Science.gov

Sample records for achieve maximum effectiveness

  1. Effect of Date and Location on Maximum Achievable Altitude for a Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1997-01-01

    The maximum altitude attainable for a solar powered aircraft without any energy storage capability is examined. Mission profiles for a solar powered aircraft were generated over a range of latitudes and dates. These profiles were used to determine which latitude-date combinations produced the highest achieavable altitude. Based on the presented analysis the results have shown that for a given time of year lower latitudes produced higher maximum altitudes. For all the cases examined the time and date which produced the highest altitude was around March at the equator.

  2. Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards in Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards (MACTs) are applicable requirements under the Title V operating permit program. This is a resource for permit writers and reviewers to learn about the rules and explore other helpful tools.

  3. Ethylene Production Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Compliance Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 2006 document is intended to help owners and operators of ethylene processes understand and comply with EPA's maximum achievable control technology standards promulgated on July 12, 2002, as amended on April 13, 2005 and April 20, 2006.

  4. Achieving Maximum Power from Thermoelectric Generators with Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking Circuits Composed of a Boost-Cascaded-with-Buck Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho

    2015-06-01

    We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.

  5. Maximum achievable efficiency in near-field coupled power-transfer systems.

    PubMed

    Zargham, Meysam; Gulak, P Glenn

    2012-06-01

    Wireless power transfer is commonly realized by means of near-field inductive coupling and is critical to many existing and emerging applications in biomedical engineering. This paper presents a closed form analytical solution for the optimum load that achieves the maximum possible power efficiency under arbitrary input impedance conditions based on the general two-port parameters of the network. The two-port approach allows one to predict the power transfer efficiency at any frequency, any type of coil geometry and through any type of media surrounding the coils. Moreover, the results are applicable to any form of passive power transfer such as provided by inductive or capacitive coupling. Our results generalize several well-known special cases. The formulation allows the design of an optimized wireless power transfer link through biological media using readily available EM simulation software. The proposed method effectively decouples the design of the inductive coupling two-port from the problem of loading and power amplifier design. Several case studies are provided for typical applications.

  6. Progress in increasing the maximum achievable output power of broad area diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

    2012-03-01

    High power broad area diode lasers provide the optical energy for all high performance laser systems, either directly or as pump sources for solid-state lasers. Continuous improvement is required in the peak achievable output power of these diode laser devices in order to enable performance improvements in full laser systems. In recent years, device technology has advanced to the point where the main limit to optical power is no longer device failure, but is instead power saturation due to various physical effects within the semiconductor device itself. For example, the combination of large optical cavity designs with advanced facet passivation means that facet failure is no longer the dominant limiting factor. Increases in the optical power therefore require firstly a clear identification of the limiting mechanisms, followed by design changes and material improvements to address these. Recent theoretical and experimental diagnostic studies at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institut have helped trace the saturation effects to three main effects: gain saturation, longitudinal-holeburning and current driven carrier leakage. Design changes based on these studies have enabled increases in the achievable emitted power density from broad area lasers. Recent experimental examples include ~100W from 100μm stripes under short-pulsed conditions, > 30W from 100μm stripes under quasi-continuous wave conditions and > 10W from 30μm stripes under continuous wave conditions. An overview of the results of the diagnostic studies performed at the FBH will be presented, and the design changes necessary to address the observed power saturation will be discussed.

  7. Mind the bubbles: achieving stable measurements of maximum hydraulic conductivity through woody plant samples

    PubMed Central

    Espino, Susana; Schenk, H. Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (kmax) of a plant sample is a measure of the ability of a plants’ vascular system to transport water and dissolved nutrients under optimum conditions. Precise measurements of kmax are needed in comparative studies of hydraulic conductivity, as well as for measuring the formation and repair of xylem embolisms. Unstable measurements of kmax are a common problem when measuring woody plant samples and it is commonly observed that kmax declines from initially high values, especially when positive water pressure is used to flush out embolisms. This study was designed to test five hypotheses that could potentially explain declines in kmax under positive pressure: (i) non-steady-state flow; (ii) swelling of pectin hydrogels in inter-vessel pit membranes; (iii) nucleation and coalescence of bubbles at constrictions in the xylem; (iv) physiological wounding responses; and (v) passive wounding responses, such as clogging of the xylem by debris. Prehydrated woody stems from Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) and Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) collected from plants grown in the Fullerton Arboretum in Southern California, were used to test these hypotheses using a xylem embolism meter (XYL'EM). Treatments included simultaneous measurements of stem inflow and outflow, enzyme inhibitors, stem-debarking, low water temperatures, different water degassing techniques, and varied concentrations of calcium, potassium, magnesium, and copper salts in aqueous measurement solutions. Stable measurements of kmax were observed at concentrations of calcium, potassium, and magnesium salts high enough to suppress bubble coalescence, as well as with deionized water that was degassed using a membrane contactor under strong vacuum. Bubble formation and coalescence under positive pressure in the xylem therefore appear to be the main cause for declining kmax values. Our findings suggest that degassing of water is essential for achieving stable and precise

  8. Effects of Mach Number on Maximum Lift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-01-01

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  9. Curating NASA's Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections: How Do We Achieve Maximum Proficiency?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Zeigler, Ryan; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "... documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working towards a state of maximum proficiency.

  10. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear–surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established. PMID:26555738

  11. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-05-01

    Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear-surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established.

  12. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  13. Dissolution performance of binary amorphous drug combinations--Impact of a second drug on the maximum achievable supersaturation.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-12-30

    An increased number of amorphous formulations of poorly water soluble drugs are being introduced into the market due to their higher transient solubility and thus faster absorption and higher bioavailability. While most amorphous drug products contain a single drug substance, there is a growing trend towards co-formulating compounds in the same dosage form to improve patient compliance. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the dissolution behavior and maximum achievable solution concentrations of amorphous solid dispersions of co-formulated ritonavir and lopinavir, and to compare the results with individual amorphous solid dispersion formulations. Dispersions of ritonavir and lopinavir were prepared in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) at a 20% (w/w) total drug loading, both alone and in combination, at three different lopinavir:ritonavir weight ratios. Amorphous films containing both drugs, but no polymer, were also prepared. The dissolution behavior of the dispersions and the amorphous films in non-sink conditions was evaluated, using ultracentrifugation to separate any colloidal material from molecularly dissolved drug. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to characterize colloidal material formed during the dissolution process. Results from the dissolution study revealed that, although supersaturated solutions resulted following dissolution, the maximum achievable concentration of each drug, when present in combination, was dramatically lower than when the individual dispersions were dissolved. The maximum achievable solution concentration for systems containing both drugs was found to decrease as the mole fraction of the drug in the amorphous phase decreased. The type of polymer used to formulate the dispersion also appeared to influence the dissolution behavior whereby the HPMCAS dispersions dissolved rapidly, resulting in the generation of a nanodroplets, while the PVP dispersions did not

  14. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  15. Effects of Performance Objectives on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Napoleon, Jr.; Anderson, Hans A.

    1972-01-01

    Effects of performance objectives on achievement of black inner city pupils were studied. Two groups of trained and untrained teachers in preparing performance objectives were formed. Results showed positive effects of teachers trained in the use of performance objectives. (PS)

  16. Effect of Training Frequency on Maximum Expiratory Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Supraja; El-Bashiti, Nour; Sapienza, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) frequency on maximum expiratory pressure (MEP). Method: We assigned 12 healthy participants to 2 groups of training frequency (3 days per week and 5 days per week). They completed a 4-week training program on an EMST trainer (Aspire Products, LLC). MEP was the primary…

  17. Boundary condition effects on maximum groundwater withdrawal in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunhui; Chen, Yiming; Luo, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers subject to groundwater withdrawal requires optimization of well pumping rates to maximize the water supply while avoiding sea water intrusion. Boundary conditions and the aquifer domain size have significant influences on simulating flow and concentration fields and estimating maximum pumping rates. In this study, an analytical solution is derived based on the potential-flow theory for evaluating maximum groundwater pumping rates in a domain with a constant hydraulic head landward boundary. An empirical correction factor, which was introduced by Pool and Carrera (2011) to account for mixing in the case with a constant recharge rate boundary condition, is found also applicable for the case with a constant hydraulic head boundary condition, and therefore greatly improves the usefulness of the sharp-interface analytical solution. Comparing with the solution for a constant recharge rate boundary, we find that a constant hydraulic head boundary often yields larger estimations of the maximum pumping rate and when the domain size is five times greater than the distance between the well and the coastline, the effect of setting different landward boundary conditions becomes insignificant with a relative difference between two solutions less than 2.5%. These findings can serve as a preliminary guidance for conducting numerical simulations and designing tank-scale laboratory experiments for studying groundwater withdrawal problems in coastal aquifers with minimized boundary condition effects.

  18. Influence of MoOx interlayer on the maximum achievable open-circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell

    2013-03-01

    Transition metal oxides including molybdenum oxide (MoOx) are characterized by large work functions and deep energy levels relative to the organic semiconductors used in photovoltaic cells (OPVs). These materials have been used in OPVs as interlayers between the indium-tin-oxide anode and the active layers to increase the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and power conversion efficiency. We examine the role of MoOx in determining the maximum achievable VOC in planar heterojunction OPVs based on the donor-acceptor pairing of boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) and C60. While causing minor changes in VOC at room temperature, the inclusion of MoOx significantly changes the temperature dependence of VOC. Devices containing no interlayer show a maximum VOC\\ of 1.2 V, while devices containing MoOx show no saturation in VOC, reaching a value of >1.4 V at 110 K. We propose that the MoOx-SubPc interface forms a dissociating Schottky junction that provides an additional contribution to VOC at low temperature. Separate measurements of photoluminescence confirm that excitons in SubPc can be quenched by MoOx. Charge transfer at this interface is by hole extraction from SubPc to MoOx, and this mechanism favors donors with a deep highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level. Consistent with this expectation, the temperature dependence of VOC for devices constructed using a donor with a shallower HOMO level, e.g. copper phthalocyanine, is independent of the presence of MoOx.

  19. Prediction of the optimum surface orientation angles to achieve maximum solar radiation using Particle Swarm Optimization in Sabha City Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, F. A.; Nizam, M.; Anwar, M.

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to predict the optimum surface orientation angles in solar panel installation to achieve maximum solar radiation. Incident solar radiation is calculated using koronakis mathematical model. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used as computational method to find optimum angle orientation for solar panel installation in order to get maximum solar radiation. A series of simulation has been carried out to calculate solar radiation based on monthly, seasonally, semi-yearly and yearly period. South-facing was calculated also as comparison of proposed method. South-facing considers azimuth of 0°. Proposed method attains higher incident predictions than South-facing that recorded 2511.03 kWh/m2for monthly. It were about 2486.49 kWh/m2, 2482.13 kWh/m2and 2367.68 kWh/m2 for seasonally, semi-yearly and yearly. South-facing predicted approximately 2496.89 kWh/m2, 2472.40 kWh/m2, 2468.96 kWh/m2, 2356.09 kWh/m2for monthly, seasonally, semi-yearly and yearly periods respectively. Semi-yearly is the best choice because it needs twice adjustments of solar panel in a year. Yet it considers inefficient to adjust solar panel position in every season or monthly with no significant solar radiation increase than semi-yearly and solar tracking device still considers costly in solar energy system. PSO was able to predict accurately with simple concept, easy and computationally efficient. It has been proven by finding the best fitness faster.

  20. Effective soil hydraulic conductivity predicted with the maximum power principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhoff, Martijn; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel; Zehe, Erwin; Dewals, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Drainage of water in soils happens for a large extent through preferential flowpaths, but these subsurface flowpaths are extremely difficult to observe or parameterize in hydrological models. To potentially overcome this problem, thermodynamic optimality principles have been suggested to predict effective parametrization of these (sub-grid) structures, such as the maximum entropy production principle or the equivalent maximum power principle. These principles have been successfully applied to predict heat transfer from the Equator to the Poles, or turbulent heat fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. In these examples, the effective flux adapts itself to its boundary condition by adapting its effective conductance through the creation of e.g. convection cells. However, flow through porous media, such as soils, can only quickly adapt its effective flow conductance by creation of preferential flowpaths, but it is unknown if this is guided by the aim to create maximum power. Here we show experimentally that this is indeed the case: In the lab, we created a hydrological analogue to the atmospheric model dealing with heat transport between Equator and poles. The experimental setup consists of two freely draining reservoirs connected with each other by a confined aquifer. By adding water to only one reservoir, a potential difference will build up until a steady state is reached. From the steady state potential difference and the observed flow through the aquifer, and effective hydraulic conductance can be determined. This observed conductance does correspond to the one maximizing power of the flux through the confined aquifer. Although this experiment is done in an idealized setting, it opens doors for better parameterizing hydrological models. Furthermore, it shows that hydraulic properties of soils are not static, but they change with changing boundary conditions. A potential limitation to the principle is that it only applies to steady state conditions

  1. Effects of Efficacy on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracz, Susan M.; Gibson, Sherri

    Teacher efficacy is a critical variable in teacher and school effectiveness. The Teacher Efficacy Scale was used to assess teacher efficacy and investigate its relationship to teacher use of time, student time on task, and student achievement. Classroom observations were gathered from 14 teachers, grades 4-6, at two schools. Teacher allocation of…

  2. Transformational School Leadership Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jingping; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Based on a synthesis of unpublished transformational school leadership (TSL) research completed during the last 14 years, this study inquired into the nature of TSL and its effects on student achievement using review methods including standard meta-analysis and vote-counting techniques. Results identify a wider range of TSL practices than…

  3. The effects of chronic achievement motivation and achievement primes on the activation of achievement and fun goals.

    PubMed

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-12-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.

  4. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  5. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permitting authority, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction and any non-air...) that the permitting authority, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction... conveyance would be inconsistent with any Federal, State, or local law, or the application of...

  6. Maximum surface charge density for triboelectric nanogenerators achieved by ionized-air injection: methodology and theoretical understanding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sihong; Xie, Yannan; Niu, Simiao; Lin, Long; Liu, Chang; Zhou, Yu Sheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-22

    For the maximization of the surface charge density in triboelectric nanogenerators, a new method of injecting single-polarity ions onto surfaces is introduced for the generation of surface charges. The triboelectric nanogenerator's output power gets greatly enhanced and its maximum surface charge density is systematically studied, which shows a huge room for the improvement of the output of triboelectric nanogenerators by surface modification.

  7. Collective Leadership Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Mascall, Blair

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the impact of collective, or shared, leadership on key teacher variables and on student achievement. As well, it inquired about the relative contribution of different sources of such leadership and whether differences among patterns of collective leadership were related to differences in student achievement.…

  8. Increasing the maximum achievable strain of a covalent polymer gel through the addition of mechanically invisible cross-links.

    PubMed

    Kean, Zachary S; Hawk, Jennifer L; Lin, Shaoting; Zhao, Xuanhe; Sijbesma, Rint P; Craig, Stephen L

    2014-09-10

    Hydrogels and organogels made from polymer networks are widely used in biomedical applications and soft, active devices for which the ability to sustain large deformations is required. The strain at which polymer networks fracture is typically improved through the addition of elements that dissipate energy, but these materials require extra work to achieve a given, desired level of deformation. Here, the addition of mechanically "invisible" supramolecular crosslinks causes substantial increases in the ultimate gel properties without incurring the added energetic costs of dissipation.

  9. Causal Ordering of Academic Self-Concept and Achievement: Effects of Type of Achievement Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Background: The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests,…

  10. Systematic approach to determination of maximum achievable capture capacity via leaching and carbonation processes for alkaline steelmaking wastes in a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chun-Da; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Chang, E-E

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was performed in a rotating packed bed (RPB) as a promising process for both CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment. The maximum achievable capture capacity (MACC) via leaching and carbonation processes for BOFS in an RPB was systematically determined throughout this study. The leaching behavior of various metal ions from the BOFS into the CRW was investigated by a kinetic model. In addition, quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) using the Rietveld method was carried out to determine the process chemistry of carbonation of BOFS with CRW in an RPB. According to the QXRD results, the major mineral phases reacting with CO2 in BOFS were Ca(OH)2, Ca2(HSiO4)(OH), CaSiO3, and Ca2Fe1.04Al0.986O5. Meanwhile, the carbonation product was identified as calcite according to the observations of SEM, XEDS, and mappings. Furthermore, the MACC of the lab-scale RPB process was determined by balancing the carbonation conversion and energy consumption. In that case, the overall energy consumption, including grinding, pumping, stirring, and rotating processes, was estimated to be 707 kWh/t-CO2. It was thus concluded that CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of BOFS could be effectively and efficiently performed by coutilizing with CRW in an RPB.

  11. Achieving National Security Strategy: An Effective Process?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Smith , a career foreign service officer and former Deputy Chief ofMission, the strength ofDOS is its ability to operate with minimal guidance.28 The...DOS’s five-year strategic plan may offer the minimal guidance Mr. Smith suggests. This five- year plan, which is provided by the Secretary of State...outlines the departments overall strategy, which ~ves the latitude required to achieve its mission goals. Mr. Smith also recognizes that, "Most State

  12. Reciprocal Effects between Adolescent Externalizing Problems and Measures of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Schütte, Kerstin; Taskinen, Päivi; Köller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Student misbehavior is a pervasive problem and may seriously affect academic achievement. Previous research hints at different effects depending on whether achievement tests or achievement judgments are used as academic outcomes. Previous research also indicates that low achievement can conversely contribute to problem behavior and that low…

  13. Small satellite multi mission C2 for maximum effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, E.; Medina, O.; Lane, C.R.; Kirkham, A.; Ivancic, W.; Jones, B.; Risty, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses US Air Force, US Army, US Navy, and NASA demonstrations based around the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC) and its application in fielding a Multi Mission Satellite Operations Center (MMSOC) designed to integrate small satellites into the inherently tiered system environment of operations. The intent is to begin standardizing the spacecraft to ground interfaces needed to reduce costs, maximize space effects to the user, and allow the generation of Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs) that lead to Responsive Space employment. Combining the US Air Force/Army focus of theater command and control of payloads with the US Navy's user collaboration and FORCEnet consistent approach lays the groundwork for the fundamental change needed to maximize responsive space effects.

  14. Katrina Effect on Mathematics Achievement in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John; Lewis, Mark; Gross, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused severe physical damage to the Gulf Coast states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Homes and businesses were destroyed. Natural habitats were annihilated, and many Americans were displaced for days, weeks, and even years. This study investigated the within-subject effects and contrasts of poverty, rurality, and…

  15. Longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on adolescents' academic achievements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih

    2009-01-01

    This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.

  16. The influence of Thomson effect on the maximum power output and maximum efficiency of a thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jincan; Yan, Zijun; Wu, Liqing

    1996-06-01

    Considering a thermoelectric generator as a heat engine cycle, the general differential equations of the temperature field inside thermoelectric elements are established by means of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. These equations are used to study the influence of heat leak, Joule's heat, and Thomson heat on the performance of the thermoelectric generator. New expressions are derived for the power output and the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator. The maximum power output is calculated and the optimal matching condition of load is determined. The maximum efficiency is discussed by a representative numerical example. The aim of this research is to provide some novel conclusions and redress some errors existing in a related investigation.

  17. Exploring Differential Effects of Mathematics Courses on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Participation (N = 1,518 students from 34 schools), we investigated the effects of pure and applied mathematics courses on mathematics achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. Results of multilevel modelling showed that the effects of pure mathematics were significant after…

  18. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  19. Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Compressibility on the Maximum Lift Coefficient, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, John; Fedziuk, Henry A.; Cleary, Harold E.

    1943-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented on the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with Mach number. The data were obtained from tests in the 8-foot high-speed tunnel of three NACA 16-series airfoils of 1-foot chord. Measurements consisted primarily of pressure-distribution measurements in order to illustrate the nature of the phenomena. It was found that the maximum lift coefficient of airfoils is markedly affected by compressibility even at Mach numbers as low as 0.2. At high Mach numbers pronounced decrease of the maximum lift coefficient was found. The magnitude of the effects of compressibility on the maximum lift coefficient and the low speeds at which these effects first appear indicate clearly that consideration of the take-off thrust for propellers will give results seriously in error if these considerations are based on the usual low-speed maximum-lift-coefficient data generally used.

  20. Effects of Airfoil Thickness and Maximum Lift Coefficient on Roughness Sensitivity: 1997--1998

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A matrix of airfoils has been developed to determine the effects of airfoil thickness and the maximum lift to leading-edge roughness. The matrix consists of three natural-laminar-flow airfoils, the S901, S902, and S903, for wind turbine applications. The airfoils have been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Pennsylvania State University low-speed, low-turbulence wind tunnel. The effect of roughness on the maximum life increases with increasing airfoil thickness and decreases slightly with increasing maximum lift. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  1. Maximum power training load determination and its effects on load-power relationship, maximum strength, and vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Smilios, Ilias; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos; Christou, Marios; Douda, Helen; Spaias, Aggelos; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2013-05-01

    This study examines the changes in maximum strength, vertical jump performance, and the load-velocity and load-power relationship after a resistance training period using a heavy load and an individual load that maximizes mechanical power output with and without including body mass in power calculations. Forty-three moderately trained men (age: 22.7 ± 2.5 years) were separated into 4 groups, 2 groups of maximum power, 1 where body mass was not included in the calculations of the load that maximizes mechanical power (Pmax - bw, n = 11) and another where body mass was included in the calculations (Pmax + bw, n = 9), a high load group (HL-90%, n = 12), and a control group (C, n = 11). The subjects performed 4-6 sets of jump squat and the repeated-jump exercises for 6 weeks. For the jump squat, the HL-90% group performed 3 repetitions at each set with a load of 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), the Pmax - bw group 5 repetitions with loads 48-58% of 1RM and the Pmax + bw 8 repetitions with loads 20-37% of 1RM. For the repeated jump, all the groups performed 6 repetitions at each set. All training groups improved (p < 0.05) maximum strength in the semisquat exercise (HL-90%: 15.2 ± 7.1, Pmax - bw: 6.6 ± 4.7, Pmax + bw: 6.9 ± 7.1, and C: 0 ± 4.3%) and the HL-90% group presented higher values (p < 0.05) than the other groups did. All training groups improved similarly (p < 0.05) squat (HL-90%: 11.7 ± 7.9, Pmax - bw: 14.5 ± 11.8, Pmax + bw: 11.3 ± 7.9, and C: -2.2 ± 5.5%) and countermovement jump height (HL-90%: 8.6 ± 7.9, Pmax - bw: 10.9 ± 9.4, Pmax + bw: 8.8 ± 4.3, and C: 0.4 ± 6%). The HL-90% and the Pmax - bw group increased (p < 0.05) power output at loads of 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80% of 1RM and the Pmax + bw group at loads of 20 and 35% of 1RM. The inclusion or not of body mass to determine the load that maximizes mechanical power output affects the long-term adaptations differently in the load-power relationship. Thus, training load selection will depend

  2. Examining Charter Student Achievement Effects across Seven States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Ron; Gill, Brian; Booker, Kevin; Lavertu, Stephane; Witte, John

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, charter schools have been a lighting rod for controversy, with much of the debate revolving around their effectiveness in improving student achievement. Previous research has shown mixed results for student achievement; this could be the consequence of different policy environments or varying methodological approaches with…

  3. Automated Writing Evaluation Program's Effect on Student Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lester Donnie

    2011-01-01

    In an ex post facto causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE) programs on raising the student writing achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) writing achievement scores from the 2010 administration were utilized for this study. The independent variable…

  4. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  5. Effect of consolidation ratios on maximum dynamic shear modulus of sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoming, Yuan; Jing, Sun; Rui, Sun

    2005-06-01

    The dynamic shear modulus (DSM) is the most basic soil parameter in earthquake or other dynamic loading conditions and can be obtained through testing in the field or in the laboratory. The effect of consolidation ratios of the maximum DSM for two types of sand is investigated by using resonant column tests. And, an increment formula to obtain the maximum DSM for cases of consolidation ratio k c>1 is presented. The results indicate that the maximum DSM rises rapidly when k c is near 1 and then slows down, which means that the power function of the consolidation ratio increment k c-1 can be used to describe the variation of the maximum DSM due to k c>1. The results also indicate that the increase in the maximum DSM due to k c>1 is significantly larger than that predicted by Hardin and Black's formula.

  6. A Study of Teacher Effects Based on Students' Achievement Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acland, Henry

    This report tests the assumption that teachers have an impact on how much students learn. The results of this study indicate that teachers have an effect on average class achievement scores, and that this effect can be broken down into a stable component attributed to the teachers' consistency, and an unstable effect which varies from year to…

  7. Cramer-Rao Bound, MUSIC, and Maximum Likelihood. Effects of Temporal Phase Difference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    Technical Report 1373 November 1990 Cramer-Rao Bound, MUSIC , And Maximum Likelihood Effects of Temporal Phase o Difference C. V. TranI OTIC Approved... MUSIC , and Maximum Likelihood (ML) asymptotic variances corresponding to the two-source direction-of-arrival estimation where sources were modeled as...1pI = 1.00, SNR = 20 dB ..................................... 27 2. MUSIC for two equipowered signals impinging on a 5-element ULA (a) IpI = 0.50, SNR

  8. Effects of Notetaking Format on Achievement When Studying Electronic Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.; Nelson, Charles E.

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of notetaking on achievement while studying electronic text. In the first experiment, 83 students studied 1 of 3 sets of notes (partial, skeletal, and control) for the effects on posttest performance (on fact, structure, and transfer tests). No differences were found between groups on the…

  9. Teaching Effectiveness and Student Achievement: Examining the Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Sherman, Helene

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between teacher effectiveness and students' achievement as measured by test scores. A strong belief among policymakers and public as well as private funding agencies is that test scores are directly related to the quality of teaching effectiveness. This relationship implies that there could be a direct…

  10. Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Research continues to find large differences in student achievement gains across teachers' classrooms. The variability in teacher effectiveness raises the stakes on identifying effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines data from classroom observations of teaching practices and measures of teachers' ability to improve student…

  11. The Cost Effectiveness of 22 Approaches for Raising Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2010-01-01

    Review of cost-effectiveness studies suggests that rapid assessment is more cost effective with regard to student achievement than comprehensive school reform (CSR), cross-age tutoring, computer-assisted instruction, a longer school day, increases in teacher education, teacher experience or teacher salaries, summer school, more rigorous math…

  12. Can the Maximum Power Principle predict Effective Conductivities of a Confined Aquifer? A Lab Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhoff, M.; Erpicum, S.; Archambeau, P.; Pirotton, M.; Zehe, E.; Dewals, B.

    2015-12-01

    Power can be performed by a system driven by a potential difference. From a given potential difference, the power that can be subtracted is constraint by the Carnot limit, which follows from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. If the system is such that the flux producing power (with power being the flux times its driving potential difference) also influences the potential difference, a maximum in power can be obtained as a result of the trade-off between the flux and the potential difference. This is referred to as the maximum power principle. It has already been shown that the atmosphere operates close to this maximum power limit when it comes to heat transport from the Equator to the poles, or vertically, from the surface to the atmospheric boundary layer. To reach this state of maximum power, the effective thermal conductivity of the atmosphere is adapted by the creation of convection cells. The aim of this study is to test if the soil's effective hydraulic conductivity also adapts in such a way that it produces maximum power. However, the soil's hydraulic conductivity adapts differently; for example by the creation of preferential flow paths. Here, this process is simulated in a lab experiment, which focuses on preferential flow paths created by piping. In the lab, we created a hydrological analogue to the atmospheric model dealing with heat transport between Equator and poles, with the aim to test if the effective hydraulic conductivity of the sand bed can be predicted with the maximum power principle. The experimental setup consists of two freely draining reservoir connected with each other by a confined aquifer. By adding water to only one reservoir, a potential difference will build up until a steady state is reached. The results will indicate whether the maximum power principle does apply for groundwater flow and how it should be applied. Because of the different way of adaptation of flow conductivity, the results differ from that of the

  13. What Happens to the Fish's Achievement in a Little Pond? A Simultaneous Analysis of Class-Average Achievement Effects on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…

  14. Effect of the Mandibular Orthopedic Repositioning Appliance on Trunk and Upper Limb Muscle Activation during Maximum Isometric Contraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yeol; Hong, Min-Ho; Park, Min-Chull; Choi, Sung-Min

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to measure the muscle activities of the trunk muscles and upper limb muscles during maximum isometric contraction when temporomandibular joint alignment was achieved with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance in order provide basic data on the effects of mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance on the entire body. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with healthy Korean adults in their 20s (males=10, females=10). [Methods] An 8 channel surface electromyography system was used to measure the muscle activities of the upper limb muscles and neck muscles of the subjects during maximum isometric contraction with and without use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Results] The maximum isometric contractions of the trunk and upper limb muscles when mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance were used were compared with those when no mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance was used. The results showed that the sternocleidomastoid muscle, cervical and lumbar erector spinae, upper trapezius, biceps, triceps, rectus abdominis and internal oblique and external oblique muscles all showed significant increases in maximum isometric contractions with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Conclusion] The use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance is considered to be a method for normal adults to improve the stability of the entire body with the improvement of the stability of the TMJ. The proximal improvement in stability improves of the proximal thereby improving not only muscle strength with increased muscle activation but also stability during exercises.

  15. ESL Placement and Schools: Effects on Immigrant Achievement.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn.

  16. Effects of fasting on maximum thermogenesis in temperature-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. C. H.

    1981-09-01

    To further investigate the limiting effect of substrates on maximum thermogenesis in acute cold exposure, the present study examined the prevalence of this effect at different thermogenic capabilities consequent to cold- or warm-acclimation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=11) were acclimated to 6, 16 and 26‡C, in succession, their thermogenic capabilities after each acclimation temperature were measured under helium-oxygen (21% oxygen, balance helium) at -10‡C after overnight fasting or feeding. Regardless of feeding conditions, both maximum and total heat production were significantly greater in 6>16>26‡C-acclimated conditions. In the fed state, the total heat production was significantly greater than that in the fasted state at all acclimating temperatures but the maximum thermogenesis was significant greater only in the 6 and 16‡C-acclimated states. The results indicate that the limiting effect of substrates on maximum and total thermogenesis is independent of the magnitude of thermogenic capability, suggesting a substrate-dependent component in restricting the effective expression of existing aerobic metabolic capability even under severe stress.

  17. Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Structural Equation Models with Multiple Interaction and Quadratic Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Andreas G.; Muthen, Bengt O.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a nonlinear structural equation model is introduced and a quasi-maximum likelihood method for simultaneous estimation and testing of multiple nonlinear effects is developed. The focus of the new methodology lies on efficiency, robustness, and computational practicability. Monte-Carlo studies indicate that the method is highly…

  18. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-08-02

    Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students' mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level.

  19. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students’ beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students’ mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level. PMID:27432947

  20. Effects of loading on maximum vertical jumps: Selective effects of weight and inertia.

    PubMed

    Leontijevic, Bojan; Pazin, Nemanja; Bozic, Predrag R; Kukolj, Milos; Ugarkovic, Dusan; Jaric, Slobodan

    2012-04-01

    A novel loading method was applied to explore selective effects of externally added weight (W), weight and inertia (W+I), and inertia (I) on maximum counter-movement jumps (CMJ) performed with arm swing. Externally applied extended rubber bands and/or loaded vest added W, W+I, and I corresponding to 10-40% of subjects' body mass. As expected, an increase in magnitude of all types of load was associated with an increase in ground reaction forces (GRF), as well as with a decrease in both the jumping performance and power output. However, of more importance could be that discernible differences among the effects of W, W+I, and I were recorded despite a relatively narrow loading range. In particular, an increase in W was associated with the minimal changes in movement kinematic pattern and smallest reduction of jumping performance, while also allowing for the highest power output. Conversely, W+I was associated with the highest ground reaction forces. Finally, the lowest maxima of GRF and power were associated with I. Although further research is apparently needed, the obtained finding could be of potential importance not only for understanding fundamental properties of the neuromuscular system, but also for optimization of loading in standard athletic training and rehabilitation procedures.

  1. The Effects of School Mobility on Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehana, Majida; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    This study investigated the predictors of school mobility and the influence of mobility on grade 6 math and reading achievement. The sample included 988 urban, low-economic status black children participating in a longitudinal study of the effects of preschool intervention. Fifty-eight percent of the students changed schools at least once.…

  2. ESL Placement and Schools: Effects on Immigrant Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL…

  3. The Effectiveness of CASAs in Achieving Positive Outcomes for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzelfelner, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of court-appointed special advocates (CASAs) in achieving positive outcomes for children in the child welfare system, using data from court and CASA program files on 200 children. Found that CASAs may have reduced the number of placements and court continuances children experienced. More services were provided to children…

  4. Personality as a Moderator of Context Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Kuyper, Hans; Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a two-level (students within classes) analysis,…

  5. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  6. The Effects of Visual-Haptic Training on Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charuk, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an intermodal training technique known as visual-haptic had any effect on the reading achievement of a group of disabled readers. The technique itself did not teach reading. Used in conjunction with a conventional remedial reading program, visual-haptic training was expected to serve as an…

  7. The Effects of Read 180 on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plony, Doreen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this ex post facto study was to analyze archive data to investigate the effects of Read 180, a computer-based supplemental reading intervention, on students' academic achievement for the academic school year 2011-2012. Further analyses examined if influences existed in variables such as grade level, gender, and ethnicity of the…

  8. Effects of Teacher Professional Learning Activities on Student Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. The…

  9. The Effects of Fiscal and Human Capital on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koligian, Sarah Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of per-pupil funding, the amount allocated to fund students in K-12 public education, and how this funding related to student achievement. This is one of the most contentious issues in education, especially in light of the current economy in California, where the state budget crisis has…

  10. The Effects of Peer Tutoring on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Christine

    A study examined the effects of peer tutoring on the achievement of fourth grade remedial readers. Subjects (N=30) were randomly assigned to a control or an experimental group, both of which were pretested using the "Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests" and both received regular classroom instruction. The experimental group received tutoring for ten…

  11. The Effect of Preschool Education on Math Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondrak, Maripatricia

    A study examined the effects of preschool attendance on third graders' mathematics achievement. The subjects for the study were randomly selected from 111 third graders from a predominantly low socioeconomic neighborhood in Chicago. All students were from minority groups. The experimental group was comprised of 21 students who had attended…

  12. Leadership Effects on Student Achievement and Sustained School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of leadership on student achievement and sustained school success, especially in challenging, high-poverty schools. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines a review of the leadership literature with findings drawn from longitudinal studies of the International Successful School…

  13. Effects of Spatial Ability and Instructional Program on Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannafin, Robert D.; Truxaw, Mary P.; Vermillion, Jennifer R.; Liu, Yingjie

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of student spatial ability, as measured by Raven's Progressive Colored Matrices (J. C. Raven, 1938) and type of instructional program on geometry achievement. Sixth-grade students worked through either 6 instructional activities in Geometer's Sketchpad (Key Curriculum Press, 1993), a dynamic geometry program,…

  14. Effects of Curriculum Reform on Mathematics Achievement in Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Joseph

    This investigation measured effects of the modern mathematics on achievement in traditional arithmetic and in modern mathematics. Material on Sets, Variables, and Statistics was taught as a separate subject to an experimental group of 207 sixth-grade students. Instruction in the new mathematics content was given over a four-month period, using…

  15. Sociodemographic Moderators of Middle School Transition Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akos, Patrick; Rose, Roderick A.; Orthner, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The academic impact of the transition from elementary to middle school has significant consequences for many early adolescents. This study examines academic growth across the transition, as well as sociodemographic moderators. Rather than defining the transition effect as a decline in student achievement between fifth and sixth grade, these data…

  16. Effective Teachers = Student Achievement: What the Research Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that there is no greater influence on a student's success than the quality of his or her teacher. This book presents the research findings which demonstrate the connection between teacher effectiveness and student achievement. We've always known, at least intuitively, that teachers matter, but this book proves that teachers are…

  17. Teacher Effectiveness: Making "The" Difference to Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines shifts in emphasis in Australian education from expectations and belief that teachers not only make a difference to student achievement, but they are the difference. In moving from social class relations accounts to self-managing school accounts, latest shifts (teacher effectiveness accounts) over-emphasize teacher…

  18. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement of Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keramati, Mohammadreza

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of physics course. Cooperative learning was employed to experimental group and conventional teaching method was used for control group. Sampling of the study consists of 15-16 years old 220 students at high school in Iran. The progress…

  19. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  20. Effect of the equation of state on the maximum mass of differentially rotating neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studzińska, A. M.; Kucaba, M.; Gondek-Rosińska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing the value of the maximum mass of a differentially rotating relativistic star is a key step towards the understanding of the signals to be expected from the merger of binary neutron stars, one of the most awaited alternative sources of gravitational waves after binary black holes. In this paper, we study the effects of differential rotation and of the equation of state on the maximum mass of rotating neutron stars modelled as relativistic polytropes with various adiabatic indices. Calculations are performed using a highly accurate numerical code, based on a multidomain spectral method. We thoroughly explore the parameter space and determine how the maximum mass depends on the stiffness, on the degree of differential rotation and on the maximal density, taking into account all the types of solutions that were proven to exist in a preceding paper. The highest increase with respect to the maximum mass for non-rotating stars with the same equation of state is reached for a moderate stiffness. With differential rotation, the maximum mass can even be 3-4 times higher than it is for static stars. This result may have important consequences for the gravitational wave signal from coalescing neutron star binaries or for some supernovae events.

  1. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect.

    PubMed

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  2. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    PubMed Central

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization. PMID:25999899

  3. The effect of technology on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, June Kraft

    2003-10-01

    Prior research indicates that technology has had little effect on raising student achievement. Little empirical research exists, however, studying the effects of technology as a tool to improve student achievement through development of higher order thinking skills. Also, prior studies have not focused on the manner in which technology is being used in the classroom and at home to enhance teaching and learning. Empirical data from a secondary school representative of those in California were analyzed to determine the effects of technology on student science achievement. The quantitative analysis methods for the school data study included a multiple linear path analysis, using final course grade as the ultimate exogenous variable. In addition, empirical data from a nationwide survey on how Americans use the Internet were disaggregated by age and analyzed to determine the relationships between computer and Internet experience and (a) Internet use at home for school assignments and (b) more general computer use at home for school assignments for school age children. Analysis of data collected from the a "A Nation Online" Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau assessed these relationships via correlations and cross-tabulations. Finally, results from these data analyses were assessed in conjunction with systemic reform efforts from 12 states designed to address improvements in science and mathematics education in light of the Third International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS). Examination of the technology efforts in those states provided a more nuanced understanding of the impact technology has on student achievement. Key findings included evidence that technology training for teachers increased their use of the computer for instruction but students' final science course grade did not improve; school age children across the country did not use the computer at home for such higher-order cognitive activities as graphics and design or spreadsheets

  4. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin; Sahin, Mehmet; Acikgoz, Kamile Un

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers (n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…

  5. Developing a diagnostic tool for measuring maximum effective temperature within high pressure electrodeless discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Michael; Preston, Barry; Mucklejohn, Stuart; Santos, Monica; Lister, Graeme

    2016-09-01

    Here we present an investigation into the feasibility of creating a diagnostic tool for obtaining maximum arc temperature measurements within a high pressure electrodeless discharge; utilizing integrating sphere measurements of optically thin lines emitted from mercury atoms within commercially available high pressure mercury lamp arc tubes. The optically thin lines chosen were 577 nm and 1014 nm from a 250 W high pressure mercury lamp operated at various powers. The effective temperature could be calculated by considering the relative intensities of the two optically thin lines and comparison with the theoretical ratio of the temperature dependent power emitted from the lines derived from the atomic spectral data provided by NIST. The calculations gave effective arc temperatures of 5755, 5804 and 5820 K at 200, 225, 250 W respectively. This method was subsequently used as a basis for determining maximum effective arc temperature within microwave-driven electrodeless discharge capsules, with varying mercury content of 6.07, 9.4 and 12.95 mg within 1 × 10-6 m3 giving maximum effective temperatures of 5163, 4768 and 4715 K respectively at 240 W.

  6. Effects of countermovement depth on kinematic and kinetic patterns of maximum vertical jumps.

    PubMed

    Mandic, Radivoj; Jakovljevic, Sasa; Jaric, Slobodan

    2015-04-01

    Although maximum height (H(max)), muscle force (F), and power output (P), have been routinely obtained from maximum vertical jumps for various purposes, a possible role of the countermovement depth (H(cmd)) on the same variables remains largely unexplored. Here we hypothesized that (1) the optimum H(cmd) for maximizing H(max) exists, while (2) an increase in H(cmd) would be associated with a decrease in both F and P. Professional male basketball players (N=11) preformed maximum countermovement jumps with and without arm swing while varying H(cmd)±25 cm from its preferred value. Although regression models revealed a presence of optimum H(cmd) for maximizing H(max), H(max) revealed only small changes within a wide range of H(cmd). The preferred H(cmd) was markedly below its optimum value (p < .05). However, both F and P sharply decreased with H(cmd), while F also revealed a minimum for H(cmd) close to its highest values. Therefore, we conclude that although the optimum H(cmd) should exists, the magnitude of its effect on H(max) should be only minimal within a typical H(cmd) range. Conversely, F and P of leg muscles assessed through maximum vertical jumps should be taken with caution since both of them could be markedly confounded by H(cmd).

  7. Effects of electric field on the maximum electro-spinning rate of silk fibroin solutions.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo Kyung; Um, In Chul

    2017-02-01

    Owing to the excellent cyto-compatibility of silk fibroin (SF) and the simple fabrication of nano-fibrous webs, electro-spun SF webs have attracted much research attention in numerous biomedical fields. Because the production rate of electro-spun webs is strongly dependent on the electro-spinning rate used, the electro-spinning rate becomes more important. In the present study, to improve the electro-spinning rate of SF solutions, various electric fields were applied during electro-spinning of SF, and its effects on the maximum electro-spinning rate of SF solution as well as diameters and molecular conformations of the electro-spun SF fibers were examined. As the electric field was increased, the maximum electro-spinning rate of the SF solution also increased. The maximum electro-spinning rate of a 13% SF solution could be increased 12×by increasing the electric field from 0.5kV/cm (0.25mL/h) to 2.5kV/cm (3.0mL/h). The dependence of the fiber diameter on the present electric field was not significant when using less-concentrated SF solutions (7-9% SF). On the other hand, at higher SF concentrations the electric field had a greater effect on the resulting fiber diameter. The electric field had a minimal effect of the molecular conformation and crystallinity index of the electro-spun SF webs.

  8. Replacement effects of Panicum maximum with Ficus polita on performance of West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, T O; Akinsoyinu, A O

    2011-04-01

    The replacement value of Ficus polita for Panicum maximum was evaluated on 32 female post-weaned West African dwarfs goats. Ficus polita was fed with P. maximum at different proportions of 0:90 (F. polita:P. maximum), 30:60, 60:30 and 90:0 constituting diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Each diet was supplemented with 10% cassava peels. Dry matter intake per kg metabolic weight of goats was not significantly (p> 0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. However, crude protein intake per kg metabolic weight was higher (p < 0.05) in animals fed 60% and 90%F. polita than those fed sole P. maximum diet. Daily weight gain of goats fed diet 3 (60%F. polita) was higher (p < 0.05) (27.3 g) than those fed diets 4 (18.9 g), 2 (20.8 g) and the control (6.6 g). Dry matter (DM), organic matter, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre digestibilities were higher (p < 0.05) in goats fed 60%F. polita than those fed other diets, except for DM digestibility which was statistically similar to diets 2 and 4 but higher than those fed diet 1 without F. polita. Organic matter and CP digestibility were highest (72.0 and 65.7% respectively) in animals fed 60%F. polita. Nitrogen retention of goats fed 60%F. polita (diet 3) was higher (p < 0.05) than that obtained with other diets. The results suggest that feeding combination of F. polita and P. maximum at ratio 60:30 respectively has associative effects that can enhance growth rate, feed intake, nutrients digestibility and nitrogen utilization for goat production during dry season in the tropics.

  9. Microfractures in Quartz Grains as a Measurement of Maximum Effective Stress in Sandstone Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrkian, K.; Aubourg, C.; Girard, J. P.; Teinturier, S.; Hoareau, G.

    2015-12-01

    Effective stress, defined as the load transmitted from particle to particle in the solid framework of a rock, plays a significant role in controlling mechanical compaction and thus reservoir quality in sandstones. Mechanical compaction in sandstones takes place through rearrangement and ductile/ brittle deformation of framework grains during progressive burial. It is primarily dependent on the magnitude and evolution of effective stress during burial, and on the nature and textural properties of framework grains (mineralogy, grain size/shape, sorting…) and pore-filing solid cements when present. Here, we propose a method to directly evaluate maximum effective stress in sandstone reservoirs by quantifying the brittle deformation of quartz grains evidenced through the development of microfractures. Quartz microfracturing is documented and quantified by examining thin sections of core samples under SEM CL microscopy. Previous published experimental studies and observations made on natural samples indicate that quartz burial-induced microfracturing in sandstones is mainly affected by effective stress, but also reflects other factors such as grain size, sorting and proportion of ductile grains (clays, micas…). In order to investigate the quantitative impact of such factors altogether, we have conducted compaction experiments (>30 tests) on 10 types of sands at 25°C, under dry conditions and pressures up to 55 Mpa. The resulting compressed sands were studied by optical microscopy to quantify fractured quartz grains. Results were processed using R statistical computing language via a multi input model to define a simple equation that provides correction constants for each influencing factor. The resulting equation will then be used to calculate the maximum effective stress recorded by a sandstone reservoir during its burial history, based on the petrographic/mineralogical characteristics (thin section point-counting) and the fractured-grain ratio (obtained by SEM CL

  10. Single-machine rescheduling with deterioration and learning effects against the maximum sequence disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Le; Zhou, Hong

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we study the issue of single-machine rescheduling with linear deteriorating jobs and position-based learning effects simultaneously in response to an unexpected arrival of new jobs. The scheduling efficiency is measured in terms of the makespan, while the cost of disruption is measured in terms of the maximum difference in processing orders of the original jobs before and after disruption. By introducing the effects of deterioration and learning, the job actual processing time is defined by an increasing function of its starting time, meanwhile a decreasing function of its position. Two types of problems are considered. For the first one, the makespan is minimised subject to a limit on the maximum sequence disruption; while in the second one, a linear combination of the makespan and the maximum sequence disruption is minimised. For each problem, the polynomial solvability is demonstrated, and an efficient algorithm is then developed. Finally, extensive computational experiments are conducted to show the efficiency and running behaviours of the proposed algorithms.

  11. Differential effects of food availability on minimum and maximum rates of metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Salin, Karine; Rudolf, Agata M.; Anderson, Graeme J.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rates reflect the energetic cost of living but exhibit remarkable variation among conspecifics, partly as a result of the constraints imposed by environmental conditions. Metabolic rates are sensitive to changes in temperature and oxygen availability, but effects of food availability, particularly on maximum metabolic rates, are not well understood. Here, we show in brown trout (Salmo trutta) that maximum metabolic rates are immutable but minimum metabolic rates increase as a positive function of food availability. As a result, aerobic scope (i.e. the capacity to elevate metabolism above baseline requirements) declines as food availability increases. These differential changes in metabolic rates likely have important consequences for how organisms partition available metabolic power to different functions under the constraints imposed by food availability. PMID:28120798

  12. Five Years Later: Achieving Professional Effectiveness to Move Neurorehabilitation Forward

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The AOTA Centennial Vision outlined in 2007 challenged the occupational therapy profession to become a “powerful, widely recognized, science-driven, and evidence-based” profession that could adapt to changing societal and cultural needs and flourish well into the future. That challenge can be met by simply being effective at what we do; this will increase our value and validate our worth. Neurorehabilitation in occupational therapy can also thrive if we verify that the interventions we use and the strategies we implement are grounded in evidence. Professional effectiveness will emerge by (1) increasing the dissemination of research that supports the methods we use and informs others of the successful patient outcomes we achieve and (2) expanding development and validation of instruments that quantitatively and qualitatively measure functional outcomes. Occupational therapists can individually develop professional effectiveness by fostering greater academic–clinical alliances, objectifying evaluation and intervention methods, and preparing future practitioners appropriately for evidence-driven practice. PMID:23968801

  13. Maximum reasonable radioxenon releases from medical isotope production facilities and their effect on monitoring nuclear explosions.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Theodore W; Kephart, Rosara; Eslinger, Paul W; Friese, Judah I; Miley, Harry S; Saey, Paul R J

    2013-01-01

    Fission gases such as (133)Xe are used extensively for monitoring the world for signs of nuclear testing in systems such as the International Monitoring System (IMS). These gases are also produced by nuclear reactors and by fission production of (99)Mo for medical use. Recently, medical isotope production facilities have been identified as the major contributor to the background of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) in the atmosphere (Stocki et al., 2005; Saey, 2009). These releases pose a potential future problem for monitoring nuclear explosions if not addressed. As a starting point, a maximum acceptable daily xenon emission rate was calculated, that is both scientifically defendable as not adversely affecting the IMS, but also consistent with what is possible to achieve in an operational environment. This study concludes that an emission of 5 × 10(9) Bq/day from a medical isotope production facility would be both an acceptable upper limit from the perspective of minimal impact to monitoring stations, but also appears to be an achievable limit for large isotope producers.

  14. The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Darlene

    Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

  15. The Effects of Different Approaches to Reading Instruction on Letter Detection Tasks in Normally Achieving and Low Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Kandelshine-Waldman, Osnat

    2011-01-01

    The present study used two letter detection tasks, the classic missing letter effect paradigm and a single word versus familiar word compound version of this paradigm, to study bottom-up and top-down processes involved in reading in normally achieving as compared to low achieving elementary school readers. The research participants were children…

  16. SU-E-T-444: Gravity Effect On Maximum Leaf Speed in Dynamic IMRT Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Olasolo, J; Pellejero, S; Gracia, M; Gallardo, N; Martin, ML; Lozares, S; Maneru, F; Bragado, L; Miquelez, S; Artacho, JM

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A leaf sequencing algorithm has been recently developed in our department. Our purpose is to utilize this algorithm to reduce treatment time by studying the feasibility of using several maximum leaf speeds depending on gantry angle and leaf thickness (0.5 or 1 cm at isocenter). To do so, the gravity effect on MLC performance has been examined by means of analysing the dynalog files. Methods: Leaf position errors has been ascertained according to gantry angle and leaf speed in MLC Millenium120 (Varian). In order to do this, the following test has been designed: all leaves move in synchrony, with same speed and 1 cm gap between opposite leaves. This test is implemented for 18 different speeds: 0.25-0.5-0.75-1-1.25-1.5-1.75-2-2.1-2.2-2.3-2.4-2.5-2.6-2.7-2.8-2.9-3.0 cm/s and 8 gantry angles: 0-45-90-135-180-225-270-315. Collimator angle is 2 degrees in all cases since it is the most usual one in IMRT treatments in our department. Dynamic tolerance is 2 mm. Dynalogs files of 10 repetitions of the test are analysed with a Mathlab in-house developed software and RMS error and 95th percentiles are calculated. Varian recommends 2.5 cm/s as the maximum leaf speed for its segmentation algorithm. In our case, we accept this speed in the most restrictive situation: gantry angle 270 and 1 cm leaf thickness. Maximum speeds for the rest of the cases are calculated by keeping the difference between 95th percentile and dynamic tolerance. In this way, beam hold-off probability does not increase. Results: Maximum speeds every 45 degrees of gantry rotation have been calculated for both leaf thickness. These results are 2.9-2.9-2.9-2.9-2.7-2.6-2.6-2.7 cm/s for 0.5 cm leaf thickness and 2.7-2.7-2.7-2.7-2.6-2.5-2.5-2.6 cm/s for 1 cm leaf thickness. Conclusion: Gravity effect on MLC positioning has been studied. Maximum leaf speed according to leaf thickness and gantry angle have been calculated which reduces treatment time.

  17. Career Skills Workshop: Achieving Your Goals Through Effective Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-01-01

    Physics students graduate with a huge array of transferrable skills, which are extremely useful to employers (particularly in the private sector, which is the largest employment base of physicists at all degree levels). However, the key to successfully connecting with these opportunities lies in how well graduates are able to communicate their skills and abilities to potential employers. The ability to communicate effectively is a key professional skill that serves scientists in many contexts, including interviewing for jobs, applying for grants, or speaking with law and policy makers. In this interactive workshop, Crystal Bailey (Careers Program Manager at APS) and Gregory Mack (Government Relations Specialist at APS) will lead activities to help attendees achieve their goals through better communication. Topics will include writing an effective resume, interviewing for jobs, and communicating to different audiences including Congress, among others. Light refreshments will be served.

  18. On enforcing maximum principles and achieving element-wise species balance for advection-diffusion-reaction equations under the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a robust computational framework for advective-diffusive-reactive systems that satisfies maximum principles, the non-negative constraint, and element-wise species balance property. The proposed methodology is valid on general computational grids, can handle heterogeneous anisotropic media, and provides accurate numerical solutions even for very high Péclet numbers. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate advection (which makes the spatial part of the differential operator non-self-adjoint) into the non-negative computational framework, and overcome numerical challenges associated with advection. We employ low-order mixed finite element formulations based on least-squares formalism, and enforce explicit constraints on the discrete problem to meet the desired properties. The resulting constrained discrete problem belongs to convex quadratic programming for which a unique solution exists. Maximum principles and the non-negative constraint give rise to bound constraints while element-wise species balance gives rise to equality constraints. The resulting convex quadratic programming problems are solved using an interior-point algorithm. Several numerical results pertaining to advection-dominated problems are presented to illustrate the robustness, convergence, and the overall performance of the proposed computational framework.

  19. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  20. Effect of background music on maximum acceptable weight of manual lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study used the psychophysical approach to investigate the impact of tempo and volume of background music on the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of participants engaged in lifting. Ten male college students participated in this study. They lifted a box from the floor, walked 1-2 steps as required, placed the box on a table and walked back twice per minute. The results showed that the tempo of music had a significant effect on both MAWL and HR. Fast tempo background music resulted in higher MAWL and HR values than those resulting from slow tempo music. The effects of both the tempo and volume on the RPE were insignificant. The results of this study suggest fast tempo background music may be used in manual materials handling tasks to increase performance without increasing perceived exertion because of its ergogenic effect on human psychology and physiology.

  1. Bayesian designs of phase II oncology trials to select maximum effective dose assuming monotonic dose-response relationship

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For many molecularly targeted agents, the probability of response may be assumed to either increase or increase and then plateau in the tested dose range. Therefore, identifying the maximum effective dose, defined as the lowest dose that achieves a pre-specified target response and beyond which improvement in the response is unlikely, becomes increasingly important. Recently, a class of Bayesian designs for single-arm phase II clinical trials based on hypothesis tests and nonlocal alternative prior densities has been proposed and shown to outperform common Bayesian designs based on posterior credible intervals and common frequentist designs. We extend this and related approaches to the design of phase II oncology trials, with the goal of identifying the maximum effective dose among a small number of pre-specified doses. Methods We propose two new Bayesian designs with continuous monitoring of response rates across doses to identify the maximum effective dose, assuming monotonicity of the response rate across doses. The first design is based on Bayesian hypothesis tests. To determine whether each dose level achieves a pre-specified target response rate and whether the response rates between doses are equal, multiple statistical hypotheses are defined using nonlocal alternative prior densities. The second design is based on Bayesian model averaging and also uses nonlocal alternative priors. We conduct simulation studies to evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed designs, and compare them with three alternative designs. Results In terms of the likelihood of drawing a correct conclusion using similar between-design average sample sizes, the performance of our proposed design based on Bayesian hypothesis tests and nonlocal alternative priors is more robust than that of the other designs. Specifically, the proposed Bayesian hypothesis test-based design has the largest probability of being the best design among all designs under comparison and

  2. Effective Two-Dimensional Partial Response Maximum Likelihood Detection Scheme for Holographic Data Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Gyuyeol; Choi, Sooyong

    2012-08-01

    An effective two-dimensional (2D) partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) detection scheme for holographic data storage (HDS) systems is proposed. The proposed scheme adopts the simplified trellis diagram, uses a priori information, and detects the data in two directions from the previously proposed detection schemes. The simplified trellis diagram which has 4 states and 8 branches yields a dramatic complexity reduction while the simplified 2D PRML detector shows serious performance degradation in the high density HDS channels. To prevent performance degradation, the proposed detector uses a priori information in order to give higher reliability to the branch metric. Furthermore, the proposed scheme detects the data in the vertical and horizontal directions to fully utilize the characteristics of the channel detection with a 2D partial response target. By effective combination of these three techniques, the proposed scheme with a simple structure has more than 2 dB gains compared to the conventional detection schemes.

  3. Dynamic contact angle effects onto the maximum drop impact spreading on solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, D. C.; Soucemarianadin, A.; Delattre, C.; Roux, D. C. D.

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports experimental investigations of drop impacts onto chemically treated surfaces with wettability from 5° to 160°. To follow in time the drop spreading, a high speed video camera was used, and it allows us to determine precisely the expansion of the drop and the profile of the free surface at the contact line. By changing the impact velocity, between less than 0.5 and 5 m/s, and the viscosity, from 1 to 100 mPa s, at constant surface tension, a broad range of Reynolds and Weber numbers is explored. This paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, the experimental drop evolution during spreading is directly reported and compared with previous works. Secondly, the emphasis is on the importance of the apparent dynamic contact angle for the prediction of the maximum spreading diameter. This achievement is manifested at low Reynolds numbers at which the matching between the experiment and the model is improved greatly.

  4. Effects of maximum aggregate size on UPV of brick aggregate concrete.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Tarek Uddin; Mahmood, Aziz Hasan

    2016-07-01

    Investigation was carried out to study the effects of maximum aggregate size (MAS) (12.5mm, 19.0mm, 25.0mm, 37.5mm, and 50.0mm) on ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of concrete. For investigation, first class bricks were collected and broken to make coarse aggregate. The aggregates were tested for specific gravity, absorption capacity, unit weight, and abrasion resistance. Cylindrical concrete specimens were made with different sand to aggregate volume ratio (s/a) (0.40 and 0.45), W/C ratio (0.45, 0.50, and 0.55), and cement content (375kg/m(3) and 400kg/m(3)). The specimens were tested for compressive strength and Young's modulus. UPV through wet specimen was measured using Portable Ultrasonic Non-destructive Digital Indicating Tester (PUNDIT). Results indicate that the pulse velocity through concrete increases with an increase in MAS. Relationships between UPV and compressive strength; and UPV and Young's modulus of concrete are proposed for different maximum sizes of brick aggregate.

  5. Effect of Modified Widman Flap Surgery on Maximum Molar Bite Force: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yaghini, Jaber; Manesh, Vahid Sakhaei; Janbakhsh, Noushin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of modified Widman flap (MWF) surgery (as a periodontal treatment procedure) on maximum bite force (MBF; as an indicator of patient function). Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 24 patients were examined for their MBF before and at one, four and eight weeks after their MWF surgery. These recordings along with the patients’ demographics were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA at a significance level of 0.05. Results: Males had a significantly higher MBF than female patients. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in MBF among the four time points (P<0.001) in each gender group. The MBFs recorded at baseline, and at four and eight weeks were not significantly different (P=0.148). Also, MBF showed a slight increase in male patients while it decreased in females over time. Conclusions: The MWF surgery does not eventually decrease patients’ MBF, which is a relief for patients. This procedure is therefore advised in order to save the maximum number of teeth as it remains the most significant factor determining MBF. However, this surgery has more favorable results in male patients. At four weeks after surgery, the patients will regain their baseline bite force. PMID:28127331

  6. Effects of simulated weightlessness and sympathectomy on maximum VO2 of male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, C. R.; Stump, C. S.; Beaulieu, S. M.; Rahman, Z.; Sebastian, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of simulated weightlessness (hind-limb suspension) and chemical sympathectomy (by repeated injections with guanethidine sulfate) on the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of female rats were investigated in rats assigned for 14 days to one of three groups: a head-down hind-limb suspension, a horizontal suspension with hind limbs weight bearing, or the caged control. The VO2 max values were assessed by having rats run on a treadmill enclosed in an airtight chamber. The hind-limb-suspended sympathectomized rats were found to exhibit shorter run times and lower mechanical efficiencies, compared to their presuspension values or the values from saline-injected suspended controls. On the other hand, the suspended sympathectomized rats did not demonstrate a decrease in the VO2 max values that was observed in saline-injected controls.

  7. Experimental study of the maximum resolution and packing density achievable in sintered and non-sintered binder-jet 3D printed steel microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Benedict, Michael; Kiggans Jr, James O

    2015-01-01

    Developing high resolution 3D printed metallic microchannels is a challenge especially when there is an essential need for high packing density of the primary material. While high packing density could be achieved by heating the structure to the sintering temperature, some heat sensitive applications require other strategies to improve the packing density of primary materials. In this study the goal is to develop high green or pack densities microchannels on the scale of 2-300 microns which have a robust mechanical structure. Binder-jet 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which droplets of binder are deposited via inkjet into a bed of powder. By repeatedly spreading thin layers of powder and depositing binder into the appropriate 2D profiles, complex 3D objects can be created one layer at time. Microchannels with features on the order of 500 microns were fabricated via binder jetting of steel powder and then sintered and/or infiltrated with a secondary material. The average particle size of the steel powder was varied along with the droplet volume of the inkjet-deposited binder. The resolution of the process, packing density of the primary material, the subsequent features sizes of the microchannels, and the overall microchannel quality were characterized as a function of particle size distribution, droplet sizes and heat treatment temperatures.

  8. Effect of Tax Ratification Elections on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groppel, Lance

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact a Tax Ratification Election has on student achievement in Texas. Texas schools continue to struggle with shrinking budgets and increasing standards of student achievement (Equity Center, 2011). This study will provide greater insight into whether school districts that have completed a TRE have created a…

  9. AchieveNJ and Its Effects on Hiring Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinotti, Gina; Gutmore, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The study described the influence, if any, AchieveNJ might have on superintendents' hiring decisions of principals. According to superintendents, there is not one accepted standard in principal leadership characteristics, although there are commonalities regarding traits associated with improving student achievement. The significance of this study…

  10. The Effect of Integrating Interactive Whiteboards on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sheila Denise

    2012-01-01

    While it is known that instructional technology improves academic achievement, there is little research about the integration of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) during Success For All (SFA) reading instruction. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in reading achievement between third…

  11. Flipping College Algebra: Effects on Student Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichinose, Cherie; Clinkenbeard, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study compared student engagement and achievement levels between students enrolled in a traditional college algebra lecture course and students enrolled in a "flipped" course. Results showed that students in the flipped class had consistently higher levels of achievement throughout the course than did students in the traditional…

  12. The Effects of National Board Certification on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Shawn Berry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between National Board Certification and student achievement in mathematics and reading as measured by an achievement test used in South Carolina. Using the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measures of Academic Progress (MAP), the study examined the RIT (Rasch Unit) scores of third…

  13. The Effect of Constructivist Mathematics on Achievement in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Michael; Watkins, Sandra; Montalvo, Greg

    2012-01-01

    International assessment data indicate American students are not competing with their counterparts in other countries. The mathematics curriculum and pedagogy are not preparing students to compete in a global economy. This study compared student achievement using sixth grade mathematics results from the Illinois Standards Achievement Test.…

  14. The Effects of Instructional Practices on Computation and Geometry Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVaney, Thomas A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between classroom instructional practices and computation and geometry achievement. Relationships between mathematics achievement and classroom characteristics were also explored. The sample of 1,032 students and their teachers (n=147) was selected from the 1992 Trial State Mathematics…

  15. Using Student Achievement Data Effectively to Inform Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunns, Sandra D.

    2012-01-01

    The use of student achievement data to improve teaching and learning is a national concern driven by accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002. Research studies that examine how schools use student achievement data document the need for teachers to connect data to instructional practices. Bruner's social constructivist…

  16. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD FOREGROUND CLEANING FOR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIMETERS IN THE PRESENCE OF SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, C.; Hanany, S.; Baccigalupi, C.; Gold, B.; Jaffe, A.; Stompor, R.

    2016-03-01

    We extend a general maximum likelihood foreground estimation for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data to include estimation of instrumental systematic effects. We focus on two particular effects: frequency band measurement uncertainty and instrumentally induced frequency dependent polarization rotation. We assess the bias induced on the estimation of the B-mode polarization signal by these two systematic effects in the presence of instrumental noise and uncertainties in the polarization and spectral index of Galactic dust. Degeneracies between uncertainties in the band and polarization angle calibration measurements and in the dust spectral index and polarization increase the uncertainty in the extracted CMB B-mode power, and may give rise to a biased estimate. We provide a quantitative assessment of the potential bias and increased uncertainty in an example experimental configuration. For example, we find that with 10% polarized dust, a tensor to scalar ratio of r = 0.05, and the instrumental configuration of the E and B experiment balloon payload, the estimated CMB B-mode power spectrum is recovered without bias when the frequency band measurement has 5% uncertainty or less, and the polarization angle calibration has an uncertainty of up to 4°.

  17. Effect of nuclear saturation parameters on a possible maximum mass of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotani, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    To systematically examine the possible maximum mass of neutron stars, which is one of the important properties characterizing the physics in high-density regions, I construct neutron star models by adopting phenomenological equations of state with various values of nuclear saturation parameters for low-density regions, which are connected to the equation of state for high-density regions characterized by the possible maximum sound velocity in medium. I derive an empirical formula for the possible maximum mass of neutron stars. If massive neutron stars are observed, it could be possible to get a constraint on the possible maximum sound velocity for high-density regions.

  18. The Effects of Solar Maximum on the Earth's Satellite Population and Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly approaching maximum of Solar Cycle 24 will have wide-ranging effects not only on the number and distribution of resident space objects, but also on vital aspects of space situational awareness, including conjunction assessment processes. The best known consequence of high solar activity is an increase in the density of the thermosphere, which, in turn, increases drag on the vast majority of objects in low Earth orbit. The most prominent evidence of this is seen in a dramatic increase in space object reentries. Due to the massive amounts of new debris created by the fragmentations of Fengyun-1C, Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 during the recent period of Solar Minimum, this effect might reach epic levels. However, space surveillance systems are also affected, both directly and indirectly, historically leading to an increase in the number of lost satellites and in the routine accuracy of the calculation of their orbits. Thus, at a time when more objects are drifting through regions containing exceptionally high-value assets, such as the International Space Station and remote sensing satellites, their position uncertainties increase. In other words, as the possibility of damaging and catastrophic collisions increases, our ability to protect space systems is degraded. Potential countermeasures include adjustments to space surveillance techniques and the resetting of collision avoidance maneuver thresholds.

  19. Maximum Time of the Effect of Antileukotriene - Zileuton in Treatment of Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Morina, Naim; Boçari, Gëzim; Iljazi, Ali; Hyseini, Kadir; Halac, Gunay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maximum time of the effect of antileukotriene substances - Zileuton in the treatment of patients with bronchial asthma and increased bronchial reactivity and of the salbutamol as agonist of the beta2 adrenergic receptor studied in this work. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was calculated. Zileuton (Zyflo, tbl. 600 mg), producer Cornerstone Therapeutics, USA was used in the research. Results: Results of this research, in patients with bronchial asthma, indicate that antileukotriene substances–Zileuton administered in a dose of 600 mg first day (oral route of administration 4 × 1 tbl.) has not caused significant decrease of the specific resistance of the airways (SRaw) (p value 0.1 > Alpha 0.05), whereas Zileuton administered two days in a row, in a dose of 600 mg (4 × 1 tbl. a day), has caused significant decrease of the specific resistance of the airways (SRaw) (P value 0.03 < Alpha 0.05). Effect of the control with salbutamol (beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist) is efficient in the removal of the increased bronchomotor tone, causing significant decrease of the resistance (Raw), respectively of the specific resistance (SRaw), (p value 0.05 = Alpha 0.05). Conclusion: Formation of leukotrienes depends on the lypoxygenation of the arachidonic acid by 5-lypoxygenase. Zileuton is an active and powerful inhibitor of the activity of 5- lypoxygenase and as such inhibits generation of its products. Consequently, besides inhibition of cys-LTs’, zileuton also inhibits the formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which is a powerful chemotactic of other eicosanoids too, which depend on the synthesis of lekotriene A4 (LTA4). This suggests that the effect of antileukotrienes (Zileuton) is not immediate after oral administration, but the powerful effect of the Zileuton seen only after two days of inhibition of cys-LTs’, and inhibition of leukotriene B4 (LTB4

  20. Summary of Available Data Relating to Reynolds Number Effects on the Maximum Lift Coefficients of Swept-Back Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweberg, Harold H.; Lange, Roy H.

    1947-01-01

    The available foreign and American data relating to Reynolds number effects on the maximum lift coefficients of swept-back wings are summarized and discussed. The data show that at low Reynolds numbers (below about 2.0 x 10(exp 6)) higher maximum lift coefficients were measured in most cases for moderately swept-back wings than for unswept wings of similar plan form; at high Reynolds numbers, however, increasing sweepback resulted in decreasing maximum lift coefficients. A smaller rate of increase of the maximum lift coefficient with Reynolds number was measured for the swept-back wings than for similar unswept wings in the critical range of Reynolds number. Increasing the Reynolds number resulted in decreases in the maximum lift coefficients of the two wings of approximately triangular plan form that were investigated.

  1. Effects of cochlear implants on children's reading and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should be associated with higher reading and academic achievement. This review, however, reveals that although there are clear benefits of cochlear implantation to achievement in young deaf children, empirical results have been somewhat variable. Examination of the literature with regard to reading achievement suggests that the lack of consistent findings might be the result of frequent failures to control potentially confounding variables such as age of implantation, language skills prior to implantation, reading ability prior to implantation, and consistency of implant use. Studies of academic achievement beyond reading are relatively rare, and the extent to which performance in such domains is mediated by reading abilities or directly influenced by hearing, language, and speech remains unclear. Considerations of methodological shortcomings in existing research as well as theoretical and practical questions yet to be addressed provide direction for future research.

  2. Analysis on the effect of geometrical design parameters on maximum shear stresses in an electromagnetic micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Halhouli, A. T.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the concept of recently introduced electromagnetic pump has been presented. This pump has been proposed for pumping biomedical fluids carrying particles sensitive to shear stresses. Its working concept depends on controlling the rotation of two pistons placed in a circular channel in opposing polarity under the influence of a moving electromagnetic field. Analytical and numerical investigations on the effect of pump geometrical parameters on shear stresses at different boundary conditions are performed. The geometrical parameters include: channel aspect ratio (channel width to height) and channel radius ratio (inner to outer radius). Non-dimensional simple analytical shear stress expressions that are valid for a wide range of geometrical design parameters and variety of fluids are derived. CFD simulations have been used to verify the analytical expressions within the range of studied parameters. Obtained results showed that the analytical models predict the wall maximum shear stresses with an error less than 5% for w / h<=1.0 at high radius ratios and with an error less than10% for Ri / Ro >=0.3. These results help the designer in fabricating the micropump to be suitable for biomedical applications, where saving the particles carried in fluids from damage is of high importance.

  3. Acute effects of partial-body cryotherapy on isometric strength: maximum handgrip strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    De Nardi, M; Pizzigalli, L; Benis, R; Caffaro, F; Cremasco, M Micheletti

    2017-01-20

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a single partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) session on the maximum handgrip strength (JAMAR Hydraulic Hand dynamometer). Two hundred healthy adults were randomized into a PBC group and a control group (50 males and 50 females in each group). After the initial handgrip strength test (T0), the experimental group performed a 150 seconds session of PBC (temperature range between -130 and -160 °C), whilst the control group stayed in a thermo neutral room (22.0 ± 0.5 °C). Immediately after, both groups performed another handgrip strength test (T1). Data underlined that both groups showed an increase in handgrip strength values, especially the experimental group (Control: T0=39.48 kg, T1=40.01 kg; PBC: T0=39.61 kg, T1=41.34 kg). The analysis reported also a statistical effect related to gender (F=491.99, P<0.05), with females showing lower handgrip strength values compared with males (females=30.43 kg, males=52.27 kg). Findings provide the first evidence that a single session of PBC leads to the improvement of muscle strength in healthy people. The results of the study implies that PBC could be performed also before a training session or a sport competition, to increase hand isometric strength.

  4. Effects of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery on Gas Exchange and Breathing Pattern During Maximum Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Criner, Gerard J.; Belt, Patricia; Sternberg, Alice L.; Mosenifar, Zab; Make, Barry J.; Utz, James P.; Sciurba, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: The National Emphysema Treatment Trial studied lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for its effects on gas exchange, breathing pattern, and dyspnea during exercise in severe emphysema. Methods: Exercise testing was performed at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months. Minute ventilation (V̇e), tidal volume (Vt), carbon dioxide output (V̇co2), dyspnea rating, and workload were recorded at rest, 3 min of unloaded pedaling, and maximum exercise. Pao2, Paco2, pH, fraction of expired carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate were also collected in some subjects at these time points and each minute of testing. There were 1,218 patients enrolled in the study (mean [± SD] age, 66.6 ± 6.1 years; mean, 61%; mean FEV1, 0.77 ± 0.24 L), with 238 patients participating in this substudy (mean age, 66.1 ± 6.8 years; mean, 67%; mean FEV1, 0.78 ± 0.25 L). Results: At 6 months, LVRS patients had higher maximum V̇e (32.8 vs 29.6 L/min, respectively; p = 0.001), V̇co2, (0.923 vs 0.820 L/min, respectively; p = 0.0003), Vt (1.18 vs 1.07 L, respectively; p = 0.001), heart rate (124 vs 121 beats/min, respectively; p = 0.02), and workload (49.3 vs 45.1 W, respectively; p = 0.04), but less breathlessness (as measured by Borg dyspnea scale score) [4.4 vs 5.2, respectively; p = 0.0001] and exercise ventilatory limitation (49.5% vs 71.9%, respectively; p = 0.001) than medical patients. LVRS patients with upper-lobe emphysema showed a downward shift in Paco2 vs V̇co2 (p = 0.001). During exercise, LVRS patients breathed slower and deeper at 6 months (p = 0.01) and 12 months (p = 0.006), with reduced dead space at 6 months (p = 0.007) and 24 months (p = 0.006). Twelve months after patients underwent LVRS, dyspnea was less in patients with upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.001) and non–upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.007). Conclusion: During exercise following LVRS, patients with severe emphysema improve carbon dioxide elimination and dead space, breathe slower and deeper, and report less dyspnea

  5. The effects of creatine monohydrate loading on anaerobic performance and one-repetition maximum strength.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Jorge M; Housh, Terry J; Camic, Clayton L; Hendrix, C Russell; Mielke, Michelle; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J; Schmidt, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 7 days of supplementation with 20 g·d⁻¹ of creatine monohydrate (CM) on mean power (MP) and peak power (PP) from the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), body weight (BW), 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bilateral leg extension (LE) strength, and 1RM bench press (BP) strength. This study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Twenty-two men (mean ± SD: age = 22.1 ± 2.0 years; height = 178.0 ± 5.8 cm; body weight [BW] = 77.6 ± 7.6 kg) were randomly assigned to either a supplement (SUPP; n = 10) or placebo (PLAC; n = 12) group. The SUPP group ingested 20 g·d⁻¹ of CM powder for 7 days, whereas the PLAC ingested 20 g·d⁻¹ of maltodextrin powder. Measurements for the PLAC and SUPP groups included BW, PP, and MP from two 30-second WAnTs (separated by 7 minutes), and 1RM strength for LE and BP. Testing was conducted before (PRE) and after (POST) 7 days of ingesting either the supplement or placebo. The results of this study indicated that there was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase from PRE to POST testing in MP for the SUPP group (5.4%) but not for the PLAC group (-0.3%). There were no between-group differences, however, for 1RM LE and 1RM BP strength. Furthermore, there were no changes in PP or BW for either group. The findings of this study indicated that loading with 20 g·d⁻¹ of CM for 7 days increased MP (5.4% increase) from the WAnT, but it had no effect on strength (1RM LE and 1RM BP), PP, or BW.

  6. Estimating the Effect of Competition on Trait Evolution Using Maximum Likelihood Inference.

    PubMed

    Drury, Jonathan; Clavel, Julien; Manceau, Marc; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-07-01

    Many classical ecological and evolutionary theoretical frameworks posit that competition between species is an important selective force. For example, in adaptive radiations, resource competition between evolving lineages plays a role in driving phenotypic diversification and exploration of novel ecological space. Nevertheless, current models of trait evolution fit to phylogenies and comparative data sets are not designed to incorporate the effect of competition. The most advanced models in this direction are diversity-dependent models where evolutionary rates depend on lineage diversity. However, these models still treat changes in traits in one branch as independent of the value of traits on other branches, thus ignoring the effect of species similarity on trait evolution. Here, we consider a model where the evolutionary dynamics of traits involved in interspecific interactions are influenced by species similarity in trait values and where we can specify which lineages are in sympatry. We develop a maximum likelihood based approach to fit this model to combined phylogenetic and phenotypic data. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the approach accurately estimates the simulated parameter values across a broad range of parameter space. Additionally, we develop tools for specifying the biogeographic context in which trait evolution occurs. In order to compare models, we also apply these biogeographic methods to specify which lineages interact sympatrically for two diversity-dependent models. Finally, we fit these various models to morphological data from a classical adaptive radiation (Greater Antillean Anolis lizards). We show that models that account for competition and geography perform better than other models. The matching competition model is an important new tool for studying the influence of interspecific interactions, in particular competition, on phenotypic evolution. More generally, it constitutes a step toward a better integration of interspecific

  7. Effect of a Laptop Initiative on Middle School Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Edna Earl White

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of No Child Left Behind, schools continue to be evaluated according to standardized test results. Researchers suggest that technology can assist students with development and school achievement. While laptop initiative (LI) technology was being implemented by South Carolina districts in the middle schools classrooms, educational…

  8. Possible Effects of Early Childhood Music on Mathematical Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geoghegan, Noel; Mitchelmore, Michael

    Assuming that young children's involvement in music programs provides a conceptual foundation for subjects such as mathematics, this study examined the impact of music education on mathematics achievement in preschool children. A pseudo-experimental design was used in which 35 preschool children involved in a music program treatment were compared…

  9. Improving Literacy Achievement: An Effective Approach to Continuous Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent searching for programs and strategic plans that will prove to be the panacea for improving literacy achievement. With all of the experimental and researched programs implemented in school districts, the overall results are still at a minimum and many improvement gains have been short term. This book focuses on…

  10. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  11. An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taik

    2010-01-01

    The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in…

  12. Student Achievement as a Measure of Instructor Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsch, Joseph E.; And Others

    Using an eight-day hydraulics maintenance course taught by 121 instructors on a regular basis to classes of about 14 students using the same classrooms and materials, the Air Force conducted a study designed to determine instructor measures which correlate with, and are therefore predictive of, student achievement. The study report first discusses…

  13. An Analysis of Alternative School Effectiveness on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moger, Scott Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis investigating student achievement, attendance rates, grade point average and credit earned by at-risk students attending an alternative high school of choice, at-risk students attending a traditional high school and at-risk students attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Placement Campus within the same…

  14. The Effect of Metacognitive Scaffolds on Low Achievers' Laboratory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sufen; Huang, Chih-Chi; Chou, Te-Lien

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the influence of experimental goal setting and planning on the attitudes toward science, self-efficacy, inquiry performance, and achievement of students with low academic performance. A total of 71 students aged 16-18 were randomly divided into a treatment group (with goal setting and planning) and a control group (without goal…

  15. The Psychological Effect of Pet-Ownership on Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamtil, Rosemary

    A study examined the possible influence that pets may have on children's reading achievement. Subjects, 61 students from three third-grade classes in an urban school, completed a questionnaire about pet ownership. Responses were compiled and score values established to recognize the length of time the child had owned the pet and how much…

  16. Teacher Effects on Student Achievement and Height: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Corcoran, Sean P.; Domina, Thurston; Penner, Emily K.

    2014-01-01

    The growing availability of data linking students to classroom teachers has made it possible to estimate the contribution teachers make to student achievement. While there is a growing consensus that teacher quality is important and current evaluation systems are inadequate, many have expressed concerns over the use of value-added measures (VAMs)…

  17. The Effects of Podcasting on College Student Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francom, Jeff; Ryan, Thomas G.; Kariuki, Mumbi

    2011-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, weekly podcasts written and recorded by course instructors to summarize college course content, were used to study the impact, if any, on student achievement and attitudes. Specifically, weekly summative podcasts were posted on an Internet website in Windows Media format and downloaded by college students. After 4…

  18. Using Podcasts to Replace Lecture: Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Lubke, Jennifer K.; Beard, Jeffrey L.; Britt, Virginia G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined achievement when podcasts were used in place of lecture in the core technology course required for all students seeking teacher licensure at a large research-intensive university in the Southeastern United States. Further, it examined the listening preferences of the podcast group and the barriers to podcast use. The results…

  19. On the Effect of Learning Style on Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Rahmatullah; Bart, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the influence of learning styles on scholastic achievement levels. The participants in this study were undergraduate students studying social sciences at a Division 1 research university. The frequencies of the participants in the four learning style categories are the following: Convergent ("n"…

  20. Magnet Schools and Peers: Effects on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Dale

    2007-01-01

    I estimate the impact of attending a magnet school on student achievement in mathematics in a moderately large Southern district. Admission to magnet schools is through lotteries. Actual attendance by lottery winners is of course voluntary. I use lottery outcomes as instruments to control for bias due to self-selection of enrollees. Because…

  1. Spatial Dependency and Contextual Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlock, Ki; Song, Joon Jin; Goering, Christian Z.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of district-related variables on a district's academic performance. Arkansas augmented benchmark examination scores were used to measure a district's scholastic achievement. Spatial analysis fit each district's performance to its geographical location; spatial autocorrelation measured the amount of influence…

  2. Laboratory Control System's Effects on Student Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicek, Fatma Gozalan; Taspinar, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The current study investigates whether the learning environment designed based on the laboratory control system affects the academic achievement, the attitude toward the learning-teaching process and the retention of the students in computer education. Purpose of Study: The study aims to identify the laboratory control system…

  3. Response to Intervention (RTI) Effectiveness in Kindergarten Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether kindergarten-reading achievement could be increased by implementing Response to Intervention (RtI) strategies. Kindergarten children (N = 290) who were identified as at-risk for reading difficulties were assigned to receive intervention through a) small reading groups (SRG), b)…

  4. Classroom Effects on Children's Achievement Trajectories in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C.; Belsky, Jay; Vandergrift, Nathan; Houts, Renate; Morrison, Fred J.

    2008-01-01

    This nonexperimental, longitudinal field study examines the extent to which variation in observed classroom supports (quality of emotional and instructional interactions and amount of exposure to literacy and math activities) predicts trajectories of achievement in reading and math from 54 months to fifth grade. Growth mixture modeling detected…

  5. Formal Teacher Competence and Its Effect on Pupil Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…

  6. Depressive Mood and Social Maladjustment: Differential Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…

  7. The Effects of Playing Educational Video Games on Kindergarten Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Feng S.; Calao, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether kindergarten students who played Sony PlayStation educational video games for 40 minutes daily for 11 weeks learned better than peers who did not play such games. Found that the experimental group gained significantly more than the control group in spelling and decoding on the Wide Range Achievement Test-R3. Found no…

  8. EFFECTS OF DOMINANCE AND CONTROL ON READING ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOOS, ROBERT W.; HILLERICH, ROBERT L.

    TWO DISPARATE STUDIES WERE REPLICATED WITH A PUBLIC SCHOOL POPULATION USED BY HILLERICH IN A 4-YEAR STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HANDEDNESS AND EYEDNESS. SUBJECTS WERE 273 SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADERS WHO REMAINED FROM AN ORIGINAL POPULATION OF 400. TESTS WERE ADMINISTERED TO DETERMINE EYE DOMINANCE, HANDEDNESS, CONTROLLING EYE, READING ACHIEVEMENT,…

  9. The Effects of Class Size on Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research was to study the relationship between class size and students' academic achievement. Citywide language arts and math test scores for third and fifth grade students in four New York City public schools were examined using a variety of variables including (a) gender, (b) ethnicity, (c) grade…

  10. The Effect of Preschool on Reading Achievement among Kindergarten Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Reisha Monique

    2013-01-01

    As early childhood education continues to move to the forefront of public policy debate, more attention is being paid to early literacy. Strickland and Riley-Ayers (2006) indicated that early literacy and early learning opportunities play a vital role in academic achievement. This study invested whether there were statistically significant…

  11. The Effects of Math Intervention on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulichnie, Staci

    2015-01-01

    Within diverse classrooms, sometimes teachers need extra assistance to reach all students. This quantitative research design was used to determine the affects of math intervention on student achievement. Students in this study were selected by their "Not Met" PASS scores from their 3rd grade year. A survey assessing student attitudes…

  12. Achieve Maximum Band Performance from Minimal Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudgers, Gregory B.

    1984-01-01

    Suggestions are made to help music teachers with limited resources, such as a low budget, poor quality instruments, and small amounts of rehearsal time, develop a band that provides quality performance. Suggestions include properly maintaining student-model instruments and designing a lesson format for a private lesson and using it in group…

  13. Achieving Maximum Integration Utilizing Requirements Flow Down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archiable, Wes; Askins, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A robust and experienced systems engineering team is essential for a successful program. It is often a challenge to build a core systems engineering team early enough in a program to maximize integration and assure a common path for all supporting teams in a project. Ares I was no exception. During the planning of IVGVT, the team had many challenges including lack of: early identification of stakeholders, team training in NASA s system engineering practices, solid requirements flow down and a top down documentation strategy. The IVGVT team started test planning early in the program before the systems engineering framework had been matured due to an aggressive schedule. Therefore the IVGVT team increased their involvement in the Constellation systems engineering effort. Program level requirements were established that flowed down to IVGVT aligning all stakeholders to a common set of goals. The IVGVT team utilized the APPEL REQ Development Management course providing the team a NASA focused model to follow. The IVGVT team engaged directly with the model verification and validation process to assure that a solid set of requirements drove the need for the test event. The IVGVT team looked at the initial planning state, analyzed the current state and then produced recommendations for the ideal future state of a wide range of systems engineering functions and processes. Based on this analysis, the IVGVT team was able to produce a set of lessons learned and to provide suggestions for future programs or tests to use in their initial planning phase.

  14. The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Hillman, C H; Pontifex, M B; Raine, L B; Castelli, D M; Hall, E E; Kramer, A F

    2009-03-31

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan.

  15. Effect of language of instruction on physics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kwok K.

    This study investigated the relationship between physics achievement and language of instruction in a situation where instruction was in the second language of both students and teachers. One hundred and seventy-six grade ten physics students (first language was Chinese) were selected from four classes of two secondary schools in Hong Kong. For three months (with four lessons per week), two classes of students learned the content material (light and sound) in Chinese and two classes learned the material in English. Group differences were controlled by using individual aptitude scores as covariates in the analysis. There were no differences in achievement, students' motivation, and effort spent in physics in that controlled teaching period. This was probably because the Anglo-Chinese group was sufficiently proficient in English so they did not encounter additional difficulty in learning physics when compared with the Chinese group.

  16. Joint Targeting: Achieving Effects in an Uncertain Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    evolved into the first Joint Target Group , which possessed the single point responsibility for the collection and analysis of all intelligence data...Office of Air Force History, 1986) 21-22. 7 Targeting Group did not always achieve success. The nomination of major industrial production...East Command assumed responsibility for targeting in Korea and established the General Headquarters Target Group . The General Headquarters Target

  17. Effect of Maximum Momentum on Quantum Mechanical Scattering and Bound States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Chee-Leong; Parwani, Rajesh R.

    2013-05-01

    We construct the exact position representation for a deformed (non-relativistic) quantum mechanics which exhibits an intrinsic maximum momentum and use it to study problems such as a particle in a box and an asymmetric well. In particular, we show that unlike usual quantum mechanics, the present deformed case delays the formation of bound states in a finite potential well, a distinguishing feature that might be relevant for empirical investigations. We also contrast our results with the string-motivated type of deformed quantum mechanics which incorporates a minimum position uncertainty rather than a maximum momentum.

  18. Imagining Success: Multiple Achievement Goals and the Effectiveness of Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Blankert, Tim; Hamstra, Melvyn R. W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Imagery (richly imagining carrying out a task successfully) is a popular performance-enhancement tool in many domains. This experiment sought to test whether pursuing two achievement goals (vs. one) benefits performance after an imagery exercise. We examined mastery goals (aiming to improve skill level) and performance goals (aiming to outperform others) among 65 tennis players who were assigned to a mastery goal condition, a performance goal condition, or a mastery goal and performance goal condition. After reading instructions for a service task, which included the goal manipulation, participants completed 20 tennis services. They then completed an imagery exercise and, finally, completed another 20 services. Postimagery service performance was better in the dual-goal condition than in the other conditions. PMID:28366970

  19. Forbearance for fluoxetine: do monoaminergic antidepressants require a number of years to reach maximum therapeutic effect in humans?

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    It is of high clinical interest to better understand the timecourse through which psychiatric drugs produce their beneficial effects. While a rough estimate of the time lag between initiating monoaminergic antidepressant therapy and the onset of therapeutic effect in depressed subjects is two weeks, much less is known about when these drugs reach maximum effect. This paper briefly examines studies that directly address this question through long-term antidepressant administration to humans, while also putting forth a simple theoretical approach for estimating the time required for monoaminergic antidepressants to reach maximum therapeutic effect in humans. The theory invokes a comparison between speed of antidepressant drug response in humans and in rodents, focusing on the apparently greater speed in rodents. The principal argument is one of proportions, comparing earliest effects of these drugs in rodents and humans, versus their time to reach maximum effect in these organisms. If the proportionality hypothesis is even coarsely accurate, then applying these values or to some degree their ranges to the hypothesis, may suggest that monoaminergic antidepressants require a number of years to reach maximum effect in humans, at least in some individuals.

  20. The Effect of Rate of Change of Angle of Attack on the Maximum Lift Coefficient of a Pursuit Airplane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-10-01

    The effect of rate of change of angle of attack on the maximum lift coefficient of a pursuit airplane equipped with a low-drag-type wing has been...lift coefficients were found to increase linearly with increasing rate of change of angle of attack per chord length of travel up to the maximum rate...indicated that the Mach and Reynolds numbers effects were of sufficient importance to produce more than a twofold variation in the increment of due to a given rate of change of angle of attack.

  1. The Effects of Web-Based/Non-Web-Based Problem-Solving Instruction and High/Low Achievement on Students' Problem-Solving Ability and Biology Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…

  2. The Effects of Teacher Entry Portals on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Purtell, Kelly M.; Bastian, Kevin C.; Fortner, C. Kevin; Thompson, Charles L.; Campbell, Shanyce L.; Patterson, Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    The current teacher workforce is younger, less experienced, more likely to turnover, and more diverse in preparation experiences than the workforce of two decades ago. Research shows that inexperienced teachers are less effective, but we know little about the effectiveness of teachers with different types of preparation. In this study, we classify…

  3. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  4. The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

  5. Teaching for All? Teach for America's Effects across the Distribution of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effect of Teach For America (TFA) on the distribution of student achievement in elementary school. It extends previous research by estimating quantile treatment effects (QTE) to examine how student achievement in TFA and non-TFA classrooms differs across the broader distribution of student achievement. It also updates…

  6. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions are explored. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement made by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  7. Effect of altered boundary conditions on GCM studies of the climate of the last glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, W.T.; Peltier, W.R.

    1993-05-21

    The authors address a problem discovered recently with global climate model results for the last glacial maximum. Bard, et. al. pointed out a mismatch in boundary conditions entered into the model. Ice sheet conditions were derived from CLIMAP based on a time 18000 radiocarbon years ago. It was assumed that radiocarbon and sidereal dates coincide. However it was recently shown that the sidereal data of the last glacial maximum is nearer 21kbp. The authors perform model calculations to attempt to evaluate the seriousness of this mismatch in terms of calculated results from the global climate model runs for the last glacial maximum. The authors find that one result of the timing mismatch is a sizable difference in northern hemisphere summer and Eurasian winter climates. These changes should have a major impact on circulation patterns in the GCM simulations. In addition new ice sheet model programs are available now which appear to improve on CLIMAP models. The authors urge that these GCM simulations be rerun.

  8. The Effect of Prior Knowledge and Gender on Physics Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Henderson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences on the Conceptual Survey in Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) have been extensively studied. Ten semesters (N=1621) of CSEM data is presented showing male students outperform female students on the CSEM posttest by 5 % (p < . 001). Male students also outperform female students on qualitative in-semester test questions by 3 % (p = . 004), but no significant difference between male and female students was found on quantitative test questions. Male students enter the class with superior prior preparation in the subject and score 4 % higher on the CSEM pretest (p < . 001). If the sample is restricted to students with little prior knowledge who answer no more than 8 of the 32 questions correctly (N=822), male and female differences on the CSEM and qualitative test questions cease to be significant. This suggests no intrinsic gender bias exists in the CSEM itself and that gender differences are the result of prior preparation measured by CSEM pretest score. Gender differences between male and female students increase with pretest score. Regression analyses are presented to further explore interactions between preparation, gender, and achievement.

  9. Effects of Progress Monitoring Feedback on Early Literacy Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopuch, Jeremy Jon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of diagnostic formative assessment feedback on early literacy skills. The participants were 12 first-grade general education teachers and 51 of their students who were assigned to the following treatments, diagnostic feedback and skills feedback (control) which lasted for 10 weeks. During the…

  10. Social Status Effects on Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Eric

    To determine short-run effects of experimentally imposed leadership roles, a sample of 221 Boy Scouts (aged 10 to 17) was formed into (usually) 4-man teams that competed in 3 skill games. One member of each team was randomly designated as captain, with power to administer and reward. Captains who were leaders in their troops responded to becoming…

  11. Assessing Teacher Quality: Understanding Teacher Effects on Instruction and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Recent educational reforms have promoted accountability systems which attempt to identify "teacher effects" on student outcomes and hold teachers accountable for producing learning gains. But in the complex world of classrooms, it may be difficult to attribute "success" or "failure" to teachers. In this timely…

  12. Effects of Jigsaw III Technique on Achievement in Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the Jigsaw III technique (of cooperative learning) with the instructional teacher-centered teaching method in six graders in terms of the effect of written expression on their academic success. The universe of the study consists of 71 sixth-grade students studying during 2009-2010 academic term in a…

  13. Colour and Light Effects on Students' Achievement, Behavior and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlfarth, H.

    A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used to investigate the effects of full-spectrum light, prescribed color and light/color combinations, ultra-violet light, and electromagnetic radiation in an elementary school environment. Four schools in the Wetaskiwin School District, Alberta, were involved in the study; three served…

  14. Effect of CAI on Achievement of LD Students in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivaram, R. T.; Ramar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental study was undertaken with three objectives in view, (i) to identify students with language learning disabilities (ii) to develop CAI software to teach LD students through computer-assisted instruction and (iii) to measure the effectiveness of CAI with special reference to LD students. Two matched groups of LD students were…

  15. Effects of Differentiated Instruction on Student Achievement in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Darryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Reading teachers are faced with the challenge of providing instruction to a population of diverse students with various abilities and styles of learning within local and state school districts. In an effort to improve student performance on high-stake examinations in reading, teachers continue to seek the most effective instructional strategies.…

  16. Effect of a Virtual Chemistry Laboratory on Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatli, Zeynep; Ayas, Alipasa

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that laboratory applications are of significant importance in chemistry education. However, laboratory applications have generally been neglected in recent educational environments for a variety of reasons. In order to address this gap, this study examined the effect of a virtual chemistry laboratory (VCL) on student achievement…

  17. The Effect of Kindergarten Entry Age on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buten, Nicole A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of kindergarten entry age on the scores of the eighth grade Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) math and reading scores, while controlling for the demographic variables of gender and socioeconomic status. The subjects included 1,197 students who participated in the randomized, long-term STAR (Student-Teacher…

  18. Effects of TRIAD on Mathematics Achievement: Long-Term Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Layzer, Carolyn; Unlu, Fatih; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine; Weiss, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although some research-based educational practices have shown promise, many fail to be implemented at a scale that affects more than a small proportion of children. Further, research on interventions for young children includes mixed results, with most documenting "fadeout" of effects after several years, but some showing lasting…

  19. The effect of maximum open height on operating characteristics of polymer injected pump poppet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. C.; Chen, X. D.; Deng, H. Y.

    2012-11-01

    Reciprocating polymer injected pump is the key injection equipment of tertiary oil recovery, the poppet valve in it exists the problem of large vibration noise, low efficiency and short life when transportation high viscosity medium. So the CFD technique is adopted to simulate and analyze the inner flow fields of fluid end poppet valve. According to the practical structure of the poppet valve, a simplified 2D axis-symmetry geometry model of the flow field is established. Combined with pump speed, plunger stroke and plunger diameter, given the boundary condition of the inlet valve, then the numerical simulation of flow field under six different maximum open heights is done depending on software Fluent. The relationship between open height to valve gap flow velocity, hydraulic loss and lag angle is obtained. The results indicate that, with the increase of open height, the valve gap flow velocity decreases, inlet outlet pressure differential decreases and hydraulic loss decreases. But the lag angle is continuously increasing with the increase of maximum open height, the valve has a good work performance when the open height is 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3mm, but when it reaches 3.5mm, the valve performance becomes poor. The study can offer certain reference to understand operating characteristics of poppet valve, help to reduce the hydraulic losses and raise volume efficiency of the pump.

  20. Peer effects on children's language achievement during pre-kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Mashburn, Andrew J; Justice, Laura M; Downer, Jason T; Pianta, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations between peers' expressive language abilities and children's development of receptive and expressive language among 1,812 four-year olds enrolled in 453 classrooms in 11 states that provide large-scale public pre-kindergarten (pre-k) programs. Higher peer expressive language abilities were positively associated with children's development of receptive and expressive language during pre-k. The positive association between peers' expressive language abilities and children's receptive language development was stronger for children who began pre-k with higher receptive language skills and within classrooms characterized by better classroom management. Implications of these findings for understanding ecological inputs to children's language development and for designing effective pre-k programs are discussed.

  1. Effect of the grain-size distribution on the maximum height of Plinian columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, F.; Carazzo, G.; Tait, S.; Ferrucci, F.; Kaminski, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject large amounts of gas and solid pyroclastic fragment in the atmosphere, that may cause health and transportation problems. A robust and accurate modeling of the transport of volcanic particles from the eruptive vent to the umbrella and their dispersion in the atmosphere is essential for risk assessment. A key aspect of the modeling is to establish a link between remote observations, made in near real-time, and the characteristics of the eruption later determined using field data (i.e. mass flux, eruption volume and distribution of the deposits). Knowledge of the grain-size distribution (GSD) of volcanic fragments injected into the atmosphere is important to interpret satellite measurements in terms of particle concentration. However, although the GSD is known to affect the dynamics of the volcanic plume, current models are based on average or maximum particle load only. We present here a 1D model of volcanic plume considering air entrainment and particles sedimentation at the plume edge, which is the first based on actual GSD determined from field deposits. GSD from various pyroclastic fall and flow deposits show that the number of particles N with radius R larger that r follows closely a power law relationship N(R>r) ∝ r-D, where the power law exponent D, between 3.0 and 3.9, fully characterizes the population of particles. Values of D larger than 3 correspond to a larger amount of fine ash particles compared to coarser fragments. The value of D reflects the efficiency of primary fragmentation at the fragmentation level, and the rate of subsequent production of fine ash particles in the conduit. The power law exponent D controls in turn the total amount of gas available in the volcanic mixture at the vent because the production of ash promotes gas released from the bubbly magma. The volcanic plume model shows that, for a given eruptive mass flux, values of D smaller than 3.3 at the vent can dramatically change the height

  2. Effects of Improvements in Interval Timing on the Mathematics Achievement of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on mathematics achievement. A total of 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grades completed pre- and posttest measures of mathematics achievement from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Students in the experimental group participated in a 4-week intervention…

  3. Heritability and Educational Policy: Genetic and Environmental Effects on IQ, Aptitude and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    The effects of family background on adolescents' IQ, aptitude, and school achievement test scores challenge some of the usual beliefs about the fairness of achievement rather than IQ tests, and the role of genetic differences among individuals and social class groups in academic achievements. Subjects included 115 adoptive families with adolescent…

  4. The Effects of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…

  5. Impatience versus achievement strivings in the Type A pattern: Differential effects on students' health and academic achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Pred, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychometric analyses of college students' responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey, a self-report measure of the Type A behavior pattern, revealed the presence of two relatively independent factors. Based on these analyses, two scales, labeled Achievement Strivings (AS) and Impatience and Irritability (II), were developed. In two samples of male and female college students, scores on AS but not on II were found to be significantly correlated with grade point average. Responses to a health survey, on the other hand, indicated that frequency of physical complaints was significantly correlated with II but not with AS. These results suggest that there are two relatively independent factors in the Type A pattern that have differential effects on performance and health. Future research on the personality factors related to coronary heart disease and other disorders might more profitably focus on the syndrome reflected in the II scale than on the Type A pattern.

  6. Thermal acclimation effects differ between voluntary, maximum, and critical swimming velocities in two cyprinid fishes.

    PubMed

    O'Steen, Shyril; Bennett, Albert F

    2003-01-01

    Temperature acclimation may be a critical component of the locomotor physiology and ecology of ectothermic animals, particularly those living in eurythermal environments. Several studies of fish report striking acclimation of biochemical and kinetic properties in isolated muscle. However, the relatively few studies of whole-animal performance report variable acclimation responses. We test the hypothesis that different types of whole-animal locomotion will respond differently to temperature acclimation, probably due to divergent physiological bases of locomotion. We studied two cyprinid fishes, tinfoil barbs (Puntius schwanenfeldii) and river barbels (Barbus barbus). Study fish were acclimated to either cold or warm temperatures for at least 6 wk and then assayed at four test temperatures for three types of swimming performance. We measured voluntary swimming velocity to estimate routine locomotor behavior, maximum fast start velocity to estimate anaerobic capacity, and critical swimming velocity to estimate primarily aerobic capacity. All three performance measures showed some acute thermal dependence, generally a positive correlation between swimming speed and test temperature. However, each performance measure responded quite differently to acclimation. Critical speeds acclimated strongly, maximum speeds not at all, and voluntary speeds uniquely in each species. Thus we conclude that long-term temperature exposure can have very different consequences for different types of locomotion, consistent with our hypothesis. The data also address previous hypotheses that predict that polyploid and eurythermal fish will have greater acclimation abilities than other fish, due to increased genetic flexibility and ecological selection, respectively. Our results conflict with these predictions. River barbels are eurythermal polyploids and tinfoil barbs stenothermal diploids, yet voluntary swimming acclimated strongly in tinfoil barbs and minimally in river barbels, and

  7. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Heros Ribeiro; Ferreira, Pamela Gill; Loures, João Paulo; Fernandes Filho, José; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio; Buck, Hudson Sousa; Montor, Wagner Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test), and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years' experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m). The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05) after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76), while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46) with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance.

  8. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Filho, José; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test), and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years’ experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m). The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05) after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76), while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46) with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance. PMID:27111088

  9. Variable selection models based on multiple imputation with an application for predicting median effective dose and maximum effect

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Y.; Datta, S.; Conklin, D.J.; Kong, M.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical methods for variable selection and prediction could be challenging when missing covariates exist. Although multiple imputation (MI) is a universally accepted technique for solving missing data problem, how to combine the MI results for variable selection is not quite clear, because different imputations may result in different selections. The widely applied variable selection methods include the sparse partial least-squares (SPLS) method and the penalized least-squares method, e.g. the elastic net (ENet) method. In this paper, we propose an MI-based weighted elastic net (MI-WENet) method that is based on stacked MI data and a weighting scheme for each observation in the stacked data set. In the MI-WENet method, MI accounts for sampling and imputation uncertainty for missing values, and the weight accounts for the observed information. Extensive numerical simulations are carried out to compare the proposed MI-WENet method with the other competing alternatives, such as the SPLS and ENet. In addition, we applied the MIWENet method to examine the predictor variables for the endothelial function that can be characterized by median effective dose (ED50) and maximum effect (Emax) in an ex-vivo phenylephrine-induced extension and acetylcholine-induced relaxation experiment. PMID:26412909

  10. The effects of early grade retention: Effect modification by prior achievement and age.

    PubMed

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the effects of early grade retention and different effects according to prior achievement and age. Within a population of children at risk of early retention, we compared the development throughout primary school in mathematics achievement after kindergarten retention, first-grade retention, and continuous promotion. Analyzing data from a large-scale longitudinal study using covariate balancing propensity score weighting, the findings revealed that early grade repeaters would score higher in mathematics if they were promoted each year instead. However, the effects diminished or even disappeared in the long term. Compared to kindergarten retention, first-grade retention was found to be more harmful for the mathematics development of younger children specifically.

  11. The Combined Effect of Teacher Effectiveness Characteristics on Value-Added Student Achievement in Junior High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadleigh, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic achievement in junior high mathematics is an ongoing mission for educational leaders. To achieve that undertaking, teacher effectiveness plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of teacher effectiveness on student achievement. The study was conducted in a suburban school district in…

  12. Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time.

    PubMed

    Franks, Peter J; Beerling, David J

    2009-06-23

    Stomatal pores are microscopic structures on the epidermis of leaves formed by 2 specialized guard cells that control the exchange of water vapor and CO(2) between plants and the atmosphere. Stomatal size (S) and density (D) determine maximum leaf diffusive (stomatal) conductance of CO(2) (g(c(max))) to sites of assimilation. Although large variations in D observed in the fossil record have been correlated with atmospheric CO(2), the crucial significance of similarly large variations in S has been overlooked. Here, we use physical diffusion theory to explain why large changes in S necessarily accompanied the changes in D and atmospheric CO(2) over the last 400 million years. In particular, we show that high densities of small stomata are the only way to attain the highest g(cmax) values required to counter CO(2)"starvation" at low atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. This explains cycles of increasing D and decreasing S evident in the fossil history of stomata under the CO(2) impoverished atmospheres of the Permo-Carboniferous and Cenozoic glaciations. The pattern was reversed under rising atmospheric CO(2) regimes. Selection for small S was crucial for attaining high g(cmax) under falling atmospheric CO(2) and, therefore, may represent a mechanism linking CO(2) and the increasing gas-exchange capacity of land plants over geologic time.

  13. Effects of achievement goal striving on well-being: the moderating role of the explicit achievement motive.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Langens, Thomas A; Brandstätter, Veronika

    2009-08-01

    This research is based on the theoretical conception of motives and goals as distinct motivational concepts. Previous research has demonstrated that discrepancies between implicit motives and goals have negative consequences for well-being. The authors have extended these findings to the explicit motive system, with four studies investigating the moderating role of the explicit achievement motive on the relationship between achievement goal striving and well-being. In line with their expectations, achievement goal striving was accompanied by high positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and a high number of positive affective experiences (Study 3) only when the explicit achievement motive was high. Longitudinal Study 4 showed that the interaction between the explicit achievement motive and achievement goal commitment predicts changes in subjective well-being and health measured over a 3-month period.

  14. Effects of diaphragmatic control on the assessment of sniff nasal inspiratory pressure and maximum relaxation rate

    PubMed Central

    Benício, Kadja; Dias, Fernando A. L.; Gualdi, Lucien P.; Aliverti, Andrea; Resqueti, Vanessa R.; Fregonezi, Guilherme A. F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of diaphragmatic activation control (diaphC) on Sniff Nasal-Inspiratory Pressure (SNIP) and Maximum Relaxation Rate of inspiratory muscles (MRR) in healthy subjects. METHOD: Twenty subjects (9 male; age: 23 (SD=2.9) years; BMI: 23.8 (SD=3) kg/m2; FEV1/FVC: 0.9 (SD=0.1)] performed 5 sniff maneuvers in two different moments: with or without instruction on diaphC. Before the first maneuver, a brief explanation was given to the subjects on how to perform the sniff test. For sniff test with diaphC, subjects were instructed to perform intense diaphragm activation. The best SNIP and MRR values were used for analysis. MRR was calculated as the ratio of first derivative of pressure over time (dP/dtmax) and were normalized by dividing it by peak pressure (SNIP) from the same maneuver. RESULTS: SNIP values were significantly different in maneuvers with and without diaphC [without diaphC: -100 (SD=27.1) cmH2O/ with diaphC: -72.8 (SD=22.3) cmH2O; p<0.0001], normalized MRR values were not statistically different [without diaphC: -9.7 (SD=2.6); with diaphC: -8.9 (SD=1.5); p=0.19]. Without diaphC, 40% of the sample did not reach the appropriate sniff criteria found in the literature. CONCLUSION: Diaphragmatic control performed during SNIP test influences obtained inspiratory pressure, being lower when diaphC is performed. However, there was no influence on normalized MRR. PMID:26578254

  15. Effects of lifting tempo on one repetition maximum and hormonal responses to a bench press protocol.

    PubMed

    Headley, Samuel A; Henry, Kelley; Nindl, Bradley C; Thompson, Brian A; Kraemer, William J; Jones, Margaret T

    2011-02-01

    This study was carried out in 2 parts: part 1 was designed to measure the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press with 2 different moderate-velocity tempos (2/0/2) vs. (2/0/4) in male lifters while part 2 compared the hormonal responses at the same tempos as described in part 1. In both parts 1 and 2, the 1RMs (lbs) were higher on the 2/0/2 tempo than on the 2/0/4 tempo. The change in plasma volume (PV) was greater after the 2/0/4 tempo (-5.7 ± 1.7% vs. 0.96 ± 1.2%, p < 0.05). All blood parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) higher post-exercise compared with baseline. With PV corrected, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (ng·mL⁻¹) was higher with the 2/0/2 tempo only (pre-exercise: 277.4 ± 21.8, post-exercise: 308.1 ± 22.9; 2/0/4 tempo pre-exercise: 277.2 ± 17.6, post-exercise: 284.8 ± 21.2). In conclusion, heavier loads can be lifted and more total work can be performed using a (2/0/2) tempo compared with a slower (2/0/4) tempo, but with the exception of IGF-1, the hormonal responses are similar. Individuals may get the same metabolic responses to training by using different tempos, but they will need to use less weight at a slower tempo.

  16. The Effect of General Objectives Defined by Behavioral Objectives on Achievement in a College Zoology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushin, John W.; Baller, William

    1981-01-01

    Tests the effect of developmental level objectives on student achievement and efficiency in a zoology course. These objectives were found to have no significant effect on achievement, but they did significantly increase student efficiency in learning the content material of the module. (Author)

  17. Government Efficiency and Effectiveness: Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-14

    Other Financial Benefits Statement of Gene L. Dodaro Comptroller General of the United States Testimony Before the Committee on Oversight and...Efficiency and Effectiveness: Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...GOVERNMENT EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits Why

  18. Combining Cooperative Learning and Individualized Instruction: Effects on Student Mathematics Achievement, Attitudes, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes two studies investigating the effects of Team-Assisted Individualization (TAI), a combination of cooperative learning and individually programed instruction, on third-, fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students' achievement, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that the TAI approach had positive effects on mathematics achievement,…

  19. Class Size Effects on Fourth-Grade Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Class size reduction policies have been widely implemented around the world in recent years. However, findings about the effects of class size on student achievement have been mixed. This study examines class size effects on fourth-grade mathematics achievement in 14 European countries using data from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and…

  20. An Application Model of Reality Therapy to Develop Effective Achievement Goals in Tier Three Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunawan; Xiong, Junmei

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an application of reality therapy to developing effective achievement goals for students in tier three of a tiered response to intervention approach. The roles of teachers and school counselors, to improve effective achievement goals, are briefly discussed as a frame for applying reality therapy. The application model…

  1. Effect of Personalization of Instruction on Students' Achievement and Self-Efficacy in Mathematics Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinsola, Mojeed K.; Awofala, Adeneye O. A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of personalized print-based instruction on the achievement and self-efficacy regarding mathematics word problems of 320 senior secondary students in Nigeria. The moderator effect of gender was also examined on independent variable (personalization) and dependent variables (mathematics word problem achievement and…

  2. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  3. The Effect of Direct Instruction Model on Intermediate Class Achievement and Attitudes toward English Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousar, Rubina

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the direct instruction model on intermediate class achievement and attitudes toward English grammar. It was an experimental study and the purpose was to explore the relative effectiveness of instructional methodology (independent variable) on students' achievement and attitude (dependent…

  4. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  5. Effects of Bilingual Instruction on English Academic Achievement of LEP Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham-Massey, Laurie; Pina, Marilyn

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effects of bilingual instruction on English academic achievement of limited English proficient (LEP) students. Finds that bilingual education is an effective instructional program for LEP students. (MG)

  6. Effect of maximum torque according to the permanent magnet configuration of a brushless dc motor with concentrated winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kab-Jae; Kim, Sol; Lee, Ju; Oh, Jae-Eung

    2003-05-01

    A brushless dc (BLDC) motor, which has a permanent magnet (PM) component, is a potential candidate for hybrid or electric vehicle applications. Minimizing the BLDC motor size is an important requirement for application. This requirement is usually satisfied by adopting a high performance permanent magnet or improved winding methods. The PM configuration is also a critical point in design. This article presents the effect of the PM configuration on motor performance, especially the maximum torque. Four representative BLDC motor types are analytically investigated under the condition that the volume of the PM and magnetic material is constant. An embedded interior permanent magnet motor has the best torque performance the maximum torque of which is more than 1.5 times larger than that of the surface mounted permanent magnet motor. The performance of back electromotive force, instantaneous torques is also investigated.

  7. Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Economic Effects Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes the 1966 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act and summarizes the findings of three 1969 studies of the economic effects of these amendments. The studies found that economic growth continued through the third phase of the amendments, beginning February 1, 1969, despite increased wage and hours restrictions for recently…

  8. The Effect of Achievement Goals on Moral Attitudes in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo; Silva, Manuel J Coelho e; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Cumming, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the hypothesis that achievement goal orientations will predict sportpersonship attitudes among young athletes, namely that task orientation will predict socially positive attitudes and ego orientation will predict socially negative attitudes. For hundred and eighty two athletes, aged 13 to 16 years completed the Portuguese versions of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQp) and of the Sports Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQp). Bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships between TEOSQp and SAQp. Afterwards, relationships between ego orientation and score agreement in cheating and gamesmanship as well as task orientation and score agreement in convention and commitment were examined through EQS (version 5.7). For the estimation of the model, the maximum likelihood method was used. A matrix correlation between the variables (task orientation, ego orientation, cheating, gamesmanship, convention and commitment) showed positive correlations between task orientation and convention (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and commitment (r = 0. 40, p < 0.01). Ego orientation appeared to be positively correlated with cheating (r = 0.30, p < 0.01) and gamesmanship (r = 0.33, p < 0.01), and negatively with convention (r = -0.16, p < 0.01).The fit of the model was evaluated using the CFI (0.97) and SRMR (0.04). The hypothesized model was confirmed. Task and ego orientations produced a significant effect on prosocial attitudes and on antisocial attitudes, respectively. Task-oriented goals in youth sport programs can represent a relevant framework for promoting prosocial attitudes and consequentely increment the effectiveness of educational interventions. Key points Sport seems to be an important component of daily physical activity in children and adolescents and its importance is often viewed as positive. Literature suggests that a high task orientation has a positive link with moral variables and a high ego orientation is

  9. Effects of Peer Academic Reputation on Achievement in Academically At-Risk Elementary Students.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Dyer, Nicole; Luo, Wen; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2009-04-01

    Participants were 664 relatively low achieving children who were recruited into a longitudinal study when in first grade. Measures of peer academic reputation (PAR), peer acceptance, teacher-rated academic engagement and achievement, and reading and math achievement were obtained in Year 2, when the majority of students were in second grade, and 1 year later. Measures of academic self concept were obtained in Year 1 and in Year 3. As young as second grade, children's perceptions of classmates' academic competence are distinct from their perceptions of peers' other social and behavioral characteristics. SEM analyses found that Year 2 PAR predicted Year 3 teacher-rated academic engagement and reading (but not math) achievement test scores, above the effects of prior scores on these outcomes and other covariates. Furthermore, the effect of PAR on academic engagement and achievement was partially mediated by the effect of PAR on children's academic self concept. Implications of these findings for educational practice and future research are discussed.

  10. Maximum power, ecological function and efficiency of an irreversible Carnot cycle: a cost and effectiveness optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-González, G.; Canales-Palma, A.; León-Galicia, A.; Morales-Gómez, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    In this work we include, for the Carnot cycle, irreversibilities of linear finite rate of heat transferences between the heat engine and its reservoirs, heat leak between the reservoirs and internal dissipations of the working fluid. A first optimization of the power output, the efficiency and ecological function of an irreversible Carnot cycle, with respect to: internal temperature ratio, time ratio for the heat exchange and the allocation ratio of the heat exchangers; is performed. For the second and third optimizations, the optimum values for the time ratio and internal temperature ratio are substituted into the equation of power and, then, the optimizations with respect to the cost and effectiveness ratio of the heat exchangers are performed. Finally, a criterion of partial optimization for the class of irreversible Carnot engines is herein presented.

  11. The effect of resisted sprint training on maximum sprint kinetics and kinematics in youth.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, Michael C; Cronin, John B; Mohamad, Ikhwan N; Mohamad, Sharil; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Resisted sled towing is a popular and efficient training method to improve sprint performance in adults, however, has not been utilised in youth populations. The purpose therefore was to investigate the effect of resisted sled towing training on the kinematics and kinetics of maximal sprint velocity in youth of different maturation status. Pre- and post-intervention 30 metre sprint performance of 32 children, 18 pre-peak height velocity (PHV) and 14 mid-/post-PHV, were tested on a non-motorised treadmill. The 6-week intervention consisted of ∼12 sessions for pre-PHV and 14 for mid-/post-PHV of resisted sled towing training with each sessions comprised of 8-10 sprints covering 15-30 metres with a load of 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10% body mass. Pre-PHV participants did not improve sprint performance, while the mid-/post-PHV participants had significant (P < 0.05) reductions (percent change, effect size) in sprint time (-5.76, -0.74), relative leg stiffness (-45.0, -2.16) and relative vertical stiffness (-17.4, -0.76) and a significant increase in average velocity (5.99, 0.76), average step rate (5.65, 0.53), average power (6.36, 0.31), peak horizontal force (9.70, 0.72), average relative vertical forces (3.45, 1.70) and vertical displacement (14.6, 1.46). It seems that sled towing may be a more suitable training method in mid-/post-PHV athletes to improve 30 metre sprint performance.

  12. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  13. The Effects of Using Collaborative Learning to Enhance Students' English Speaking Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattanpichet, Fasawang

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study aims to investigate the effects of using collaborative learning to enhance students' speaking achievement. The study using a pre-test and post-test design was conducted with 35 undergraduate students enrolled in a fundamental English course at Bangkok University to examine their speaking achievement on an English oral test…

  14. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…

  15. Class Size Effects on Mathematics Achievement in Cyprus: Evidence from TIMSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Shen, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Class size reduction has been viewed as one school mechanism that can improve student achievement. Nonetheless, the literature has reported mixed findings about class size effects. We used 4th- and 8th-grade data from TIMSS 2003 and 2007 to examine the association between class size and mathematics achievement in public schools in Cyprus. We…

  16. The Effects of CSCOPE on Student Achievement as Measured by Both TAKS and STAAR Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Maricela Robledo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CSCOPE curriculum on student achievement. CSCOPE is a curriculum management system used in 750 of the 1,039 school districts in the state of Texas. Student achievement is based on the results acquired from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the new version of the state…

  17. Effects of Identity Processing Styles on Academic Achievement of First Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabi, Joseph; Payne, Jarrod

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Academic achievement of first year university students in the international arena, as well as in South Africa, has been a point of concern for all stakeholders because of high failure and dropout rates. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of identity processing styles on academic achievement in first year university…

  18. The Causal Ordering of Self-Concept and Academic Motivation and Its Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb

    2006-01-01

    Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…

  19. Effects of Poverty on Mathematics and Reading Achievement of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2002-01-01

    A mediation model was used to test effects of poverty on the mathematics and reading achievement of young adolescents. A revised model indicated that poverty was associated with mathematics and reading achievement indirectly. Associations depended upon level of cognitively stimulating home environments, emotionally supportive home environments,…

  20. Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Students' Achievement in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidoo, Benjamin; Boateng, Sampson Kwadwo; Kissi, Philip Siaw; Ofori, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) on students' achievement in chemistry. Learners' low achievement in Science in South Africa has been a concern to government, stakeholders, school principals and parents over the years as a result of poor teaching techniques, students' attitudes, lack of teaching and learning…

  1. Effects of Activity Based Blended Learning Strategy on Prospective of Teachers' Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif; Ahmed, Abdelrahman Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of Activity based Blended Learning strategy and Conventional Blended Learning strategy on students' achievement and motivation. Two groups namely, experimental and control group from Sultan Qaboos University were selected randomly for the study. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and…

  2. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Reading Achievement and Reading Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Holly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…

  3. Effects of Teacher Educational Background and Experience on Student Achievement in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leak, James Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between teacher educational background, teacher experience, and student achievement in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. The first essay of this dissertation, "Effects of Teacher Degree Level, Coursework, and Certification on Student Achievement in Math and Reading in Kindergarten,"…

  4. Effective Strategies Urban Superintendents Utilize That Improve the Academic Achievement for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prioleau, Lushandra

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effective strategies, resources, and programs urban superintendents utilize to improve the academic achievement for African-American males. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research questions regarding urban superintendents and the academic achievement for African-American males: What…

  5. Effects of Computer-Assisted Jigsaw II Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted Jigsaw II cooperative strategy on physics achievement and retention. The study also determined how moderating variables of achievement levels as it affects students' performance in physics when Jigsaw II cooperative learning is used as an instructional strategy. Purposive sampling technique…

  6. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted STAD Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Problem Solving, Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted Students' Team Achievement Division (STAD) cooperative learning strategy on physics problem solving, students' achievement and retention. It also examined if the student performance would vary with gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary schools…

  7. The Effect of Using Concept Maps as Study Tools on Achievement in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Attieh, May

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) examine whether or not the construction of concept maps by students improves their achievement and ability to solve higher order questions in chemistry, (2) investigate the differential effect of the treatment by gender and achievement level, and (3) explore the relationships between performance on concept…

  8. Effects of a Science Intervention Program on Middle-Grade Student Achievement and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Verilette; Gerber, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of a standards-based science intervention program on the science achievement and attitudes of middle-grade students attending a five-week academic enrichment program. Finds that students' achievement and attitudes were higher following participation in the program. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/WRM)

  9. Mathematics Achievement Effects of Three Levels of Individualization: Whole Class, Ability Grouped, and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Karweit, Nancy L.

    This research evaluated mathematics achievement and attitudinal effects of three instructional methods directed in varying degrees toward accommodating diversity in students' prior achievement. Two randomized field experiments of 16 and 18 weeks' duration, respectively, compared an individualized model, Team Assisted Individualization (TAI); an…

  10. Effect of Instructional Coaching on Literacy Achievement in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datteri, Stacie L.

    2011-01-01

    Several school districts around the United States are concerned with low literacy achievement among elementary students. This study was an investigation of the effectiveness of academic coaching on student achievement results in literacy and took place in a district of approximately 400 teachers and 9,000 elementary students. The purpose of the…

  11. Students' Achievement in Human Circulatory System Unit: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of gender and reasoning ability on the human circulatory system concepts achievement and attitude toward biology. Reports a statistically significant mean difference between concrete and formal students with regard to achievement and attitude toward biology. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. The Effects of Reading Recovery™ on the American Indian/Non-American Indian Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the attention being paid to the achievement gap of minorities, the regulations and laws being enacted, the research being conducted, and the funding made available to narrow the achievement gap, there is evidence that shows it still exists for American Indians. This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery, an early literacy…

  13. Examining the Effects of School Composition on North Carolina Student Achievement over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of school-level characteristics on North Carolina students' reading and math achievement from fourth through eighth grade, focusing on the relationships between achievement and the racial and poverty composition of schools. After creating race-by-poverty cohorts of schools, I use multilevel models to examine math…

  14. The Effects of Gender and Attributions on Achievement Motivation and Subsequent Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael

    One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…

  15. The Effect of Gender on the Achievement of Students in Biology Using the Jigsaw Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of gender on the achievement of students in biology using the jigsaw method. The sample was made up of 87 students in SS1 in a secondary school. The study utilized an intact class because the study took place in a normal school term. There were 39 males and 49 females. The Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was…

  16. Effects of Teacher Certification on the Educational Achievement of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Davenport, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative study was to explore the effects of teachers' certification on the achievement of African American students. The impetus for this exploration resided in the reading achievement disparities between African American and Caucasian students in the study district. Guided by the principles of total…

  17. Effects of Computer-Based Programs on Mathematical Achievement Scores for Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenel, Jessica; Lambeth, Dawn T.; Spires, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research study was to identify the effects of computer-based programs on mathematical achievement, perceptions, and engagement of fourth-grade students. The 31 student participants were divided into two intervention groups, as a hands-on group and a computer-based group. Student achievement was measured by comparing the pretest…

  18. The Effects of Modern Mathematics Computer Games on Mathematics Achievement and Class Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebritchi, Mansureh; Hirumi, Atsusi; Bai, Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a computer game on students' mathematics achievement and motivation, and the role of prior mathematics knowledge, computer skill, and English language skill on their achievement and motivation as they played the game. A total of 193 students and 10 teachers participated in this study. The teachers were randomly…

  19. Exploring the Effect of a Non-Residential Learning Community on Academic Achievement and Institutional Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Patrick Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what effect the Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) program, a variation of a non-residential learning community had on academic achievement scores and institutional rates of persistence. Study variables included: gender; race; pre-collegiate academic achievement (GPA scores); educational preferences (major…

  20. Endorsing Achievement Goals Exacerbates the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde; Van Damme, Jan; Verschueren, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model predicts students' academic self-concept to be negatively predicted by the achievement level of their reference group, controlling for individual achievement. Despite an abundance of empirical evidence supporting the BFLPE, there have been relatively few studies searching for possible moderators.…

  1. School Leadership and Student Achievement: The Mediating Effects of Teacher Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Gray, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Principals are held accountable for student achievement although most studies find that they have no direct effect on it. In this study we tested a model hypothesizing that principals contribute to student achievement indirectly through teacher commitment and beliefs about their collective capacity. Path analysis of data from 205 elementary…

  2. Effects of a Resident Mentor Teacher on Student Achievement in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Cynthia W.

    Early research has shown that using practicing mathematics teachers as mentors results in increased teacher self-respect, improved teaching skills, and renewed enthusiasm for teaching. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a resident mentor teacher on student achievement in mathematics. Measures of achievement were obtained…

  3. Effects of Homework Motivation and Worry Anxiety on Homework Achievement in Mathematics and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…

  4. Examining the Mediating Effect of Learning Strategies on the Relationship between Students' History Interest and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Yongjun; Todd, Reese

    2014-01-01

    Research into the effect of interest consistently indicated that interest positively related to students' achievement; however, the mechanism through which it affected the learning result remained an open question. This study intended to examine how learning strategies mediated the relationship between interest and achievement in the domain of…

  5. The Effect of Gender upon Heritability and Common Environmental Estimates in Measures of Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee Anne

    1994-01-01

    Examined the effects of gender on academic achievement for 138 mono- and 125 dizygotic twin pairs, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years. Results suggested that individual differences in academic achievement may be more influenced by genetic than environmental variance in females, and by environmental than genetic variance in males. (BC)

  6. Long-Term Effects of Repealing the National Maximum Speed Limit in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hedeker, Donald; Richter, Elihu D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the long-term effects of the 1995 repeal of federal speed limit controls on road fatalities and injuries in fatal crashes. Methods. We used a Poisson mixed-regression model to assess changes in the number of fatalities and injuries in fatal crashes between 1995 and 2005 on rural interstates, where all US states have raised speed limits since the repeal, as well as on urban interstates and noninterstate roads, where many states have raised speed limits. Results. We found a 3.2% increase in road fatalities attributable to the raised speed limits on all road types in the United States. The highest increases were on rural interstates (9.1%) and urban interstates (4.0%). We estimated that 12 545 deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8739, 16 352) and 36 583 injuries in fatal crashes (95% CI = 29 322, 43 844) were attributable to increases in speed limits across the United States. Conclusions. Reduced speed limits and improved enforcement with speed camera networks could immediately reduce speeds and save lives, in addition to reducing gas consumption, cutting emissions of air pollutants, saving valuable years of productivity, and reducing the cost of motor vehicle crashes. PMID:19608943

  7. Potential Indirect Genetic Effects on Learning: A Longitudinal Study of Temperament Effects on Achievement in Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roy P.; Gaddis, Lena

    The relatively long-term effects of temperament on classroom achievement were studied in a cohort of elementary students while accounting for variation in cognitive ability, previous achievement, and gender. The existence of long-term effects would support the hypothesis that indirect genetic effects on learning are mediated by temperament.…

  8. A Quantitative Literature Review of Cooperative Learning Effects on High School and College Chemistry Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Craig W.

    2000-01-01

    Describes meta-analysis, a quantitative approach to conducting literature reviews. Illustrates the power of this technique by reporting the quantitative effects of cooperative learning on chemistry achievement in high school and college classes. (Contains 32 references.) (WRM)

  9. Does the soil's effective hydraulic conductivity adapt in order to obey the Maximum Entropy Production principle? A lab experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhoff, Martijn; Zehe, Erwin; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel; Dewals, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle is a conjecture assuming that a medium is organized in such a way that maximum power is subtracted from a gradient driving a flux (with power being a flux times its driving gradient). This maximum power is also known as the Carnot limit. It has already been shown that the atmosphere operates close to this Carnot limit when it comes to heat transport from the Equator to the poles, or vertically, from the surface to the atmospheric boundary layer. To reach this state close to the Carnot limit, the effective thermal conductivity of the atmosphere is adapted by the creation of convection cells (e.g. wind). The aim of this study is to test if the soil's effective hydraulic conductivity also adapts itself in such a way that it operates close to the Carnot limit. The big difference between atmosphere and soil is the way of adaptation of its resistance. The soil's hydraulic conductivity is either changed by weathering processes, which is a very slow process, or by creation of preferential flow paths. In this study the latter process is simulated in a lab experiment, where we focus on the preferential flow paths created by piping. Piping is the process of backwards erosion of sand particles subject to a large pressure gradient. Since this is a relatively fast process, it is suitable for being tested in the lab. In the lab setup a horizontal sand bed connects two reservoirs that both drain freely at a level high enough to keep the sand bed always saturated. By adding water to only one reservoir, a horizontal pressure gradient is maintained. If the flow resistance is small, a large gradient develops, leading to the effect of piping. When pipes are being formed, the effective flow resistance decreases; the flow through the sand bed increases and the pressure gradient decreases. At a certain point, the flow velocity is small enough to stop the pipes from growing any further. In this steady state, the effective flow resistance of

  10. Effects of relative humidity, maximum and minimum temperature, pregnancy, and stage of lactation on milk composition and yield.

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, L A; Mekonnen, G; Wilcox, C J; Martin, F G; Krienke, W A

    1985-04-01

    Composite monthly single-day milk samples from the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station dairy herd 1959 to 1974 were analyzed for composition. Data were 22, 972 observations on five dairy breeds, but major statistical analyses were limited to Jerseys and Holsteins. Minimum relative humidity and maximum and minimum temperatures on day of evening sample were associated with 1.6 to 5.6% of variability within lactation (range for two breeds) of milk and milk constituent yields and 1.1 to 16.5% of constituent percentages. Yields of milk and constituents of the Holsteins seemed more sensitive to climatic variation than did Jersey, but Jersey constituent percentages were more sensitive. Yields were affected only slightly by increasing maximum daily temperatures from 8 to 29 degrees C but declined rapidly at greater than 29 degrees C; fat and protein percentages declined from 8 to 37 degrees C, whereas chloride content increased above 21 degrees C. Stage of lactation and pregnancy effects accounted for about 50% of the variability of yields and 3 to 23% of percentages. Effects were detected also for chloride and acidity percentages, specific gravity, and ratios solids-not-fat to fat and protein to fat.

  11. Teacher Effectiveness and Student Achievement: Investigating a Multilevel Cross-Classified Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Ronald H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how increasing teacher effectiveness is central to school efforts to improve student outcomes. This study aims to examine successive teachers' effects on student achievement. The premise advanced is that teacher effectiveness is an individual resource that varies across classrooms within schools, as…

  12. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  13. The effect of the shape function on small-angle scattering analysis by the maximum entropy method

    SciTech Connect

    Jemian, P.R.; Allen, A.J. |

    1992-09-15

    Analysis of small-angle scattering data to obtain a particle size distribution is dependent upon the shape function used to model the scattering. Using a maximum entropy analysis of small-angle scattering data, the effect of shape function selection on obtained size distribution is demonstrated using three different shape functions to describe the same scattering data from each of two steels. The alloys have been revealed by electron microscopy to contain a distribution of randomly oriented and mainly non-interacting, irregular, ellipsoidal precipitates. Comparison is made between the different forms of the shape function. Effect of an incident wavelength distribution is also shown. The importance of testing appropriate shape functions and validating these against other microstructural studies is discussed.

  14. The effect of the extensor mechanism on maximum isometric fingertip forces: A numerical study on the index finger.

    PubMed

    Synek, A; Pahr, D H

    2016-10-03

    The extensor mechanism is a tendinous network connecting intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the finger and its function has not yet been fully understood. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of the extensor mechanism on the maximum isometric fingertip forces - a parameter which is essential for grasping. For this purpose, maximum fingertip forces in all directions (i.e. feasible force sets) of two musculoskeletal models of the index finger were compared: the wEM model included a full representation of the extensor mechanism, whereas in the noEM model the extensor mechanism was replaced by a single extensor tendon without connectivity to intrinsic muscles. The feasible force sets were computed in the flexion-extension plane for nine postures. Forces in four predefined directions (palmar, proximal, dorsal, and distal), and the peak resultant forces were evaluated. Averaged forces in all four predefined directions were considerably larger in the wEM model (+187.6%). However, peak resultant forces were slightly lower in the wEM model (-4.3% on average). The general advantage of the wEM model could be explained by co-contraction of intrinsic and extrinsic extensor muscles which allowed reaching larger activation levels of the extrinsic flexors. Only within a narrow range of force directions the co-contraction of intrinsic muscles limited the fingertip forces and lead to lower peak resultant forces in the wEM model. Rather than maximizing peak resultant forces, it appears that the extensor mechanism is a sophisticated tool for increasing maximum fingertip forces over a broad range of postures and force directions - making the finger more versatile during grasping.

  15. Catalysis of the methoxyaminolysis of phenyl acetate by a preassociation mechanism with a solvent isotope effect maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, M.M.; Jencks, W.P.

    1981-02-11

    General-acid catalysis of the reaction of methoxyamine with phenyl acetate by the proton, carboxylic acids, and ammonium ions follows a nonlinear Bronsted curve. This curve agrees with the expected enforced preassociation mechanism of catalysis. The stronger acids, including the proton, follow a Bronsted slope of ..cap alpha.. = 0.16 weaker acids react with partially rate-limiting proton transfer to the addition intermediate T/sup + -/, and the weakest acids follow a steeper Bronsted slope approaching ..cap alpha.. = 1.0. There is no decrease in the rate constant for catalysis by chloroacetic acid with increasing viscosity in water-glycerol mixtures; a decrease is observed for the reaction of methylamine with p-tolyl acetate catalyzed by acetate buffers, which is believed to proceed by a diffusion-controlled trapping mechanism. A sharp maximum in the solvent isotope effect at pK/sub HA/ = 6.8 confirms the kinetically significant proton-transfer step in the intermediate region near ..delta..pK = 0. The decrease with stronger acids represents a decrease in the isotope effect for this proton-transfer step, which is largely rate limiting for acids of pK/sub a/ = 4-7, but the decrease with weaker acids can be explained by the change to rate-limiting diffusional separation of T/sup +/ and A/sup -/. Two explanations are offered for the decreased isotope effect with increasing acid strength. (1) There is a sharp change to an asymmetric structure of the transition state for the very rapid proton-transfer step, as suggested by Melander and Westheimer. (2) There is a shift to a rate-limiting change in solvation that occurs immediately either before or after the proton-transfer step with stronger acids. It is possible to fit the observed Bronsted curve and isotope effect maximum with calculated rate constants that are based on a rate law and estimated rate constants for the steps of the latter mechanism.

  16. Teacher attitudes toward dyslexia: effects on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an explicit, self-report measure. Achievement scores for 307 students were also obtained. Implicit teacher attitudes toward dyslexia related to teacher ratings of student achievement on a writing task and also to student achievement on standardized tests of spelling but not math for those students with dyslexia. Self-reported attitudes of the teachers toward dyslexia did not relate to any of the outcome measures. Neither the implicit nor the explicit measures of teacher attitudes related to teacher expectations. The results show implicit attitude measures to be a more valuable predictor of the achievement of students with dyslexia than explicit, self-report attitude measures.

  17. Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher-Student Relationship on Achievement.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y

    2012-01-01

    The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in grade 2 (24.8%) or grade 3 (74.6%). Child-reported conflict was stable across the 3 years, whereas warmth declined. Boys and African American students reported greater conflict than did girls and Caucasian and Hispanic students. Girls and African American students reported higher warmth than boys and non-African American students. Using path analysis, the authors tested the hypothesis that measures of student motivation in Year 2 mediated the effects of conflict and warmth in Year 1 on reading and math achievement in Year 3. Child-perceived conflict predicted cross-year changes in teacher-rated behavioral engagement, which, in turn, predicted cross-year changes in reading and math achievement. Math competence beliefs also mediated the effect of child- perceived warmth on math achievement. Effects controlled for stability of measures across time, the within-wave association between measures, and baseline measures of IQ and economic adversity. Implications of findings for improving the academic achievement of students at-risk for school failure are discussed.

  18. Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher-Student Relationship on Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in grade 2 (24.8%) or grade 3 (74.6%). Child-reported conflict was stable across the 3 years, whereas warmth declined. Boys and African American students reported greater conflict than did girls and Caucasian and Hispanic students. Girls and African American students reported higher warmth than boys and non-African American students. Using path analysis, the authors tested the hypothesis that measures of student motivation in Year 2 mediated the effects of conflict and warmth in Year 1 on reading and math achievement in Year 3. Child-perceived conflict predicted cross-year changes in teacher-rated behavioral engagement, which, in turn, predicted cross-year changes in reading and math achievement. Math competence beliefs also mediated the effect of child- perceived warmth on math achievement. Effects controlled for stability of measures across time, the within-wave association between measures, and baseline measures of IQ and economic adversity. Implications of findings for improving the academic achievement of students at-risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:23226873

  19. Maximum-likelihood and markov chain monte carlo approaches to estimate inbreeding and effective size from allele frequency changes.

    PubMed Central

    Laval, Guillaume; SanCristobal, Magali; Chevalet, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian (MCMC algorithm) estimates of the increase of the Wright-Malécot inbreeding coefficient, F(t), between two temporally spaced samples, were developed from the Dirichlet approximation of allelic frequency distribution (model MD) and from the admixture of the Dirichlet approximation and the probabilities of fixation and loss of alleles (model MDL). Their accuracy was tested using computer simulations in which F(t) = 10% or less. The maximum-likelihood method based on the model MDL was found to be the best estimate of F(t) provided that initial frequencies are known exactly. When founder frequencies are estimated from a limited set of founder animals, only the estimates based on the model MD can be used for the moment. In this case no method was found to be the best in all situations investigated. The likelihood and Bayesian approaches give better results than the classical F-statistics when markers exhibiting a low polymorphism (such as the SNP markers) are used. Concerning the estimations of the effective population size all the new estimates presented here were found to be better than the F-statistics classically used. PMID:12871924

  20. The effect of a dynamic soil scheme on the climate of the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stärz, M.; Lohmann, G.; Knorr, G.

    2016-01-01

    In order to account for coupled climate-soil processes, we have developed a soil scheme which is asynchronously coupled to a comprehensive climate model with dynamic vegetation. This scheme considers vegetation as the primary control of changes in physical soil characteristics. We test the scheme for a warmer (mid-Holocene) and colder (Last Glacial Maximum) climate relative to the preindustrial climate. We find that the computed changes in physical soil characteristics lead to significant amplification of global climate anomalies, representing a positive feedback. The inclusion of the soil feedback yields an extra surface warming of 0.24 °C for the mid-Holocene and an additional global cooling of 1.07 °C for the Last Glacial Maximum. Transition zones such as desert-savannah and taiga-tundra exhibit a pronounced response in the model version with dynamic soil properties. Energy balance model analyses reveal that our soil scheme amplifies the temperature anomalies in the mid-to-high northern latitudes via changes in the planetary albedo and the effective longwave emissivity. As a result of the modified soil treatment and the positive feedback to climate, part of the underestimated mid-Holocene temperature response to orbital forcing can be reconciled in the model.

  1. The effect of a dynamic soil scheme on the climate of the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stärz, Michael; Lohmann, Gerrit; Knorr, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    In order to account for coupled climate-soil processes, we have developed a soil scheme, which is asynchronously coupled to a comprehensive climate model with dynamic vegetation. This scheme considers vegetation as the primary control of changes in physical soil characteristics. We test the scheme for a warmer (mid-Holocene) and colder (Last Glacial Maximum) climate relative to the preindustrial climate. We find that the computed changes of physical soil characteristics lead to significant amplification of global climate anomalies, representing a positive feedback. The inclusion of the soil feedback yields an extra surface warming of 0.24°C for the mid-Holocene and an additional global cooling of 1.07°C for the Last Glacial Maximum. Transition zones such as desert/savannah and taiga/tundra exhibit a pronounced response in the model version with dynamic soil properties. Energy balance model analyses reveal that our soil scheme amplifies the temperature anomalies in the mid-to-high northern latitudes via changes in the planetary albedo and the effective longwave emissivity. As a result of the modified soil treatment and the positive feedback on climate, part of the underestimated mid-Holocene temperature response to orbital forcing can be reconciled in the model.

  2. Academic self-efficacy mediates the effects of school psychological climate on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovač, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested.

  3. Metronomic chemotherapy following the maximum tolerated dose is an effective anti-tumour therapy affecting angiogenesis, tumour dissemination and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Vives, Marta; Ginestà, Mireia M; Gracova, Kristina; Graupera, Mariona; Casanovas, Oriol; Capellà, Gabriel; Serrano, Teresa; Laquente, Berta; Viñals, Francesc

    2013-11-15

    In this article, the effectiveness of a multi-targeted chemo-switch (C-S) schedule that combines metronomic chemotherapy (MET) after treatment with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is reported. This schedule was tested with gemcitabine in two distinct human pancreatic adenocarcinoma orthotopic models and with cyclophosphamide in an orthotopic ovarian cancer model. In both models, the C-S schedule had the most favourable effect, achieving at least 80% tumour growth inhibition without increased toxicity. Moreover, in the pancreatic cancer model, although peritoneal metastases were observed in control and MTD groups, no dissemination was observed in the MET and C-S groups. C-S treatment caused a decrease in angiogenesis, and its effect on tumour growth was similar to that produced by the MTD followed by anti-angiogenic DC101 treatment. C-S treatment combined an increase in thrombospondin-1 expression with a decrease in the number of CD133+ cancer cells and triple-positive CD133+/CD44+/CD24+ cancer stem cells (CSCs). These findings confirm that the C-S schedule is a challenging clinical strategy with demonstrable inhibitory effects on tumour dissemination, angiogenesis and CSCs.

  4. The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals on performance, and the direct effect of mastery-avoidance goals on effort. Results showed a positive direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and an indirect effect, through enjoyment, on satisfaction, performance, and effort. We did not find support for the hypothesized effect of performance-approach or performance-avoidance goals on performance. The applied implications of endorsing mastery-approach goals are discussed.

  5. The Effects of Academic Optimism on Student Academic Achievement in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevel, Raymona King

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the effects of academic optimism on student academic achievement through measuring the individual and collective effects of academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in clients. Data for this study were obtained from the School Academic Optimism Scale and the reading section of the…

  6. Effect of Feedback and Remediation on Students' Achievement in Junior Secondary School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Ajogbeje Oke; Folorunso, Alonge Micheal

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of feedback and remediation as instructional strategies on junior secondary school students' achievement in mathematics. The effects of gender and socio economic status on these learning outcomes were also examined. The sample for the study consisted of 240 junior secondary two (JSS II) students in intact classes…

  7. Effects of Part-Time Work on School Achievement During High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Kusum; Chang, Mido; Dika, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The authors explored the effects of part-time work on school achievement during high school. To estimate the true effects of part-time work on school grades, the authors included family background, students' educational aspirations, and school engagement as controls. Although a substantial literature exists on the relationship of part-time work…

  8. Reading Recovery: Exploring the Effects on First-Graders' Reading Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…

  9. The Effect of the Developed Differentiation Approach on the Achievements of the Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: The present study is of importance for designing a differentiation approach, which enables gifted students to use their present potential in mathematics effectively and enables them to develop their achievement, while looking at the effect of the approach on both gifted and non-gifted students. Within the scope of the developed…

  10. Effects of Family Orientation Within Socioeconomic Strata Upon Basic Skill Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidchens, Uldis; Thompson, Eugene

    This research examines the effects of family organization upon student achievement. The authors are particularly concerned with teacher expectations and beliefs regarding single parenting and its effects upon skill acquisition. The sample is made up of over 400 fifth graders in the public schools of a middle sized midwestern city. Data regarding…

  11. Teacher Effectiveness as Correlate of Students' Cognitive Achievement at Upper Basic Education in Basic Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owoh, Titus M.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to find out the relationship between students perception of their teacher effectiveness and academic achievement in Basic Technology. Teacher's personality, teaching techniques/classroom management strategy and appearance, all integrate to make for teacher effectiveness. To carry out this research, two research questions and one…

  12. The Effects of Online Homework on Achievement and Self-Efficacy of College Algebra Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, David Shane

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness, in terms of mathematical achievement and mathematics self-efficacy, of online homework to textbook homework over an entire semester for 145 students enrolled in multiple sections of college algebra at a large community college. A quasi-experimental, posttest design was used to analyze the effect on…

  13. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  14. The Effect of Foster Care Experience and Characteristics on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calix, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of foster care experience and characteristics on educational outcomes. The typical strategy in examining the effect foster care has on educational outcomes is to compare the educational achievement of youth with foster care experience to that of their peers or to national norms. This strategy fails to take selection…

  15. The Effect of Block Scheduling on Middle School Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Kim; Hancock, Dawson R.; Queen, J. Allen

    2005-01-01

    To address the nations' ongoing interest in student achievement, some researchers have focused on the effect of block scheduling--a model in which students take fewer classes for longer periods of time. Although block scheduling has demonstrated its viability in high schools, little research has explored its effect at the middle level. Because the…

  16. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…

  17. The Effects of Mathematics Anxiety on Matriculation Students as Related to Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaria, Effandi; Nordin, Norazah Mohd

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of mathematics anxiety on matriculation students as related to motivation and achievement. Subjects included 88 students who were at the end of their second semester of study. Anxiety and motivation were measured using the Fennema-Sherman Math Anxiety Scale (MAS) and Effectance Motivation Scale (EMS)…

  18. An Examination of South Carolina School Boards' Effectiveness and Its Influence on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Marty S.

    2009-01-01

    In the era of school accountability, school boards are under scrutiny for their effectiveness in improving student achievement. It has become more than obvious that school boards play an important role in the effectiveness, ineffectiveness, successes and failures of school districts. However, to what degree of importance was the premise for this…

  19. The Effects of Visual Training on the Reading Achievement of Fifth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Roberta A.

    A study examined what effect, if any, vision training exercises had on reading achievement. It was hypothesized that training students to control more accurately the speed and direction of their eye movements would improve their visual skills. However, it was also hypothesized that a more efficient visual system would have no effect on reading…

  20. The Effects of Peer Tutoring on the Reading Achievement and Social Acceptance of Mainstreamed Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajar, Anna H.; And Others

    The research analyzed the effects of peer tutoring and teacher presentations about handicaps on the social acceptance of 16 mainstreamed educable mentally retarded (EMR) children (10 from primary and 6 from intermediate level classes). In addition, the effect of peer tutoring on reading achievement of EMR students was examined. Results showed that…

  1. The Instructional Effect of Stimulus-Explicitness in Facilitating Student Achievement of Varied Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Thomas C.; Dwyer, Francis M.

    In order to investigate the relative effectiveness of specific media attributes on student performance on criterion tests, a comparison was made of the effectiveness of two levels of stimulus explicitness in visuals in facilitating student achievement on criterion tests of knowledge, comprehension, and total understanding. Subjects were 171…

  2. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Students' Achievement in Taiwan: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Yuen-kuang Cliff

    2007-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize existing research comparing the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional instruction (TI) on students' achievement in Taiwan. Fifty-two studies were located from four sources, and their quantitative data was transformed into effect size (ES). The overall grand mean of the…

  3. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  4. Relationship between Teachers' Effective Communication and Students' Academic Achievement at the Northern Border University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' effective communication and students' academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire…

  5. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  6. Class Size Effects on Reading Achievement Using PIRLS Data: Evidence from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Traynor, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The effects of class size on student achievement have gained considerable attention in education research and policy, especially over the last 30 years. Perhaps the best evidence about the effects of class size thus far has been produced from analyses of Project STAR data, a large-scale experiment where students and teachers…

  7. A Novel Gibbs Maximum A Posteriori (GMAP) Approach on Bayesian Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Population Pharmacokinetics (PK) Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongho; Hall, Stephen D.; Li, Lang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, various Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) methods and the proposed algorithm, Gibbs maximum a posteriori (GMAP) algorithm, are compared for implementing the nonlinear mixed-effects model in pharmacokinetics (PK) studies. An intravenous two-compartmental PK model is adopted to fit the PK data from the midazolam (MDZ) studies, which recruited 24 individuals with 9 different time points per subject. The three-stage hierarchical nonlinear mixed model is constructed. Data analysis and model performance comparisons show that GMAP converges the fastest, and provides reliable results. At the mean time, data augmentation (DA) methods are used for the Random-walk Metropolis method. Data analysis shows that the speed of the convergence of Random-walk Metropolis can be improved by DA, but all of them are not as fast as GMAP. The performance of GMAP and various MCMC algorithms are compared through Midazolam data analysis and simulation. PMID:20183435

  8. Interference minima effect of high-order harmonic generation from H2+ with different full width at half maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Jun; Du, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Dan; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the interference minima of the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in H2+ molecule with varying the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the laser field by solving the one-dimensional (1D) time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) within the non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The numerical results show that the probability of the electron recombined with the two nuclei is different with the variation of the FWHM. The HHG spectrum of H2+ molecule is separated into two parts according to the electronic coordinate z (z > 0 and z < 0), which illustrate the contributions of the two nuclei to the harmonic generation. In addition, we investigate the time-evolution electron wave packet distributions to illustrate the underlying physical mechanism.

  9. Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Apel, Robert; Bushway, Shawn D; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert; Sweeten, Gary

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess the claim that employment and work hours are causally related to adolescent problem behavior. We utilize a change model with age-graded child labor laws governing the number of hours per week allowed during the school year as instrumental variables. We find that these work laws lead to additional number of hours worked by youth, which then lead to increased high school dropout but decreased delinquency. Although counterintuitive, this result is consistent with existing evidence about the effect of employment on crime for adults and the impact of dropout on youth crime.

  10. Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert; Sweeten, Gary

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess the claim that employment and work hours are causally related to adolescent problem behavior. We utilize a change model with age-graded child labor laws governing the number of hours per week allowed during the school year as instrumental variables. We find that these work laws lead to additional number of hours worked by youth, which then lead to increased high school dropout but decreased delinquency. Although counterintuitive, this result is consistent with existing evidence about the effect of employment on crime for adults and the impact of dropout on youth crime. PMID:23825897

  11. Effects of simulated interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequalities in educational achievement.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%.

  12. Effects of Simulated Interventions to Improve School Entry Academic Skills on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718

  13. The effects of 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed running at 11 years athletes.

    PubMed

    Gevat, Cecilia; Taskin, Halil; Arslan, Fatma; Larion, Alin; Stanculescu, George

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed at 11 years athletes. A total of 30 healthy female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: Experimental group (EG; N = 15) and control group (CG; N = 15). The mean (SD) age was 11.20 +/- 0.32 years, height was 1.44 +/- 0.08 m, and weight was 35.20 +/- 2.02 kg for the experimental group; the mean (SD) age was 11.40 +/- 0.39 years, height was 1.45 +/- 0.05 m, and weight was 36.06 +/- 1.15 kg for the control group. A speed training program was applied to the subjects 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Testing was conducted before and after 8 weeks of training. Acceleration and maximum speed was evaluated for 15-m and 30-m, respectively, involving sprinting 15 m and 30 m as fast as possible from a stationary start position that was ascertained during a 50-m. Electronic timekeeping was conducted by the facility--Brower Timing System--made in Utah, USA., consisting of 4 components. Paired t-tests detected significant differences in pre- and posttests for clearance time of 5 m during 50 m in the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, acceleration phase was significantly reduce at 15 m distance interval for the experimental group and control groups posttraining than pretraining (0-15 m, p < 0.05). Acceleration improvement was 12.6% for the experimental group posttraining, on the other hand, acceleration improvement was 5% for the control groups posttraining. we did not find significant difference between pretest and posttest in 10-15 m, 15-20 m, and 20-25 m for the experimental group (p > 0.05). On the other hand, we did find significant difference between pretest and posttest values of other clearance times of consecutively each 5m during 50 m for the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Also, this study observed that athletes reached maximum speed in 30 m. In conclusion

  14. The effect of teacher education level, teaching experience, and teaching behaviors on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Danhui

    Previous literature leaves us unanswered questions about whether teaching behaviors mediate the relationship between teacher education level and experience with student science achievement. This study examined this question with 655 students from sixth to eighth grade and their 12 science teachers. Student science achievements were measured at the beginning and end of 2006-2007 school year. Given the cluster sampling of students nested in classrooms, which are nested in teachers, a two-level multilevel model was employed to disentangle the effects from teacher-level and student-level factors. Several findings were discovered in this study. Science teachers possessing of advanced degrees in science or education significantly and positively influenced student science achievement. However, years of teaching experience in science did not directly influence student science achievement. A significant interaction was detected between teachers possessing an advanced degree in science or education and years of teaching science, which was inversely associated to student science achievement. Better teaching behaviors were also positively related to student achievement in science directly, as well as mediated the relationship between student science achievement and both teacher education and experience. Additionally, when examined separately, each teaching behavior variable (teacher engagement, classroom management, and teaching strategies) served as a significant intermediary between both teacher education and experience and student science achievement. The findings of this study are intended to provide insights into the importance of hiring and developing qualified teachers who are better able to help students achieve in science, as well as to direct the emphases of ongoing teacher inservice training.

  15. Examining possible effects of seawater pH decline on foraminiferal stable isotopes during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, Joji; Zeebe, Richard E.

    2010-06-01

    A large body of paleoceanographic data for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is based on foraminiferal stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition (δ13C and δ18O). However, the proxy records could be biased due to a “pH effect” on stable isotopes during times when the ocean became more acidic, as has been demonstrated for modern planktonic foraminifera. In this paper, we calculate the possible ranges of the pH effect on δ13C and δ18O during the PETM based on the relative pH decline (ΔpH) from the preperturbation steady state simulated by a carbon cycle model and the empirical relationships obtained from culture experiments with planktonic foraminifera. The model is configured with Eocene paleogeography and simulates ΔpH for surface, intermediate, and deep water in the major ocean basins in response to various carbon input scenarios (2000 to 5000 Pg C). For an array of scenarios, the modeled ΔpH of the surface ocean ranges from 0.1 to 0.28 units. This suggests that δ13C of planktonic foraminifera may be increased by up to 2.1‰ and δ18O may be increased by up to 0.7‰ (corresponding to over 3°C error in paleotemperature estimate). Under conditions in which the model best simulates the global CaCO3 dissolution pattern, we find marked differences in the deep-sea ΔpH between the Atlantic (-0.4) and Pacific oceans (-0.1). This would imply that the magnitude of the negative δ13C and δ18O excursions of benthic foraminifera in the Atlantic Ocean was dampened by up to 2.8‰ and 0.9‰ at maximum, respectively, relative to a constant pH scenario.

  16. Mapping numerical magnitudes onto symbols: the numerical distance effect and individual differences in children's mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian D; Ansari, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Although it is often assumed that abilities that reflect basic numerical understanding, such as numerical comparison, are related to children's mathematical abilities, this relationship has not been tested rigorously. In addition, the extent to which symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing play differential roles in this relationship is not yet understood. To address these questions, we collected mathematics achievement measures from 6- to 8-year-olds as well as reaction times from a numerical comparison task. Using the reaction times, we calculated the size of the numerical distance effect exhibited by each child. In a correlational analysis, we found that the individual differences in the distance effect were related to mathematics achievement but not to reading achievement. This relationship was found to be specific to symbolic numerical comparison. Implications for the role of basic numerical competency and the role of accessing numerical magnitude information from Arabic numerals for the development of mathematical skills and their impairment are discussed.

  17. The interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on mental effort.

    PubMed

    Capa, Rémi L; Audiffren, Michel; Ragot, Stéphanie

    2008-11-01

    The interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on invested mental effort, postulated by Humphreys and Revelle [Humphreys, M.S., Revelle, W., 1984. Personality, motivation, and performance: a theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychol. Rev. 91, 153-184], was examined using behavioral, subjective, and effort-related physiological measures. Eighteen approach-driven participants and 18 avoidance-driven participants were selected based on their motive to achieve success scores and their motive to avoid failure scores. A 2x3 factorial design was used, with three levels of task difficulty. As expected, approach-driven participants performed better and had a stronger decrease of midfrequency band of heart rate variability than avoidance-driven participants, especially during the difficult task. These results support the interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on invested mental effort.

  18. Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    1999-12-01

    This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total

  19. The effect of wok size and handle angle on the maximum acceptable weights of wok flipping by male cooks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Swei-Pi; Ho, Cheng-Pin; Yen, Chin-Li

    2011-01-01

    A wok with a straight handle is one of the most common cooking utensils in the Asian kitchen. This common cooking instrument has seldom been examined by ergonomists. This research used a two-factor randomized complete block design to investigate the effects of wok size (with three diameters - 36 cm, 39 cm and 42 cm) and handle angle (25°, 10°, -5°, -20°, and -35°) on the task of flipping. The measurement criteria included the maximum acceptable weight of wok flipping (MAWF), the subjective rating and the subjective ranking. Twelve experienced males volunteered to take part in this study. The results showed that both the wok size and handle angle had a significant effect on the MAWF, the subjective rating and the subjective ranking. Additionally, there is a size-weight illusion associated with flipping tasks. In general, a small wok (36 cm diameter) with an ergonomically bent handle (-20° ± 15°) is the optimal design, for male cooks, for the purposes of flipping.

  20. Prediction of Maximum Moment of Circular Tubes Subjected to Pure Bending in Consideration of the Length Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kenichi; Chen, Dai-Heng; Ozaki, Shingo; Ushijima, Kuniharu

    In the present study, the bending collapse of an elastoplastic cylindrical tube subjected to static pure bending is investigated using the finite element method (FEM). The moment of the elastoplastic cylindrical tube is controlled by the flattening rate of the tube cross-section. For a long tube, the flattening rate can be expressed in terms of the axial and circumferential stresses that, in turn, depend on the material and geometrical properties and the curvature of the tube. On the other hand, for a short tube, the boundary condition of the fixed walls prevents the flattening rate. In order to account for the length effect of tubes, we propose a new method in which flattening is considered as a deflection problem of a fixed curved beam. The proposed method was able to predict the change in the flattening rate as the curvature was increased. A rational prediction method is proposed for estimating the maximum bending moment of cylindrical tubes that accounts for the length effect. Its validity is demonstrated by comparing it predictions with numerical results obtained using the finite element method.

  1. Effects of Reinforcement Method of Dissection Physiology Education on the Achievement in Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Tomoya; Kagota, Satomi; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Kanae; Miura, Takeshi; Yasui, Naomi; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu

    2016-01-01

     The Pharmaceutical Education Support Center was established in the Department of Pharmacy at the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science of Mukogawa Women's University in 2014. We started teaching first and second years students according to proficiency from the 2014 academic year. Students were divided into two classes: the regular class (high proficiency class) and the basic class (low proficiency class), based on achievement in several basic subjects related to the study of pharmacy. The staffs in the Pharmaceutical Education Support Center reinforce what is taught to students in the basic class. In this reinforcement method of education, the class size is small, consisting of about 15 students, a quiz to review the previous lesson is given at the beginning of each lecture, and an additional five lectures are conducted, compared to the high proficiency class, which receives 15 lectures. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the reinforcement method of physiology education on achievement in pharmacology that was not conducted in the proficiency-dependent teaching method. The students in the basic class in physiology education were chosen based on achievement levels in anatomy. Achievement levels of pharmacology students in the basic class of physiology improved compared with those of students who had the same achievement levels in physiology but were not taught according to proficiency-dependent teaching in the 2013 academic year. These results suggest that the reinforcement method for education in basic subjects in pharmacy, such as physiology, can improve achievement in more advanced subjects, such as pharmacology.

  2. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety.

  3. The effects of using guided notes and review of science achievement for male and female students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Diann Marie

    2000-11-01

    The National Science Foundation predicts a shortage of scientists and engineers within the next 15 years. Some agree that the participation of women in science will be required to help meet the future demand for scientists (Malcom, 1990). Consequently, conscientious teachers search for learning strategies that provide opportunities for young women to achieve success with others in their science classes. This research concerns a note taking and teaching strategy that involves seventh grade science students. The investigation measured student achievement under three prescribed conditions. The treatment conditions were reviewing, guided notes, and guided notes with reviewing. For this experiment, the Solomon four-group design was utilized. This 2 x 2 factorial design tested for treatment effect and pretest sensitivity. Data was collected on seventh grade boys (n = 119) and seventh grade girls (n = 139) in science. Comparisons were made between the boys and girls groups. The results showed that achievement improved significantly when reviewing car using guided notes independently. The results also shower that significant improvements in achievement were not observed when participants used guided notes and reviewing together. Analysis was completed to measure how well the participants performed according to gender. This research showed that both boys and girls significantly improved their achievement in science equally well for all treatment conditions. This research went a step further by factoring in cognitive ability test scores and comparing them to the treatment results. This provided the researcher with information on which treatment condition worked best for high or low achieving students.

  4. Effect of pH decline on foraminiferal stable isotopes during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, J.; Zeebe, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    Pioneering culture experiments by Spero et al. (1997) demonstrated that seawater pH (or carbonate chemistry) has a marked effect on planktonic foraminiferal stable oxygen and carbon isotopes (δ18O and δ13C). Both δ18O and δ13C become isotopically heavier as seawater pH decreases (the “pH effect”). Several studies now argue that δ18O and δ13C of benthic foraminifera are similarly influenced by the pH effect. As a result, paleooceanographic information based on foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C can be significantly biased for the time-window during which seawater pH was notably different from the modern condition or varied rapidly. A prime example of such is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Widespread dissolution of sedimentary CaCO3 in the PETM strata (e.g., Zachos et al., 2005) suggests significant ocean acidification during this time interval. In this study, we examine the magnitude of the pH effect on foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C during the PETM. First we will estimate the relative pH decline from the pre-PETM steady state in the surface and deep ocean reservoirs in response to 2,000 ~ 5,000 Pg of carbon input using a carbon cycle model (Zeebe et al., 2009). We will then apply the empirical relationships obtained from the culture experiments by Spero et al. (1997) to calculate the ranges of errors in the foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C that could arise due to the pH effect during the PETM. {REFERENCES} Spero et al. (1997) Nature, v390, p497-500: Zachos et al. (2005) Science, v308, p1611-1615: Zeebe et al. (2009) Nature Geoscience, v2, p576-580.

  5. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.

  6. The Effect of Project Based Learning on Seventh Grade Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizkapan, Oktay; Bektas, Oktay

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a significant effect of project based learning approach on seventh grade students' academic achievement in the structure and properties of matter. In the study, according to the characteristics of quantitative research methods, pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design was…

  7. Effect of Teachers' Professional Development from Mathforward™ on Students' Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kristina K.; Bicer, Ali; Capraro, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    MathForward™, developed in 2004-2005 in cooperation with the Richardson (TX) Independent School District, was implemented nationwide in 2007. The program integrates TI technology and professional development while focusing on student achievement and teacher efficacy. This study investigated the effect of the MathForward™ program on student…

  8. The Effect of Teaching Supported by Interactive Whiteboard on Students' Mathematical Achievements in Lower Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunaboylu, Ceren; Demir, Ergül

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of using the interactive whiteboard in mathematics teaching process on the 7th-grade students' achievement. This study was conducted as experimental design. Experimental and control groups were composed of 58 7th-grade students from one school in the 2015-2016 educational year in Ankara. As a…

  9. Examining the Effects of Differential Instructional Methods on the Model of Foreign Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Tae-Il; Shin, Sang-Keun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of differential instructional methods on the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations (IM and EM, respectively), self-confidence, motivation, and English as a foreign language (EFL) achievement for a sample of Korean university students and their teachers. To this end,…

  10. Examining the Effect of Academic Procrastination on Achievement Using LMS Data in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of academic procrastination on e-learning course achievement. Because all of the interactions among students, instructors, and contents in an e-learning environment were automatically recorded in a learning management system (LMS), procrastination such as the delays in weekly scheduled learning and late…

  11. The Effects of Different Applications on Creativity Regarding Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel; Batdi, Veli

    2016-01-01

    In this study, through a meta-analysis of 20 studies, it is aimed to compare the effectiveness of various forms of learning methods including creativity based learning, problem based learning, and differentiated instruction on creativity in terms of the academic achievement of students and to find out other study characteristics, related to the…

  12. Effects of Autonomy Supportive vs. Controlling Teachers' Behavior on Students' Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferber, Natalia; Eckes, Alexander; Wilde, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Grolnick and Ryan (1987) assume that an autonomy supportive environment leads to higher learner engagement and thus to greater achievements and deeper understanding of content. In school, knowledge acquisition (rote learning as well as conceptual learning) are regarded as most important. In this study, we examined the effects of teachers' autonomy…

  13. Effects of Developed Electronic Instructional Medium on Students' Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinna, Nsofor Caroline; Dada, Momoh Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of developed electronic instructional medium (video DVD instructional package) on students' achievement in Biology. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-postest control group design. The sample comprised of 180 senior secondary, year two students from six…

  14. Effects of an Intervention on Math Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Vivian D.; Deris, Aaron R.; Simon, Marilyn K.

    2016-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. The study examined the effects of a mathematics intervention known as Cover, Copy, and Compare for learning basic…

  15. The Effect of Mobile Learning on Students' Achievement and Conversational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfeky, Abdellah Ibrahim Mohammed; Masadeh, Thouqan Saleem Yakoub

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of Mobile Learning, which is a kind of E-learning that uses mobile devices, on the development of the academic achievement and conversational skills of English language specialty students at Najran University. The study used the quasi-experimental approach. Participants consisted of (50) students who…

  16. Studies of the Effect of Formative Assessment on Student Achievement: So Much More Is Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, James H.; Venable, Jessica C.; Varier, Divya

    2013-01-01

    Kingston and Nash (2011) recently presented a meta-analysis of studies showing that the effect of formative assessment on K-12 student achievement may not be as robust as widely believed. This investigation analyzes the methodology used in the Kingston and Nash meta-analysis and provides further analyses of the studies included in the study. These…

  17. Effects of Modality and Pace on Achievement, Mental Effort, and Positive Affect in Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…

  18. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  19. Promoting Early Adolescents' Achievement and Peer Relationships: The Effects of Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Goal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary J.; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    2008-01-01

    Emphasizing the developmental need for positive peer relationships, in this study the authors tested a social-contextual view of the mechanisms and processes by which early adolescents' achievement and peer relationships may be promoted simultaneously. Meta-analysis was used to review 148 independent studies comparing the relative effectiveness of…

  20. The Effect of Community Involvement through PENCIL Partners on School Climate and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that community partnerships could have on school climate and, ultimately, student achievement. Specifically, community partnerships that were formed through the PENCIL (Public Education Needs Community Involvement and Leadership) Foundation in Nashville, Tennessee were researched to determine…

  1. One to One Technology and Its Effect on Student Academic Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Al-Bataineh, Mohammed T.; Al-Bataineh, Adel

    2016-01-01

    This research was a quantitative study using 4th grade participants from a Title 1 elementary school in Central Illinois. This study set out to determine whether one to one technology (1:1 will be used hereafter) truly impacts and effects the academic achievement of students. This study's second goal was to determine whether 1:1 Technology also…

  2. The Effectiveness of Education Technology for Enhancing Reading Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The present review examines research on the effects of technology use on reading achievement in K-12 classrooms. Unlike previous reviews, this review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. In addition, methodological and substantive features of the studies are investigated to examine the…

  3. The Effects of Using an Interactive Whiteboard on the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbas, Oktay; Pektas, Huseyin Mirac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the use of an interactive whiteboard on the academic achievement of university students on the topic of electricity in a science and technology laboratory class. The study was designed as a pretest/posttest control group experimental study. Mean, standard deviation and t- tests were used for…

  4. Effects of a Haptic Augmented Simulation on K-12 Students' Achievement and Their Attitudes Towards Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civelek, Turhan; Ucar, Erdem; Ustunel, Hakan; Aydin, Mehmet Kemal

    2014-01-01

    The current research aims to explore the effects of a haptic augmented simulation on students' achievement and their attitudes towards Physics in an immersive virtual reality environment (VRE). A quasi-experimental post-test design was employed utilizing experiment and control groups. The participants were 215 students from a K-12 school in…

  5. The Effects of 3D Computer Simulation on Biology Students' Achievement and Memory Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, Tavasuria; Ismail, Zurida

    2014-01-01

    A quasi experimental study was conducted for six weeks to determine the effectiveness of two different 3D computer simulation based teaching methods, that is, realistic simulation and non-realistic simulation on Form Four Biology students' achievement and memory retention in Perak, Malaysia. A sample of 136 Form Four Biology students in Perak,…

  6. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  7. Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data. NBER Working Paper No. 15803

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has confirmed both the importance of teachers in producing student achievement growth and in the variability across teachers in the ability to do that. Such findings raise the stakes on our ability to identify effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines information from classroom-based observations and measures…

  8. Academic Achievement, Self-Concept and Depression in Taiwanese Children: Moderated Mediation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…

  9. Effect of Ethnomathematics Teaching Approach on Senior Secondary Students' Achievement and Retention in Locus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achor, Emmanuel E.; Imoko, Benjamin I.; Uloko, Emmanuel S.

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of ethnomathematics teaching approach, ETA on students' achievement and retention in Locus. The study was carried out in education zone B of Benue State of Nigeria using a sample size of 253 Senior Secondary 2 (SS 2) students. It was a non equivalent quasi-experimental study which was guided by two research…

  10. The Effects of Two Intervention Programs on Teaching Quality and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azkiyah, S. N.; Doolaard, Simone; Creemers, Bert P. M.; Van Der Werf, M. P. C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the effectiveness of two interventions aimed to improve teaching quality and student achievement in Indonesia. The first intervention was the use of education standards, while the second one was the combination of education standards with a teacher improvement program. The study involved 50 schools, 52 teachers, and 1660…

  11. Effective Instruction Delivery and Time-In: Positive Procedures for Achieving Child Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandal, Rebecca L.; Olmi, D. Joe; Edwards, Ron P.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Benoit, Denise A.

    2000-01-01

    Preschool children (N=4) from a university-based school psychology clinic were studied to assess whether increases in compliance could be obtained in clinical settings by using only positive procedures such as effective instruction delivery and time-in. Both procedures alone achieved increases in compliance over baseline levels, and additional…

  12. Longitudinal Effects of Parenting on Children's Academic Achievement in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Sen

    2006-01-01

    A study explores the concurrent and longitudinal effects of parenting practice on children's academic achievement in 2,247 African American families using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Results show that parental expectations of children's highest educational attainment and parental beliefs in…

  13. The Effects of School Wide Bonuses on Student Achievement: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the incentive effects of North Carolina's practice of awarding performance bonuses on test score achievement on the state tests. Bonuses were awarded based solely on whether a school exceeds a threshold on a continuous performance metric. The study uses a sharp regression discontinuity design, an approach with strong internal…

  14. Effects of Computer Based Learning on Students' Attitudes and Achievements towards Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Hüsamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tüysüz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…

  15. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  16. The Effect of Leadership Style on Student Achievement in Title I Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Fredrick Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the different types of leadership styles of public school administrators of Title I elementary schools in order to determine how these different types of leadership styles may affect student academic achievement. Specifically, the leadership style behaviors of flexibility and effectiveness were considered.…

  17. Technology's Effect on Achievement in Higher Education: A Stage I Meta-Analysis of Classroom Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Richard F.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Lowerison, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the achievement effects of computer-based technology use in higher education classrooms (non-distance education). An extensive literature search revealed more than 6,000 potentially relevant primary empirical studies. Analysis of a representative sample of 231 studies (k = 310)…

  18. An Integrated Assessment of the Effects of Title I on School Behavior, Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsudaira, Jordan D.; Hosek, Adrienne; Walsh, Elias

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of Title I on school behavior, resources, and academic performance using a rich set of school finance and student-level achievement data from one large urban school district using a regression discontinuity design. We find that Title I eligibility raises Federal revenues of schools by about $460 per student. This is…

  19. The Effect of Scientific Process Skills Education on Students' Scientific Creativity, Science Attitudes and Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktamis, Hilal; Ergin, Omer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of teaching scientific process skills education to students to promote their scientific creativity, attitudes towards science, and achievements in science. The research includes a pre-test post-test research model with a control group. The subjects of the research consist of 40 students reading…

  20. Predictors of Academic Achievement: The Effects of Demographic and Psychosocial Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Marco A.; Portes, Pedro R.

    This study examined the effect of specified demographic and psychological variables on the academic achievement of high school students from urban and rural settings (n=177). Psychosocial variables considered in this study were familism (perceived closeness of the family), perceived discrimination, time management, and home and school factors.…

  1. Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Achievement in Ecological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkemdilim, Egbunonu Roseline; Okeke, Sam O. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' achievement in ecological concepts. Quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre-test post test non-equivalent control group design was adopted. The sample consisted of sixty-six (66) senior secondary year two (SS II) biology students, drawn from two…

  2. Investigating the Effects of the Academy of Reading Program on Middle School Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Brenda Gail

    2016-01-01

    Using a quantitative ex post facto causal comparative research design, this study analyzed the effects of the Academy of Reading software program on students' reading achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) reading scale scores of students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades from 2013-2014 were utilized in this study. The…

  3. The Effects of Repeated Readings on Third Grade Students' Reading Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheriff, Tennille Joie Natasha

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a reading strategy, repeated readings, on third grade students' reading achievement and attitudes. One hundred sixteen third grade students as members of six classrooms in one elementary school participated in this 10 week study. Using a quasi-experimental pretest posttest design, students' mean…

  4. Examining the Effects of Notetaking Format on Achievement When Students Construct and Study Computerized Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes two experiments conducted to investigate the effects of notetaking format on achievement. Students constructed and studied different types of notes: partial (framework and partial notes), skeletal (framework with no notes), and control (no framework and no notes). Found that, based on an application test, students who completed and…

  5. Teacher Attitudes toward Dyslexia: Effects on Teacher Expectations and the Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an…

  6. The Effect of Three Reinforcement Systems on Spelling Achievement Among Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Custer R., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of reinforcement strategies on spelling achievement among a sample of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged fourth grade public school pupils. The three reinforcement strategies employed involved a concrete reward (candy), a token or symbolic reward…

  7. Effects of Interim Assessments on the Achievement Gap: Evidence from an Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, all states operate accountability systems that measure and report school and student performance annually. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of interim assessments on the achievement gap. The authors examine the impact of interim assessments throughout the…

  8. Effects of Interim Assessments across the Achievement Distribution: Evidence From an Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia R.; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a large-scale experiment conducted in Indiana in 2009-2010 to examine the impact of two interim assessment programs (mCLASS and Acuity) across the mathematics and reading achievement distributions. Specifically, we focus on whether the use of interim assessments has a particularly strong effect on improving outcomes for low…

  9. The Effect of Jigsaw IV on the Achievement of Course of Language Teaching Methods and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maden, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of Jigsaw-IV and the conventional teaching on the academic achievement of Turkish pre-service teachers as for the language teaching methods and techniques. In this study "pretest-post test with the control group model" was used. The subjects of the study are 62 undergraduate students at…

  10. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science…

  11. The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2013-01-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not English.…

  12. The Effects of Response to Intervention on the Mathematics Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Annette Sargent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the effectiveness of a system-wide Response to Intervention (RTI) program on the mathematical achievement of seventh and eighth grade students. The study consisted of five district schools with a total of 502 participants. The students were identified as belonging to one of two tiers, which…

  13. The Effect of Creative Drama on Student Achievement in the Course of Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özek, Müzeyyen Bulut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of creative drama on student achievement in the Information Technologies course. The study was carried out for the unit "Tomorrow's Technology" which is the first unit of Information Technologies course. For this study, 89 sixth grade students were selected from primary school in…

  14. The Effects of Modeling Instruction on High School Physics Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an "ex post facto," quasi-experimental research methodology. The…

  15. Instructional Coaching at Selected Middle Schools in South Texas and Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, SantaPaula Gama; Jones, Don; Holland, Glenda; Mundy, Marie-Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two middle schools in one school district in south Texas to determine if presence or absence of instructional coaches has an effect on student achievement. The research design was a quantitative pre experimental study: a nonequivalent (posttest only) control group design in which the experimental group and…

  16. Instruction of Statistics via Computer-Based Tools: Effects on Statistics' Anxiety, Attitude, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciftci, S. Koza; Karadag, Engin; Akdal, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of statistics instruction using computer-based tools, on statistics anxiety, attitude, and achievement. This study was designed as quasi-experimental research and the pattern used was a matched pre-test/post-test with control group design. Data was collected using three scales: a Statistics…

  17. Summary of Effects of Biological Factors on Sex-Related Differences in Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Julia

    Critically reviewed evidence relevant to hypotheses of biological sources of sex-related cognitive differences as they relate to mathematics achievement include the following: explanations based on the assumption of greater variability in male cognitive performance; sex-related differences in serum urate; effects of estrogens compared to androgens…

  18. Effects of Reading Attitude on Reading Achievement of Students in Grades One through Six

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forshey, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (2001) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) has put pressure on all teachers to develop proficient readers. In order to do just this, develop proficient readers, teachers must understand the effects that reading attitude has on reading achievement for all students. Research states that individuals with a…

  19. The Effectiveness of Web Assisted English Language Instruction on the Achievement and Attitude of the Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzunboylu, Huseyin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the exercises of English language grammar instruction on the achievement of the students when it is applied on web assisted. The study had been executed in accordance with the experimental study model. The experiment group of the study has used a web site that was prepared and they…

  20. Teacher Commitment and Its Effects on Student Achievement in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Insim

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the effects of teacher commitment on student achievement. Three teacher commitment dimensions of organizational, professional, and student commitment were derived. The three-dimensional teacher commitment measurement model was tested by a confirmatory factor analysis. Then, the relationships among individual and organizational…

  1. Effects of Grade Retention on Achievement and Self-Concept in Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehmke, Timo; Drechsel, Barbara; Carstensen, Claus H.

    2010-01-01

    The study analyzes the effects of grade repetition on science and mathematics achievement and on self-concept in mathematics using longitudinal data from a representative sample of 9th graders in Germany. Same-age comparisons were applied between three groups: (a) the retained students, (b) a matched group of promoted students, and (c) the entire…

  2. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  3. Effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to study the effects of remarriage following divorce on children's academic achievement. Results indicate that children from reconstituted families score no higher, and often lower than children of divorce from single-parent families. (SLD)

  4. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  5. An Elaboration on the Effect of Reading Anxiety on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpur, Bijan; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an elaboration on the effect of foreign language anxiety on reading comprehension achievement of Iranian EFL learners. The participants comprised 100 BA students, doing General English Course in different academic fields at Islamic University of Neyshabur. The participants took a reading proficiency test of TOEFL and answered…

  6. The Effects of Diagnostic Testing and Remediation on Science Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joe C.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to provide students with differing types of learning needs instruction following diagnostic testing; also examined were the effects of the instruction on science achievement and retention. A total of 154 seventh-grade students from six classes completed a five-week block of instruction in earth science composed of…

  7. The Effect of Teaching Strategy Based on Multiple Intelligences on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…

  8. The Effect of Web-Based Homework on University Students' Physics Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of web-based homework on university students' physics achievement was compared. One of the two identical sections of introductory physics course students received pen-and-paper homework done in groups while the other received web-based online homework performed individually. And then both groups' homework performance and…

  9. The Effect of Web-Based Portfolio Use on Academic Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay

    2012-01-01

    The web-based portfolio emerged as a result of the influence of technological developments on educational practices. In this study, the effect of the web-based portfolio building process on academic achievement and retention is explored. For this purpose, a study platform known as a computer-assisted personal development portfolio was designed for…

  10. Effects of Graphic Organiser on Students' Achievement in Algebraic Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Josiah; Adaramati, Tobiloba Faith

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of graphic organiser and gender on students' academic achievement in algebraic word problem. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were used in guiding this study. Quasi experimental research was employed and Non-equivalent pre and post test design was used. The study involved the Senior Secondary…

  11. The Effects of Interactive Video on Cognitive Achievement and Attitude toward Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soled, Suzanne Wegener; And Others

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of interactive video versus traditional lecture on cognitive learning and affective behaviors of undergraduate nursing students. It was hypothesized that there would be no significant differences in the cognitive achievement scores of students taught by an interactive videodisk…

  12. The Effect of Using Activities Improving Scientific Literacy on Students' Achievement in Science and Technology Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucluer, Efe; Kesercioglu, Teoman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is examining the effect of the using scientific literacy development activities on students' achievement. The study was carried out in a primary school in Buca Izmir for 2010-2011 academic years. System of our body was chosen as a study topic in our search which took 6 weeks. Pre-post test semi experimental control model was…

  13. The Effective Behaviors and Practices of Administrators in Urban Charter Schools Relating to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Prima N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to analyze and identify the leadership styles that directly influence student achievement that were used by the school leaders sustaining the schools. A basic qualitative research study was appropriate to acknowledge the leadership style of the principal in demonstrating effective practices that link…

  14. Effects of Learning Styles and Interest on Concentration and Achievement of Students in Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaojie; Yang, Xianmin

    2016-01-01

    Learning concentration deserves in-depth investigation in the field of mobile learning. Therefore, this study examined the interaction effects of learning styles and interest on the learning concentration and academic achievement of students who were asked to learn conceptual knowledge via their mobile phones in a classroom setting. A total of 92…

  15. Effectiveness of a Metacognitive Reading Strategies Program for Improving Low Achieving EFL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Nasrah Mahmoud; Tawalbeh, Tha'er Issa

    2015-01-01

    As the training of language learners was a main concern of EFL teachers, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive reading strategies instruction (MRSI) on Taif University EFL students who achieved low results in reading. The final sample of this study was (21) female university students. The sample was divided into two groups;…

  16. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  17. The Effect of Analogy-Based Teaching on Students' Achievement and Students' Views about Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genc, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the analogy-based teaching on students' achievement and students' views about analogies. In this research, Solomon group design which is one of the experimental designs, was implemented. The sample of the research consists of 108 students in four 6th grade classes in Turkey. The achievement…

  18. Effect of Pullout Lessons on the Academic Achievement of Eighth-Grade Band Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hash, Phillip M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of pullout instrumental lessons on the academic achievement of eighth-grade band students. Participants (N = 353) included 292 nonband students and 61 band students pulled once per week for music lessons in a single suburban K-8 school district in Midwestern United States. Data indicated that eighth-grade band…

  19. The Effects of the Constructivist Learning Approach on Student's Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayaz, Mehmet Fatih; Sekerci, Hanifi

    2015-01-01

    In this research, a meta-analysis study was conducted in order to determine the effects of constructivist learning approach on students' academic achievement. Master's thesis, doctoral dissertation and articles in national and international databases, which are realized between the years of 2003-2014, appropriate to the problem and which can be…

  20. The Effects of Teachers' In-Class Motivational Intervention on Learners' EFL Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrabai, Fakieh

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a controlled quasi-experimental study investigating the effects of motivational strategies on learner motivation and achievement in English language classes in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the most important motivational strategies were identified. In the second…

  1. Within-District Effects of Catholic Schooling on 12th-Grade Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Vivien W.; Pong, Suet-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Using a propensity score matching method, and regression modeling based on the 2002 Education Longitudinal Study, this study found a significant Catholic school, mathematics achievement effect among those 12th graders who were least likely to attend Catholic school. This result is evident within districts after we used the School District…

  2. The Effects of Japanese Heritage Language Maintenance on Scholastic Verbal and Academic Achievement in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Setsue

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of the maintenance of Japanese as a heritage language on English and overall academic achievement. The interrelationships among Japanese oral and writing proficiency, SAT I Verbal, SAT I, and high school grade point average (GPA) were examined. The participants were 31 second generation Japanese-American…

  3. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on the Academic Achievement and Knowledge Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Van Dat

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on the achievement and knowledge retention of 110 first-year primary education students toward the psychology subject over the eight weeks of instruction at An Giang University. These tertiary students were divided into two matched groups of 55 to be taught by the same…

  4. The Effects of an ICT-Based Reading Intervention on Students' Achievement in Grade Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Deborah; Chambers, Alex; Mather, Nancy; Bauschatz, Retina; Bauer, Meredyth; Doan, Lesli

    2016-01-01

    A controlled quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the use of MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach on participants' reading and spelling achievement. After attrition, participants included 170 students enrolled in eight second-grade classrooms (four classrooms in each school) in two public elementary schools in the southwestern…

  5. Effects of Group Size on Students Mathematics Achievement in Small Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…

  6. The Effects of the Use of Technology in Mathematics Instruction on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ron York, Sr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the use of technology on students' mathematics achievement, particularly the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) mathematics results. Eleven schools within the Miami-Dade County Public School System participated in a pilot program on the use of Geometers Sketchpad (GSP). Three of…

  7. Effects of Jigsaw II Technique on Academic Achievement and Attitudes to Written Expression Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of a cooperative technique Jigsaw II (experimental group, n=42) and instructional teacher-centered teaching method (control group, n=38) on Turkish language teacher education department students' attitudes to written expression course (a course in which writing skills were taught), their academic achievement,…

  8. Effect of Jigsaw I Technique on Achievement in Written Expression Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maden, Sedat

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of Jigsaw I technique from the cooperative learning methods and traditional teaching method on academic achievement and retrieval of Turkish teacher candidates in the matter of written expression. The sample of the study consists of 70 students studying at the Department of Turkish teaching in the academic…

  9. The Effects of 5E Inquiry Learning Activities on Achievement and Attitude toward Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Senol; Oskay, Ozge Ozyalcin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 5E inquiry learning activities on students' achievement, attitude toward chemistry. A non-equivalent control group design was used to the quasi-experimental research in this study. A total of 34 (8 males and 26 females) undergraduates in Turkey voluntarily participated in the study. The…

  10. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own…

  11. Effects of a Language Arts Service-Learning Project on Sixth-Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 created new instructional intervention practices, reading and writing scores across K-12 and postsecondary levels continue to reflect stagnant achievement outcomes. The research questions in this study concerned the effect of a northern Michigan middle school language arts…

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE DIFFERENT BASAL READING SYSTEMS ON FIRST GRADE READING ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALPERT, HARVEY; TANYZER, HAROLD J.

    BASAL READER SYSTEMS FOR BEGINNERS WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC SYSTEM FEATURES ON THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SEX AND LEVELS OF INTELLIGENCE. THE PROJECT COVERED THE FOLLOWING SYSTEMS--(1) THE LIPPINCOTT "BASIC READING" SERIES, (2) THE "EARLY-TO-READ…

  13. The Effects of Response to Intervention on Third Graders' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Marlon Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the effects of the Response to Intervention Three Tier Model on third graders' reading achievement. Two hundred forty-three students participated in this study. Students were from an elementary school in the southeastern region of the United States. The data on the students was collected…

  14. The Effect of Instructional Mode on School Achievement of Concrete and Formal Operational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastovac, John J.

    The effectiveness of audiotutorial and teacher-directed inquiry in promoting school achievement was explored. High school biology students from two dissimilar populations were administered ten Piagetian-styled tasks to determine the student's operational level. Analysis of data on operational level and age determined that inner-city students…

  15. The Effect of Foreign Language Study in Tennessee Middle Schools on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative method, quasi-experimental design study examined the possible effect of foreign language study in Tennessee middle schools on mathematics achievement. The population was 1,708 historical student test scores of a single cohort spanning 6th through 8th Grades from the same schools within a large urban public school district. NCLB…

  16. Development of the Scale for Program Facilitators to Assess the Effectiveness of after School Achievement Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, James J.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Smith, Dennis W.; Fleming, David S.; Connaughton, Dan P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Scale for Program Facilitators (SPF) to assess the effectiveness of after school achievement programs through four steps: (a) identification of a theoretical framework, (b) formulation of the initial scale, (c) test of content validity, and (d) conducting confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). A…

  17. Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback condition…

  18. Comparative Effects of Two Modes of Computer-Assisted Instructional Package on Solid Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Ezenwa, Victoria Ifeoma; Anyanwu, Romanus Chogozie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of two modes of computer-assisted instructional package on solid geometry achievement amongst senior secondary school students in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI(AT) and CAI(AN) packages were examined. This study adopted a pretest-posttest…

  19. Action Research: Effects of Self-Efficacy Training on Low Achieving Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselden, Polly G.; Sanders, Marla; Sturkie, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This action research project investigated the effects of self-efficacy training on low achieving high school freshman who were considered to be at risk for academic failure. Six students participated in psycho-educational group counseling sessions for forty-five minutes weekly over the course of a nine-week reporting period. Findings indicated…

  20. Teacher Effects on Student Achievement in First Grade: Which Aspects Matter Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Tinneke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of teachers (background qualifications, attitudes and beliefs, and instructional practices) on student achievement in mathematics, reading, and spelling in 1st grade. Its theoretical framework and methodology are based on recent work by Palardy and Rumberger (2008). Data from the SiBO Project, a…

  1. Multilevel Effects of Student and Classroom Factors on Elementary Science Achievement in Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom…

  2. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Students' Achievement and Views on the Science and Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altun, Sertel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of learning plan implementation prepared with the cooperative learning method. In particular, the study addresses the effect of cooperative learning on students' achievement and their views regarding the "Systems in Our Body" unit of the 6th grade Science and Technology lesson.…

  3. Effect of Creative Drama on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic and Thematic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli; Batdi, Hacer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of creative drama on achievement through the use of quantitative and qualitative research methods. In the quantitative section of the research, the meta-analytic method was used and an attempt was made to include all studies of creative drama carried out between 2000 and 2014 at the national and…

  4. The Effects of Using Dynamic Geometry on Eighth Grade Students' Achievement and Attitude towards Triangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Halime Samur; Akyuz, Didem

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of dynamic geometry based computer instruction on eighth grade students' achievement in geometry and their attitudes toward geometry and technology compared to traditional instruction. Central to the study was a controlled experiment, which contained experimental and control groups both instructed by the same…

  5. Effect of Computer-Aided Perspective Drawings on Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulus, Aytac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-aided Perspective Drawings on eighth grade primary school students' achievement in Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing. The study made use of pre-test post-test control group experimental design. The study was conducted with thirty 8th grade students attending a primary school…

  6. The Effect of School-Specific Parenting Processes on Academic Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mellissa S.; Cui, Ming

    2012-01-01

    There is inconsistency in the current literature regarding the association between dimensions of parenting processes and academic achievement for adolescents. Further, few studies have extended such an association into young adulthood. In this study, we examined the effect of three dimensions of parenting processes, including school-specific…

  7. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  8. The Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on Mathematical Problem Solving Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsoy, Gokhan; Ataman, Aysegul

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using metacognitive strategy training on mathematical problem solving achievement. The study took place over a nine-week period with 47 fifth grade students. The experimental group (n = 24) instructed to improve their metacognitive skills. At the same time the students in the control group…

  9. The Effectiveness of the SSHA in Improving Prediction of Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikoff, Richard L.; Kafka, Gene F.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of the Survey of Study Habits (SSHA) in improving prediction of achievement. The American College Testing Program English and mathematics subtests were good predictors of gradepoint average. The SSHA subtests accounted for an additional 3 percent of the variance. Sex differences were noted. (Author)

  10. Achievement Motivation Training--Effects on ABE/ASE Students' Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    A study was conducted to identify psychosocial needs of Adult Basic Education (ABE)/Adult Secondary Education (ASE) students by using the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ). A second purpose was to test effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training (AMT) as a technique to counterbalance the negative impact of these students' former…

  11. The Effects of Statistical Analysis Software and Calculators on Statistics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmann, Edwin P.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effects of microcomputer-based statistical software and hand-held calculators on the statistics achievement of university males and females. The subjects, 73 graduate students enrolled in univariate statistics classes at a public comprehensive university, were randomly assigned to groups that used either microcomputer-based…

  12. Goals, Data Use, and Instruction: The Effect of a Teacher Professional Development Program on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design. Applying propensity score…

  13. The Effect of Teacher Certification and Task Level on Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Liu, Qiduan

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effect of teachers' mathematics preparation and the thinking level of mathematics problems on student performance. Achievement scores of students whose teachers differed on level of mathematics preparation indicated that students performed better on higher level thinking tasks when teachers had advanced…

  14. Academic Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of School Psychological Climate on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth-and tenth-grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic…

  15. Effects of Eclectic Learning Approach on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in English at Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the research paper was to investigate the effect of eclectic learning approach on the academic achievement and retention of students in English at elementary level. A sample of forty students of 8th grade randomly selected from Government Boys High School Khurram District Karak was used. It was an experimental study and that's why…

  16. Effect of Using Mathematics Laboratory in Teaching Mathematics on the Achievement of Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okigbo, Ebele C.; Osuafor, Abigail M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of using mathematics laboratory in teaching on students' achievement in Junior Secondary School Mathematics. A total of 100 JS 3 Mathematics students were involved in the study. The study is a quasi-experimental research. Results were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).…

  17. The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.

    This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…

  18. The Effects of Learning Strategies on Mathematical Literacy: A Comparison between Lower and Higher Achieving Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen-Nagar, Noga

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the effects of learning strategies on Mathematical Literacy (ML) of students in higher and lower achieving countries. To address this issue, the study utilizes PISA2002 data to conduct a multi-level analysis (HLM) of Hong Kong and Israel students. In PISA2002, Israel was rated 31st in Mathematics,…

  19. Peer Effects in Urban Schools: Assessing the Impact of Classroom Composition on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of classroom peers on standardized testing achievement for all third- and fourth-grade students in the Philadelphia School District over 6 school years. With a comprehensive individual-and multilevel data set of all students matched to teachers, classrooms, and schools, two empirical strategies are employed. The…

  20. Effect of Cuisenaire Rods' Approach on Some Nigeria Primary Pupils' Achievement in Decimal Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurumeh, M. S. C.; Achor, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the effect of Cuisenaire Rods' approach on some Nigeria primary pupils' achievement in decimal fractions. Three hypotheses guided the study. A total of 200 Primary six pupils (that is, 6th grade) from randomly selected schools in Makurdi metropolis of Benue State of Nigeria served as the sample for the study. A Mathematics…

  1. New Empirical Evidence on the Effect of Educational Tracking on Social Inequalities in Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides

    2015-01-01

    One of the major imperatives behind the comprehensivisation of secondary education was the belief that postponing the age at which students are tracked in different educational routes would mitigate the effect of social background on educational outcomes. Comparative investigations of large-scale international student achievement tests in…

  2. The Effect of Origami-Based Instruction on Spatial Visualization, Geometry Achievement, and Geometric Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arici, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the effect of origami-based geometry instruction on spatial visualization, geometry achievement, and geometric reasoning of tenth-grade students in Turkey. The sample ("n" = 184) was chosen from a tenth-grade population of a public high school in Turkey. It was a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design. A…

  3. The Effectiveness of Contract Learning Strategy on Special Diploma Students' Achievement and Attitudes Towards English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of using the contract learning strategy on special diploma students' achievement and attitudes towards English language; a strategy that has been used in the field of education in general and teaching English language in particular. The subjects of the present study consisted of 41 graduate students…

  4. Lasting Legacy for Achievement: Colorado Coaches Boost Teacher Effectiveness with a Rubric for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the Weld County School District Re-8 in Fort Lupton, Colorado, was eager to find a way to increase teacher effectiveness and, as a result, improve student achievement. This small, semirural district about 35 miles northeast of Denver grappled with high teacher turnover (34% in 2005) and low scores on state assessments (three out of four…

  5. Effect of Self Regulated Learning Approach on Junior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwafor, Chika E.; Obodo, Abigail Chikaodinaka; Okafor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the effect of self-regulated learning approach on junior secondary school students' achievement in basic science. Quasi-experimental design was used for the study.Two co-educational schools were drawn for the study through simple random sampling technique. One school was assigned to the treatment group while the other was…

  6. Effects of Ability Grouping on Math Achievement of Third Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Emily; Feng, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping on the mathematical achievement of students in third grade. Participants were 16 third graders in a self-contained classroom, assigned to either small homogeneous or heterogeneous group for math instruction for 7 weeks. Pretest-posttest scores and growth…

  7. The Effects of Multimedia and Learning Style on Student Achievement in Online Electronics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surjono, Herman Dwi

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of multimedia preferences and learning styles on undergraduate student achievement in an adaptive e-learning system for electronics course at the Yogyakarta State University Indonesia. The findings showed that students in which their multimedia preferences and learning style matched with the way the…

  8. The Effects of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on the Academic Achievement of Students Studying "Electrochemistry"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günter, Tugçe; Alpat, Sibel Kilinç

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on students' academic achievements in studying "Electrochemistry" within a course on Analytical Chemistry. The research was of a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design and it was conducted with second year students in the Chemistry Teaching Program at…

  9. Effects of Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Mathematics Education Quality on Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çiftçi, S. Koza

    2015-01-01

    The two aims of this study are as follows: (1) to compare the differences in mathematics anxiety and achievement in secondary school students according to their perceptions of the quality of their mathematics education via a cluster analysis and (2) to test the effects of the perception of mathematics education quality on anxiety and achievement…

  10. The Effect of an Instructional Intervention on Middle School English Learners' Science and English Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Guerrero, Cindy; Huerta, Maggie; Fan, Yinan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a quasi-experimental project on fifth grade English learners' achievement in state-mandated standards-based science and English reading assessment. A total of 166 treatment students and 80 comparison students from four randomized intermediate schools participated in the current project. The intervention consisted…

  11. The Effect of Inquiry-Based Learning Method on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based learning method on students' academic achievement in sciences lesson. A total of 40 fifth grade students from two different classes were involved in the study. They were selected through purposive sampling method. The group which was assigned as experimental group was…

  12. Effects of the "Auditory Discrimination in Depth Program" on Auditory Conceptualization and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Timothy Gerald

    Statistically significant differences were not found between the treatment and non-treatment groups in a study designed to investigate the effectiveness of the Auditory Discrimination in Depth (A.D.D.) Program. The treatment group involved thirty-nine normally achieving and educationally handicapped students who were given the A.D.D. Program…

  13. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and its Effects on Continental Biotas: Evidence from Polecat Bench in Northwestern Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Many important environmental events in the geological past were first recognized by their effects on the associated biota, and this is true for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or PETM global greenhouse warming event, which happened 55 million years before present. In the Southern Ocean, PETM carbon and oxygen isotope anomalies were found to coincide with a major terminal-Paleocene disappearance or extinction of benthic foraminiferans. On North America the PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE) was found to coincide with mammalian dwarfing and a major initial-Eocene appearance or origination event of continental mammals. Linking the two records, marine and continental, resolved a long-standing disagreement over competing definitions of the Paleocene-Eocene epoch boundary, and more importantly indicated that the PETM greenhouse warming event was global. Dwarfing of herbivorous mammals can be interpreted as a response to elevated atmospheric CO2. The origin of modern orders of mammals including Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and Primates ('APP' taxa) is more complicated and difficult to explain but the origin of these orders may also be a response, directly or indirectly, to PETM warming. We now know from Polecat Bench and elsewhere in North America that the biotic response to PETM greenhouse warming involved the appearance of at least two new mammalian faunas distinct from previously known Clarkforkian mammals of the upper or late Paleocene and previously known Wasatchian mammals of the lower or early Eocene. Three stages and ages of the former are known (Cf-1 to Cf-3) and seven stages and ages of the latter are known (Wa-1 to Wa-7), each occupying about a hundred meters of strata representing a half-million years or so of time. Between the standard Clarkforkian and Wasatchian faunal zones is an initial 'Wa-M' faunal zone of only five or so meters in thickness and something on the order of 20 thousand years of geological time. The Wa-M fauna includes the first

  14. Effect of ionospheric self-conditioning and preconditioning on the broad upshifted maximum component of stimulated electromagnetic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, L. S.; Berhnardt, P. A.; Goldstein, J. A.; Selcher, C. A.; Frolov, V. L.; Sergeev, E. N.

    1999-02-01

    Stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) are high-frequency radio emissions that are generated during high-power, high-frequency, ordinary mode (O-mode), radiowave heating of the ionosphere. These emissions are particularly useful in ionospheric heating experiments because they provide a way of monitoring space plasma processes remotely and passively. In order to utilize these emissions for diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to understand the space plasma processes involved in their generation. The purpose of these experiments was to observe the responses of a particular component of the SEE, the broad upshifted maximum (BUM), to a variety of heating stimuli in an effort to understand the factors involved in its development. Heating experiments were conducted at the Radiophysical Research Institute SURA Ionospheric Modification Facility in Russia. Experiments consisted of single-pump, two-pump, and single-pump power-stepping experiments. The single-pump and two-pump transmissions were organized into groups of pulses of varying widths and spacings to facilitate the investigation of self-conditioning, preconditioning, and two-pump-interaction conditioning effects. The major findings of these experiments are that the action of a pump can have a conditioning effect on the medium that affects the time development of the BUM. The result of the conditioning process is the formation of an overshoot in the temporal development of the BUM. A residual conditioning effect is sustained after the end of a pump pulse for a period of time (~30 s). The residual conditioning acts as preconditioning for the BUM of a subsequent pump pulse. A second O-mode pump (pump2), at a frequency a few hundred kilohertz above that of the first pump (pump1), is observed to cause additional suppression of the pump1 BUM, implying an enhanced conditioning effect. Time constants for the buildup and decay of the conditioning effects are estimated. During power-stepping experiments, the BUM spectrum

  15. FTO Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes through Its Effect on Increasing the Maximum BMI in Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kamura, Yutaka; Iwata, Minoru; Maeda, Shiro; Shinmura, Satomi; Koshimizu, Yukiko; Honoki, Hisae; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Ishiki, Manabu; Usui, Isao; Fukushima, Yasuo; Takano, Atsuko; Kato, Hiromi; Murakami, Shihou; Higuchi, Kiyohiro; Kobashi, Chikaaki; Tobe, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Aim Several studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms within the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, whether the effects of the FTO locus on T2D susceptibility are independent of fat-mass increases remains controversial. To investigate this issue, we examined the association of FTO variants with T2D and various aspects of BMI history during adult life in a Japanese population. Methods We genotyped SNPs within FTO (rs1121980 and rs1558902) in 760 Japanese patients with T2D who had reached a lifetime maximum BMI (BMImax) before or at the time of diagnosis and 693 control individuals with information regarding their BMImax. Results The BMImax showed the strongest association with T2D risk among the BMIs evaluated in this study. In the sex-combined analysis, FTO SNPs were not associated with any of the BMI variables or with T2D, but in sex-stratified analyses, both SNPs were significantly associated with the BMImax and rs1558902 was associated with T2D in men. The association of the SNPs with T2D remained significant after adjustments for the current BMI and age, whereas the T2D association of the SNP was no longer significant after adjustments for BMImax and age. Conclusions These results suggest that the effects of FTO polymorphisms on T2D susceptibility in Japanese men are mediated through their effect on increasing the BMImax before or at the time of diagnosis. PMID:27820839

  16. Achievement and motivation in the middle school science classroom: The effects of formative assessment feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Evera, William C.

    2004-11-01

    Formative assessment feedback is increasingly viewed as essential to learning. Yet, existing studies on feedback have focused heavily on knowledge of results (KR) feedback rather than information-rich formative assessment feedback that is more commonly used to encourage and guide learning. This study was designed to investigate the effects of information-rich formative assessment feedback on performance and motivation of middle school science students. Using a within subjects crossover design, treatment students received written formative assessment feedback on all homework and class-work assignments. Control students received completion scores for their work but no feedback. Dependent measures included two multiple-choice unit tests and a multipart motivation survey which assessed self-efficacy, goal orientation, affective responses, and preferences regarding feedback. Results indicated effects sizes of .7 for low achievers and .4 for middle level achievers on the performance measure as a result of the feedback intervention. These students also experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy. High achievers experienced reduced performance following the feedback intervention with an effect size of -.7. Survey analysis revealed no improvement in motivation-related variables for high achievers.

  17. Differential negative air ion effects on learning disabled and normal-achieving children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.; Kershner, J. R.

    1990-03-01

    Forty normal-achieving and 33 learning disabled (LD) children were assigned randomly to either a negative ion or placebo test condition. On a dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel (CV) combinations, both groups showed an ioninduced increase in the normal right ear advantage (REA). However, the mechanisms for this effect were different for each group. The LDs showed the effect at the right ear/left hemisphere (enhancement). The normal achievers showed the effect at the left ear/right hemisphere (inhibition). The results are consistent with an activation-inhibition model of cerebral function and suggest a functional relationship between arousal, interhemispheric activation-inhibition, and learning disabilities. The LDs may have an interhemispheric dysfunction. Both groups showed superior right ear report and the normal achiever showed overall superiority. Normal achievers showed higher consonant intrusion scores, probably due to a greater cognitive capacity. Age was a significant covariate reflecting developmental capacity changes. Negative air ions are seen to be a tool with potential theoretical and remedial applications.

  18. School Context and the Effect ESL Placement on Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Achievement.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Immigrant adolescents' academic achievement is crucial to our future economic stability, and Mexican-origin linguistic minority youth in U.S. schools generally demonstrate lower levels of achievement. English as a Second Language (ESL) programs provide an institutional response to these students' needs, the effect of which may vary by the proportion of immigrant students in the school. MEASURES: Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we estimate the effect of ESL placement on Mexican-origin achievement for first-, second-, and third-generation adolescents separately in schools with many and few immigrant students. RESULTS: The estimated effect of ESL placement varies by both immigrant concentration in the school and by students' generational status. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ESL enrollment may be protective for second-generation Mexican-origin adolescents in high immigrant concentration schools, and may prove detrimental for first-generation adolescents in contexts with few other immigrant students.

  19. Effect of thiamine pyrophosphate on levels of serum lactate, maximum oxygen consumption and heart rate in athletes performing aerobic activity.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Hernández, V M; López-Ascencio, R; Del Toro-Equihua, M; Vásquez, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) on serum lactate levels, maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)) and heart rate in male athletes performing aerobic activity. A double-blind, randomized, crossover study was performed in which lactate levels, Vo(2max) and heart rates in 27 male athletes were compared at rest and after exercise, following administration of placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%) or TPP (1 mg/kg). At rest, serum lactate levels after placebo or TPP were similar; however, after exercise, the levels were lower in the athletes after taking TPP than after placebo. During exercise, Vo(2max) in athletes on TPP was higher than on placebo. At rest, heart rate after taking placebo or TPP was similar but, after exercise, heart rate was lower after taking TPP than after placebo. It is concluded that TPP caused serum lactate levels and heart rate to be lower than placebo and Vo(2max) to be higher in athletes performing aerobic physical activity.

  20. Effects of handle orientation, gloves, handle friction and elbow posture on maximum horizontal pull and push forces.

    PubMed

    Seo, Na Jin; Armstrong, Thomas J; Young, Justin G

    2010-01-01

    Biomechanical models were evaluated for effects of handle orientation, handle material, gloves and arm posture on maximal pull/push force. Eight healthy subjects performed maximum pull/push exertions on handles with two different orientations and two different surface materials, using bare hand and two types of glove as well as two arm postures. The empirical data supported the proposed biomechanical models: Pull/push forces for the bare hand on a rubber handle decreased 10% when the handle was parallel to the pull/push direction, compared with when perpendicular to it. For parallel handles, pull/push forces further decreased with decreasing hand-handle friction coefficient (simulated by different handle materials and gloves). Pull force exerted by the bare hand was 29% greater when the elbow was extended than when flexed. Pull force was greater than push force (with bare hand and flexed elbow). The biomechanical models suggest that friction between the hand and handle limits pull/push forces for parallel handles. Elbow strength may be responsible for decreased pull force for the flexed elbow posture and decreased force for pull compared with push in the postures examined. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Biomechanical models presented in this paper provide insights for causes of upper extremity strength limitations during pull/push tasks. Findings in this paper can be used directly in the design of workstation and objects to reduce fatigue and risk of musculoskeletal disorders.

  1. Reducing statistics anxiety and enhancing statistics learning achievement: effectiveness of a one-minute strategy.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Wang, Yu-Min; Lee, Li-Tze

    2014-08-01

    Statistical knowledge is widely used in academia; however, statistics teachers struggle with the issue of how to reduce students' statistics anxiety and enhance students' statistics learning. This study assesses the effectiveness of a "one-minute paper strategy" in reducing students' statistics-related anxiety and in improving students' statistics-related achievement. Participants were 77 undergraduates from two classes enrolled in applied statistics courses. An experiment was implemented according to a pretest/posttest comparison group design. The quasi-experimental design showed that the one-minute paper strategy significantly reduced students' statistics anxiety and improved students' statistics learning achievement. The strategy was a better instructional tool than the textbook exercise for reducing students' statistics anxiety and improving students' statistics achievement.

  2. Effects of Collaborative Group Composition and Inquiry Instruction on Reasoning Gains and Achievement in Undergraduate Biology

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie Lee; Lawson, Anton

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of collaborative group composition and instructional method on reasoning gains and achievement in college biology. Based on initial student reasoning ability (i.e., low, medium, or high), students were assigned to either homogeneous or heterogeneous collaborative groups within either inquiry or didactic instruction. Achievement and reasoning gains were assessed at the end of the semester. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, led to significantly greater gains in reasoning ability and achievement. Inquiry instruction also led to greater confidence and more positive attitudes toward collaboration. Low-reasoning students made significantly greater reasoning gains within inquiry instruction when grouped with other low reasoners than when grouped with either medium or high reasoners. Results are consistent with equilibration theory, supporting the idea that students benefit from the opportunity for self-regulation without the guidance or direction of a more capable peer. PMID:21364101

  3. Effect of radiance-to-reflectance transformation and atmosphere removal on maximum likelihood classification accuracy of high-dimensional remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffbeck, Joseph P.; Landgrebe, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Many analysis algorithms for high-dimensional remote sensing data require that the remotely sensed radiance spectra be transformed to approximate reflectance to allow comparison with a library of laboratory reflectance spectra. In maximum likelihood classification, however, the remotely sensed spectra are compared to training samples, thus a transformation to reflectance may or may not be helpful. The effect of several radiance-to-reflectance transformations on maximum likelihood classification accuracy is investigated in this paper. We show that the empirical line approach, LOWTRAN7, flat-field correction, single spectrum method, and internal average reflectance are all non-singular affine transformations, and that non-singular affine transformations have no effect on discriminant analysis feature extraction and maximum likelihood classification accuracy. (An affine transformation is a linear transformation with an optional offset.) Since the Atmosphere Removal Program (ATREM) and the log residue method are not affine transformations, experiments with Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were conducted to determine the effect of these transformations on maximum likelihood classification accuracy. The average classification accuracy of the data transformed by ATREM and the log residue method was slightly less than the accuracy of the original radiance data. Since the radiance-to-reflectance transformations allow direct comparison of remotely sensed spectra with laboratory reflectance spectra, they can be quite useful in labeling the training samples required by maximum likelihood classification, but these transformations have only a slight effect or no effect at all on discriminant analysis and maximum likelihood classification accuracy.

  4. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions. MDRC Working Papers on Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  5. Divorce, approaches to learning, and children's academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis of mediated and moderated effects.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James Clyde; Amato, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) were used to test the hypothesis that approaches to learning (ATL) mediates the link between parental divorce and academic achievement. Fixed effects regression was utilized to test for mediation, and subsequent moderation analyses examining gender and age at time of divorce also were conducted. Results indicated that divorce was associated with less growth in test scores and that ATL mediated 18% and 12% of this association in reading and mathematics respectively. Parental divorce also was associated with larger negative effects for children who experienced divorce at an older age as well as for girls' mathematics test scores. These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of parental divorce on children's academic achievement and underscore the importance of focusing on the variability of child outcomes following parental divorce.

  6. Effect of Trajectories of Friends' and Parents' School Involvement on Adolescents' Engagement and Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    In a sample of 527 academically at-risk youth, we investigated trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement across ages 12–14 and the joint contributions of these trajectories to adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement. Girls reported higher levels of friends' and parents' school involvement than boys. Both parents' and friends' school involvement declined across ages 12–14. Combined latent growth models and structural equation models showed effects of the trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement on adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement, over and above adolescents' prior performance. These effects were additive rather than interactive. Strategies for enhancing parent involvement in school and students' affiliation with peers who are positively engaged in school are discussed. PMID:28239244

  7. Effect of Trajectories of Friends' and Parents' School Involvement on Adolescents' Engagement and Achievement.

    PubMed

    Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G

    2016-12-01

    In a sample of 527 academically at-risk youth, we investigated trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement across ages 12-14 and the joint contributions of these trajectories to adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement. Girls reported higher levels of friends' and parents' school involvement than boys. Both parents' and friends' school involvement declined across ages 12-14. Combined latent growth models and structural equation models showed effects of the trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement on adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement, over and above adolescents' prior performance. These effects were additive rather than interactive. Strategies for enhancing parent involvement in school and students' affiliation with peers who are positively engaged in school are discussed.

  8. Effect of phentolamine, alprenolol and prenylamine on maximum rate of rise of action potential in guinea-pig papillary muscles.

    PubMed

    Sada, H

    1978-10-01

    Effects of phentolamine (13.3, 26.5 and 53.0 micron), alprenolol (3.5, 7.0 and 17.5 micron) and prenylamine (2.4, 4.8 and 11.9 micron) on the transmembrane potential were studied in isolated guinea-pig papillary muscles, superfused with Tyrode's solution. 1. Phentolamine, alprenolol and prenylamine reduced the maximum rate of rise of action potential (.Vmax) dose-dependently. Higher concentrations of phentolamine and prenylamine caused a loss of plateau in a majority of the preparations. Resting potential was not altered by any of the drugs. Readmittance of drug-free Tyrode's solution reversed these changes induced by 13.3 micron of phentolamine and all conconcentrations of alprenolol almost completely but those induced by higher concentrations of phentolamine and all concentrations of prenylamine only slightly. 2. .Vmax at steady state was increased with decreasing driving frequencies (0.5 and 0.25 Hz) and was decreased with increasing ones (2--5 Hz) in comparison with that at 1 Hz. Such changes were all exaggerated by the above drugs, particularly by prenylamine. 3. Prenylamine and, to a lesser degree, phentolamine and alprenolol delayed dose-dependently the recovery process of .Vmax in premature responses. 4. .Vmax in the first response after interruption of stimulation recovered toward the predrug value in the presence of the above three drugs. The time constants of recovery process ranged between 10.5 and 15.0s for phentolamine, between 4.5 and 15.5s for alprenolol. The time constant of the main component was estimated to be approximately 2s for the recovery process with prenylamine. 5. On the basis of the model recently proposed by Hondeghem and Katzung (1977), it is suggested that the drug molecules associate with the open sodium channels and dissociated slowly from the closed channels and that the inactivation parameter in the drug-associated channels is shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction.

  9. Achieving an Effective National Security Posture in an Age of Austerity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-14

    Achieving an Effective National Security Posture in an Age of Austerity * Dr. Gansler served as Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology ...Maintain Technological Leadership - - in all areas e.g. in cybersecurity, in intelligence, and in logistics (e.g. from “Big Data Analytics”); while...recognizing that technology , industry, and labor today are globalized (and, in many areas, the technological leadership exists in commercial or

  10. Effects of digital game-based learning on student engagement and academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy W.

    This experimental study was designed to determine the effect of digital game-based learning on student engagement and academic achievement. The sample was comprised of 34 students enrolled in a secondary Biology class in a rural public school. The study utilized an experimental pretest-posttest design with switching replications. After random assignment, students participated in one of two supplemental learning activities: playing a digital game designed to review science concepts or participating in a lab to review the same concepts. Students subsequently switched activities. Student achievement data were collected on mastery of science concepts, and student engagement data were collected utilizing self- and teacher-reported measures. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Results demonstrated that the digital game was as effective as the lab activity at increasing teacher-reported student engagement and academic achievement. These findings may be of interest to school administrators or directors of teacher preparation programs on the potential effectiveness of digital games as a learning tool.

  11. Effects of collaboration and inquiry on reasoning and achievement in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jamie Lee

    The primary purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two collaborative grouping strategies and two instructional methods in terms of gains in reasoning ability and achievement in college biology. In order to do so, a quasi-experimental study was performed in which students were placed in one of four treatment conditions: heterogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, homogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, heterogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction, and homogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction. Students were placed in groups based on initial reasoning level. Reasoning levels and achievement gains were assessed at the end of the study. Results showed that within non-inquiry instruction, heterogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement than homogeneous groups. In contrast, within inquiry instruction, homogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, significantly outperformed non-inquiry instruction in the development of reasoning ability. Within inquiry instruction, low-ability students had significantly greater reasoning gains when grouped homogeneously. These results support Piaget's developmental theory and contradict Vygotsky's developmental theory. These results also suggest that the success of one grouping strategy over another is highly dependent upon the nature of instruction, which may be a cause for such conflicting views on grouping strategies within the educational literature. In addition, inquiry instruction led to students having greater confidence in their reasoning ability as well as a more positive attitude toward collaboration. Instructional implications are discussed.

  12. Effect of School Belonging Trajectories in Grades 6–8 on Achievement: Gender and Ethnic Differences

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung Hee; Allee, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between trajectories of school belonging across grades 6–8 and academic achievement in grade 8 in an ethnically diverse sample of 527 academically at-risk adolescents. Students reported annually on school belonging. Reading and math achievement were assessed at grade 5 (baseline) and grade 8. Interactive effects of gender and ethnicity were found in the conditional growth models for school belonging. Girls of all ethnicities had identical growth trajectories and reported higher initial school belonging than Euro-American or Latino boys. Latino and Euro-American males had lower initial level of school belonging than African American males, and Latino males had lower growth in school belonging than Euro-American males. In structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses, initial level of school belonging predicted grade 8 reading for girls and grade 8 math for boys and girls, above prior achievement and school and child covariates, but growth in school belonging predicted grade 8 achievement only for African American students. Implications for strategies to improve school belonging among academically at-risk youth are discussed. PMID:26563601

  13. Trajectories of Math and Reading Achievement in Low Achieving Children in Elementary School: Effects of Early and Later Retention in Grade

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Stephanie E.; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of retention or promotion in first grade on growth trajectories in mathematics and reading achievement over the elementary school years (grades 1–5). From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance, 363 children who were either promoted (n = 251) or retained (n = 112) in first grade could be successfully matched on 72 background variables. Achievement was measured annually using Woodcock-Johnson W scores; scores of retained children were shifted back one year to permit same-grade comparisons. Using longitudinal growth curve analysis, trajectories of math and reading scores for promoted and retained children were compared. Retained children received a one year boost in achievement; this boost fully dissipated by the end of elementary school. The pattern of subsequent retention in grades 2, 3 and 4 and placement in special education of the sample during the elementary school years is also described and their effects are explored. Policy implications for interventions for low achieving children are considered. PMID:23335818

  14. The effectiveness of Family Science and Technology Workshops on parental involvement, student achievement, and student curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosten, Lora Bechard

    The literature suggests that parental involvement in schools results in positive changes in students and that schools need to provide opportunities for parents to share in the learning process. Workshops are an effective method of engaging parents in the education of their children. This dissertation studies the effects of voluntary Family Science and Technology Workshops on elementary children's science interest and achievement, as well as on parents' collaboration in their child's education. The study involved 35 second and third-grade students and their parents who volunteered to participate. The parental volunteers were randomly assigned to either the control group (children attending the workshops without a parent) or the treatment group (children attending the workshops with a parent). The study was conducted in the Fall of 1995 over a four-week period. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to determine the effects of the workshops on children's science achievement and science curiosity, as well as on parents' involvement with their child's education. The study revealed that there was no significant statistical difference at the.05 level between the treatment/control groups in children's science achievement or science curiosity, or in parent's involvement with their children's education. However, the study did focus parental attention on effective education and points the way to more extensive research in this critical learning area. This dual study, that is, the effects of teaching basic technology to young students with the support of their parents, reflects the focus of the Salve Regina University Ph.D. program in which technology is examined in its effects on humans. In essence, this program investigates what it means to be human in an age of advanced technology.

  15. The effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in 5th grade science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Pamela Mccrea

    2007-12-01

    At-risk students show consistent patterns of under achievement and social maladjustment in school which leads to their demise in high school (McMillian & Reed, 1994). Similarly, special education students are at increased risk of not completing high school and do not perform as well on national achievement tests than their nondisabled peers (Land & Legters, 2002). It is possible that students at-risk for academic failure will not meet graduation requirements unless interventions are put in place to alleviate this problem. It has been documented that science textbooks contain difficult vocabulary and high reading levels that are challenging for struggling students. Using approaches such as activities oriented instruction, which supports the cooperative learning/peer tutoring model is one approach that has been successful with normally achieving and special education students. This research examined the effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements with peer tutoring on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in science. A crossover design was implemented in three fifth grade inclusive classes, consisting of typically achieving students, students at-risk, and students with learning disabilities. The participants included 16 at-risk students, three special education students and 44 normally achieving students. The science review activities were implemented during two consecutive science units. One unit covered Earth and Space science. The other unit covered Light and Sound. Each curriculum enhancement had identification and production level activities. The identification level provided prompts; the production level did not provide prompts. Pretest and posttest were administered. Overall findings of the study revealed a significant interaction between experimental condition and treatment order, suggesting an advantage for students using differentiated curriculum enhancements. Main effects analysis suggested that students performed better on one

  16. Within-District Effects of Catholic Schooling on 12th Grad Math Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vivien W.; Pong, Suet-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Using a propensity score matching method and regression modeling based on the 2002 Education Longitudinal Study, this study found a significant Catholic school effect on mathematics achievement among those 12th graders who were least likely to attend Catholic school. This result is evident within-districts after we used the School District Demographics System map data to locate Catholic schools within school district boundaries. Furthermore, the Catholic school effects were statistically significant for students in districts that allowed publicly funded private education. PMID:25606028

  17. The effect of A teacher questioning strategy training program on teaching behavior, student achievement, and retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Paul B.; Schuck, Robert F.

    The use of questions in the classroom has been employed throughout the recorded history of teaching. One still hears the term Socratic method during discussions of questioning procedures. The use of teacher questions is presently viewed as a viable procedure for effective instruction. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of training teachers in the use of a questioning technique and the resultant effect upon student learning. The Post-Test Only Control Group Design was used in randomly assigning teachers and students to experimental and control groups. A group of teachers was trained in the use of a specific questioning technique. Follow-up periodic observations were made of questioning technique behavior while teaching science units to groups of students. Post-unit achievement tests were administered to the student groups to obtain evidence of a relationship between the implementation of specific types of teacher questions and student achievement and retention. Analysis of observation data indicated a higher use of managerial and rhetorical questions by the control group than the experimental group. The experimental group employed a greater number of recall and data gathering questions as well as higher order data processing and data verification type questions. The student posttest achievement scores for both units of instruction were greater for the experimental groups than for the control groups. The retention scores for both units were Beater for the experimental groups than for the control groups.

  18. The effects of mastery learning correctives on academic achievement and student affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeese, Sean Vincent

    This study was conducted to examine the differences in high school biology achievement and student affect towards teacher and content from the use of individualized correctives as part of mastery learning. An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used during the fall 2011 semester. Over a thirteen-week period, 99 students in five general-level biology classes received mastery learning instruction covering several state standards. Of the 99 students, 50 received individualized correctives based on the results of formative assessment. The other 49 students received a non-individualized study guide after the formative assessment. A written summative examination was used to measure achievement. The Instructional Affect Assessment Instrument (IAAI) was used to measure student affect. The written summative evaluation and the IAAI were administered as a pretest to assure the independence of the covariate and treatment effect. Data were analyzed with a multivariate repeated measures test and ANCOVAs. No differences were found between the individualized corrective group and the general study guide group in terms of achievement or student affect toward content or teacher. Results indicate that individualized correctives were not the key factor in mastery learning for this population and type of science content. Further study on the impact of individualized correctives in different subject areas and populations is recommended as well as additional research on the effect of repeated testing.

  19. The Feminization of Primary Education: Effects of Teachers' Sex on Pupil Achievement, Attitudes and Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert

    2007-03-01

    Since the mid-1990s, considerable concern has been expressed about the feminization of education. The underlying assumption is that the increasing number of female teachers is leading to a lack of male role models, which may then have negative consequences for the achievement and behaviour of boys in particular. For this reason, policy is currently being pursued in several countries to increase the number of male teachers. In the present article, the theoretical foundation for this policy will be shown to be weak at best. To test this empirically, a large-scale study of Dutch primary schools was conducted, which involved 5181 grade eight pupils, 251 teachers and 163 schools. This study confirmed that teacher sex has no effect whatsoever on the achievement, attitudes or behaviour of pupils. This finding holds for both boys and girls, for both minority and non-minority pupils and for both children from lower and higher social-economic milieus.

  20. Effects of background and classroom characteristics on the science achievement of 10-year-old students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosier, Malcolm

    1990-01-01

    Effects of characteristics of science classrooms on the science achievement of students were examined in the context of a simple model. The model incorporated prior attributes of the students in terms of home background, sex, and verbal and quantitative ability. The model was estimated by means of partial least squares multivariate procedures using data for 10-year-old Queensland students from the Second International Science Study. The results demonstrated the dominant influence of home background and verbal/mathematical ability. Female students tended to have lower scores after allowing for the influence of the other variables in the model. Students who stated that there were more student initiated activities in their science lessons tended to have lower achievement.

  1. A new high school science program and its effect on student achievement in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Robert

    Student achievement in mathematics and science is a high educational priority worldwide. The American educational system is not meeting its objectives for these subjects: our students are performing below international standards. The problem is endemic, leading to the conclusion that it is structural. During the last seven years, I have led the creation and implementation of a program whose aim is to address this problem. The structure of this program stresses horizontal and vertical curriculum articulations in order to increase curriculum efficiency and meaningfulness to students. My first aim, in conducting this study, was to determine the program's effectiveness. Since this was a long term program created in a real world environment it would be difficult to use experimental or quasi-experimental analysis. However, I was able to develop a plausible argument for the effectiveness of the program by using two measures to create a baseline for student aptitude and three measures to determine student achievement. Together these showed that the school's students, while typical of those in New Jersey, achieved very positive results in mathematic and science. The likelihood that the new program was responsible for this was enhanced by the fact that the verbal and mathematical aptitudes of the students were comparable, but their achievement in areas outside mathematic and science were not exceptional. My second aim was to provide documentation so that the program could be replicated at other schools. This included the scope and sequence of the mathematics and science courses; the curricula of the physics courses; an explanation the pedagogical approach used in the physics courses, and sample chapters of a textbook being written to support the first year physic course. Whiles those documents supply a snapshot of the current state of the program; they are probably insufficient to replicate it. This would also require an understanding of the program's rationale. Towards this

  2. The Effect of Interactive e-Book on Students' Achievement at Najran University in Computer in Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebied, Mohammed Mohammed Ahmed; Rahman, Shimaa Ahmed Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to examine the effect of interactive e-books on students' achievement at Najran University in computer in education course. Quasi-experimental study design is used in the study and to collect data the researchers built achievement test to measure the dependent variable represented in the achievement affected by experimental…

  3. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  4. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own classrooms. The study analyzed the mean scale scores for the science portion of the state's high school graduation test for the years 2004 through 2007 to determine whether schools receiving the intervention scored significantly higher than comparison schools receiving no intervention. The results showed that all schools achieved significant improvement of scale scores between 2004 and 2007, but there were no significant performance differences between intervention and comparison schools, nor were there any significant differences between various subgroups in intervention and comparison schools. However, one subgroup, economically disadvantaged (ED) students, from high-level intervention schools closed the achievement gap with ED students from no-intervention schools across the period of the study. The study provides important information to guide future research on and design of large-scale professional development programs to foster inquiry-based science.

  5. Effects on seventh-grade students' achievement and science anxiety of alternatives to conventional frog dissection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszalek, Christine Susan

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study in a suburban school district was to investigate and compare the level of learning and long-term retention of frog internal anatomy between seventh-grade students using an interactive CD tutorial, a desktop microworld, and conventional frog dissection. Students' anxiety toward science was also compared across the three treatment groups and between genders. Additional data on the students' preferred learning style were used to explore possible interaction effects with their respective instructional activity. Subjects participating in the study were all seventh-grade students in one junior-high school, numbering 280 in total. Classes were randomly assigned to the three modes of instruction for the dissection of a frog: a CD-tutorial dissection, a desktop microworld dissection, and a conventional dissection. The Conventional treatment was the traditional physical dissection using a preserved frog specimen and lab dissection tools. The CD-Tutorial treatment was the interactive tutorial Digital Frog from Digital Frog International. The Microworld treatment was a desktop microworld environment composed of Operation Frog on CD supplemented with other programs to provide additional avenues for learning. Data collection and testing occurred prior to treatment, one day after treatment, and three months after treatment. Data collected showed mixed results for all measures taken. The differences in achievement gained favoring the conventional treatment from pretest to both posttests appear to have leveled out somewhat over time. Although anxiety levels declined for both genders after treatment, females continued to report significantly higher science anxiety than males. There appears to be a relationship between treatment and gender in terms of effect on science anxiety. For all three measures taken--pretest, immediate posttest and delayed posttest--no significant difference in achievement by learning style was observed. Learning style alone does not

  6. Achieving nonreciprocal unidirectional single-photon quantum transport using the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Luqi; Xu, Shanshan; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-11-15

    We show that nonreciprocal unidirectional single-photon quantum transport can be achieved with the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. The system consists of a 1D waveguide coupling to two three-level atoms of the V-type. The two atoms, in addition, are each driven by an external coherent field. We show that the phase of the external coherent field provides a gauge potential for the photon states. With a proper choice of the phase difference between the two coherent fields, the transport of a single photon can exhibit unity contrast in its transmissions for the two propagation directions.

  7. The Effects of a Maximal Power Training Cycle on the Strength, Maximum Power, Vertical Jump Height and Acceleration of High-Level 400-Meter Hurdlers

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=−2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=−1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=−1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=−1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers. PMID:23717361

  8. Growing minds: The effect of school gardening programs on the science achievement of elementary students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemmer, Cynthia Davis

    Science literacy refers to a basic knowledge and understanding of science concepts and processes needed to consider issues and make choices on a daily basis in an increasingly technology-driven society. A critical precursor to producing science literate adults is actively involving children in science while they are young. National and state (TX) science standards advocate the use of constructivist methods including hands-on, experiential activities that foster the development of science process skills through real-world investigations. School gardens show promise as a tool for implementing these guidelines by providing living laboratories for active science. Gardens offer opportunities for a variety of hands-on investigations, enabling students to apply and practice science skills. School gardens are increasing in popularity; however, little research data exists attesting to their actual effectiveness in enhancing students' science achievement. The study used a quasi-experimental posttest-only research design to assess the effects of a school gardening program on the science achievement of 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade elementary students. The sample consisted of 647 students from seven elementary schools in Temple, Texas. The experimental group participated in school gardening activities as part of their science curriculum. The control group did not garden and were taught using traditional classroom-based methods. Results showed higher scores for students in the experimental group which were statistically significant. Post-hoc tests using Scheffe's method revealed that these differences were attributed to the 5th grade. No statistical significance was found between girls and boys in the experimental group, indicating that gardening was equally effective for both genders. Within each gender, statistical significance was found between males in the experimental and control groups at all three grade levels, and for females in the 5 th grade. This research indicated that

  9. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  10. The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on middle school students' student achievement and motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, John

    A problem facing science educators is determining the most effective means of science instruction so that students will meet or exceed the new rigorous standards. The theoretical framework for this study was based on reform and research efforts that have informed science teachers that using constructivism is the best method of science instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the constructivist method of science instruction affected student achievement and student motivation in a sixth grade science classroom. The guiding research question involved understanding which method of science instruction would be most effective at improving student achievement in science. Other sub-questions included the factors that contribute to student motivation in science and the method of science instruction students receive that affects motivation to learn science. Quantitative data were collected using a pre-test and post-test single group design. T-test and ANCOVA were used to test quantitative hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected using student reflective journals and classroom discussions. Students' perspectives were transcribed, coded and used to further inform quantitative findings. The findings of this study supported the recommendations made by science reformists that the best method of science instruction was a constructivist method. This study also found that participant comments favored constructivist taught classes. The implications for social change at the local level included potential increases in student achievement in science and possibly increased understanding that can facilitate similar changes at other schools. From a global perspective, constructivist-oriented methods might result in students becoming more interested in majoring in science at the college level and in becoming part of a scientifically literate work force.

  11. Effects of School-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames.

  12. Learning anatomy via mobile augmented reality: Effects on achievement and cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Sevda; Kapakin, Samet; Göktaş, Yüksel

    2016-10-01

    Augmented reality (AR), a new generation of technology, has attracted the attention of educators in recent years. In this study, a MagicBook was developed for a neuroanatomy topic by using mobile augmented reality (mAR) technology. This technology integrates virtual learning objects into the real world and allow users to interact with the environment using mobile devices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning anatomy via mAR on medical students' academic achievement and cognitive load. The mixed method was applied in the study. The random sample consisted of 70 second-year undergraduate medical students: 34 in an experimental group and 36 in a control group. Academic achievement test and cognitive load scale were used as data collection tool. A one-way MANOVA test was used for analysis. The experimental group, which used mAR applications, reported higher achievement and lower cognitive load. The use of mAR applications in anatomy education contributed to the formation of an effective and productive learning environment. Student cognitive load decreased as abstract information became concrete in printed books via multimedia materials in mAR applications. Additionally, students were able to access the materials in the MagicBook anytime and anywhere they wanted. The mobile learning approach helped students learn better by exerting less cognitive effort. Moreover, the sensory experience and real time interaction with environment may provide learning satisfaction and enable students to structure their knowledge to complete the learning tasks. Anat Sci Educ 9: 411-421. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. The effects of preservice teacher's cognitive questioning level and redirecting on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Joseph P., II

    The objectives of this experimental study were to investigate the effects of 100% high cognitive questions, 50% high cognitive questions and 0% high cognitive questions on primary and intermediate students' achievement at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels. A second purpose was to examine the effects of redirecting questions on student achievement. Groups of 5 subjects were randomly selected from 16 intermediate and 16 primary classrooms and then randomly assigned to one of three treatment levels. Data were collected on 154 subjects. Within the three cognitive questioning treatment levels the subjects were also randomly assigned to one of two questioning strategies: (1) redirected and (2) directed. Redirection occurs when the teacher asks the same question to a number of students (in this case 2). Thirty preservice teachers conducted the treatments. The teachers were trained to follow a prescribed behavior pattern and were video taped during the treatment to insure fidelity to the scripted questions. At the end of the lesson a criterion test was administered with 3 subtests measuring at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. There was no significant difference among scores on the total criterion measure or the sub tests due to cognitive questioning level. There was a significant difference due to redirecting questions (p = 0.05). Students assigned to teachers using redirection scored significantly higher than those assigned to teachers not using this strategy. This difference was found on the knowledge subtest. Significant interactions occurred between questioning level and questioning strategy on the comprehension and total test.

  14. Effects of three types of resisted sprint training devices on the kinematics of sprinting at maximum velocity.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Pedro E; Palao, José M; Elvira, José L L; Linthorne, Nicholas P

    2008-05-01

    Resisted sprint running is a common training method for improving sprint-specific strength. For maximum specificity of training, the athlete's movement patterns during the training exercise should closely resemble those used when performing the sport. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of sprinting at maximum velocity to the kinematics of sprinting when using three of types of resisted sprint training devices (sled, parachute, and weight belt). Eleven men and 7 women participated in the study. Flying sprints greater than 30 m were recorded by video and digitized with the use of biomechanical analysis software. The test conditions were compared using a 2-way analysis of variance with a post-hoc Tukey test of honestly significant differences. We found that the 3 types of resisted sprint training devices are appropriate devices for training the maximum velocity phase in sprinting. These devices exerted a substantial overload on the athlete, as indicated by reductions in stride length and running velocity, but induced only minor changes in the athlete's running technique. When training with resisted sprint training devices, the coach should use a high resistance so that the athlete experiences a large training stimulus, but not so high that the device induces substantial changes in sprinting technique. We recommend using a video overlay system to visually compare the movement patterns of the athlete in unloaded sprinting to sprinting with the training device. In particular, the coach should look for changes in the athlete's forward lean and changes in the angles of the support leg during the ground contact phase of the stride.

  15. Effects of Long-Term Fluid Injection on Maximum Magnitude and Induced Seismicity Parameters at Northwestern The Geysers Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnhoff, M.; Kwiatek, G.; Martínez-Garzón, P.; Dresen, G. H.; Sone, H.; Hartline, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    The long-term temporal and spatial changes in statistical, source and stress characteristics of one cluster of induced seismicity recorded at The Geysers geothermal field (US) are analyzed in relation to the field operations, fluid migration and constraints on the maximum likely magnitude. Two injection wells, Prati-9 and Prati-29, located in the northwestern part of the field and their associated seismicity composed of 1,776 events recorded throughout a seven-year period were analyzed. The seismicity catalog was relocated and the source characteristics including focal mechanisms and static source parameters were refined using first-motion polarity, spectral fitting and mesh spectral ratio techniques. The source characteristics together with statistical parameters (b-value) and cluster dynamics were used to investigate and understand the details of fluid migration scheme in the vicinity of injection wells. The observed temporal, spatial and source characteristics were clearly attributed to fluid injection and fluid migration towards greater depths, involving increasing pore pressure in the reservoir. Increasing poroelastic stresses at greater depths affect the kinematic properties of the seismicity in that at reservoir depths normal faulting mechanism events dominate, whereas at larger depths the contribution of strike-slip events are is significantly increasing. The seasonal changes of injection rates were found to directly impact the shape and spatial extent of the seismic cloud. A tendency of larger seismic events to occur closer to injection wells and a correlation between the spatial extent of the seismic cloud and source sizes of the largest events was observed suggesting geometrical constraints on the maximum likely magnitude. The observed maximum magnitude was found to be clearly correlated to the dimensions of seismic cloud which is related to the volume of formation weakened by fluid injection and injection rate, and the average pore pressure change in

  16. Tri-partite complex for axonal transport drug delivery achieves pharmacological effect

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents into selected populations of CNS (Central Nervous System) neurons is an extremely compelling goal. Currently, systemic methods are generally used for delivery of pain medications, anti-virals for treatment of dermatomal infections, anti-spasmodics, and neuroprotectants. Systemic side effects or undesirable effects on parts of the CNS that are not involved in the pathology limit efficacy and limit clinical utility for many classes of pharmaceuticals. Axonal transport from the periphery offers a possible selective route, but there has been little progress towards design of agents that can accomplish targeted delivery via this intraneural route. To achieve this goal, we developed a tripartite molecular construction concept involving an axonal transport facilitator molecule, a polymer linker, and a large number of drug molecules conjugated to the linker, then sought to evaluate its neurobiology and pharmacological behavior. Results We developed chemical synthesis methodologies for assembling these tripartite complexes using a variety of axonal transport facilitators including nerve growth factor, wheat germ agglutinin, and synthetic facilitators derived from phage display work. Loading of up to 100 drug molecules per complex was achieved. Conjugation methods were used that allowed the drugs to be released in active form inside the cell body after transport. Intramuscular and intradermal injection proved effective for introducing pharmacologically effective doses into selected populations of CNS neurons. Pharmacological efficacy with gabapentin in a paw withdrawal latency model revealed a ten fold increase in half life and a 300 fold decrease in necessary dose relative to systemic administration for gabapentin when the drug was delivered by axonal transport using the tripartite vehicle. Conclusion Specific targeting of selected subpopulations of CNS neurons for drug delivery by axonal transport holds great promise

  17. Effects of Conceptual Assignments and Conceptual Change Discussions on Students' Misconceptions and Achievement Regarding Force and Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing…

  18. The Effects of the Elevate Math Summer Program on Math Achievement and Algebra Readiness. REL 2015-096

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The Effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness: This randomized trial examined the effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness, as well as math interest and self-efficacy, among rising 8th grade students in California's Silicon Valley. The Elevate Math summer math…

  19. The Effects of Self-Regulated Learning on Community College Students' Metacognition and Achievement in Developmental Math Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Karen D. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of training in self-regulation on metacognition and math achievement were investigated in this study. The moderator effect of gender, age and ethnicity on the relationships between training and the outcomes of metacognition and math achievement were also explored. The participants for this study were 116 community college students…

  20. Explaining Social Class Inequalities in Educational Achievement in the UK: Quantifying the Contribution of Social Class Differences in School "Effectiveness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Graham

    2016-01-01

    There are large social class inequalities in educational achievement in the UK. This paper quantifies the contribution of one mechanism to the production of these inequalities: social class differences in school "effectiveness," where "effectiveness" refers to a school's impact on pupils' educational achievement (relative to…

  1. Effective Mathematics Instruction for Middle School Students: Perspectives from Teachers in High-Achieving Schools with Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Fermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the perceptions of successful mathematics teachers working in middle schools who have been effective in reducing the socioeconomic achievement gap, to discuss their success, and to gain insights into what they regarded as effective instructional methods for low-achieving,…

  2. The Causal Effect of Class Size on Academic Achievement: Multivariate Instrumental Variable Estimators with Data Missing at Random

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Yongyun; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses three questions: Does reduced class size cause higher academic achievement in reading, mathematics, listening, and word recognition skills? If it does, how large are these effects? Does the magnitude of such effects vary significantly across schools? The authors analyze data from Tennessee's Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio…

  3. The effect of maximum-allowable payload temperature on the mass of a multimegawatt space-based platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-08-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the mass of a space-based platform as a function of the maximum-allowed operating temperature of the electrical equipment within the platform payload. Two computer programs were used in conjunction to perform these calculations. The first program was used to determine the mass of the platform reactor, shield, and power conversion system. The second program was used to determine the mass of the main and secondary radiators of the platform. The main radiator removes the waste heat associated with the power conversion system and the secondary radiator removes the waste heat associated with the platform payload. These calculations were performed for both Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with two different types of payload cooling systems: a pumped-loop system (a heat exchanger with a liquid coolant) and a refrigerator system. The results indicate that increases in the maximum-allowed payload temperature offer significant platform mass savings for both the Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with either the pumped-loop or refrigerator payload cooling systems. Therefore, with respect to platform mass, the development of high temperature electrical equipment would be advantageous. 3 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Feature extraction of micro-motion frequency and the maximum wobble angle in a small range of missile warhead based on micro-Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Jiang, Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Micro-Doppler effect is induced by the micro-motion dynamics of the radar target itself or any structure on the target. In this paper, a simplified cone-shaped model for ballistic missile warhead with micro-nutation is established, followed by the theoretical formula of micro-nutation is derived. It is confirmed that the theoretical results are identical to simulation results by using short-time Fourier transform. Then we propose a new method for nutation period extraction via signature maximum energy fitting based on empirical mode decomposition and short-time Fourier transform. The maximum wobble angle is also extracted by distance approximate approach in a small range of wobble angle, which is combined with the maximum likelihood estimation. By the simulation studies, it is shown that these two feature extraction methods are both valid even with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  5. The effect of inquiry-based, hands-on labs on achievement in middle school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Donna Kaye Green

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to measure the difference in science achievement between students who had been taught with an inquiry-based, hands-on pedagogical approach and those who had not. Improving student academic achievement and standardized test scores is the major objective of teachers, parents, school administrators, government entities, and students themselves. One major barrier to this academic success in Georgia, and the entire United States, has been the paucity of success in middle level science classes. Many studies have been conducted to determine the learning approaches that will best enable students to not only acquire a deeper understanding of science concepts, but to equip them to apply that new knowledge in their daily activities. Inquiry-based, hands-on learning involves students participating in activities that reflect methods of scientific investigation. The effective utilization of the inquiry-based learning approach demands inclusion of learners in a self-directed learning environment, the ability to think critically, and an understanding of how to reflect and reason scientifically. The treatment group using an inquiry-based, hands-on program did score slightly higher on the CRCT. However, the results revealed that there was not a significant difference in student achievement. This study showed that the traditionally instructed control group had slightly higher interest in science than the inquiry-based treatment group. The findings of this research study indicated that the NCLB mandates might need to be altered if there are no significant academic gains that result from the use of inquiry-based strategies.

  6. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.

  7. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    DOE PAGES

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; ...

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase inmore » the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.« less

  8. Effects of achievement goals on challenge seeking and feedback processing: behavioral and FMRI evidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woogul; Kim, Sung-il

    2014-01-01

    We conducted behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research to investigate the effects of two types of achievement goals--mastery goals and performance-approach goals--on challenge seeking and feedback processing. The results of the behavioral experiment indicated that mastery goals were associated with a tendency to seek challenge, both before and after experiencing difficulty during task performance, whereas performance-approach goals were related to a tendency to avoid challenge after encountering difficulty during task performance. The fMRI experiment uncovered a significant decrease in ventral striatal activity when participants received negative feedback for any task type and both forms of achievement goals. During the processing of negative feedback for the rule-finding task, performance-approach-oriented participants showed a substantial reduction in activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the frontopolar cortex, whereas mastery-oriented participants showed little change. These results suggest that performance-approach-oriented participants are less likely to either recruit control processes in response to negative feedback or focus on task-relevant information provided alongside the negative feedback. In contrast, mastery-oriented participants are more likely to modulate aversive valuations to negative feedback and focus on the constructive elements of feedback in order to attain their task goals. We conclude that performance-approach goals lead to a reluctant stance towards difficulty, while mastery goals encourage a proactive stance.

  9. The effects of interactive video on cognitive achievement and attitude toward learning.

    PubMed

    Schare, B L; Dunn, S C; Clark, H M; Soled, S W; Gilman, B R

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this experimentally designed study was to determine the effects of an interactive videodisc program, entitled "Diabetic Health Assessment," versus traditional lecture on cognitive learning and affective behaviors of baccalaureate nursing students. It was hypothesized that: 1) there would be no significant difference in the cognitive achievement scores between those students taught by an interactive videodisc program (experimental group) compared to those students taught by a traditional lecture method (control group), and 2) there would be a statistically significant difference in student attitude toward learning between those students taught by an interactive videodisc program compared to students taught by a traditional lecture method. Eighty-three third-year baccalaureate nursing students at a major urban university served as subjects and were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 41) or an experimental group (n = 42). The multivariate analysis of covariance with two criteria and the pretest as the covariate was significant (p = .000, df = 4, 140) indicating that the adjusted posttest scores on the two measures were significantly different for the experimental group compared to the control group. The univariate F for the cognitive measure was nonsignificant (p = .283, df = 2, 72) indicating that students' achievement under interactive video is not significantly different than under traditional lecture. The univariate F for the affective measure was significant (p = .000, df = 2, 72) indicating that the students learning by interactive video possessed a more positive attitude toward learning than those learning by traditional lecture method of instruction.

  10. The effect of a state Department of Education mentoring program for teachers on science student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Gilda Darlene

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the Georgia Department of Education Science Specialist teacher-mentoring program on student achievement on science standardized tests. This study analyzed the impact this program has had on student achievement in participating high schools when compared with high schools across the state where the program had not intervened. The Georgia High School Graduation Test, physical science end-of-course, and biology end-of-course test data, from a three year period, were collected from the Georgia Department of Education website and analyzed using an independent-t test and the Mann-Whitney test. While test score improvements cannot be entirely attributed to the Science Specialist mentoring program, the study revealed state-wide increases in physical science end-of-course tests and the Georgia High School Graduation Test scores over the three-year period in those schools participating in the teacher-mentoring program. Significant increases in students with disabilities populations and economically disadvantaged populations were also noted.

  11. Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Matthew J; Maxwell, Peter; Huttley, Gavin A

    2005-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational processes, DNA repair and

  12. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    This study analyzed a state department of education's ability to have actual influence over the improvement of science achievement and proficiency by having direct relationships with science teachers in Georgia's lowest performing schools. The study employed a mixed ANOVA analysis of the mean scale scores and proficiency rates of the science portion of the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) for the years 2004 through 2007 to determine if the intervention by the Science Mentor Program (SMP) had significant effect on the science achievement and proficiency within the cohort of schools, as compared to a set of schools receiving no intervention, on various subgroups within the schools, and on various levels of intervention within the SMP. All data used in this study are available to the public through the Georgia Department of Education (GaDOE). SMP schools were selected based on their level of intervention for three consecutive years. Non-SMP schools were selected based on demographic similarities in economically disadvantaged, white, African-American, and students with disabilities to ensure a match of pairings for analyses. The results of this study showed significant improvement of scale scores and proficiency rates between 2004 and 2007. The study showed significant increases in all schools regardless of treatment. The study also showed significant differences in performance within the subgroups. Males, white, non-Economically Disadvantaged, and regular education students were all found to have significantly better performance in both achievement and proficiency rate. Economically Disadvantaged students were found to have a significant difference with regard to treatment groups. There was a significant difference between the mean scale score and proficiency rates of Economically Disadvantaged students in schools receiving high-intervention and schools receiving no-intervention. Further analysis showed that the only significant difference was in 2004, the

  13. Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baragona, Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students completed the Multiple Intelligence Inventory to determine their intelligence strengths, the Students' Motivation Toward Science Learning questionnaire to determine student attitudes towards learning in science, multiple choice tests to determine academic achievement, and open-ended questions to determine conceptual understanding. Effects of intelligence types and teaching methods on academic achievement and conceptual understanding were determined statistically by repeated measures ANOVAs. No significance occurred in academic achievement scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in logical-mathematical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and intrapersonal intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by problem-based learning (PBL) as compared to peer teaching (PT). No significance occurred in conceptual understanding scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and spatial intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Students with

  14. A meta-analysis of morphological interventions: effects on literacy achievement of children with literacy difficulties.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Amanda P; Ahn, Soyeon

    2010-12-01

    This study synthesizes 79 standardized mean-change differences between control and treatment groups from 17 independent studies, investigating the effect of morphological interventions on literacy outcomes for students with literacy difficulties. Average total sample size ranged from 15 to 261 from a wide range of grade levels. Overall, morphological instruction showed a significant improvement on literacy achievement (d = 0.33). Specifically, its effect was significant on several literacy outcomes such as phonological awareness (d = 0.49), morphological awareness (d = 0.40), vocabulary (d = 0.40), reading comprehension (d = 0.24), and spelling (d = 0.20). Morphological instruction was particularly effective for children with reading, learning, or speech and language disabilities, English language learners, and struggling readers, suggesting the possibility that morphological instruction can remediate phonological processing challenges. Other moderators were also explored to explain differences in morphological intervention effects. These findings suggest students with literacy difficulties would benefit from morphological instruction.

  15. The effects of kinesthetic teaching strategies on student academic achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Rita L.

    The purposes of this research study were to (a) compare the effectiveness of years of traditional textbook instruction with the effectiveness of kinesthetic-based instruction in science on student test scores on the IOWA: Test of Basic Skills (ITBS), (b) compare the effectiveness of traditional and kinesthetic science teaching on teacher and student experiences in science through interviews with teachers and students, and (c) assess the opinions of students receiving kinesthetic-based and text-based book instruction in science. The study group involved students in fifth grade who had experienced kinesthetic-based instruction for 4 years, two classroom teachers per grade level who provided textbook-based instruction in science, and one classroom teacher per grade level who provided kinesthetic-based instruction in science. The same science curriculum was studied in all classrooms. The IOWA Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) scores from 1999 and 2000 for second and third grade were analyzed to compare the effects of kinesthetic-based and textbook-based instruction on student academic achievement in science. No significant differences were found between study and control groups. In addition, interviews were conducted with students and teachers. Themes that emerged from the data were (a) kinesthetic teaching of science is more fun for teachers and students than traditionally taught science, (b) there are differences in learning styles for students and teachers, and (c) experiences in science class can be rewarding. One recommendation for practice would include using a larger sample.

  16. Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerachary, Mummadi

    The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.

  17. Effects of metacognitive instruction on the academic achievement of students in the secondary sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Gregory A.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of reflective assessment in the form of situated metacognitive prompts on student achievement in the secondary sciences. A second goal was to determine whether specific gender differences existed in terms of student responsiveness to the metacognitive interventions. Participants in the study consisted of a convenience sample from a population of ninth-grade honors biology students in a large suburban school district located near Seattle, Washington. Beyond answering the specific research questions raised in this study, an additional aim was to broaden the growing body of research pertaining to the effect of metacognition on student achievement. A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design was employed in this study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed to address the specific research questions raised. Specifically, a three-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed. For this purpose, a single within-subjects factor, termed Testing, was defined. Three levels were allocated to this factor, and quantitative data from the Pretest, Posttest, and Retention Test were assigned to the levels, respectively. Group and Gender were defined as between-subjects factors, and both were allocated two levels; the two Group levels were Reflective and Non-Reflective. The effects of Group and Gender on each of the three quantitative measures were examined singly and in interaction with each other. Tests of statistical significance were analyzed at the .05 level. There was a statistically significant effect for Group (Reflective, Non-Reflective) by Testing (Pretest, Posttest, Retention Test). A three-way repeated-measures ANOVA procedure revealed that students in the Reflective group outperformed students in the Non-Reflective group (F = 10.258, p = .002, Partial eta 2 = .088). According to the effect size estimate, almost 9% of variance in the Testing variable was attributable to the Group variable

  18. Further Evidence Concerning the Effects of Perceptions of Effort and Ability on Achievement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rest, Stanley; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Three experiments were reported based on the findings that perceived effort expenditure and level of ability, in addition to achievement outcome, are determinants of reward and punishment in achievement-related contexts. (Author/KM)

  19. What is the Effect of Achievement Motivation Training in the Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.

    1972-01-01

    Author reviews studies to date and concludes achievement motivation training courses improve school learning by improving classroom and life management skills rather than by changing n Achievement levels directly.'' (Author/SP)

  20. Achieving effective hearing aid fitting within one month after identification of childhood permanent hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Bastanza, G; Gallus, R; De Carlini, M; Picciotti, P M; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Orzan, E; Conti, G

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis of child permanent hearing impairment (PHI) can be made with extreme timeliness compared to the past thanks to improvements in PHI identification through newborn hearing screening programmes. It now becomes essential to provide an effective amplification as quickly as possible in order to restore auditory function and favour speech and language development. The early fitting of hearing aids and possible later cochlear implantation indeed prompts the development of central auditory pathways, connections with secondary sensory brain areas, as well as with motor and articulatory cortex. The aim of this paper is to report the results of a strategic analysis that involves identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats regarding the process of achieving early amplification in all cases of significant childhood PHI. The analysis is focused on the Italian situation and is part of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children".