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The National Population Council Secretariat (NPCS) of Ghana held a three-day workshop on long-term contraceptives in 1996 in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, the Association of Voluntary Surgical Contraception, and the Johns Hopkins Population Communication Services. The session was funded by USAID. The executive director of NPCS, Dr. Richard Turkson, said that the slow rate of contraceptive acceptance was an obstacle to population control despite political concern that rapid population growth exerted an adverse impact on the economy. Only 10% of married women were using long-term or permanent methods of contraception. The hope was voiced that the participants would devise practical and cost-effective education, information, and communication (IEC) strategies to boost the demand for long-term contraceptive methods among sexually active people in Ghana. It was essential that these strategies and activities were based on a realist assessment of the demographic and social situation of the country. The examination of case studies in cultures similar to Ghana would also offer valuable lessons. The factors that hinder the acceptance of long-term methods include misconceptions, myths, and false rumors rooted in a general lack of knowledge among the people. Participants were urged to come up with strategies to counter these problems, and service providers were encouraged to improve their knowledge about contraceptive methods and counseling skills. Male involvement in contraception was also advocated. Statistics show that most Ghanians practicing contraception were using short-term methods such as foaming tablets, pills, and condoms. However, it is necessary to shift to long-term methods such as injectables, implants, and sterilization in order to achieve significant reductions in fertility.

  19. Differential Susceptibility to Early Literacy Intervention in Children with Mild Perinatal Adversities: Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Kooy-Hofland, Verna A. C.; Van der Kooy, Jacoba; Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized control trial, the authors tested whether short- and long-term effects of an early literacy intervention are moderated by mild perinatal adversities in accordance with differential susceptibility theory. One-hundred 5-year-old children (58% male) who scored at or below the 30th percentile on early literacy measures were randomized…

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of a Long-Term Internet-Delivered Worksite Health Promotion Programme on Physical Activity and Nutrition: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robroek, Suzan J. W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Bredt, Folef J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a long-term workplace health promotion programme on physical activity (PA) and nutrition. In total, 924 participants enrolled in a 2-year cluster randomized controlled trial, with departments (n = 74) within companies (n = 6) as the unit of randomization. The intervention was compared with a…

  1. Using Psychodynamic, Cognitive Behavioral, and Control Mastery Prototypes to Predict Change: A New Look at an Old Paradigm for Long-Term Single-Case Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pole, Nnamdi; Ablon, J. Stuart; O'Connor, Lynn E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates a method of testing models of change in individual long-term psychotherapy cases. A depressed client was treated with 208 sessions of control mastery therapy (CMT), an unmanualized approach that integrates elements of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Panels of experts developed prototypes…

  2. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  3. Implementing structured functional assessments in general practice for persons with long-term sick leave: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Østerås, Nina; Gulbrandsen, Pål; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Hofoss, Dag; Brage, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing attention on functional assessments in medical and vocational rehabilitation requires a focus change for the general practitioners (GP) into paying attention to patient resources, possibilities and coping instead of symptoms, problems and limitations. The GPs report difficulties in performing the requested explicit functional assessments. The purpose of this study was to implement a structured method in general practice for assessing functional ability in persons with long-term sick leave. The study aim was to evaluate intervention effects on important GP parameters; knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy towards functional assessments and knowledge about patient work factors. Methods Fifty-seven GPs were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention group GPs attended an introductory one-day work-shop and implemented structured functional assessments during an eight months intervention period. GP knowledge, GP attitudes, and GP self-efficacy towards functional assessments, as well as GP knowledge of patient work factors, were collected before, after and six months after the intervention period started. Evaluation score-sheets were filled in by both the intervention GPs and their patients immediately after the consultation to evaluate the GPs' knowledge of patient work factors. Results The intervention GPs reported increased knowledge (B: 0.56, 95% CI (0.19, 0.91)) and self-efficacy (B: 0.90, 95% CI (0.53, 1.26)) towards functional assessments, and increased knowledge about their patients' workplace (B: 0.75, 95% CI (0.35, 1.15)) and perceived stressors (B: 0.55, 95% CI (0.23, 0.88)) with lasting effects at the second follow-up. No intervention effect was seen in relation to GP attitudes. Both before and after the intervention, the GPs were most informed about physical stressors, and less about mental and work organisational stressors (Guttman's reproducibility coefficient: 0.95 and 1.00). After the consultation

  4. Nonpharmacological Treatments of Insomnia for Long-Term Painful Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Nicole K.Y.; Lereya, S. Tanya; Boulton, Hayley; Miller, Michelle A.; Wolke, Dieter; Cappuccio, Francesco P.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is a debilitating comorbidity of chronic pain. This study evaluated the effect of nonpharmacological sleep treatments on patient-reported sleep quality, pain, and well-being in people with long-term cancer and non-cancer (e.g., back pain, arthritis, fibromyalgia) pain conditions. Design: We systematically searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsychINFO for relevant studies. Search period was set to inception of these databases to March 2014. Studies were included if they were: original randomized controlled trials (RCTs); testing a nonpharmacological intervention; that targets sleep; in adults; with painful health conditions; that has a control group; includes a measure of sleep quality; and at least one other health and well-being outcome. Measurement and Findings: Means and standard deviations of sleep quality, pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, physical and psychological functioning were extracted for the sleep treatment and control groups at baseline, posttreatment and final follow-up. Methodological details concerning the treatment, participants, and study design were abstracted to guide heterogeneity and subgroup analyses. Eleven RCTs involving 1,066 participants (mean age 45–61 years) met the criteria for the meta-analysis. There was no systematic evidence of publication bias. Nonpharmacological sleep treatments in chronic pain patients were associated with a large improvement in sleep quality (standardized mean difference = 0.78, 95% Confidence Interval [0.42, 1.13]; P < 0.001), small reduction in pain (0.18 [0, 0.36] P < 0.05), and moderate improvement in fatigue (0.38 [0.08, 0.69]; P < 0.01) at posttreatment. The effects on sleep quality and fatigue were maintained at follow-up (up to 1 year) when a moderate reduction in depression (0.31, [0.09, 0.53]; P < 0.01) was also observed. Both cancer and non-cancer pain patients benefited from nonpharmacological sleep treatments. Face-to-face treatments achieved better

  5. Meditation and attention: A controlled study on long-term meditators in behavioral performance and event-related potentials of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Jo, Han-Gue; Schmidt, Stefan; Inacker, Elisa; Markowiak, Michael; Hinterberger, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Meditation practice involves attention regulation, and thus is thought to facilitate attention control mechanisms. Studies on meditation techniques using a behavioral measurement of the Attention Network Test (ANT) have shown enhanced attention control, but neural features remain unknown. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral data from twenty long-term meditators were examined, compared to data obtained from twenty matched controls. Results showed that meditators made fewer error responses than controls, especially during the incongruent target condition, suggesting higher accuracy in executive attention control among meditators. The P3 amplitude in the parietal area remained constant in the congruent and incongruent target conditions among meditators, indicating a higher parietal P3 amplitude during the incongruent target condition relative to matched controls. The findings that meditators exhibited fewer error responses on the ANT and a lack of parietal P3 modulation irrespective of reaction time are discussed in the context of attentional resource allocation.

  6. Geomagnetic control of the midlatitude foF1 and foF2 long-term variations: Recent observations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, L.; Mikhailov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A new very simple method, allowing an easy control, has been applied to extract long-term (11 year) δfoF2 11y and δfoF1 11y variations from June foF2 and foF1 monthly median observations at European Slough/Chilton and Juliusruh stations, including recent data until 2015. The aim of the analysis was to check the validity of the geomagnetic control of foF2 and foF1 long-term variations in the 21st century with the main accent on the period including the last deep solar minimum in 2008-2009. The geomagnetic control was shown to be valid. Moreover, the dependence on geomagnetic activity has become more pronounced and explicit after 1990. A simultaneous analysis of foF2 and foF1 long-term variations improves the reliability of the obtained conclusions and helps understand the physical mechanism of these variations. Due to common neutral composition and the similarity of photochemical processes noontime foF2 and foF1 demonstrate similar long-term variations: the correlation coefficient between δfoF2 11y and δfoF1 11y is 0.834 at Slough/Chilton and 0.884 at Juliusruh with the 99% confidence level according to Fisher's F criterion. Midnight long-term δfoF2 11y variations also manifest a pronounced dependence on Ap11y which may be interpreted in the framework of the geomagnetic control concept.

  7. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.

  8. Long-term mass transfer and mixing-controlled reactions of a DNAPL plume from persistent residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Illangasekare, Tissa H.; Kitanidis, Peter K.

    2014-02-01

    Understanding and being able to predict the long-term behavior of DNAPL (i.e., PCE and TCE) residuals after active remediation has ceased have become increasingly important as attention at many sites turns from aggressive remediation to monitored natural attenuation and long-term stewardship. However, plume behavior due to mass loading and reactions during these later phases is less studied as they involve large spatial and temporal scales. We apply both theoretical analysis and pore-scale simulations to investigate mass transfer from DNAPL residuals and subsequent reactions within the generated plume, and, in particular, to show the differences between early- and late-time behaviors of the plume. In the zone of entry of the DNAPL entrapment zone where the concentration boundary layer in the flowing groundwater has not fully developed, the pore-scale simulations confirm the past findings based on laboratory studies that the mass transfer increases as a power-law function of the Peclét number, and is enhanced due to reactions in the plume. Away from the entry zone and further down gradient, the long-term reactions are limited by the available additive and mixing in the porous medium, thereby behave considerably differently from the entry zone. For the reaction between the contaminant and an additive with intrinsic second-order bimolecular kinetics, the late-time reaction demonstrates a first-order decay macroscopically with respect to the mass of the limiting additive, not with respect to that of the contaminant. The late-time decay rate only depends on the intrinsic reaction rate and the solubility of the entrapped DNAPL. At the intermediate time, the additive decays exponentially with the square of time (t2), instead of time (t). Moreover, the intermediate decay rate also depends on the initial conditions, the spatial distribution of DNAPL residuals, and the effective dispersion coefficient.

  9. Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial on additional long-term weight effects of parent training.

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kroeller, Katja; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances 'obesity-specific' parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7-13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects.

  10. A controlled single-case treatment of severe long-term selective mutism in a child with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Facon, Bruno; Sahiri, Safia; Rivière, Vinca

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the efficacy of combining two operant learning procedures--shaping and fading--for treating selective mutism. The participant was a 12-year-old boy with mental retardation presenting a severe long-term selective mutism. The treatment was aimed at increasing the loudness of his vocalizations in an increasingly social milieu. The treatment was conducted over the course of about 20 weeks, with four 15-minute sessions per week. A gradual increase in speech loudness was observed. Data indicated a close correspondence between the changes in speech loudness and the criteria for reinforcement successively applied by the therapist, thereby confirming the causal link between the child's progress and the changes in reinforcement contingencies. In addition, good generalization was noted during the stimulus fading phase. Six-month follow up showed that loudness of verbalizations was still satisfactory in the classroom despite a change of school and peer group. The impressive improvement of the child's verbal behavior shows that the implementation of a treatment package including both shaping and stimulus fading is a worthwhile therapeutic option, even in the case of severe long-term selective mutism associated with mental retardation.

  11. Long-term effectiveness of the integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control in China: a 10-year evaluation from 2005 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Wei; Wang, Peng

    2017-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical parasitic disease of great public health significance worldwide. Currently, mass drug administration with praziquantel remains the major strategy for global schistosomiasis control programs. Since 2005, an integrated strategy with emphasis on infectious source control was implemented for the control of schistosomiasis japonica, a major public health concern in China, and pilot studies have demonstrated that such a strategy is effective to reduce the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in both humans and bovines. However, there is little knowledge on the long-term effectiveness of this integrated strategy for controlling schistosomiasis japonica. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control following the 10-year implementation, based on the data from the national schistosomiasis control program released by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China. In 2014, there were 5 counties in which the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica had not been interrupted, which reduced by 95.2% as compared to that in 2005 (105 counties). The number of schistosomiasis patients and acute cases reduced by 85.5 and 99.7% in 2014 (115,614 cases and 2 cases) as compared to that in 2005 (798,762 cases and 564 cases), and the number of bovines and S. japonicum-infected bovines reduced by 47.9 and 98% in 2014 (919,579 bovines and 666 infected bovines) as compared to that in 2005 (1,764,472 bovines and 33,736 infected bovines), respectively. During the 10-year implementation of the integrated strategy, however, there was a minor fluctuation in the area of Oncomelania hupensis snail habitats, and there was only a 5.6% reduction in the area of snail habitats in 2014 relative to in 2005. The results of the current study demonstrate that the 10-year implementation of the integrated strategy with emphasis on infectious source has greatly reduced schistosomiasis

  12. Long-term effects of controllability or the lack of it on coping abilities and stress resilience in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Morgan; Ilin, Yana; Anunu, Rachel; Kehat, Orli; Xu, Lin; Desmedt, Aline; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2014-09-01

    Findings suggest that stress-induced impaired learning and coping abilities may be attributed more to the psychological nature of the stressor, rather than its physical properties. It has been proposed that establishing controllability over stressors can ameliorate some of its effects on cognition and behavior. Gaining controllability was suggested to be associated with the development of stress resilience. Based on repeated exposure to the two-way shuttle avoidance task, we previously developed and validated a behavioral task that leads to a strict dissociation between gaining controllability (to the level that the associated fear is significantly reduced) and a fearful state of uncontrollability. Employing this protocol, we investigated here the impact of gaining or failing to gain emotional controllability on indices of anxiety and depression and on subsequent abilities to cope with positively or negatively reinforcing learning experiences. In agreement with previous studies, rats exposed to the uncontrollable protocol demonstrated high concentration of sera corticosterone, increased immobility, reduced duration of struggling in the forced swim test and impaired ability to acquire subsequent learning tasks. Achieving emotional controllability resulted in resilience to stress as was indicated by longer duration of struggling in the forced swim test, and enhanced learning abilities. Our prolonged training protocol, with the demonstrated ability of rats to gain emotional controllability, is proposed as a useful tool to study the neurobiological mechanisms of stress resilience.

  13. Modelling of long-term and short-term mechanisms of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: an object-oriented approach.

    PubMed

    Fernandez de Canete, J; Luque, J; Barbancho, J; Munoz, V

    2014-04-01

    A mathematical model that provides an overall description of both the short- and long-term mechanisms of arterial pressure regulation is presented. Short-term control is exerted through the baroreceptor reflex while renal elimination plays a role in long-term control. Both mechanisms operate in an integrated way over the compartmental model of the cardiovascular system. The whole system was modelled in MODELICA, which uses a hierarchical object-oriented modelling strategy, under the DYMOLA simulation environment. The performance of the controlled system was analysed by simulation in light of the existing hypothesis and validation tests previously performed with physiological data, demonstrating the effectiveness of both regulation mechanisms under physiological and pathological conditions.

  14. Soil properties and not inputs control carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus ratios in cropped soils in the long-term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, E.; Buchmann, N.; Bünemann, E. K.; Kiba, D. I.; Lompo, F.; Oberson, A.; Tamburini, F.; Traoré, O. Y. A.

    2015-09-01

    Stoichiometric approaches have been applied to understand the relationship between soil organic matter dynamics and biological nutrient transformations. However, very few studies explicitly considered the effects of agricultural management practices on soil C : N : P ratio. The aim of this study was to assess how different input types and rates would affect the C : N : P molar ratios of bulk soil, organic matter and microbial biomass in cropped soils in the long-term. Thus, we analysed the C, N and P inputs and budgets as well as soil properties in three long-term experiments established on different soil types: the Saria soil fertility trial (Burkina Faso), the Wagga Wagga rotation/stubble management/soil preparation trial (Australia), and the DOK cropping system trial (Switzerland). In each of these trials, there was a large range of C, N and P inputs which had a strong impact on element concentrations in soils. However, although C : N : P ratios of the inputs were highly variable, they had only weak effects on soil C : N : P ratios. At Saria, a positive correlation was found between the N : P ratio of inputs and microbial biomass, while no relation was observed between the nutrient ratios of inputs and soil organic matter. At Wagga Wagga, the C : P ratio of inputs was significantly correlated to total soil C : P, N : P and C : N ratios, but had no impact on the elemental composition of microbial biomass. In the DOK trial, a positive correlation was found between the C budget and the C to organic P ratio in soils, while the nutrient ratios of inputs were not related to those in the microbial biomass. We argue that these responses are due to differences in soil properties among sites. At Saria, the soil is dominated by quartz and some kaolinite, has a coarse texture, a fragile structure and a low nutrient content. Thus, microorganisms feed on inputs (plant residues, manure). In contrast, the soil at Wagga Wagga contains illite and haematite, is richer in clay and

  15. Long-term lifestyle interventions in middle-aged and elderly men with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fangyuan; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Yiqin; Wang, Yiqian; Zhang, Gansheng; Hu, Xiaona; Wang, Jiaofeng; Chen, Jie; Bao, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a metabolic disorder related to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, has become a public health concern. Currently, the principal therapeutic modalities targeting NAFLD are lifestyle interventions. However, the efficacy of long-term lifestyle interventions in managing NAFLD remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of long-term lifestyle interventions in middle-aged and elderly men with NAFLD. All 280 eligible patients were randomized to the control or test group. Patients in the test group received counseling on diet and exercise from 2 physicians every 3 months via a phone call. Patients in the control group received only counseling in annual checkups without regular intervention. After the 2-year periodic intervention, body weight, abdominal circumference, ALT, TCH, LDL-C and HDL-C decreased in the test group. Specifically, the fatty liver index (FLI) and NAFLD-fibrosis score (NAFLD-FS) reduced markedly in the test group. However, in the control group, there was only a significant decrease in LDL-C, HDL-C and NAFLD-FS (P < 0.001). The liver steatosis grade of the test group decreased significantly, while it increased in the control group. In NAFLD, long-term lifestyle interventions exert an anti-obesity effect and attenuate liver dysfunction and steatosis. PMID:27830836

  16. Long-Term Regional Control in the Observed Neck Following Definitive Chemoradiation for Node-Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Anuj; Morris, Luc G.T.; Rao, Shyam S.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Wong, Richard J.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Ohri, Nisha; Setton, Jeremy; Lok, Benjamin H.; Riaz, Nadeem; Mychalczak, Borys R.; Schoder, Heiko; Ganly, Ian; Shah, Jatin P.; Pfister, David G.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for node-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (N+ OPSCC) have undergone a planned neck dissection (ND) after treatment. Recently, negative post-treatment positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging has been found to have a high negative predictive value for the presence of residual disease in the neck. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of a large, uniform cohort of N+ OPSCC patients achieving a PET/CT-based complete response (CR) after chemoradiotherapy, and undergoing observation, rather than ND. From 2002 to 2009, 302 patients with N+ OPSCC treated with 70 Gy intensity-modulated radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy underwent post-treatment clinical assessment including PET/CT. CR was defined as no evidence of disease on clinical examination and post-treatment PET/CT. ND was reserved for patients with control, 97.7%; 5-year overall survival, 79.8%). The four observed patients experiencing neck recurrence had initial staging of N1 (n=2), N2b (n=1), and N2c (n=1). Three of four were successfully surgically salvaged. There was no association between N stage and rate of neck recurrence (P = 0.74). 52% and 25% of patients undergoing ND had viable tumor in the neck after positive and negative PET/CT, respectively. We conclude that patients achieving CRs after chemoradiation, based on clinical and PET/CT assessment, have a high probability of regional control, with a 2.3% regional failure rate, and may be safely observed without planned ND. PMID:23436584

  17. Soil properties and not inputs control carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus ratios in cropped soils in the long term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Emmanuel; Buchmann, Nina; Bünemann, Else K.; Kiba, Delwende I.; Lompo, François; Oberson, Astrid; Tamburini, Federica; Traoré, Ouakoltio Y. A.

    2016-02-01

    Stoichiometric approaches have been applied to understand the relationship between soil organic matter dynamics and biological nutrient transformations. However, very few studies have explicitly considered the effects of agricultural management practices on the soil C : N : P ratio. The aim of this study was to assess how different input types and rates would affect the C : N : P molar ratios of bulk soil, organic matter and microbial biomass in cropped soils in the long term. Thus, we analysed the C, N, and P inputs and budgets as well as soil properties in three long-term experiments established on different soil types: the Saria soil fertility trial (Burkina Faso), the Wagga Wagga rotation/stubble management/soil preparation trial (Australia), and the DOK (bio-Dynamic, bio-Organic, and "Konventionell") cropping system trial (Switzerland). In each of these trials, there was a large range of C, N, and P inputs which had a strong impact on element concentrations in soils. However, although C : N : P ratios of the inputs were highly variable, they had only weak effects on soil C : N : P ratios. At Saria, a positive correlation was found between the N : P ratio of inputs and microbial biomass, while no relation was observed between the nutrient ratios of inputs and soil organic matter. At Wagga Wagga, the C : P ratio of inputs was significantly correlated to total soil C : P, N : P, and C : N ratios, but had no impact on the elemental composition of microbial biomass. In the DOK trial, a positive correlation was found between the C budget and the C to organic P ratio in soils, while the nutrient ratios of inputs were not related to those in the microbial biomass. We argue that these responses are due to differences in soil properties among sites. At Saria, the soil is dominated by quartz and some kaolinite, has a coarse texture, a fragile structure, and a low nutrient content. Thus, microorganisms feed on inputs (plant residues, manure). In contrast, the soil at

  18. Long-term flood controls on semi-arid river form: evidence from the Sabie and Olifants rivers, eastern South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heritage, G.; Tooth, S.; Entwistle, N.; Milan, D.

    2015-03-01

    Rivers in the Kruger National Park, eastern South Africa, are characterised by bedrock-influenced "macrochannels" containing variable alluvial thicknesses and riparian vegetation assemblages. Evidence from the Sabie and Olifants rivers suggests that flows up to moderate floods (<3500 m3 s-1) tend to result in net alluviation, with sediments gradually covering the underlying bedrock. More extreme floods strip alluvium and erode bedrock, effectively exerting the primary control over long-term river morphologic development. On the Olifants River, post-flood aerial LIDAR imagery reveals that the 2012 extreme flood (~14000 m3 s-1) resulted in extensive stripping of stored alluvial sediment, exposing and eroding the underlying weathered bedrock. On the Sabie River, preliminary optically stimulated luminescence ages for remnant alluvium are all less than 1000 years, highlighting typical timescales of sediment storage. Together, these results suggest that while periods of general alluviation occur on these systems, long-term river development results from extreme flood-generated bedrock erosion.

  19. Effects of six priority controlled phthalate esters with long-term low-dose integrated exposure on male reproductive toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Qian, Liang-Liang; Wang, Min; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Yu, Shu-Qin

    2017-03-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PEs) surroundings. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term low-dose exposure to the mixture of six priority controlled phthalate esters (MIXPs): dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), on male rat reproductive system and further to explore the underlying mechanisms of the reproductive toxicity. The male rats were orally exposed to either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as controls or MIXPs at three different low-doses by gavage for 15 weeks. Testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum were analyzed, and pathological examinations were performed for toxicity evaluation. Steroidogenic proteins (StAR, P450scc, CYP17A1 and 17β-HSD), cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins (p53, Chk1, Cdc2, CDK6, Bcl-2 and Bax) were measured for mechanisms exploration. MIXPs with long-term low-dose exposure could cause male reproductive toxicity to the rats, including the decrease of both serum and testicular testosterone, and the constructional damage of testis. These effects were related to down-regulated steroidogenic proteins, arresting cell cycle progression and promoting apoptosis in rat testicular cells. The results indicate that MIXPs with long-term low-dose exposure may pose male reproductive toxicity in human.

  20. AB055. Long term NIV

    PubMed Central

    Siopi, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    role of long term NIV remains controversial in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure attributed to COPD. This happens because RCTs haven’t been able to prove benefits in survival, although the settings used in those trials seem to be insufficient to correct hypercapnia. According to more recent data higher pressure (high-intensity NIV) with the goal of achieving normocapnia can improve exercise tolerance, quality of life and survival. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome on the other hand is gradually receiving clinical interest and is recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, with a beneficial role of NIV in improving survival, hospitalizations and health related quality of life, thus reducing healthcare cost. Despite the improved awareness of the medical world dealing with the obesity epidemic, the syndrome is still under-diagnosed. Any medical specialty should perceive the value of controlling those patients in order to offer the optimal type of mechanical ventilation, depending on the underlying type of the respiratory disorder (obstructive episodes or pure hypoventilation). Patients with congestive heart failure can suffer from central sleep apnoea, OSA and Cheyne-Stokes respiration with a negative impact in their clinical outcome. CPAP therapy is indicated in resolving obstructive apnea, but is ineffective in case of central sleep apnea or Cheyne-Stokes breathing. The initial enthusiasm for assisted servo ventilation (ASV) use in this group of patients was not confirmed by a multicentre RCT (which showed increased mortality) and this type of ventilation is no longer recommended in heart failure patients with CSA and ejection fraction <45%. Scarce data exist regarding long-term NIV in patients with Cystic Fibrosis, bronchiectasis and interstitial lung diseases .It seems though that with careful patient selection NIV can play an important role in the management of those patients, even serving as a bridge to transplantation

  1. High-Density Electromyography and Motor Skill Learning for Robust Long-Term Control of a 7-DoF Robot Arm.

    PubMed

    Ison, Mark; Vujaklija, Ivan; Whitsell, Bryan; Farina, Dario; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2016-04-01

    Myoelectric control offers a direct interface between human intent and various robotic applications through recorded muscle activity. Traditional control schemes realize this interface through direct mapping or pattern recognition techniques. The former approach provides reliable control at the expense of functionality, while the latter increases functionality at the expense of long-term reliability. An alternative approach, using concepts of motor learning, provides session-independent simultaneous control, but previously relied on consistent electrode placement over biomechanically independent muscles. This paper extends the functionality and practicality of the motor learning-based approach, using high-density electrode grids and muscle synergy-inspired decomposition to generate control inputs with reduced constraints on electrode placement. The method is demonstrated via real-time simultaneous and proportional control of a 4-DoF myoelectric interface over multiple days. Subjects showed learning trends consistent with typical motor skill learning without requiring any retraining or recalibration between sessions. Moreover, they adjusted to physical constraints of a robot arm after learning the control in a constraint-free virtual interface, demonstrating robust control as they performed precision tasks. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed man-machine interface as a viable alternative to conventional control schemes for myoelectric interfaces designed for long-term use.

  2. Mathematics Learning Development: The Role of Long-Term Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderón-Tena, Carlos O.; Caterino, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between long-term memory retrieval and mathematics calculation and mathematics problem solving achievement among elementary, middle, and high school students in nationally representative sample of US students, when controlling for fluid and crystallized intelligence, short-term memory, and processing speed. As…

  3. Hydrodynamic controls on cold-water coral growth in the Gulf of Mexico: Long term in situ seabed lander observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, Furu; Duineveld, Gerard; Davies, Andrew J.; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.; Ross, Steve W.; Roberts, Murray; Seim, Harvey E.; Bane, John M.

    2010-05-01

    Cold-water coral reefs and mounds are a common feature on the continental slopes of the North East Atlantic Ocean. On the European continental margin mound structures that are many kilometers long and wide have been discovered, often colonized by a thriving coral community. Similar structures have been found in the West Atlantic on the continental slope between 300-800 m water depth, along the slope from North Carolina to Florida. Presently detailed studies on the environmental constraints in cold-water coral areas are limited to cold-water coral areas in the North East Atlantic. This is the first study showing long term environmental variability in a cold-water coral habitat in the Gulf of Mexico, West Atlantic and the data highlight novel observations of short term environmental variability in a cold-water coral habitat. In the Gulf of Mexico Lophelia pertusa occurrences are scattered and form less dense communities than those situated on the Atlantic margins. The Viosca Knoll (VK826) area is the most extensive cold-water coral area presently known in the Gulf of Mexico, with Lophelia pertusa being the most common coral species. Broadly two characteristic coral habitats can be described on Viosca Knoll. Firstly, a dense coral cover that resembles a biogenic reef and secondly authigenic carbonate blocks with sparse coral coverage. Two benthic landers were deployed for over a year in the vicinity of the corals to measure the local environmental conditions. Both landers measured the current velocity and direction, temperature, salinity, fluorescence, optical backscatter and were equipped with a sediment trap. Furthermore CTD transects were made across the cold-water coral area. Transects showed no fluorescence signal below 150 m water depth and an oxygen minimum zone at the depth of the corals. A prominent intermediate nepheloid layer was present at 300-400 m water depth. Long term deployments of benthic landers of a period over 12 months revealed intra annual

  4. Ecological Controls on Biogeochemical Fluxes in the Western Antarctic Peninsula: Long-Term Observations and Inverse Food Web Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducklow, H. W.; Sailley, S. F.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; Saba, G. K.; Doney, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Sea ice in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region is both highly variable and rapidly changing. In the Palmer Station region, the ice season duration has decreased by 92 days since 1978. The sea-ice changes affect ocean stratification and freshwater balance; and in turn impact every component of the polar marine ecosystem. Long-term observations from the WAP shelf region show a pattern of chlorophyll (Chl) variability with three to five years of negative Chl anomalies interrupted by one or two years of positive anomalies. Observations and results from an inverse food-web model show that these low and high Chl regimes differed significantly from each other, with high primary productivity and net community production (NCP) associated with the high Chl years and vice-versa. Gross primary production averaged 40 mmolC m-2 d-1 in the low Chl years and 100 mmolC m-2 d-1 in the high Chl years, with 30-40% going to NCP across regimes. Only the food web in the southern region in high Chl years was dominated by large phytoplankton and krill, whereas in in all other cases, foodwebs were dominated by small phytoplankton and microzooplankton. These contrasts were strongest between the northern, low Chl years and southern, high Chl years, consistent with earlier north to south observations of sea ice and ecosystem change along the WAP. The relative importance of major bulk carbon flows did not differ substantially between high and low Chl years. Both the northern/low Chl and southern/high Chl regimes had roughly equal proportions of NCP, although its composition reflected shifts in dominance by large versus small plankton. These results suggest that food webs dominated by smaller phytoplankton and grazers have pathways that funnel production into NCP, and likely, export.

  5. Controlling Factors of Long-Term Trends in Mercury Wet Deposition and Precipitation Concentrations at Huntington Wildlife Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z.; Mao, H.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Observations from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) at Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF) suggested that a significant decline (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.03) from 2000 to 2013 in volume weighted mean (VWM) Hg concentrations in precipitation was linked to Hg emission decreases in the United States, especially in the Northeast and Midwest, and yet Hg wet deposition has remained fairly constant over the past two decades. The present study aimed to investigate the climatic, terrestrial, and anthropogenic factors that influenced the decadal pattern in Hg wet deposition in upstate NY. In spring and summer, when Hg wet deposition was the strongest, significant positive correlation (r2 = 0.89, p < 0.0001 in spring; r2 = 0.58, p = 0.002 in summer) of Hg wet deposition with precipitation was found. Increases in precipitation during these seasons could offset the decreasing of Hg concentration in precipitation. Besides, springtime positive correlation (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.02) between precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index together with geopotential height and wind speed analysis indicated that large-scale dynamical forcing was likely an important factor influencing the long term trend in springtime Hg wet deposition at HWF. To further quantify the roles of meteorological and anthropogenic factors in Hg wet deposition, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was employed using an algorithm depicting state-of-the-art Hg chemistry mechanism and up-to-date Hg emission inventories evaluated with MDN and Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet) measurement data. CMAQ simulations with a constant vs. realistic meteorological conditions for multiple warm seasons (including spring and summer) were used to characterize and quantify the impacts of inter-annual variability of precipitation and atmospheric circulation on Hg wet deposition. In addition, contributions to Hg wet deposition from decreases in anthropogenic emissions in NYS and nation-wide were quantified from

  6. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a controlled study on temporomandibular side effects.

    PubMed

    Doff, Michiel H J; Veldhuis, Steffanie K B; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Slater, James J R Huddleston; Wijkstra, P J; de Bont, Lambert G M; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess variations in the occurrence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and the risk of developing pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients treated with either an oral appliance (mandibular advancement device) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in a 2-year follow-up study. In addition, we assessed the relationship between the mean mandibular protrusion and the frequency of wearing the appliance during follow-up with the occurrence of pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex. Fifty-one patients were randomized to oral appliance therapy and 52 patients to CPAP therapy. TMDs (diagnosed according to the Axis I Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD), pain intensity and disability and mandibular function impairment were recorded at baseline, after 2 months, 1 year and 2 years of therapy. Only in the initial period of treatment the occurrence of pain-related TMDs was considerably higher (24%) in the oral appliance group compared to CPAP (6%). Oral appliance therapy furthermore resulted in more temporomandibular pain compared to CPAP (odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval (1.22-4.43)). However, there were no limitations in mandibular function in both groups during the (entire) follow-up period. Although generally not serious and of transient nature, oral appliance therapy results in more pain-related TMDs in the initial period of use compared with CPAP therapy. Oral appliance therapy is associated with increased pain in the temporomandibular complex in the initial period of use. Because of the transient nature, this pain is not a reason to contra-indicate an oral appliance in OSAS patients. Moreover, TMDs and the risk of developing pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex appear limited with long-term oral appliance use.

  7. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Wholegrain Oat Intake on Weight Management and Glucolipid Metabolism in Overweight Type-2 Diabetics: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Cai, Xiaxia; Ma, Xiaotao; Jing, Lulu; Gu, Jiaojiao; Bao, Lei; Li, Jun; Xu, Meihong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Glycemic control and weight reduction are primary goals for the management of overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effective management cannot be achieved without an appropriate diet. Our study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of oat intake and develop a reasonable dietary plan for overweight T2DM patients. A randomized control trial, registered under ClinicalTrials.gov (Identification code: NCT01495052), was carried out among adult T2DM patients. A subgroup of 298 overweight subjects was selected and received a 30-day centralized intervention and 1-year free-living follow-up. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the following four groups. The usual care group (n = 60) received no intervention; the healthy diet group (n = 79) received a low-fat and high-fiber diet (“healthy diet”); the 50 g-oats group (n = 80) and 100 g-oats group (n = 79) received the “healthy diet” with the same amount of cereals replaced by 50 g and 100 g oats respectively. Anthropometric, blood glycemic and lipid variables were measured. For the 30-day intervention, significant differences in the changes of FPG (fasting plasma glucose), PPG (postprandial plasma glucose), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), TC (total cholesterol), TG (total triglycerides), and LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were observed among the four groups. Compared to the healthy diet group, the 50 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (mean difference (MD): −1.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.03, −0.05) and TC (MD: −0.24 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.47, −0.01); the 100 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (MD: −1.48 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.57, −0.39), HOMA-IR (MD: −1.77 mU·mol/L2; 95% CI: −3.49, −0.05), TC (MD: −0.33 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.56, −0.10) and LDL-c (MD: −0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.41, −0.03). In the 1-year follow-up, greater effects in reducing weight (MD: −0.89 kg; 95% CI

  8. Protease inhibitor monotherapy for long-term management of HIV infection: a randomised, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Nicholas I; Stöhr, Wolfgang; Arenas-Pinto, Alejandro; Fisher, Martin; Williams, Ian; Johnson, Margaret; Orkin, Chloe; Chen, Fabian; Lee, Vincent; Winston, Alan; Gompels, Mark; Fox, Julie; Scott, Karen; Dunn, David T

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Standard-of-care antiretroviral therapy (ART) uses a combination of drugs deemed essential to minimise treatment failure and drug resistance. Protease inhibitors are potent, with a high genetic barrier to resistance, and have potential use as monotherapy after viral load suppression is achieved with combination treatment. We aimed to assess clinical risks and benefits of protease inhibitor monotherapy in long-term clinical use: in particular, the effect on drug resistance and future treatment options. Methods In this pragmatic, parallel-group, randomised, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial, we enrolled adults (≥18 years of age) positive for HIV attending 43 public sector treatment centres in the UK who had suppressed viral load (<50 copies per mL) for at least 24 weeks on combination ART with no change in the previous 12 weeks and a CD4 count of more than 100 cells per μL. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to maintain ongoing triple therapy (OT) or to switch to a strategy of physician-selected ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (PI-mono); we recommended ritonavir (100 mg)-boosted darunavir (800 mg) once daily or ritonavir (100 mg)-boosted lopinavir (400 mg) twice daily, with prompt return to combination treatment if viral load rebounded. All treatments were oral. Randomisation was with permuted blocks of varying size and stratified by centre and baseline ART; we used a computer-generated, sequentially numbered randomisation list. The primary outcome was loss of future drug options, defined as new intermediate-level or high-level resistance to one or more drugs to which the patient's virus was deemed sensitive at trial entry (assessed at 3 years; non-inferiority margin of 10%). We estimated probability of rebound and resistance with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISRCTN

  9. WWC Review of the Report "Staying on Track: Testing Higher Achievement's Long-Term Impact on Academic Outcomes and High School Choice." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This study of 952 fifth and sixth graders in Washington, DC, and Alexandria, Virginia, found that students who were offered the "Higher Achievement" program had higher test scores in mathematical problem solving and were more likely to be admitted to and attend private competitive high schools. "Higher Achievement" is a…

  10. Combination of the Pro-Apoptotic TRAIL-Receptor Antibody Mapatumumab With Ionizing Radiation Strongly Increases Long-Term Tumor Control Under Ambient and Hypoxic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Marini, Patrizia; Budach, Wilfried; Niyazi, Maximilian; Junginger, Dorothea; Stickl, Stefan; Jendrossek, Verena; Belka, Claus

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: Mapatumumab, an agonistic tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand-receptor antibody, exerts highly synergistic apoptotic effects in vitro and in short-term growth delay assays when combined with irradiation. Because it remained unclear in how far these effects influence local tumor control, long-term experiments using a colorectal xenograft model were undertaken. Material and Methods: Experiments were performed with irradiation (5 x 3 Gy, d1-5) and mapatumumab (10 mg/kg) in Colo205-xenograft-bearing NMRI (nu/nu) nude mice. Graded top up doses were delivered on the tumor-bearing hind leg under ambient and hypoxic conditions; follow-up was 270 days. Growth delay and local tumor control were end points of the study. Statistical analysis of the experiments included calculation of tumor regrowth and local tumor control. Results: After combined treatment, a pronounced tumor regrowth-delay was observed when compared with irradiation alone. Long-term experiments revealed a highly significant increase in local tumor control for ambient (p = 0.00076) and hypoxic treatment (p = 0.000069). Conclusions: The present data demonstrate for the first time that combination of a pro-apoptotic antibody with irradiation results in evidently reduced tumor regrowth times and subsequently highly increased local tumor control under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in a xenograft mouse model.

  11. Associations Between Long-Term Gang Membership and Informal Social Control Processes, Drug Use, and Delinquent Behavior Among Mexican American Youth.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-10-01

    Research has found that among juveniles weak ties to informal social control entities such as parents, school, and conventional peers increase the probability of the initiation and continuation of deviant behaviors such as drug use and crime. Given the weak ties of formal social control mechanisms in highly disadvantaged communities, informal social control mechanisms are often an important deterrent that reduce or moderate engagement in deviant behaviors among serious and persistent offenders. This analysis examines the association between long-term gang membership and adolescent informal social control processes, drug use, and delinquency. This research is based on data from a study of 160 Mexican American male gang members between the ages of 16 and 20. Findings suggest that among gang members in this context, commonly studied informal control mechanisms such as the family and schools do not function to deter long-term gang membership that is associated with serious criminal and violent behavior and drug use. The implications for future research on desistance or continuation of antisocial behavior across the life course are discussed.

  12. Almost 50 years of monitoring shows that climate, not forestry, controls long-term organic carbon fluxes in a large boreal watershed.

    PubMed

    Lepistö, Ahti; Futter, Martyn N; Kortelainen, Pirkko

    2014-04-01

    Here, we use a unique long-term data set on total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes, its climatic drivers and effects of land management from a large boreal watershed in northern Finland. TOC and runoff have been monitored at several sites in the Simojoki watershed (3160 km(2) ) since the early 1960s. Annual TOC fluxes have increased significantly together with increased inter-annual variability. Acid deposition in the area has been low and has not significantly influenced losses of TOC. Forest management, including ditching and clear felling, had a minor influence on TOC fluxes - seasonal and long-term patterns in TOC were controlled primarily by changes in soil frost, seasonal precipitation, drought, and runoff. Deeper soil frost led to lower spring TOC concentrations in the river. Summer TOC concentrations were positively correlated with precipitation and soil moisture not temperature. There is some indication that drought conditions led to elevated TOC concentrations and fluxes in subsequent years (1998-2000). A sensitivity analysis of the INCA-C model results showed the importance of landscape position, land-use type, and soil temperature as controls of modeled TOC concentrations. Model predictions were not sensitive to forest management. Our results are contradictory to some earlier plot-scale and small catchment studies that have shown more profound forest management impacts on TOC fluxes. This shows the importance of scale when assessing the mechanisms controlling TOC fluxes and concentrations. The results highlight the value of long-term multiple data sets to better understand ecosystem response to land management, climate change and extremes in northern ecosystems.

  13. Fifty-two-week long-term clinical study of luseogliflozin as monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise.

    PubMed

    Seino, Yutaka; Kaku, Kohei; Inagaki, Nobuya; Haneda, Masakazu; Sasaki, Takashi; Fukatsu, Atsushi; Ubukata, Michito; Sakai, Soichi; Samukawa, Yoshishige

    2015-01-01

    Luseogliflozin, a selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, was demonstrated in a previous 24-week study of type 2 diabetic patients to be efficacious and well tolerated. This study mainly aimed to evaluate the long-term safety of luseogliflozin monotherapy in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients based on the Japanese guidelines. Additionally, long-term efficacy was also evaluated. Patients on diet and exercise therapy alone with an HbA1c of 6.9-10.5% received luseogliflozin 2.5 mg once daily for 52 weeks. For patients with insufficient glycemic control, this dose was able to be increased to 5 mg at Week 24. Adverse events (AEs), clinical laboratory tests, vital signs and 12-lead electrocardiograms were used to assess safety. Efficacy endpoints consisted of changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body weight from baseline. Of 299 patients who received luseogliflozin, 279 completed the study. Most AEs were mild in severity with incidences of AEs and adverse drug reactions at 75.3% and 16.7%, respectively. Although hypoglycemia was observed in 7 patients (2.3%), no major hypoglycemic episodes occurred. The incidences of AEs of special interest, including pollakiuria, volume depletion and urinary tract/genital infections, were at acceptable levels. Luseogliflozin significantly lowered HbA1c (-0.50%, P< 0.001), FPG (-16.3 mg/dL, P< 0.001) and body weight (-2.68 kg, P< 0.001) at Week 52 compared to baseline. Up-titration to 5 mg further improved glycemic control. In this long-term study of Japanese type 2 diabetic patients, luseogliflozin monotherapy was well tolerated for 52 weeks and provided a sustained glycemic lowering effect and reduced body weight.

  14. The long-term outcomes of interventions for the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jack; Wales, Gill; Chalhoub, Nevyne; Harpin, Val

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To systematically identify and review the currently available evidence on the long-term outcomes of recommended attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) interventions following randomized controlled trials with children and young people. Method A systematic search was conducted to identify trials >1 year in length using the following databases: CINAHL (January 1982– July 2012), MEDLINE (Ovid and Cambridge Scientific Abstracts [CSA]), Psych info, Science Direct (Elsevier), and Cochrane Library. Hand searches of key journals in the subject, book chapters, and conference proceedings were also carried out. Relevant papers were critically appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Eight controlled trials were identified as being relevant, of duration ranging from 1 year to 8 years (at follow up). The total number of participants in the studies was 1,057, of whom 579 (54.7%) were from one cohort and included 26 different outcome measures. Results suggest there is moderate-to-high-level evidence that combined pharmacological and behavioral interventions, and pharmacological interventions alone can be effective in managing the core ADHD symptoms and academic performance at 14 months. However, the effect size may decrease beyond this period. Conclusion This review has highlighted the paucity and limitations of the evidence investigating the long-term outcomes of recommended interventions for managing ADHD symptoms. There is little evidence to suggest that the effects observed over the relatively short term are maintained throughout longer periods of impairment. Furthermore, much of the existing evidence examining effectiveness beyond 12 months does not include newer medications currently available or consider significant contextual and cultural differences, such as UK/European and Asian populations. Longitudinal studies are required to examine the long-term outcomes for children and young people with ADHD managed with currently recommended

  15. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  16. Impact of Long-Term Poor and Good Glycemic Control on Metabolomics Alterations in Type 1 Diabetic People

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tumpa; Kudva, Yogish C.; Persson, Xuan-Mai T.; Schenck, Louis A.; Ford, G. Charles; Singh, Ravinder J.; Carter, Rickey

    2016-01-01

    Context: Poor glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with both micro- and macrovascular complications, but good glycemic control does not fully prevent the risk of these complications. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether T1D with good glycemic control have persistent abnormalities of metabolites and pathways that exist in T1D with poor glycemic control. Design: We compared plasma metabolites in T1D with poor (glycated hemoglobin ≥ 8.5%, T1D[−] and good (glycated hemoglobin < 6.5%, T1D[+]) glycemic control with nondiabetic controls (ND). Setting: The study was conducted at the clinical research unit. Patients or Other Participants: T1D with poor (n = 14), T1D(−) and good, T1D(+) (n = 15) glycemic control and matched (for age, sex, and body mass index) ND participants were included in the study. Intervention(s): There were no intervention. Main Outcome Measure(s): Comparison of qualitative and quantitative profiling of metabolome was performed. Results: In T1D(−), 347 known metabolites belonging to 38 metabolic pathways involved in cholesterol, vitamin D, tRNA, amino acids (AAs), bile acids, urea, tricarboxylic acid cycle, immune response, and eicosanoids were different from ND. In T1D(+),154 known metabolites belonging to 26 pathways including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, bile acids, tRNA biosynthesis, AAs, branch-chain AAs, retinol, and vitamin D metabolism remained altered from ND. Targeted measurements of AA metabolites, trichloroacetic acid, and free fatty acids showed directional changes similar to the untargeted metabolomics approach. Conclusions: Comprehensive metabolomic profiling identified extensive metabolomic abnormalities in T1D with poor glycemic control. Chronic good glycemic control failed to normalize many of these perturbations, suggesting a potential role for these persistent abnormalities in many complications in T1D. PMID:26796761

  17. Sociodemographic patterning of long-term diabetes mellitus control following Japan's 3.11 triple disaster: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Nomura, Shuhei; Shimada, Yuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the sociodemographic patterning of changes in glycaemic control of patients with diabetes affected by the 2011 triple disaster in Japan (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident). Methods A retrospective cohort study was undertaken with 404 patients with diabetes at a public hospital in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured in 2010, 2011 and 2012 to capture changes in glycaemic control postdisaster. Age, sex, urban/rural residency, evacuation status and medication use were also assessed. Results There was an overall deterioration in glycaemic control after the disaster, with the mean HbA1c rising from 6.77% in 2010 to 6.90% in 2012 (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, NGSP). Rural residency was associated with a lower likelihood of deteriorating control (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.84), compared with urban residency. Older age (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.98) was also slightly protective against increased HbA1c. Evacuation and sex were not significant predictors. Conclusions Patients with diabetes who were affected by Japan's triple disaster experienced a deterioration in their glycaemic control following the disasters. The extent of this deterioration was mediated by sociodemographic factors, with rural residence and older age protective against the effects of the disaster on glycaemic control. These results may be indicative of underlying social determinants of health in rural Japan. PMID:27388360

  18. Factors controlling the long-term temporal and spatial patterns of nitrate-nitrogen export in a dairy farming watershed.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rui; Wang, Chun-ying; Hatano, Ryusuke; Kuramochi, Kanta; Hayakawa, Atsushi; Woli, Krishna P

    2015-04-01

    It is difficult to investigate the factors that control the riverine nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) export in a watershed which gains or losses groundwater. To control the NO3--N contamination in these watersheds, it is necessary to investigate the factors that are related to the export of NO3--N that is only produced by the watershed itself. This study was conducted in the Shibetsu watershed located in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, which gains external groundwater contribution (EXT) and 34% of the annual NO3--N loading occurs through EXT. The riverine NO3--N exports from 1980 to 2009 were simulated by the SWAT model, and the factors controlling the temporal and spatial patterns of NO3--N exports were investigated without considering the EXT. The results show that hydrological events control NO3--N export at the seasonal scale, while the hydrological and biogeochemical processes are likely to control NO3--N export at the annual scale. There was an integrated effect among the land use, topography, and soil type related to denitrification process, that regulated the spatial patterns of NO3--N export. The spatial distribution of NO3--N export from hydrologic response units (HRUs) identified the agricultural areas with surplus N that are vulnerable to nitrate contamination. A new standard for the N fertilizer application rate including manure application should be given to control riverine NO3--N export. This study demonstrates that applying the SWAT model is an appropriate method to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of NO3--N export from the watershed which includes EXT and to identify the crucial pollution areas within a watershed in which the management practices can be improved to more effectively control NO3--N export to water bodies.

  19. Temporal course of changes in gene expression suggests a cytokine-related mechanism for long-term hippocampal alteration after controlled cortical impact.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Suhett, Camila P; Li, Zheng; Marini, Ann M; Braga, Maria F M; Eiden, Lee E

    2014-04-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) often has long-term effects on cognitive function and social behavior. Altered gene expression may be predictive of long-term psychological effects of mTBI, even when acute clinical effects are minimal or transient. Controlled cortical impact (CCI), which causes concussive, but nonpenetrant, trauma to underlying (non-cortical) brain, resulting in persistent changes in hippocampal synaptic function, was used as a model of mTBI. The hippocampal transcriptomes of sham-operated or injured male rats at 1, 7, and 30 days postinjury were examined using microarrays comprising a comprehensive set of expressed genes, subsequently confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Transcripts encoding the chemokines, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (Ccl)2 and Ccl7, inflammatory mediators lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1), immunocyte activators C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (Ccr5) and Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIb, receptor (CD32) (Fcgr2b), the major histocompatibility complex II immune response-related genes, Cd74 and RT1 class II, locus Da (RT1-Da), the complement component, C3, and the transcription factor, Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), were identified as early (Ccl2, Ccl7, Lcn2, and Timp1), intermediate (Ccr5, Fcgr2b, Cd74, RT1-Da, and C3), and late (Klf4) markers for bilateral hippocampal response to CCI. Ccl2 and Ccl7 transcripts were up-regulated within 24 h after CCI, and their elevation subsided within 1 week of injury. Other transcriptional changes occurred later and were more stable, some persisting for at least 1 month, suggesting that short-term inflammatory responses trigger longer-term alteration in the expression of genes previously associated with injury, aging, and neuronal function in the brain. These transcriptional responses to mTBI may underlie long-term changes in excitatory and inhibitory neuronal imbalance in hippocampus, leading to long-term

  20. Remediating Organizational Functioning in Children with ADHD: Immediate and Long-Term Effects from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Gallagher, Richard; Wells, Karen C.; Murray, Desiree W.; Huang, Lei; Lu, Feihan; Petkova, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study compared the efficacy of 2 behavioral interventions to ameliorate organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) difficulties in 3rd- to 5th-grade children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In a dual-site randomized controlled trial, 158 children were assigned to organizational skills training…

  1. Development of a flow controller for long-term sampling of gases and vapors using evacuated canisters.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Alan; Farant, Jean Pierre; Simon, Philippe; Wick, David P

    2002-11-15

    Anthropogenic activities contribute to the release of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into microenvironments. Developing and implementing new air sampling technologies that allow for the characterization of exposures to VOC can be useful for evaluating environmental and health concerns arising from such occurrences. A novel air sampler based on the use of a capillary flow controller connected to evacuated canisters (300 mL, 1 and 6 L) was designed and tested. The capillary tube, used to control the flow of air, is a variation on a sharp-edge orifice flow controller. It essentially controls the velocity of the fluid (air) as a function of the properties of the fluid, tube diameter and length. A model to predict flow rate in this dynamic system was developed. The mathematical model presented here was developed using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the ideal gas law to predict flow into the canisters used to sample for long periods of time. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation shows the relationship between flow rate, pressure gradient, capillary resistance, fluid viscosity, capillary length and diameter. The flow rates evaluated were extremely low, ranging from 0.05 to 1 mL min(-1). The model was compared with experimental results and was shown to overestimate the flow rate. Empirical equations were developed to more accurately predict flow for the 300 mL, 1 and 6 L canisters used for sampling periods ranging from several hours to one month. The theoretical and observed flow rates for different capillary geometries were evaluated. Each capillary flow controller geometry that was tested was found to generate very reproducible results, RSD < 2%. Also, the empirical formulas developed to predict flow rate given a specified diameter and capillary length were found to predict flow rate within 6% of the experimental data. The samplers were exposed to a variety of airborne vapors that allowed for comparison of the effectiveness of capillary flow controllers to

  2. An Interactive Health Communication Application for Supporting Parents Managing Childhood Long-Term Conditions: Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Families living with chronic or long-term conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), stages 3-5, face multiple challenges and respond to these challenges in various ways. Some families adapt well while others struggle, and family response to a condition is closely related to outcome. With families and professionals, we developed a novel condition-specific interactive health communication app to improve parents’ management ability—the online parent information and support (OPIS) program. OPIS consists of a comprehensive mix of clinical caregiving and psychosocial information and support. Objective The purpose of this study was to (1) assess feasibility of a future full-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) of OPIS in terms of recruitment and retention, data collection procedures, and psychometric performance of the study measures in the target population, and (2) investigate trends in change in outcome measures in a small-scale RCT in parents of children with CKD stages 3-5. Methods Parents were recruited from a pediatric nephrology clinic and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: usual support for home-based clinical caregiving (control) or usual support plus password-protected access to OPIS for 20 weeks (intervention). Both groups completed study measures at study entry and exit. We assessed feasibility descriptively in terms of recruitment and retention rates overall; assessed recruitment, retention, and uptake of the intervention between groups; and compared family condition management, empowerment to deliver care, and fathers’ involvement between groups. Results We recruited 55 parents of 39 children (42% of eligible families). Of those, about three-quarters of intervention group parents (19/26, 73%) and control group parents (22/29, 76%) were retained through completion of 20-week data collection. The overall retention rate was 41/55 (75%). The 41 parents completing the trial were asked to respond to the same 10

  3. A Microfluidic Device for Temporally Controlled Gene Expression and Long-Term Fluorescent Imaging in Unperturbed Dividing Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Charvin, Gilles; Cross, Frederick R.; Siggia, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Imaging single cells with fluorescent markers over multiple cell cycles is a powerful tool for unraveling the mechanism and dynamics of the cell cycle. Over the past ten years, microfluidic techniques in cell biology have emerged that allow for good control of growth environment. Yet the control and quantification of transient gene expression in unperturbed dividing cells has received less attention. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we describe a microfluidic flow cell to grow Saccharomyces Cerevisiae for more than 8 generations (≈12 hrs) starting with single cells, with controlled flow of the growth medium. This setup provides two important features: first, cells are tightly confined and grow in a remarkably planar array. The pedigree can thus be determined and single-cell fluorescence measured with 3 minutes resolution for all cells, as a founder cell grows to a micro-colony of more than 200 cells. Second, we can trigger and calibrate rapid and transient gene expression using reversible administration of inducers that control the GAL1 or MET3 promoters. We then show that periodic 10–20 minutes gene induction pulses can drive many cell division cycles with complete coherence across the cell cluster, with either a G1/S trigger (cln1 cln2 cln3 MET3-CLN2) or a mitotic trigger (cdc20 GALL-CDC20). Conclusions/Significance In addition to evident cell cycle applications, this device can be used to directly measure the amount and duration of any fluorescently scorable signal-transduction or gene-induction response over a long time period. The system allows direct correlation of cell history (e.g., hysteresis or epigenetics) or cell cycle position with the measured response. PMID:18213377

  4. Long-Term Adaptations to Unexpected Surface Perturbations: Postural Control During Stance and Gait in Train Conductors.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, Christian; Hoppe, Matthias Wilhelm; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to evaluate the differences in postural control during stance and gait between train conductors and controls. Twenty-one train conductors and 21 office workers performed 6 unilateral and bilateral balance tests on stable and unstable surfaces as well as a gait analysis. In the balance tests, the mean velocity of the center of pressure and unstable surface was measured. In the bilateral balance tests the selected stance width was measured. During gait the length, width, frequency, and velocity of the steps were calculated from the ground reaction forces. Train conductors showed a significantly greater step width during gait (15.4 ± 4.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.4 cm; p = .035) and stance width during the bilateral stance on the unstable surface (21.0 ± 5.1 vs. 17.8 ± 3.7 cm; p = .026) than the office workers, while no differences were revealed in balance variables. The revealed differences between train conductors and office workers may represent task-specific feedforward control strategies, which increase the base of support and may be helpful to resist unexpected perturbations in trains.

  5. Discontinuing financial incentives for adherence to antipsychotic depot medication: long-term outcomes of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Stefan; Bremner, Stephen A; Pavlickova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In a cluster randomised controlled trial, offering financial incentives improved adherence to antipsychotic depot medication over a 1-year period. Yet, it is unknown whether this positive effect is sustained once the incentives stop. Methods and analyses Patients in the intervention and control group were followed up for 2 years after the intervention. Primary and secondary outcomes were assessed at 6 months and 24 months post intervention. Assessments were conducted between September 2011 and November 2014. Results After the intervention period, intervention and control groups did not show any statistically significant differences in adherence, neither in the first 6 months (71% and 77%, respectively) nor in the following 18 months (68%, 74%). There were no statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes, that is, adherence ≥95% and untoward incidents either. Conclusions It may be concluded that incentives to improve adherence to antipsychotic maintenance medication are effective only for as long as they are provided. Once they are stopped, adherence returns to approximately baseline level with no sustained benefit. Trial registration number ISRCTN77769281; Results. PMID:27655261

  6. Long-term assessment of wild boar harvesting and cattle removal for bovine tuberculosis control in free ranging populations.

    PubMed

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Navarro-González, Nora; Velarde, Roser; Mateos, Ana; Marco, Ignasi; Olivé-Boix, Xavier; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Wild boar is a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the Mediterranean ecosystems, but information is scarce outside of hotspots in southern Spain. We describe the first high-prevalence focus of TB in a non-managed wild boar population in northern Spain and the result of eight years of TB management. Measures implemented for disease control included the control of the local wild boar population through culling and stamping out of a sympatric infected cattle herd. Post-mortem inspection for detection of tuberculosis-like lesions as well as cultures from selected head and cervical lymph nodes was done in 745 wild boar, 355 Iberian ibexes and five cattle between 2004 and 2012. The seasonal prevalence of TB reached 70% amongst adult wild boar and ten different spoligotypes and 13 MIRU-VNTR profiles were detected, although more than half of the isolates were included in the same clonal complex. Only 11% of infected boars had generalized lesions. None of the ibexes were affected, supporting their irrelevance in the epidemiology of TB. An infected cattle herd grazed the zone where 168 of the 197 infected boars were harvested. Cattle removal and wild boar culling together contributed to a decrease in TB prevalence. The need for holistic, sustained over time, intensive and adapted TB control strategies taking into account the multi-host nature of the disease is highlighted. The potential risk for tuberculosis emergence in wildlife scenarios where the risk is assumed to be low should be addressed.

  7. Long-term ketogenic diet contributes to glycemic control but promotes lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Qin, Juliang; Zhao, Yihan; Shi, Jueping; Lan, Rong; Gan, Yunqiu; Ren, Hua; Zhu, Bing; Qian, Min; Du, Bing

    2016-04-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been widely used in weight and glycemic control, although potential side effects of long-term KD treatment have caused persistent concern. In this study, we hypothesized that the KD would ameliorate the progression of diabetes but lead to disruptions in lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of diabetes. In type 2 diabetic mouse model, mice were fed a high-fat diet and administered streptozotocin treatment before given the test diets for 8 weeks. Subsequently, ameliorated glucose and insulin tolerance in KD-fed diabetic mice was found, although the body weight of high-fat diet- and KD-fed mice was similar. Interestingly, the weight of adipose tissue in KD mice was greater than in the other groups. The KD diet resulted in higher serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in diabetic mice. Moreover, the KD-fed mice showed greater hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice fed the KD showed significant changes in several key genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein, fibroblast growth factor 21, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, which are all important in metabolism. In summary, KD ameliorates glucose and insulin tolerance in a mouse model of diabetes, but severe hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis were observed, which should be considered carefully in the long-term application of KD.

  8. Controlled release and long-term antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide/quaternary ammonium salt nanocomposites prepared by non-covalent modification.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoli; Feng, Jin; Zhang, Jingxian; Yang, Xiujiang; Liao, Xiaoyan; Shi, Qingshan; Tan, Shaozao

    2017-01-01

    In order to control the long-term antibacterial property of quaternary ammonium salts, dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (rGO-1227) and rGO-bromohexadecyl pyridine (rGO-CPB) were self-assembled on surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via π-π interactions. The obtained rGO-1227 and rGO-CPB nanocompounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The antibacterial activities were evaluated on Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Both rGO-CPB and rGO-1227 reduced the cytotoxicity of the pure antimicrobial agents and presented strong antimicrobial properties. Especially, CPB could be loaded efficiently on the surface of rGO via π-π conjugate effect, which resulted in a nanocomposite presenting a long-term antibacterial capability due to the more important quantity of free π electrons compared to that of 1227. When comparing the advantages of both prepared nanocomposites, rGO-CPB displayed a better specific-targeting capability and a longer-term antibacterial property.

  9. Long-Term Effects of Resistance Exercise Training on Cognition and Brain Volume in Older Women: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Liang Hsu, Chun; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Aerobic exercise training has been shown to attenuate cognitive decline and reduce brain atrophy with advancing age. The extent to which resistance exercise training improves cognition and prevents brain atrophy is less known, and few studies include long-term follow-up cognitive and neuroimaging assessments. We report data from a randomized controlled trial of 155 older women, who engaged in 52 weeks of resistance training (either once- or twice-weekly) or balance-and-toning (twice-weekly). Executive functioning and memory were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up (i.e., immediately post-intervention), and 2-year follow-up. A subset underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at those time points. At 2-year follow-up, both frequencies of resistance training promoted executive function compared to balance-and-toning (standardized difference [d]=.31-.48). Additionally, twice-weekly resistance training promoted memory (d=.45), reduced cortical white matter atrophy (d=.45), and increased peak muscle power (d=.27) at 2-year follow-up relative to balance-and-toning. These effects were independent of one another. These findings suggest resistance training may have a long-term impact on cognition and white matter volume in older women.

  10. Long-term control of HIV-1 in hemophiliacs carrying slow-progressing allele HLA-B*5101.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yuka; Kuse, Nozomi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Naruto, Takuya; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Dohki, Sachi; Akahoshi, Tomohiro; Maenaka, Katsumi; Goulder, Philip; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2010-07-01

    HLA-B*51 alleles are reported to be associated with slow disease progression to AIDS, but the mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of HLA-B*5101 on clinical outcome for Japanese hemophiliacs who had been infected with HIV-1 before 1985 and had been recruited in 1998 for this study. HLA-B*5101(+) hemophiliacs exhibited significantly slow progression. The analysis of HLA-B*5101-restricted HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to 4 HLA-B*-restricted epitopes in 10 antiretroviral-therapy (ART)-free HLA-B*5101(+) hemophiliacs showed that the frequency of Pol283-8-specific CD8(+) T cells was inversely correlated with the viral load, whereas the frequencies of CD8(+) T cells specific for 3 other epitopes were positively correlated with the viral load. The HLA-B*5101(+) hemophiliacs whose HIV-1 replication had been controlled for approximately 25 years had HIV-1 possessing the wild-type Pol283-8 sequence or the Pol283-8V mutant, which does not critically affect T-cell recognition, whereas other HLA-B*5101(+) hemophiliacs had HIV-1 with escape mutations in this epitope. The results suggest that the control of HIV-1 over approximately 25 years in HLA-B*5101-positive hemophiliacs is associated with a Pol283-8-specific CD8(+) T-cell response and that lack of control of HIV-1 is associated with the appearance of Pol283-8-specific escape mutants.

  11. Sustainability of the Catalytic Activity of a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) for Long-Term Indoor Air Quality Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    TiO2-assisted photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is an emerging technology for indoor air quality control and is also being evaluated as an alternative trace contaminant control technology for crew habitats in space exploration. Though there exists a vast range of literature on the development of photocatalysts and associated reactor systems, including catalyst performance and performance-influencing factors, the critical question of whether photocatalysts can sustain their initial catalytic activity over an extended period of operation has not been adequately addressed. For a catalyst to effectively serve as an air quality control product, it must be rugged enough to withstand exposure to a multitude of low concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over long periods of time with minimal loss of activity. The objective of this study was to determine the functional lifetime of a promising photocatalyst - the silica-titania composite (STC) from Sol Gel Solutions, LLC in a real-world scenario. A bench-scale STC-packed annular reactor under continuous irradiation by a UV-A fluorescent black-light blue lamp ((lambda)max = 365 nm) was exposed to laboratory air continuously at an apparent contact time of 0.27 sand challenged with a known concentration of ethanol periodically to assess any changes in catalytic activity. Laboratory air was also episodically spiked with halocarbons (e.g., octafluoropropane), organosulfur compounds (e.g., sulfur hexafluoride), and organosilicons (e.g., siloxanes) to simulate accidental releases or leaks of such VOCs. Total organic carbon (TOC) loading and contaminant profiles of the laboratory air were also monitored. Changes in STC photocatalytic performance were evaluated using the ethanol mineralization rate, mineralization efficiency, and oxidation intermediate (acetaldehyde) formation. Results provide insights to any potential catalyst poisoning by trace halocarbons and organosulfur compounds.

  12. Randomized controlled trial of anterior-chamber intraocular lenses in Nepal: long-term follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, J. R.; Henning, A.; Pradhan, D.; Foster, A.; Lagnado, R.; Poulson, A.; Johnson, G. J.; Wormald, R. P.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the estimated 20 million people who are blind with cataracts live in rural areas of developing countries, where expert surgical resources are scarce. We have studied the use of multiflex open-loop anterior-chamber intraocular lenses (ACIOL) in high-volume low-cost surgery. Between 1992 and 1995, a total of 2000 people attending Lahan Eye Hospital, Nepal, with bilateral cataracts reducing vision to < or = 6/36 were randomly allocated to receive intracapsular extraction (ICCE) with aphakic spectacles, or ICCE with an ACIOL. We re-examined the cohort (1305/2000, 65%) between November 1996 and April 1997 and report the findings in this article. There were 13 new cases of poor visual outcome (best corrected vision < 6/60) arising after one year: 9 in the ACIOL group and 4 in the control group; odds ratio 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.59-9.55). The causes of poor outcome were as follows: ACIOL group--retinal detachment (4 cases), cystoid macular oedema (2), epiretinal membrane (1), age-related macular degeneration (1), and late endophthalmitis (1); control group--retinal detachment (2 cases), late endophthalmitis (1), and primary open-angle glaucoma with age-related macular degeneration (1). In rural areas of developing countries, well-manufactured multiflex open-loop ACIOLs can be implanted safely by experienced ophthalmologists after routine ICCE, avoiding the disadvantages of aphakic spectacle correction. PMID:10812737

  13. Antifouling coating with controllable and sustained silver release for long-term inhibition of infection and encrustation in urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Chiong, Edmund

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infections constitute a large proportion of nosocomial infections, and the urinary catheter is the most important predisposing factor. Encrustation induced by urease-producing uropathogens like Proteus mirabilis causes further complications. In the present work, a strategy for controllable and sustained release of silver over several weeks has been developed for combating bacterial infection and encrustation in urinary devices. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were first immobilized on polydopamine (PDA) pre-treated silicone catheter surface and this was followed by another PDA coating. The number of AgNP-PDA bilayers could be manipulated to control the amount of silver loaded and its subsequent release. Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate-co-acrylamide) was then grafted to provide an antifouling outer layer, and to ensure free diffusion of Ag from the surface. The micron-scale combination of an antifouling coating with AgNP-PDA bilayers reduced colonization of the urinary catheter by uropathogens by approximately two orders of magnitude. With one and two AgNP-PDA bilayers, the coated catheter could resist encrustation for 12 and 45 days, respectively, compared with approximately 6 days with the Dover™ silver-coated catheter. Such anti-infective and anti-encrustation catheters can potentially have a large impact on reducing patient morbidity and healthcare expenditure.

  14. Long-Term Quality Control Program Plan for Cord Blood Banks in Korea: A Pilot Study for Cryopreservation Stability

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Soo Hyun; Shin, Sue; Roh, Eun Youn; Song, Eun Young; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Byoung Jae

    2017-01-01

    Background Maintaining the quality of cryopreserved cord blood is crucial. In this pilot study, we describe the results of the internal quality control program for a cord blood bank thus far. Methods Donated cord blood units unsuitable for transplantation were selected for internal quality control once a month. One unit of cord blood, aliquoted into 21 capillaries, was cryopreserved and thawed annually to analyze the total nucleated cell count, CD34+ cell count, cell viability test, and colony-forming units assay. Results No significant differences in the variables (total nucleated cell count, cell viability, CD34+ cell count) were observed between samples cryopreserved for one and two years. Upon comparing the variables before cryopreservation and post thawing with the capillaries of one year of storage, cell viability and CD34+ cell counts decreased significantly. The use of cord blood samples in capillaries, which can be easily stored for a long period, was similar to the methods used for testing segments attached to the cord blood unit. Conclusions The results of this study may be useful for determining the period during which the quality of cryopreserved cord blood units used for transplantation is maintained. PMID:28028998

  15. Long term results of compression therapy alone versus compression plus surgery in chronic venous ulceration (ESCHAR): randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gohel, Manjit S; Barwell, Jamie R; Taylor, Maxine; Chant, Terry; Foy, Chris; Earnshaw, Jonothan J; Heather, Brian P; Mitchell, David C; Whyman, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether recurrence of leg ulcers may be prevented by surgical correction of superficial venous reflux in addition to compression. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Specialist nurse led leg ulcer clinics in three UK vascular centres. Participants 500 patients (500 legs) with open or recently healed leg ulcers and superficial venous reflux. Interventions Compression alone or compression plus saphenous surgery. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were ulcer healing and ulcer recurrence. The secondary outcome was ulcer free time. Results Ulcer healing rates at three years were 89% for the compression group and 93% for the compression plus surgery group (P=0.73, log rank test). Rates of ulcer recurrence at four years were 56% for the compression group and 31% for the compression plus surgery group (P<0.01). For patients with isolated superficial reflux, recurrence rates at four years were 51% for the compression group and 27% for the compress plus surgery group (P<0.01). For patients who had superficial with segmental deep reflux, recurrence rates at three years were 52% for the compression group and 24% for the compression plus surgery group (P=0.04). For patients with superficial and total deep reflux, recurrence rates at three years were 46% for the compression group and 32% for the compression plus surgery group (P=0.33). Patients in the compression plus surgery group experienced a greater proportion of ulcer free time after three years compared with patients in the compression group (78% v 71%; P=0.007, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion Surgical correction of superficial venous reflux in addition to compression bandaging does not improve ulcer healing but reduces the recurrence of ulcers at four years and results in a greater proportion of ulcer free time. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN07549334. PMID:17545185

  16. The long-term effect of minimalist shoes on running performance and injury: design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The outcome of the effects of transitioning to minimalist running shoes is a topic of interest for runners and scientists. However, few studies have investigated the longer term effects of running in minimalist shoes. The purpose of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate the effects of a 26 week transition to minimalist shoes on running performance and injury risk in trained runners unaccustomed to minimalist footwear. Methods and analysis A randomised parallel intervention design will be used. Seventy-six trained male runners will be recruited. To be eligible, runners must be aged 18–40 years, run with a habitual rearfoot footfall pattern, train with conventional shoes and have no prior experience with minimalist shoes. Runners will complete a standardised transition to either minimalist or control shoes and undergo assessments at baseline, 6 and 26 weeks. 5 km time-trial performance (5TT), running economy, running biomechanics, triceps surae muscle strength and lower limb bone mineral density will be assessed at each time point. Pain and injury will be recorded weekly. Training will be standardised during the first 6 weeks. Primary statistical analysis will compare 5TT between shoe groups at the 6-week time point and injury incidence across the entire 26-week study period. Ethics and dissemination This RCT has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of South Australia. Participants will be required to provide their written informed consent prior to participation in the study. Study findings will be disseminated in the form of journal publications and conference presentations after completion of planned data analysis. Trial registration number This RCT has been registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613000642785). PMID:26297368

  17. Long Term Effect on Professionals’ Knowledge, Practice and Attitudes towards User Involvement Four Years after Implementing an Organisational Development Plan: A Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rise, Marit By; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2016-01-01

    Background Health service organisations are increasingly implementing user involvement initiatives according to requirements from governments, such as user representation in administrational boards, better information to users, and more involvement of the users during treatment. Professionals are vital in all initiatives to enhance user involvement, and initiatives to increase involvement should influence the professionals’ practice and attitudes. The implementation of a development plan intending to enhance user involvement in a mental health hospital in Central Norway had no effect on the professionals after 16 months. The objective was therefore to investigate the long term effect on the professionals’ knowledge, practice and attitudes towards user involvement after four years. Methods This was a non-randomized controlled study including professionals from three mental health hospitals in Central Norway. A development plan intended to enhance user participation was implemented in one of the hospitals, including establishing a patient education centre and a user office, purchasing of user expertise, appointing contact professionals for next of kin, and improving of the centre’s information and the professional culture. The professionals at two other hospitals constituted the control group. All professionals were invited to answer the Consumer Participation Questionnaire (CPQ) and additional questions, at a four year interval. Results A total of 399 professionals participated (43% response rate). Comparing the changes in the intervention group with the changes in the control group, the results showed that the plan had improved some aspects of the professionals’ knowledge about the user involvement taking place in the hospital. In addition, some parts of the professionals’ practice of providing information to the service users was improved, and the development plan might have raised their awareness about insufficient involvement of next of kin

  18. An Exercise Protocol Designed to control Energy Expenditure and to have a Positive Impact on Maximal Oxygen Consumption for Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Seino, Satoshi; Shimojo, Nobutake; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption decreases during spaceflight, and astronauts also experience controversial weight loss. Future space missions require a more efficient exercise program to maintain work efficiency and to control increased energy expenditure (EE). We have been developing two types of original exercise training protocols which are better suited to astronauts’ daily routine exercise during long-term spaceflight: sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT). In this study, we compared the total EE, including excess post-exercise energy expenditure (EPEE), induced by our interval cycling protocols with the total EE of a traditional, continuous aerobic training (CAT). In the results, while the EPEEs after the SIT and HIAT were greater than after the CAT, the total EE for an entire exercise/rest session with the CAT was the greatest of our three exercise protocols. The SIT and HIAT would be potential protocols to control energy expenditure for long space missions.

  19. Investigating the impact of teachers' implementation practices on academic achievement in science during a long-term professional development program on the Science Writing Heuristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunel, Murat

    This study is a part of a bigger project known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) Partnership Professional Development Project, conducted at Iowa State University and the University of Iowa in association with the Iowa Department of Education to help improve science teaching. Overall, the goal of the project is to help practicing science teachers understand and apply a student-oriented instructional approach, using the SWH. The purpose of this research study was to examine the link between teachers' implementation of a student-oriented teaching approach through the SWH approach with embedded non-traditional writing practices and students' performances on standardized tests over a 3-year period. This study investigated the impact of 6 teachers' (3 high school teachers and 3 middle school teachers) implementation of the SWH approach on student standardized test scores over the 3-year period. A mixed method approach was adopted as a research method. A major premise underpinning this study is that in the rate of change differs by teachers, and that change is not a linear process for teachers. Results of the study indicated a differential across teachers in terms of improvement in pedagogical skills related to the SWH approach. Further, results showed that the SWH approach in-service program did have an impact on participating teachers' pedagogical practices. The majority of the participating teachers improved their pedagogical practices of implementing science inquiry through the SWH approach over the 3-year period of the professional development program. Further, when teachers' rankings were correlated against students' standardized test scores, the results indicated that as their implementation levels increased their students' test achievements also increased.

  20. Onset of hypertension during pregnancy is associated with long-term worse blood pressure control and adverse cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Roberto F; Reis, Muriel; Beppler, Ana Paula; Bellinazzi, Vera Regina; Mattos, Sandra S; Lima-Filho, José L; Cipolli, José A; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R; Pio-Magalhães, José A; Sposito, Andrei C; Matos-Souza, José R; Nadruz, Wilson

    2014-11-01

    Up to 20% of women with hypertensive pregnancy disorders might persist with chronic hypertension. This study compared clinical and echocardiographic features between women whose hypertension began as hypertensive pregnancy disorders (PH group) and women whose diagnosis of hypertension did not occur during pregnancy (NPH group). Fifty PH and 100 NPH women were cross-sectionally evaluated by clinical, laboratory, and echocardiography analysis, and the groups were matched by duration of hypertension. PH exhibited lower age (46.6 ± 1.4 vs. 65.3 ± 1.1 years; P < .001), but higher systolic (159.8 ± 3.9 vs. 148.0 ± 2.5 mm Hg; P = .009) and diastolic (97.1 ± 2.4 vs. 80.9 ± 1.3 mm Hg; P < .001) blood pressure than NPH, although used more antihypertensive classes (3.4 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 0.1; P < .001). Furthermore, PH showed higher left ventricular wall thickness and increased prevalence of concentric hypertrophy than NPH after adjusting for age and blood pressure. In conclusion, this study showed that PH may exhibit worse blood pressure control and adverse left ventricular remodeling compared with NPH.

  1. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 2: Long-term monitoring and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. This is the second volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. The first volume described the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. This second volume updates and completes the presentation of data to compare performance of fresh coatings with weathered coatings.

  2. Paleotectonic control on distribution of long-term deformation in the Central United States from high-resolution seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, M.; McIntosh, K. D.; Guo, L.

    2011-12-01

    The theory of plate tectonics has provided earth science with a framework to explain why the majority of earthquakes occur at plate boundaries. By contrast, the processes leading to intraplate earthquakes are still poorly understood worldwide because a) the very occurrence of such earthquakes violate plate tectonic theory; b) these earthquakes have long recurrence intervals due to intrinsic low strain rates imposed by far field plate boundary forces, and c) they occur in relatively tectonically quiescent areas where major intracontinental structures are buried/unexposed, and therefore poorly understood. While we know that intraplate earthquakes result from plate-driving forces transmitted through plate interiors, we still do not understand what controls the spatial and temporal pattern of these events. One of the most studied intracontinental seismic zones in the world is the central United States, home to the New Madrid seismic zone, where repeated large magnitude earthquakes have shaken the ground for the past few thousands years, but little deformation is measured at the surface and observed in the subsurface. In the past few years several lines of evidence have emerged showing that currently aseismic portions of the central United States have been the location of large magnitude earthquakes in the recent past (Holocene). Here we summarize the main results of the Moonwalk Project, a ~950 km-long high-resolution marine seismic reflection and CHIRP profile acquired on the Mississippi River from Cape Girardeau, Missouri, to Lake Providence, Louisiana. The profile images the New Madrid fault system as well as several additional faults outside the active fault zone (e.g. the Meeman-Shelby Fault - see Hao et al., this session), where the deformed river alluvium constrains the youngest age of deformation to the Holocene. The data also illuminate liquefaction-induced structures at few locations, one of them located at the Arkansas/Louisiana border, ~360 km south of the

  3. Accurate Control of 17β-Estradiol Long-Term Release Increases Reliability and Reproducibility of Preclinical Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Céline; Gallez, Anne; Dubois, Charline; Drion, Pierre; Delahaut, Philippe; Quertemont, Etienne; Noël, Agnès; Pequeux, Christel

    2017-03-01

    Estrogens are the subject of intensive researches aiming to elucidate their mechanism of action on the various tissues they target and especially on mammary gland and breast cancer. The use of ready-to-use slow releasing devices to administer steroids, especially estrogens, to small experimental animals remains the method of choice in terms of animal well-being and of safety for both the researcher and the animal. In this study, we evaluated and compared, in vitro and in vivo, the release kinetic of estradiol (E2) over sixty days from two different slow-releasing systems: the matrix pellet (MP) and the reservoir implant (RI). We compared the impact of these systems in three E2-sensitive mouse models : mammary gland development, human MCF7 adenocarcinoma xenograft and mouse melanoma progression. The real amount of E2 that is released from both types of devices could differ from manufacturer specifications due to inadequate release for MP and initial burst effect for RI. Compared to MP, the interindividual variability was reduced with RI thanks to a superior control of the E2 release. Depending on the dose-dependent sensitivity of the physiological or pathological readout studied, this could lead to an improvement of the statistical power of in vivo experiments and thus to a reduction of the required animal number. Altogether, our data draw attention on the importance to adequately select the slow-releasing device that is the most appropriated to a specific experiment to better fulfill the 3Rs rule (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) related to animal welfare and protection.

  4. Microbial carbon recycling - an underestimated process controlling soil carbon dynamics - Part 1: A long-term laboratory incubation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basler, A.; Dippold, M.; Helfrich, M.; Dyckmans, J.

    2015-10-01

    Independent of its chemical structure carbon (C) persists in soil for several decades, controlled by stabilization and recycling. To disentangle the importance of the two factors on the turnover dynamics of soil sugars, an important compound of soil organic matter (SOM), a 3-year incubation experiment was conducted on a silty loam soil under different types of land use (arable land, grassland and forest) by adding 13C-labelled glucose. The compound-specific isotope analysis of soil sugars was used to examine the dynamics of different sugars during incubation. Sugar dynamics were dominated by a pool of high mean residence times (MRT) indicating that recycling plays an important role for sugars. However, this was not substantially affected by soil C content. Six months after label addition the contribution of the label was much higher for microbial biomass than for CO2 production for all examined land use types, corroborating that substrate recycling was very effective within the microbial biomass. Two different patterns of tracer dynamics could be identified for different sugars: while fucose and mannose showed highest label contribution at the beginning of the incubation with a subsequent slow decline, galactose and rhamnose were characterized by slow label incorporation with subsequently constant levels, which indicates that recycling is dominating the dynamics of these sugars. This may correspond to (a) different microbial growing strategies (r and K-strategist) or (b) location within or outside the cell membrane (lipopolysaccharides vs. exopolysaccharides) and thus be subject of different re-use within the microbial food web. Our results show how the microbial community recycles substrate very effectively and that high losses of substrate only occur during initial stages after substrate addition. This study indicates that recycling is one of the major processes explaining the high MRT observed for many SOM fractions and thus is crucial for understanding the

  5. Serum Metabolomic Response to Long-Term Supplementation with all-rac-α-Tocopheryl Acetate in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Steven C.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Evans, Anne M.; Karoly, Edward D.; Männistö, Satu; Sampson, Joshua N.; Albanes, Demetrius

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a randomized controlled cancer prevention trial, showed a 32% reduction in prostate cancer incidence in response to vitamin E supplementation. Two other trials were not confirmatory, however. Objective. We compared the change in serum metabolome of the ATBC Study participants randomized to receive vitamin E to those who were not by randomly selecting 50 men from each of the intervention groups (50 mg/day all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (ATA), 20 mg/day β-carotene, both, placebo). Methods. Metabolomic profiling was conducted on baseline and follow-up fasting serum (Metabolon, Inc.). Results. After correction for multiple comparisons, five metabolites were statistically significantly altered (β is the change in metabolite level expressed as number of standard deviations on the log scale): α-CEHC sulfate (β = 1.51, p = 1.45 × 10−38), α-CEHC glucuronide (β = 1.41, p = 1.02 × 10−31), α-tocopherol (β = 0.97, p = 2.22 × 10−13), γ-tocopherol (β = −0.90, p = 1.76 × 10−11), and β-tocopherol (β = −0.73, p = 9.40 × 10−8). Glutarylcarnitine, beta-alanine, ornithine, and N6-acetyllysine were also decreased by ATA supplementation (β range 0.40 to −0.36), but not statistically significantly. Conclusions. Comparison of the observed metabolite alterations resulting from ATA supplementation to those in other vitamin E trials of different populations, dosages, or formulations may shed light on the apparently discordant vitamin E-prostate cancer risk findings. PMID:27840740

  6. Long-term effects of the Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) school-based cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emma L; Howe, Laura D; Kipping, Ruth R; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Noble, Sian M; Wells, Sian; Chittleborough, Catherine; Peters, Tim J; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term effectiveness of a school-based intervention to improve physical activity and diet in children. Design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Setting 60 primary schools in the southwest of England. Participants Primary school children who were aged 8–9 years at recruitment, 9–10 years during the intervention and 10–11 years at the long-term follow-up assessment. Intervention Teacher training, provision of lesson and child–parent interactive homework plans and teaching materials. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were accelerometer-assessed minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day, accelerometer-assessed minutes of sedentary behaviour per day and reported daily consumption of servings of fruit and vegetables. Results 60 schools with 2221 eligible children were recruited. As in the previously published assessment immediately after the end of the intervention, none of the three primary outcomes differed between children in schools allocated to the intervention, compared with those in control schools at the end of the long-term follow-up (1 year after the end of the intervention). Differences in secondary outcomes were consistent with those at the immediate follow-up, with no evidence that these had diminished over time. Comparing intervention with control schools, the difference in mean child-reported screen viewing at the weekend was −16.03 min (95% CI −32.82 to 0.73), for servings of snacks per day, the difference was −0.11 (95% CI −0.39 to 0.06), in servings of high-energy drinks per day −0.20 (95% CI −0.39 to −0.01) and in servings of high-fat foods per day −0.12 (95% CI −0.39 to 0.00). None of these reached our predefined level of statistical significance, especially after accounting for multiple testing. Conclusions School-based curriculum interventions alone are unlikely to have a major public health impact on children's diet and physical activity. Trial

  7. Human acellular dermal matrix allograft: A randomized, controlled human trial for the long-term evaluation of patients with extensive burns.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyong; Meng, Xianghai; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Yuejun; Li, Wangzhou; Lv, Xiaoxing; Xu, Xiaoli; Lei, Zhanjun; Li, Jinqing

    2015-06-01

    The potential of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) to improve cosmetic and functional outcomes has been demonstrated; however, there have been few clinical comparative studies assessing the long-term morphological, histological and functional changes after ADM placement. This study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the long-term outcomes of the cograft acellular dermal matrix with autologous thin split-thickness skin for the coverage of wounds in extensively burned patients. Thirty burn patients treated with a composite graft of ADM with autologous split-thickness skin from January 2007 to December 2009 were enrolled in this study. Another group of thirty patients who received only an autogenous split-thickness skin implant served as the control. Our study revealed that the collagen in the dermis treated with ADM were ordered, and the proportion of collagen III/I was much higher in the control group than in the ADM group. The basement membrane was prominent and continuous. Meanwhile, the VBSS (Vancouver Burn Skin Score) was used to evaluate skin quality, which shows a significant differences between the two group (P<0.001). Then the functional level was evaluated by the BI (Barthel Index), and the ADM group was much better than the control group (P=0.005). Based on these results, we concluded that the composite graft of ADM with autologous thin split-thickness skin was suitable for repairing the defects in functional areas after a burn. This technique might facilitate wound management with acceptable esthetic outcomes, good functional recovery and less scar hyperplasia at the donor site.

  8. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  9. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  10. Long Term Quadrotor Stabilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    and Control of a Quad-Rotor Micro-UAV Using Vision Sensors. Master’s thesis, Brigham Young University, 2008. [10] Gladiator Technologies, Inc. A40 MEMS...Acc. Technical report, Gladiator Tech- nologies, Inc., 2010. [11] Huang, Haomiao, Gabriel M. Hoffmann, Steven L. Waslander, and Claire J. Tomlin

  11. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  12. Long-term evaluation of different strategies of cationic polyelectrolyte dosage to control fouling in a membrane bioreactor treating refinery effluent.

    PubMed

    Alkmim, Aline R; da Costa, Paula R; Moser, Priscila B; França Neta, Luzia S; Santiago, Vânia M J; Cerqueira, Ana C; Amaral, Míriam C S

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the long-term use of cationic polyelectrolyte to improve the sludge filterability and to control membrane fouling in bioreactor membrane while treating refinery effluents have been evaluated in pilot scale. Corrective and preventive cationic polyelectrolyte dosages have been added to the membrane bioreactor (MBR) to evaluate the membrane fouling mitigation in both strategies. The results have confirmed that the use of the Membrane performance enhancer (MPE) increased the sludge filterability and reduced the membrane fouling. During the monitoring period, stress events occurred due to the increase in oil and grease and phenol concentrations in the MBR feeds. The preventive use of cationic polyelectrolyte allowed for a more effective and stable sludge filterability, with lower cationic polyelectrolyte consumption and without decreasing MBR's overall pollutant removal performance.

  13. Long-term effects of pioglitazone on first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in older people with type 2 diabetes: A case-control study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-08-01

    Long-term studies demonstrating the effect of pioglitazone use on primary prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between pioglitazone use and first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in Taiwan.We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 2359 type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed ischemic cerebrovascular disease from 2005 to 2011 as the case group and 4592 sex- and age-matched, randomly selected type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years without ischemic cerebrovascular disease as the control group. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with pioglitazone use was measured by the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model.After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariable logistic regression analysis disclosed that the adjusted ORs of first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with cumulative duration of using pioglitazone were 3.34 for <1 year (95% CI 2.59-4.31), 2.53 for 1 to 2 years (95% CI 1.56-4.10), 2.20 for 2 to 3 years (95% CI 1.05-4.64), and 1.09 for ≥3 years (95% CI 0.55-2.15), respectively.Our findings suggest that pioglitazone use does not have a protective effect on primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease among older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus during the first 3 years of use. Whether using pioglitazone for >3 years would have primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease needs a long-term research to prove.

  14. Long term presence of a single predominant tyrosinase-specific T-cell clone associated with disease control in a patient with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ochsenreither, Sebastian; Fusi, Alberto; Busse, Antonia; Letsch, Anne; Haase, Doreen; Thiel, Eckhard; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Keilholz, Ulrich

    2010-05-15

    In an earlier study, we described a patient who developed an anti-tyrosinase T-cell response leading to long-term tumor control. Here we analyzed this response with regard to T-cell receptor (TCR) Vbeta family usage and clonality in order to further elucidate the nature of the T cell response in this patient. For identification of expanded specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) clones, tetramer enrichment of tyrosinase reactive T-cells was followed by comparative quantitative reverse transcribed PCR (qRT PCR) quantification of all TCR Vbeta-families and sequencing of family Vbeta4 elevated in the enriched fraction. The predominant specific clone was quantified by clonotypic qRT PCR in multiple samples from blood, bone marrow, and tumor tissue. FACS analyses with staining of TYR.A2 and TCR Vbeta4 were performed. Epitope specific enrichment revealed an isolated increase of Vbeta-family 4. FACS analysis showed a shift of specific CTLs to Vbeta-family 4 during tumor regression with a maximum of 80% of all TYR.A2 specific cells belonging to this family. Sequencing revealed a single predominant clone against polyclonal background coding for identical CDR3 loops. The predominant clone was highly expressed in bone marrow and tumor tissue, and was detectable in blood over a period of ten years. Considering the results of previous studies showing a specific effector phenotype in blood and a specific memory compartment in bone marrow of this patient, this data implicate the predominant clone featured all attributes of a sufficient CTL response including homing capacity and memory formation resulting in long term clonal persistence and tumor control.

  15. Effects of an exercise and hypocaloric healthy eating program on biomarkers associated with long-term prognosis after early-stage breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Scott, E; Daley, A J; Doll, H; Woodroofe, N; Coleman, R E; Mutrie, N; Crank, H; Powers, H J; Saxton, J M

    2013-01-01

    Excess body weight at diagnosis and weight gain after breast cancer are associated with poorer long-term prognosis. This study investigated the effects of a lifestyle intervention on body weight and other health outcomes influencing long-term prognosis in overweight women (BMI > 25.0 kg/m(2)) recovering from early-stage (stage I-III) breast cancer. A total of 90 women treated 3-18 months previously were randomly allocated to a 6-month exercise and hypocaloric healthy eating program (n = 47, aged 55.6 ± 10.2 year) or control group (n = 43, aged 55.9 ± 8.9 year). Women in the intervention group received three supervised exercise sessions per week and individualized dietary advice, supplemented by weekly nutrition seminars. Body weight, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio [WHR], cardiorespiratory fitness, blood biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence and cardiovascular disease risk, and quality of life (FACT-B) were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Three-day diet diaries were used to assess macronutrient and energy intakes. A moderate reduction in body weight in the intervention group (median difference from baseline of -1.09 kg; IQR -0.15 to -2.90 kg; p = 0.07) was accompanied by significant reductions in waist circumference (p < 0.001), WHR (p = 0.005), total (p = 0.021) and saturated fat (p = 0.006) intakes, leptin (p = 0.005), total cholesterol (p = 0.046), and resting diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.03). Cardiopulmonary fitness (p < 0.001) and FACT-B quality of life (p = 0.004) also showed significant improvements in the intervention group. These findings suggest that an individualized exercise and a hypocaloric healthy eating program can positively impact upon health outcomes influencing long-term prognosis in overweight women recovering from early-stage breast cancer.

  16. Long-term Effectiveness of Online Anaphylaxis Education for Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Sandra; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Loh, Richard; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of an Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA) anaphylaxis e-learning program compared to lectures or no training. Design. A controlled interrupted-time-series study of Australian pharmacists and pharmacy students who completed ASCIA anaphylaxis e-learning or lecture programs was conducted during 2011-2013. Effectiveness was measured using a validated test administered pretraining, posttraining, and 3 and 7 months after training. Assessment. All learning groups performed significantly better on all posttests compared to the pretest, and compared to a control group (p<0.001). The proportion of e-learners achieving the minimum standard for anaphylaxis knowledge improved from 45% at pretest to 87% at 7 months. Conclusion. The ASCIA e-learning program significantly increased anaphylaxis knowledge. The high proportion of participants achieving the minimum standard at 7 months indicates long-term knowledge change. PMID:25258441

  17. Systemic and renal oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension: modulation of long-term control of arterial blood pressure by resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Shereen M.; Dyck, Jason R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension affects over 25% of the global population and is associated with grave and often fatal complications that affect many organ systems. Although great advancements have been made in the clinical assessment and treatment of hypertension, the cause of hypertension in over 90% of these patients is unknown, which hampers the development of targeted and more effective treatment. The etiology of hypertension involves multiple pathological processes and organ systems, however one unifying feature of all of these contributing factors is oxidative stress. Once the body's natural anti-oxidant defense mechanisms are overwhelmed, reactive oxygen species (ROS) begin to accumulate in the tissues. ROS play important roles in normal regulation of many physiological processes, however in excess they are detrimental and cause widespread cell and tissue damage as well as derangements in many physiological processes. Thus, control of oxidative stress has become an attractive target for pharmacotherapy to prevent and manage hypertension. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4′-Trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring polyphenol which has anti-oxidant effects in vivo. Many studies have shown anti-hypertensive effects of resveratrol in different pre-clinical models of hypertension, via a multitude of mechanisms that include its function as an anti-oxidant. However, results have been mixed and in some cases resveratrol has no effect on blood pressure. This may be due to the heavy emphasis on peripheral vasodilator effects of resveratrol and virtually no investigation of its potential renal effects. This is particularly troubling in the arena of hypertension, where it is well known and accepted that the kidney plays an essential role in the long term regulation of arterial pressure and a vital role in the initiation, development and maintenance of chronic hypertension. It is thus the focus of this review to discuss the potential of resveratrol as an anti-hypertensive treatment via

  18. KINET: a social marketing programme of treated nets and net treatment for malaria control in Tanzania, with evaluation of child health and long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, J R; Abdulla, S; Minja, H; Nathan, R; Mukasa, O; Marchant, T; Mponda, H; Kikumbih, N; Lyimo, E; Manchester, T; Tanner, M; Lengeler, C

    1999-01-01

    We present a large-scale social marketing programme of insecticide-treated nets in 2 rural districts in southwestern Tanzania (population 350,000) and describe how the long-term child health and survival impact will be assessed. Formative and market research were conducted in order to understand community perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and practice with respect to the products to be socially marketed. We identified Zuia Mbu (Kiswahili for 'prevent mosquitoes') as a suitable brand name for both treated nets and single-dose insecticide treatment sachets. A mix of public and private sales outlets is used for distribution. In the first stage of a stepped introduction 31 net agents were appointed and trained in 18 villages: 15 were shop owners, 14 were village leaders, 1 was a parish priest and 1 a health worker. For net treatment 37 young people were appointed in the same villages and trained as agents. Further institutions in both districts such as hospitals, development projects and employers were also involved in distribution. Promotion for both products was intense and used a variety of channels. A total of 22,410 nets and 8072 treatments were sold during the first year: 18 months after launching, 46% of 312 families with children aged under 5 years reported that their children were sleeping under treated nets. A strong evaluation component in over 50,000 people allows assessment of the long-term effects of insecticide-treated nets on child health and survival, anaemia in pregnancy, and the costs of the intervention. This evaluation is based on cross-sectional surveys, and case-control and cohort studies.

  19. Combining Modeling and Monitoring to Produce a New Paradigm of an Integrated Approach to Providing Long-Term Control of Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogwell, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    Sir David King, Chief Science Advisor to the British government and Cambridge University Professor, stated in October 2005, "The scientific community is considerably more capable than it has been in the past to assist governments to avoid and reduce risk to their own populations. Prime ministers and presidents ignore the advice from the science community at the peril of their own populations." Some of these greater capabilities can be found in better monitoring techniques applied to better modeling methods. These modeling methods can be combined with the information derived from monitoring data in order to decrease the risk of population exposure to dangerous substances and to promote efficient control or cleanup of the contaminants. An introduction is presented of the types of problems that exist for long-term control of radionuclides at DOE sites. A breakdown of the distributions at specific sites is given, together with the associated difficulties. A paradigm for remediation showing the integration of monitoring with modeling is presented. It is based on a feedback system that allows for the monitoring to act as principal sensors in a control system. The resulting system can be optimized to improve performance. Optimizing monitoring automatically entails linking the monitoring with modeling. If monitoring designs were required to be more efficient, thus requiring optimization, then the monitoring automatically becomes linked to modeling. Records of decision could be written to accommodate revisions in monitoring as better modeling evolves. Currently the establishment of a very prescriptive monitoring program fails to have a mechanism for improving models and improving control of the contaminants. The technical pieces of the required paradigm are already available; they just need to be implemented and applied to solve the long-term control of the contaminants. An integration of the various parts of the system is presented. Each part is described, and examples are

  20. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  1. HadISD: a quality-controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations from 1973-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, R. J. H.; Willett, K. M.; Thorne, P. W.; Woolley, E. V.; Durre, I.; Dai, A.; Parker, D. E.; Vose, R. S.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the creation of HadISD: an automatically quality-controlled synoptic resolution dataset of temperature, dewpoint temperature, sea-level pressure, wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover from global weather stations for 1973-2011. The full dataset consists of over 6000 stations, with 3427 long-term stations deemed to have sufficient sampling and quality for climate applications requiring sub-daily resolution. As with other surface datasets, coverage is heavily skewed towards Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. The dataset is constructed from a large pre-existing ASCII flatfile data bank that represents over a decade of substantial effort at data retrieval, reformatting and provision. These raw data have had varying levels of quality control applied to them by individual data providers. The work proceeded in several steps: merging stations with multiple reporting identifiers; reformatting to netCDF; quality control; and then filtering to form a final dataset. Particular attention has been paid to maintaining true extreme values where possible within an automated, objective process. Detailed validation has been performed on a subset of global stations and also on UK data using known extreme events to help finalise the QC tests. Further validation was performed on a selection of extreme events world-wide (Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the cold snap in Alaska in 1989 and heat waves in SE Australia in 2009). Some very initial analyses are performed to illustrate some of the types of problems to which the final data could be applied. Although the filtering has removed the poorest station records, no attempt has been made to homogenise the data thus far, due to the complexity of retaining the true distribution of high-resolution data when applying adjustments. Hence non-climatic, time-varying errors may still exist in many of the individual station records and care is needed in inferring long-term trends from these data. This dataset will allow the

  2. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Balance Training on Physical Activity in Older Adults With Osteoporosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hagströmer, Maria; Hellénius, Mai-Lis; Ståhle, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: We have developed a 12-week balance training program for older adults shown to improve fall-related concerns, gait speed, balance performance, and physical function. We hypothesized that this balance training would also contribute to higher habitual physical activity (PA) levels and improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The primary aim was to evaluate short- and long-term effects of the balance training program on objectively measured habitual PA in older adults with osteoporosis. Secondary aims were to assess the effects of the balance training on HRQoL, and to study whether any effects on PA were associated with changes in HRQoL, gait speed, balance performance, fall-related concerns, and physical function. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3, 9, and 15 months, including 91 participants with osteoporosis (75.6 ± 5.4 years), compared a balance training group (n = 61) with a control group (n = 30). The primary outcome was effect on habitual PA measured as steps/day, dichotomized into less than 5000 or 5000 or more steps/day. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers (Yamax) and accelerometers (Actigraph), HRQoL with the Short Form-36 (SF-36), gait with a GAITRite walkway, balance performance with Modified-Figure-Eight test and one-leg stance, fall-related concerns with Falls Efficacy Scale International, and physical function with the advanced lower extremity subscale of the questionnaire Late Life Function and Disability Instrument. Statistical methods used were multivariate logistic regression and logistic generalized estimating equation. Results: Sixty-eight participants completed the short-term follow-up at 3 months, and 53 participants completed the long-term follow-up at 15 months. Per-protocol analysis (n = 68) showed that the odds ratio for having a daily step count of 5000 or more at 3 months was 6.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-30.91), P = .027, for the intervention group compared with the

  3. Short- and long-term effects of tactile massage on salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: a randomised controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with limited knowledge about the normal function and effects of non-pharmacological therapies on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the study was to analyse the basal diurnal and total secretion of salivary cortisol in short- and long-term aspects of tactile massage (TM). Methods Design: Prospective, Controlled and Randomised Multicentre Trial. Setting and interventions: Forty-five women and men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. Twenty-nine of them were blindly randomised to tactile massage (TM) and 16 of them to the control group, rest to music (RTM). Ten interventions were given during 8 weeks followed by a 26 weeks of follow up. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, 8 pm, and 8 am the next day, on five occasions. With the first and eighth interventions, it was collected immediately before and after intervention. Main outcome measures: The primary aim was to assess and compare cortisol concentrations before and immediately after intervention and also during the follow-up period. The secondary aim was to assess the impact of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration and severity of PD, effects of interventional time-point of the day, and levodopa doses on cortisol concentration. Results The median cortisol concentrations for all participants were 16.0, 5.8, 2.8, and 14.0 nmol/L at baseline, later reproduced four times without significant differences. Cortisol concentrations decreased significantly after TM intervention but no change in diurnal salivary cortisol pattern was found. The findings of reduced salivary cortisol concentrations immediately after the interventions are in agreement with previous studies. However, there was no significant difference between the TM and control groups. There were no significant correlations between cortisol concentrations and age, gender, BMI, time-point for intervention, time interval between anti

  4. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant depression: the Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS)

    PubMed Central

    Fonagy, Peter; Rost, Felicitas; Carlyle, Jo-anne; McPherson, Susan; Thomas, Rachel; Pasco Fearon, RM; Goldberg, David; Taylor, David

    2015-01-01

    This pragmatic randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (LTPP) as an adjunct to treatment-as-usual according to UK national guidelines (TAU), compared to TAU alone, in patients with long-standing major depression who had failed at least two different treatments and were considered to have treatment-resistant depression. Patients (N=129) were recruited from primary care and randomly allocated to the two treatment conditions. They were assessed at 6-monthly intervals during the 18 months of treatment and at 24, 30 and 42 months during follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the 17-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), with complete remission defined as a HDRS-17 score ≤8, and partial remission defined as a HDRS-17 score ≤12. Secondary outcome measures included self-reported depression as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory - II, social functioning as evaluated by the Global Assessment of Functioning, subjective wellbeing as rated by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure, and satisfaction with general activities as assessed by the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. Complete remission was infrequent in both groups at the end of treatment (9.4% in the LTPP group vs. 6.5% in the control group) as well as at 42-month follow-up (14.9% vs. 4.4%). Partial remission was not significantly more likely in the LTPP than in the control group at the end of treatment (32.1% vs. 23.9%, p=0.37), but significant differences emerged during follow-up (24 months: 38.8% vs. 19.2%, p=0.03; 30 months: 34.7% vs. 12.2%, p=0.008; 42 months: 30.0% vs. 4.4%, p=0.001). Both observer-based and self-reported depression scores showed steeper declines in the LTPP group, alongside greater improvements on measures of social adjustment. These data suggest that LTPP can be useful in improving the long-term outcome of treatment-resistant depression. End

  5. Dietary and body weight control: therapeutic education, motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral approaches for long-term weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Golay, Alain

    2006-01-01

    A diet always induces weight loss in the short term. The loss does not depend on the dietary composition but rather on the caloric deficit. However, a drastic diet often induces binge eating disorders and can lead to a weight gain in the long term. A cognitive-behavioral-nutritional approach allows lasting weight loss and best results with low fat diets in the long term. Therapeutic education is a patient-centered humanistic approach which allows patients to be actors in their own treatment and own diet to improve their success in losing weight and their quality of life. Motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral approaches are perfect complements to therapeutic education for long-term weight loss maintenance. Finally, the best diet is the one that the patient can follow in the long term.

  6. Risk of hip, subtrochanteric, and femoral shaft fractures among mid and long term users of alendronate: nationwide cohort and nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Eastell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the skeletal safety and efficacy of long term (≥10 years) alendronate use in patients with osteoporosis. Design Open register based cohort study containing two nested case control studies. Setting Nationwide study of population of Denmark. Participants 61 990 men and women aged 50-94 at the start of treatment, who had not previously taken alendronate, 1996-2007. Interventions Treatment with alendronate. Main outcome measures Incident fracture of the subtrochanteric femur or femoral shaft (ST/FS) or the hip. Non-fracture controls from the cohort were matched to fracture cases by sex, year of birth, and year of initiation of alendronate treatment. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios with and without adjustment for comorbidity and comedications. Sensitivity analyses investigated subsequent treatment with other drugs for osteoporosis. Results 1428 participants sustained a ST/FS (incidence rate 3.4/1000 person years, 95% confidence interval 3.2 to 3.6), and 6784 sustained a hip fracture (16.2/1000 person years, 15.8 to 16.6). The risk of ST/FS was lower with high adherence to treatment with alendronate (medication possession ratio (MPR, a proxy for compliance) >80%) compared with poor adherence (MPR <50%; odds ratio 0.88, 0.77 to 0.99; P=0.05). Multivariable adjustment attenuated this association (adjusted odds ratio 0.88, 0.77 to 1.01; P=0.08). The risk was no higher in long term users (≥10 dose years; 0.70, 0.44 to 1.11; P=0.13) or in current compared with past users (0.91, 0.79 to 1.06; P=0.22). Similarly, MPR >80% was associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture (0.73, 0.68 to 0.78; P<0.001) as was longer term cumulative use for 5-10 dose years (0.74, 0.67 to 0.83; P<0.001) or ≥10 dose years (0.74, 0.56 to 0.97; P=0.03). Conclusions These findings support an acceptable balance between benefit and risk with treatment with alendronate in terms of fracture outcomes, even for over 10

  7. HadISD: a quality controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations from 1973-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, R. J. H.; Willett, K. M.; Thorne, P. W.; Woolley, E. V.; Durre, I.; Dai, A.; Parker, D. E.; Vose, R. S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes the creation of HadISD; an automatically quality-controlled synoptic resolution dataset of temperature, dewpoint temperature, sea-level pressure, wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover from global weather stations for 1973-2010. The full dataset consists of over 6000 stations, with 3375 long-term stations deemed to have sufficient sampling and quality for climate applications requiring sub-daily resolution. As with other surface datasets, coverage is heavily skewed towards Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. The dataset is constructed from a large pre-existing ASCII flatfile data bank that represents over a decade of substantial effort at data retrieval, reformatting and provision. The work proceeded in several steps: merging stations with multiple reporting identifiers; reformatting to netcdf; quality control; and then filtering to form a final dataset. Particular attention has been paid to maintaining true extreme values where possible within an automated objective process. Detailed validation has been performed on a subset of global stations and also on UK data using known extreme events to help finalise the QC tests. Further validation was performed on a selection of extreme events world-wide (Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the cold snap in Alaska in 1989 and heat waves in SE Australia in 2009). Some very initial analyses are performed to illustrate some of the types of problems to which the final data could be applied. Although the filtering has removed the poorest station records, no attempt has been made to homogenise the data thus far, due to the complexity of retaining the true distribution of high-resolution data when applying adjustments. Hence non-climatic, time-varying errors may still exist in many of the individual station records and care is needed in inferring long-term trends from these data. This dataset will allow the study of high frequency variations of temperature, pressure and humidity on a global basis over the last four

  8. Long-term memory-based control of attention in multi-step tasks requires working memory: evidence from domain-specific interference

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Rebecca M.; Carbone, Elena; Schneider, Werner X.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for long-term memory (LTM)-based control of attention has been found during the execution of highly practiced multi-step tasks. However, does LTM directly control for attention or are working memory (WM) processes involved? In the present study, this question was investigated with a dual-task paradigm. Participants executed either a highly practiced visuospatial sensorimotor task (speed stacking) or a verbal task (high-speed poem reciting), while maintaining visuospatial or verbal information in WM. Results revealed unidirectional and domain-specific interference. Neither speed stacking nor high-speed poem reciting was influenced by WM retention. Stacking disrupted the retention of visuospatial locations, but did not modify memory performance of verbal material (letters). Reciting reduced the retention of verbal material substantially whereas it affected the memory performance of visuospatial locations to a smaller degree. We suggest that the selection of task-relevant information from LTM for the execution of overlearned multi-step tasks recruits domain-specific WM. PMID:24847304

  9. Evaluation of larvicides in developing management guidelines for long-term control of pest blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) along the Orange River, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R W; Rivers-Moore, N A

    2008-12-01

    In 2000 and 2001 Orange River levels were higher than normal: associated serious outbreaks of blackfly had a substantial detrimental impact on the local economy. The poor control was attributed to the suspected development of larval resistance to temephos. A long-term solution to blackfly control, through the identification of a suitable replacement to temephos for use during high flow conditions, was proposed. This study, however, failed to identify or register a suitable larvicide for use during high flow conditions. Although permethrin was highly effective against blackfly larvae, it was rejected because of its detrimental impacts on non-target fauna. Various formulations of locally produced dry Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (B.t.i.) were tested, but these were ineffective against blackflies. The study also confirmed that resistance to temephos has developed among Simulium chutteri in the middle and lower Orange River. The feasibility of "reversing" the resistance to temephos through the use of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was investigated, but the results were not favourable. Furthermore, PBO was highly toxic to blackflies and non-target organisms, and was not recommended for further testing. This means that B.t.i. currently remains the only symptomatic measure of treatment currently applied. Although resistance to B.t.i. has not been reported for blackflies elsewhere in South Africa, there is a need to remain vigilant and to implement an operational strategy that minimizes the risks of resistance developing.

  10. Long-term memory-based control of attention in multi-step tasks requires working memory: evidence from domain-specific interference.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Rebecca M; Carbone, Elena; Schneider, Werner X

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for long-term memory (LTM)-based control of attention has been found during the execution of highly practiced multi-step tasks. However, does LTM directly control for attention or are working memory (WM) processes involved? In the present study, this question was investigated with a dual-task paradigm. Participants executed either a highly practiced visuospatial sensorimotor task (speed stacking) or a verbal task (high-speed poem reciting), while maintaining visuospatial or verbal information in WM. Results revealed unidirectional and domain-specific interference. Neither speed stacking nor high-speed poem reciting was influenced by WM retention. Stacking disrupted the retention of visuospatial locations, but did not modify memory performance of verbal material (letters). Reciting reduced the retention of verbal material substantially whereas it affected the memory performance of visuospatial locations to a smaller degree. We suggest that the selection of task-relevant information from LTM for the execution of overlearned multi-step tasks recruits domain-specific WM.

  11. Long-term upregulation of inflammation and suppression of cell proliferation in the brain of adult rats exposed to traumatic brain injury using the controlled cortical impact model.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Sandra A; Tajiri, Naoki; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Grimmig, Bethany; Diamond, David M; Diamond, David; Sanberg, Paul R; Bickford, Paula C; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2013-01-01

    The long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI), specifically the detrimental effects of inflammation on the neurogenic niches, are not very well understood. In the present in vivo study, we examined the prolonged pathological outcomes of experimental TBI in different parts of the rat brain with special emphasis on inflammation and neurogenesis. Sixty days after moderate controlled cortical impact injury, adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were euthanized and brain tissues harvested. Antibodies against the activated microglial marker, OX6, the cell cycle-regulating protein marker, Ki67, and the immature neuronal marker, doublecortin, DCX, were used to estimate microglial activation, cell proliferation, and neuronal differentiation, respectively, in the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ), striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle. Stereology-based analyses revealed significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle. In parallel, significant decrements in Ki67-positive proliferating cells in SVZ and SGZ, but only trends of reduced DCX-positive immature neuronal cells in SVZ and SGZ were detected relative to sham control group. These results indicate a progressive deterioration of the TBI brain over time characterized by elevated inflammation and suppressed neurogenesis. Therapeutic intervention at the chronic stage of TBI may confer abrogation of these deleterious cell death processes.

  12. Development of a separate tank with an electrolysis-dependent bacteria controlling system for the long term storage of potable water.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Akinori; Tanji, Masataka; Hayashi, Nobuatsu; Wakabayashi, Akihiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Hotta, Kunimoto

    2006-12-01

    For the long term storage of tap water, we developed a separate type of tank (5 m3) equipped with an electrolysis system to control bacterial growth. The electrolysis conditions using 20A direct current and a water flow rate of 10 L/min were capable of producing available chlorine (AC) at the rate of 5-8mg/min and raising the AC level of the stored tap water by about 0.2 mg/kg within 20-30 min The electrolyzed tap water with 0.2 mg/kg AC showed a capability per ml of killing 10(5)-10(6) cfu of bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 15 sec. A 6-month trial operation of the storage system with an automatic electrolysis control to keep AC level ranging 0.2-0.4 mg/kg demonstrated that the system worked well for the stored tap water in suppressing bacterial growth as well as in keeping good potable quality with reference to the 46 parameters specified for Japanese tap water. Actually, the electrolysis treatment was administered intermittently with an interval of about two weeks. Thus we believe the developed system has good potential to secure a potable water supply not only in the occasion of emergencies but also in countries having problems in the supply of safe drinking water.

  13. A controlled trial of high dose interferon, alone and after prednisone withdrawal, in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: long term follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Perez, V; Findor, J; Tanno, H; Sordá, J

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of high dose interferon, with or without prednisone pretreatment, in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Patients were randomised to two treatment groups: group I (n = 26) received six weeks of prednisone followed by a two week, drug free period, and then 10 million units (MU) of interferon alfa-2b three times weekly subcutaneously for 16 weeks; group II (n = 24) were used as controls for 24 weeks and then treated with interferon. Loss of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA, with a return to normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, was seen in 16 of 26 group I patients (61.5%), in one group II patient (4.2%) during the control phase, and in 13 of 23 group II patients (56.5%) after interferon. Three of 26 (11.5%) in group I and one of 23 (4.3%) in group II eliminated the surface antigen (HBsAg). There were no statistically significant differences in response between groups I and II. Liver biopsies carried out in 20 patients showed that responders had a noticeable reduction in inflammation and disappearance of core antigen in liver tissue, changes not seen in non-responders. On long term follow up (four years), nine out of 28 responders (32.1%) eliminated HBsAg, and four initial non-responders had a late seroconversion. PMID:8314497

  14. Long-term pulse wave velocity outcomes with aerobic and resistance training in kidney transplant recipients – A pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Thomas H.; Lindup, Herolin; Nugent, Eilish; Goldsmith, David; Macdougall, Iain C.; Greenwood, Sharlene A.

    2017-01-01

    Background This pilot study examined long-term pulse wave velocity (PWV) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) outcomes following a 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic or resistance training programme in kidney transplant recipients. Method Single-blind, bi-centre randomised controlled parallel trial. 42 out of 60 participants completed a 9-month follow-up assessment (Aerobic training = 12, Resistance training = 10 and usual care = 20). Participants completed 12 weeks of twice-weekly supervised aerobic or resistance training. Following the 12-week exercise intervention, participants were transitioned to self-managed community exercise activity using motivational interviewing techniques. Usual care participants received usual encouragement for physical activity during routine clinical appointments in the transplant clinic. PWV, VO2peak, blood pressure and body weight were assessed at 12 weeks and 12 months, and compared to baseline. Results ANCOVA analysis, covarying for baseline values, age, and length of time on dialysis pre-transplantation, revealed a significant mean between-group difference in PWV of -1.30 m/sec (95%CI -2.44 to -0.17, p = 0.03) between resistance training and usual care groups. When comparing the aerobic training and usual care groups at 9-month follow-up, there was a mean difference of -1.05 m/sec (95%CI -2.11 to 0.017, p = 0.05). A significant mean between-group difference in relative VO2peak values of 2.2 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.37 to 4.03, p = 0.02) when comparing aerobic training with usual care was revealed. There was no significant between group differences in body weight or blood pressure. There were no significant adverse effects associated with the interventions. Conclusions Significant between-group differences in 9-month follow-up PWV existed when comparing resistance exercise intervention with usual care. A long-term between-group difference in VO2peak was only evident when comparing aerobic intervention with usual care. This pilot study

  15. Preferential flow paths in paraglacial catchments: first order controls on the long-term stability of 'biodiversity hotspots' in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocott, Michael; Kettridge, Nick; Bradley, Chris; Milner, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    PFPs are a fundamental first order control upon the occurrence of 'biodiversity hotspots' within paraglacial floodplains, and highlights their role as an important conduit for hillslope-floodplain connectivity. Given the expected changes in the hydrological dynamics of paraglacial catchments this research raises questions about the long-term stability of GW-fed streams, and whether the increasing relative importance of groundwater sources (e.g. from colluvium) can sustain flow of GW-fed streams. In addition glacial retreat and associated long-term declines in sediment yields could have negative implications for the development and renewal of PFPs across paraglacial floodplains, which would be detrimental to the persistence of 'biodiversity hotspots'.

  16. Sustained treatment effect in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: focus on long-term placebo-controlled randomized maintenance withdrawal and open-label studies.

    PubMed

    Goodman, David W

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists throughout life. Approximately two-thirds of patients with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD continue to experience clinically significant symptoms into adulthood. Nevertheless, most of these individuals consider themselves "well," and a vast majority discontinue medication treatment during adolescence. As evidence concerning the adult presentation of ADHD becomes more widely accepted, increasing numbers of physicians and patients will face decisions about the benefits and risks of continuing ADHD treatment. The risks associated with psychostimulant pharmacotherapy, including abuse, dependence, and cardiovascular events, are well understood. Multiple clinical trials demonstrate the efficacy of psychostimulants in controlling ADHD symptoms in the short term. Recent investigations using randomized withdrawal designs now provide evidence of a clinically significant benefit with continued long-term ADHD pharmacotherapy and provide insight into the negative consequences associated with discontinuation. Because many patients lack insight regarding their ADHD symptoms and impairments, they may place a low value on maintaining treatment. Nevertheless, for patients who choose to discontinue treatment, physicians can remain a source of support and schedule follow-up appointments to reassess patient status. Medication discontinuation can be used as an opportunity to help patients recognize their most impairing symptoms, learn and implement behavioral strategies to cope with ADHD symptoms, and understand when additional supportive resources and the resumption of medication management may be necessary.

  17. Long-Term Motor Deficits after Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats Can Be Detected by Fine Motor Skill Tests but Not by Automated Gait Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, Lisa-Maria; Jahanshahi, Ali; Lemmens, Evi; Schipper, Sandra; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Joosten, Elbert; Temel, Yasin; Hendrix, Sven

    2017-01-15

    Animal models with constant, long-lasting motor deficits together with the right tests to assess behavioral abnormalities are needed to study the effectiveness of potential therapies to restore motor functions. In the current study, controlled cortical impact (CCI) was applied in rats to induce damage to the forelimb area of the motor cortex and the dorsal striatum. Motor behavior was assessed before and after CCI, using fine motor skill tests such as the adhesive removal test, the cylinder test, and the Montoya staircase test as well as the automated gait analysis system CatWalk XT over a 6 week period. CCI caused a variety of unilateral motor deficits, which were characterized in detail by using the selected fine motor skill tests. In striking contrast to previous studies on CCI in mice, neither forelimb impairments, nor general changes in gait, were detected with the CatWalk XT. These data suggest that the adhesive removal test, the cylinder test, and the Montoya staircase test are the methods of choice to detect long-term unilateral motor deficits in rats after CCI, whereas the use of automated gait analysis systems might not be suitable to measure these behavioral deviations.

  18. Tumor induction by simian virus 40 in mice is controlled by long-term persistence of the viral genome and the immune response of the host.

    PubMed Central

    Abramczuk, J; Pan, S; Maul, G; Knowles, B B

    1984-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40), which transforms mouse cells in vitro, has not been previously observed to cause tumors when injected in immunocompetent mice. We have investigated both the fate of the injected virion in mice and several immunological parameters as potential factors controlling tumorigenicity. We find that although SV40 does not replicate in mouse cells, the viral DNA can persist for many months postinjection; the majority of the viral DNA is found in the cytoplasm, but a small amount of the viral DNA is integrated at multiple sites in the host nuclear DNA. The persistence of the viral genome is independent of the ability of the mouse to mount an SV40 TSTA specific cytotoxic T-cell response and may be attributed to the cytoplasmic location of the majority of the viral genome. However, in long-term studies of SV40-injected mice, genetically identical except for the major histocompatibility complex, we find that tumors were induced in some mice of the H-2d (low cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responder to SV40 TSTA) but not of the H-2k (high responder to SV40 TSTA) haplotype. Thus, a combination of inefficient disposal of the injected virion and inefficient immunological surveillance and elimination of cells containing nuclear SV40 DNA can eventually result in SV40-induced tumors at multiple sites in mice. Images PMID:6319753

  19. Referral for psychological therapy of people with long term conditions improves adherence to antidepressants and reduces emergency department attendance: Controlled before and after study

    PubMed Central

    de Lusignan, Simon; Chan, Tom; Tejerina Arreal, Maria C.; Parry, Glenys; Dent-Brown, Kim; Kendrick, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Referral to psychological therapies is recommended for people with common mental health problems (CMHP) however its impact on healthcare utilisation in people with long term conditions (LTCs) is not known. Method Routinely collected primary care, psychological therapy clinic and hospital data were extracted for the registered population of 20 practices (N = 121199). These data were linked using the SAPREL (Secure and Private Record Linkage) method. We linked the 1118 people referred to psychological therapies with 6711 controls, matched for age, gender and practice. We compared utilisation of healthcare resources by people with LTCs, 6 months before and after referral, and conducted a controlled before and after study to compare health utilisation with controls. We made the assumption that collection of a greater number of repeat prescriptions for antidepressants was associated with greater adherence. Results Overall 21.8% of people with an LTC had CMHP vs. 18.8% without (p < 0.001). People with LTCs before referral were more likely to use health care resources (2-tailed t-test p < 0.001). Cases with LTCs showed referral to the psychological therapies clinic was associated with increased antidepressant medication prescribing (mean differences 0.62, p < 0.001) and less use of emergency department than controls (mean difference −0.21, p = 0.003). Conclusions Referral to improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) services appears of value to people with LTC. It is associated with the issue of a greater number of prescriptions for anti-depressant medicines and less use of emergency services. Further studies are needed to explore bed occupancy and outpatient attendance. PMID:23639304

  20. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case–Control Study in Spain and Italy

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Acebo, Ines Gomez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana; Tardón, Adonina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Tavani, Alessandra; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Pisa, Federica; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Palau, Margarita; Moreno, Victor; La Vecchia, Carlo; Aggazzotti, Gabriella; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case–control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008–2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) controls were interviewed to ascertain residential histories, type of water consumed in each residence, frequency and duration of showering/bathing, and major recognized risk factors for colorectal cancer. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for colorectal cancer in association with quartiles of estimated average lifetime THM concentrations in each participant’s residential tap water (micrograms/liter; from age 18 to 2 years before the interview) and estimated average lifetime THM ingestion from drinking residential tap water (micrograms/day). Results: We analyzed 2,047 cases and 3,718 controls. Median values (ranges) for average lifetime residential tap water concentrations of total THMs, chloroform, and brominated THMs were 30 (0–174), 17 (0–63), and 9 (0–145) μg/L, respectively. Total THM concentration in residential tap water was not associated with colorectal cancer (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.28 for highest vs. lowest quartile), but chloroform concentrations were inversely associated (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.41 for highest vs. lowest quartile). Brominated THM concentrations showed a positive association among men in the highest versus the lowest quartile (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.46). Patterns of association were similar for estimated average THM ingestion through residential water consumption. Conclusions: We did not find clear evidence of an association between detailed estimates of lifetime total THM exposure and colorectal cancer in our large case–control

  1. Stability, Survival, and Tolerability of an Auditory Osseointegrated Implant for Bone Conduction Hearing: Long-Term Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    den Besten, Christine A.; Stalfors, Joacim; Wigren, Stina; Blechert, Johan Ivarsson; Flynn, Mark; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns; Aggarwal, Rohini; Green, Kevin; Nelissen, Rik C.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Hol, Myrthe K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare implant stability, survival, and soft tissue reactions for a novel (test) and previous generation (control) percutaneous auditory osseointegrated implant for bone conduction hearing at long-term follow-up of 5 years. Study Design: Single follow-up visit of a previously completed multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Patients: Fifty-seven of the 77 participants of a completed randomized controlled trial on a new auditory osseointegrated implant underwent a single follow-up visit 5 years after implantation, which comprised implant stability measurements and collection of Holgers scores. Additionally, implant survival was recorded for all 77 patients from the original trial. Results: The test implant showed significantly higher implant stability quotient (ISQ) values compared with the control implant throughout the 5-year follow-up. Mean area under the curve of ISQ high from baseline to 5 years was 71.6 (standard deviation [SD] ±2.0) and 66.7 (SD ±3.4) for the test and control implant, respectively (p < 0.0001). For both implants, the mean ISQ value recorded at 5 years was higher compared with implantation (test group +2.03 [SD ±2.55, within group p < 0.0001] and control group +2.25 [SD ±4.95, within group p = 0.12]). No difference was noticed in increase from baseline between groups (p = 0.64). Furthermore, evaluation of soft tissue reactions continued to show superiority of the test implant. At the 5-year follow-up visit, one patient (2.5%) presented with a Holgers grade 2 in the test group, compared with four patients (23.5%) in the control group (p = 0.048); no patient presented with more severe soft tissue reactions. Excluding explantations, the survival rate was 95.8% for the test group and 95.0% for the control group. The corresponding rates including explantations were 93.9 and 90.0%. Conclusion: The test implant showed superiority in terms of higher mean ISQ values and less adverse soft tissue reactions, both

  2. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area. PMID:22313631

  3. Long-term proteasomal inhibition in transgenic mice by UBB(+1) expression results in dysfunction of central respiration control reminiscent of brainstem neuropathology in Alzheimer patients.

    PubMed

    Irmler, Martin; Gentier, Romina J G; Dennissen, Frank J A; Schulz, Holger; Bolle, Ines; Hölter, Sabine M; Kallnik, Magdalena; Cheng, Jing Jun; Klingenspor, Martin; Rozman, Jan; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Hermes, Denise J H P; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Meyer, Helmut E; Hopkins, David A; Van Leeuwen, Fred W; Beckers, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    Aging and neurodegeneration are often accompanied by a functionally impaired ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In tauopathies and polyglutamine diseases, a mutant form of ubiquitin B (UBB(+1)) accumulates in disease-specific aggregates. UBB(+1) mRNA is generated at low levels in vivo during transcription from the ubiquitin B locus by molecular misreading. The resulting mutant protein has been shown to inhibit proteasome function. To elucidate causative effects and neuropathological consequences of UBB(+1) accumulation, we used a UBB(+1) expressing transgenic mouse line that models UPS inhibition in neurons and exhibits behavioral phenotypes reminiscent of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to reveal affected organs and functions, young and aged UBB(+1) transgenic mice were comprehensively phenotyped for more than 240 parameters. This revealed unexpected changes in spontaneous breathing patterns and an altered response to hypoxic conditions. Our findings point to a central dysfunction of respiratory regulation in transgenic mice in comparison to wild-type littermate mice. Accordingly, UBB(+1) was strongly expressed in brainstem regions of transgenic mice controlling respiration. These regions included, e.g., the medial part of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius and the lateral subdivisions of the parabrachial nucleus. In addition, UBB(+1) was also strongly expressed in these anatomical structures of AD patients (Braak stage #6) and was not expressed in non-demented controls. We conclude that long-term UPS inhibition due to UBB(+1) expression causes central breathing dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of AD. The UBB(+1) expression pattern in humans is consistent with the contribution of bronchopneumonia as a cause of death in AD patients.

  4. Chronic blockade of neuronal nitric oxide synthase does not affect long-term control of blood pressure in normal, saline-drinking or deoxycorticosterone-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, Rosemary; Sainz, Juan; Rodríguez-Gomez, Isabel; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Osuna, Antonio; Vargas, Félix

    2003-03-01

    It has been reported that long-term selective inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces elevated blood pressure (BP) in normal rats. The present study was designed to analyse the possible influences of the sodium-retaining hormone deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and of an increased sodium intake on BP effects induced by the chronic blockade of nNOS with 7-nitroindazole (7NI). Two experiments were performed using 7NI at a dose of either 10 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) (experiment 1) or 30 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) (experiment 2). The following groups were used in both experiments: control rats, and rats that received either 1 % saline drinking water (Salt), deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA), 7NI, 7NI plus 1 % saline (7NI + Salt) or 7NI plus DOCA (7NI + DOCA). The tail systolic BP (SBP) was measured in all rats once a week. At the end of the experimental period, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and metabolic, morphological and renal variables were measured. There were no significant differences in the tail SBP, final MAP or glomerular filtration rate between the experimental groups and the control group. In both experiments, the plasma renin activity (PRA) was significantly inhibited in the Salt groups and suppressed in the DOCA groups. The PRA significantly increased in the 7NI groups, whereas the 7NI + Salt and 7NI + DOCA groups showed a significant inhibition in PRA, especially compared to the 7NI groups in the two experiments. We conclude that chronic nNOS blockade is unable to increase BP in normal, saline-drinking or DOCA-treated rats. Furthermore, the nNOS blockade does not interfere with the counterbalance between renin and an increased sodium intake or retention.

  5. Long-term impact of acyclovir suppressive therapy on genital and plasma HIV RNA in Tanzanian women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Clare; Weiss, Helen A; Rusizoka, Mary; LeGoff, Jerome; Changalucha, John; Baisley, Kathy; Mugeye, Kokugonza; Everett, Dean; Belec, Laurent; Clayton, Tim C.; Ross, David A.; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV) suppressive therapy reduces genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA over periods up to three months but the longer-term effect is unknown. Methods 484 HIV-1 and HSV-2 seropositive Tanzanian women aged 16-35 years were enrolled in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of acyclovir 400mg bid. Cervico-vaginal lavage and blood samples were collected at 6m, 12m and 24m for quantification of genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA, and genital HSV DNA. Primary outcomes were detection and quantity of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA at 6m. Results At 6m, there was little difference between acyclovir and placebo arms for cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection [88/213 (41.3%) vs. 84/191 (44.0%); odds ratio (OR)=0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.60-1.33], HSV DNA detection [20/213 (9.4%) vs. 22/191 (11.5%); OR=0.80, 95%CI:0.42-1.51], genital HIV or HSV viral loads or plasma HIV-1 RNA load. Estimated median adherence was 91%. There was a suggestion of an impact on cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection among women with estimated adherence ≥90% (OR=0.74, 95%CI:0.50-1.09) when data from all three visits were included. Conclusions Acyclovir 400mg bid is unlikely to be a useful long-term intervention to reduce HIV transmission. The lack of effect on HIV may be due to suboptimal adherence or treatment regimen. (www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN35385041) PMID:20235836

  6. Tidally controlled gas bubble emissions: A comprehensive study using long-term monitoring data from the NEPTUNE cabled observatory offshore Vancouver Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, Miriam; Riedel, Michael; Scherwath, Martin; Heesemann, Martin; Spence, George D.

    2016-09-01

    Long-term monitoring over 1 year revealed high temporal variability of gas emissions at a cold seep in 1250 m water depth offshore Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Data from the North East Pacific Time series Underwater Networked Experiment observatory operated by Ocean Networks Canada were used. The site is equipped with a 260 kHz Imagenex sonar collecting hourly data, conductivity-temperature-depth sensors, bottom pressure recorders, current meter, and an ocean bottom seismograph. This enables correlation of the data and analyzing trigger mechanisms and regulating criteria of gas discharge activity. Three periods of gas emission activity were observed: (a) short activity phases of few hours lasting several months, (b) alternating activity and inactivity of up to several day-long phases each, and (c) a period of several weeks of permanent activity. These periods can neither be explained by oceanographic conditions nor initiated by earthquakes. However, we found a clear correlation of gas emission with bottom pressure changes controlled by tides. Gas bubbles start emanating during decreasing tidal pressure. Tidally induced pressure changes also influence the subbottom fluid system by shifting the methane solubility resulting in exsolution of gas during falling tides. These pressure changes affect the equilibrium of forces allowing free gas in sediments to emanate into the water column at decreased hydrostatic load. We propose a model for the fluid system at the seep, fueled by a constant subsurface methane flux and a frequent tidally controlled discharge of gas bubbles into the ocean, transferable to other gas emission sites in the world's oceans.

  7. Long-term parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ladefoged, Karin; Jarnum, Stig

    1978-01-01

    Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) aged 20-68 received long-term parenteral nutrition, mostly at home, for six to 63 months (mean 19 months). Indications for LTPN were extensive, active Crohn's disease in three patients, intestinocutaneous fistulas in three, and short-bowel syndrome in the remaining 13 patients. Subclavian or intra-atrial (Broviac) catheters were most commonly used, for which the average life was four and seven months respectively. Complications of long-term parenteral nutrition included pneumothorax in four out of 48 subclavian vein punctures. Catheter-induced thrombosis of central veins was shown by phlebography 17 times in nine patients, and eight episodes of total occlusion occurred. Two of these patients had pulmonary infarction. Nineteen episodes of catheter sepsis occurred in 11 patients, but only one was fatal. Complications related to intestinal disease included intra-abdominal abscesses and intestinal fistulas, and disturbances of liver function. Five patients died, though in only two was death related to long-term parenteral nutrition. One of these patients died from catheter sepsis, the other had subdural haematoma possibly caused by anticoagulant treatment. Eight of the 14 surviving patients still needed parenteral nutrition. All received a disability pension, but six had an acceptable quality of life with almost normal social activities. Despite problems such as difficulties in maintaining standardised infusion programmes, it was concluded that long-term parenteral nutrition at home is practicable and consistent with an acceptable quality of life. ImagesFIG 2 PMID:98199

  8. Arm tremor and precision of hand force control in a short and long term flight on the Mir-Space-Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallasch, E.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Löscher, W. N.; Konev, A.; Kenner, T.

    To determine whether long and short time exposure of man in 0g alters normal physiological tremor patterns we recorded arm tremor using an accelerometer as well as hand forces and tremor during constant isometric contraction using a load cell. Arm tremor was decreased during both flights in amplitude and frequency. Shortly after the long term flight arm tremor amplitude was increased, indicating adaptive changes in the tonic reflex loop. Isometric hand tremor remained unchanged during the long and short time flight demonstrating that the contractile properties of hand muscles remained constant. Precision of hand force was decreased until the half duration of the long term flight.

  9. IL-23 is required for long-term control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and B cell follicle formation in the infected lung.

    PubMed

    Khader, Shabaana A; Guglani, Lokesh; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Gopal, Radha; Junecko, Beth A Fallert; Fountain, Jeffrey J; Martino, Cynthia; Pearl, John E; Tighe, Michael; Lin, Yin-yao; Slight, Samantha; Kolls, Jay K; Reinhart, Todd A; Randall, Troy D; Cooper, Andrea M

    2011-11-15

    IL-23 is required for the IL-17 response to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but is not required for the early control of bacterial growth. However, mice deficient for the p19 component of IL-23 (Il23a(-/-)) exhibit increased bacterial growth late in infection that is temporally associated with smaller B cell follicles in the lungs. Cxcl13 is required for B cell follicle formation and immunity during tuberculosis. The absence of IL-23 results in decreased expression of Cxcl13 within M. tuberculosis-induced lymphocyte follicles in the lungs, and this deficiency was associated with increased cuffing of T cells around the vessels in the lungs of these mice. Il23a(-/-) mice also poorly expressed IL-17A and IL-22 mRNA. These cytokines were able to induce Cxcl13 in mouse primary lung fibroblasts, suggesting that these cytokines are likely involved in B cell follicle formation. Indeed, IL-17RA-deficient mice generated smaller B cell follicles early in the response, whereas IL-22-deficient mice had smaller B cell follicles at an intermediate time postinfection; however, only Il23a(-/-) mice had a sustained deficiency in B cell follicle formation and reduced immunity. We propose that in the absence of IL-23, expression of long-term immunity to tuberculosis is compromised due to reduced expression of Cxcl13 in B cell follicles and reduced ability of T cells to migrate from the vessels and into the lesion. Further, although IL-17 and IL-22 can both contribute to Cxcl13 production and B cell follicle formation, it is IL-23 that is critical in this regard.

  10. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Di Sclafani, Victoria; Finn, Peter; Fein, George

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND A high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders has been demonstrated in individuals with an alcohol use disorder in both community and treatment samples, with higher comorbidity in treatment samples. In this study, we examined lifetime and current psychiatric diagnoses in long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA; mean abstinence = 6.3 years; n = 52) compared to age and gender-comparable non-alcoholic controls (NC; n = 48). We asked the following questions: 1) to achieve long-term abstinence, must an individual be relatively psychiatrically healthy (i.e., comparable to NC) and 2) can ongoing abstinence be maintained in the face of a current psychiatric disorder? METHODS Lifetime and current (prior 12-months) psychiatric diagnoses were assessed in the mood, anxiety, and externalizing disorder domains using the computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule (c-DIS). RESULTS Over 85% of LTAA had a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis, compared to 50% of NC. LTAA had a higher prevalence than NC of lifetime mood, anxiety, and externalizing disorder diagnoses. LTAA also had a greater prevalence than NC of current mood and anxiety diagnoses. Although LTAA had a greater lifetime prevalence of an antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) than NC, no LTAA or NC had a current ASPD diagnosis. Finally, there was no association of duration of abstinence with lifetime or current psychiatric diagnoses, consistent with psychiatric diagnoses having little effect on relapse. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that: 1) the presence of a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis does not militate against achieving long-term abstinence, 2) abstinence can be maintained in the presence of a current mood or anxiety disorder, and 3) a current diagnosis of ASPD may not be compatible with long-term abstinence. The relatively low levels of antisocial behavior compared to pre-abstinence (as indicated by no LTAA meeting current criteria for ASPD) raises the question of whether the neurobiology underlying

  11. Long-term moderate calorie restriction inhibits inflammation without impairing cell-mediated immunity: a randomized controlled trial in non obese humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-cen...

  12. Long-term Effects of Two Levels of Caloric Restriction on Body Composition, and Diet Satisfaction in CALERIE, a One Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little information on whether the extent of dietary energy restriction in a weight loss program influences long-term weight change. We examined the effects of two levels of caloric restriction (CR) over 12 months on body weight and fat loss, total energy expenditure (TEE), resting metabolic...

  13. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  14. Long term maintenance of weight loss with non-surgical interventions in obese adults: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, S U; Knittle, K; Avenell, A; Araújo-Soares, V

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review and describe currently available approaches to supporting maintenance of weight loss in obese adults and to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Study selection Studies were identified through to January 2014. Randomised trials of interventions to maintain weight loss provided to initially obese adults (aged ≥18) after weight loss of ≥5% body weight with long term (≥12 months) follow-up of weight change (main outcome) were included. Study appraisal and synthesis Potential studies were screened independently and in duplicate; study characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of interventions on weight loss maintenance with the inverse variance method and a random effects model. Results are presented as mean differences in weight change, with 95% confidence intervals. Results 45 trials involving 7788 individuals were included. Behavioural interventions focusing on both food intake and physical activity resulted in an average difference of −1.56 kg (95% confidence interval −2.27 to −0.86 kg; 25 comparisons, 2949 participants) in weight regain compared with controls at 12 months. Orlistat combined with behavioural interventions resulted in a −1.80 kg (−2.54 to −1.06; eight comparisons, 1738 participants) difference compared with placebo at 12 months. All orlistat studies reported higher frequencies of adverse gastrointestinal events in the experimental compared with placebo control groups. A dose-response relation for orlistat treatment was found, with 120 mg doses three times a day leading to greater weight loss maintenance (−2.34 kg, −3.03 to −1.65) compared with 60 mg and 30 mg three times a day (−0.70 kg, 95% confidence interval −1.92 to 0.52), P=0.02. Conclusions Behavioural

  15. A new image for long-term care.

    PubMed

    Wager, Richard; Creelman, William

    2004-04-01

    To counter widely held negative images of long-term care, managers in the industry should implement quality-improvement initiatives that include six key strategies: Manage the expectations of residents and their families. Address customers' concerns early. Build long-term customer satisfaction. Allocate resources to achieve exceptional outcomes in key areas. Respond to adverse events with compassion. Reinforce the facility's credibility.

  16. Long-term complications of splenectomy in adult immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Lan-Huong; Mahévas, Matthieu; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Limal, Nicolas; Languille, Laetitia; Dumas, Guillaume; Khellaf, Mehdi; Bierling, Philippe; Michel, Marc; Godeau, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The recent large decrease in splenectomy use for chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is partly due to still-unsolved questions about long-term safety. We performed the first single-center exposed/unexposed cohort study evaluating the long-term incidence of splenectomy complications in patients with primary ITP. Overall, 83 patients who underwent splenectomy more than 10 years ago (exposed) were matched with 83 nonsplenectomized patients (unexposed) on the date of ITP diagnosis ±5 years, age and gender. After a median follow-up of 192 months (range 0.5–528), 43 patients (52%) achieved overall response after splenectomy. Splenectomized patients experienced more venous thromboembolism (VTE) than controls (n = 13 vs n = 2, P = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, splenectomy was an independent risk factor of VTE (hazard ratio = 4.006, P = 0.032 [95% confidence interval: 1.13–14.21]). Splenectomized patients presented more severe infections on long-term follow-up: all required hospitalization, and 5/26 (19%) infections led to severe sepsis or septic shock and to death for 3 cases (none in controls). However, the incidence of malignancy was similar in both groups, as was cardiovascular risk, which appeared to be related more to ITP than splenectomy. Finally, splenectomy did not significantly decrease overall survival. Despite the risk of thrombosis and severe sepsis, splenectomy remains an effective and curative treatment for ITP. PMID:27902585

  17. Tumor Location, Interval Between Surgery and Radiotherapy, and Boost Technique Influence Local Control After Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation: Retrospective Analysis of Monoinstitutional Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Knauerhase, Hellen; Strietzel, Manfred; Gerber, Bernd; Reimer, Toralf; Fietkau, Rainer

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To obtain long-term data on local tumor control after treatment of invasive breast cancer by breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), in consideration of the interstitial high-dose-rate boost technique. Patients and Methods: A total of 263 women with 268 mammary carcinomas (International Union Against Cancer Stage I-IIB) who had undergone breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant RT between 1990 and 1994 were included. The potential risk factors for local recurrence-free survival were investigated. Results: During a median follow-up period of 94 months, 27 locoregional recurrences, 25 of which were in breast, were diagnosed. The cumulative rate of in-breast recurrence was 4.1% {+-} 1.4% at 5 years of follow-up and 9.9% {+-} 2.4% at 10 years. The multivariate analysis identified medial tumor location and delayed RT (defined as an interval of >2 months between surgery and the start of RT) as significant risk factors for in-breast recurrence in the overall study population. Medial tumor location vs. lateral/central location (hazard ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-5.84) resulted in a cumulative in-breast recurrence rate of 22.5% {+-} 8.3% vs. 6.9% {+-} 2.3% at 10 years. Delayed RT (hazard ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-7.13) resulted in a cumulative in-breast recurrence rate of 18.5% {+-} 6.2% vs. 6.8% {+-} 2.4% at 10 years. The multivariate analysis also showed that the risk of in-breast recurrence was lower after high-dose-rate boost therapy than after external beam boost therapy in patients with laterally/centrally located tumors (hazard ratio, 3.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-11.65). Conclusion: Tumor location, interval between surgery and RT, and boost technique might influence local control of breast cancer treated by breast-conserving surgery and RT.

  18. [Dronabinol (delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol) in long-term treatment. Symptom control in patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity, neuropathic pain, loss of appetite and cachexia].

    PubMed

    Nauck, F; Klaschik, E

    2004-12-01

    Cannabinoid drugs have been used increasingly in the treatment of neuropathic pain and spasticity. Even though the evidence still is scarce, patients with multiple sclerosis seem to benefit substiantially from cannabinoid therapy. In a case report dose finding and long-term therapie with delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are described. Dronabinol proved effective and was well tolerated in long-term treatment. Pain was reduced significantly and opioid requirements decreased. At the same time spasticity was reduced and appetite and weight increased. It still needs to bei discussed whether or not part of the positive effect on symptoms was probably mediated by psychomimetic effects. This case report shows, that dronabinol offers an additional therapeutic option in a palliative treatment concept for patiens with high symptom load.

  19. Understanding controls on organic (Uk’37 and TEX86) and inorganic (Mg/Ca) SST proxies: insights from a long term Mozambique Channel sediment trap study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, I. S.; Fallet, U.; Brummer, G. A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.

    2009-12-01

    In 2003, an array of moorings equipped with instruments to measure temperature, salinity and water mass transport was placed across the Mozambique Channel as part of the Long-term Ocean Currents Observation (LOCO) Project. In addition, a sediment trap in the deep channel at 2011 m collected material at 21 day intervals from November 2003 until the present. These sediment trap samples, in combination with in situ and satellite-derived SST measurements, provide a unique opportunity to examine and directly compare organic and inorganic SST proxies. In this study we measured two organic SST proxies, the Uk’37 Index, which is based on the ratio of long-chain di- and triunsaturated ketones produced by haptophyte algae, and the more recently developed TEX86 proxy, which is based on glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) produced by Marine Group 1 Crenarchaeota. We also analyzed Mg/Ca ratios from two species of surface-dwelling foraminifera, G. ruber and G. trilobus, which provide an inorganic SST proxy. The results obtained up to now show that TEX86-based SST reconstructions capture the mean annual temperature of the study location accurately (mean annual SST is 28.1°C and TEX86 mean annual SST is 28.3°C); however, seasonal variability is not reflected by the TEX86 measurements. In contrast, the Mg/Ca records of G. ruber and G. trilobus, capture the seasonal variability in SST but display a slight offset relative to each other, with G. ruber typically 2 to 3°C warmer than G. trilobus. The Uk’37 Index was nearly always near unity due to the absence of the C37:3 alkenone, showing that this proxy is unable to capture SST at this tropical location. The differences between the organic and inorganic proxies might be due to the different sinking rates and lateral transport effects. To further investigate controls on the TEX86 proxy, we are currently examining intact polar lipids (IPLs) of GDGTs from the most recent year of sediment trap material. IPLs are more

  20. Positive deviance control-case life history: a method to develop grounded hypotheses about successful long-term avoidance of infection

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Sandoval, Milagros; Hagan, Holly; Jarlais, Don C Des

    2008-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates for long-term injection drug users in some localities surpass 60% for HIV and 80% for HCV. We describe methods for developing grounded hypotheses about how some injectors avoid infection with either virus. Methods Subjects: 25 drug injectors who have injected drugs 8 – 15 years in New York City. 17 remain without antibody to either HIV or HCV; 3 are double-positives; and 5 are positive for HCV but not HIV. "Staying Safe" methodology compares serostatus groups using detailed biographical timelines and narratives; and information about how subjects maintain access to physical resources and social support; their strategies and tactics to remain safe; how they handle problems of addiction and demands by drug dealers and other drug users; and how their behaviors and strategies do or do not become socially-embedded practices. Grounded theory and life-history analysis techniques compare and contrast doubly-uninfected with those infected with both viruses or only with HCV. Results Themes and initial hypotheses emerging from analyses included two master hypotheses that, if confirmed, should help shape preventive interventions: 1) Staying uninfected is not simply a question of social structure or social position. It involves agency by drug injectors, including sustained hard work and adaptation to changing circumstances. 2) Multiple intentionalities contribute to remaining uninfected. These conscious goals include balancing one's need for drugs and one's income; developing ways to avoid drug withdrawal sickness; avoiding situations where other drug users importune you to share drugs; and avoiding HIV (and perhaps HCV) infection. Thus, focusing on a single goal in prevention might be sub-optimal. Other hypotheses specify mechanisms of enacting these intentionalities. One example is finding ways to avoid extreme social ostracism. Conclusion We have identified strategies and tactics that some doubly-uninfected IDUs have developed to stay safe

  1. A novel HPLC-MRM strategy to discover unknown and long-term metabolites of stanozolol for expanding analytical possibilities in doping-control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Xinmiao; Liu, Xin; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Jinlan

    2017-01-01

    Stanozolol is one of the most commonly abused anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) by athletes and usually detected by its parent drug and major metabolites. However, its metabolic pathway is complex, varied and individually different, it is important to characterize its overall metabolic profiles and discover new and long-term metabolites for the aims of expanding detection windows. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the human urine after oral administration of stanozolol. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), one of the scan modes of triple quadrupole mass spectrometer showing extremely high sensitivity was well used to develop a strategy for metabolic profiles characterization and long-term metabolites detection based on typical precursor to product ion transitions of parent drug and its major metabolites. Utilizing the characteristic fragment ions of stanozolol and its major metabolites as the product ions, and speculating unknown precursor ions based on the possible phase I and phase II metabolic reactions in human body, the metabolite profiles of stanozolol could be comprehensively discovered, especially for those unknown and low concentration metabolites in human urine. Then these metabolites were further well structure identified by targeted high resolution MS/MS scan of quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF). Applying this strategy, 27 phase I and 21 phase II metabolites of stanozolol were identified, in which 13 phase I and 14 phase II metabolites have not been reported previously. The 9 out of 48 metabolites could be detected over 15days post drug administration. This strategy could be employed effectively to characterize AAS metabolic profiles and discover unknown and long-term metabolites in sports drug testing.

  2. SOME ASPECTS OF THE NATURAL CONTROL OF PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES IN SOIL UNDER BROAD BEAN VICIA FABA L. CULTIVATED IN CROP ROTATION AND LONG-TERM MONOCULTURE.

    PubMed

    Skwiercz, A T; Damszel, M; Stefanovska, T; Rychcik, B

    2015-01-01

    Observations on population density of plant parasitic nematodes occurring in rhizosphere of broad bean cultivated in the crop rotation and long-term monoculture were performed during 2013-2014. 13 species were observed: Trichodorus primitivus, T. viruliferus, Paratrichodorus pachydermus, Criconema annuliferum, Paratylenchus projectus, Bitylenchus dubius, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus fallax, P. flakkensis, P. neglectus, Heterodera triffolii, H. goettingiana, and Ditylenchus dipsaci. In monoculture plots 70-80% of eggs inside Heterodera cysts were colonized by pathogenic fungi (v.s. 50-62% of cysts from crop rotation). 12-18% of specimens of Pratylenchus species were colonized by the nematode-pathogenic bacteria: Bacillus penetrans.

  3. Long-Term Effects of an Early Childhood Intervention on Educational Achievement and Juvenile Arrest: A 15-Year Follow-Up of Low-Income Children in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Mann, Emily A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined long-term effectiveness of the Chicago Child-Parent Center program on rates of high school completion and school dropout by age 20. Found that, compared to nonparticipants and adjusted for covariates, preschool participants had higher rate of high school completion, more years of education, and lower juvenile arrest and violent crime…

  4. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  5. Remote Magnetic versus Manual Navigation for Radiofrequency Ablation of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Long-Term, Controlled Data in a Large Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Berte, Benjamin; Vandekerckhove, Yves; Tavernier, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. We aimed to study long-term outcome after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) guided by remote magnetic navigation (RMN) and provided comparative data to outcome after manual navigation (MAN). Methods. Three hundred thirty-six patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF underwent PVI by irrigated point-by-point radiofrequency (RF) ablation (RMN, n = 114 versus MAN, n = 222). Patients were followed up with symptom guided rhythm monitoring for a period up to 43 months. The end point of the study was freedom from repeat ablation after a single procedure and without antiarrhythmic drug treatment (ADT). Results. At the end of follow-up (median 26.3 months), freedom from repeat ablation was comparable between RMN and MAN (70.9% versus 69.5%, p = 0.61). At repeat, mean number of reconnected veins was 2.4 ± 1.2 in RMN versus 2.6 ± 1.0 in MAN (p = 0.08). The majority of repeat procedures occurred during the first year (82.1% in RMN versus 78.5% in MAN; p = 0.74). Conclusion. On the long term (up to 3 years) and in a large cohort of patients with paroxysmal AF, RMN-guided PVI is as effective as MAN guided PVI. In both strategies the majority of repeat procedures occurred during the first year after index procedure. PMID:28386560

  6. Prediction of Long-Term Benefits of Inhaled Steroids by Phenotypic Markers in Moderate-to-Severe COPD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Snoeck-Stroband, Jiska B.; Lapperre, Therese S.; Sterk, Peter J.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Thiadens, Henk A.; Boezen, H. Marike; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Timens, Wim; Sont, Jacob K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The decline in lung function can be reduced by long-term inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment in subsets of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to identify which clinical, physiological and non-invasive inflammatory characteristics predict the benefits of ICS on lung function decline in COPD. Methods Analysis was performed in 50 steroid-naive compliant patients with moderate to severe COPD (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), 30–80% of predicted, compatible with GOLD stages II-III), age 45–75 years, >10 packyears smoking and without asthma. Patients were treated with fluticasone propionate (500 μg bid) or placebo for 2.5 years. Postbronchodilator FEV1, dyspnea and health status were measured every 3 months; lung volumes, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20), and induced sputum at 0, 6 and 30 months. A linear mixed effect model was used for analysis of this hypothesis generating study. Results Significant predictors of attenuated FEV1-decline by fluticasone treatment compared to placebo were: fewer packyears smoking, preserved diffusion capacity, limited hyperinflation and lower inflammatory cell counts in induced sputum (p<0.04). Conclusions Long-term benefits of ICS on lung function decline in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD are most pronounced in patients with fewer packyears, and less severe emphysema and inflammation. These data generate novel hypotheses on phenotype-driven therapy in COPD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00158847 PMID:26659582

  7. Long-term moderate calorie restriction inhibits inflammation without impairing cell-mediated immunity: a randomized controlled trial in non-obese humans

    PubMed Central

    Meydani, Simin N.; Das, Sai K.; Pieper, Carl F.; Lewis, Michael R.; Klein, Sam; Dixit, Vishwa D.; Gupta, Alok K.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Huang, Megan; Fuss, Paul J.; Roberts, Susan B.; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-center, randomized clinical trial to determine CR's effect on inflammation and cell-mediated immunity, 218 healthy non-obese adults (20-50 y), were assigned 25% CR (n=143) or an ad-libitum (AL) diet (n=75), and outcomes tested at baseline, 12, and 24 months of CR. CR induced a 10.4% weight loss over the 2-y period. Relative to AL group, CR reduced circulating inflammatory markers, including total WBC and lymphocyte counts, ICAM-1 and leptin. Serum CRP and TNF-α concentrations were about 40% and 50% lower in CR group, respectively. CR had no effect on the delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response or antibody response to vaccines, nor did it cause difference in clinically significant infections. In conclusion, long-term moderate CR without malnutrition induces a significant and persistent inhibition of inflammation without impairing key in vivo indicators of cell-mediated immunity. Given the established role of these pro-inflammatory molecules in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic diseases, these CR-induced adaptations suggest a shift toward a healthy phenotype. PMID:27410480

  8. Site-Selective Controlled Dealloying Process of Gold-Silver Nanowire Array: a Simple Approach towards Long-Term Stability and Sensitivity Improvement of SERS Substrate.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakun, Natta; Pankhlueab, Karuna; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan

    2016-12-13

    Limitations of achieving highly sensitive and stable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate greatly concern the suitable method for fabrication of large-area plasmonic nanostructures. Herein we report a simple approach using template-based synthesis to create a highly ordered two-dimensional array of gold-silver alloy nanowires, followed by the controlled dealloying process. This particular step of mild acid etching (15%v/v nitric acid for 5 min) allowed the formation of Raman hot spots on the nanowire tips while maintaining the integrity of highly active alloy composition and rigid nanowire array structure. Full consideration of SERS substrate performance was accomplished using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as a probe molecule. Exceedingly higher SERS signal (150-fold) can be achieved with respect to typical gold film substrate. Moreover, an excellent stability of SERS substrate was also determined for over 3 months storage time. In contrast to the previous studies which stability improvement was accomplished at a cost of sensitivity reduction, the simultaneous improvement of sensitivity and stability makes the controlled dealloying process an excellent choice of SERS substrate fabrication. In addition, uniformity and reproducibility studies indicated satisfactory results with the acceptable values of relative standard deviation.

  9. Site-Selective Controlled Dealloying Process of Gold-Silver Nanowire Array: a Simple Approach towards Long-Term Stability and Sensitivity Improvement of SERS Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Wiriyakun, Natta; Pankhlueab, Karuna; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan

    2016-01-01

    Limitations of achieving highly sensitive and stable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate greatly concern the suitable method for fabrication of large-area plasmonic nanostructures. Herein we report a simple approach using template-based synthesis to create a highly ordered two-dimensional array of gold-silver alloy nanowires, followed by the controlled dealloying process. This particular step of mild acid etching (15%v/v nitric acid for 5 min) allowed the formation of Raman hot spots on the nanowire tips while maintaining the integrity of highly active alloy composition and rigid nanowire array structure. Full consideration of SERS substrate performance was accomplished using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as a probe molecule. Exceedingly higher SERS signal (150-fold) can be achieved with respect to typical gold film substrate. Moreover, an excellent stability of SERS substrate was also determined for over 3 months storage time. In contrast to the previous studies which stability improvement was accomplished at a cost of sensitivity reduction, the simultaneous improvement of sensitivity and stability makes the controlled dealloying process an excellent choice of SERS substrate fabrication. In addition, uniformity and reproducibility studies indicated satisfactory results with the acceptable values of relative standard deviation. PMID:27958367

  10. Site-Selective Controlled Dealloying Process of Gold-Silver Nanowire Array: a Simple Approach towards Long-Term Stability and Sensitivity Improvement of SERS Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiriyakun, Natta; Pankhlueab, Karuna; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan

    2016-12-01

    Limitations of achieving highly sensitive and stable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate greatly concern the suitable method for fabrication of large-area plasmonic nanostructures. Herein we report a simple approach using template-based synthesis to create a highly ordered two-dimensional array of gold-silver alloy nanowires, followed by the controlled dealloying process. This particular step of mild acid etching (15%v/v nitric acid for 5 min) allowed the formation of Raman hot spots on the nanowire tips while maintaining the integrity of highly active alloy composition and rigid nanowire array structure. Full consideration of SERS substrate performance was accomplished using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as a probe molecule. Exceedingly higher SERS signal (150-fold) can be achieved with respect to typical gold film substrate. Moreover, an excellent stability of SERS substrate was also determined for over 3 months storage time. In contrast to the previous studies which stability improvement was accomplished at a cost of sensitivity reduction, the simultaneous improvement of sensitivity and stability makes the controlled dealloying process an excellent choice of SERS substrate fabrication. In addition, uniformity and reproducibility studies indicated satisfactory results with the acceptable values of relative standard deviation.

  11. Long-term agroecosystem research in the central Mississippi river basin: hydrogeologic controls and crop management influence on nitrates in loess and fractured glacial till.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Newell R; Blanchard, Paul E; Lerch, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen from agriculture is known to be a primary source of groundwater NO-N. Research was conducted in a northeastern Missouri watershed to assess the impact of cropping systems on NO-N for a loess and fractured glacial till aquifer underlying claypan soils. Three cropped fields with 10 yr of similar management were each instrumented with 20 to 25 monitoring wells, 3 to 15 m in depth, in 1991 to 1992. Wells were sampled and analyzed for NO-N at least annually from 1991 to 2004. Initial NO-N concentrations were variable, ranging from undetectable to >24 mg L but averaged 7.0 mg L. Groundwater NO-N was significantly higher in Field 3, probably the result of concurrent applications of manure and N fertilizer before 1980. Overall changes in NO-N levels in Fields 1 and 2 were generally small; however, NO-N levels for Field 3 have decreased an average of 0.28 mg L yr. Excessive loading of N into the matrix of the glacial till may have had a long-term impact on NO-N for this field. Despite the presence of dissolved O in the aquifer, evidence of denitrification in some upper-landscape groundwater wells was found. The greatest decreases in NO-N concentration occurred as groundwater moved through an in-field tree line or through a riparian zone. While overall conclusions were complicated by the long-term impact of past management, the capacity of the till to buffer changes, hydrogeologic variability found among wells, and the activity of biological processes, we conclude that cropping practices during this study did not increase glacial till NO-N.

  12. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  13. Acupuncture for chronic low back pain in long-term follow-up: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mai; Yan, Shi; Yin, Xu; Li, Xiuyang; Gao, Shuguang; Han, Rui; Wei, Licheng; Luo, Wei; Lei, Guanghua

    2013-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is one of the most common reasons that people seek medical treatment, and the consequent disability creates a great financial burden on individuals and society. The etiology of chronic low back pain is not clear, which means it is often refractory to treatment. Acupuncture has been reported to be effective in providing symptomatic relief of chronic low back pain. However, it is not known whether the effects of acupuncture are due to the needling itself or nonspecific effects arising from the manipulation. To determine the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy, a meta-analysis was performed to compare acupuncture with sham acupuncture and other treatments. Overall, 2678 patients were identified from thirteen randomized controlled trials. The meta-analysis was performed by a random model (Cohen's test), using the I-square test for heterogeneity and Begg's test to assess for publication bias. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by pain intensity, disability, spinal flexion, and quality of life. Compared with no treatment, acupuncture achieved better outcomes in terms of pain relief, disability recovery and better quality of life, but these effects were not observed when compared to sham acupuncture. Acupuncture achieved better outcomes when compared with other treatments. No publication bias was detected. Acupuncture is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, but this effect is likely to be produced by the nonspecific effects of manipulation.

  14. Long-Term Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the concepts and issues discussed at a Regional Symposium on Long-term Planning in Higher Education held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-30, 1986. Chapter 1 explores some fundamental issues about the rationale for the objectives of long-term planning. It defines long-term planning in higher education, considers its…

  15. Long Term TOA - M Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-30

    A Long-Term TOA and Constrained Surface Radiation Budget Project A Long-Term TOA and Constrained Surface Readiation Budget Dataset Using Merged CERES, ... and apply the knowledge to existing data to develop long-term (nearly 30 years) consistent and calibrated data product (TOA irradiances ...

  16. Fluvoxamine CR in the long-term treatment of social anxiety disorder: the 12- to 24-week extension phase of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Westenberg, Herman G M; Yang, Haichen; Li, David; Barbato, Luigi M

    2003-12-01

    signs, electrocardiagrams, or laboratory investigations. These data support the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fluvoxamine CR in the treatment of GSAD. Given the prevalence, persistence, and disability associated with GSAD, and the relative paucity of long-term treatment studies of SAD, the current dataset provides empirical support for the current clinical consensus that pharmacotherapy of this disorder should be continued beyond the acute phase.

  17. Cryoplasty Versus Conventional Balloon Angioplasty of the Femoropopliteal Artery in Diabetic Patients: Long-Term Results from a Prospective Randomized Single-Center Controlled Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Spiliopoulos, Stavros Katsanos, Konstantinos; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Kagadis, George C.; Christeas, Nikolaos; Siablis, Dimitris

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate and long-term results of cryoplasty versus conventional balloon angioplasty in the femoropopliteal artery of diabetic patients. Fifty diabetic patients (41 men, mean age 68 years) were randomized to cryoplasty (group CRYO; 24 patients with 31 lesions) or conventional balloon angioplasty (group COBA; 26 patients with 34 lesions) of the femoropopliteal artery. Technical success was defined as <30% residual stenosis without any adjunctive stenting. Primary end points included technical success, primary patency, binary in-lesion restenosis (>50%), and freedom from target lesion recanalization. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to adjust for confounding factors of heterogeneity. In total, 61.3% (19 of 31) in group CRYO and 52.9% (18 of 34) in group COBA were de novo lesions. More than 70% of the lesions were Transatlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) B and C in both groups, and 41.4% of the patients in group CRYO and 38.7% in group COBA suffered from critical limb ischemia. Immediate technical success rate was 58.0% in group CRYO versus 64.0% in group COBA (p = 0.29). According to 3-year Kaplan-Meier estimates, there were no significant differences with regard to patient survival (86.8% in group CRYO vs. 87.0% in group COBA, p = 0.54) and limb salvage (95.8 vs. 92.1% in groups CRYO and COBA, respectively, p = 0.60). There was a nonsignificant trend of increased binary restenosis in group CRYO (hazard ratio [HR] 1.3; 95% CI 0.6-2.6, p = 0.45). Primary patency was significantly lower in group CRYO compared with group COBA (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.3, p = 0.02). Significantly more repeat intervention events because of recurrent symptoms were required in group CRYO (HR 2.5; 95% CI 1.2-5.3, p = 0.01). Cryoplasty was associated with lower primary patency and more clinically driven repeat procedures after long-term follow-up compared with conventional balloon angioplasty.

  18. Effects of resistance and all-round, functional training on quality of life, vitality and depression of older adults living in long-term care facilities: a 'randomized' controlled trial [ISRCTN87177281

    PubMed Central

    Chin A Paw, Marijke JM; van Poppel, Mireille NM; Twisk, Jos WR; van Mechelen, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity may improve different aspects of wellbeing in older people, such as quality of life, vitality and depression. However, there is little experimental evidence to support this assumption. Therefore, we examined the effect of different training protocols on quality of life, vitality and depression of older adults living in long-term care facilities. Methods Subjects (n = 173, aged 64 to 94 years, living in long-term care facilities), were randomized to six months of three different moderate-intensity group exercise training protocols, or to an 'educational' control condition. Exercise consisted of two 45–60-minute training sessions per week of 1) resistance training; 2) all-round, functional training; or 3) a combination of both. Perceived health, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), the Vitality Plus Scale (VPS) and the Dementia Quality of Life questionnaire (DQoL) were administered at baseline and after six months. Results In the combined training group a small but significant decline was seen in perceived health, DQoL and VPS score compared to the control group. Conclusions We conclude that neither strength training nor all-round, functional training of moderate intensity is effective in improving quality of life, vitality or depression of older people living in long-term care facilities. PMID:15233841

  19. Pulmonary complications after long term amiodarone treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Roca, J; Heras, M; Rodriguez-Roisin, R; Magriñà, J; Xaubet, A; Sanz, G

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amiodarone hydrochloride is an antiarrhythmic agent useful in arrhythmias refractory to standard therapy. Although interstitial pneumonitis is known to be its most serious side effect, several aspects of amiodarone lung toxicity are still controversial. METHODS: Pulmonary side effects were examined in a sample of 61 symptomless patients (mean (SD) age 55 (7) years) who had had long term treatment with amiodarone (daily maintenance dose 400 mg), selected from 482 men attending the University of Barcelona myocardial infarction project. To allow for the confounding effects of coronary artery disease and tobacco history on lung function, 46 patients who had taken amiodarone for more than one year were matched with a control group from the same population. Subjects underwent measurement of lung volumes, arterial blood gas analysis and an incremental bicycle exercise test. RESULTS: Most lung function values were close to predicted values, though there was a small increase in resting alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (A-aDO2) at rest (4.8 (1.4) kPa in both groups). There were no differences in the results of forced spirometry or static lung volumes between the two groups, or in the fall in A-aDO2 from rest to exercise. There was a small difference between the amiodarone and the control group in transfer factor for carbon monoxide corrected for lung volume (KCO 1.67 (0.3) and 1.83 (0.3) mmol min-1 kPa-1 l-1 respectively) and in exercise capacity (140 (25) and 120 (30)w). Only three patients showed lung function impairment consistent with pneumonitis. No relation between lung function measures and cumulative doses of amiodarone or desethylamiodarone was found. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of clinically evident pulmonary side effects was 4.9%, which is lower than that reported in studies in which higher daily maintenance doses of amiodarone were given. The slightly lower KCO values and lower work load achieved by the patients taking amiodarone suggest a

  20. Temporal Changes Rather than Long-Term Repeated Burning Predominately Control the Shift in the Abundance of Soil Denitrifying Community in an Australian Sclerophyll Forest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian; Chen, C R; Hughes, J M; Wang, W J; Lewis, Tom

    2017-01-01

    To understand the temporal dynamics of soil bacterial denitrifying community in response to long-term prescribed burning and its resilience and recovery following a fire, a wet sclerophyll forest study site under two treatments (2 yearly burning (2YB) and no burning (NB)) and with 40-year-old burning history was used. Similar temporal patterns in the abundance of total (16S rRNA) and denitrifying (narG, nirK, nirS, nosZ) bacteria between two burning treatments revealed strong temporal influences. The magnitude of burning impacts on the abundance of 16S rRNA and denitrification genes was smaller compared with the impact of sampling time, but significant burning and temporal impacts were recorded for all (P < 0.001)-except for the nirS gene. Impacts of prescribed fire on the abundance of soil denitrifying community could be observed immediately after fire, and this impact diminished over a 24-month period prior to the next prescribed burning event. In conclusion, temporal changes govern the fluctuations of the abundance of soil denitrifying genes over the sampling period and the denitrifying community can recover after fire, suggesting that this community is resilient to the effects of prescribed burning. A combination of biotic and abiotic factors may account for the different temporal dynamics of denitrification gene abundance.

  1. Long-term (∼57 ka) controls on mercury accumulation in the Southern Hemisphere reconstructed using a peat record from Pinheiro mire (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Aboal, Jesús R; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2015-02-03

    Natural archives have been used to reconstruct mercury atmospheric deposition at different spatial and temporal scales during the Holocene in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we present the results from a Brazilian mountain mire (Pinheiro mire, Minas Gerais, SE Brazil), extending back to ∼57 ka. The core was analyzed for mercury concentration, organic matter content, organic carbon isotopic composition, and tracers of mineral matter flux. Principal components analysis followed by principal components regression enabled us to determine the evolution of the weight of the latent processes governing the accumulation of mercury through time. We show that climate change was the main driver for the variations of mercury concentrations, either indirectly by (i) enhancing soil erosion in the mire's catchment, which led to a decrease in mercury concentration due to dilution by low mercury-containing mineral matter, (ii) increasing regional dust deposition, which resulted in increased concentrations, or directly, by long-term changes in atmospheric wet deposition (arid vs humid periods). Internal peat processes (i.e., decomposition and mass loss) had a minor influence at the time scale represented by the core.

  2. Quiet eye training aids the long-term learning of throwing and catching in children: Preliminary evidence for a predictive control strategy.

    PubMed

    Miles, C A L; Wood, G; Vine, S J; Vickers, J N; Wilson, M R

    2017-02-01

    Quiet eye training (QET) may be a more effective method for teaching children to catch than traditional training (TT) methods, but it is unclear if the benefits accrued persist in the long term. Thirty children were randomly allocated into a QET or TT group and, while wearing a mobile eye tracker, underwent baseline testing, training and two retention tests over a period of eight weeks, using a validated throw and catch task. During training, movement-related information was provided to both groups, while the QET group received additional instruction to increase the duration of their targeting fixation (QE1) on the wall prior to the throw, and pursuit tracking (QE2) period on the ball prior to catching. In both immediate (R1) and delayed (R2, six weeks later) retention tests, the QET group had a significantly longer QE1 duration and an earlier and longer QE2 duration, compared to the TT group, who revealed no improvements. A performance advantage was also found for the QET compared to the TT group at both R1 and R2, revealing the relatively robust nature of the visuomotor alterations. Regression analyses suggested that only the duration of QE1 predicted variance in catch success post-training, pointing to the importance of a pre-programming visuomotor strategy for successful throw and catch performance.

  3. A Cross-model Comparison of Global Long-term Technology Diffusion under a 2°C Climate Change Control Target

    SciTech Connect

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Rosler, Hilke; Kober, Tom; Aboumahboub, Tino; Calvin, Katherine V.; Gernaat, David; Marangoni, Giacomo; McCollum, David

    2013-11-04

    We investigate the long-term global energy technology diffusion patterns required to reach a stringent climate change target with a maximum average atmospheric temperature increase of 2°C. If the anthropogenic temperature increase is to be limited to 2°C, total CO2 emissions have to be reduced massively, so as to reach substantial negative values during the second half of the century. Particularly power sector CO2 emissions should become negative from around 2050 onwards according to most models used for this analysis in order to compensate for GHG emissions in other sectors where abatement is more costly. The annual additional capacity deployment intensity (expressed in GW/yr) for solar and wind energy until 2030 needs to be around that recently observed for coal-based power plants, and will have to be several times higher in the period 2030–2050. Relatively high agreement exists across models in terms of the aggregated low-carbon energy system cost requirements on the supply side until 2050, which amount to about 50 trillion US$.

  4. Autophagosomal IkappaB alpha degradation plays a role in the long term control of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity.

    PubMed

    Colleran, Amy; Ryan, Aideen; O'Gorman, Angela; Mureau, Coralie; Liptrot, Catherine; Dockery, Peter; Fearnhead, Howard; Egan, Laurence J

    2011-07-01

    Transcription factor NF-κB is persistently activated in many chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers. The short term regulation of NF-κB is well understood, but little is known about the mechanisms of its long term activation. We studied the effect of a single application of TNF-α on NF-κB activity for up to 48 h in intestinal epithelial cells. Results show that NF-κB remained persistently activated up to 48 h after TNF-α and that the long term activation of NF-κB was accompanied by a biphasic degradation of IκBα. The first phase of IκBα degradation was proteasome-dependent, but the second was not. Further investigation showed that TNF-α stimulated formation of autophagosomes in intestinal epithelial cells and that IκBα co-localized with autophagosomal vesicles. Pharmacological or genetic blockade of autophagosome formation or the inhibition of lysosomal proteases decreased TNF-α-induced degradation of IκBα and lowered NF-κB target gene expression. Together, these findings indicate a role of autophagy in the control of long term NF-κB activity. Because abnormalities in autophagy have been linked to ineffective innate immunity, we propose that alterations in NF-κB may mediate this effect.

  5. Autophagosomal IκBα Degradation Plays a Role in the Long Term Control of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Colleran, Amy; Ryan, Aideen; O'Gorman, Angela; Mureau, Coralie; Liptrot, Catherine; Dockery, Peter; Fearnhead, Howard; Egan, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factor NF-κB is persistently activated in many chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers. The short term regulation of NF-κB is well understood, but little is known about the mechanisms of its long term activation. We studied the effect of a single application of TNF-α on NF-κB activity for up to 48 h in intestinal epithelial cells. Results show that NF-κB remained persistently activated up to 48 h after TNF-α and that the long term activation of NF-κB was accompanied by a biphasic degradation of IκBα. The first phase of IκBα degradation was proteasome-dependent, but the second was not. Further investigation showed that TNF-α stimulated formation of autophagosomes in intestinal epithelial cells and that IκBα co-localized with autophagosomal vesicles. Pharmacological or genetic blockade of autophagosome formation or the inhibition of lysosomal proteases decreased TNF-α-induced degradation of IκBα and lowered NF-κB target gene expression. Together, these findings indicate a role of autophagy in the control of long term NF-κB activity. Because abnormalities in autophagy have been linked to ineffective innate immunity, we propose that alterations in NF-κB may mediate this effect. PMID:21454695

  6. The long-term effect of initial pH control on the enrichment culture of phosphorus- and glycogen-accumulating organisms with a mixture of propionic and acetic acids as carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yan

    2007-11-01

    In most studies on phosphorus- and glycogen-accumulating organisms (PAO and GAO), pH was controlled constantly throughout the entire anaerobic and aerobic periods, and acetic acid was used as the carbon source. In this paper, the effect of long-term initial pH values on PAO and GAO was investigated with mixed propionic and acetic acids as carbon sources. It was observed that with pH increasing from 6.4 to 8.0, the anaerobic propionic acid uptake rate by PAO linearly increased but that by GAO proportionally decreased. At pH 6.70 and pH 7.51, PAO and GAO exhibited the same acetic and propionic acid uptake rates, respectively. The acetic acid uptake rate by PAO was greater than that by GAO at pH>6.70, and the propionic acid uptake rate by PAO was higher than that by GAO at pH>7.51, which indicated that PAO would take predominance over GAO at pH>7.51. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, poly-3-hydroxyvalerate and poly-3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate shared 7%, 62% and 31%, respectively in the PAO system, and 11%, 44% and 45% respectively in the GAO system, and these fractions were observed independent of pH either in the PAO or in the GAO system. In the PAO system, with the increase of pH, the phosphorus removal efficiency was improved greatly, and a phosphorus removal efficiency of 100% was achieved at 8.0. Further investigation showed that the higher phosphorus removal efficiency at higher pH was mainly caused by a biological effect instead of chemical one.

  7. Long-term compressive strength and some other properties of controlled low strength materials made with pozzolanic cement and Class C fly ash.

    PubMed

    Türkel, S

    2006-09-01

    Controlled low strength material (CLSM) is a flowable mixture that can be used as a backfill material in place of compacted soils. CLSM (or flowable fill) require no tamping or compaction to achieve its compressive strength and typically has a load carrying capacity much higher than that of compacted soils, but can be proportioned to allow future excavation. In this study, several different CLSM mixtures containing Class C fly ash (FA) obtained from Soma Thermal Power Plant in Turkey, crushed limestone sand (CLS), and a minimal amount of pozzolanic cement (PZC) were produced. The mass of PZC was kept constant for all mixtures at 5% of FA by mass. The mechanical and physical properties of CLSM mixtures such as unconfined compressive strength, water absorption by capillarity and EP toxicity were investigated by a series of laboratory tests. CLSM mixtures with low PZC contents and high Class C FA and CLS contents can be produced with excellent flowability and low unconfined compressive strengths in the range of 1.16-2.80 MPa at 365-days age when re-excavation at later ages might be needed. The results presented here show a new field of application for Soma FA in CLSM mixtures, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization, as well as, conservation of resources and environment.

  8. Switching from long-term benzodiazepine therapy to pregabalin in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Sallie J; Mandel, Francine S; Schweizer, Edward

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin in facilitating taper off chronic benzodiazepines, outpatients (N = 106) with a lifetime diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (current diagnosis could be subthreshold) who had been treated with a benzodiazepine for 8-52 weeks were stabilized for 2-4 weeks on alprazolam in the range of 1-4 mg/day. Patients were then randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with either pregabalin 300-600 mg/day or placebo while undergoing a gradual benzodiazepine taper at a rate of 25% per week, followed by a 6-week benzodiazepine-free phase during which they continued double-blind study treatment. Outcome measures included ability to remain benzodiazepine-free (primary) as well as changes in Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM)-A and Physician Withdrawal Checklist (PWC). At endpoint, a non-significant higher proportion of patients remained benzodiazepine-free receiving pregabalin compared with placebo (51.4% vs 37.0%). Treatment with pregabalin was associated with significantly greater endpoint reduction in the HAM-A total score versus placebo (-2.5 vs +1.3; p < 0.001), and lower endpoint mean PWC scores (6.5 vs 10.3; p = 0.012). Thirty patients (53%) in the pregabalin group and 19 patients (37%) in the placebo group completed the study, reducing the power to detect a significant difference on the primary outcome. The results on the anxiety and withdrawal severity measures suggest that switching to pregabalin may be a safe and effective method for discontinuing long-term benzodiazepine therapy.

  9. Long-term effect of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy in the treatment of post-mastectomy pain syndrome: a double blind, placebo-control, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Ebid, Anwar Abdelgayed; El-Sodany, Ahmed Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    We assess the long-term effect of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) in the treatment of the post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS). A total of 61 women participated in this study (30 in the laser group and 31 in the placebo laser group), with a mean age of 53.56 ± 1.11 years. Patients who were randomly assigned to the laser group received HILT three times per week for 4 weeks, plus a routine physical therapy program (RPTP). The placebo laser group received placebo HILT plus RPTP. The outcomes measured were pain level by visual analog scale (VAS), shoulder range of motion (ROM), and quality of life (QOL). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA with repeated measures to compare the differences between baseline and post-treatment measurements and after 12 weeks of follow-up for both groups. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Shoulder ROM significantly increased in the laser group after 4 weeks of treatment and after 12 weeks of follow-up compared with the placebo group. VAS results showed a significant decrease post-treatment in the laser group relative to the placebo group, and QOL results showed a significant improvement in the laser group compared with the placebo group and still improved after 12 weeks of follow-up. HILT combined with an RPTP appears to be more effective in patients with PMPS than a placebo laser procedure with RPTP.

  10. Symptoms of depression and anxiety predict treatment response and long-term physical health outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Sam; Scott, David L.; Steer, Sophia; Hotopf, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this analysis is to examine the longitudinal impact of symptoms of depression/anxiety on treatment response, long-term disease activity and physical disability in RA. Methods. Secondary analysis of clinical trial data was performed. Data were collected at baseline and at 6-monthly intervals for 2 years. The EuroQoL (EQ-5DTM) indicated depression/anxiety symptom severity. Our primary outcomes of interest were (i) DAS-28 and (ii) physical disability measured via the HAQ. Secondary outcomes were: tender and swollen joint counts, patient global assessment, ESR and odds of reaching clinical remission. Multilevel models were used to assess the impact of baseline and persistent depression/anxiety on outcomes over 2 years. Results. Data from 379 patients were included. After adjusting for covariates, baseline depression/anxiety symptoms were associated with increased DAS-28 outcomes and increased tender joint counts. Persistent depression/anxiety symptoms were associated with increased DAS-28 scores, HAQ scores, tender joint counts and patient global assessment of disease activity, and reduced odds of reaching clinical remission. Patients with symptoms of depression/anxiety at baseline also showed a 50% reduction in prednisolone treatment effect, in comparison with patients with no symptoms of depression/anxiety at baseline. Conclusion. Baseline and persistent symptoms of depression/anxiety are associated with poorer health outcomes over time, as well as reduced treatment response. Mental health should be routinely measured both in clinical practice and in research, and managed alongside rheumatological disease to optimize health outcomes. Further research is required to examine whether treatment of mental disorders can improve rheumatological outcomes. PMID:26350486

  11. Long-term effects of gastrectomy in patients with spirometry-defined COPD and patients at risk of COPD: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hitoshi; Nomura, Koichiro; Abe, Shinji; Motegi, Takashi; Ishii, Takeo; Hattori, Kumiko; Kusunoki, Yuji; Gemma, Akihiko; Kida, Kozui

    2015-01-01

    Objective Comorbidities are characteristic of COPD. However, little is known about the secondary manifestations of COPD in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we aimed to explore the long-term effects of gastrectomy in patients with spirometry-defined COPD or those at risk of COPD. Participants Subjects included 87 patients either with COPD or at risk of COPD (symptomatic) who underwent gastrectomy between December 2003 and October 2013 (group A), and 174 patients either with COPD or at risk of COPD, matched by age (±5 years), sex, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) as percentage of predicted (FEV1% predicted) (±5%) (group B). Methods All patients underwent routine blood chemistry and pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gas analysis, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), high-resolution chest computed tomography scans, and nutritional assessments. Results The mean duration postgastrectomy was 18.3±15.4 years. The mean FEV1 and FEV1% predicted were 2.07±0.76 L and 74.6±24.5%, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that group A patients had significantly lower body mass index, fat-free mass index, and serum hemoglobin and albumin concentration (all P=0.00), and walked a significantly shorter distance in the 6MWT (P<0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis for the distance in the 6MWT indicated that increased residual volume (RV) to total lung capacity (TLC) as percentage of predicted (%RV/TLC) alone was an independent and significant predictor of reduced distances in the 6MWT. Conclusion We concluded that nutritional insufficiency in patients with COPD (or those at risk of COPD) who previously underwent gastrectomy might lead to hyperinflation and consequently, decreased exercise capacity. PMID:26604730

  12. Long-term effects of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy in the treatment of post-burn pruritus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Ebid, Anwar Abdelgayed; Ibrahim, Abeer Ramadan; Omar, Mohammed Taher; El Baky, Amal Mohamed Abd

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the long-term effects of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) in post-burn pruritus treatment. A total of 49 adult burn patients with mean age of 31.53 ± 10.14 years participated, with 24 patients randomly assigned to the active laser group (ALG) and 25 in the placebo laser group (PLG). The ALG received HILT three times per week for 6 weeks, while the PLG received placebo HILT. Both groups received 10-mg cetirizine tablets twice daily and 10 mg at bedtime. All patients were advised to massage their burn scars with coconut oil for 5 min four times daily. The outcomes measured were the itch severity scale (ISS), impairment of pruritus-related quality of life (QoL), pain level by the visual analog scale (VAS), hand grip strength by handheld dynamometer, and daily cetirizine intake. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the baseline and post-treatment measurements and after 12 weeks of follow-up. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. ISS decreased significantly in the ALG after 6 weeks of treatment and after 12 weeks of follow-up compared with the PLG. The QoL results showed a significant improvement in the ALG compared with the PLG, which continued after 12 weeks. VAS results significantly decrease, hand grip strength significantly improved, and cetirizine intake significantly decreased post-treatment in the ALG relative to the PLG. HILT combined with cetirizine seems more effective in patients with post-burn pruritus than a placebo laser procedure with cetirizine.

  13. Selection of TI8-8V mutant associated with long-term control of HIV-1 by cross-reactive HLA-B*51:01-restricted cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed

    Kuse, Nozomi; Akahoshi, Tomohiro; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Takamasa; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2014-11-15

    Elite controllers of HIV-1-infected HLA-B*51:01(+) hemophiliacs, who remain disease free and have a very low plasma viral load for >30 y, had the 8V mutation at an immunodominant Pol283-8 (TI8) epitope, whereas the 8T mutant was predominantly selected in other HIV-1-infected HLA-B*51:01(+) hemophiliacs, suggesting an important role of the 8V mutant selection in long-term control of HIV-1. However, the mechanism of this selection and the long-term control in these elite controllers remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the 8V mutant selection in these controllers. TI8-specific CTLs from these individuals evenly recognized both TI8 peptide-pulsed and TI8-8V peptide-pulsed cells and effectively suppressed replication of wild-type (WT) and the 8V viruses. However, the results of a competitive viral suppression assay demonstrated that CTLs from the individual who had WT virus could discriminate WT virus from the 8V virus, whereas those from the individuals who had the 8V virus evenly recognized both viruses. The former CTLs carried TCRs with weaker affinity for the HLA-B*51:01-TI8-8V molecule than for the HLA-B*51:01-TI-8 one, whereas the latter ones carried TCRs with similar affinity for both molecules. The reconstruction of the TCRs from these CTLs in TCR-deficient cells confirmed the different recognition of the TCRs for these epitopes. The present study showed that the 8V mutant virus could be selected by cross-reactive CTLs carrying TCR that could discriminate a small difference between the two molecules. The selection of the 8V mutant and elicitation of these two cross-reactive CTLs may contribute to the long-term control of HIV-1.

  14. Long term efficacy of a pen injector.

    PubMed

    Dinneen, S F; Cronin, C C; O'Sullivan, D J

    1991-09-01

    We assessed the long term efficacy of Novopen as a form of insulin administration. Records were obtained on 48 patients who were treated with Novopen between January '86 and October '88. Six patients were excluded due to insufficient data. The study group of 42 patients comprised 22 females and 20 males of average age 33 years (range 17-66). Mean Hb.A1 rose from 10.6% to 12.1% after Novopen therapy, a rise of 14.1%. This rise is both clinically and statistically significant (p less than 0.001; 99% confidence limits 0.59-2.78). Increases in weight and insulin dose were also noted, but did not reach statistical significance. The majority of patients felt Novopen was superior to twice daily insulin in terms of ease of administration (81%) and flexibility of lifestyle (95%), and all who were using Novopen wished to continue with it. More than 50% of patients admitted to altering their dietary habits while using Novopen. Despite continuing patient satisfaction with this form of insulin administration, its long-term use may be associated with sub-optimal metabolic control.

  15. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  16. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as ‘storage’. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation—which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes—with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  17. Climate Predictability and Long Term Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Liu, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The benefit of climate Long Term Memory (LTM) for long term prediction is assessed using data from a millennium control simulation with the atmosphere ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPIOM. The forecast skills are evaluated for surface temperature time series at individual grid points. LTM is characterised by the Hurst exponent in the power-law scaling of the fluctuation function which is determined by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). LTM with a Hurst exponent close to 0.9 occurs mainly in high latitude oceans, which are also characterized by high potential predictability. Climate predictability is diagnosed in terms of potentially predictable variance fractions. Explicit prediction experiments for various time steps are conducted on a grid point basis using an auto-correlation (AR1) predictor: in regions with LTM, prediction skills are beyond that expected from red noise persistence; exceptions occur in some areas in the southern oceans and over the northern hemisphere continents. Extending the predictability analysis to the fully forced simulation shows large improvement in prediction skills.

  18. Long-term experience with indapamide.

    PubMed

    Beling, S; Vukovich, R A; Neiss, E S; Zisblatt, M; Webb, E; Losi, M

    1983-07-01

    Indapamide, 2.5 mg administered once daily for periods up to 36 months, was found to be safe and effective for the long-term control of mild to moderate hypertension. The effects of hydrochlorothiazide, 50 mg, and indapamide, 2.5 mg, were studied in two randomized, double-blind, multicenter trials. Data from the two multicenter trials (20 study sites) were pooled for purposes of comparison. Significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with patients in both supine and standing positions, occurred in both groups within the first 8 weeks of treatment. This effect was maintained throughout the active treatment period. Success, as determined by the therapeutic success rate (percentage of patients with decreases of standing phase V diastolic blood pressure of at least 10 mm Hg or to below 90 mm Hg), occurred in 53% of the patients given hydrochlorothiazide and in 56% of the indapamide-treated patients. During the study period, the nature, frequency, and severity of adverse reactions were similar for both groups. There was no clinically significant difference between the treatment groups for the laboratory assessments. Patients who completed the multicenter trials were eligible for participation in an ongoing long-term extension study of the safety of indapamide. Data are available for periods up to 36 months and demonstrate neither augmentation of clinical or laboratory adverse effects nor any potentially harmful indicators that could be attributed to prolonged treatment.

  19. Long-Term Effect of Fault-Controlled CO2 Alteration on the Weakening and Strengthening of Reservoir and Seal Lithologies at Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Dewers, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of the coupled chemical and mechanical properties and behavior of reservoir and seal rocks is critical for assessing both the short and long term security of sequestered CO2. A combined structural diagenesis approach using observations from natural analogs has great advantages for understanding these properties over longer time scales than is possible using laboratory or numerical experiments. Current numerical models evaluating failure of reservoirs and seals during and after CO2 injection in the subsurface are just beginning to account for such coupled processes. Well-characterized field studies of natural analogs such as Crystal Geyser, Utah, are essential for providing realistic input parameters, calibration, and testing of numerical models across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Fracture mechanics testing was performed on a suite of naturally altered and unaltered reservoir and seal rocks exposed at the Crystal Geyser field site. These samples represent end-products of CO2-related alteration over geologic (>103 yr) time scales. Both the double torsion and short rod test methods yield comparable results on the same samples. Tests demonstrate that CO2-related alteration has weakened one reservoir sandstone lithology by approximately 50%, but the subcritical index is not significantly affected. An altered siltstone sample also shows a reduction in fracture toughness values and lowered subcritical index in comparison to unaltered siltstone. In contrast, elevated calcite content in shales due to CO2 alteration has increased fracture toughness. Similarly, fracture toughness was increased in what is otherwise a weak, poorly cemented sandstone unit due to increased calcite cement. Combined, these results demonstrate that CO2-related alteration generally weakens rock to fracturing (i.e. lowers fracture toughness), except in cases where calcite cementation is significantly increased. The natural system at Crystal Geyser demonstrates that water

  20. Long-term controls of soil organic carbon with depth and time: a case study from the Cowlitz River Chronosequence, WA USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Xu, Xiaomei; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Trumbore, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Over timescales of soil development (millennia), the capacity of soils to stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC) is linked to soil development through changes in soil mineralogy and other soil properties. In this study, an extensive dataset of soil profile chemistry and mineralogy is compiled from the Cowlitz River Chronosequence (CRC), WA USA. The CRC soils range in age from 0.25 to 1200 kyr, spanning a developmental gradient encompassing clear changes in soil mineralogy, chemistry, and surface area. Comparison of these and other metrics of soil development with SOC properties reveal several relationships that may be diagnostic of the long-term coupling of soil development and C cycling. Specifically, SOC content was significantly correlated with sodium pyrophosphate extractable metals emphasizing the relevance of organo-metal complexes in volcanic soils. The depth distributions of organo-metals and other secondary weathering products, including the kaolin and short-range order (SRO) minerals, support the so-called “binary composition” of volcanic soils. The formation of organo-metal complexes limits the accumulation of secondary minerals in shallow soils, whereas in deep soils with lower SOC content, secondary minerals accumulate. In the CRC soils, secondary minerals formed in deep soils (below 50 cm) including smectite, allophane, Fe-oxides and dominated by the kaolin mineral halloysite. The abundance of halloysite was significantly correlated with bulk soil surface area and 14C content (a proxy for the mean age of SOC), implying enhanced stability of C in deep soils. Allophane, an SRO mineral commonly associated with SOC storage, was not correlated with SOC content or 14C values in CRC soils. We propose conceptual framework to describe these observations based on a general understanding of pedogenesis in volcanic soils, where SOC cycling is coupled with soil development through the formation of and fate of organo-metal or other mobile weathering products

  1. Neurotoxicity testing during long-term studies.

    PubMed

    Ivens, I

    1990-01-01

    Several tests and methods for the investigation of neurotoxicity were performed with female Wistar rats for up to 187 days. The methods were validated by testing 10 rats treated with beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) and 10 control rats. Cage side observation of the animals revealed signs of altered behavior and motor dysfunction of the IDPN-treated rats. Results of a neuromuscular screen indicated changes in gait, righting reflex, grip strength and performance of the negative geotropism test. Investigation of the animals in activity monitors and on the accelerating rotarod showed changes of several parameters. The motor nerve conduction velocity, measured 6 months after the first treatment, was reduced by 6.7 meters per second in the IDPN group compared to controls. From the results of the tests it can be concluded that the methods chosen can be used during long-term studies but may be most useful for animals not older than 12 months.

  2. The Long-Term Effects of Remedial Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightbill, Mary

    The long-term effects (after 3 to 5 years) of remedial reading instruction were examined. Comparison was made on reading achievement scores and on achievement ratios between a group of 16 former remedial reading clinic students, aged 12 to 20, and a matched group which did not receive remedial instruction. In addition, 45 former remedial readers…

  3. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds... Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The BLM may require the...-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and for other long-term, post-mining...

  4. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds...-GENERAL Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The BLM may require the...-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and for other long-term, post-mining...

  5. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds...-GENERAL Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The BLM may require the...-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and for other long-term, post-mining...

  6. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds...-GENERAL Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The BLM may require the...-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and for other long-term, post-mining...

  7. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  8. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  9. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    erosion accentuates the often very low inherent fertility of many soils in the tropics. An integrated approach involving inorganic and organic inputs is required where animal and plant residues are returned, as far as practicable. Chemical fertilizers alone cannot achieve long-term productivity on many soils and organic material inputs are required to maintain soil organic matter levels and crop productivity. A major research effort is required to develop improved strategies for halting and reversing soil degradation if long-term productivity is to be secured.

  10. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa; de Araújo, Alberto José; de Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. PMID:27832238

  11. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  12. Technology for long-term care.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sunghee H; Benefield, Lazelle E; Mahoney, Diane Feeney

    2010-01-01

    Severe staff shortages in long-term care (LTC) make it difficult to meet the demands of the growing aging population. Further, technology-savvy Baby Boomers are expected to reshape the current institutional environments toward gaining more freedom and control in their care and lives. Voices from business, academia, research, advocacy organizations, and government bodies suggest that innovative technological approaches are the linchpin that may prepare society to cope with these projected demands. In this article, we review the current state of aging-related technology, identify potential areas for efficacy testing on improving the quality of life of LTC residents in future research, and discuss barriers to implementation of LTC technology. Finally, we present a vision of future technology use that could transform current care practices.

  13. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, H; Lader, M H

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety. PMID:6114776

  14. Smoking control: challenges and achievements.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da; Araújo, Alberto José de; Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias de; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. RESUMO O tabagismo é o fator de risco mais prevenível e controlável em saúde e, por isso, precisa ter a máxima atenção e ser muito mais enfocado por todos os profissionais da saúde. O tabaco é um produto de alta rentabilidade pela sua grande produção e pelo elevado número de consumidores. As políticas de controle e os recursos terapêuticos para o tabagismo avançaram muito nos últimos anos e têm mostrado resultados altamente satisfatórios, particularmente no Brasil. Entretanto, ainda resta um longo caminho a ser percorrido para que se possa considerar o tabagismo como uma doença controlada sob o ponto de vista da saúde pública. Já se observam modificações do comportamento da sociedade com relação ao tabagismo, mas ainda em escala muito lenta, de modo que os pneumologistas têm nesse setor um campo

  15. LIMS for Lasers 2015 for achieving long-term accuracy and precision of δ2H, δ17O, and δ18O of waters using laser absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2015-01-01

    Although laser absorption spectrometry (LAS) instrumentation is easy to use, its incorporation into laboratory operations is not easy, owing to extensive offline manipulation of comma-separated-values files for outlier detection, between-sample memory correction, nonlinearity (δ-variation with water amount) correction, drift correction, normalization to VSMOW-SLAP scales, and difficulty in performing long-term QA/QC audits. METHODS: A Microsoft Access relational-database application, LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System) for Lasers 2015, was developed. It automates LAS data corrections and manages clients, projects, samples, instrument-sample lists, and triple-isotope (δ(17) O, δ(18) O, and δ(2) H values) instrumental data for liquid-water samples. It enables users to (1) graphically evaluate sample injections for variable water yields and high isotope-delta variance; (2) correct for between-sample carryover, instrumental drift, and δ nonlinearity; and (3) normalize final results to VSMOW-SLAP scales. RESULTS: Cost-free LIMS for Lasers 2015 enables users to obtain improved δ(17) O, δ(18) O, and δ(2) H values with liquid-water LAS instruments, even those with under-performing syringes. For example, LAS δ(2) HVSMOW measurements of USGS50 Lake Kyoga (Uganda) water using an under-performing syringe having ±10 % variation in water concentration gave +31.7 ± 1.6 ‰ (2-σ standard deviation), compared with the reference value of +32.8 ± 0.4 ‰, after correction for variation in δ value with water concentration, between-sample memory, and normalization to the VSMOW-SLAP scale. CONCLUSIONS: LIMS for Lasers 2015 enables users to create systematic, well-founded instrument templates, import δ(2) H, δ(17) O, and δ(18) O results, evaluate performance with automatic graphical plots, correct for δ nonlinearity due to variable water concentration, correct for between-sample memory, adjust for drift, perform VSMOW-SLAP normalization, and

  16. LIMS for Lasers 2015 for achieving long-term accuracy and precision of δ2H, δ17O, and δ18O of waters using laser absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2015-01-01

    RationaleAlthough laser absorption spectrometry (LAS) instrumentation is easy to use, its incorporation into laboratory operations is not easy, owing to extensive offline manipulation of comma-separated-values files for outlier detection, between-sample memory correction, nonlinearity (δ-variation with water amount) correction, drift correction, normalization to VSMOW-SLAP scales, and difficulty in performing long-term QA/QC audits.MethodsA Microsoft Access relational-database application, LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System) for Lasers 2015, was developed. It automates LAS data corrections and manages clients, projects, samples, instrument-sample lists, and triple-isotope (δ17O, δ18O, and δ2H values) instrumental data for liquid-water samples. It enables users to (1) graphically evaluate sample injections for variable water yields and high isotope-delta variance; (2) correct for between-sample carryover, instrumental drift, and δ nonlinearity; and (3) normalize final results to VSMOW-SLAP scales.ResultsCost-free LIMS for Lasers 2015 enables users to obtain improved δ17O, δ18O, and δ2H values with liquid-water LAS instruments, even those with under-performing syringes. For example, LAS δ2HVSMOW measurements of USGS50 Lake Kyoga (Uganda) water using an under-performing syringe having ±10 % variation in water concentration gave +31.7 ± 1.6 ‰ (2-σ standard deviation), compared with the reference value of +32.8 ± 0.4 ‰, after correction for variation in δ value with water concentration, between-sample memory, and normalization to the VSMOW-SLAP scale.ConclusionsLIMS for Lasers 2015 enables users to create systematic, well-founded instrument templates, import δ2H, δ17O, and δ18O results, evaluate performance with automatic graphical plots, correct for δ nonlinearity due to variable water concentration, correct for between-sample memory, adjust for drift, perform VSMOW-SLAP normalization, and perform long-term QA/QC audits

  17. Body-composition changes in the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE)-2 study: a 2-y randomized controlled trial of calorie restriction in nonobese humans.

    PubMed

    Das, Sai Krupa; Roberts, Susan B; Bhapkar, Manjushri V; Villareal, Dennis T; Fontana, Luigi; Martin, Corby K; Racette, Susan B; Fuss, Paul J; Kraus, William E; Wong, William W; Saltzman, Edward; Pieper, Carl F; Fielding, Roger A; Schwartz, Ann V; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-02-22

    Background: Calorie restriction (CR) retards aging and increases longevity in many animal models. However, it is unclear whether CR can be implemented in humans without adverse effects on body composition.Objective: We evaluated the effect of a 2-y CR regimen on body composition including the influence of sex and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) among participants enrolled in CALERIE-2 (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.Design: Participants were 218 nonobese (BMI: 21.9-28.0) adults aged 21-51 y who were randomly assigned to 25% CR (CR, n = 143) or ad libitum control (AL, n = 75) in a 2:1 ratio. Measures at baseline and 12 and 24 mo included body weight, waist circumference, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and appendicular mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) by doubly labeled water; and dietary protein intake by self-report. Values are expressed as means ± SDs.Results: The CR group achieved 11.9% ± 0.7% CR over 2-y and had significant decreases in weight (-7.6 ± 0.3 compared with 0.4 ± 0.5 kg), waist circumference (-6.2 ± 0.4 compared with 0.9 ± 0.5 cm), FM (-5.4 ± 0.3 compared with 0.5 ± 0.4 kg), and FFM (-2.0 ± 0.2 compared with -0.0 ± 0.2 kg) at 24 mo relative to the AL group (all between-group P < 0.001). Moreover, FFM as a percentage of body weight at 24 mo was higher, and percentage of FM was lower in the CR group than in the AL. AREE, but not protein intake, predicted preservation of FFM during CR (P < 0.01). Men in the CR group lost significantly more trunk fat (P = 0.03) and FFM expressed as a percentage of weight loss (P < 0.001) than women in the CR group.Conclusions: Two years of CR had broadly favorable effects on both whole-body and regional adiposity that could facilitate health span in humans. The decrements in FFM were commensurate with the reduced body mass; although men in the CR group lost more FFM

  18. Comparison of the long-term skeletal stability between a biodegradable and a titanium fixation system following BSSO advancement - a cohort study based on a multicenter randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Bakelen, N B; Boermans, B D A; Buijs, G J; Jansma, J; Pruim, G J; Hoppenreijs, Th J M; Bergsma, J E; Stegenga, B; Bos, R R M

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable fixation systems could reduce or eliminate the problems associated with removal of titanium plates. A multicenter randomised controlled trial (RCT) was performed in the Netherlands from December 2006-July 2009, and originally 230 injured and orthognathic patients were included. The patients were randomly assigned to either a titanium control group (KLS Martin) or to a biodegradable test group (Inion CPS). The aim of the present study was to compare the long-term skeletal stability of advancement bilateral sagittal split osteotomies (BSSO) of a biodegradable system and a titanium system. Only patients from the original RCT who were at least 18 years old and who had a BSSO advancement osteotomy were included. Those who had simultaneous Le Fort I osteotomy or genioplasty were excluded. Analysis of skeletal stability was made by digital tracing of lateral cephalograms. Long-term skeletal stability in BSSO advancement did not differ significantly between patients treated with biodegradable plates and screws and those treated with titanium plates and screws. Given the comparable amount of relapse, the general use of Inion CPS in the treatment of BSSO advancement should not be discouraged. On the basis of other properties a total picture of the clinical use can be obtained; the short-term stability, the intraoperative switches, the number of plates removed and cost-effectiveness. Trial registration of original RCT: http://www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN 44212338.

  19. Loss of the ability to control right-to-left shunt does not influence the metabolic responses to temperature change or long-term fasting in the South American Rattlesnake Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Leite, Cleo A C; Wang, Tobias; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S; Leite, Gabrielle S P C; de Andrade, Denis O V

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the undivided ventricle of noncrocodilian reptiles, the blood perfusing the systemic circulation is a controlled combination of oxygenated pulmonary blood, flowing from left to right across the heart, and relatively deoxygenated systemic blood, flowing from right to left. A clear inverse correlation has been experimentally established between metabolic demand and the magnitude of right-to-left cardiac shunt in several reptile groups. Unilateral left vagotomy renders the single effective pulmonary artery of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) unable to adjust the magnitude of blood flow to the lung. This provides a unique model for investigation of the long-term consequences of abolition of the cardiac shunt in a squamate reptile. Rattlesnakes-vagotomized on the left or right side or sham operated-were exposed to long-term food deprivation or temperature change. Loss of control of the cardiac shunt following selective vagotomy did not change the progressive decrease in body mass or the onset of identifiable fasting stages. Resting metabolic rate and the increase in oxygen uptake measured during spontaneous or forced activity were also unchanged. The responses to reductions in temperature (from 30° to 20° or 15°C) in adult snakes or juvenile snakes were similarly unaffected by vagal transection. These data support rejection of the hypothesis that adjustment of the cardiac shunt is central to the control metabolic rate in squamate reptiles.

  20. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  1. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  2. Long-Term Nutrition: A Clinician's Guide to Successful Long-Term Enteral Access in Adults.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Matthew L; Mir, Fazia A; Boumitri, Christine; Palmer, Lena B; Evans, David C; Kiraly, Laszlo N; Nguyen, Douglas L

    2016-09-22

    Long-term nutrition support requires long-term enteral access. To ensure the success of long-term enteral access, many factors need to be taken into consideration. This article represents a guide to placing and maintaining access in patients requiring long-term nutrition and addresses many of the common questions regarding long-term enteral access, such as indications, types of access, feeding after access placed, and recognition and treatment of potential complications. This guide will help the clinician establish and maintain access to maximize nutrition in patients requiring long-term nutrition.

  3. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  4. Numerical simulation of gender differences in a long-term microgravity exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse and simulate gender differences when individuals are exposed to long-term microgravity. Risk probability of a health impairment which may put in jeopardy a long-term mission is also evaluated. Computer simulations are becoming a promising research line of work, as physiological models become more and more sophisticated and reliable. Technological advances in state-of-the-art hardware technology and software allow nowadays for better and more accurate simulations of complex phenomena, such as the response of the human cardiovascular system to long-term exposure to microgravity. Experimental data for long-term missions are difficult to achieve and reproduce, therefore the predictions of computer simulations are of a major importance in this field. Our approach is based on a previous model developed and implemented in our laboratory (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects). The software simulates the behaviour of the cardiovascular system and different human organs, has a modular architecture, and allows to introduce perturbations such as physical exercise or countermeasures. The implementation is based on a complex electricallike model of this control system, using inexpensive software development frameworks, and has been tested and validated with the available experimental data. Gender differences have been implemented for this specific work, as an adjustment of a number of parameters that are included in the model. Women versus men physiological differences have been therefore taken into account, based upon estimations from the physiology bibliography. A number of simulations have been carried out for long-term exposure to microgravity. Gravity varying from Earth-based to zero, and time exposure are the two main variables involved in the construction of results, including responses to patterns of physical aerobical exercise, and also thermal stress simulating an extra-vehicular activity. Results show

  5. Efficacy of a tailored tobacco control program on long-term use in a population of U.S. military troops.

    PubMed

    Klesges, Robert C; DeBon, Margaret; Vander Weg, Mark W; Haddock, C Keith; Lando, Harry A; Relyea, George E; Peterson, Alan L; Talcott, G Wayne

    2006-04-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of a brief tailored smoking control intervention delivered during basic military training on tobacco use in a population of military personnel (N = 33,215). Participants were randomized to either a tobacco use intervention (smoking cessation, smokeless tobacco use cessation, or prevention depending on tobacco use history) or a health education control condition. Results indicated that smokers who received intervention were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04, 1.30) times (7-day point prevalence) and 1.23 (95% CI = 1.07, 1.41) times (continuous abstinence) more likely to be abstinent than controls from smoking cigarettes at the 1-year follow-up (p < .01); the cessation rate difference was 1.60% (31.09% vs. 29.49%) and 1.73% (15.47% vs. 13.74%) for point prevalence and continuous abstinence, respectively. Additionally, smokeless tobacco users were 1.33 (95% CI = 1.08, 1.63) times more likely than controls (p < .01) continuously abstinent at follow-up, an overall cessation rate difference of 5.44% (33.72% vs. 28.28%). The smoking prevention program had no impact on smoking initiation. These results suggest potential for large-scale tobacco control efforts.

  6. Efficacy of a Tailored Tobacco Control Program on Long-Term Use in a Population of U.S. Military Troops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Lando, Harry A.; Relyea, George E.; Peterson, Alan L.; Talcott, G. Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of a brief tailored smoking control intervention delivered during basic military training on tobacco use in a population of military personnel (N = 33,215). Participants were randomized to either a tobacco use intervention (smoking cessation, smokeless tobacco use cessation, or prevention depending on tobacco…

  7. Does Maintenance CBT Contribute to Long-Term Treatment Response of Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia? A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kamila S.; Payne, Laura A.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shear, M. Katherine; Woods, Scott W.; Saksa, John R.; Barlow, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined the possibility that maintenance cognitive behavior therapy (M-CBT) may improve the likelihood of sustained improvement and reduced relapse in a multi-site randomized controlled clinical trial of patients who met criteria for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Method: Participants were all patients (N = 379) who…

  8. Long-term activation of PKA in β-cells provides sustained improvement to glucose control, insulin sensitivity and body weight.

    PubMed

    Levine, Joshua A; Kaihara, Kelly A; Layden, Brian T; Wicksteed, Barton

    2016-09-02

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and β-cell failure. Therapeutic aims are to reduce adiposity, improve insulin sensitivity and enhance β-cell function. However, it has been proposed that chronically increasing insulin release leads to β-cell exhaustion and failure. We previously developed mice to have increased activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), specifically in β-cells (β-caPKA mice). β-caPKA mice have enhanced acute phase insulin release, which is the primary determinant of the efficacy of glucose clearance. Here these mice were used to determine the sustainability of enhanced insulin secretion, and to characterize peripheral effects of enhanced β-cell function. Increased PKA activity was induced by tamoxifen administration at 10 weeks of age. Male mice were aged to 12 months of age and female mice to 16 months. Glucose control in both male and female β-caPKA mice was significantly improved relative to littermate controls with ad libitum feeding, upon refeeding after fasting, and in glucose tolerance tests. In female mice insulin release was both greater and more rapid than in controls. Female mice were more insulin sensitive than controls. Male and female β-caPKA mice had lower body weights than controls. DEXA analysis of male mice revealed that this was due to reduced adiposity and not due to changes in lean body mass. This study indicates that targeting β-cells to enhance insulin release is sustainable, maintains insulin sensitivity and reduces body weight. These data identify β-cell PKA activity as a novel target for obesity therapies.

  9. The Long-Term Effect of Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function, Urinary Continence, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Comparison to Age-Matched Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ponholzer, Anton; Augustin, Herbert; Madersbacher, Stephan; Pummer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze the impact of radical prostatectomy (RPE) on erectile function and lower urinary tract function in comparison to age-matched healthy men. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy completed questionnaires containing the IIEF-5, the Bristol female LUTS questionnaire, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results. Patients after RPE were included (n = 363). Age-matched healthy men (n = 363) were included. The mean IIEF-5 of patients aged 61–70 yrs after RPE was 10.4 ± 6.6 versus 18.8 ± 5.3 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs after RPE were 7.2 ± 6.5 versus 13.6 ± 7.7 in the control cohort. Urinary incontinence after RPE was reported in 41.9% (61–70 years) and 37.7% (71–80) versus 7.5% and 15.1% in the control cohort. The mean IPSS of patients after RPE aged 61–70 yrs was 5.0 ± 4.4 versus 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs were 6.0 ± 4.9 versus 7.5 ± 5.7 in the healthy cohort. Conclusions. The negative effect of radical prostatectomy on erectile and urinary incontinence remains substantial. The physiologically declining erectile and lower urinary tract function with ageing reduces the difference between healthy men and those after surgery. Healthy men have a higher IPSS presumably due to the presence of bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:28261619

  10. Long-term oral calcium supplementation reduces diastolic blood pressure in end stage renal disease. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, L J; Rudnicki, M; Højsted, J

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that oral calcium supply reduces blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral calcium supply reduces blood pressure in patients undergoing haemodialysis. The study was randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled. Eleven patients received two grams of calcium per day and 12 patients received placebo. Three patients (one from the calcium group and two from the placebo group) dropped out within the first month. The groups were comparable at inclusion regarding blood pressure, weight, and serum values. Blood pressure measurements were auscultatory with a mercury manometer and diastolic blood pressure was measured as Korotkoff phase V. At inclusion a significant positive correlation between serum phosphate and blood pressure was found. After a study period of six months a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure was found between the two groups (p < 0.05), but no difference was found in systolic blood pressure. The reduction in diastolic blood pressure was 6.9 mmHg of the pretreatment level in the calcium group. In conclusion, the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism with oral calcium gives good benefits in the regulation of diastolic blood pressure. A well controlled phosphate homeostasis may also be of importance for the control of blood pressure in haemodialysis patients.

  11. Long-term study of patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate renal impairment shows that dapagliflozin reduces weight and blood pressure but does not improve glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Donald E; Fioretto, Paola; Tang, Weihua; List, James F

    2014-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, glycemic improvement by sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition depends on the kidney's ability to filter glucose. Dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, reduces hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes and normal or mildly impaired renal function. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we assessed daily treatment with dapagliflozin in 252 patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes and moderate renal impairment. The primary endpoint, the mean change in HbA1c, was not statistically different from placebo after 24 weeks (−0.41% and −0.44% for 5- and 10-mg doses, respectively, and −0.32% for placebo). The mean weight change from baseline was −1.54 and −1.89 kg for the 5- and 10-mg doses, respectively, and +0.21 kg for placebo. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased in the dapagliflozin groups compared to placebo. Through 104 weeks, 13 patients receiving dapagliflozin and no patients receiving placebo experienced bone fracture. At 1 week, the mean serum creatinine increased with dapagliflozin 5 mg (+0.13 mg/dl) and 10 mg (+0.18 mg/dl) and did not change further after 104 weeks. Mean serum electrolytes did not change in any group, and there were fewer episodes of hyperkalemia with dapagliflozin than placebo. Thus, in patients with moderate renal impairment, dapagliflozin did not improve glycemic control, but reduced weight and blood pressure. PMID:24067431

  12. Exploratory Analyses of the Long-Term Effects of Improving Behavior, Attendance, and Educational Achievement in Grades 1-6 and 8-12. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard; Gibson, Neal

    2012-01-01

    We studied relationships among background characteristics, behavioral infractions, punishments, attendance, and educational achievement, using longitudinal data of students in grades 1-6 and 8-12. We estimated how much hypothesized early improvements in educational achievement or sustained improvements in behavior and attendance might ultimately…

  13. Security basics for long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Green, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The need for Long-Term Care (LTC) facilities is growing, the author reports, and along with it the need for programs to address the major security concerns of such facilities. In this article he explains how to apply the IAHSS Healthcare Security Industry Guidelines and the Design Guidelines to achieve a safer LTC facility.

  14. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  15. Does Head Start Yield Long-Term Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aughinbaugh, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Using 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data (n=7,787), the relationship between Head Start and school suspensions, grade repetition, and math achievement was examined. Estimates indicate that Head Start does not have long-term benefits, a finding compatible with studies showing that compensatory preschool programs need to be long in…

  16. Controlled long-term release of small peptide hormones using a new microporous polypropylene polymer: its application for vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat and potential perinatal use

    SciTech Connect

    Kruisbrink, J.; Boer, G.J.

    1984-12-01

    Based on drug release by microporous hollow fibers and the recent introduction of microporous polymers, a new technique was developed for controlled delivery of peptides. Small-diameter microporous polypropylene tubing, lumen-loaded with microgram quantities of vasopressin, and coated with collodion, releases vasopressin after in vitro immersion slowly (1-100 ng/d) and constantly for months. The mechanism of pseudo-zero-order delivery is based on high adsorption of vasopressin, keeping the void volume concentration of dissolved vasopressin constant, which is consequently a constant driving force of outward diffusion. The collodion coating prevents the entry of proteinaceous compounds which would result in rapid desorption of vasopressin. The present delivery module provides a lasting release for other peptides as well (lysine-vasopressin, oxytocin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and, to a lesser extent, Met-enkephalin). The microporous polymer-collodion device is biocompatible and, loaded with vasopressin, successfully alleviates the diabetes insipidus of Brattleboro rats deficient for vasopressin. Subcutaneous implantation normalized diuresis for a period of 60 d and constant urine vasopressin excretion is observed. When the commercially available osmotic minipump is too large for implantation, the small size of the present controlled-delivery system allows peptide treatment of young and immature laboratory rats, even if located in utero.

  17. Effects in Short and Long Term of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) on Chronic Low Back Pain: A Controlled Study with One-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Francesca; Del Canto, Antonio; Paperini, Anita; Boni, Roberta; Pasquini, Guido; Vannetti, Federica; Macchi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Comparing global postural reeducation (GPR) to a standard physiotherapy treatment (PT) based on active exercises, stretching, and massaging for improving pain and function in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Design. Prospective controlled study. Setting. Outpatient rehabilitation facility. Participants. Adult patients with diagnosis of nonspecific, chronic (>6 months) low back pain. Interventions. Both treatments consisted of 15 sessions of one hour each, twice a week including patient education. Measures. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire to evaluate disability, and Numeric Analog Scale for pain. A score change >30% was considered clinically significant. Past treatments, use of medications, smoking habits, height, weight, profession, and physical activity were also recorded on baseline, on discharge, and 1 year after discharge (resp., T0, T1, and T2). Results. At T0 103 patients with cLBP (51 cases and 52 controls) were recruited. The treatment (T1) has been completed by 79 (T1) of which 60 then carried out the 1-year follow-up (T2). Both GPR and PT at T1 were associated with a significant statistical and clinical improvement in pain and function, compared to T0. At T2, only pain in GPR still registered a statistically significant improvement. PMID:25945360

  18. A strategy to provide long-term control of weedy rice while mitigating herbicide resistance transgene flow, and its potential use for other crops with related weeds.

    PubMed

    Gressel, Jonathan; Valverde, Bernal E

    2009-07-01

    Transgenic herbicide-resistant rice is needed to control weeds that have evolved herbicide resistance, as well as for the weedy (feral, red) rice problem, which has been exacerbated by shifting to direct seeding throughout the world-firstly in Europe and the Americas, and now in Asia, as well as in parts of Africa. Transplanting had been the major method of weedy rice control. Experience with imidazolinone-resistant rice shows that gene flow to weedy rice is rapid, negating the utility of the technology. Transgenic technologies are available that can contain herbicide resistance within the crop (cleistogamy, male sterility, targeting to chloroplast genome, etc.), but such technologies are leaky. Mitigation technologies tandemly couple (genetically link) the gene of choice (herbicide resistance) with mitigation genes that are neutral or good for the crop, but render hybrids with weedy rice and their offspring unfit to compete. Mitigation genes confer traits such as non-shattering, dwarfism, no secondary dormancy and herbicide sensitivity. It is proposed to use glyphosate and glufosinate resistances separately as genes of choice, and glufosinate, glyphosate and bentazone susceptibilities as mitigating genes, with a six-season rotation where each stage kills transgenic crop volunteers and transgenic crop x weed hybrids from the previous season.

  19. Effects of dynamic controlled atmosphere by respiratory quotient on some quality parameters and volatile profile of 'Royal Gala' apple after long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Both, Vanderlei; Thewes, Fabio Rodrigo; Brackmann, Auri; de Oliveira Anese, Rogerio; de Freitas Ferreira, Daniele; Wagner, Roger

    2017-01-15

    The effects of dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) storage based on chlorophyll fluorescence (DCA-CF) and respiratory quotient (DCA-RQ) on the quality and volatile profile of 'Royal Gala' apple were evaluated. DCA storage reduces ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) oxidase activity, ethylene production and respiration rate of apples stored for 9months at 1.0°C plus 7days at 20°C, resulting in higher flesh firmness, titratable acidity and lesser physiological disorders, and provided a higher proportion of healthy fruit. Storage in a regular controlled atmosphere gave higher levels of key volatiles (butyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate and hexyl acetate), as compared to fruit stored under DCA-CF, but fruit stored under DCA-RQ 1.5 and RQ 2.0 also showed higher amounts of key volatile compounds, with increment in ethanol and ethyl acetate, but far below the odour threshold. Storage in DCA-CF reduces fruit ester production, especially 2-methylbutyl acetate, which is the most important component of 'Royal Gala' apple flavour.

  20. Renal histomorphology in dogs with pyometra and control dogs, and long term clinical outcome with respect to signs of kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Heiene, Reidun; Kristiansen, Veronica; Teige, Jon; Jansen, Johan Høgset

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related changes in renal histomorphology are described, while the presence of glomerulonephritis in dogs with pyometra is controversial in current literature. Methods Dogs with pyometra were examined retrospectively for evidence of secondary renal damage and persisting renal disease through two retrospective studies. In Study 1, light microscopic lesions of renal tissue were graded and compared in nineteen dogs with pyometra and thirteen age-matched control bitches. In Study 2, forty-one owners of dogs with pyometra were interviewed approximately 8 years after surgery for evidence ofclinical signs of renal failure in order to document causes of death/euthanasia. Results Interstitial inflammation and tubular atrophy were more pronounced in dogs with pyometra than in the control animals. Glomerular lesions classified as glomerular sclerosis were present in both groups. No unequivocal light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis were observed in bitches in any of the groups. Two bitches severely proteinuric at the time of surgery had developed end stage renal disease within 3 years. In five of the bitches polyuria persisted after surgery. Most bitches did not show signs of kidney disease at the time of death/euthanasia. Conclusion Tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed, but glomerular damage beyond age-related changes could not be demonstrated by light microscopy in the dogs with pyometra. However, severe proteinuria after surgery may predispose to development of renal failure. PMID:17480218

  1. The influence of established and new antiepileptic drugs on visual perception. II. A controlled study in patients with epilepsy under long-term antiepileptic medication.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, B J; Freudenthaler, N; Paulus, W

    1997-12-01

    In this study, we investigated visual performance under chronic antiepileptic drug treatment. Patients were under carbamazepine (CBZ) (n = 18), valproic acid (VPA) (n = 9), CBZ and vigabatrin (VGB) (n = 4), CBZ and gabapentin (GBP) (n = 8), and under CBZ and topiramate (TPR) (n = 6), respectively. Seven untreated patients with epilepsy and 42 healthy volunteers served as controls. The test battery comprised the Lanthony-D15-désaturé colour perception test, increment, postadaptation and transient tritanopia (TT) threshold measurements, visual perception threshold assessments for monochromatic and chromatic gratings and gaussian dots, and critical flicker fusion (CFF) tests. No differences were seen between naive patients and healthy controls. Patients under drug treatment always showed alterations of visual perception. Postadaptation and TT thresholds were altered under each drug regimen after short delays between switching off the adaptation light and switching on the blue test light. Threshold elevations were maximum under the combination of CBZ and TPR and lowest under CBZ and GBP. Consistent impairment of the CFF was seen under combined CBZ and TPR whereas VPA as well as combined CBZ and VGB led to ameliorations the mechanisms of which are discussed. The other tests were less sensitive. In conclusion, alterations of visual function were apparent under chronic antiepileptic drug treatment both with established and new agents. However, it may be difficult to distinguish between effects based on specific modes of action and nonspecific retino- and neurotoxicity.

  2. Simplified continuous simulation model for investigating effects of controlled drainage on long-term soil moisture dynamics with a shallow groundwater table.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huaiwei; Tong, Juxiu; Luo, Wenbing; Wang, Xiugui; Yang, Jinzhong

    2016-08-01

    Accurate modeling of soil water content is required for a reasonable prediction of crop yield and of agrochemical leaching in the field. However, complex mathematical models faced the difficult-to-calibrate parameters and the distinct knowledge between the developers and users. In this study, a deterministic model is presented and is used to investigate the effects of controlled drainage on soil moisture dynamics in a shallow groundwater area. This simplified one-dimensional model is formulated to simulate soil moisture in the field on a daily basis and takes into account only the vertical hydrological processes. A linear assumption is proposed and is used to calculate the capillary rise from the groundwater. The pipe drainage volume is calculated by using a steady-state approximation method and the leakage rate is calculated as a function of soil moisture. The model is successfully calibrated by using field experiment data from four different pipe drainage treatments with several field observations. The model was validated by comparing the simulations with observed soil water content during the experimental seasons. The comparison results demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the model in the prediction of average soil moisture values. The input data required to run the model are widely available and can be measured easily in the field. It is observed that controlled drainage results in lower groundwater contribution to the root zone and lower depth of percolation to the groundwater, thus helping in the maintenance of a low level of soil salinity in the root zone.

  3. The Challenge of Long-Term Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselmann, K.; Latif, M.; Hooss, G.; Azar, C.; Edenhofer, O.; Jaeger, C. C.; Johannessen, O. M.; Kemfert, C.; Welp, M.; Wokaun, A.

    2003-12-01

    Climate policy needs to address the multidecadal to centennial time scale of climate change. Although the realization of short-term targets is an important first step, to be effective climate policies need to be conceived as long-term programs that will achieve a gradual transition to an essentially emission-free economy on the time scale of a century. This requires a considerably broader spectrum of policy measures than the primarily market-based instruments invoked for shorter term mitigation policies. A successful climate policy must consist of a dual approach focusing on both short-term targets and long-term goals.

  4. Long-term effects of electrodermal biofeedback training on seizure control in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yoko; Trimble, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    We report data from two patients, followed over 3 years after electrodermal biofeedback treatment. Patients were trained three times each week for four weeks to increase their sympathetic arousal using electrodermal biofeedback. This treatment was directed at enabling the patients to change their psychophysiological state as a countermeasure to prevent seizures. Both patients voluntarily kept a record of seizure frequency over the year preceding the treatment and continued to record their seizures for up to 3 years after the termination of biofeedback treatment. Both patients showed a marked reduction in seizure frequency (54.9% and 59.8%) during the month of biofeedback treatment. This improvement was maintained over the subsequent years. We highlight the therapeutic potential of biofeedback interventions that enable patients to volitionally control their state of physiological arousal in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy.

  5. Short-term adhesion and long-term biofouling testing of polydopamine and poly(ethylene glycol) surface modifications of membranes and feed spacers for biofouling control.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel J; Araújo, Paula A; Correia, Patricia B; Ramsey, Matthew M; Kruithof, Joop C; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Freeman, Benny D; Paul, Donald R; Whiteley, Marvin; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2012-08-01

    Ultrafiltration, nanofiltration membranes and feed spacers were hydrophilized with polydopamine and polydopamine-g-poly(ethylene glycol) surface coatings. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes was evaluated by short-term batch protein and bacterial adhesion tests. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes and spacers was evaluated by continuous biofouling experiments in a membrane fouling simulator. The goals of the study were: 1) to determine the effectiveness of polydopamine and polydopamine-g-poly(ethylene glycol) membrane coatings for biofouling control and 2) to compare techniques commonly used in assessment of membrane biofouling propensity with biofouling experiments under practical conditions. Short-term adhesion tests were carried out under static, no-flow conditions for 1 h using bovine serum albumin, a common model globular protein, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common model Gram-negative bacterium. Biofouling tests were performed in a membrane fouling simulator (MFS) for several days under flow conditions similar to those encountered in industrial modules with the autochthonous drinking water population and acetate dosage as organic substrate. Polydopamine- and polydopamine-g-poly(ethylene glycol)-modified membranes showed significantly reduced adhesion of bovine serum albumin and P. aeruginosa in the short-term adhesion tests, but no reduction of biofouling was observed during longer biofouling experiments with modified membranes and spacers. These results demonstrate that short-term batch adhesion experiments using model proteins or bacteria under static conditions are not indicative of biofouling, while continuous biofouling experiments showed that membrane surface modification by polydopamine and polydopamine-g-poly(ethylene glycol) is not effective for biofouling control.

  6. Strengths-based positive psychology interventions: a randomized placebo-controlled online trial on long-term effects for a signature strengths- vs. a lesser strengths-intervention.

    PubMed

    Proyer, René T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in research in positive psychology interventions. There is broad evidence for their effectiveness in increasing well-being and ameliorating depression. Intentional activities that focus on those character strengths, which are most typical for a person (i.e., signature strengths, SS) and encourage their usage in a new way have been identified as highly effective. The current study aims at comparing an intervention aimed at using SS with one on using individual low scoring (or lesser) strengths in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. A total of 375 adults were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention conditions [i.e., using five signature vs. five lesser strengths (LS) in a new way] or a placebo control condition (i.e., early memories). We measured happiness and depressive symptoms at five time points (i.e., pre- and post-test, 1-, 3-, and 6-months follow-ups) and character strengths at pre-test. The main findings are that (1) there were increases in happiness for up to 3 months and decreases in depressive symptoms in the short term in both intervention conditions; (2) participants found working with strengths equally rewarding (enjoyment and benefit) in both conditions; (3) those participants that reported generally higher levels of strengths benefitted more from working on LS rather than SS and those with comparatively lower levels of strengths tended to benefit more from working on SS; and (4) deviations from an average profile derived from a large sample of German-speakers completing the Values-in-Action Inventory of Strengths were associated with greater benefit from the interventions in the SS-condition. We conclude that working on character strengths is effective for increasing happiness and discuss how these interventions could be tailored to the individual for promoting their effectiveness.

  7. Strengths-based positive psychology interventions: a randomized placebo-controlled online trial on long-term effects for a signature strengths- vs. a lesser strengths-intervention

    PubMed Central

    Proyer, René T.; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in research in positive psychology interventions. There is broad evidence for their effectiveness in increasing well-being and ameliorating depression. Intentional activities that focus on those character strengths, which are most typical for a person (i.e., signature strengths, SS) and encourage their usage in a new way have been identified as highly effective. The current study aims at comparing an intervention aimed at using SS with one on using individual low scoring (or lesser) strengths in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. A total of 375 adults were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention conditions [i.e., using five signature vs. five lesser strengths (LS) in a new way] or a placebo control condition (i.e., early memories). We measured happiness and depressive symptoms at five time points (i.e., pre- and post-test, 1-, 3-, and 6-months follow-ups) and character strengths at pre-test. The main findings are that (1) there were increases in happiness for up to 3 months and decreases in depressive symptoms in the short term in both intervention conditions; (2) participants found working with strengths equally rewarding (enjoyment and benefit) in both conditions; (3) those participants that reported generally higher levels of strengths benefitted more from working on LS rather than SS and those with comparatively lower levels of strengths tended to benefit more from working on SS; and (4) deviations from an average profile derived from a large sample of German-speakers completing the Values-in-Action Inventory of Strengths were associated with greater benefit from the interventions in the SS-condition. We conclude that working on character strengths is effective for increasing happiness and discuss how these interventions could be tailored to the individual for promoting their effectiveness. PMID:25954221

  8. A randomised controlled study of the long-term effects of exercise training on mortality in elderly people: study protocol for the Generation 100 study

    PubMed Central

    Stensvold, Dorthe; Viken, Hallgeir; Rognmo, Øivind; Skogvoll, Eirik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Vatten, Lars J; Coombes, Jeff S; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Magnussen, Jon; Ingebrigtsen, Jan Erik; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Langhammer, Arnulf; Støylen, Asbjørn; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies suggest that exercise has a tremendous preventative effect on morbidity and premature death, but these findings need to be confirmed by randomised trials. Generation 100 is a randomised, controlled study where the primary aim is to evaluate the effects of 5 years of exercise training on mortality in an elderly population. Methods and analysis All men and women born in the years 1936–1942 (n=6966), who were residents of Trondheim, Norway, were invited to participate. Between August 2012 and June 2013, a total of 1567 individuals (790 women) were included and randomised to either 5 years of two weekly sessions of high-intensity training (10 min warm-up followed by 4×4 min intervals at ∼90% of peak heart rate) or, moderate-intensity training (50 min of continuous work at ∼70% of peak heart rate), or to a control group that followed physical activity advice according to national recommendations. Clinical examinations, physical tests and questionnaires will be administered to all participants at baseline, and after 1, 3 and 5 years. Participants will also be followed up by linking to health registries until year 2035. Ethics and dissemination The study has been conducted according to the SPIRIT statement. All participants signed a written consent form, and the study has been approved by the Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics, Norway. Projects such as this are warranted in the literature, and we expect that data from this study will result in numerous papers published in world-leading clinical journals; we will also present the results at international and national conferences. Trial registration number Clinical trial gov NCT01666340. PMID:25678546

  9. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-07-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  11. Immunoneutralization of endogenous glucagon reduces hepatic glucose output and improves long-term glycemic control in diabetic ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Heidi; Brand, Christian L; Neschen, Susanne; Holst, Jens Juul; Fosgerau, Keld; Nishimura, Erica; Shulman, Gerald I

    2006-10-01

    In type 2 diabetes, glucagon levels are elevated in relation to the prevailing insulin and glucose levels. The relative hyperglucagonemia is linked to increased hepatic glucose output (HGO) and hyperglycemia. Antagonizing the effects of glucagon is therefore considered an attractive target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the current study, effects of eliminating glucagon signaling with a glucagon monoclonal antibody (mAb) were investigated in the diabetic ob/ob mouse. Acute effects of inhibiting glucagon action were studied by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and by measurement of HGO. In addition, the effects of subchronic (5 and 14 days) glucagon mAb treatment on plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and HbA1c (A1C) levels were investigated. Glucagon mAb treatment reduced the area under the curve for glucose after an OGTT, reduced HGO, and increased the rate of hepatic glycogen synthesis. Glucagon mAb treatment for 5 days lowered plasma glucose and triglyceride levels, whereas 14 days of glucagon mAb treatment reduced A1C. In conclusion, acute and subchronic neutralization of endogenous glucagon improves glycemic control, thus supporting the contention that glucagon antagonism may represent a beneficial treatment of diabetes.

  12. A LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF MOTHER-INFANT PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT: OUTCOMES ON MOTHERS AND INTERACTIONS.

    PubMed

    Salomonsson, Majlis Winberg; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Salomonsson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    An earlier randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared 80 mother-infant dyads in a Stockholm sample. One had received mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment [mother-infant psychoanalytic therapies (MIP) group], and the other received Child Health Center care (CHCC group). Effects were found on mother-reported depression and expert-rated mother-infant relationship qualities and maternal sensitivity. When the children were 412 years, the dyads were followed up with assessments of the children's attachment representations, social and emotional development, and global functioning, and the mothers' psychological well-being and representations of the child as well as the mother-child interactions. We gathered data from 66 cases approximately 312 years' posttreatment. All scores involving the mothers had now approached community levels. We found effects on maternal depression in favor of MIP, but no other between-group differences. The MIP treatments seemed to have helped the mothers to recover more quickly on personal well-being, to become more sensitive to their babies' suffering, and to better support and appreciate their children throughout infancy and toddlerhood. If so, this would explain why the MIP children had a better global functioning and were more often "OK" and less often "Troubled" at 412 years.

  13. Long-term management of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Weightman, Cherie

    2006-07-01

    This article explores the challenges of long-term case management for patients who have multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently there is scant research into district nursing input into long-term management of patients who have MS. Until now the role of the community nurses has been confined to palliation or terminal care, focusing on the more physical manifestations of MS. The contemporary role of district nurse is going to evolve to include proactive approaches. Governmental initiatives demand proactive services, and place emphasis on self-care for patients with MS. Themes that emerge from this article relate to the pre-existing skills--such as managing patients with complex needs and the advanced assessment skills--that will be required to achieve this. What is clear is that community nurses already possess many of the prerequisite skills needed for long-term management, and they should not be daunted by this prospect.

  14. Interlaboratory evaluation of Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans short-term and long-term sediment toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norberg-King, T. J.; Sibley, P.K.; Burton, G.A.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Ireland, S.; Mount, D.R.; Rowland, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    Methods for assessing the long-term toxicity of sediments to Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans can significantly enhance the capacity to assess sublethal effects of contaminated sediments through multiple endpoints. Sublethal tests allow us to begin to understand the relationship between short-term and long-term effects for toxic sediments. We present an interlaboratory evaluation with long-term and 10-d tests using control and contaminated sediments in which we assess whether proposed and existing performance criteria (test acceptability criteria [TAC]) could be achieved. Laboratories became familiar with newly developed, long-term protocols by testing two control sediments in phase 1. In phase 2, the 10-d and long-term tests were examined with several sediments. Laboratories met the TACs, but results varied depending on the test organism, test duration, and endpoints. For the long-term tests in phase 1, 66 to 100% of the laboratories consistently met the TACs for survival, growth, or reproduction using H. azteca, and 70 to 100% of the laboratories met the TACs for survival and growth, emergence, reproduction, and hatchability using C. tentans. In phase 2, fewer laboratories participated in long-term tests: 71 to 88% of the laboratories met the TAC for H. azteca, whereas 50 to 67% met the TAC for C. tentans. In the 10-d tests with H. azteca and C. tentans, 82 and 88% of the laboratories met the TAC for survival, respectively, and 80% met the TAC for C. tentans growth. For the 10-d and long-term tests, laboratories predicted similar toxicity. Overall, the interlaboratory evaluation showed good precision of the methods, appropriate endpoints were incorporated into the test protocols, and tests effectively predicted the toxicity of sediments. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  15. Umbilical cord blood expansion with nicotinamide provides long-term multilineage engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Long, Gwynn D.; Sullivan, Keith M.; Gasparetto, Cristina; Chute, John P.; Morris, Ashley; McDonald, Carolyn; Waters-Pick, Barbara; Stiff, Patrick; Wease, Steven; Peled, Amnon; Snyder, David; Cohen, Einat Galamidi; Shoham, Hadas; Landau, Efrat; Friend, Etty; Peleg, Iddo; Aschengrau, Dorit; Yackoubov, Dima; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Peled, Tony

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Delayed hematopoietic recovery is a major drawback of umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. Transplantation of ex vivo–expanded UCB shortens time to hematopoietic recovery, but long-term, robust engraftment by the expanded unit has yet to be demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that a UCB-derived cell product consisting of stem cells expanded for 21 days in the presence of nicotinamide and a noncultured T cell fraction (NiCord) can accelerate hematopoietic recovery and provide long-term engraftment. METHODS. In a phase I trial, 11 adults with hematologic malignancies received myeloablative bone marrow conditioning followed by transplantation with NiCord and a second unmanipulated UCB unit. Safety, hematopoietic recovery, and donor engraftment were assessed and compared with historical controls. RESULTS. No adverse events were attributable to the infusion of NiCord. Complete or partial neutrophil and T cell engraftment derived from NiCord was observed in 8 patients, and NiCord engraftment remained stable in all patients, with a median follow-up of 21 months. Two patients achieved long-term engraftment with the unmanipulated unit. Patients transplanted with NiCord achieved earlier median neutrophil recovery (13 vs. 25 days, P < 0.001) compared with that seen in historical controls. The 1-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 82% and 73%, respectively. CONCLUSION. UCB-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells expanded in the presence of nicotinamide and transplanted with a T cell–containing fraction contain both short-term and long-term repopulating cells. The results justify further study of NiCord transplantation as a single UCB graft. If long-term safety is confirmed, NiCord has the potential to broaden accessibility and reduce the toxicity of UCB transplantation. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01221857. FUNDING. Gamida Cell Ltd. PMID:24911148

  16. Long-Term Monitoring of Waterborne Pathogens and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Paired Agricultural Watersheds under Controlled and Conventional Tile Drainage Management

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A.; Gannon, Victor; Gottschall, Natalie; Jokinen, Cassandra C.; Jones, Tineke H.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Marti, Romain; Sunohara, Mark D.; Topp, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Surface waters from paired agricultural watersheds under controlled tile drainage (CTD) and uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) were monitored over 7 years in order to determine if there was an effect of CTD (imposed during the growing season) on occurrences and loadings of bacterial and viral pathogens, coliphages, and microbial source tracking markers. There were significantly lower occurrences of human, ruminant, and livestock (ruminant plus pig) Bacteroidales markers in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD watershed. As for pathogens, there were significantly lower occurrences of Salmonella spp. and Arcobacter spp. in the CTD watershed. There were no instances where there were significantly higher quantitative loadings of any microbial target in the CTD watershed, except for F-specific DNA (F-DNA) and F-RNA coliphages, perhaps as a result of fecal inputs from a hobby farm independent of the drainage practice treatments. There was lower loading of the ruminant marker in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD system, and results were significant at the level P = 0.06. The odds of Salmonella spp. occurring increased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent, yet for Arcobacter spp., the odds of this pathogen occurring significantly decreased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent (but increased when a wildlife marker was present relative to when the wildlife marker was absent). Interestingly, the odds of norovirus GII (associated with human and swine) occurring in water increased significantly when a ruminant marker was present relative to when a ruminant marker was absent. Overall, this study suggests that fecal pollution from tile-drained fields to stream could be reduced by CTD utilization. PMID:24727274

  17. Extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) monotherapy as maintenance treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: a long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Martin A; Brawman-Mintzer, Olga; Reyes, Efren B; Olausson, Bengt; Liu, Sherry; Eriksson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) as maintenance monotherapy for patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Time-to-event (anxiety symptom recurrence; maximum 52 weeks) multicenter, randomized-withdrawal, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine XR (50-300 mg/day) following open-label run-in (4-8 weeks) and open-label stabilization (≥ 12 weeks). Primary variable: time from randomization to anxiety event. Secondary variables included: Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) total, HAM-A psychic/somatic anxiety factors, Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-S), and Quality of Life, Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) scores; adverse events (AE) reporting. Four hundred and thirty-two patients, stabilized on quetiapine XR, were randomized to continue quetiapine XR (N=216) or switch to placebo (N=216). Risk of anxiety symptom recurrence was significantly reduced by 81% for quetiapine XR versus placebo: hazard ratio=0.19 (95% confidence interval 0.12-0.31; P<0.001). Fewer patients receiving quetiapine XR (N=22, 10.2%) than placebo (N=84, 38.9%) experienced anxiety symptom recurrence. Significant differences were observed between quetiapine XR and placebo in: HAM-A total, psychic/somatic, CGI-S (all P<0.001) and Q-LES-Q (P<0.05) scores. AEs (>10%) during open-label treatment were dry mouth, sedation, somnolence, dizziness, fatigue, and constipation. During randomized treatment, the most common AEs for quetiapine XR were headache and nasopharyngitis. Quetiapine XR monotherapy reduced the risk of anxiety symptom recurrence in patients with GAD stabilized on quetiapine XR, with tolerability results consistent with the known profile of quetiapine.

  18. Roadmap to Long-Term Monitoring Optimization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This roadmap focuses on optimization of established long-term monitoring programs for groundwater. Tools and techniques discussed concentrate on methods for optimizing the monitoring frequency and spatial (three-dimensional) distribution of wells ...

  19. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  20. Long-term-care legal update.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-04-01

    As more nurses move from the acute care setting to long-term-care and home health care, different practice issues arise. To maximize liability protection, nurses must understand the legal issues unique to each delivery system.

  1. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2013 indicate that long- ... least quarterly Conducted 5,417 training sessions in facilities on such topics as residents’ rights Provided 129, ...

  2. Long-term results of carmustine wafer implantation for newly diagnosed glioblastomas: a controlled propensity-matched analysis of a French multicenter cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pallud, Johan; Audureau, Etienne; Noel, Georges; Corns, Robert; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Duntze, Julien; Pavlov, Vladislav; Guyotat, Jacques; Hieu, Phong Dam; Le Reste, Pierre-Jean; Faillot, Thierry; Litre, Claude-Fabien; Desse, Nicolas; Petit, Antoine; Emery, Evelyne; Voirin, Jimmy; Peltier, Johann; Caire, François; Vignes, Jean-Rodolphe; Barat, Jean-Luc; Langlois, Olivier; Dezamis, Edouard; Parraga, Eduardo; Zanello, Marc; Nader, Edmond; Lefranc, Michel; Bauchet, Luc; Devaux, Bertrand; Menei, Philippe; Metellus, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background The standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma is maximal safe surgical resection, followed by chemoradiation therapy. We assessed carmustine wafer implantation efficacy and safety when used in combination with standard care. Methods Included were adult patients with (n = 354, implantation group) and without (n = 433, standard group) carmustine wafer implantation during first surgical resection followed by chemoradiation standard protocol. Multivariate and case-matched analyses (controlled propensity-matched cohort, 262 pairs of patients) were conducted. Results The median progression-free survival was 12.0 months (95% CI: 10.7–12.6) in the implantation group and 10.0 months (9.0–10.0) in the standard group and the median overall survival was 20.4 months (19.0–22.7) and 18.0 months (17.0–19.0), respectively. Carmustine wafer implantation was independently associated with longer progression-free survival in patients with subtotal/total surgical resection in the whole series (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.76 [95% CI: 0.63–0.92], P = .005) and after propensity matching (HR, 0.74 [95% CI: 0.60–0.92], P = .008), whereas no significant difference was found for overall survival (HR, 0.95 [0.80–1.13], P = .574; HR, 1.06 [0.87–1.29], P = .561, respectively). Surgical resection at progression whether alone or combined with carmustine wafer implantation was independently associated with longer overall survival in the whole series (HR, 0.58 [0.44–0.76], P < .0001; HR, 0.54 [0.41–0.70], P < .0001, respectively) and after propensity matching (HR, 0.56 [95% CI: 0.40–0.78], P < .0001; HR, 0.46 [95% CI: 0.33–0.64], P < .0001, respectively). The higher postoperative infection rate in the implantation group did not affect survival. Conclusions Carmustine wafer implantation during surgical resection followed by the standard chemoradiation protocol for newly diagnosed glioblastoma in adults resulted in a significant progression-free survival

  3. Effectiveness of a long-term use of a minimalist footwear versus habitual shoe on pain, function and mechanical loads in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an important reduction of joint overload during locomotion in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis (OA) after short-term use of minimalist shoes. Our aim is to investigate the chronic effect of inexpensive and minimalist footwear on the clinical and functional aspects of OA and gait biomechanics of elderly women with knee OA. Methods/Design Fifty-six elderly women with knee OA grade 2 or 3 (Kellgren and Lawrence) are randomized into blocks and allocated to either the intervention group, which will use flexible, non-heeled shoes— Moleca®—for six months for at least six hours daily, or the control group, which could not use these shoes. Neither group is undergoing physical therapy treatment throughout the intervention period. Moleca® is a women’s double canvas, flexible, flat walking shoe without heels, with a 5-mm anti-slip rubber sole and a 3-mm internal wedge of ethylene vinyl acetate. Both groups will be followed for six months and will be assessed at baseline condition, after three months, and after six months (end of intervention). All the assessments will be performed by a physiotherapist that is blind to the group allocation. The primary outcome is the pain Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) score. The secondary outcomes are global WOMAC score; joint stiffness and disability WOMAC scores; knee pain with a visual analogue scale; walking distance in the six-minute walk test; Lequesne score; amount and frequency (number of days) of paracetamol (500 mg) intake over six months; knee adduction moment during gait; global medical assessment score; and global patient auto-assessment score. At baseline, all patients receive a diary to record the hours of daily use of the footwear intervention; every two weeks, the same physiotherapist makes phone calls to all patients in order to verify adherence to treatment. The statistical analysis will be based on intention-to-treat analysis, as well as

  4. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  5. The 2014 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-16

    Treasury from the Federal Reserve System, customs duties, estate and gift taxes, and miscellaneous fees and fines. Actual Extended Baseline...Office’s (CBO’s) most recent analysis of the outlook for the federal budget over the long term. My statement today summarizes The 2014 Long-Term Budget...Outlook, which was released yesterday.1 Between 2009 and 2012, the federal government recorded the largest budget deficits relative to the size of

  6. Evidence-based long term care design.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Margaret P

    2009-01-01

    Research on the impact of the built environment in long-term care settings continues to grow. This article focuses on work conducted and published since 2000, when an earlier review on research on dementia and design was published. The vast majority of research that addressed neurological conditions in residents in long-term care settings (assisted living and nursing homes) relates to Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

  7. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  8. Long-term data storage in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  9. Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

    1991-01-01

    Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

  10. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    PubMed

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV(-)) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV(-) optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV(-) ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV(-) ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  11. Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

  12. The long-term efficacy and safety profile of barnidipine.

    PubMed

    Smilde, J G

    2000-11-01

    Two multicentre trials have investigated the efficacy and tolerability of treatment with once-daily barnidipine, in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. The long-term efficacy and safety of barnidipine were demonstrated in a long-term, multicentre, open-label study. In total, 106, 79 and 32 patients were followed for the first, second and third year, respectively. Patients received barnidipine at a dose titrated to achieve a sitting DBP > or = 90 mmHg or a decrease in sitting BDP > or = 10 mmHg. If necessary, another antihypertensive agent was added to achieve normalisation of blood pressure. In the first year, normalisation of blood pressure was achieved in 91% of patients. This was maintained in 91% and 81% of patients in the second and third years, respectively. At the end of treatment in both years, over 60% of patients remained on barnidipine monotherapy (10 or 20 mg/day). A low incidence of adverse events possibly or probably related to barnidipine (10 or 20 mg/day) monotherapy was reported in the first and second years with headache, peripheral oedema and palpitations the most commonly reported. In the third year of follow-up, only one adverse event, an ECG abnormality, was considered to be possibly related to the study medication. The effective 24 hour control of blood pressure with barnidipine monotherapy was confirmed in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of 20 patients. These patients were given 6 week regimens of both barnidipine (20 mg/day) and placebo. Office and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures were recorded at the end of each treatment phase. Barnidipine lowered blood pressure to a significantly greater extent than placebo both at night and during the day. Adverse events were classified as mild or moderate and fewer adverse events were reported with barnidipine treatment compared with placebo. Barnidipine monotherapy (20 mg/day) is safe and effective in providing 24 hour control of blood pressure

  13. Efficacy of optimal long-term management of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (CVD) on walking and quality of life in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD): protocol for randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oka, Roberta K; Conte, Michael S; Owens, Christopher D; Rapp, Joseph; Fung, Gordon; Alley, Hugh F; Giacomini, John C; Myers, Jonathan; Mohler, Emile R

    2012-02-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an understudied chronic illness most prevalent in elderly individuals. PAD patients experience substantial walking impairment due to symptoms of limb ischemia that significantly diminishes quality of life (QOL). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality is increased in this population because of aggressive atherosclerosis resulting from untreated CVD risk factors. Despite current national guidelines recommending intensive CVD risk factor management for PAD patients, untreated CVD risk factors are common. Interventions that bridge this gap are imperative. The Vascular Insufficiency - Goals for Optimal Risk Reduction (VIGOR(2)) study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that examines the effectiveness of a long-term multifactor CVD risk reduction program on walking and quality of life in patients with PAD. The purpose of this article is to provide a detailed description of the design and methods of VIGOR(2). Clinical Trial Registration - URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00537225.

  14. ROLE OF CONTROLLABILITY FOR LONG TERM SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful implementation of sustainability ideas in ecosystem management requires a basic understanding of the often nonlinear and nonintuitive relationships among different dimensions of sustainability, particularly the system-wide implications of human actions. This basic unde...

  15. Long-Term Consequences of Neonatal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of the central nervous system’s (CNS’s) sensory connectivity is driven by modality-specific sensory input in early life. For the somatosensory system, this input is the physical, tactile interaction with the environment. Nociceptive circuitry is functioning at the time of birth; however, there is still considerable organization and refinement of this circuitry that occurs postnatally, before full discrimination of tactile and noxious input is possible. This fine-tuning involves separation of tactile and nociceptive afferent input to the spinal cord’s dorsal horn and the maturation of local and descending inhibitory circuitry. Disruption of that input in early postnatal life (for example, by tissue injury or other noxious stimulus), can have a profound influence on subsequent development, and consequently the mature functioning of pain systems. In this review, the impact of neonatal surgical incision on nociceptive circuitry is discussed in terms of the underlying developmental neurobiology. The changes are complex, occurring at multiple anatomical sites within the CNS, and including both neuronal and glial cell populations. The altered sensory input from neonatal injury selectively modulates neuronal excitability within the spinal cord, disrupts inhibitory control, and primes the immune system, all of which contribute to the adverse long-term consequences of early pain exposure. PMID:26174217

  16. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  17. [Renal side effects of long-term lithium therapy].

    PubMed

    Ibbeken, C; Becker, J U; Baumgärtel, M W

    2012-01-01

    Lithium is widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Long-term administration of lithium often leads to side effects concerning the subjects: nephrology, endocrinology and surgery. This review emphasizes nephrotoxicity.Lithium treatment may disturb responsiveness to antidiuretic hormone (ADH), causing a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Furthermore long-term lithium therapy may trigger hyperparathyreoidism with hypercalcemia and chronic interstitial nephritis with development of microcysts. Long-term patients have an increased risk to develop impaired renal function. Lithium-induced endstage renal disease is rare. Termination of lithium treatment may decrease the risk of progression.To ensure security of lithium treatment regular controls of urine osmolarity, lithium-, creatinine- , thyroid stimulating hormone- and calcium-levels are essential. Patients with decreased renal function should be referred to a specialist early.

  18. A randomized controlled trial of combined exercise and psycho-education for low-SES women: short- and long-term outcomes in the reduction of stress and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    van der Waerden, Judith E B; Hoefnagels, Cees; Hosman, Clemens M H; Souren, Pierre M; Jansen, Maria W J

    2013-08-01

    Exercise may have both a preventive and a therapeutic impact on mental health problems. The Exercise without Worries intervention aims to reduce stress and depressive symptoms in low-SES women by means of a group-based program combining physical exercise and psycho-education. Between September 2005 and May 2008, 161 Dutch low-SES women with elevated stress or depressive symptom levels were randomly assigned to the combined exercise/psycho-education intervention (EP), exercise only (E) or a waiting list control condition (WLC). The E condition provided low to moderate intensity stretching, strength, flexibility, and body focused training as well as relaxation, while the EP program integrated the exercise with cognitive-behavioral techniques. Depressive symptoms (CES-D) and perceived stress (PSS) were measured before and immediately after the intervention and at 2, 6 and 12 month follow-up. Multilevel linear mixed-effects models revealed no differential patterns in reduction of CES-D or PSS scores between the EP, E and WLC groups on the short (post-test and 2 month follow-up) or long term (6 and 12 months follow-up). Depressive symptom outcomes were moderated by initial depressive symptom scores: women from the EP and E groups with fewer initial symptoms benefited from participation on the short term. Further, women in the EP and E groups with the lowest educational level reported more stress reduction at post-test than women with higher educational levels. In the overall target population of low-SES women, no indications were found that the Exercise without Worries course reduced depressive symptom and stress levels on the short or long term. The findings do suggest, however, that exercise alone or in combination with psycho-education may be a viable prevention option for certain groups of disadvantaged women. Especially those low-SES women with less severe initial problems or those with low educational attainment should be targeted for future depression prevention

  19. Long-term Outcomes in Youths with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    White, Neil H

    2015-08-01

    In this article, the author reviews the long-term outcomes and their precursors of type 1 diabetes starting in youth. The author also contrasts the changing incidence of these long-term complications as we have moved from the pre-Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) to the post-DCCT standard of care and reviews the emerging data related to complications in youths with type 2 diabetes. Finally, the author reviews the recent understanding related to the effects of diabetes on the brain and cognition.

  20. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, A.; Caballin, M.R.; Miro, R.; Benet, J.; Bonfill, X.; Egozcue, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa.

  1. Long-term symptom relief after septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sundh, Carolina; Sunnergren, Ola

    2015-10-01

    The results for long-term symptom relief after septoplasty are contradictory in reviewed publications but the findings suggest that results are unsatisfactory. In this study, we analyzed and compared short- and long-term symptom relief after septoplasty and factors possibly associated with symptom relief. 111 patients that underwent septoplasty between 2008 and 2010 were included in the study. Medical charts were reviewed for preoperative characteristics and assessments. Data on short-term symptom relief (6 months) were retrieved from the Swedish National Quality Registry for Septoplasty; data on long-term symptom relief (34-70 months) were collected through a questionnaire. Upon the 34-70 month follow-up, 53% of the patients reported that symptoms either remained or had worsened and 83% reported nasal obstruction. Degree of symptom relief was significantly higher among patients not reporting nasal obstruction than among patients reporting nasal obstruction at long-term follow-up. The proportion of patients that reported "my symptoms are gone" declined from 53% after 6 months to 18% after 34-70 months. None of the factors taken into consideration, age at surgery, gender, follow-up time, primary operation/reoperation, history of nasal trauma, self-reported allergy, rhinometric obstruction, or same sided rhinometric, clinical and subjective nasal obstruction were associated with symptom relief. The long-term results after septoplasty are unsatisfactory. A majority of patients report that their symptoms remain after septoplasty.

  2. Long-term outcomes of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimatani, Masaaki; Uchida, Kazushige; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered a favorable-prognosis disease; however, currently, there is limited information on natural course of AIP during long-term follow-up. Recently published studies regarding the long-term outcomes of AIP has demonstrated the developments of pancreatic stone formation, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency are observed in 5%-41%, 34%-82%, and 38%-57% of patients having the disease. Furthermore, the incidence rate of developing pancreatic cancer ranges from 0% to 4.8% during the long-term follow-up. The event of death from AIP-related complications other than accompanying cancer is likely to be rare. During follow-up of AIP patients, careful surveillance for not only relapse of the disease but also development of complications at regular intervals is needed. PMID:27678359

  3. Psychosocial Mediators of Long-Term Abstinence Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Michael B.; And Others

    It is well known that many smokers who quit during cessation programs relapse soon after leaving treatment. To investigate the relationship of health locus of control, social support, nonsmoking areas, and objecting to another person's smoking to relapse and long-term maintenance of nonsmoking, male (N=70) and female (N=149) subjects participated…

  4. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  5. Long Term Effects of Drug Use on General Mental Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Charles C.

    A private corporation conducted a study for the United States Air Force in 1973, investigating the long term effects of drug use on general mental ability. The air force personnel selected for participation in the study were 3741 known drug users and 6772 controls. Subjects received requests to sign a form allowing their high schools to release…

  6. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... customer has title to, control over, or bears the risk of loss from, the property manufactured or... under a long-term contract will subject all other items in that contract to section 460. (2) Hybrid... construction activities (hybrid contract) generally must be classified as two contracts, a...

  7. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... customer has title to, control over, or bears the risk of loss from, the property manufactured or... under a long-term contract will subject all other items in that contract to section 460. (2) Hybrid... construction activities (hybrid contract) generally must be classified as two contracts, a...

  8. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  9. Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.

    Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

  10. Valuing a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Mellen, C M

    1992-10-01

    The business valuation industry generally uses at least one of three basic approaches to value a long-term care facility: the cost approach, sales comparison approach, or income approach. The approach that is chosen and the resulting weight that is applied to it depend largely on the circumstances involved. Because a long-term care facility is a business enterprise, more weight usually is given to the income approach which factors into the estimate of value both the tangible and intangible assets of the facility.

  11. Keratoprosthesis: a long-term review.

    PubMed Central

    Barnham, J. J.; Roper-Hall, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    A keratoprosthesis (KP), is an artificial cornea which is inserted into an opacified cornea in an attempt to restore useful vision or, less commonly, to make the eye comfortable in painful keratopathy. Results o a retrospective study of 35 patients, with 55 KP insertions, are reviewed with regard to visual acuity, length of time vision is maintained, retention time, and complication. Overall there were a number of long-term real successes, eith retention of the KP and maintenance of improved vision in eyes not amenable to conventional treatment. Careful long-term follow-up was needed, with further surgical procedures often being necessary. Images PMID:6860613

  12. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P < 0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety, and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full-time. Early survivors of severe shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely

  13. [Fetal pain: immediate and long term consequences].

    PubMed

    Houfflin Debarge, Véronique; Dutriez, Isabelle; Pusniak, Benoit; Delarue, Eléonore; Storme, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Several situations are potentially painful for fetuses, such as malformations and invasive procedures. Nociceptive pathways are known to be functional at 26 weeks. Even if it is not possible to evaluate the fetal experience of pain, it is essential to examine its immediate and long-term consequences. As early as the beginning of the second trimester, hemodynamic and hormonal responses are observed following fetal nociceptive stimulation, In experimental studies, long-term changes have been noted in the corticotrop axis, subsequent responses to pain, and behavior after perinatal nociceptive stimulation.

  14. Long-term cryopreservation of bone marrow for autologous transplantation.

    PubMed

    Attarian, H; Feng, Z; Buckner, C D; MacLeod, B; Rowley, S D

    1996-03-01

    Little is known about the effect of long-term cryopreservation on the viability of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) or on the success of autologous bone marrow transplantation. Although progenitor cell assays such as culture of CFU-GM after thawing can be predictive of engraftment, the most rigorous assay for the cryosurvival of HSC is engraftment after reinfusion of stem cells. We retrospectively evaluated the engraftment data for 36 patients with hematologic malignancies or solid tumors treated at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center between 1981 and 1993 who received bone marrows stored for 2 years or more. The median duration of cryopreservation for this study group was 2.7 years (range 2.0-7.8). Ninety-seven percent of patients in the study group achieved a granulocyte count of > or = 0.5 x 1.0(9)/1 at a median of 19 days (range 10-115) vs 86% of control group (selected by diagnosis and date of storage) at a median of 20 days (P = 0.14). Seventy percent of patients in the study group achieved a platelet count > or = 20 x 10(9)/1 at a median of 27 days (range 9-69) vs 74% of control group at a median of 23 days (P = 0.47). Also, samples of 28 marrows cryopreserved for a median of 4.4 years (range 2.0-7.8) were cultured to determine if a loss of hematopoietic progenitors relative to duration of storage could be detected. The storage length was not predictive for the quantity of colonies formed (P = 0.57 for BFU-E-derived colonies; P = 0.65 for CFU-GM-derived colonies). We found no consistent detrimental effect of long-term cryopreservation on the success rate of autologous bone marrow transplantation. This report confirms previous reports that marrow cells cryopreserved for several years are capable of engrafting. Therefore, bone marrow cells may be stored at an early appropriate time before the side-effects of multiple cycles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on hematopoietic tissues are incurred.

  15. Long-term results after robotically assisted coronary bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ramahi, Jehad; Hasan, Faisal; Edris, Ahmad; Bartel, Thomas; Nair, Ravi; Tuzcu, Murat; Suri, Rakesh; Mihaljevic, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Background Robotically-assisted coronary bypass grafting (CABG) was introduced in 1998 and dedicated centers have continuously applied and developed this minimally invasive method of coronary bypass surgery. While short-term results are relatively well published, data on long-term outcome are limited. In this literature review, we assessed the outcomes after robotic CABG following the first postoperative year. Methods We searched PubMed for articles containing the terms “robotic” or “robotically assisted” and “coronary bypass”. A total of 11 papers contained long-term results. We specifically investigated survival, graft patency, freedom from angina and re-intervention, as well as freedom from major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Results Five-year survival after robotic CABG was consistently consistently greater than 90% and graft patency between 3 and 5 years was reported to be above 90%. Fifteen percent to 26% of patients re-experienced angina at 3 to 5 years postoperatively. Long-term freedom from re-intervention reached the range and the 5-year freedom from MACCE rate was approximately 75%. Conclusions According to data in the literature, long-term results after CABG carried out with the assistance of a surgical robot appear to be in line with results achieved after conventional CABG. PMID:27942487

  16. Systematic evaluation of the clinical effects of supportive mistletoe treatment within chemo- and/or radiotherapy protocols and long-term mistletoe application in nonmetastatic colorectal carcinoma: multicenter, controlled, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Friedel, Walter E; Matthes, Harald; Bock, Paul R; Zänker, Kurt S

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) frequently receive mistletoe extracts to improve quality of life and survival. This study was designed to evaluate supportive treatment with mistletoe extract Iscador (ISC) in nonmetastatic CRC patients under routine clinical conditions and to create well-founded hypotheses for future prospective clinical studies. The design of a multicenter, controlled, retrospective, observational cohort study with parallel groups met the Good Epidemiological Practice rules. Anonymous unselected standardized data from eligible patients with surgically treated stage I-III CRC and adjuvant therapy (AT) or conventional aftercare were included. End points were adjuvant therapy-related adverse reactions (AT-ADRs), symptoms, and disease-free survival (DFS). The results were adjusted for confounder effects. Eight hundred four (429 ISC vs 375 control) CRC patients from 26 centers were observed for a median of 58 versus 51 months; the median ISC therapy lasted 52 months. ISC patients showed fewer AT-ADRs (19% vs 48%, p < .001) and fewer persisting symptoms (p < .001). The DFS hazard ratio of 0.60 (p = .013) suggests a survival benefit in ISC patients versus controls. ISC was well tolerated without life-threatening ADRs, drug interactions, or tumor enhancement. These results suggest a beneficial effect of supportive care ISC therapy within AT protocols and long-term ISC treatment in stage I-III CRC patients, particularly improvement in AT-ADRs and symptoms and possible extension of DFS.

  17. Long-term results of endobronchial brachytherapy: A curative treatment?

    SciTech Connect

    Hennequin, Christophe . E-mail: christophe.hennequin@sls.ap-hop-paris.fr; Bleichner, Olivier; Tredaniel, Jean; Quero, Laurent; Sergent, Guillaume; Zalcman, Gerard; Maylin, Claude

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after high-dose-rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-EBBT) for limited lung carcinoma. Methods: A total of 106 patients with endobronchial lung cancer and not eligible for surgery or external beam radiotherapy, without nodal or visceral metastases, were treated with HDR-EBBT. They had developed disease relapse after surgery (n = 43) or external beam radiotherapy (n = 27) or had early lung cancer with respiratory insufficiency (n = 36). Treatment consisted of six fractions of 5 or 7 Gy, usually delivered 1 cm from the source. Results: The complete histologic response rate, evaluated at 3 months after HDR-EBBT, was 59.4%. At 3 and 5 years, the local control, overall survival, and cause-specific survival rates were 60.3% and 51.6%, 47.4 and 24%, and 67.9 and 48.5%, respectively. Factors significantly associated with local failure were high tumor volume (tumor length >2 cm, bronchial obstruction >25%, tumor visibility on CT scan) and previous endoscopic treatment. Cause-specific survival, but not overall survival, was significantly associated with local control, probably because of the high rate of deaths not related to lung cancer. Five deaths were attributed to the HDR-EBBT procedure (two from fatal hemoptysis and three from bronchial necrosis). Conclusion: High-dose-rate-EBBT achieved a long-term cause-specific survival rate of 50% of the patients with localized endobronchial carcinoma and could be considered curative.

  18. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03

    longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

  19. Organomatics and organometrics: Novel platforms for long-term whole-organ culture

    PubMed Central

    Bruinsma, Bote G.; Yarmush, Martin L.; Uygun, Korkut

    2014-01-01

    Organ culture systems are instrumental as experimental whole-organ models of physiology and disease, as well as preservation modalities facilitating organ replacement therapies such as transplantation. Nevertheless, a coordinated system of machine perfusion components and integrated regulatory control has yet to be fully developed to achieve long-term maintenance of organ function ex vivo. Here we outline current strategies for organ culture, or organomatics, and how these systems can be regulated by means of computational algorithms, or organometrics, to achieve the organ culture platforms anticipated in modern-day biomedicine. PMID:25035864

  20. Long-term studies of dopamine agonists.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Jean P

    2002-02-26

    Dopamine agonists have long been used as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In more recent years these drugs have also been proved safe and effective as initial therapy in lieu of levodopa in the treatment of PD. Long-term levodopa therapy is associated with motor complications, including fluctuating response patterns and dyskinesia. By initially introducing a dopamine agonist as symptomatic drug therapy, it may be possible to postpone the use of levodopa and delay or prevent the development of motor complications. Recently, four clinical trials have explored this hypothesis by comparing the long-term response and side effects of levodopa with dopamine agonist therapy. The drugs studied have included ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, and pergolide. In each of these projects, the occurrence of motor complications, such as wearing off and dyskinesia, was significantly less in the subjects assigned to initiation of therapy with a dopamine agonist. The addition of levodopa could be postponed by many months or even several years. Therefore, these long-term studies of dopamine agonists support the initiation of a dopamine agonist instead of levodopa in an effort to postpone levodopa-related motor complications. This therapeutic approach may be particularly appropriate in PD patients with a long treatment horizon on the basis of age and general good health. The extension phase of the long-term study comparing pramipexole with levodopa is ongoing, and follow-up information may help to establish the value of this treatment strategy.

  1. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  2. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  3. Long-term lysimeter data on evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term crop evapotranspiration (ET) data measured using large weighing lysimeters have only been gathered in a few places in the world, yet are of great importance for ground truthing of many models of plant water use, mesoscale climate, remote sensing estimation of ET, climate change and climate...

  4. Long-Term Impacts of Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, David James

    2010-01-01

    The school accountability movement has led to a marked increase in the use of standardized test scores to measure school and teacher productivity, yet little is known about the correlation between test score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the impact of a school choice policy in…

  5. Long-Term Stability of Tutor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the extent to which tutor ratings remained stable in the long term by evaluating 291 ratings of 140 tutors at Maastricht University in the Netherlands between 1992 and 1995. The results indicated that, if the aggregated score and overall judgement are used to interpret the precision of individual scores, four and two occasions,…

  6. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  7. Long-term opioid therapy reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Von Korff, Michael; Kolodny, Andrew; Deyo, Richard A; Chou, Roger

    2011-09-06

    In the past 20 years, primary care physicians have greatly increased prescribing of long-term opioid therapy. However, the rise in opioid prescribing has outpaced the evidence regarding this practice. Increased opioid availability has been accompanied by an epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose. The rate of opioid addiction among patients receiving long-term opioid therapy remains unclear, but research suggests that opioid misuse is not rare. Recent studies report increased risks for serious adverse events, including fractures, cardiovascular events, and bowel obstruction, although further research on medical risks is needed. New data indicate that opioid-related risks may increase with dose. From a societal perspective, higher-dose regimens account for the majority of opioids dispensed, so cautious dosing may reduce both diversion potential and patient risks for adverse effects. Limiting long-term opioid therapy to patients for whom it provides decisive benefits could also reduce risks. Given the warning signs and knowledge gaps, greater caution and selectivity are needed in prescribing long-term opioid therapy. Until stronger evidence becomes available, clinicians should err on the side of caution when considering this treatment.

  8. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  9. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  10. Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jan

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship…

  11. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  12. Long-term fixed income market structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  13. Long-Term Care Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a framework for understanding how long-term care (LTC) research contributes to policy, develops a typology of research contributions to policy with examples of each type, and suggests ways to ensure that contributions continue in the future. The article draws on in-depth interviews with LTC experts working at the interface…

  14. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  15. Long-term biological investigations in space.

    PubMed

    Lotz, R G; Fuchs, H; Bertsche, U

    1975-01-01

    Missions in space within the next two decades will be of longer duration than those carried out up to the present time, and the effects of such long-term flights on biological organisms are unknown. Results of biological experiments that have been performed to date cannot be extrapolated to results in future flights because of the unknown influence of adaptation over a long period of time. Prior experiments with Axolotl, fishes, and vertebrates by our research team (in part with sounding rockets) showed that these specimens did not appear to be suitable for long-term missions on which minimization of expense, technique, and energy is required. Subsequent investigations have shown the suitability of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which consumes blood of mammals up to ten times its own weight (1 g) and can live more than 2 years without further food supply. Emphasis in the experiments with Hirudo medicinalis is placed on metabolic rhythm and motility. Resorption and diffusion in tissue, development, and growth under long-term effects of cosmic proton radiation and zero-gravity are other focal points. The constancy of cellular life in the mature animals is a point in favor of these specimens. We have also taken into account the synergistic effects of the space environment on the problems just mentioned. The life-support system constructed for the leech has been tested successfully in four sounding rocket flights and, on that basis, has been prepared for a long-term mission. Long-term investigations out of the terrestrial biosphere will provide us with information concerning the degree of adaptation of certain physiological and biochemical functions and as to what extent biological readjustment or repair processes can occur under the specific stress conditions of space flight.

  16. Achieving Long-Term Protection of Water Quality of Grand Lake St. Marys Through Implementation of Conservation Practices and Control of Phosphorus Input from Agricultural Drainage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM), a 13,000 acre lake in northwestern Ohio, is experiencing toxic levels of algal blooms resulting primarily from phosphorus input from agricultural runoff. The algal blooms are so severe that the Ohio Department of Natural Resources advised against any...

  17. The steps that can take us miles: Examining the short-term dynamics of long-term daily goal pursuit.

    PubMed

    Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Ferguson, Elizabeth Louise

    2016-04-01

    Cybernetic models suggest that to achieve one's long-term goals, one must create specific plans, enact these plan, monitor progress toward the goal, and resist temptations. Although many studies have examined these proposals in laboratory settings, few studies have examined such processes in daily life. This was the explicit purpose of the current investigation. Participants identified 4 long-term goals during an orientation session. They then completed a diary protocol in which they reported on these self-regulatory processes. The results were largely consistent with predictions. Of the 20 hypotheses examined, 17 were significant in the expected direction. For example, testing led to the initiation of long-term goal operations, which in turn led to goal progress. Likewise, temptations led to self-control operations, which in turn led to the successful resistance of temptations. The investigation thus suggests that cybernetic principles have broad relevance to understanding goal pursuit in daily life.

  18. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.

  19. Achievements and tasks for active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Jiri

    This short survey attempted to highlight some achievements of the latest active control applications. Except for the active control of a one-dimensional sound field in ducts and active headphones, the applications for active control technology are still being developed. Although the principles of active control are simple, their applications still require substantial research and modeling of the sound fields to find optimal solutions. There is no doubt that active control of sound field triggered extensive research of the fundamental properties of the sound field which goes beyond the textbook simplifications. Also, new hardware, particularly actuators, are under development. As more realism is brought into assessment of applicability of active control, we will see in the future increasing confidence of industry to adopt this new technology.

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Medium-to-long-term Use of Tolterodine Extended Release with or without Tamsulosin in Patients with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia and Larger Prostate Size: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jian-Liang; Zhou, Zhe; Yang, Yan; Yan, Yi-Fu; Jing, Shuo; Na, Yan-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The medium-to-long-term use of antimuscarinics alone or in combination with an α-blocker in men with an enlarged prostate is still controversial. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of medium-to-long-term use of tolterodine extended release (ER) with or without tamsulosin in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and larger prostate size. Methods: Totally, 152 patients (age ≥50 years) with BPH, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥12, quality-of-life (QoL) score ≥3, and total prostate volume ≥25 ml were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized into four groups (n = 38 in each) to receive tolterodine ER placebo plus tamsulosin placebo, 0.2 mg tamsulosin plus tolterodine ER placebo, 4 mg tolterodine ER plus tamsulosin placebo, or tolterodine ER plus tamsulosin once daily for 24 weeks. IPSS (total, storage, and voiding subscales), QoL, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual volume (PVR) were collected at baseline, and at weeks 4, 12, and 24. Results: Compared with placebo, tolterodine ER plus tamsulosin significantly improved total IPSS (−7.15, −12.20, and −14.66 vs. −3.51, −5.78, and −7.23), storage IPSS (−3.56, −5.63, and −6.66 vs. −1.52, −1.21, and −2.43), voiding IPSS (−2.88, −5.10, and −6.48 vs. −1.52, −3.03, and −2.97), QoL (−1.21, −2.40, and −3.21 vs. −0.39, −1.41, and −1.60), Qmax (2.21, 7.97, and 9.72 ml/s vs. 2.15, 2.44, and 2.73 ml/s), and PVR (−17.88, −26.97, and −27.89 ml vs. −12.03, −11.16, and −16.73 ml) at weeks 4, 12, and 24, respectively; the differences were all statistically significant (P < 0.05). Adverse events (AEs) were not increased with treatment progression. Tolterodine ER alone did not improve total IPSS (−4.61, −6.79, and −5.70), voiding IPSS (−0.64, −1.83, and −1.45), QoL (−0.69, −1.21, and −1.41), or Qmax (−0.79, 2

  1. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.

  2. Experiences of the Long Term Stability at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, F. Q.

    2007-01-19

    The long term stability on the scale from days to a year, besides the short term stability, is one of key performance indicators of a light source. The Swiss Light Source (SLS) was installed and commissioned in 2000. It has successfully worked for more than 5 years without re-alignment of the machine. Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) and Horizontal Position System (HPS) have been added at supports of the storage ring (48 girders). They made evidence that the position of SLS Storage Ring (SR) is very stable on the time scale of a day, a week, a month and a year. The evidence for the long term stability is also provided by frequency of the RF cavity. The HLS is a powerful tool. The analysis of the HLS data shows that the vertical displacements, which are adjusted to correct average orbit deviations, of the SLS storage ring foundation and of the girder supports were in the range of 0.15 mm in 2003. The site, the building foundation, the mechanical supports and the temperature control are important pre-conditions to get the good long term stability. The experience gained with the long term stability at SLS is presented.

  3. Neuropsychological sequelae of childhood cancer in long-term survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Pfefferbaum-Levine, B.; Jaffe, N.; Ried, H.; Maor, M.

    1985-04-01

    In order to assess the effects of various cancer treatments on neuropsychological functioning, 74 long-term survivors of childhood cancer were examined. A comprehensive battery of tests was administered to two CNS treatment groups (irradiated and nonirradiated leukemia and lymphoma patients) and a control group (solid tumor and Hodgkin disease patients receiving no CNS treatment). The CNS-irradiated group obtained lower scores than the other two groups, with significant differences in visual-motor and fine motor skills, spatial memory, and arithmetic achievement resulting in significant differences in IQ scores (VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ). The results are discussed in relation to: (1) the effects of CNS irradiation on cognitive development; (2) the specificity of these effects; and (3) the relationship of age at diagnosis to treatment effects. It is concluded that although there is a general lowering of scores after CNS irradiation, the effect is most pronounced for nonlanguage skills. Age at diagnosis was less important than the type of treatment, with CNS irradiation reducing performance regardless of when cancer was diagnosed. There were indications that children with any type of cancer diagnosed before age 5 years are more likely to have some cognitive difficulties.

  4. Probabilistic simulation of long term behavior in polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. R.; Singhal, S. N.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology to compute cumulative probability distribution functions (CDF) of fatigue life for different ratios, r of applied stress to the laminate strength based on first ply failure criteria has been developed and demonstrated. Degradation effects due to long term environmental exposure and mechanical cyclic loads are considered in the simulation process. A unified time-stress dependent multi-factor interaction equation model developed at NASA Lewis Research Center has been used to account for the degradation/aging of material properties due to cyclic loads. Fast probability integration method is used to perform probabilistic simulation of uncertainties. Sensitivity of fatigue life reliability to uncertainties in the primitive random variables are computed and their significance in the reliability based design for maximum life is discussed. The results show that the graphite/epoxy (0/+45/90) deg laminate with ply thickness 0.125 in. has 500,000 cycles life for applied stress to laminate strength ratio of 0.6 and a reliability of 0.999. Also, the fatigue life reliability has been found to be most sensitive to the ply thickness and matrix tensile strength. Tighter quality controls must therefore be enforced on ply thickness and matrix strength in order to achieve high reliability of the structure.

  5. Long Term Functional Outcomes After Early Childhood Pollicization

    PubMed Central

    Lightdale-Miric, Nina; Mueske, Nicole M.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Loiselle, Jennifer; Berggren, Jamie; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Stevanovic, Milan; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Wren, Tishya A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective Cohort Introduction Pollicization creates a thumb from another finger to treat hypoplasia/aplasia. Important outcomes include strength, function, dexterity, and quality of life. Purpose of the Study To evaluate mid- to long-term outcomes and examine predictors of outcome after early childhood pollicization. Methods 8 children who underwent 10 pollicizations (age at surgery ≤ 5 years) were evaluated 3 to 15 years after surgery. Anthropometrics, range of motion, and basic medical history were obtained. Participants completed an upper extremity questionnaire (PODCI) and functional tests including grip and pinch stre