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Sample records for achieve maximum effectiveness

  1. The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.

  2. Achieving Maximum Power from Thermoelectric Generators with Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking Circuits Composed of a Boost-Cascaded-with-Buck Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho

    2015-06-01

    We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.

  3. Netest: A Tool to Measure the Maximum Burst Size, Available Bandwidth and Achievable Throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guojun; Tierney, Brian

    2003-01-31

    Distinguishing available bandwidth and achievable throughput is essential for improving network applications' performance. Achievable throughput is the throughput considering a number of factors such as network protocol, host speed, network path, and TCP buffer space, where as available bandwidth only considers the network path. Without understanding this difference, trying to improve network applications' performance is like ''blind men feeling the elephant'' [4]. In this paper, we define and distinguish bandwidth and throughput, and debate which part of each is achievable and which is available. Also, we introduce and discuss a new concept - Maximum Burst Size that is crucial to the network performance and bandwidth sharing. A tool, netest, is introduced to help users to determine the available bandwidth, and provides information to achieve better throughput with fairness of sharing the available bandwidth, thus reducing misuse of the network.

  4. Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them

  5. Mind the bubbles: achieving stable measurements of maximum hydraulic conductivity through woody plant samples

    PubMed Central

    Espino, Susana; Schenk, H. Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (kmax) of a plant sample is a measure of the ability of a plants’ vascular system to transport water and dissolved nutrients under optimum conditions. Precise measurements of kmax are needed in comparative studies of hydraulic conductivity, as well as for measuring the formation and repair of xylem embolisms. Unstable measurements of kmax are a common problem when measuring woody plant samples and it is commonly observed that kmax declines from initially high values, especially when positive water pressure is used to flush out embolisms. This study was designed to test five hypotheses that could potentially explain declines in kmax under positive pressure: (i) non-steady-state flow; (ii) swelling of pectin hydrogels in inter-vessel pit membranes; (iii) nucleation and coalescence of bubbles at constrictions in the xylem; (iv) physiological wounding responses; and (v) passive wounding responses, such as clogging of the xylem by debris. Prehydrated woody stems from Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) and Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) collected from plants grown in the Fullerton Arboretum in Southern California, were used to test these hypotheses using a xylem embolism meter (XYL'EM). Treatments included simultaneous measurements of stem inflow and outflow, enzyme inhibitors, stem-debarking, low water temperatures, different water degassing techniques, and varied concentrations of calcium, potassium, magnesium, and copper salts in aqueous measurement solutions. Stable measurements of kmax were observed at concentrations of calcium, potassium, and magnesium salts high enough to suppress bubble coalescence, as well as with deionized water that was degassed using a membrane contactor under strong vacuum. Bubble formation and coalescence under positive pressure in the xylem therefore appear to be the main cause for declining kmax values. Our findings suggest that degassing of water is essential for achieving stable and precise

  6. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  7. Curating NASA's Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections: How Do We Achieve Maximum Proficiency?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Zeigler, Ryan; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "... documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working towards a state of maximum proficiency.

  8. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  9. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  10. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  11. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  12. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  13. On the maximum energy achievable in the first order Fermi acceleration at shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozny, I.; Diamond, P.; Malkov, M.

    2002-11-01

    Astrophysical shocks are considered as the sites of cosmic ray (CR) production. The primary mechanism is the diffusive shock (Fermi) acceleration which operates via multiple shock recrossing by a particle. Its efficiency, the rate of energy gain, and the maximum energy are thus determined by the transport mechanisms (confinement to the shock) of these particles in a turbulent shock environment. The turbulence is believed to be generated by accelerated particles themselves. Moreover, in the most interesting case of efficient acceleration the entire MHD shock structure is dominated by their pressure. This makes this problem one of the challenging strongly nonlinear problems of astrophysics. We suggest a physical model that describes particle acceleration, shock structure and the CR driven turbulence on an equal footing. The key new element in this scheme is nonlinear cascading of the MHD turbulence on self-excited (via modulational and Drury instability) sound-like perturbations which gives rise to a significant enrichment of the long wave part of the MHD spectrum. This is critical for the calculation of the maximum energy.

  14. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear–surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established. PMID:26555738

  15. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-05-01

    Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear-surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established. PMID:26555738

  16. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  17. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  18. Dissolution performance of binary amorphous drug combinations--Impact of a second drug on the maximum achievable supersaturation.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-12-30

    An increased number of amorphous formulations of poorly water soluble drugs are being introduced into the market due to their higher transient solubility and thus faster absorption and higher bioavailability. While most amorphous drug products contain a single drug substance, there is a growing trend towards co-formulating compounds in the same dosage form to improve patient compliance. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the dissolution behavior and maximum achievable solution concentrations of amorphous solid dispersions of co-formulated ritonavir and lopinavir, and to compare the results with individual amorphous solid dispersion formulations. Dispersions of ritonavir and lopinavir were prepared in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) at a 20% (w/w) total drug loading, both alone and in combination, at three different lopinavir:ritonavir weight ratios. Amorphous films containing both drugs, but no polymer, were also prepared. The dissolution behavior of the dispersions and the amorphous films in non-sink conditions was evaluated, using ultracentrifugation to separate any colloidal material from molecularly dissolved drug. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to characterize colloidal material formed during the dissolution process. Results from the dissolution study revealed that, although supersaturated solutions resulted following dissolution, the maximum achievable concentration of each drug, when present in combination, was dramatically lower than when the individual dispersions were dissolved. The maximum achievable solution concentration for systems containing both drugs was found to decrease as the mole fraction of the drug in the amorphous phase decreased. The type of polymer used to formulate the dispersion also appeared to influence the dissolution behavior whereby the HPMCAS dispersions dissolved rapidly, resulting in the generation of a nanodroplets, while the PVP dispersions did not

  19. Effect of Training Frequency on Maximum Expiratory Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Supraja; El-Bashiti, Nour; Sapienza, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) frequency on maximum expiratory pressure (MEP). Method: We assigned 12 healthy participants to 2 groups of training frequency (3 days per week and 5 days per week). They completed a 4-week training program on an EMST trainer (Aspire Products, LLC). MEP was the primary…

  20. Effect of maximum ventilation on abdominal muscle relaxation rate.

    PubMed Central

    Kyroussis, D.; Mills, G. H.; Polkey, M. I.; Hamnegard, C. H.; Wragg, S.; Road, J.; Green, M.; Moxham, J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When the demand placed on the respiratory system is increased, the abdominal muscles become vigorously active to achieve expiration and facilitate subsequent inspiration. Abdominal muscle function could limit ventilatory capacity and a method to detect abdominal muscle fatigue would be of value. The maximum relaxation rate (MRR) of skeletal muscle has been used as an early index of the onset of the fatiguing process and precedes failure of force generation. The aim of this study was to measure MRR of abdominal muscles and to investigate whether it slows after maximum isocapnic ventilation (MIV). METHODS: Five normal subjects were studied. Each performed short sharp expiratory efforts against a 3 mm orifice before and immediately after a two minute MIV. Gastric pressure (PGA) was recorded and MRR (% pressure fall/10 ms) for each PGA trace was determined. RESULTS: Before MIV the mean (SD) maximum PGA MRR for the five subjects was 7.1 (0.8)% peak pressure fall/10 ms. Following MIV mean PGA MRR was decreased by 30% (range 25-35%), returning to control values within 5-10 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The MRR of the abdominal muscles, measured from PGA, is numerically similar to that described for the diaphragm and other skeletal muscles. After two minutes of maximal isocapnic ventilation abdominal muscle MRR slows, indicating that these muscles are sufficiently heavily loaded to initiate the fatiguing process. PMID:8711679

  1. Boundary condition effects on maximum groundwater withdrawal in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunhui; Chen, Yiming; Luo, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers subject to groundwater withdrawal requires optimization of well pumping rates to maximize the water supply while avoiding sea water intrusion. Boundary conditions and the aquifer domain size have significant influences on simulating flow and concentration fields and estimating maximum pumping rates. In this study, an analytical solution is derived based on the potential-flow theory for evaluating maximum groundwater pumping rates in a domain with a constant hydraulic head landward boundary. An empirical correction factor, which was introduced by Pool and Carrera (2011) to account for mixing in the case with a constant recharge rate boundary condition, is found also applicable for the case with a constant hydraulic head boundary condition, and therefore greatly improves the usefulness of the sharp-interface analytical solution. Comparing with the solution for a constant recharge rate boundary, we find that a constant hydraulic head boundary often yields larger estimations of the maximum pumping rate and when the domain size is five times greater than the distance between the well and the coastline, the effect of setting different landward boundary conditions becomes insignificant with a relative difference between two solutions less than 2.5%. These findings can serve as a preliminary guidance for conducting numerical simulations and designing tank-scale laboratory experiments for studying groundwater withdrawal problems in coastal aquifers with minimized boundary condition effects. PMID:22050244

  2. Effective soil hydraulic conductivity predicted with the maximum power principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhoff, Martijn; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel; Zehe, Erwin; Dewals, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Drainage of water in soils happens for a large extent through preferential flowpaths, but these subsurface flowpaths are extremely difficult to observe or parameterize in hydrological models. To potentially overcome this problem, thermodynamic optimality principles have been suggested to predict effective parametrization of these (sub-grid) structures, such as the maximum entropy production principle or the equivalent maximum power principle. These principles have been successfully applied to predict heat transfer from the Equator to the Poles, or turbulent heat fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. In these examples, the effective flux adapts itself to its boundary condition by adapting its effective conductance through the creation of e.g. convection cells. However, flow through porous media, such as soils, can only quickly adapt its effective flow conductance by creation of preferential flowpaths, but it is unknown if this is guided by the aim to create maximum power. Here we show experimentally that this is indeed the case: In the lab, we created a hydrological analogue to the atmospheric model dealing with heat transport between Equator and poles. The experimental setup consists of two freely draining reservoirs connected with each other by a confined aquifer. By adding water to only one reservoir, a potential difference will build up until a steady state is reached. From the steady state potential difference and the observed flow through the aquifer, and effective hydraulic conductance can be determined. This observed conductance does correspond to the one maximizing power of the flux through the confined aquifer. Although this experiment is done in an idealized setting, it opens doors for better parameterizing hydrological models. Furthermore, it shows that hydraulic properties of soils are not static, but they change with changing boundary conditions. A potential limitation to the principle is that it only applies to steady state conditions

  3. Programmed Student Achievement: A Hawthorne Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Nabil F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of college students were given instructions using different testing techniques to determine whether the superior performance obtained with Programed Student Achievement (PA) was due to a Hawthorne Effect. Results seem to preclude any attempt to interpret the effectiveness of PA on that basis. (Editor/JT)

  4. Influence of MoOx interlayer on the maximum achievable open-circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell

    2013-03-01

    Transition metal oxides including molybdenum oxide (MoOx) are characterized by large work functions and deep energy levels relative to the organic semiconductors used in photovoltaic cells (OPVs). These materials have been used in OPVs as interlayers between the indium-tin-oxide anode and the active layers to increase the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and power conversion efficiency. We examine the role of MoOx in determining the maximum achievable VOC in planar heterojunction OPVs based on the donor-acceptor pairing of boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) and C60. While causing minor changes in VOC at room temperature, the inclusion of MoOx significantly changes the temperature dependence of VOC. Devices containing no interlayer show a maximum VOC\\ of 1.2 V, while devices containing MoOx show no saturation in VOC, reaching a value of >1.4 V at 110 K. We propose that the MoOx-SubPc interface forms a dissociating Schottky junction that provides an additional contribution to VOC at low temperature. Separate measurements of photoluminescence confirm that excitons in SubPc can be quenched by MoOx. Charge transfer at this interface is by hole extraction from SubPc to MoOx, and this mechanism favors donors with a deep highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level. Consistent with this expectation, the temperature dependence of VOC for devices constructed using a donor with a shallower HOMO level, e.g. copper phthalocyanine, is independent of the presence of MoOx.

  5. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  6. Effect of caffeine on oxidative stress during maximum incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Olcina, Guillermo J; Muñoz, Diego; Timón, Rafael; Caballero, M Jesús; Maynar, Juan I; Córdova, Alfredo; Maynar, Marcos

    2006-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is an habitual substance present in a wide variety of beverages and in chocolate-based foods and it is also used as adjuvant in some drugs. The antioxidant ability of caffeine has been reported in contrast with its pro- oxidant effects derived from its action mechanism such as the systemic release of catecholamines. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on exercise oxidative stress, measuring plasma vitamins A, E, C and malonaldehyde (MDA) as markers of non enzymatic antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation respectively. Twenty young males participated in a double blind (caffeine 5mg·kg- 1 body weight or placebo) cycling test until exhaustion. In the exercise test, where caffeine was ingested prior to the test, exercise time to exhaustion, maximum heart rate, and oxygen uptake significantly increased, whereas respiratory exchange ratio (RER) decreased. Vitamins A and E decreased with exercise and vitamin C and MDA increased after both the caffeine and placebo tests but, regarding these particular variables, there were no significant differences between the two test conditions. The results obtained support the conclusion that this dose of caffeine enhances the ergospirometric response to cycling and has no effect on lipid peroxidation or on the antioxidant vitamins A, E and C. Key PointsCaffeine ingestion may improve maximal aerobic performance in non trained men.Cellular oxidative damage is not altered by caffeine ingestion in maximal aerobic exercises.Antioxidant response to exercise, vitamins A, E and C, is not modified by caffeine action in maximal aerobic efforts. PMID:24357958

  7. [ADVANCE-ON Trial; How to Achieve Maximum Reduction of Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes].

    PubMed

    Kanorskiĭ, S G

    2015-01-01

    Of 10,261 patients with type 2 diabetes who survived to the end of a randomized ADVANCE trial 83% were included in the ADVANCE-ON project for observation for 6 years. The difference in the level of blood pressure which had been achieved during 4.5 years of within trial treatment with fixed perindopril/indapamide combination quickly vanished but significant decrease of total and cardiovascular mortality in the group of patients treated with this combination for 4.5 years was sustained during 6 years of post-trial follow-up. The results can be related to gradually weakening protective effect of perindopril/indapamide combination on cardiovascular system, and are indicative of the expedience of long-term use of this antihypertensive therapy for maximal lowering of mortality of patients with diabetes. PMID:26164995

  8. Minimum cause--maximum effect: the travelogue of a bullet.

    PubMed

    Hartert, Marc; Dahm, Manfred; Neufang, Achim; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich

    2010-11-01

    This case report involves a 57-year-old male, accidentally shot in the chest with a small bore firearm. The bullet entered the left hemithorax, disrupting the left internal mammarian artery. It then penetrated the anterior wall of the right ventricle causing a pericardial tamponade. After leaving the base of the right heart it perforated the diaphragm, the liver, the spleen and the pancreas. Finally, it penetrated the abdominal aorta 3 cm proximally to the coeliac trunk and reached its final position paravertebrally. This case report illustrates that the management of even minimum gunshot wounds requires a maximum variety of surgical skills. PMID:20709697

  9. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  10. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  11. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  12. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  13. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  14. The Longitudinal Effects of Achievement Goals and Perceived Control on University Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Newall, Nancy E. G.; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2014-01-01

    In the area of achievement motivation, students' beliefs pertaining to achievement goals and perceived control have separately guided a large amount theoretical and empirical research. However, limited research has considered the simultaneous effects of goals and control on achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine primary and…

  15. Causal Ordering of Academic Self-Concept and Achievement: Effects of Type of Achievement Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Background: The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests,…

  16. Optimization Correction Strength Using Contra Bending Technique without Anterior Release Procedure to Achieve Maximum Correction on Severe Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Saleh, Ifran; Purnaning, Dyah; Kurniawati, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Posterior-only approach with rod and screw corrective manipulation to add strength of contra bending manipulation has correction achievement similar to that obtained by conventional combined anterior release and posterior approach. It also avoids the complications related to the thoracic approach. We reported a case of 25-year-old male adult idiopathic scoliosis with double curve. It consists of main thoracic curve of 150 degrees and lumbar curve of 89 degrees. His curve underwent direct contra bending posterior approach using rod and screw corrective manipulation technique to achieve optimal correction. After surgery the main thoracic Cobb angle becomes 83 degrees and lumbar Cobb angle becomes 40 degrees, with 5 days length of stay and less than 800 mL blood loss during surgery. There is no complaint at two months after surgery; he has already come back to normal activity with good functional activity. PMID:27064801

  17. Systematic approach to determination of maximum achievable capture capacity via leaching and carbonation processes for alkaline steelmaking wastes in a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chun-Da; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Chang, E-E

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was performed in a rotating packed bed (RPB) as a promising process for both CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment. The maximum achievable capture capacity (MACC) via leaching and carbonation processes for BOFS in an RPB was systematically determined throughout this study. The leaching behavior of various metal ions from the BOFS into the CRW was investigated by a kinetic model. In addition, quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) using the Rietveld method was carried out to determine the process chemistry of carbonation of BOFS with CRW in an RPB. According to the QXRD results, the major mineral phases reacting with CO2 in BOFS were Ca(OH)2, Ca2(HSiO4)(OH), CaSiO3, and Ca2Fe1.04Al0.986O5. Meanwhile, the carbonation product was identified as calcite according to the observations of SEM, XEDS, and mappings. Furthermore, the MACC of the lab-scale RPB process was determined by balancing the carbonation conversion and energy consumption. In that case, the overall energy consumption, including grinding, pumping, stirring, and rotating processes, was estimated to be 707 kWh/t-CO2. It was thus concluded that CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of BOFS could be effectively and efficiently performed by coutilizing with CRW in an RPB. PMID:24236803

  18. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  19. Reciprocal Effects between Adolescent Externalizing Problems and Measures of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Schütte, Kerstin; Taskinen, Päivi; Köller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Student misbehavior is a pervasive problem and may seriously affect academic achievement. Previous research hints at different effects depending on whether achievement tests or achievement judgments are used as academic outcomes. Previous research also indicates that low achievement can conversely contribute to problem behavior and that low…

  20. The effect of high leverage points on the maximum estimated likelihood for separation in logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariffin, Syaiba Balqish; Midi, Habshah; Arasan, Jayanthi; Rana, Md Sohel

    2015-02-01

    This article is concerned with the performance of the maximum estimated likelihood estimator in the presence of separation in the space of the independent variables and high leverage points. The maximum likelihood estimator suffers from the problem of non overlap cases in the covariates where the regression coefficients are not identifiable and the maximum likelihood estimator does not exist. Consequently, iteration scheme fails to converge and gives faulty results. To remedy this problem, the maximum estimated likelihood estimator is put forward. It is evident that the maximum estimated likelihood estimator is resistant against separation and the estimates always exist. The effect of high leverage points are then investigated on the performance of maximum estimated likelihood estimator through real data sets and Monte Carlo simulation study. The findings signify that the maximum estimated likelihood estimator fails to provide better parameter estimates in the presence of both separation, and high leverage points.

  1. Katrina Effect on Mathematics Achievement in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John; Lewis, Mark; Gross, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused severe physical damage to the Gulf Coast states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Homes and businesses were destroyed. Natural habitats were annihilated, and many Americans were displaced for days, weeks, and even years. This study investigated the within-subject effects and contrasts of poverty, rurality, and…

  2. Effects of lag and maximum growth in contaminant transport and biodegradation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.D.; Dawson, C.N.

    1992-06-01

    The effects of time lag and maximum microbial growth on biodegradation in contaminant transport are discussed. A mathematical model is formulated that accounts for these effects, and a numerical case study is presented that demonstrates how lag influences biodegradation.

  3. Effects of General and Broad Cognitive Abilities on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Floyd, Randy G.; Mcgrew, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of general intelligence and 7 broad cognitive abilities on mathematics achievement. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the simultaneous effects of both general and broad cognitive abilities on students' mathematics achievement. A hierarchical model of intelligence derived…

  4. Effects of Airfoil Thickness and Maximum Lift Coefficient on Roughness Sensitivity: 1997--1998

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A matrix of airfoils has been developed to determine the effects of airfoil thickness and the maximum lift to leading-edge roughness. The matrix consists of three natural-laminar-flow airfoils, the S901, S902, and S903, for wind turbine applications. The airfoils have been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Pennsylvania State University low-speed, low-turbulence wind tunnel. The effect of roughness on the maximum life increases with increasing airfoil thickness and decreases slightly with increasing maximum lift. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  5. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  6. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  7. Examining Charter Student Achievement Effects across Seven States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Ron; Gill, Brian; Booker, Kevin; Lavertu, Stephane; Witte, John

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, charter schools have been a lighting rod for controversy, with much of the debate revolving around their effectiveness in improving student achievement. Previous research has shown mixed results for student achievement; this could be the consequence of different policy environments or varying methodological approaches with…

  8. Effects of an Intervention Program on Reading and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    This action research project examined the effects of an intervention program on student reading and math achievement. TCAP reading and math assessments and ThinkLink Learning reading and math assessments were used for the measures on student achievement. Student perceptions and attitudes were measured with a questionnaire and four open-ended…

  9. The Effect of a Summer Academy on Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, William

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a summer enrichment math program on mathematics achievement and academic achievement in a comprehensive suburban high school. The program was designed to remediate the mathematical shortcomings of at-risk 9th graders. The students who experienced success in the summer program were placed in…

  10. Improvements in Interval Time Tracking and Effects on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on students' reading achievement. 86 participants completed pre- and post-test measures of reading achievement (i.e., Woodcock-Johnson III, Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Test of Word Reading Efficiency, and Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency). Students in the…

  11. Automated Writing Evaluation Program's Effect on Student Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lester Donnie

    2011-01-01

    In an ex post facto causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE) programs on raising the student writing achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) writing achievement scores from the 2010 administration were utilized for this study. The independent variable…

  12. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Control on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Hong, Sehee; Ho, Hsiu-Zu

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that perceived control plays an important role in student academic achievement, but little is known about its longitudinal stability, ethnic variation, and developmental effects on subsequent achievement during adolescence. Findings from this study indicated (a) perceived control remains stable during adolescence for each of…

  13. The Effects of Academic Optimism on Elementary Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…

  14. Investigation of Climate Change Effect on Probable Maximum Flood at a Northern Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhani, H.; Leconte, R.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at exploring the potential climate change effect on the regime of Summer-Fall probable maximum flood (PMF). To achieve this objective, probable maximum precipitation (PMP) was estimated and was used as an input into the SWAT hydrological model. Climate change conditions were modeled by simulating climate for the period from 1961 to 2095. This period was divided into three horizons: recent past (1961-2005), near future (2006-2050) and far future (2051-2095). Climate data are from the 4th version of Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM). CRCM was driven by Canadian Global Coupled Model. The climate projection is based on greenhouse gas emission scenario of SRES-A2. Daily Summer-Fall PMP was estimated for each horizon at Moisie watershed in the center of the province of Quebec, Canada. PMP estimation method is derived from moisture maximization method proposed by the World Meteorological Organization. The estimated PMP was then inserted randomly into climate data of corresponding horizon. The random insertion helped to take into account all possible conditions prior to the occurrence of PMP according to the initial soil saturation level. Around 3000 simulations of random insertions were completed for each horizon. Summer-Fall season was divided into three sub-seasons: June-July, August-September and October-November. Under this classification, the potential climate change effect on soil saturation level, extreme rainfall and flood events could be precisely identified. The PMF is influenced by the mean annual rainfall which influence soil saturation level, PMP and change in regime of extreme rainfall events. Results indicated that the June-July and the August-September PMF will increase by 22% when moving from recent past climate to near future and the PMF will not change in the transition from near future to far future. In October-November sub-season, the PMF will be reduced by 16% in near future; and then it will increase to reach almost the same

  15. The Effect of Class Heterogeneity on Scholastic Achievement in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    This study examines the relationship between class heterogeneity and scholastic performance in Israel's primary schools. The effect of school integration on academic achievement is explained via two main effects: (1) the "peer" effect, namely externalities that are induced by the composition of the teaching and learning environments; and (2) the…

  16. Effective Parental Influence: Academic Home Climate Linked to Children's Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James Reed; Verna, Marilyn Ann

    2007-01-01

    What constitutes effective parenting? An international consensus has evolved that effective parenting makes important contributions to children's achievement. But the fundamental question is what constitutes effective parenting. Most of the research that has been done in answering this question has been done within existing school frameworks…

  17. Background, Schooling, and Achievement. Sustaining Effects Study Technical Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Won, Eugene Y. T.; And Others

    This report of a study on the influence of education on student achievement finds that while schooling does have some tangible effects, they are not enough to significantly counterbalance the effects of students' social backgrounds. The report is part of an extensive series of studies on compensatory education and its long-term effects. The study…

  18. Personality as a moderator of context effects on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A A Jolijn; Kuyper, Hans; Lubbers, Miranda J; Van der Werf, Margaretha P C

    2011-04-01

    We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a two-level (students within classes) analysis, separately for boys (n=1033, in 92 classes) and girls (n=1465, in 119 classes). For both sexes, we found a context effect on Dutch language achievement but not on mathematics achievement. Emotional Stability appeared a moderator of this context effect but for girls only. The results suggest further that peer pressure is not a likely mechanism of group influence of classmates on academic achievement. PMID:21530765

  19. Effect of the Mandibular Orthopedic Repositioning Appliance on Trunk and Upper Limb Muscle Activation during Maximum Isometric Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yeol; Hong, Min-Ho; Park, Min-Chull; Choi, Sung-Min

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to measure the muscle activities of the trunk muscles and upper limb muscles during maximum isometric contraction when temporomandibular joint alignment was achieved with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance in order provide basic data on the effects of mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance on the entire body. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with healthy Korean adults in their 20s (males=10, females=10). [Methods] An 8 channel surface electromyography system was used to measure the muscle activities of the upper limb muscles and neck muscles of the subjects during maximum isometric contraction with and without use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Results] The maximum isometric contractions of the trunk and upper limb muscles when mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance were used were compared with those when no mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance was used. The results showed that the sternocleidomastoid muscle, cervical and lumbar erector spinae, upper trapezius, biceps, triceps, rectus abdominis and internal oblique and external oblique muscles all showed significant increases in maximum isometric contractions with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Conclusion] The use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance is considered to be a method for normal adults to improve the stability of the entire body with the improvement of the stability of the TMJ. The proximal improvement in stability improves of the proximal thereby improving not only muscle strength with increased muscle activation but also stability during exercises. PMID:24396194

  20. Teacher Perceptions on the Effect of Collaboration on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Lori Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    At the school site for this study, students have performed below acceptable district goals in math. Although research has indicated that effective collaboration can contribute to teacher learning, research on collaboration has often failed to address its effect on student achievement; therefore, the purpose of this project study was to examine…

  1. Family Effects on Student Achievement in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Ho, Esther Sui Chu

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of family structures and processes on student achievement in Hong Kong. Specifically, we show that the negative effects of single parenthood in past studies are not universal. In Hong Kong, 4,405 15-year-old students completed a questionnaire, and tests in reading, mathematics and science. We analysed the data using…

  2. Teaching Effectiveness and Student Achievement: Examining the Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Sherman, Helene

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between teacher effectiveness and students' achievement as measured by test scores. A strong belief among policymakers and public as well as private funding agencies is that test scores are directly related to the quality of teaching effectiveness. This relationship implies that there could be a direct…

  3. Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Research continues to find large differences in student achievement gains across teachers' classrooms. The variability in teacher effectiveness raises the stakes on identifying effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines data from classroom observations of teaching practices and measures of teachers' ability to improve student…

  4. The Cost Effectiveness of 22 Approaches for Raising Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2010-01-01

    Review of cost-effectiveness studies suggests that rapid assessment is more cost effective with regard to student achievement than comprehensive school reform (CSR), cross-age tutoring, computer-assisted instruction, a longer school day, increases in teacher education, teacher experience or teacher salaries, summer school, more rigorous math…

  5. Effects of Running Records Assessment on Early Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research on effective schools (e.g., Pressley et al., 2001) identified consistent associations between students' literacy achievement and teacher practice. In this study, the author extended those correlational findings by conducting a controlled experiment to test the claims about 1 practice recommended by recent effective schools…

  6. Effects of Notetaking Format on Achievement When Studying Electronic Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.; Nelson, Charles E.

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of notetaking on achievement while studying electronic text. In the first experiment, 83 students studied 1 of 3 sets of notes (partial, skeletal, and control) for the effects on posttest performance (on fact, structure, and transfer tests). No differences were found between groups on the…

  7. The Effect of Student Time Allocation on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grave, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large literature on the influence of institutional characteristics on student academic achievement. In contrast, relatively little research focusses on student time allocation and its effects on student performance. This paper contributes to the literature by investigating the effect of student time allocation on the average grade of…

  8. Effects of fasting on maximum thermogenesis in temperature-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. C. H.

    1981-09-01

    To further investigate the limiting effect of substrates on maximum thermogenesis in acute cold exposure, the present study examined the prevalence of this effect at different thermogenic capabilities consequent to cold- or warm-acclimation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=11) were acclimated to 6, 16 and 26‡C, in succession, their thermogenic capabilities after each acclimation temperature were measured under helium-oxygen (21% oxygen, balance helium) at -10‡C after overnight fasting or feeding. Regardless of feeding conditions, both maximum and total heat production were significantly greater in 6>16>26‡C-acclimated conditions. In the fed state, the total heat production was significantly greater than that in the fasted state at all acclimating temperatures but the maximum thermogenesis was significant greater only in the 6 and 16‡C-acclimated states. The results indicate that the limiting effect of substrates on maximum and total thermogenesis is independent of the magnitude of thermogenic capability, suggesting a substrate-dependent component in restricting the effective expression of existing aerobic metabolic capability even under severe stress.

  9. Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Structural Equation Models with Multiple Interaction and Quadratic Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Andreas G.; Muthen, Bengt O.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a nonlinear structural equation model is introduced and a quasi-maximum likelihood method for simultaneous estimation and testing of multiple nonlinear effects is developed. The focus of the new methodology lies on efficiency, robustness, and computational practicability. Monte-Carlo studies indicate that the method is highly…

  10. Effect of the equation of state on the maximum mass of differentially rotating neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studzińska, A. M.; Kucaba, M.; Gondek-Rosińska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2016-08-01

    Knowing the value of the maximum mass of a differentially rotating relativistic star is a key-step toward the understanding of the signals to be expected from the merger of binary neutron stars, one of the most awaited alternative sources of gravitational waves after binary black holes. In this article, we study the effects of differential rotation and of the equation of state on the maximum mass of rotating neutron stars modeled as relativistic polytropes with various adiabatic indices. Calculations are performed using a highly accurate numerical code, based on a multi-domain spectral method. We thoroughly explore the parameter space and determine how the maximum mass depends on the stiffness, on the degree of differential rotation and on the maximal density, taking into account all the types of solutions that were proven to exist in a preceding article (Ansorg et al. 2009). The highest increase with respect to the maximum mass for non-rotating stars with the same equation of state is reached for a moderate stiffness. With differential rotation, the maximum mass can even be 3-4 times higher than it is for static stars. This result may have important consequences for the gravitational wave signal from coalescing neutron star binaries or for some supernovae events.

  11. The Effects of Looping on Perceived Values and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Arenz, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of looping, a practice whereby teachers and students stay together for more than one year, on perceived values and academic achievement in language arts at a Fresno Unified School District elementary school in Fresno, CA. Looping has many perceived advantages, such as the development of long-term…

  12. Achievement Motivation Training's Effects on Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1983-01-01

    A study identified the psychosocial needs of low-literate adults by using an instrument based on Erikson's ego-stage development model. It also tested the effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training in counterbalancing the negative impact of school experiences on students' psychosocial development. (Author/SK)

  13. Leadership Effects on Student Achievement and Sustained School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of leadership on student achievement and sustained school success, especially in challenging, high-poverty schools. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines a review of the leadership literature with findings drawn from longitudinal studies of the International Successful School…

  14. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement of Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keramati, Mohammadreza

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of physics course. Cooperative learning was employed to experimental group and conventional teaching method was used for control group. Sampling of the study consists of 15-16 years old 220 students at high school in Iran. The progress…

  15. The Effects of Fiscal and Human Capital on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koligian, Sarah Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of per-pupil funding, the amount allocated to fund students in K-12 public education, and how this funding related to student achievement. This is one of the most contentious issues in education, especially in light of the current economy in California, where the state budget crisis has…

  16. School Board Member Professional Development and Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry L.; Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the issue of professional development education for school board members. The research question that guides this mixed study is: does school board member professional development have an effect on student achievement? Design/methodology/approach: The standardized protocol for this study was to send…

  17. The Effects of Grouping Practices and Curricular Adjustments on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieso, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of curricular (textbook, revised, and differentiated) and grouping (whole, between, and within-class) practices on intermediate students' achievement in mathematics. A pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design using a stratified random sample of 31 teachers and their students (N = 645) was…

  18. Personality as a Moderator of Context Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Kuyper, Hans; Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a two-level (students within classes) analysis,…

  19. The Effects of Read 180 on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plony, Doreen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this ex post facto study was to analyze archive data to investigate the effects of Read 180, a computer-based supplemental reading intervention, on students' academic achievement for the academic school year 2011-2012. Further analyses examined if influences existed in variables such as grade level, gender, and ethnicity of the…

  20. Effective Board Leadership: Factors Associated with Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the content, construct, and predictive validity of the Effective Board Leadership Practices Survey (EBLPS). The EBLPS was designed to measure the leadership practices of boards of education that support student achievement. A literature review identified 12 board leadership practices supportive of student…

  1. Teacher Effectiveness: Making "The" Difference to Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines shifts in emphasis in Australian education from expectations and belief that teachers not only make a difference to student achievement, but they are the difference. In moving from social class relations accounts to self-managing school accounts, latest shifts (teacher effectiveness accounts) over-emphasize teacher…

  2. Effects of Teacher Professional Learning Activities on Student Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. The…

  3. The Effects of Block Scheduling on High School Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Chance W.; Dugan, James J.; Winokur, Marc A.; Cobb, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of block scheduling on high school student achievement in mathematics and reading was investigated in this study through the use of an ex post-facto, longitudinal research design. Specifically, student scores from 9th and 11th-grade standardized tests were matched and sorted by junior high and high school attended. Outcome measures…

  4. The Effects of the Allain Reading System on Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allain, Althea Saizan

    Five hundred second-grade pupils participated in a study of the effect of the Allain Color Pack reading system on reading achievement. Subjects were divided into equal treatment and control groups; each group was stratified according to low, average, and high reading ability determined on the basis of pretests of vocabulary and comprehension. The…

  5. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  6. The Effects of Write Score Formative Assessment on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    In an "ex post facto" causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of a formative writing assessment program, Write Score, on increasing student writing achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) reading language arts and writing scores from 2012 were utilized for this study. The…

  7. Sociodemographic Moderators of Middle School Transition Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akos, Patrick; Rose, Roderick A.; Orthner, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The academic impact of the transition from elementary to middle school has significant consequences for many early adolescents. This study examines academic growth across the transition, as well as sociodemographic moderators. Rather than defining the transition effect as a decline in student achievement between fifth and sixth grade, these data…

  8. Students as Web Site Authors: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Web site design project on students' motivation and achievement. Tenth-grade biology students worked together in teams on an ecology project that required them to locate relevant information on the Internet, decide which information should be included on their Web site, organize the information into Web pages,…

  9. The Effectiveness of CASAs in Achieving Positive Outcomes for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzelfelner, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of court-appointed special advocates (CASAs) in achieving positive outcomes for children in the child welfare system, using data from court and CASA program files on 200 children. Found that CASAs may have reduced the number of placements and court continuances children experienced. More services were provided to children…

  10. Feingold Diet Effect on Reading Achievement and Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernick, Eleanor

    The effect of the Feingold diet (elimination of artificial colors, flavors, or foods with natural salicylates to reduce hyperactivity) on the reading achievement scores, behavior, and impulsivity/reflectivity of 13 children (ages 6 to 12 years) was evaluated. Six months after the experimental group adopted the Feingold diet there were no…

  11. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-08-01

    Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students' mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level. PMID:27432947

  12. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  13. Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.

    PubMed

    Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

    2013-11-15

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low. PMID:24511710

  14. Effect of unilateral denervation on maximum specific force in rat diaphragm muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Geiger, P C; Cody, M J; Macken, R L; Bayrd, M E; Sieck, G C

    2001-04-01

    We hypothesize that 1) the effect of denervation (DNV) is more pronounced in fibers expressing fast myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and 2) the effect of DNV on maximum specific force reflects a reduction in MHC content per half sarcomere or the number of cross bridges in parallel. Studies were performed on single Triton X-100-permeabilized fibers activated at a pCa (-log Ca2+ concentration) of 4.0. MHC content per half sarcomere was determined by densitometric analysis of SDS-PAGE gels and comparison to a standard curve of known MHC concentrations. After 2 of wk DNV, the maximum specific force of fibers expressing MHC2X was reduced by approximately 40% (MHC(2B) expression was absent), whereas the maximum specific force of fibers expressing MHC2A and MHC(slow) decreased by only approximately 20%. DNV also reduced the MHC content in fibers expressing MHC2X, with no effect on fibers expressing MHC2A and MHC(slow). When normalized for MHC content per half sarcomere, force generated by DNV fibers expressing MHC2X and MHC2A was decreased compared with control fibers. These results suggest the force per cross bridge is also affected by DNV. PMID:11247914

  15. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    PubMed Central

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization. PMID:25999899

  16. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect.

    PubMed

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization. PMID:25999899

  17. Effects of loading and size on maximum power output and gait characteristics in geckos.

    PubMed

    Irschick, Duncan J; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Herrel, Anthony; Andronescu, Anemone

    2003-11-01

    Stride length, stride frequency and power output are all factors influencing locomotor performance. Here, we first test whether mass-specific power output limits climbing performance in two species of geckos (Hemidactylus garnoti and Gekko gecko) by adding external loads to their bodies. We then test whether body size has a negative effect on mass-specific power output. Finally, we test whether loading affects kinematics in both gecko species. Lizards were induced to run vertically on a smooth wooden surface with loads of 0-200% of body mass (BM) in H. garnoti and 0-100% BM in G. gecko. For each stride, we calculated angular and linear kinematics (e.g. trunk angle, stride length), performance (maximum speed) and mean mass-specific power output per stride. The addition of increasingly large loads caused an initial increase in maximum mass-specific power output in both species, but for H. garnoti, mass-specific power output remained constant at higher loads (150% and 200% BM), even though maximum velocity declined. This result, in combination with the fact that stride frequency showed no evidence of leveling off as speed increased in either species, suggests that power limits maximum speed. In addition, the large gecko (G. gecko) produced significantly less power than the smaller H. garnoti, despite the fact that both species ran at similar speeds. This difference disappeared, however, when we recalculated power output based on higher maximum speeds for unloaded G. gecko moving vertically obtained by other researchers. Finally, the addition of external loads did not affect speed modulation in either species: both G. gecko and H. garnoti increase speed primarily by increasing stride frequency, regardless of loading condition. For a given speed, both species take shorter but more strides with heavier loads, but for a given load, G. gecko attains similar speeds to H. garnoti by taking longer but fewer strides. PMID:14555734

  18. The effect of technology on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, June Kraft

    2003-10-01

    Prior research indicates that technology has had little effect on raising student achievement. Little empirical research exists, however, studying the effects of technology as a tool to improve student achievement through development of higher order thinking skills. Also, prior studies have not focused on the manner in which technology is being used in the classroom and at home to enhance teaching and learning. Empirical data from a secondary school representative of those in California were analyzed to determine the effects of technology on student science achievement. The quantitative analysis methods for the school data study included a multiple linear path analysis, using final course grade as the ultimate exogenous variable. In addition, empirical data from a nationwide survey on how Americans use the Internet were disaggregated by age and analyzed to determine the relationships between computer and Internet experience and (a) Internet use at home for school assignments and (b) more general computer use at home for school assignments for school age children. Analysis of data collected from the a "A Nation Online" Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau assessed these relationships via correlations and cross-tabulations. Finally, results from these data analyses were assessed in conjunction with systemic reform efforts from 12 states designed to address improvements in science and mathematics education in light of the Third International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS). Examination of the technology efforts in those states provided a more nuanced understanding of the impact technology has on student achievement. Key findings included evidence that technology training for teachers increased their use of the computer for instruction but students' final science course grade did not improve; school age children across the country did not use the computer at home for such higher-order cognitive activities as graphics and design or spreadsheets

  19. Microfractures in Quartz Grains as a Measurement of Maximum Effective Stress in Sandstone Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrkian, K.; Aubourg, C.; Girard, J. P.; Teinturier, S.; Hoareau, G.

    2015-12-01

    Effective stress, defined as the load transmitted from particle to particle in the solid framework of a rock, plays a significant role in controlling mechanical compaction and thus reservoir quality in sandstones. Mechanical compaction in sandstones takes place through rearrangement and ductile/ brittle deformation of framework grains during progressive burial. It is primarily dependent on the magnitude and evolution of effective stress during burial, and on the nature and textural properties of framework grains (mineralogy, grain size/shape, sorting…) and pore-filing solid cements when present. Here, we propose a method to directly evaluate maximum effective stress in sandstone reservoirs by quantifying the brittle deformation of quartz grains evidenced through the development of microfractures. Quartz microfracturing is documented and quantified by examining thin sections of core samples under SEM CL microscopy. Previous published experimental studies and observations made on natural samples indicate that quartz burial-induced microfracturing in sandstones is mainly affected by effective stress, but also reflects other factors such as grain size, sorting and proportion of ductile grains (clays, micas…). In order to investigate the quantitative impact of such factors altogether, we have conducted compaction experiments (>30 tests) on 10 types of sands at 25°C, under dry conditions and pressures up to 55 Mpa. The resulting compressed sands were studied by optical microscopy to quantify fractured quartz grains. Results were processed using R statistical computing language via a multi input model to define a simple equation that provides correction constants for each influencing factor. The resulting equation will then be used to calculate the maximum effective stress recorded by a sandstone reservoir during its burial history, based on the petrographic/mineralogical characteristics (thin section point-counting) and the fractured-grain ratio (obtained by SEM CL

  20. Single-machine rescheduling with deterioration and learning effects against the maximum sequence disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Le; Zhou, Hong

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we study the issue of single-machine rescheduling with linear deteriorating jobs and position-based learning effects simultaneously in response to an unexpected arrival of new jobs. The scheduling efficiency is measured in terms of the makespan, while the cost of disruption is measured in terms of the maximum difference in processing orders of the original jobs before and after disruption. By introducing the effects of deterioration and learning, the job actual processing time is defined by an increasing function of its starting time, meanwhile a decreasing function of its position. Two types of problems are considered. For the first one, the makespan is minimised subject to a limit on the maximum sequence disruption; while in the second one, a linear combination of the makespan and the maximum sequence disruption is minimised. For each problem, the polynomial solvability is demonstrated, and an efficient algorithm is then developed. Finally, extensive computational experiments are conducted to show the efficiency and running behaviours of the proposed algorithms.

  1. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin; Sahin, Mehmet; Acikgoz, Kamile Un

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers (n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…

  2. The effect of electric field maximum on the Rabi flopping and generated higher frequency spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yueping; Cui, Ni; Xiang, Yang; Li, Ruxin; Gong, Shangqing; Xu, Zhizhan

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the effect of the electric field maximum on the Rabi flopping and the generated higher frequency spectra properties by solving Maxwell Bloch equations without invoking any standard approximations. It is found that the maximum of the electric field will lead to carrier-wave Rabi flopping (CWRF) through reversion dynamics which will be more evident when the applied field enters the sub-one-cycle regime. Therefore, under the interaction of sub-one-cycle pulses, the Rabi flopping follows the transient electric field tightly through the oscillation and reversion dynamics, which is in contrast to the conventional envelope Rabi flopping. Complete or incomplete population inversion can be realized through the control of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP). Furthermore, the generated higher frequency spectra will be changed from distinct to continuous or irregular with the variation of the CEP. Our results demonstrate that due to the evident maximum behavior of the electric field, pulses with different CEP give rise to different CWRFs, and then different degree of interferences lead to different higher frequency spectral features.

  3. Effect of background music on maximum acceptable weight of manual lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study used the psychophysical approach to investigate the impact of tempo and volume of background music on the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of participants engaged in lifting. Ten male college students participated in this study. They lifted a box from the floor, walked 1-2 steps as required, placed the box on a table and walked back twice per minute. The results showed that the tempo of music had a significant effect on both MAWL and HR. Fast tempo background music resulted in higher MAWL and HR values than those resulting from slow tempo music. The effects of both the tempo and volume on the RPE were insignificant. The results of this study suggest fast tempo background music may be used in manual materials handling tasks to increase performance without increasing perceived exertion because of its ergogenic effect on human psychology and physiology. PMID:25189748

  4. The effect of red on avoidance behavior in achievement contexts.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Binser, Martin J; Friedman, Ron; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2009-03-01

    This research tests whether the perception of red in an achievement context evokes avoidance behavior without conscious awareness and also examines the context specificity of the hypothesized red effect. In Experiment 1, participants were briefly shown red or green on the cover of an analogies test that they would ostensibly take (an achievement context) or rate on likability of (a nonachievement context) in an adjacent lab. Those shown red, relative to those shown green, knocked fewer times on the door of the adjacent lab in the achievement context; no red-green difference in knocking was observed in the nonachievement context. In Experiment 2, participants were briefly shown red, green, or gray on the cover of an IQ test that they would ostensibly take. Those shown red moved their body away from the test cover to a greater degree than did those shown green or gray. This research contributes to incipient work on color psychology and to the more established literature on the automatic link between evaluation and behavior. PMID:19223458

  5. The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Darlene

    Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

  6. Achieving a Strongly Temperature-Dependent Casimir Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Woolf, David; Capasso, Federico; McCauley, Alexander P.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2010-08-06

    We propose a method of achieving large temperature T sensitivity in the Casimir force that involves measuring the stable separation between dielectric objects immersed in a fluid. We study the Casimir force between slabs and spheres using realistic material models, and find large >2 nm/K variations in their stable separations (hundreds of nanometers) near room temperature. In addition, we analyze the effects of Brownian motion on suspended objects, and show that the average separation is also sensitive to changes in T. Finally, this approach also leads to rich qualitative phenomena, such as irreversible transitions, from suspension to stiction, as T is varied.

  7. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  8. Effects of superpositions of quantum states on quantum isoenergetic cycles: Efficiency and maximum power output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Wang, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Superposition principle plays a crucial role in quantum mechanics, thus its effects on thermodynamics is an interesting topic. Here, the effects of superpositions of quantum states on isoenergetic cycle are studied. We find superposition can improve the heat engine efficiency and release the positive work condition in general case. In the finite time process, we find the efficiency at maximum power output in superposition case is lower than the nonsuperposition case. This efficiency depends on one index of the energy spectrum of the working substance. This result does not mean the superposition discourages the heat engine performance. For fixed efficiency or fixed power, the superposition improves the power or efficiency respectively. These results show how quantum mechanical properties affect the thermodynamical cycle.

  9. The Effects of Different Approaches to Reading Instruction on Letter Detection Tasks in Normally Achieving and Low Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Kandelshine-Waldman, Osnat

    2011-01-01

    The present study used two letter detection tasks, the classic missing letter effect paradigm and a single word versus familiar word compound version of this paradigm, to study bottom-up and top-down processes involved in reading in normally achieving as compared to low achieving elementary school readers. The research participants were children…

  10. Dynamic contact angle effects onto the maximum drop impact spreading on solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, D. C.; Soucemarianadin, A.; Delattre, C.; Roux, D. C. D.

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports experimental investigations of drop impacts onto chemically treated surfaces with wettability from 5° to 160°. To follow in time the drop spreading, a high speed video camera was used, and it allows us to determine precisely the expansion of the drop and the profile of the free surface at the contact line. By changing the impact velocity, between less than 0.5 and 5 m/s, and the viscosity, from 1 to 100 mPa s, at constant surface tension, a broad range of Reynolds and Weber numbers is explored. This paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, the experimental drop evolution during spreading is directly reported and compared with previous works. Secondly, the emphasis is on the importance of the apparent dynamic contact angle for the prediction of the maximum spreading diameter. This achievement is manifested at low Reynolds numbers at which the matching between the experiment and the model is improved greatly.

  11. Effects of maximum aggregate size on UPV of brick aggregate concrete.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Tarek Uddin; Mahmood, Aziz Hasan

    2016-07-01

    Investigation was carried out to study the effects of maximum aggregate size (MAS) (12.5mm, 19.0mm, 25.0mm, 37.5mm, and 50.0mm) on ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of concrete. For investigation, first class bricks were collected and broken to make coarse aggregate. The aggregates were tested for specific gravity, absorption capacity, unit weight, and abrasion resistance. Cylindrical concrete specimens were made with different sand to aggregate volume ratio (s/a) (0.40 and 0.45), W/C ratio (0.45, 0.50, and 0.55), and cement content (375kg/m(3) and 400kg/m(3)). The specimens were tested for compressive strength and Young's modulus. UPV through wet specimen was measured using Portable Ultrasonic Non-destructive Digital Indicating Tester (PUNDIT). Results indicate that the pulse velocity through concrete increases with an increase in MAS. Relationships between UPV and compressive strength; and UPV and Young's modulus of concrete are proposed for different maximum sizes of brick aggregate. PMID:27085110

  12. On enforcing maximum principles and achieving element-wise species balance for advection-diffusion-reaction equations under the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a robust computational framework for advective-diffusive-reactive systems that satisfies maximum principles, the non-negative constraint, and element-wise species balance property. The proposed methodology is valid on general computational grids, can handle heterogeneous anisotropic media, and provides accurate numerical solutions even for very high Péclet numbers. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate advection (which makes the spatial part of the differential operator non-self-adjoint) into the non-negative computational framework, and overcome numerical challenges associated with advection. We employ low-order mixed finite element formulations based on least-squares formalism, and enforce explicit constraints on the discrete problem to meet the desired properties. The resulting constrained discrete problem belongs to convex quadratic programming for which a unique solution exists. Maximum principles and the non-negative constraint give rise to bound constraints while element-wise species balance gives rise to equality constraints. The resulting convex quadratic programming problems are solved using an interior-point algorithm. Several numerical results pertaining to advection-dominated problems are presented to illustrate the robustness, convergence, and the overall performance of the proposed computational framework.

  13. Maximum likelihood analysis for heteroscedastic one-way random effects ANOVA in interlaboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Vangel, M G; Rukhin, A L

    1999-03-01

    This article presents results for the maximum likelihood analysis of several groups of measurements made on the same quantity. Following Cochran (1937, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 4(Supple), 102-118; 1954, Biometrics 10, 101-129; 1980, in Proceedings of the 25th Conference on the Design of Experiments in Army Research, Development and Testing, 21-33) and others, this problem is formulated as a one-way unbalanced random-effects ANOVA with unequal within-group variances. A reparametrization of the likelihood leads to simplified computations, easier identification and interpretation of multimodality of the likelihood, and (through a non-informative-prior Bayesian approach) approximate confidence regions for the mean and between-group variance. PMID:11318146

  14. Effects of simulated weightlessness and sympathectomy on maximum VO2 of male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, C. R.; Stump, C. S.; Beaulieu, S. M.; Rahman, Z.; Sebastian, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of simulated weightlessness (hind-limb suspension) and chemical sympathectomy (by repeated injections with guanethidine sulfate) on the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of female rats were investigated in rats assigned for 14 days to one of three groups: a head-down hind-limb suspension, a horizontal suspension with hind limbs weight bearing, or the caged control. The VO2 max values were assessed by having rats run on a treadmill enclosed in an airtight chamber. The hind-limb-suspended sympathectomized rats were found to exhibit shorter run times and lower mechanical efficiencies, compared to their presuspension values or the values from saline-injected suspended controls. On the other hand, the suspended sympathectomized rats did not demonstrate a decrease in the VO2 max values that was observed in saline-injected controls.

  15. A Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimator of a Causal Effect on a Bounded Continuous Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Susan; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted maximum likelihood estimation of a parameter of a data generating distribution, known to be an element of a semi-parametric model, involves constructing a parametric model through an initial density estimator with parameter ɛ representing an amount of fluctuation of the initial density estimator, where the score of this fluctuation model at ɛ = 0 equals the efficient influence curve/canonical gradient. The latter constraint can be satisfied by many parametric fluctuation models since it represents only a local constraint of its behavior at zero fluctuation. However, it is very important that the fluctuations stay within the semi-parametric model for the observed data distribution, even if the parameter can be defined on fluctuations that fall outside the assumed observed data model. In particular, in the context of sparse data, by which we mean situations where the Fisher information is low, a violation of this property can heavily affect the performance of the estimator. This paper presents a fluctuation approach that guarantees the fluctuated density estimator remains inside the bounds of the data model. We demonstrate this in the context of estimation of a causal effect of a binary treatment on a continuous outcome that is bounded. It results in a targeted maximum likelihood estimator that inherently respects known bounds, and consequently is more robust in sparse data situations than the targeted MLE using a naive fluctuation model. When an estimation procedure incorporates weights, observations having large weights relative to the rest heavily influence the point estimate and inflate the variance. Truncating these weights is a common approach to reducing the variance, but it can also introduce bias into the estimate. We present an alternative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) approach that dampens the effect of these heavily weighted observations. As a substitution estimator, TMLE respects the global constraints of the observed data

  16. The effects of testing on science process skill achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawitz, Barbara M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of testing on the achievement of students using self-instructional materials to learn science process skills. In one section of an undergraduate science method class, students were paced through a programmed textbook and were given short quizzes in class after each of the process skill lessons was assigned, while in another section, students worked at their own pace and were held responsible for completing the lessons by the end of the semester. Students taking the quizzes throughout the semester were expected to attain a higher level of process skill proficiency because previous studies have shown that taking a test immediately after learning leads to better retention of the material. Results indicated that taking frequent quizzes did not differentially affect process skill acquisition.

  17. Maximum Likelihood Foreground Cleaning for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimeters in the Presence of Systematic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, C.; Baccigalupi, C.; Gold, B.; Hanany, S.; Jaffe, A.; Stompor, R.

    2016-03-01

    We extend a general maximum likelihood foreground estimation for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data to include estimation of instrumental systematic effects. We focus on two particular effects: frequency band measurement uncertainty and instrumentally induced frequency dependent polarization rotation. We assess the bias induced on the estimation of the B-mode polarization signal by these two systematic effects in the presence of instrumental noise and uncertainties in the polarization and spectral index of Galactic dust. Degeneracies between uncertainties in the band and polarization angle calibration measurements and in the dust spectral index and polarization increase the uncertainty in the extracted CMB B-mode power, and may give rise to a biased estimate. We provide a quantitative assessment of the potential bias and increased uncertainty in an example experimental configuration. For example, we find that with 10% polarized dust, a tensor to scalar ratio of r = 0.05, and the instrumental configuration of the E and B experiment balloon payload, the estimated CMB B-mode power spectrum is recovered without bias when the frequency band measurement has 5% uncertainty or less, and the polarization angle calibration has an uncertainty of up to 4°.

  18. The Effects of Solar Maximum on the Earth's Satellite Population and Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly approaching maximum of Solar Cycle 24 will have wide-ranging effects not only on the number and distribution of resident space objects, but also on vital aspects of space situational awareness, including conjunction assessment processes. The best known consequence of high solar activity is an increase in the density of the thermosphere, which, in turn, increases drag on the vast majority of objects in low Earth orbit. The most prominent evidence of this is seen in a dramatic increase in space object reentries. Due to the massive amounts of new debris created by the fragmentations of Fengyun-1C, Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 during the recent period of Solar Minimum, this effect might reach epic levels. However, space surveillance systems are also affected, both directly and indirectly, historically leading to an increase in the number of lost satellites and in the routine accuracy of the calculation of their orbits. Thus, at a time when more objects are drifting through regions containing exceptionally high-value assets, such as the International Space Station and remote sensing satellites, their position uncertainties increase. In other words, as the possibility of damaging and catastrophic collisions increases, our ability to protect space systems is degraded. Potential countermeasures include adjustments to space surveillance techniques and the resetting of collision avoidance maneuver thresholds.

  19. Maximum Time of the Effect of Antileukotriene - Zileuton in Treatment of Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Morina, Naim; Boçari, Gëzim; Iljazi, Ali; Hyseini, Kadir; Halac, Gunay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maximum time of the effect of antileukotriene substances - Zileuton in the treatment of patients with bronchial asthma and increased bronchial reactivity and of the salbutamol as agonist of the beta2 adrenergic receptor studied in this work. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was calculated. Zileuton (Zyflo, tbl. 600 mg), producer Cornerstone Therapeutics, USA was used in the research. Results: Results of this research, in patients with bronchial asthma, indicate that antileukotriene substances–Zileuton administered in a dose of 600 mg first day (oral route of administration 4 × 1 tbl.) has not caused significant decrease of the specific resistance of the airways (SRaw) (p value 0.1 > Alpha 0.05), whereas Zileuton administered two days in a row, in a dose of 600 mg (4 × 1 tbl. a day), has caused significant decrease of the specific resistance of the airways (SRaw) (P value 0.03 < Alpha 0.05). Effect of the control with salbutamol (beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist) is efficient in the removal of the increased bronchomotor tone, causing significant decrease of the resistance (Raw), respectively of the specific resistance (SRaw), (p value 0.05 = Alpha 0.05). Conclusion: Formation of leukotrienes depends on the lypoxygenation of the arachidonic acid by 5-lypoxygenase. Zileuton is an active and powerful inhibitor of the activity of 5- lypoxygenase and as such inhibits generation of its products. Consequently, besides inhibition of cys-LTs’, zileuton also inhibits the formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which is a powerful chemotactic of other eicosanoids too, which depend on the synthesis of lekotriene A4 (LTA4). This suggests that the effect of antileukotrienes (Zileuton) is not immediate after oral administration, but the powerful effect of the Zileuton seen only after two days of inhibition of cys-LTs’, and inhibition of leukotriene B4 (LTB4

  20. Effects of Chemical Enhancers on Human Epidermal Membrane: Structure-Enhancement Relationship based on Maximum Enhancement (Emax)

    PubMed Central

    IBRAHIM, SARAH A.; LI, S. KEVIN

    2008-01-01

    Chemical penetration enhancers are widely used in transdermal pharmaceuticals as well as cosmetic products. Selection of suitable enhancers in topical formulations requires an understanding of the mechanism of action of these enhancers. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the enhancement effects of a number of commonly known enhancers and cosmetic ingredients on permeation across human epidermal membrane (HEM). The potencies of these chemical enhancers—maximum enhancement, Emax—were compared at their highest thermodynamic activity in equilibrium with HEM (i.e., solubility equilibrium). This was achieved by the treatment of HEM with the enhancer or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) saturated with the enhancer. Passive transport experiments were then conducted with a model permeant corticosterone to determine the effects of these enhancers on the lipoidal pathway of HEM. The results suggest that Emax of an enhancer is related to its octanol/water partition coefficient and its solubility in the HEM lipid domain. A relationship between enhancer Emax and its solubility in silicone elastomer was also observed, suggesting the use of silicone solubility to predict enhancer potency. Based on the Emax results, some common topical ingredients were found to be more potent enhancers than a number of well-known chemical enhancers. PMID:18623209

  1. Experimental study of the maximum resolution and packing density achievable in sintered and non-sintered binder-jet 3D printed steel microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Benedict, Michael; Kiggans Jr, James O

    2015-01-01

    Developing high resolution 3D printed metallic microchannels is a challenge especially when there is an essential need for high packing density of the primary material. While high packing density could be achieved by heating the structure to the sintering temperature, some heat sensitive applications require other strategies to improve the packing density of primary materials. In this study the goal is to develop high green or pack densities microchannels on the scale of 2-300 microns which have a robust mechanical structure. Binder-jet 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which droplets of binder are deposited via inkjet into a bed of powder. By repeatedly spreading thin layers of powder and depositing binder into the appropriate 2D profiles, complex 3D objects can be created one layer at time. Microchannels with features on the order of 500 microns were fabricated via binder jetting of steel powder and then sintered and/or infiltrated with a secondary material. The average particle size of the steel powder was varied along with the droplet volume of the inkjet-deposited binder. The resolution of the process, packing density of the primary material, the subsequent features sizes of the microchannels, and the overall microchannel quality were characterized as a function of particle size distribution, droplet sizes and heat treatment temperatures.

  2. Effect of implant variables on temperatures achieved during ferromagnetic hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, D T; Partington, B P; Steeves, R A; Bartholow, S D; Paliwal, B R

    1992-01-01

    Effects of ferromagnetic implant variables on steady-state temperature were studied in both in vitro (phantom) and in vivo (rabbit hind limb musculature) models. Thermoseed implant variables included: (1) the presence and number of thermoseed sleeves; (2) variations in thermoseed alignment within the oscillating electromagnetic field; (3) generator power levels of 300 W, 600 W, and 1200 W; and (4) separation of thermoseed tracks by 0.8 cm versus 1 cm. When the thermoseeds were aligned parallel to the electromagnetic field, temperature distributions in the in vivo model using bare thermoseeds and thermoseeds encased in a single sleeve (0.1 mm wall thickness) of polyethylene tubing were statistically higher than in tests performed with thermoseeds encased in a double sleeve (0.25 mm over 0.1 mm wall thickness) of tubing (p = 0.006). Nonetheless, average steady-state temperatures above a therapeutic minimum (greater than or equal to 42 degrees C) were achieved at all generator power levels using thermoseeds encased in a double sleeve of tubing and aligned parallel to the electromagnetic field. Gross misalignment of thermoseeds with the electromagnetic field was partly compensated for by utilizing higher generator power levels. Thermoseed tracks separated by 0.8 cm and aligned parallel to the electromagnetic field yielded average steady-state temperatures that were 0.4-2.2 degrees C higher than those obtained with a thermoseed track separation of 1 cm. PMID:1573313

  3. The Effects of National Board Certification on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Shawn Berry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between National Board Certification and student achievement in mathematics and reading as measured by an achievement test used in South Carolina. Using the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measures of Academic Progress (MAP), the study examined the RIT (Rasch Unit) scores of third…

  4. EFFECT OF PERCEPTUAL TRAINING ON INTELLIGENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANSKY, NORMAN M.

    THE PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR BEHAVIOR IN LEARNING WAS STUDIED IN RELATIONSHIP TO INTELLIGENCE AND SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT. THE SAMPLE CONSISTED OF 178 THIRD-GRADE PUPILS, WHO WERE MATCHED ON RACE, SEX, INTELLIGENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT, RESULTING IN FOUR EQUIVALENT GROUPS. TRAINING METHODS INCLUDED BLOCKS, PUZZLES, AND READING. POST-TEST PROCEDURES WERE EMPLOYED…

  5. The Effect of Guided Reading Instruction on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Vanda Lea

    2010-01-01

    Although reading achievement correlates highly with a student's ability to do well in school, not all children achieve in reading. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate whether reading instruction provided in small groups at the child's own reading level, known as "guided reading instruction," would result in significant…

  6. The Effect of Student Mobility on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dolores A.

    The impact of mobility on academic achievement has been the focus of many studies. The findings are generally consistent and suggest that mobility lowers student achievement, particularly when the students are from low-income, less educated families. For this study, 30 students, classified as either mobile or stable, were randomly selected from a…

  7. Flipping College Algebra: Effects on Student Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichinose, Cherie; Clinkenbeard, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study compared student engagement and achievement levels between students enrolled in a traditional college algebra lecture course and students enrolled in a "flipped" course. Results showed that students in the flipped class had consistently higher levels of achievement throughout the course than did students in the traditional…

  8. The Effect of Constructivist Mathematics on Achievement in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Michael; Watkins, Sandra; Montalvo, Greg

    2012-01-01

    International assessment data indicate American students are not competing with their counterparts in other countries. The mathematics curriculum and pedagogy are not preparing students to compete in a global economy. This study compared student achievement using sixth grade mathematics results from the Illinois Standards Achievement Test.…

  9. Effect of Tax Ratification Elections on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groppel, Lance

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact a Tax Ratification Election has on student achievement in Texas. Texas schools continue to struggle with shrinking budgets and increasing standards of student achievement (Equity Center, 2011). This study will provide greater insight into whether school districts that have completed a TRE have created a…

  10. Effects of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery on Gas Exchange and Breathing Pattern During Maximum Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Criner, Gerard J.; Belt, Patricia; Sternberg, Alice L.; Mosenifar, Zab; Make, Barry J.; Utz, James P.; Sciurba, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: The National Emphysema Treatment Trial studied lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for its effects on gas exchange, breathing pattern, and dyspnea during exercise in severe emphysema. Methods: Exercise testing was performed at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months. Minute ventilation (V̇e), tidal volume (Vt), carbon dioxide output (V̇co2), dyspnea rating, and workload were recorded at rest, 3 min of unloaded pedaling, and maximum exercise. Pao2, Paco2, pH, fraction of expired carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate were also collected in some subjects at these time points and each minute of testing. There were 1,218 patients enrolled in the study (mean [± SD] age, 66.6 ± 6.1 years; mean, 61%; mean FEV1, 0.77 ± 0.24 L), with 238 patients participating in this substudy (mean age, 66.1 ± 6.8 years; mean, 67%; mean FEV1, 0.78 ± 0.25 L). Results: At 6 months, LVRS patients had higher maximum V̇e (32.8 vs 29.6 L/min, respectively; p = 0.001), V̇co2, (0.923 vs 0.820 L/min, respectively; p = 0.0003), Vt (1.18 vs 1.07 L, respectively; p = 0.001), heart rate (124 vs 121 beats/min, respectively; p = 0.02), and workload (49.3 vs 45.1 W, respectively; p = 0.04), but less breathlessness (as measured by Borg dyspnea scale score) [4.4 vs 5.2, respectively; p = 0.0001] and exercise ventilatory limitation (49.5% vs 71.9%, respectively; p = 0.001) than medical patients. LVRS patients with upper-lobe emphysema showed a downward shift in Paco2 vs V̇co2 (p = 0.001). During exercise, LVRS patients breathed slower and deeper at 6 months (p = 0.01) and 12 months (p = 0.006), with reduced dead space at 6 months (p = 0.007) and 24 months (p = 0.006). Twelve months after patients underwent LVRS, dyspnea was less in patients with upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.001) and non–upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.007). Conclusion: During exercise following LVRS, patients with severe emphysema improve carbon dioxide elimination and dead space, breathe slower and deeper, and report less dyspnea

  11. Estimating the Effect of Competition on Trait Evolution Using Maximum Likelihood Inference.

    PubMed

    Drury, Jonathan; Clavel, Julien; Manceau, Marc; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-07-01

    Many classical ecological and evolutionary theoretical frameworks posit that competition between species is an important selective force. For example, in adaptive radiations, resource competition between evolving lineages plays a role in driving phenotypic diversification and exploration of novel ecological space. Nevertheless, current models of trait evolution fit to phylogenies and comparative data sets are not designed to incorporate the effect of competition. The most advanced models in this direction are diversity-dependent models where evolutionary rates depend on lineage diversity. However, these models still treat changes in traits in one branch as independent of the value of traits on other branches, thus ignoring the effect of species similarity on trait evolution. Here, we consider a model where the evolutionary dynamics of traits involved in interspecific interactions are influenced by species similarity in trait values and where we can specify which lineages are in sympatry. We develop a maximum likelihood based approach to fit this model to combined phylogenetic and phenotypic data. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the approach accurately estimates the simulated parameter values across a broad range of parameter space. Additionally, we develop tools for specifying the biogeographic context in which trait evolution occurs. In order to compare models, we also apply these biogeographic methods to specify which lineages interact sympatrically for two diversity-dependent models. Finally, we fit these various models to morphological data from a classical adaptive radiation (Greater Antillean Anolis lizards). We show that models that account for competition and geography perform better than other models. The matching competition model is an important new tool for studying the influence of interspecific interactions, in particular competition, on phenotypic evolution. More generally, it constitutes a step toward a better integration of interspecific

  12. Stereotype Threat's Effect on Women's Achievement in Chemistry: The Interaction of Achievement Goal Orientation for Women in Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…

  13. Effects of Orientations to Happiness on Vocational Identity Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased interest in vocational psychology and career counseling regarding the link between career development and well-being, yet, little is known about how different ways to achieve well-being or happiness relate to career development. This study explored the relationship between 3 orientations to happiness (meaning, pleasure, and…

  14. Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcel, Toby L.; Dufur, Mikaela J.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of longitudinal data on over 2,000 elementary school students found that reading and mathematics achievement were modestly affected by financial and social capital at school and more strongly affected by indicators of family capital; combinations of school and family capital boosted or modified additive findings. (Contains 69 references.)…

  15. Educational Achievement and Effective Schools: Examples of Best Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Ortega, Magdalena; Ballesteros-Velazquez, Belen; Malik-Lievano, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present key aspects of a research project entitled "Students' Cultural Diversity and School Efficacy: A Repertory of Best Practice in Compulsory Learning Centers." First, we present our concept of cultural diversity and a reflection regarding "best school practices" and the notion of "student achievement at school." In the…

  16. Differentiated Instruction: Effects on Primary Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    Low mathematics achievement is a concern of educators and the general public because many Americans are emerging from school without the requisite mathematics skills to function well in our complex, quickly changing society. Individuals with low math abilities are more likely to be unemployed and be a burden to fellow taxpayers. Educators and…

  17. The Effects of Playing Educational Video Games on Kindergarten Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Feng S.; Calao, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether kindergarten students who played Sony PlayStation educational video games for 40 minutes daily for 11 weeks learned better than peers who did not play such games. Found that the experimental group gained significantly more than the control group in spelling and decoding on the Wide Range Achievement Test-R3. Found no…

  18. The Effects of Podcasting on College Student Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francom, Jeff; Ryan, Thomas G.; Kariuki, Mumbi

    2011-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, weekly podcasts written and recorded by course instructors to summarize college course content, were used to study the impact, if any, on student achievement and attitudes. Specifically, weekly summative podcasts were posted on an Internet website in Windows Media format and downloaded by college students. After 4…

  19. The Effect of Instructional Approach on Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Karen S.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of covariance of pre- and posttest scores on mathematics anxiety and arithmetic achievement tests of (n=123) college students taught arithmetic using two different instructional approaches (rule oriented versus concept oriented) found a significant difference between the posttest anxiety scores of the two groups. (22 references)…

  20. An Analysis of Alternative School Effectiveness on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moger, Scott Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis investigating student achievement, attendance rates, grade point average and credit earned by at-risk students attending an alternative high school of choice, at-risk students attending a traditional high school and at-risk students attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Placement Campus within the same…

  1. Possible Effects of Early Childhood Music on Mathematical Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geoghegan, Noel; Mitchelmore, Michael

    Assuming that young children's involvement in music programs provides a conceptual foundation for subjects such as mathematics, this study examined the impact of music education on mathematics achievement in preschool children. A pseudo-experimental design was used in which 35 preschool children involved in a music program treatment were compared…

  2. Spatial Dependency and Contextual Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlock, Ki; Song, Joon Jin; Goering, Christian Z.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of district-related variables on a district's academic performance. Arkansas augmented benchmark examination scores were used to measure a district's scholastic achievement. Spatial analysis fit each district's performance to its geographical location; spatial autocorrelation measured the amount of influence…

  3. On the Effect of Learning Style on Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Rahmatullah; Bart, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the influence of learning styles on scholastic achievement levels. The participants in this study were undergraduate students studying social sciences at a Division 1 research university. The frequencies of the participants in the four learning style categories are the following: Convergent ("n"…

  4. Formal Teacher Competence and Its Effect on Pupil Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…

  5. Dyad Composition Effects on Cognitive Elaboration and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denessen, Eddie; Veenman, Simon; Dobbelsteen, Janine; van Schilt, Josie

    2008-01-01

    The authors addressed the following research question: Does composition of dyads in terms of gender and ability affect student participation, the level of cognitive elaborations during a collaborative activity, and individual student achievement? The study involved 24 6th-grade dyads paired as follows: a low-ability student with a medium-ability…

  6. Interaction Effects in Cross-National Studies of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Todd V.; Sabers, Darrell L.

    1995-01-01

    The Bateria Woodcock Psico-Educativa en Espanol was administered to urban children in grades 1, 3, 5, 8, and 11 in Spain, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Peru. Spain consistently ranked highest on all achievement clusters (subject areas). For the other countries, interactions of cluster by grade level preclude any interpretation of main…

  7. Rural Social Studies Teaching: Characteristics and Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results of teaching social studies in a rural environment. Addresses size of school, teacher preparation in social studies, teacher orientation toward teaching content, and achievement scores. Concludes that teachers in rural schools have more positive opinions of their students but need additional teaching materials and inservice…

  8. The Effects of Math Intervention on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulichnie, Staci

    2015-01-01

    Within diverse classrooms, sometimes teachers need extra assistance to reach all students. This quantitative research design was used to determine the affects of math intervention on student achievement. Students in this study were selected by their "Not Met" PASS scores from their 3rd grade year. A survey assessing student attitudes…

  9. The Effect of Metacognitive Scaffolds on Low Achievers' Laboratory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sufen; Huang, Chih-Chi; Chou, Te-Lien

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the influence of experimental goal setting and planning on the attitudes toward science, self-efficacy, inquiry performance, and achievement of students with low academic performance. A total of 71 students aged 16-18 were randomly divided into a treatment group (with goal setting and planning) and a control group (without goal…

  10. Student Achievement as a Measure of Instructor Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsch, Joseph E.; And Others

    Using an eight-day hydraulics maintenance course taught by 121 instructors on a regular basis to classes of about 14 students using the same classrooms and materials, the Air Force conducted a study designed to determine instructor measures which correlate with, and are therefore predictive of, student achievement. The study report first discusses…

  11. Response to Intervention (RTI) Effectiveness in Kindergarten Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether kindergarten-reading achievement could be increased by implementing Response to Intervention (RtI) strategies. Kindergarten children (N = 290) who were identified as at-risk for reading difficulties were assigned to receive intervention through a) small reading groups (SRG), b)…

  12. Effects of Cochlear Implants on Children's Reading and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should…

  13. Teacher Effects on Student Achievement and Height: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Corcoran, Sean P.; Domina, Thurston; Penner, Emily K.

    2014-01-01

    The growing availability of data linking students to classroom teachers has made it possible to estimate the contribution teachers make to student achievement. While there is a growing consensus that teacher quality is important and current evaluation systems are inadequate, many have expressed concerns over the use of value-added measures (VAMs)…

  14. An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taik

    2010-01-01

    The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in…

  15. The Effects of Participation in Marching Band on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitucci, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    As schools face tough decisions regarding budget cuts and program elimination, research regarding the importance of extracurricular activities is increasingly important. This study focused on the impact of involvement in band on student achievement as defined by GPA and attendance. Because students were only involved in band extracurricularly…

  16. Classroom Effects on Children's Achievement Trajectories in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C.; Belsky, Jay; Vandergrift, Nathan; Houts, Renate; Morrison, Fred J.

    2008-01-01

    This nonexperimental, longitudinal field study examines the extent to which variation in observed classroom supports (quality of emotional and instructional interactions and amount of exposure to literacy and math activities) predicts trajectories of achievement in reading and math from 54 months to fifth grade. Growth mixture modeling detected…

  17. Depressive Mood and Social Maladjustment: Differential Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…

  18. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  19. MANAGING MANURE TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM VALUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure is an asset to soil productivity and crop production. The current assumption is that more manure is produced today than throughout history in the United States. Analysis of animal production numbers for the past 50 years shows that less manure is produced because of reduced animal productio...

  20. Achieving Maximum Integration Utilizing Requirements Flow Down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archiable, Wes; Askins, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A robust and experienced systems engineering team is essential for a successful program. It is often a challenge to build a core systems engineering team early enough in a program to maximize integration and assure a common path for all supporting teams in a project. Ares I was no exception. During the planning of IVGVT, the team had many challenges including lack of: early identification of stakeholders, team training in NASA s system engineering practices, solid requirements flow down and a top down documentation strategy. The IVGVT team started test planning early in the program before the systems engineering framework had been matured due to an aggressive schedule. Therefore the IVGVT team increased their involvement in the Constellation systems engineering effort. Program level requirements were established that flowed down to IVGVT aligning all stakeholders to a common set of goals. The IVGVT team utilized the APPEL REQ Development Management course providing the team a NASA focused model to follow. The IVGVT team engaged directly with the model verification and validation process to assure that a solid set of requirements drove the need for the test event. The IVGVT team looked at the initial planning state, analyzed the current state and then produced recommendations for the ideal future state of a wide range of systems engineering functions and processes. Based on this analysis, the IVGVT team was able to produce a set of lessons learned and to provide suggestions for future programs or tests to use in their initial planning phase.

  1. The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Hillman, C H; Pontifex, M B; Raine, L B; Castelli, D M; Hall, E E; Kramer, A F

    2009-03-31

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  2. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 minutes of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e., walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further supports the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  3. Effect of language of instruction on physics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kwok K.

    This study investigated the relationship between physics achievement and language of instruction in a situation where instruction was in the second language of both students and teachers. One hundred and seventy-six grade ten physics students (first language was Chinese) were selected from four classes of two secondary schools in Hong Kong. For three months (with four lessons per week), two classes of students learned the content material (light and sound) in Chinese and two classes learned the material in English. Group differences were controlled by using individual aptitude scores as covariates in the analysis. There were no differences in achievement, students' motivation, and effort spent in physics in that controlled teaching period. This was probably because the Anglo-Chinese group was sufficiently proficient in English so they did not encounter additional difficulty in learning physics when compared with the Chinese group.

  4. Maximum Entropy of Effective Reaction Theory of Steady Non-ideal Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Simon; Braithwaite, Martin; Byers Brown, William; Falle, Samuel; Sharpe, Gary

    2009-06-01

    According to the theory of Byers Brown, in a steady state detonation the entropy production between the shock and sonic locus is a maximum in a self-sustaining wave. This has shown to hold true for all one-dimensional cases. Applied to 2D steady curved detonation waves in a slab or cylindrical stick of explosive, Byers Brown suggested a novel variational approach for maximising the global entropy generation within the detonation driving zone, hence providing the solution of the self-sustaining detonation wave problem. Preliminary application of such a variational technique, albeit with simplfying assumptions, demonstrate its potential to provide a rapid and accurate solution method for the problem. In this paper, recent progress in the development of the 2D variational technique and validation of the maximum entropy concept are reported. The predictions of the theory are compared with high-resolution numerical simulations and with the predictions of existing Detonation Shock Dynamics theory.

  5. Cooperative and collective effects in light of the maximum energy dissipation principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Adam

    2010-04-01

    We compare the collective phenomena in physics and cooperative phenomena in biology/chemistry in terms of the variational description. The maximum energy dissipation employed and the cost-like functional was chosen according to an optimal control based formulation. Using this approach, the variational outline has been considered for non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions. The differences between the application of the proposed approach to the description of cooperative phenomena in chemical/biochemical kinetics and the Landau free energy approach to collective phenomena in physics have been investigated.

  6. The Effects of Teacher Entry Portals on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Purtell, Kelly M.; Bastian, Kevin C.; Fortner, C. Kevin; Thompson, Charles L.; Campbell, Shanyce L.; Patterson, Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    The current teacher workforce is younger, less experienced, more likely to turnover, and more diverse in preparation experiences than the workforce of two decades ago. Research shows that inexperienced teachers are less effective, but we know little about the effectiveness of teachers with different types of preparation. In this study, we classify…

  7. Is Scientific Achievement a Correlate of Effective Teaching Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, A. I.; Preshaw, R.

    1975-01-01

    Teststhe hypothesis that in the context of a large health science center heavily committed to scientific activity, there would be a positive relationship between the scientific productivity of faculty and their effectiveness as teachers. The results indicate that research activity is supportive of effective teaching. (Editor/PG)

  8. Effects of Grading on Achievement in College Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Youxiang; Zakrajsek, Dorothy B.

    1994-01-01

    Study examined the effects of three grading systems on college physical education students' outcome measures in table tennis using skill tests, written tests, game play variables, class attendance, student behaviors, and attitudes toward the systems. Positive effects of the three grading systems were demonstrated on most process and outcome…

  9. The effect of maximum open height on operating characteristics of polymer injected pump poppet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. C.; Chen, X. D.; Deng, H. Y.

    2012-11-01

    Reciprocating polymer injected pump is the key injection equipment of tertiary oil recovery, the poppet valve in it exists the problem of large vibration noise, low efficiency and short life when transportation high viscosity medium. So the CFD technique is adopted to simulate and analyze the inner flow fields of fluid end poppet valve. According to the practical structure of the poppet valve, a simplified 2D axis-symmetry geometry model of the flow field is established. Combined with pump speed, plunger stroke and plunger diameter, given the boundary condition of the inlet valve, then the numerical simulation of flow field under six different maximum open heights is done depending on software Fluent. The relationship between open height to valve gap flow velocity, hydraulic loss and lag angle is obtained. The results indicate that, with the increase of open height, the valve gap flow velocity decreases, inlet outlet pressure differential decreases and hydraulic loss decreases. But the lag angle is continuously increasing with the increase of maximum open height, the valve has a good work performance when the open height is 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3mm, but when it reaches 3.5mm, the valve performance becomes poor. The study can offer certain reference to understand operating characteristics of poppet valve, help to reduce the hydraulic losses and raise volume efficiency of the pump.

  10. Maximum Theoretical Efficiency Limit of Photovoltaic Devices: Effect of Band Structure on Excited State Entropy.

    PubMed

    Osterloh, Frank E

    2014-10-01

    The Shockley-Queisser analysis provides a theoretical limit for the maximum energy conversion efficiency of single junction photovoltaic cells. But besides the semiconductor bandgap no other semiconductor properties are considered in the analysis. Here, we show that the maximum conversion efficiency is limited further by the excited state entropy of the semiconductors. The entropy loss can be estimated with the modified Sackur-Tetrode equation as a function of the curvature of the bands, the degeneracy of states near the band edges, the illumination intensity, the temperature, and the band gap. The application of the second law of thermodynamics to semiconductors provides a simple explanation for the observed high performance of group IV, III-V, and II-VI materials with strong covalent bonding and for the lower efficiency of transition metal oxides containing weakly interacting metal d orbitals. The model also predicts efficient energy conversion with quantum confined and molecular structures in the presence of a light harvesting mechanism. PMID:26278444

  11. The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

  12. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions are explored. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement made by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  13. The Effects of Web-Based/Non-Web-Based Problem-Solving Instruction and High/Low Achievement on Students' Problem-Solving Ability and Biology Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…

  14. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  15. Effect of the grain-size distribution on the maximum height of Plinian columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, F.; Carazzo, G.; Tait, S.; Ferrucci, F.; Kaminski, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject large amounts of gas and solid pyroclastic fragment in the atmosphere, that may cause health and transportation problems. A robust and accurate modeling of the transport of volcanic particles from the eruptive vent to the umbrella and their dispersion in the atmosphere is essential for risk assessment. A key aspect of the modeling is to establish a link between remote observations, made in near real-time, and the characteristics of the eruption later determined using field data (i.e. mass flux, eruption volume and distribution of the deposits). Knowledge of the grain-size distribution (GSD) of volcanic fragments injected into the atmosphere is important to interpret satellite measurements in terms of particle concentration. However, although the GSD is known to affect the dynamics of the volcanic plume, current models are based on average or maximum particle load only. We present here a 1D model of volcanic plume considering air entrainment and particles sedimentation at the plume edge, which is the first based on actual GSD determined from field deposits. GSD from various pyroclastic fall and flow deposits show that the number of particles N with radius R larger that r follows closely a power law relationship N(R>r) ∝ r-D, where the power law exponent D, between 3.0 and 3.9, fully characterizes the population of particles. Values of D larger than 3 correspond to a larger amount of fine ash particles compared to coarser fragments. The value of D reflects the efficiency of primary fragmentation at the fragmentation level, and the rate of subsequent production of fine ash particles in the conduit. The power law exponent D controls in turn the total amount of gas available in the volcanic mixture at the vent because the production of ash promotes gas released from the bubbly magma. The volcanic plume model shows that, for a given eruptive mass flux, values of D smaller than 3.3 at the vent can dramatically change the height

  16. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Filho, José; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test), and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years’ experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m). The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05) after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76), while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46) with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance. PMID:27111088

  17. The effect of inspiratory muscle training upon maximum lactate steady-state and blood lactate concentration.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Alison K; Sharpe, Graham R

    2005-06-01

    Several studies have reported that improvements in endurance performance following respiratory muscle training (RMT) are associated with a decrease in blood lactate concentration ([Lac](B)). The present study examined whether pressure threshold inspiratory muscle training (IMT) elicits an increase in the cycling power output corresponding to the maximum lactate steady state (MLSS). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 12 healthy, non-endurance-trained male participants were assigned in equal numbers to an experimental (IMT) or sham training control (placebo) group. Cycling power output at MLSS was initially identified using a lactate minimum protocol followed by a series of constant power output rides (2.5% increments) of 29.5 min duration; MLSS was reassessed following six weeks of IMT or sham IMT. Maximum inspiratory mouth pressure increased significantly (26%) in the IMT group, but remained unchanged in the placebo group. The cycling power output corresponding to MLSS remained unchanged in both groups after the intervention. After IMT, [Lac](B) decreased significantly at MLSS power in the IMT group [-1.17 (1.01) mmol l(-1) after 29.5 min of cycling; mean (SD)], but remained unchanged in the placebo group [+0.37 (1.66) mmol l(-1)]. These data support previous observations that IMT results in a decrease in [Lac](B )at a given intensity of exercise. That such a decrease in [Lac](B) was not associated with a substantial (>2.5%) increase in MLSS power is a new finding suggesting that RMT-induced increases in exercise tolerance and reductions in [Lac](B) are not ascribable to a substantial increase in the 'lactate threshold'. PMID:15765241

  18. Thermal acclimation effects differ between voluntary, maximum, and critical swimming velocities in two cyprinid fishes.

    PubMed

    O'Steen, Shyril; Bennett, Albert F

    2003-01-01

    Temperature acclimation may be a critical component of the locomotor physiology and ecology of ectothermic animals, particularly those living in eurythermal environments. Several studies of fish report striking acclimation of biochemical and kinetic properties in isolated muscle. However, the relatively few studies of whole-animal performance report variable acclimation responses. We test the hypothesis that different types of whole-animal locomotion will respond differently to temperature acclimation, probably due to divergent physiological bases of locomotion. We studied two cyprinid fishes, tinfoil barbs (Puntius schwanenfeldii) and river barbels (Barbus barbus). Study fish were acclimated to either cold or warm temperatures for at least 6 wk and then assayed at four test temperatures for three types of swimming performance. We measured voluntary swimming velocity to estimate routine locomotor behavior, maximum fast start velocity to estimate anaerobic capacity, and critical swimming velocity to estimate primarily aerobic capacity. All three performance measures showed some acute thermal dependence, generally a positive correlation between swimming speed and test temperature. However, each performance measure responded quite differently to acclimation. Critical speeds acclimated strongly, maximum speeds not at all, and voluntary speeds uniquely in each species. Thus we conclude that long-term temperature exposure can have very different consequences for different types of locomotion, consistent with our hypothesis. The data also address previous hypotheses that predict that polyploid and eurythermal fish will have greater acclimation abilities than other fish, due to increased genetic flexibility and ecological selection, respectively. Our results conflict with these predictions. River barbels are eurythermal polyploids and tinfoil barbs stenothermal diploids, yet voluntary swimming acclimated strongly in tinfoil barbs and minimally in river barbels, and

  19. Effects of Mode of Instruction, Testing, Order of Testing, and Cued Recall on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Francis M.; De Melo, Hermes

    1984-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate effect of verbal instruction alone vs. verbal instruction complemented by simple line drawings; effect of visual testing vs. nonvisual testing; effect of verbal cued vs. free recall on student achievement; effect of order of testing on subsequent achievement; and interaction among type of instruction,…

  20. The Effective Principal: Achieving Equity and Excellence in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denbo, Sheryl; Ross, Marlene

    The suggestions presented in this publication are designed to assist principals in improving school effectiveness through a well-planned, well-executed program of staff supervision and curriculum development. The document is organized into four major areas. First, the need for the principal to provide strong curriculum leadership through…

  1. Effects of Jigsaw III Technique on Achievement in Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the Jigsaw III technique (of cooperative learning) with the instructional teacher-centered teaching method in six graders in terms of the effect of written expression on their academic success. The universe of the study consists of 71 sixth-grade students studying during 2009-2010 academic term in a…

  2. Assessing Teacher Quality: Understanding Teacher Effects on Instruction and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Recent educational reforms have promoted accountability systems which attempt to identify "teacher effects" on student outcomes and hold teachers accountable for producing learning gains. But in the complex world of classrooms, it may be difficult to attribute "success" or "failure" to teachers. In this timely collection, leading education…

  3. Colour and Light Effects on Students' Achievement, Behavior and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlfarth, H.

    A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used to investigate the effects of full-spectrum light, prescribed color and light/color combinations, ultra-violet light, and electromagnetic radiation in an elementary school environment. Four schools in the Wetaskiwin School District, Alberta, were involved in the study; three served…

  4. Effects of Differentiated Instruction on Student Achievement in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Darryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Reading teachers are faced with the challenge of providing instruction to a population of diverse students with various abilities and styles of learning within local and state school districts. In an effort to improve student performance on high-stake examinations in reading, teachers continue to seek the most effective instructional strategies.…

  5. The Effect of Kindergarten Entry Age on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buten, Nicole A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of kindergarten entry age on the scores of the eighth grade Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) math and reading scores, while controlling for the demographic variables of gender and socioeconomic status. The subjects included 1,197 students who participated in the randomized, long-term STAR (Student-Teacher…

  6. Assessing School Effects without Controlling for Prior Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Hans; Tymms, Peter; Jones, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The research findings presented in this paper illustrate how the "value added" of schooling can be assessed empirically using cross-sectional data. Application of the regression-discontinuity approach within a multilevel framework produces both an estimate of the absolute effect of 1 year schooling and an estimate of the variation across schools…

  7. IQ-TREE: A Fast and Effective Stochastic Algorithm for Estimating Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lam-Tung; Schmidt, Heiko A.; von Haeseler, Arndt; Minh, Bui Quang

    2015-01-01

    Large phylogenomics data sets require fast tree inference methods, especially for maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenies. Fast programs exist, but due to inherent heuristics to find optimal trees, it is not clear whether the best tree is found. Thus, there is need for additional approaches that employ different search strategies to find ML trees and that are at the same time as fast as currently available ML programs. We show that a combination of hill-climbing approaches and a stochastic perturbation method can be time-efficiently implemented. If we allow the same CPU time as RAxML and PhyML, then our software IQ-TREE found higher likelihoods between 62.2% and 87.1% of the studied alignments, thus efficiently exploring the tree-space. If we use the IQ-TREE stopping rule, RAxML and PhyML are faster in 75.7% and 47.1% of the DNA alignments and 42.2% and 100% of the protein alignments, respectively. However, the range of obtaining higher likelihoods with IQ-TREE improves to 73.3–97.1%. IQ-TREE is freely available at http://www.cibiv.at/software/iqtree. PMID:25371430

  8. Effects of lecture information density on medical student achievement.

    PubMed

    Russell, I J; Hendricson, W D; Herbert, R J

    1984-11-01

    With the virtual explosion of biomedical information, the medical educator regularly faces a quandary regarding how much to include in the medical curriculum. Opinions differ regarding how much of the available information on a particular topic should be presented in a medical school lecture. To understand better the effect of lecture information density on learning by medical students, one of the authors gave a basic clinical lecture only or clinical lectures with varying amounts of semirelated information. Tests which measured only retention of the basic material were given before lecture attendance, immediately after the lecture, and 15 days later. The results indicated that increasing the information density of a lecture reduced retention of the basic information. The memory loss apparently was due to information presented late in the lecture displacing facts learned by the students earlier in the same hour. The data suggest that lectures to medical students are more effective aids to learning when the information density is limited to a few main points that are "essential to know." PMID:6492106

  9. Heritability and Educational Policy: Genetic and Environmental Effects on IQ, Aptitude and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    The effects of family background on adolescents' IQ, aptitude, and school achievement test scores challenge some of the usual beliefs about the fairness of achievement rather than IQ tests, and the role of genetic differences among individuals and social class groups in academic achievements. Subjects included 115 adoptive families with adolescent…

  10. The Effects of Extracurricular Activities on the Academic Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Sudhir K.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the effects of extracurricular activities on academic achievement of seventh and eighth graders. This study compared the academic achievements of participants and non-participants in Mathematics and Language Arts. The three different measurements used for the academic achievement were TCAP, ThinkLink, and GPA…

  11. Effects of Traditional, Blended and E-Learning on Students' Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qahtani, Awadh A. Y.; Higgins, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of e-learning, blended learning and classroom learning on students' achievement. Two experimental groups together with a control group from Umm Al-Qura University in Saudi Arabia were identified randomly. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and post-achievement tests were used. The…

  12. Effects of Improvements in Interval Timing on the Mathematics Achievement of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on mathematics achievement. A total of 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grades completed pre- and posttest measures of mathematics achievement from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Students in the experimental group participated in a 4-week intervention…

  13. Evaluating the Effects of Programs for Reducing Achievement Gaps: A Case Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Lan; Kuo, Nien-Ping; Chang, Tien-Ying; Chiou, Jia-Min

    2014-01-01

    Considering that achievement gaps have become a serious educational problem worldwide, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan has been addressing a series of policies to reduce achievement gaps, but the effect of these policies has not yet been carefully examined. Therefore, the present study investigated current educational policies, achievement gap…

  14. The Effects of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…

  15. Effects of Movement Instruction on Children's Singing Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Mary Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of movement instruction on children's singing achievement scores. When controlling for age, four overarching questions and nine sub-questions were asked. First, when controlling for age, how do pitch achievement scores at the outset compare to pitch achievement scores after movement…

  16. The effects of early grade retention: Effect modification by prior achievement and age.

    PubMed

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the effects of early grade retention and different effects according to prior achievement and age. Within a population of children at risk of early retention, we compared the development throughout primary school in mathematics achievement after kindergarten retention, first-grade retention, and continuous promotion. Analyzing data from a large-scale longitudinal study using covariate balancing propensity score weighting, the findings revealed that early grade repeaters would score higher in mathematics if they were promoted each year instead. However, the effects diminished or even disappeared in the long term. Compared to kindergarten retention, first-grade retention was found to be more harmful for the mathematics development of younger children specifically. PMID:26790704

  17. The Combined Effect of Teacher Effectiveness Characteristics on Value-Added Student Achievement in Junior High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadleigh, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic achievement in junior high mathematics is an ongoing mission for educational leaders. To achieve that undertaking, teacher effectiveness plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of teacher effectiveness on student achievement. The study was conducted in a suburban school district in…

  18. Effects of diaphragmatic control on the assessment of sniff nasal inspiratory pressure and maximum relaxation rate

    PubMed Central

    Benício, Kadja; Dias, Fernando A. L.; Gualdi, Lucien P.; Aliverti, Andrea; Resqueti, Vanessa R.; Fregonezi, Guilherme A. F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of diaphragmatic activation control (diaphC) on Sniff Nasal-Inspiratory Pressure (SNIP) and Maximum Relaxation Rate of inspiratory muscles (MRR) in healthy subjects. METHOD: Twenty subjects (9 male; age: 23 (SD=2.9) years; BMI: 23.8 (SD=3) kg/m2; FEV1/FVC: 0.9 (SD=0.1)] performed 5 sniff maneuvers in two different moments: with or without instruction on diaphC. Before the first maneuver, a brief explanation was given to the subjects on how to perform the sniff test. For sniff test with diaphC, subjects were instructed to perform intense diaphragm activation. The best SNIP and MRR values were used for analysis. MRR was calculated as the ratio of first derivative of pressure over time (dP/dtmax) and were normalized by dividing it by peak pressure (SNIP) from the same maneuver. RESULTS: SNIP values were significantly different in maneuvers with and without diaphC [without diaphC: -100 (SD=27.1) cmH2O/ with diaphC: -72.8 (SD=22.3) cmH2O; p<0.0001], normalized MRR values were not statistically different [without diaphC: -9.7 (SD=2.6); with diaphC: -8.9 (SD=1.5); p=0.19]. Without diaphC, 40% of the sample did not reach the appropriate sniff criteria found in the literature. CONCLUSION: Diaphragmatic control performed during SNIP test influences obtained inspiratory pressure, being lower when diaphC is performed. However, there was no influence on normalized MRR. PMID:26578254

  19. Effect of different dental articulating papers on SEMG activity during maximum clenching.

    PubMed

    Augusti, Davide; Augusti, Gabriele; Re, Dino; Dellavia, Claudia; Giannì, Aldo Bruno

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the influence of two different occlusal indicators (articulating papers of 40μm and 200μm) on muscular activity of the temporalis anterior (TA) and superficial masseter (MS) during maximum voluntary clenches (MVC), using surface electromyography (SEMG). It was hypothesized that an articulating paper positioned between dental arches during MVC elicits a different muscular activity compared with the occlusion on natural dentition (without the occlusal indicator). 30 healthy adult subjects with a complete, natural dentition were recruited; SEMG activity was recorded in the following experimental conditions: MVC with cotton rolls for standardization purposes; MVC on natural dentition; MVC onto the 40μm or 200μm paper indicator positioned on right or left side of the dental arch. Percentage Overlapping Coefficient (POC; separate values obtained for TA and MS), antero-posterior coefficient (APC) and total muscle activities (IMP) were the analyzed SEMG parameters. The use of an occlusal indicator statistically changed POC_TA, POC_MS and IMP median values (p<0.05). Both 40μm and 200μm occlusal papers did not significantly affect APC values (P=0.86). A pronounced asymmetric muscular activity has been recorded with the introduction of an interocclusal media. All indices of muscular activity did not differ between sexes (Kruskal Wallis test, P>0.05). In conclusion, the examined articulating papers affected two specific SEMG parameters (POC and IMP); the recorded muscular activity with the occlusal indicator varied regardless left or right side positioning, and independently from tested paper thicknesses. PMID:25956545

  20. What Effective Principals Do to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Elizabeth Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this mixed method study were to (a) Examine the relationships among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership, and student achievement; (b) examine the differences among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership and student achievement; and (c) investigate what effective principals do to improve…

  1. Parental Involvement, Homework, and TV Time: Direct and Indirect Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A set of High School and Beyond data was used to study the effect of three variables on academic achievement. Homework had a positive effect, TV a negative, and parental involvement no direct effect on seniors' achievement scores, but influenced the amount of time students spent on homework. (Author/JAZ)

  2. Impatience versus achievement strivings in the Type A pattern: Differential effects on students' health and academic achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Pred, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychometric analyses of college students' responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey, a self-report measure of the Type A behavior pattern, revealed the presence of two relatively independent factors. Based on these analyses, two scales, labeled Achievement Strivings (AS) and Impatience and Irritability (II), were developed. In two samples of male and female college students, scores on AS but not on II were found to be significantly correlated with grade point average. Responses to a health survey, on the other hand, indicated that frequency of physical complaints was significantly correlated with II but not with AS. These results suggest that there are two relatively independent factors in the Type A pattern that have differential effects on performance and health. Future research on the personality factors related to coronary heart disease and other disorders might more profitably focus on the syndrome reflected in the II scale than on the Type A pattern.

  3. Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Economic Effects Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes the 1966 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act and summarizes the findings of three 1969 studies of the economic effects of these amendments. The studies found that economic growth continued through the third phase of the amendments, beginning February 1, 1969, despite increased wage and hours restrictions for recently…

  4. The Effect of General Objectives Defined by Behavioral Objectives on Achievement in a College Zoology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushin, John W.; Baller, William

    1981-01-01

    Tests the effect of developmental level objectives on student achievement and efficiency in a zoology course. These objectives were found to have no significant effect on achievement, but they did significantly increase student efficiency in learning the content material of the module. (Author)

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive School Reform in Low Achieving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Tim M.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform implemented in 100 low achieving schools serving disadvantaged students in a Canadian province. The results show that while Struggling Schools had a statistically significant positive effect on Grade 3 Reading achievement, d = 0.48…

  6. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  7. The Effect of Direct Instruction Model on Intermediate Class Achievement and Attitudes toward English Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousar, Rubina

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the direct instruction model on intermediate class achievement and attitudes toward English grammar. It was an experimental study and the purpose was to explore the relative effectiveness of instructional methodology (independent variable) on students' achievement and attitude (dependent…

  8. Estimating Effective Population Size from Temporally Spaced Samples with a Novel, Efficient Maximum-Likelihood Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Tin-Yu J.; Burt, Austin

    2015-01-01

    The effective population size Ne is a key parameter in population genetics and evolutionary biology, as it quantifies the expected distribution of changes in allele frequency due to genetic drift. Several methods of estimating Ne have been described, the most direct of which uses allele frequencies measured at two or more time points. A new likelihood-based estimator NB^ for contemporary effective population size using temporal data is developed in this article. The existing likelihood methods are computationally intensive and unable to handle the case when the underlying Ne is large. This article tries to work around this problem by using a hidden Markov algorithm and applying continuous approximations to allele frequencies and transition probabilities. Extensive simulations are run to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimator NB^, and the results show that it is more accurate and has lower variance than previous methods. The new estimator also reduces the computational time by at least 1000-fold and relaxes the upper bound of Ne to several million, hence allowing the estimation of larger Ne. Finally, we demonstrate how this algorithm can cope with nonconstant Ne scenarios and be used as a likelihood-ratio test to test for the equality of Ne throughout the sampling horizon. An R package “NB” is now available for download to implement the method described in this article. PMID:25747459

  9. Effect of diet therapy on maximum aerobic power in obese, hyperglycaemic men with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vanninen, E; Uusitupa, M; Siitonen, O; Laitinen, J; Länsimies, E; Pyörälä, K

    1991-05-01

    To find out the effect of correction of hyperglycaemia on maximum aerobic power and anaerobic threshold, we studied 40 middle-aged obese men with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes before and after 3 months diet therapy. Respiratory gas exchange was measured during maximal incremental bicycle exercise test with breath-by-breath technique at rest, at anaerobic threshold and at peak exercise. As a whole group, the diabetic men reached higher work load after therapy (+9 +/- 3 W (mean +/- SEM), p less than 0.01). A weak inverse linear correlation was found between the changes in fasting blood glucose and in maximum oxygen uptake (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05). When the patients were divided into two groups according to the median values in the change in fasting blood glucose, only those men with more than 1 mmol l-1 decrease in fasting blood glucose improved maximum oxygen uptake (+124 +/- 55 ml min-1 or +6%, p less than 0.05). Oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold did not change significantly. These results suggest that the correction of hyperglycaemia by diet therapy may improve maximal aerobic power in obese men with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. PMID:1882180

  10. Zero bias maximum of differential conductance in coupled quantum dots: The effect of interdot Coulomb interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Gagan; Chand, S.; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Sharma, K. C.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study of correlated electronic transport through coupled double quantum dot (DQD) system attached to normal leads, using a generalised two impurity Anderson Hamiltonian in the presence of intra- and inter-dot Coulomb interactions. A generic formulation from which different structures, i.e. series, symmetric as well as asymmetric parallel and T-shape, can be obtained easily, is developed using Keldysh non-equilibrium Green functions method. The occupation numbers and correlators appearing in the formulation have been calculated in a self-consistent manner. A special attention is paid to investigate the ZBM in the differential conductance, which appears, develops and disappears over a particular range of interdot Coulomb interaction, in the configuration of interest. The ZBM is found to result from the renormalization of energy levels induced by the interdot Coulomb interaction and therefore an attempt has been made to understand it within the framework of local density of states. The interdot tunneling is found to enhance the effect of the interdot Coulomb interaction in inducing the ZBM in all the three configurations. Calculations for the T-shape configuration reveal that non-zero value of the interdot tunneling is an essential condition for the appearance of the ZBM in the differential conductance.

  11. Extending Antecedents of Achievement Goals: The Double-Edged Sword Effect of Social-Oriented Achievement Motive and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Youyan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2013-01-01

    Underpinned by the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation, the study examined the differential relations of individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motives to approach and avoidance achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-avoidance). A total of 570 Chinese high school…

  12. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  13. Is the Black-White Achievement Gap a Public Sector Effect? An Examination of Student Achievement in the Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has suggested private school education in middle school and high school as a solution for the Black-White achievement gap. However, more recent research calls this solution into question. Additionally, research increasingly implicates third grade as being of preeminent importance in driving students' subsequent academic achievement.…

  14. The Effect of Achievement Goals on Moral Attitudes in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo; Silva, Manuel J Coelho e; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Cumming, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the hypothesis that achievement goal orientations will predict sportpersonship attitudes among young athletes, namely that task orientation will predict socially positive attitudes and ego orientation will predict socially negative attitudes. For hundred and eighty two athletes, aged 13 to 16 years completed the Portuguese versions of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQp) and of the Sports Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQp). Bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships between TEOSQp and SAQp. Afterwards, relationships between ego orientation and score agreement in cheating and gamesmanship as well as task orientation and score agreement in convention and commitment were examined through EQS (version 5.7). For the estimation of the model, the maximum likelihood method was used. A matrix correlation between the variables (task orientation, ego orientation, cheating, gamesmanship, convention and commitment) showed positive correlations between task orientation and convention (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and commitment (r = 0. 40, p < 0.01). Ego orientation appeared to be positively correlated with cheating (r = 0.30, p < 0.01) and gamesmanship (r = 0.33, p < 0.01), and negatively with convention (r = -0.16, p < 0.01).The fit of the model was evaluated using the CFI (0.97) and SRMR (0.04). The hypothesized model was confirmed. Task and ego orientations produced a significant effect on prosocial attitudes and on antisocial attitudes, respectively. Task-oriented goals in youth sport programs can represent a relevant framework for promoting prosocial attitudes and consequentely increment the effectiveness of educational interventions. Key points Sport seems to be an important component of daily physical activity in children and adolescents and its importance is often viewed as positive. Literature suggests that a high task orientation has a positive link with moral variables and a high ego orientation is

  15. Effects of Activity Based Blended Learning Strategy on Prospective of Teachers' Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif; Ahmed, Abdelrahman Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of Activity based Blended Learning strategy and Conventional Blended Learning strategy on students' achievement and motivation. Two groups namely, experimental and control group from Sultan Qaboos University were selected randomly for the study. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and…

  16. Effects of Homework Motivation and Worry Anxiety on Homework Achievement in Mathematics and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…

  17. The Effect of a Developmental Writing Course on Student Persistence and Achievement: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, George R.

    A study was conducted at Butte College to determine the effectiveness of a developmental writing course (Eng 102) by examining comparative achievement and persistence in a subsequent freshman composition course (Eng 210) and comparative persistence and achievement in course work in general. Analyses of data on all 3,497 students who enrolled in…

  18. Cooperative Learning and Group Educational Modules: Effects on Cognitive Achievement of High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Scott B.

    1991-01-01

    Reports a study examining the effects of cooperative learning and self-instructional packets--"Group Educational Modules" (GEM)--on the achievement of biology students. Significant differences in achievement (as compared to control groups) were found for students using GEM materials and students in cooperative learning situations. (PR)

  19. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  20. Effects of Drama-Based Geometry Instruction on Student Achievement, Attitudes, and Thinking Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duatepe-Paksu, Asuman; Ubuz, Behiye

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of drama-based instruction on students' geometry achievement, geometric thinking level, attitudes toward mathematics and geometry, and retention of achievement, in comparison with traditional teaching. The sample involved 102 7th-grade students from a public school. Multivariate analyses of covariance revealed…

  1. The Effects of Explicit Teaching of Metastrategic Knowledge on Low- And High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Peled, Bracha

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of explicit teaching of metastrategic knowledge (MSK) on gains of low-achieving (LA) and high-achieving (HA) 5th grade students (N=41). Gains in reasoning scores of students from the Experimental group (compared to students from the control group) were obtained on the strategic and on the metastrategic level. Gains…

  2. Exploring the Effect of a Non-Residential Learning Community on Academic Achievement and Institutional Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Patrick Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what effect the Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) program, a variation of a non-residential learning community had on academic achievement scores and institutional rates of persistence. Study variables included: gender; race; pre-collegiate academic achievement (GPA scores); educational preferences (major…

  3. The Effects of Participation versus Non-Participation in Interscholastic Sports on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jewell J.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that participation in interscholastic sports may not affect student academic achievement and self-esteem. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of participation versus non-participation in interscholastic sports on the academic achievement and self-esteem of eighth grade students. Reading and math achievement…

  4. Examining the Effects of School Composition on North Carolina Student Achievement over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of school-level characteristics on North Carolina students' reading and math achievement from fourth through eighth grade, focusing on the relationships between achievement and the racial and poverty composition of schools. After creating race-by-poverty cohorts of schools, I use multilevel models to examine math…

  5. The Effect of Gender on the Achievement of Students in Biology Using the Jigsaw Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of gender on the achievement of students in biology using the jigsaw method. The sample was made up of 87 students in SS1 in a secondary school. The study utilized an intact class because the study took place in a normal school term. There were 39 males and 49 females. The Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was…

  6. Effective Strategies Urban Superintendents Utilize That Improve the Academic Achievement for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prioleau, Lushandra

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effective strategies, resources, and programs urban superintendents utilize to improve the academic achievement for African-American males. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research questions regarding urban superintendents and the academic achievement for African-American males: What…

  7. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Achievement and Attitude among Students of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Winston

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of cooperative learning on achievement in and attitudes toward mathematics among fifth graders of color in a culture different from that of the United States (Bermuda). Participants completed parts of the California Achievement Test and Penelope Peterson's Attitude Toward Mathematics Scale. Pre-test and post-test data…

  8. Effects of Fidelity of Implementation on Science Achievement Gains among English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Penfield, Randall; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of fidelity of implementation (FOI) on the science achievement gains of third grade students broadly and students with limited literacy in English specifically. The study was conducted in the context of a professional development intervention with elementary school teachers to promote science achievement of ELL…

  9. The Effects of Controversy, Concurrence Seeking, and Individualistic Learning on Achievement and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared effects of cooperative learning activities (with and without structured controversy) and individualistic learning activities on the achievement and attitudes of fifth graders (N=84) toward wolves. Results show that cooperative-controversy resulted in the highest achievement, greatest motivation to learn about wolves, and more positive…

  10. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  11. The Effects of Reading Recovery™ on the American Indian/Non-American Indian Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the attention being paid to the achievement gap of minorities, the regulations and laws being enacted, the research being conducted, and the funding made available to narrow the achievement gap, there is evidence that shows it still exists for American Indians. This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery, an early literacy…

  12. The Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Secondary Schooling on Girls' Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The effect of coeducational and single-sex secondary schooling on female students' academic achievement was examined. Reexamination of earlier survey data from Northern Ireland studied six outcomes related to student performance on public examinations. Results indicated a small achievement advantage for single-sex schooling (not significant…

  13. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Achievement of Students in General Science at Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parveen, Qaisara; Batool, Sadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of cooperative learning on General Science achievement among 9th class students. Based upon previous research literature it was hypothesized that significant difference existed between the mean posttest scores of General Science achievement of experimental group and control group. The pretest…

  14. Endorsing Achievement Goals Exacerbates the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde; Van Damme, Jan; Verschueren, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model predicts students' academic self-concept to be negatively predicted by the achievement level of their reference group, controlling for individual achievement. Despite an abundance of empirical evidence supporting the BFLPE, there have been relatively few studies searching for possible moderators.…

  15. Effects of Attractiveness and Gender on the Perception of Achievement-Related Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, R. C.; Allred, L. J.; Grossnickle, W. F.; Lee, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of physical attractiveness and gender on perceptions of academic success, achievement-related traits, intelligence, initiative, and attributions of ability and effort in relation to academic success. Finds that being perceived as physically attractive created positive impressions of achievement-related traits for men but…

  16. An Empirical Study on the Effect of School Consolidation in Rural Areas on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Dong; Fang, Chang; Yuanyan, Bai

    2013-01-01

    With Shaanxi province as an example, this study presents empirical evidence on the effect of primary school consolidation in rural areas on student achievement, using the difference-in-differences method. The results show no significant differences in student achievement between consolidated schools and nonconsolidated schools. If student…

  17. Effects of Teacher Educational Background and Experience on Student Achievement in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leak, James Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between teacher educational background, teacher experience, and student achievement in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. The first essay of this dissertation, "Effects of Teacher Degree Level, Coursework, and Certification on Student Achievement in Math and Reading in Kindergarten,"…

  18. The Effect of Using Concept Maps as Study Tools on Achievement in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Attieh, May

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) examine whether or not the construction of concept maps by students improves their achievement and ability to solve higher order questions in chemistry, (2) investigate the differential effect of the treatment by gender and achievement level, and (3) explore the relationships between performance on concept…

  19. The Effects of Chess Instruction on the Mathematics Achievement of Southern, Rural, Black Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James P.; Cage. Bob N.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the effects of 120 hours of chess instruction on the mathematics achievement of southern, rural, black secondary students. Analysis of covariance results show the treatment group (11 females, 9 males) scored significantly higher than the control group (10 females, 10 males) in mathematics achievement. Discusses results in terms of altering…

  20. The Effects of CSCOPE on Student Achievement as Measured by Both TAKS and STAAR Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Maricela Robledo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CSCOPE curriculum on student achievement. CSCOPE is a curriculum management system used in 750 of the 1,039 school districts in the state of Texas. Student achievement is based on the results acquired from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the new version of the state…

  1. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…

  2. Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher-Student Relationship on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at-risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in Grade 2…

  3. Effects of Identity Processing Styles on Academic Achievement of First Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabi, Joseph; Payne, Jarrod

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Academic achievement of first year university students in the international arena, as well as in South Africa, has been a point of concern for all stakeholders because of high failure and dropout rates. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of identity processing styles on academic achievement in first year university…

  4. Computers and Gender: Differential Effects of Electronic Search on Students' Achievement and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Susan Tyler; Krendl, Kathy A.

    The effects of using a microcomputer for electronic research on the achievement and attitudes of eighth-grade boys and girls (N=247) were investigated. The study analyzed three dimensions of student themes, two sets of computer achievement measures, and three attitudinal dimensions for each of three treatment groups. Results showed no unpredicted…

  5. The Causal Ordering of Self-Concept and Academic Motivation and Its Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb

    2006-01-01

    Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…

  6. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Reading Achievement and Reading Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Holly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…

  7. The Impact of the Developmental Discipline Management System on Teaching Effectiveness and Student Achievement in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, J'Anne; Monahan, Alicia K.

    This study analyzed the impact of the Developmental Discipline Management System (DD) on teaching effectiveness and student achievement in special needs classrooms. DD was developed as a human centered, systems approach to education. Its core philosophy was to help each child achieve self mastery and mastery of subjects and to help teachers feel…

  8. Effect of Digital Game Based Learning on Ninth Grade Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearingen, Dixie K.

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of an educational massive multiplayer online game (MMOG) on achievement on a standards-based mathematics exam. It also examined the interaction of student characteristics (gender and socioeconomic status) with digital game play on mathematics achievement. Two hundred eighty ninth grade students from a…

  9. The Effects of Differentiated Instruction Support Inclusion Services on Fifth Grade Reading/Language Arts Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    Using a causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction Support Inclusion Services on fifth grade regular education and gifted students' Reading/Language Arts achievement. The study analyzed and compared the achievement of the regular education students who received no inclusion…

  10. The Effects of Sex-Grouped Schooling on Achievement: The Role of National Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Grade-12 results of the Second International Mathematics Study for Belgium, New Zealand, Thailand, and Japan suggest that when single-sex schooling is relatively scarce in a country, it influences student achievement by attracting students with unique characteristics. Achievement effects may be positive or negative depending on the function of…

  11. The Effect of a State Department of Education Mentoring Program for Teachers on Science Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Gilda Darlene

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the Georgia Department of Education Science Specialist teacher-mentoring program on student achievement on science standardized tests. This study analyzed the impact this program has had on student achievement in participating high schools when compared with high schools across the state where…

  12. The Effects of a Breakfast Program on Reading Achievement of Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambless, Martha; Parham, Charles

    To discover the effects of breakfast on reading achievement a study was conducted comparing 100 primary students from the 1975-1976 school year before a school breakfast program was instituted and 100 students from the 1977-1978 school year who participated in a school breakfast program. Reading scores from the California Achievement Test…

  13. The Effect of Paraprofessional Assistance on the Academic Achievement of Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veaco, Lelia

    The study investigated the effect of guided paraprofessional assistance on the academic achievement of lower achieving intermediate grade migrant children. It examined one possible means of overcoming some of the overwhelming handicaps experienced by migrant children by using indigenous paraprofessionals as a humanizing, tutorial factor. Eighty…

  14. The Effects of Pre-Teaching Teacher Interaction Style on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Lynette

    Experiments were conducted on five treatment groups of undergraduate students to determine the effect teacher/student interaction styles would have on the achievement levels of these students. The undergraduate students were administered mathematical achievement tests, after which the test administrators conducted fifteen-minute interviews. Each…

  15. Students' Achievement in Human Circulatory System Unit: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of gender and reasoning ability on the human circulatory system concepts achievement and attitude toward biology. Reports a statistically significant mean difference between concrete and formal students with regard to achievement and attitude toward biology. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. Artificial Neural Network with Regular Graph for Maximum Air Temperature Forecasting:. the Effect of Decrease in Nodes Degree on Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderi, A. H.; Darooneh, A. H.

    The behavior of nonlinear systems can be analyzed by artificial neural networks. Air temperature change is one example of the nonlinear systems. In this work, a new neural network method is proposed for forecasting maximum air temperature in two cities. In this method, the regular graph concept is used to construct some partially connected neural networks that have regular structures. The learning results of fully connected ANN and networks with proposed method are compared. In some case, the proposed method has the better result than conventional ANN. After specifying the best network, the effect of input pattern numbers on the prediction is studied and the results show that the increase of input patterns has a direct effect on the prediction accuracy.

  17. The Effect of Low Inference Teacher Clarity Inhibitors on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, M. L.; Smith, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Research on the effects of teacher clarity on student achievement levels suggests that teacher trainees should concentrate on reducing their use of "vagueness terms" and ambiguous word phraseology in a classroom situation. (LH)

  18. Effects of Conceptual Systems and Instructional Methods on General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Lance E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three instructional methods and conceptual systems orientation on achievement in a freshman general chemistry laboratory course. Traditional approach, learning cycle, and computer simulations are discussed. (KR)

  19. The effect of a dynamic soil scheme on the climate of the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stärz, M.; Lohmann, G.; Knorr, G.

    2016-01-01

    In order to account for coupled climate-soil processes, we have developed a soil scheme which is asynchronously coupled to a comprehensive climate model with dynamic vegetation. This scheme considers vegetation as the primary control of changes in physical soil characteristics. We test the scheme for a warmer (mid-Holocene) and colder (Last Glacial Maximum) climate relative to the preindustrial climate. We find that the computed changes in physical soil characteristics lead to significant amplification of global climate anomalies, representing a positive feedback. The inclusion of the soil feedback yields an extra surface warming of 0.24 °C for the mid-Holocene and an additional global cooling of 1.07 °C for the Last Glacial Maximum. Transition zones such as desert-savannah and taiga-tundra exhibit a pronounced response in the model version with dynamic soil properties. Energy balance model analyses reveal that our soil scheme amplifies the temperature anomalies in the mid-to-high northern latitudes via changes in the planetary albedo and the effective longwave emissivity. As a result of the modified soil treatment and the positive feedback to climate, part of the underestimated mid-Holocene temperature response to orbital forcing can be reconciled in the model.

  20. The effect of a dynamic soil scheme on the climate of the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stärz, Michael; Lohmann, Gerrit; Knorr, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    In order to account for coupled climate-soil processes, we have developed a soil scheme, which is asynchronously coupled to a comprehensive climate model with dynamic vegetation. This scheme considers vegetation as the primary control of changes in physical soil characteristics. We test the scheme for a warmer (mid-Holocene) and colder (Last Glacial Maximum) climate relative to the preindustrial climate. We find that the computed changes of physical soil characteristics lead to significant amplification of global climate anomalies, representing a positive feedback. The inclusion of the soil feedback yields an extra surface warming of 0.24°C for the mid-Holocene and an additional global cooling of 1.07°C for the Last Glacial Maximum. Transition zones such as desert/savannah and taiga/tundra exhibit a pronounced response in the model version with dynamic soil properties. Energy balance model analyses reveal that our soil scheme amplifies the temperature anomalies in the mid-to-high northern latitudes via changes in the planetary albedo and the effective longwave emissivity. As a result of the modified soil treatment and the positive feedback on climate, part of the underestimated mid-Holocene temperature response to orbital forcing can be reconciled in the model.

  1. The Effect of the Texas Instrument Interactive Instructional Environment on the Mathematical Achievement of Eleventh Grade Low Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Teaching and learning mathematics with technology poses a unique dilemma. If technology is to enhance mathematical achievement (NCTM, 2000), why do documented studies indicate that this may not be the case (Waxman, Connell, & Gray, 2002)? This study looks at the learning environment used when teaching with technology. What in the instructional…

  2. The Effects of After-School Program Participation on Mathematics Achievement: The Case of LA's BEST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinen, Marjorie Harue

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the short-term effects of attending an after-school program (i.e., LA's BEST) on student mathematic achievement. The effects of one, two and three years of participation are studied, as well as the extent to which the magnitude of these effects varies across grades in which participation occurs, and the extent to which…

  3. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozuyesil, Eda; Dikici, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    This study's aim is to measure the effect sizes of the quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of brain-based learning on students' academic achievement and to examine with the meta-analytical method if there is a significant difference in effect in terms of the factors of education level, subject matter, sampling size, and…

  4. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  5. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-03-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  6. A Novel Gibbs Maximum A Posteriori (GMAP) Approach on Bayesian Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Population Pharmacokinetics (PK) Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongho; Hall, Stephen D.; Li, Lang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, various Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) methods and the proposed algorithm, Gibbs maximum a posteriori (GMAP) algorithm, are compared for implementing the nonlinear mixed-effects model in pharmacokinetics (PK) studies. An intravenous two-compartmental PK model is adopted to fit the PK data from the midazolam (MDZ) studies, which recruited 24 individuals with 9 different time points per subject. The three-stage hierarchical nonlinear mixed model is constructed. Data analysis and model performance comparisons show that GMAP converges the fastest, and provides reliable results. At the mean time, data augmentation (DA) methods are used for the Random-walk Metropolis method. Data analysis shows that the speed of the convergence of Random-walk Metropolis can be improved by DA, but all of them are not as fast as GMAP. The performance of GMAP and various MCMC algorithms are compared through Midazolam data analysis and simulation. PMID:20183435

  7. Relations between aggression and adjustment in chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between aggressive behavior and social and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of children (N = 1,171; 591 boys, 580 girls; initial M age = 9 years) in China participated in the study. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected in Grades 3 and 4 from multiple sources including peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results indicated that the main effects of aggression on adjustment were more evident than those of adjustment on aggression. Moreover, aggression was negatively associated with later leadership status and positively associated with later peer victimization, mainly for high-achieving children. The results suggested that consistent with the resource-potentiating model, academic achievement served to enhance the positive development of children with low aggression. On the other hand, although the findings indicated fewer main effects of adjustment on aggression, loneliness, depression, and perceived social incompetence positively predicted later aggression for low-achieving, but not high-achieving, children, which suggested that consistent with the stress-buffering model, academic achievement protected children with psychological difficulties from developing aggressive behavior. The results indicate that academic achievement is involved in behavioral and socioemotional development in different manners in Chinese children. Researchers should consider an integrative approach based on children's behavioral, psychological, and academic functions in designing prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23557214

  8. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002–2006 (ELS:02/06), this study investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course taking had positive effects on math achievement and college enrollment. Results also demonstrated that the effect of advanced math course taking on math achievement was greater for low SES students than for high SES students, but smaller for Black students than for White students. No interaction effects were found for college enrollment. Limitations, policy implications, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26508803

  9. Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher-Student Relationship on Achievement.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y

    2012-01-01

    The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in grade 2 (24.8%) or grade 3 (74.6%). Child-reported conflict was stable across the 3 years, whereas warmth declined. Boys and African American students reported greater conflict than did girls and Caucasian and Hispanic students. Girls and African American students reported higher warmth than boys and non-African American students. Using path analysis, the authors tested the hypothesis that measures of student motivation in Year 2 mediated the effects of conflict and warmth in Year 1 on reading and math achievement in Year 3. Child-perceived conflict predicted cross-year changes in teacher-rated behavioral engagement, which, in turn, predicted cross-year changes in reading and math achievement. Math competence beliefs also mediated the effect of child- perceived warmth on math achievement. Effects controlled for stability of measures across time, the within-wave association between measures, and baseline measures of IQ and economic adversity. Implications of findings for improving the academic achievement of students at-risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:23226873

  10. Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher-Student Relationship on Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in grade 2 (24.8%) or grade 3 (74.6%). Child-reported conflict was stable across the 3 years, whereas warmth declined. Boys and African American students reported greater conflict than did girls and Caucasian and Hispanic students. Girls and African American students reported higher warmth than boys and non-African American students. Using path analysis, the authors tested the hypothesis that measures of student motivation in Year 2 mediated the effects of conflict and warmth in Year 1 on reading and math achievement in Year 3. Child-perceived conflict predicted cross-year changes in teacher-rated behavioral engagement, which, in turn, predicted cross-year changes in reading and math achievement. Math competence beliefs also mediated the effect of child- perceived warmth on math achievement. Effects controlled for stability of measures across time, the within-wave association between measures, and baseline measures of IQ and economic adversity. Implications of findings for improving the academic achievement of students at-risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:23226873

  11. Academic self-efficacy mediates the effects of school psychological climate on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovač, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:24708286

  12. Observations of interplanetary Lyman-alpha with the Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer: Multiple scattering effects at solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, J. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Barth, C. A.; Hord, C. W.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Simmons, K. E.; Hall, D. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo Ultravilet Spectrometer Experiment (UVS) obtained a partial celestial sphere map of interplanetary Lyman-alpha (IP L alpha) on 13-14 December 1990 during the first Earth encounter. The Galileo spacecraft was near the downwind axis of the local interstellar medium flow. These UVS measurements sampled the downwind, anti-sunward hemisphere. The data were modeled using a hot model of the interplanetary hydrogen density distribution with the goal of studying multiple scattering effects in the inner solar system. The derived ratio in the downwind direction of the observed brightness and a single scattering model brightness, both normalized to unity in the upwind direction, is 1.82 +/- 0.2. This brightness ratio requires a multiple scattering correction which is 36% larger than can be accounted for by theoretical calculations. The hot model may require: (1) a temperature perturbation of the interstellar wind velocity distribution or (2) an additional downstream source of interplanetary hydrogen. However, a more likely exlanation which affects the hot model is the latitude dependence of the radiation pressure. This dependence, based on the known solar L alpha flux latitude variation at solar maximum, causes a downwind brightness enhancement by preferential focusing of H-atoms with trajectory planes containing the solar poles. This result implies that radiation pressure near the solar poles is nearly independent of solar cycle and is insufficient to lead to a net repulsion of hydrogen atoms by the sun, as can occur near the ecliptic plane during the solar maximum. In addition, the UVS performed 13 observations of IP L alpha while in cruise between Venus and the Earth in 3 directions fixed in ecliptic coordinates.

  13. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  14. The School Compositional Effect of Single Parenthood on 10th-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling

    1998-01-01

    Uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) to reveal a detrimental contextual effect on 10th-grade mathematics and reading achievement associated with attending a school with a high concentration of children from single-parent homes. Maintains this effect is evident even when individual demographic characteristics and family…

  15. Relationship between Teachers' Effective Communication and Students' Academic Achievement at the Northern Border University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' effective communication and students' academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire…

  16. Effect of Feedback and Remediation on Students' Achievement in Junior Secondary School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Ajogbeje Oke; Folorunso, Alonge Micheal

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of feedback and remediation as instructional strategies on junior secondary school students' achievement in mathematics. The effects of gender and socio economic status on these learning outcomes were also examined. The sample for the study consisted of 240 junior secondary two (JSS II) students in intact classes…

  17. The Effect of the Developed Differentiation Approach on the Achievements of the Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: The present study is of importance for designing a differentiation approach, which enables gifted students to use their present potential in mathematics effectively and enables them to develop their achievement, while looking at the effect of the approach on both gifted and non-gifted students. Within the scope of the developed…

  18. High School Success: An Effective Intervention for Achievement and Dropout Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowder, Christopher Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-design study was to use quantitative and qualitative research to explore the effects of High School Success (a course for at-risk ninth graders) and its effectiveness on student achievement, attendance, and dropout prevention. The research questions address whether there is a significant difference between at-risk ninth…

  19. The Effects of Peer Tutoring on the Reading Achievement and Social Acceptance of Mainstreamed Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajar, Anna H.; And Others

    The research analyzed the effects of peer tutoring and teacher presentations about handicaps on the social acceptance of 16 mainstreamed educable mentally retarded (EMR) children (10 from primary and 6 from intermediate level classes). In addition, the effect of peer tutoring on reading achievement of EMR students was examined. Results showed that…

  20. Group Investigation Effects on Achievement, Motivation, and Perceptions of Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ivy Geok Chin; Sharan, Shlomo; Lee, Christine Kim Eng

    2007-01-01

    In an experiment conducted in 7 eighth-grade (Ages 13-14) classes in Singapore, the authors evaluated the effects of the group investigation method of cooperative learning versus the effects of the traditional whole-class method of instruction on students' academic achievement and on their motivation to learn. The authors also investigated…

  1. An Examination of South Carolina School Boards' Effectiveness and Its Influence on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Marty S.

    2009-01-01

    In the era of school accountability, school boards are under scrutiny for their effectiveness in improving student achievement. It has become more than obvious that school boards play an important role in the effectiveness, ineffectiveness, successes and failures of school districts. However, to what degree of importance was the premise for this…

  2. The Effect of Foster Care Experience and Characteristics on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calix, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of foster care experience and characteristics on educational outcomes. The typical strategy in examining the effect foster care has on educational outcomes is to compare the educational achievement of youth with foster care experience to that of their peers or to national norms. This strategy fails to take selection…

  3. Before or after the Bell? School Context and Neighborhood Effects on Student Achievement. Working Paper 28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jargowsky, Paul A.; El Komi, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relative effects of school and neighborhood characteristics on student achievement. Previous empirical studies have estimated one of these effects in the absence of controls for the other, leading to potentially misleading results. Results show school variables are more robust and explain a greater degree of the variance in…

  4. Reading Recovery: Exploring the Effects on First-Graders' Reading Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…

  5. The Effects of the "Groups of Four" Program on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lizbeth Champagne

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Groups of Four" program, examining the impact of the cooperative learning strategy on students' achievement in mathematical problem solving. Effects of three specific independent variables in the program were examined in terms of gender, group assignment, and ability, to…

  6. Class Size Effects on Reading Achievement Using PIRLS Data: Evidence from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Traynor, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The effects of class size on student achievement have gained considerable attention in education research and policy, especially over the last 30 years. Perhaps the best evidence about the effects of class size thus far has been produced from analyses of Project STAR data, a large-scale experiment where students and teachers…

  7. The Effects of Online Homework on Achievement and Self-Efficacy of College Algebra Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, David Shane

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness, in terms of mathematical achievement and mathematics self-efficacy, of online homework to textbook homework over an entire semester for 145 students enrolled in multiple sections of college algebra at a large community college. A quasi-experimental, posttest design was used to analyze the effect on…

  8. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  9. The Instructional Effect of Stimulus-Explicitness in Facilitating Student Achievement of Varied Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Thomas C.; Dwyer, Francis M.

    In order to investigate the relative effectiveness of specific media attributes on student performance on criterion tests, a comparison was made of the effectiveness of two levels of stimulus explicitness in visuals in facilitating student achievement on criterion tests of knowledge, comprehension, and total understanding. Subjects were 171…

  10. The Effects of Prior Knowledge, Presentation Mode, and Visual Realism on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John H.; Dwyer, Francis M.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of integrating abstract and realistic visualization, the effectiveness of four treatments was measured for: (1) facilitating student achievement of different kinds of educational objectives; (2) students possessing different levels of student ability; (3) externally paced and self-paced methods of instruction; and…

  11. Can Schools Achieve Both Quality and Equity? Investigating the Two Dimensions of Educational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which schools can achieve both equity and quality. Data emerged from two effectiveness studies in teaching mathematics and Greek language, which were conducted to test the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness. Separate multilevel analyses for each subject were conducted and it was found…

  12. Peer Ethnicity and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis into the Compositional Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ewijk, Reyn; Sleegers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study reports a meta-analysis on the effects of ethnic minority share in school on achievement test scores. Best evidence from the studies that have appeared thus far on this topic shows that these compositional effects appear small in general, but may be larger when the ethnic minority group is African Americans in the USA than when the…

  13. Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsma, David L.; Rockquemore, Kerry A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined 10th-grade data from the 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Study to investigate the effects of school uniforms on student attendance, behavior problems, substance use, and academic achievement. Data from public, private, and Catholic schools indicated that uniforms had no direct effect on substance use, attendance, or behavior, and a…

  14. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  15. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…

  16. Effects of isometric exercise using biofeedback on maximum voluntary isometric contraction, pain, and muscle thickness in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Lak; Kim, Bo Kyung; Hwang, Yong Pil; Moon, Ok Kon; Choi, Wan Suk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of isometric exercises using electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBF) and ultrasound biofeedback (USBF) on maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), pain assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and vastus medialis oblique (VMO) thickness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty females over 65 years of age who had been diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups, each comprising of 10 subjects. The Subjects in the EMGBF training and USBF training groups were trained with the corresponding physical training exercise program targeting the vastus medialis oblique, whereas the subjects in the control group were treated with conventional physical therapies, such as a hot pack, ultrasound, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Subjects in each group were trained or treated for 20 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. [Results] The MVIC in the EMGBF and USBF training groups was significantly increased compared with that in the control group, and the VAS score (for measurement of pain) in the EMGBF and USBF training groups was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group. Only the EMGBF training group showed a significantly increased VMO thickness compared with before training. [Conclusion] These results suggest that USBF training is similar to EMGBF training in terms of its effectiveness and is helpful for treating patients with knee OA. PMID:25642061

  17. Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert; Sweeten, Gary

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess the claim that employment and work hours are causally related to adolescent problem behavior. We utilize a change model with age-graded child labor laws governing the number of hours per week allowed during the school year as instrumental variables. We find that these work laws lead to additional number of hours worked by youth, which then lead to increased high school dropout but decreased delinquency. Although counterintuitive, this result is consistent with existing evidence about the effect of employment on crime for adults and the impact of dropout on youth crime. PMID:23825897

  18. The numerical stroop effect in primary school children: a comparison of low, normal, and high achievers.

    PubMed

    Heine, Angela; Tamm, Sascha; De Smedt, Bert; Schneider, Michael; Thaler, Verena; Torbeyns, Joke; Stern, Elsbeth; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-six primary school children were selected, of which 21 scored low on a standardized math achievement test, 23 were normal, and 22 high achievers. In a numerical Stroop experiment, children were asked to make numerical and physical size comparisons on digit pairs. The effects of congruity and numerical distance were determined. All children exhibited congruity and distance effects in the numerical comparison. In the physical comparison, children of all performance groups showed Stroop effects when the numerical distance between the digits was large but failed to show them when the distance was small. Numerical distance effects depended on the congruity condition, with a typical effect of distance in the congruent, and a reversed distance effect in the incongruent condition. Our results are hard to reconcile with theories that suggest that deficits in the automaticity of numerical processing can be related to differential math achievement levels. Immaturity in the precision of mappings between numbers and their numerical magnitudes might be better suited to explain the Stroop effects in children. However, as the results for the high achievers demonstrate, in addition to numerical processing capacity per se, domain-general functions might play a crucial role in Stroop performance, too. PMID:20437281

  19. Effects of simulated interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequalities in educational achievement.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718

  20. Effects of Simulated Interventions to Improve School Entry Academic Skills on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718

  1. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and its Effects on Continental Biotas: Evidence from Polecat Bench in Northwestern Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Many important environmental events in the geological past were first recognized by their effects on the associated biota, and this is true for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or PETM global greenhouse warming event, which happened 55 million years before present. In the Southern Ocean, PETM carbon and oxygen isotope anomalies were found to coincide with a major terminal-Paleocene disappearance or extinction of benthic foraminiferans. On North America the PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE) was found to coincide with mammalian dwarfing and a major initial-Eocene appearance or origination event of continental mammals. Linking the two records, marine and continental, resolved a long-standing disagreement over competing definitions of the Paleocene-Eocene epoch boundary, and more importantly indicated that the PETM greenhouse warming event was global. Dwarfing of herbivorous mammals can be interpreted as a response to elevated atmospheric CO2. The origin of modern orders of mammals including Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and Primates ('APP' taxa) is more complicated and difficult to explain but the origin of these orders may also be a response, directly or indirectly, to PETM warming. We now know from Polecat Bench and elsewhere in North America that the biotic response to PETM greenhouse warming involved the appearance of at least two new mammalian faunas distinct from previously known Clarkforkian mammals of the upper or late Paleocene and previously known Wasatchian mammals of the lower or early Eocene. Three stages and ages of the former are known (Cf-1 to Cf-3) and seven stages and ages of the latter are known (Wa-1 to Wa-7), each occupying about a hundred meters of strata representing a half-million years or so of time. Between the standard Clarkforkian and Wasatchian faunal zones is an initial 'Wa-M' faunal zone of only five or so meters in thickness and something on the order of 20 thousand years of geological time. The Wa-M fauna includes the first

  2. Effects of ocean acidification on the marine calcium isotope record at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Elizabeth M.; Fantle, Matthew S.; Eisenhauer, Anton; Paytan, Adina; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2015-06-01

    Carbonates are used extensively to reconstruct paleoclimate and paleoceanographic conditions over geologic time scales. However, these archives are susceptible to diagenetic alteration via dissolution, recrystallization and secondary precipitation, particularly during ocean acidification events when intense dissolution can occur. Despite the possible effects of diagenesis on proxy fidelity, the impacts of diagenesis on the calcium isotopic composition (δ44Ca) of carbonates are unclear. To shed light on this issue, bulk carbonate δ44Ca was measured at high resolution in two Pacific deep sea sediment cores (ODP Sites 1212 and 1221) with considerably different dissolution histories over the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ∼ 55 Ma). The δ44Ca of marine barite was also measured at the deeper Site 1221, which experienced severe carbonate dissolution during the PETM. Large variations (∼ 0.8 ‰) in bulk carbonate δ44Ca occur in the deeper of the two sites at depths corresponding to the peak carbon isotope excursion, which correlate with a large drop in carbonate weight percent. Such an effect is not observed in either the 1221 barite record or the bulk carbonate record at the shallower Site 1212, which is also less affected by dissolution. We contend that ocean chemical changes associated with abrupt and massive carbon release into the ocean-atmosphere system and subsequent ocean acidification at the PETM affected the bulk carbonate δ44Ca record via diagenesis in the sedimentary column. Such effects are considerable, and need to be taken into account when interpreting Ca isotope data and, potentially, other geochemical proxies over extreme climatic events that drive sediment dissolution.

  3. Semiparametric maximum likelihood methods for analyzing genetic and environmental effects with case-control mother-child pair data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinbo; Lin, Dongyu; Hochner, Hagit

    2012-09-01

    Case-control mother-child pair design represents a unique advantage for dissecting genetic susceptibility of complex traits because it allows the assessment of both maternal and offspring genetic compositions. This design has been widely adopted in studies of obstetric complications and neonatal outcomes. In this work, we developed an efficient statistical method for evaluating joint genetic and environmental effects on a binary phenotype. Using a logistic regression model to describe the relationship between the phenotype and maternal and offspring genetic and environmental risk factors, we developed a semiparametric maximum likelihood method for the estimation of odds ratio association parameters. Our method is novel because it exploits two unique features of the study data for the parameter estimation. First, the correlation between maternal and offspring SNP genotypes can be specified under the assumptions of random mating, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and Mendelian inheritance. Second, environmental exposures are often not affected by offspring genes conditional on maternal genes. Our method yields more efficient estimates compared with the standard prospective method for fitting logistic regression models to case-control data. We demonstrated the performance of our method through extensive simulation studies and the analysis of data from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. PMID:22587881

  4. Exploring the effect of repeated-day familiarization on the ability to generate reliable maximum voluntary muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Frost, Lydia R; Gerling, Michael E; Markic, Jessica L; Brown, Stephen H M

    2012-12-01

    Maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs) are commonly used to normalize electromyography (EMG) data and must be reliable even if the individual has no prior experience performing MVCs. This study explored the effect of familiarization over three testing sessions on MVC performance and reliability by comparing muscle activation during standardized maximal and sub-maximal muscle contractions. Participants were recruited into two groups: (1) individuals who regularly engaged in upper body resistance training; (2) individuals with little or no prior experience in upper body resistance training. EMG was collected from two pairs of muscles; biceps brachii and triceps brachii from the arm, and erector spinae and external oblique from the trunk. The trunk muscles were chosen as muscles that are less frequently activated in isolation in day-to-day life. It was found that there were no significant improvements in MVC performance or within-day reliability over the three testing sessions for both resistance trained and non-resistance trained groups. Resistance-trained individuals showed a trend to be more reliable within-day than non-resistance trained participants. Day-to-day MVC reliability, particularly of the erector spinae muscle, was limited in some participants. This suggests that further efforts are needed to improve our capability of reliably eliciting muscle activation MVCs for EMG normalization, especially for muscles that are less frequently activated in isolation. PMID:22726611

  5. Effects of exercise and food restriction in pregnant and newborn rats. Pre-pregnancy maximum oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Perales, J G; Patricio, F R; Amancio, O M; Piçarro, I C; Rodrigues, L O; Russo, A K

    1992-07-01

    1. In the present study, the effects of exercise and food restriction in pregnant and newborn rats were investigated. 2. The following groups were formed: adequate food supply, with and without exercise (AE and AN) and 30% food restriction, with and without exercise (RE and RN). 3. Exercise was performed throughout the pregnancy on a treadmill at a speed of 18 m/min for 30 min/day, which represented 84% of maximum VO2. 4. The results show that food restriction affected body weight gain while exercise only affected the RE group (P < 0.05). 5. Body temperature was increased by exercise. The initial temperature was lower in group RE. 6. No differences were obtained in average offspring number but reabsorption, preterm and natimortality were observed in group RE. 7. Newborn body weight was lowered by food restriction rather than by exercise. 8. Newborn brain and heart weights were not affected but lung and liver weights were significantly affected by the nutritional factor (P < 0.05). PMID:1359947

  6. Gender differences in science achievement: Do school effects make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Deidra J.; Fraser, Barry J.

    The problem of the underrepresentation of girls in science in Australian schools is often attributed to their poor performance. Yet the role of both the home and the school in affecting female science achievement is rarely examined empirically. The comprehensiveness of the Second International Science Study database provided an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of gender differences in science achievement. Although previous studies of gender differences in science achievement have relied on methodology that has not adequately accounted for the school effects, this study used the design effect and hierarchical linear modeling (multilevel analysis) to explore whether there were significant gender differences. The relative contribution of schools to student achievement was examined, and school-level differences were found to contribute significantly toward explaining variations in student performance. Although statistically significant sex differences were found in physics achievement for 10-year-old, 14-year-old, and year-12 students, school effects were much more powerful in explaining student differences (9-19%) when compared with gender (3%).

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of docetaxel during phase I studies using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling and nonparametric maximum-likelihood estimation.

    PubMed

    Launay-Iliadis, M C; Bruno, R; Cosson, V; Vergniol, J C; Oulid-Aissa, D; Marty, M; Clavel, M; Aapro, M; Le Bail, N; Iliadis, A

    1995-01-01

    Docetaxel, a novel anticancer agent, was given to 26 patients by short i.v. infusion (1-2 h) at various dose levels (70-115 mg/m2, the maximum tolerated dose) during 2 phase I studies. Two population analyses, one using NONMEM (nonlinear mixed-effect modeling) and the other using NPML (nonparametric maximum-likelihood), were performed sequentially to determine the structural model; estimate the mean population parameters, including clearance (Cl) and interindividual variability; and find influences of demographic covariates on them. Nine covariates were included in the analyses: age, height, weight, body surface area, sex, performance status, presence of liver metastasis, dose level, and type of formulation. A three-compartment model gave the best fit to the data, and the final NONMEM regression model for Cl was Cl = BSA(Theta1 + Theta02 x AGE), expressing Cl (in liters per hour) directly as a function of body surface area. Only these two covariates were considered in the NPML analysis to confirm the results found by NONMEM. Using NONMEM [for a patient with mean AGE (52.3 years) and mean BSA (1.68 m2)] and NPML, docetaxel Cl was estimated to be 35.6 l/h (21.2 lh-1 m-2) and 37.2 l/h with interpatient coefficients of variations (CVs) of 17.4% and 24.8%, respectively. The intraindividual CV was estimated at 23.8% by NONMEM; the corresponding variability was fixed in NPML in an additive Gaussian variance error model with a 20% CV. Discrepancies were found in the mean volume at steady state (Vss; 83.21 for NPML versus 1241 for NONMEM) and in terminal half-lives, notably the mean t1/2 gamma, which was shorter as determined by NPML (7.89 versus 12.2 h), although the interindividual CV was 89.1% and 62.7% for Vss and t1/2 gamma, respectively. However, the NPML-estimated probability density function (pdf) of t1/2 gamma was bimodal (5 and 11.4 h), probably due to the imbalance of the data. Both analyses suggest a similar magnitude of mean Cl decrease with small BSA and

  8. [Essence of scientific and technical achievements and the nature of the effect of veterinary medical research].

    PubMed

    Iliev, I; Kostadinov, I

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made at elucidating the essence of veterinary scientific and technological achievements and the character of the effect of their implementation. On the basis of a structural analysis veterinary scientific investigations are grouped as: theoretical-fundamental, scientific-applicative and scientific-technological elaborations. Starting out from the character of the effect that is achieved through their application, the scientific works, as well as the scientific and technological achievements in the field of veterinary medicine, are categorized as follows: cognitive (New knowledge), technical and technological (medico-biological), socio-sanitary, economic and those having a mixed effect (cognitive- medico-biological, medico-biological-socio-sanitary, socio-sanitary and economic, etc. The identification of the various types of effects requires the elaboration of respective criteria, as well as a system of indexes for their characterization, a qualitative and a quantitative determination, as necessary conditions for determining the effectiveness of research veterinary works and that of research technological achievement. PMID:7233814

  9. Effect of radiance-to-reflectance transformation and atmosphere removal on maximum likelihood classification accuracy of high-dimensional remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffbeck, Joseph P.; Landgrebe, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Many analysis algorithms for high-dimensional remote sensing data require that the remotely sensed radiance spectra be transformed to approximate reflectance to allow comparison with a library of laboratory reflectance spectra. In maximum likelihood classification, however, the remotely sensed spectra are compared to training samples, thus a transformation to reflectance may or may not be helpful. The effect of several radiance-to-reflectance transformations on maximum likelihood classification accuracy is investigated in this paper. We show that the empirical line approach, LOWTRAN7, flat-field correction, single spectrum method, and internal average reflectance are all non-singular affine transformations, and that non-singular affine transformations have no effect on discriminant analysis feature extraction and maximum likelihood classification accuracy. (An affine transformation is a linear transformation with an optional offset.) Since the Atmosphere Removal Program (ATREM) and the log residue method are not affine transformations, experiments with Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were conducted to determine the effect of these transformations on maximum likelihood classification accuracy. The average classification accuracy of the data transformed by ATREM and the log residue method was slightly less than the accuracy of the original radiance data. Since the radiance-to-reflectance transformations allow direct comparison of remotely sensed spectra with laboratory reflectance spectra, they can be quite useful in labeling the training samples required by maximum likelihood classification, but these transformations have only a slight effect or no effect at all on discriminant analysis and maximum likelihood classification accuracy.

  10. Mapping numerical magnitudes onto symbols: the numerical distance effect and individual differences in children's mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian D; Ansari, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Although it is often assumed that abilities that reflect basic numerical understanding, such as numerical comparison, are related to children's mathematical abilities, this relationship has not been tested rigorously. In addition, the extent to which symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing play differential roles in this relationship is not yet understood. To address these questions, we collected mathematics achievement measures from 6- to 8-year-olds as well as reaction times from a numerical comparison task. Using the reaction times, we calculated the size of the numerical distance effect exhibited by each child. In a correlational analysis, we found that the individual differences in the distance effect were related to mathematics achievement but not to reading achievement. This relationship was found to be specific to symbolic numerical comparison. Implications for the role of basic numerical competency and the role of accessing numerical magnitude information from Arabic numerals for the development of mathematical skills and their impairment are discussed. PMID:18513738

  11. Effects of attractiveness and gender on the perception of achievement-related variables.

    PubMed

    Chia, R C; Allred, L J; Grossnickle, W F; Lee, G W

    1998-08-01

    The present study was an examination of the effects of physical attractiveness and gender on perceptions of academic success, achievement-related traits, intelligence, initiative, and attributions of ability and effort in relation to academic success. It was hypothesized that attractive persons and men would be rated more favorably along these dimensions than would unattractive persons and women. The participants were 144 U.S. undergraduates who observed photographs of attractive and unattractive men and women and then rated the persons in the photographs on the aforementioned dimensions. Physical attractiveness had a differential effect on the dimensions within achievement. Also, being perceived as physically attractive created positive impressions of achievement-related traits for men but negative impressions for women. PMID:9664863

  12. Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    1999-12-01

    This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total

  13. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety. PMID:26253552

  14. The effects of using guided notes and review of science achievement for male and female students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Diann Marie

    2000-11-01

    The National Science Foundation predicts a shortage of scientists and engineers within the next 15 years. Some agree that the participation of women in science will be required to help meet the future demand for scientists (Malcom, 1990). Consequently, conscientious teachers search for learning strategies that provide opportunities for young women to achieve success with others in their science classes. This research concerns a note taking and teaching strategy that involves seventh grade science students. The investigation measured student achievement under three prescribed conditions. The treatment conditions were reviewing, guided notes, and guided notes with reviewing. For this experiment, the Solomon four-group design was utilized. This 2 x 2 factorial design tested for treatment effect and pretest sensitivity. Data was collected on seventh grade boys (n = 119) and seventh grade girls (n = 139) in science. Comparisons were made between the boys and girls groups. The results showed that achievement improved significantly when reviewing car using guided notes independently. The results also shower that significant improvements in achievement were not observed when participants used guided notes and reviewing together. Analysis was completed to measure how well the participants performed according to gender. This research showed that both boys and girls significantly improved their achievement in science equally well for all treatment conditions. This research went a step further by factoring in cognitive ability test scores and comparing them to the treatment results. This provided the researcher with information on which treatment condition worked best for high or low achieving students.

  15. Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Senior Secondary School Students' Achievements in Further Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatade, Alfred Olufemi; Mogari, David; Arigbabu, Abayomi Adelaja

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of Problem-based learning (PBL) on senior secondary school students' achievements in Further Mathematics (FM) in Nigeria within the blueprint of pretest-post-test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design. Intact classes were used and in all, 96 students participated in the study (42 in the…

  16. The Effects of Diagnostic Testing and Remediation on Science Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joe C.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to provide students with differing types of learning needs instruction following diagnostic testing; also examined were the effects of the instruction on science achievement and retention. A total of 154 seventh-grade students from six classes completed a five-week block of instruction in earth science composed of…

  17. High School Size, Achievement Equity, and Cost: Robust Interaction Effects and Tentative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Howley, Craig; Williams, Tony; Glascock, Catherine

    Research has revealed interactive effects of school size and socioeconomic status--as school size increases, the mean measured achievement of schools with disadvantaged students declines. The larger the number of less advantaged students attending a school, the greater the decline. The same school-level interactions have been found in California,…

  18. Achievement Motivation Training--Effects on ABE/ASE Students' Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    A study was conducted to identify psychosocial needs of Adult Basic Education (ABE)/Adult Secondary Education (ASE) students by using the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ). A second purpose was to test effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training (AMT) as a technique to counterbalance the negative impact of these students' former…

  19. Technology's Effect on Achievement in Higher Education: A Stage I Meta-Analysis of Classroom Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Richard F.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Lowerison, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the achievement effects of computer-based technology use in higher education classrooms (non-distance education). An extensive literature search revealed more than 6,000 potentially relevant primary empirical studies. Analysis of a representative sample of 231 studies (k = 310)…

  20. An Integrated Assessment of the Effects of Title I on School Behavior, Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsudaira, Jordan D.; Hosek, Adrienne; Walsh, Elias

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of Title I on school behavior, resources, and academic performance using a rich set of school finance and student-level achievement data from one large urban school district using a regression discontinuity design. We find that Title I eligibility raises Federal revenues of schools by about $460 per student. This is…

  1. The Effects of Different Applications on Creativity Regarding Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel; Batdi, Veli

    2016-01-01

    In this study, through a meta-analysis of 20 studies, it is aimed to compare the effectiveness of various forms of learning methods including creativity based learning, problem based learning, and differentiated instruction on creativity in terms of the academic achievement of students and to find out other study characteristics, related to the…

  2. The Effects of Guided Inquiry Instruction on Student Achievement in High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to measure the effect of a student-centered instructional method called guided inquiry on the achievement of students in a unit of study in high school biology. The study used a non-random sample of 109 students, the control group of 55 students enrolled in high school one, received…

  3. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  4. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on the Academic Achievement and Knowledge Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Van Dat

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on the achievement and knowledge retention of 110 first-year primary education students toward the psychology subject over the eight weeks of instruction at An Giang University. These tertiary students were divided into two matched groups of 55 to be taught by the same…

  5. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Elementary Students' Science Achievement and Social Skills in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahim, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the effects of two methods of teaching--teacher-centered and cooperative learning--on students' science achievement and use of social skills. The sample consists of 163 female elementary science students in 8 intact grade 5 classes who were assigned to 2 instructional methods and were taught an identical science unit by 4…

  6. The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2013-01-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not…

  7. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  8. The Effects of Response to Intervention on Third Graders' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Marlon Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the effects of the Response to Intervention Three Tier Model on third graders' reading achievement. Two hundred forty-three students participated in this study. Students were from an elementary school in the southeastern region of the United States. The data on the students was collected…

  9. Reading for Success: The Effectiveness of Literacy Interventions for Increasing Student Achievement in Core Academic Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to utilize quantitative and qualitative data to measure the effects of Tier 2 and Tier 3 literacy interventions as they affect student achievement in the secondary school setting. The research questions addressed performance of students who were enrolled in Reading for Success as compared to a cohort…

  10. The Effects of Grouping Patterns in a Cooperative Learning Environment on Student Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Mary Burke

    This study investigated the effects of grouping patterns in a cooperative learning environment on the mathematics achievement of two high school geometry classes. Heterogeneous, homogenous, random, mixed gender and single gender grouping patterns were coordinated with six similar geometry topics and students were grouped accordingly for a period…

  11. Longitudinal Study of the Effects of LOGO Programming on Cognitive Abilities and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the delayed effects of LOGO programing on the cognitive abilities and achievement of children in the primary grades. Results of tests administered 18 months after first graders participated in either LOGO computer programing or computer-assisted instruction treatments and interviews five months after testing are reported…

  12. Effects of Developed Electronic Instructional Medium on Students' Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinna, Nsofor Caroline; Dada, Momoh Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of developed electronic instructional medium (video DVD instructional package) on students' achievement in Biology. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-postest control group design. The sample comprised of 180 senior secondary, year two students from six…

  13. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  14. The Effects of Two Intervention Programs on Teaching Quality and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azkiyah, S. N.; Doolaard, Simone; Creemers, Bert P. M.; Van Der Werf, M. P. C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the effectiveness of two interventions aimed to improve teaching quality and student achievement in Indonesia. The first intervention was the use of education standards, while the second one was the combination of education standards with a teacher improvement program. The study involved 50 schools, 52 teachers, and 1660…

  15. The Effect of an Instructional Intervention on Middle School English Learners' Science and English Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Guerrero, Cindy; Huerta, Maggie; Fan, Yinan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a quasi-experimental project on fifth grade English learners' achievement in state-mandated standards-based science and English reading assessment. A total of 166 treatment students and 80 comparison students from four randomized intermediate schools participated in the current project. The intervention consisted…

  16. Comparative Effects of Two Modes of Computer-Assisted Instructional Package on Solid Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Ezenwa, Victoria Ifeoma; Anyanwu, Romanus Chogozie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of two modes of computer-assisted instructional package on solid geometry achievement amongst senior secondary school students in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI(AT) and CAI(AN) packages were examined. This study adopted a pretest-posttest…

  17. Effects of Cloze Instructional Approach on Senior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Igbo Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eze, Nneka Justina

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of cloze instructional approach on senior secondary school students' achievement in Igbo language reading comprehension. The study utilized a quasi experimental research design of the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group design. The study was conducted in Abakaliki education zone of Ebonyi State of Nigeria.…

  18. The Effect of Manipulatives on Mathematics Achievement and Attitudes of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontas, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of manipulatives (concrete learning materials) both on the academic achievement of secondary school students in mathematics and on their attitudes towards mathematics. Pretest-posttest control group experimental model, which is one of the quasi-experimental research designs, was used in the…

  19. The Effect of Leadership Style on Student Achievement in Title I Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Fredrick Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the different types of leadership styles of public school administrators of Title I elementary schools in order to determine how these different types of leadership styles may affect student academic achievement. Specifically, the leadership style behaviors of flexibility and effectiveness were considered.…

  20. An Elaboration on the Effect of Reading Anxiety on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpur, Bijan; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an elaboration on the effect of foreign language anxiety on reading comprehension achievement of Iranian EFL learners. The participants comprised 100 BA students, doing General English Course in different academic fields at Islamic University of Neyshabur. The participants took a reading proficiency test of TOEFL and answered…

  1. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science…

  2. Examining the Effects of Turkish Education Reform on Students' TIMSS 2007 Science Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz; Atar, Burcu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of some of the changes such as student centered learning (i.e. inquiry science instruction), outfitting classrooms with latest technology and computers that the reform movement has brought about on students' TIMSS 2007 science achievements. Two-staged stratified sampling was used in the selection…

  3. The Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Instruction on Student Achievement in a Hybrid Developmental English Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Ra Shaunda Vernee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore what effect instruction in metacognitive strategy (MS) use had on student achievement in a hybrid developmental English course at a community college. The study examined whether the addition of teacher-led or peer-led instruction in MS use would result in improved writing ability for the student…

  4. The Effect of Web-Based Homework on University Students' Physics Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of web-based homework on university students' physics achievement was compared. One of the two identical sections of introductory physics course students received pen-and-paper homework done in groups while the other received web-based online homework performed individually. And then both groups' homework performance and…

  5. Rater Agreement on IQ and Achievement Tests Effect on Evaluations of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noord, Robert G.; Prevatt, Frances F.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effects of rater reliability of common IQ and achievement tests on subsequent learning disorder eligibility determinations, particularly with respect to difficulty level of individual subtests and expertise of the scorer. The study corroborates previous findings of strong interrater reliability on most subtests of common IQ and…

  6. The Effect of Teaching Strategy Based on Multiple Intelligences on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…

  7. Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 individuals born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. After adjustment for a series of covariates…

  8. Gender Peer Effects in School: Does the Gender of School Peers Affect Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabezas, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…

  9. The Effect of Foreign Language Study in Tennessee Middle Schools on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative method, quasi-experimental design study examined the possible effect of foreign language study in Tennessee middle schools on mathematics achievement. The population was 1,708 historical student test scores of a single cohort spanning 6th through 8th Grades from the same schools within a large urban public school district. NCLB…

  10. Gender and Capacity Effects on Achievement before and after CPC Way of Individualizing Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, James M.

    This study considered the effects of gender and cognitive processing capacity on achievement of students at an intermediate school. The capacity test developed by J. M. Furukawa (1970, 1977), which requires examinees to recall word pairs immediately after a brief exposure, was modified for use with these students. The test was adopted because it…

  11. Effectiveness of Refutational Teaching for High- and Low-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of refutational readings and lecture on decreasing psychological misconceptions for students of high versus low levels of achievement. During the course of a semester we addressed introductory psychology students' misconceptions with refutational readings, refutational lecture, or not at all. From pre- and post-test…

  12. Academic Achievement, Self-Concept and Depression in Taiwanese Children: Moderated Mediation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…

  13. Effects of Group Size on Students Mathematics Achievement in Small Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…

  14. Effect of Pullout Lessons on the Academic Achievement of Eighth-Grade Band Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hash, Phillip M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of pullout instrumental lessons on the academic achievement of eighth-grade band students. Participants (N = 353) included 292 nonband students and 61 band students pulled once per week for music lessons in a single suburban K-8 school district in Midwestern United States. Data indicated that eighth-grade band…

  15. The Effect of Mobile Learning on Students' Achievement and Conversational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfeky, Abdellah Ibrahim Mohammed; Masadeh, Thouqan Saleem Yakoub

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of Mobile Learning, which is a kind of E-learning that uses mobile devices, on the development of the academic achievement and conversational skills of English language specialty students at Najran University. The study used the quasi-experimental approach. Participants consisted of (50) students who…

  16. Instructional Effects of Three Concept Mapping Strategies in Facilitating Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Dwyer, Francis M.

    2006-01-01

    This study identifies the variables in construction of concept maps and purposefully tests the instructional effects of concept mapping in facilitating student achievement when those identified variables are manipulated. Concept map development consists of three important elements: the concepts, propositions and its hierarchical structure. A total…

  17. The Effect of Peer-Based Instruction on Rhythm Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of peer-based instruction on rhythm reading achievement of instrumental and choral music students attending a large urbanfringe high school in a major metropolitan area. Participants (N = 131) included band (n = 71) and choir (n = 60) students whose backgrounds reflected extensive economic (78%…

  18. Teacher Attitudes toward Dyslexia: Effects on Teacher Expectations and the Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an…

  19. An Examination of Effective Practice: Moving toward Elimination of Achievement Gaps in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study of middle school science teachers explored the relationship between effective science instruction, as defined by the National Science Education Standards (NRC in National science education standards. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1996), and student achievement in science. Eleven teachers participated in a three…

  20. Multilevel Effects of Student and Classroom Factors on Elementary Science Achievement in Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom…

  1. Effect of Learning Cycle Approach-Based Science Teaching on Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…

  2. Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback…

  3. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  4. Summary of Effects of Biological Factors on Sex-Related Differences in Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Julia

    Critically reviewed evidence relevant to hypotheses of biological sources of sex-related cognitive differences as they relate to mathematics achievement include the following: explanations based on the assumption of greater variability in male cognitive performance; sex-related differences in serum urate; effects of estrogens compared to androgens…

  5. Type A Behavior and Marital Satisfaction: Differential Effects of Achievement Striving and Impatience/Irritability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEwen, Karyl; Barling, Julian

    1993-01-01

    Examined how dimensions of Type A behavior exert different effects on marital relationship. Findings from 200 couples are consistent with view that Type A behavior should be divided into at least 2 components, and that it is Impatience/Irritability dimension rather than achievement-oriented or job-involved dimension that exerts detrimental effects…

  6. The Effects of School Wide Bonuses on Student Achievement: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the incentive effects of North Carolina's practice of awarding performance bonuses on test score achievement on the state tests. Bonuses were awarded based solely on whether a school exceeds a threshold on a continuous performance metric. The study uses a sharp regression discontinuity design, an approach with strong internal…

  7. Mitigating Disadvantage: Effects of Small-Scale Schooling on Student Achievement in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Gary; Howley, Craig

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of data from the 1989 Alaska Statewide Student Testing Program for grades four, six, and eight shows that, given similar school resources, school climate, and student academic background, the negative effect of a disadvantaged background on student achievement was significantly less in small than in medium or large schools. (KS)

  8. Concept Mapping Effects on Science Content Comprehension of Low-Achieving Inner-City Seventh Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guastello, E. Francine; Beasley, T. Mark; Sinatra, Richard C.

    2000-01-01

    Low-achieving seventh-grade students were assigned to two science intervention groups, a read-and-discuss teacher-directed method group and a group in which a model of concept mapping that connected major and minor concepts followed the lesson. Results indicate that using graphic representations was more effective than the traditional approach.…

  9. Effects of Graphic Organiser on Students' Achievement in Algebraic Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Josiah; Adaramati, Tobiloba Faith

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of graphic organiser and gender on students' academic achievement in algebraic word problem. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were used in guiding this study. Quasi experimental research was employed and Non-equivalent pre and post test design was used. The study involved the Senior Secondary…

  10. Effects of School Characteristics upon Achievement Test Scores in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr.

    The effects of school characteristics upon achievement test scores in New York State were studied. Data, composed of the 1975-76 Consolidated Data Base and Finance Tapes for all 705 school districts in the state, were supplied by the New York State Department of Education. Among the 24 variables of interest were: state pupil evaluation tests of…

  11. Test Language Effect in International Achievement Comparisons: An Example from PISA 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2014-01-01

    International achievement comparison studies assess students on core subjects such as Reading, Mathematics and Science. Students who do not speak the test language at home can be expected to be disadvantaged because of language proficiency. The test language effect has not been given sufficient attention. The present study investigated probable…

  12. The Effect of School-Specific Parenting Processes on Academic Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mellissa S.; Cui, Ming

    2012-01-01

    There is inconsistency in the current literature regarding the association between dimensions of parenting processes and academic achievement for adolescents. Further, few studies have extended such an association into young adulthood. In this study, we examined the effect of three dimensions of parenting processes, including school-specific…

  13. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Effects of Welfare Policies on Early School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Gassman-Pines, Anna; Morris, Pamela A.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Godfrey, Erin B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of employment-based policies on children's math and reading achievement differed for African American, Latino and Caucasian children of welfare receiving parents, and if so, why. Two kinds of employment policies were examined: "education-first" programs with an emphasis on adult education and job training;…

  14. The Effects of Using PBWorks in a Hybrid Collaborative Class Environment on Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Abdullah Y. A. A. A.

    2011-01-01

    E-learning plays an important role in higher education, especially with the appearance of web 2.0. The study investigated the effects of using PBWorks, as a free web 2.0 wiki, on students' academic achievement, and students' attitudes toward collaborative learning. The study was designed as an experimental study. There was comparison between two…

  15. The Effect of Graphical Representation on the Learner's Learning Interest and Achievement in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sanghoon; Lim, Jung

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of different types of visual illustrations on learner's learning interest, motivation and achievement, especially in multimedia learning. The participants were drawn from two classes of an "Introduction to Educational Technology" course and randomly assigned to one of the three treatments:…

  16. The Effectiveness of Education Technology for Enhancing Reading Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The present review examines research on the effects of technology use on reading achievement in K-12 classrooms. Unlike previous reviews, this review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. In addition, methodological and substantive features of the studies are investigated to examine the…

  17. Low (Linear) Teacher Effect on Student Achievement in Pre-Academic Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottaar, Alice

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of physics education on students' achievement in a large-scale quantitative study of pre-academic high school students throughout the Netherlands. Two aspects of teacher characteristics as perceived by their students are included: "pleasantness" principally defined by their perceived friendliness and positive…

  18. The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.

    This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…

  19. Effects of Autonomy Supportive vs. Controlling Teachers' Behavior on Students' Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferber, Natalia; Eckes, Alexander; Wilde, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Grolnick and Ryan (1987) assume that an autonomy supportive environment leads to higher learner engagement and thus to greater achievements and deeper understanding of content. In school, knowledge acquisition (rote learning as well as conceptual learning) are regarded as most important. In this study, we examined the effects of teachers' autonomy…

  20. The Effects of an ICT-Based Reading Intervention on Students' Achievement in Grade Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Deborah; Chambers, Alex; Mather, Nancy; Bauschatz, Retina; Bauer, Meredyth; Doan, Lesli

    2016-01-01

    A controlled quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the use of MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach on participants' reading and spelling achievement. After attrition, participants included 170 students enrolled in eight second-grade classrooms (four classrooms in each school) in two public elementary schools in the southwestern…

  1. The Effect of Web-Based Portfolio Use on Academic Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay

    2012-01-01

    The web-based portfolio emerged as a result of the influence of technological developments on educational practices. In this study, the effect of the web-based portfolio building process on academic achievement and retention is explored. For this purpose, a study platform known as a computer-assisted personal development portfolio was designed for…

  2. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  3. Effect of Three Instructional Strategies on Students' Attitudes and Cognitive Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Dennis R.; Purohit, Anal

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different instructional strategies upon the attitudes and cognitive achievement of nursing students. The major conclusions were: (a) fewer students were manifesting philosophies supportive of independent study strategies, and (b) significant interaction between students' attitudes,…

  4. The Effective Behaviors and Practices of Administrators in Urban Charter Schools Relating to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Prima N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to analyze and identify the leadership styles that directly influence student achievement that were used by the school leaders sustaining the schools. A basic qualitative research study was appropriate to acknowledge the leadership style of the principal in demonstrating effective practices that link…

  5. Effects of the "Auditory Discrimination in Depth Program" on Auditory Conceptualization and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Timothy Gerald

    Statistically significant differences were not found between the treatment and non-treatment groups in a study designed to investigate the effectiveness of the Auditory Discrimination in Depth (A.D.D.) Program. The treatment group involved thirty-nine normally achieving and educationally handicapped students who were given the A.D.D. Program…

  6. Effects of Modality and Pace on Achievement, Mental Effort, and Positive Affect in Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…

  7. The Effects of Using an Interactive Whiteboard on the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbas, Oktay; Pektas, Huseyin Mirac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the use of an interactive whiteboard on the academic achievement of university students on the topic of electricity in a science and technology laboratory class. The study was designed as a pretest/posttest control group experimental study. Mean, standard deviation and t- tests were used for…

  8. Effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to study the effects of remarriage following divorce on children's academic achievement. Results indicate that children from reconstituted families score no higher, and often lower than children of divorce from single-parent families. (SLD)

  9. The Effect of Creative Drama on Student Achievement in the Course of Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özek, Müzeyyen Bulut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of creative drama on student achievement in the Information Technologies course. The study was carried out for the unit "Tomorrow's Technology" which is the first unit of Information Technologies course. For this study, 89 sixth grade students were selected from primary school in…

  10. Examining the Effect of Academic Procrastination on Achievement Using LMS Data in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of academic procrastination on e-learning course achievement. Because all of the interactions among students, instructors, and contents in an e-learning environment were automatically recorded in a learning management system (LMS), procrastination such as the delays in weekly scheduled learning and late…

  11. Perceptions of Achievement: The Effects of Gender, School Type, and Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornholt, Laurel J.; And Others

    To investigate factors which influence achievement self-concepts, students in grades 7 to 10 at three schools were asked to estimate their performance following standardized tests in mathematics and English. Two of the schools were single-sex and one was co-ed. Analyses dealt primarily with the effects of gender, grade, school type, and school…

  12. Effects of a Language Arts Service-Learning Project on Sixth-Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 created new instructional intervention practices, reading and writing scores across K-12 and postsecondary levels continue to reflect stagnant achievement outcomes. The research questions in this study concerned the effect of a northern Michigan middle school language arts…

  13. Peer Effects in Urban Schools: Assessing the Impact of Classroom Composition on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of classroom peers on standardized testing achievement for all third- and fourth-grade students in the Philadelphia School District over 6 school years. With a comprehensive individual-and multilevel data set of all students matched to teachers, classrooms, and schools, two empirical strategies are employed. The…

  14. The Effects of Learning Strategies on Mathematical Literacy: A Comparison between Lower and Higher Achieving Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen-Nagar, Noga

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the effects of learning strategies on Mathematical Literacy (ML) of students in higher and lower achieving countries. To address this issue, the study utilizes PISA2002 data to conduct a multi-level analysis (HLM) of Hong Kong and Israel students. In PISA2002, Israel was rated 31st in Mathematics,…

  15. Instruction of Statistics via Computer-Based Tools: Effects on Statistics' Anxiety, Attitude, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciftci, S. Koza; Karadag, Engin; Akdal, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of statistics instruction using computer-based tools, on statistics anxiety, attitude, and achievement. This study was designed as quasi-experimental research and the pattern used was a matched pre-test/post-test with control group design. Data was collected using three scales: a Statistics…

  16. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  17. Effectiveness of Explicit and Constructivist Mathematics Instruction for Low-Achieving Students in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E.H.; Maas, Cora J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we compared the effects of smallgroup constructivist and explicit mathematics instruction in basic multiplication on low-achieving students' performance and motivation. A total of 265 students (aged 8-11 years) from 13 general and 11 special elementary schools for students with learning and/or behavior disorders participated in the…

  18. The Effects of Modeling Instruction on High School Physics Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an "ex post facto," quasi-experimental research methodology. The…

  19. Effectiveness of a Metacognitive Reading Strategies Program for Improving Low Achieving EFL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Nasrah Mahmoud; Tawalbeh, Tha'er Issa

    2015-01-01

    As the training of language learners was a main concern of EFL teachers, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive reading strategies instruction (MRSI) on Taif University EFL students who achieved low results in reading. The final sample of this study was (21) female university students. The sample was divided into two groups;…

  20. Effect of Self Regulated Learning Approach on Junior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwafor, Chika E.; Obodo, Abigail Chikaodinaka; Okafor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the effect of self-regulated learning approach on junior secondary school students' achievement in basic science. Quasi-experimental design was used for the study.Two co-educational schools were drawn for the study through simple random sampling technique. One school was assigned to the treatment group while the other was…

  1. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own…

  2. The Effect of Origami-Based Instruction on Spatial Visualization, Geometry Achievement, and Geometric Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arici, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the effect of origami-based geometry instruction on spatial visualization, geometry achievement, and geometric reasoning of tenth-grade students in Turkey. The sample ("n" = 184) was chosen from a tenth-grade population of a public high school in Turkey. It was a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design. A…

  3. The Effects of the Constructivist Learning Approach on Student's Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayaz, Mehmet Fatih; Sekerci, Hanifi

    2015-01-01

    In this research, a meta-analysis study was conducted in order to determine the effects of constructivist learning approach on students' academic achievement. Master's thesis, doctoral dissertation and articles in national and international databases, which are realized between the years of 2003-2014, appropriate to the problem and which can be…

  4. Effects of Grade Retention on Achievement and Self-Concept in Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehmke, Timo; Drechsel, Barbara; Carstensen, Claus H.

    2010-01-01

    The study analyzes the effects of grade repetition on science and mathematics achievement and on self-concept in mathematics using longitudinal data from a representative sample of 9th graders in Germany. Same-age comparisons were applied between three groups: (a) the retained students, (b) a matched group of promoted students, and (c) the entire…

  5. The Effect of Scientific Process Skills Education on Students' Scientific Creativity, Science Attitudes and Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktamis, Hilal; Ergin, Omer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of teaching scientific process skills education to students to promote their scientific creativity, attitudes towards science, and achievements in science. The research includes a pre-test post-test research model with a control group. The subjects of the research consist of 40 students reading…

  6. Effects of Task-Focused Goals on Low-Achieving Students with and without Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Karns, Kathy; Hamlett, Carol L.; Katzaroff, Michelle; Dutka, Suzanne

    1997-01-01

    The effects of a task-focused goals (TFG) treatment in mathematics were studied with low-achieving students with or without learning disabilities. Results with 40 elementary classrooms showed that TFG students enjoyed the approach, but that increased effort was associated with greater learning only for those without learning disabilities. (SLD)

  7. Missing Data and Mixed Results: The Effects of Teach For America on Student Achievement Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Emily K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits existing experimental work on Teach For America (TFA) and extends it by examining treatment effects across the distribution of student achievement. TFA is a rapidly expanding teacher preparation program that currently serves over half a million students in low-income districts across the country. Previous research results did…

  8. The Effects of Response to Intervention on the Mathematics Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Annette Sargent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the effectiveness of a system-wide Response to Intervention (RTI) program on the mathematical achievement of seventh and eighth grade students. The study consisted of five district schools with a total of 502 participants. The students were identified as belonging to one of two tiers, which…

  9. The Effect of the 4MAT System on Achievement and Attitudes in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Patricia Shane

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the 4MAT instructional system on achievement and attitudes in science. Fifty-four academically gifted sixth grade students in three schools in the Chapel Hill-Carrboro (North Carolina) City Schools were randomly assigned to two groups, a 4MAT group and a Restricted-Textbook group that…

  10. The Effectiveness of Web Assisted English Language Instruction on the Achievement and Attitude of the Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzunboylu, Huseyin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the exercises of English language grammar instruction on the achievement of the students when it is applied on web assisted. The study had been executed in accordance with the experimental study model. The experiment group of the study has used a web site that was prepared and they…

  11. A Study Comparing the Effect of Multiage Education Practices versus Traditional Education Practices on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrell, Janet L.

    This study compared the effects of multi-age classroom strategies to those of traditional classroom strategies on the academic achievement of fourth grade students in reading and math. Standardized test scores from 20 fourth-grade students in two multi-age third- and fourth-grade classrooms were compared to the scores of 20 students from 7…

  12. Effect of Computer-Aided Perspective Drawings on Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulus, Aytac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-aided Perspective Drawings on eighth grade primary school students' achievement in Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing. The study made use of pre-test post-test control group experimental design. The study was conducted with thirty 8th grade students attending a primary school…

  13. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Students' Achievement and Views on the Science and Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altun, Sertel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of learning plan implementation prepared with the cooperative learning method. In particular, the study addresses the effect of cooperative learning on students' achievement and their views regarding the "Systems in Our Body" unit of the 6th grade Science and Technology lesson.…

  14. Lasting Legacy for Achievement: Colorado Coaches Boost Teacher Effectiveness with a Rubric for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the Weld County School District Re-8 in Fort Lupton, Colorado, was eager to find a way to increase teacher effectiveness and, as a result, improve student achievement. This small, semirural district about 35 miles northeast of Denver grappled with high teacher turnover (34% in 2005) and low scores on state assessments (three out of four…

  15. Effects of Mastery Learning Strategies on Community College Mathematics Students' Achievement and Success Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abadir, Laila; And Others

    The effects of mastery learning strategies, interactive video mathematics (IVM), individualized instruction (IND), and the lecture method on mathematics achievement of community college students was studied. Interactions among instructional methods, gender, and age were examined; and the grade success rate was determined for each instructional…

  16. The Effects of the Use of Technology in Mathematics Instruction on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ron York, Sr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the use of technology on students' mathematics achievement, particularly the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) mathematics results. Eleven schools within the Miami-Dade County Public School System participated in a pilot program on the use of Geometers Sketchpad (GSP). Three of…

  17. Effects of the Classroom Assessment Environment on Achievement in Mathematics and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    The effects of classroom assessment environment (CAE) variables on yearly achievement in mathematics and science in grades 7 through 12 were studied through the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), using cohorts of approximately 3,000 students each in the 7th and 10th grades who were followed for 4 years. While the LSAY did not include all…

  18. The Effects of Multimedia and Learning Style on Student Achievement in Online Electronics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surjono, Herman Dwi

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of multimedia preferences and learning styles on undergraduate student achievement in an adaptive e-learning system for electronics course at the Yogyakarta State University Indonesia. The findings showed that students in which their multimedia preferences and learning style matched with the way the…

  19. Goals, Data Use, and Instruction: The Effect of a Teacher Professional Development Program on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design. Applying propensity score…

  20. The Effect of Peer Teaching on Mathematics Academic Achievement of the Undergraduate Students in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelkarim, Ra'ed; Abuiyada, Reem

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of peer teaching on mathematics academic achievement of the undergraduate students in Oman. The sample of this study composed of (32) undergraduate female students enrolled in the course, "Mathematics for Social Sciences I" in Mathematics and Sciences Unit in Dhofar University in spring semester 2014-2015.…

  1. Effect of a Combined Repeated Reading and Question Generation Intervention on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, William J.; Wickstrom, Katherine; Jones, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to ascertain if a combined repeated reading and question generation intervention was effective at improving the reading achievement of fourth through eighth grade students with learning disabilities or who were at risk for reading failure. Students were assigned to a treatment or control group via a stratified random…

  2. Academic Achievement and Adolescent Drug Use: An Examination of Reciprocal Effects and Correlated Growth Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Kimberly L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The primary aim was to examine correlated growth trajectories and reciprocal effects between academic achievement and drug use over the course of junior high school. Methods: One hundred and three male and 98 female students from 3 rural junior high schools were surveyed 4 times over the course of 3 years. Dual trajectory latent growth…

  3. The Effects of Statistical Analysis Software and Calculators on Statistics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmann, Edwin P.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effects of microcomputer-based statistical software and hand-held calculators on the statistics achievement of university males and females. The subjects, 73 graduate students enrolled in univariate statistics classes at a public comprehensive university, were randomly assigned to groups that used either microcomputer-based…

  4. The Effect of Using Activities Improving Scientific Literacy on Students' Achievement in Science and Technology Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucluer, Efe; Kesercioglu, Teoman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is examining the effect of the using scientific literacy development activities on students' achievement. The study was carried out in a primary school in Buca Izmir for 2010-2011 academic years. System of our body was chosen as a study topic in our search which took 6 weeks. Pre-post test semi experimental control model was…

  5. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  6. The Effect of Brain Based Instruction on Student Achievement in Algebra I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Melissa G.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative quasi-experimental study examined the effect of brain-based instruction compared to teacher-centered instruction on student achievement in algebra I. A pre-test and post-test were given to a control group of 30 and experimental group of 42 before and after a unit if study in algebra I, which was taught using the two instructional…

  7. The Effects of 3D Computer Simulation on Biology Students' Achievement and Memory Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, Tavasuria; Ismail, Zurida

    2014-01-01

    A quasi experimental study was conducted for six weeks to determine the effectiveness of two different 3D computer simulation based teaching methods, that is, realistic simulation and non-realistic simulation on Form Four Biology students' achievement and memory retention in Perak, Malaysia. A sample of 136 Form Four Biology students in Perak,…

  8. Teacher Effects on Student Achievement in First Grade: Which Aspects Matter Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Tinneke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of teachers (background qualifications, attitudes and beliefs, and instructional practices) on student achievement in mathematics, reading, and spelling in 1st grade. Its theoretical framework and methodology are based on recent work by Palardy and Rumberger (2008). Data from the SiBO Project, a…

  9. Effect of Varied Animated Enhancement Strategies in Facilitating Achievement of Different Educational Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Chih-Lung; Dwyer, Francis

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional effectiveness of computer animated instruction, complemented by varied types of instructional strategies (advance organizers and adjunct questions and feedback) on learner achievement of different types of educational objectives. Ninety-three undergraduate students were randomly assigned…

  10. The Effect of Varied Visual Cueing Strategies in Facilitating Student Achievement on Different Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Thomas; Dwyer, Francis M.

    The effectiveness of elaborate visual cueing and reduced step size (i.e., increasing the number of visual cues) in facilitating student achievement on different instructional tasks was examined. The hypothesis proposed that instructional treatments utilizing reduced step size and elaborate visual cueing alone and in combination would be superior…

  11. School District Leadership that Works: The Effect of Superintendent Leadership on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, J. Timothy; Marzano, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the influence of district superintendents on student achievement and the characteristics of effective superintendents, Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) conducted a meta-analysis of research on the influence of school district leaders on student performance. This study examined findings from 27 studies…

  12. Effect of Ethnomathematics Teaching Approach on Senior Secondary Students' Achievement and Retention in Locus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achor, Emmanuel E.; Imoko, Benjamin I.; Uloko, Emmanuel S.

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of ethnomathematics teaching approach, ETA on students' achievement and retention in Locus. The study was carried out in education zone B of Benue State of Nigeria using a sample size of 253 Senior Secondary 2 (SS 2) students. It was a non equivalent quasi-experimental study which was guided by two research…

  13. Examining the Effects of Notetaking Format on Achievement When Students Construct and Study Computerized Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes two experiments conducted to investigate the effects of notetaking format on achievement. Students constructed and studied different types of notes: partial (framework and partial notes), skeletal (framework with no notes), and control (no framework and no notes). Found that, based on an application test, students who completed and…

  14. Effects of Computer Based Learning on Students' Attitudes and Achievements towards Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Husamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tuysuz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…

  15. Examining the Effects of Differential Instructional Methods on the Model of Foreign Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Tae-Il; Shin, Sang-Keun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of differential instructional methods on the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations (IM and EM, respectively), self-confidence, motivation, and English as a foreign language (EFL) achievement for a sample of Korean university students and their teachers. To this end,…

  16. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  17. EFFECTS OF AN INTENSIVE INSERVICE PROGRAM ON TEACHER'S CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR AND PUPIL READING ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEILMAN, ARTHUR W.

    AN INVESTIGATION WAS MADE TO GAUGE THE EFFECTS OF AN INTENSIVE, INSERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM ON TEACHERS' CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR AND READING ACHIEVEMENT OF PUPILS TAUGHT BY PARTICIPATING TEACHERS. A TOTAL OF 30 FIRST-GRADE TEACHERS VOLUNTEERED FOR PARTICIPATION. ONE-HALF OF THIS TOTAL WAS ASSIGNED TO AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP, AND THE OTHER HALF TO A…

  18. Evaluation Study of the Effects of Promethean ActivClassroom on Student Achievement. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Haystead, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    During the 2009-2010 school year, Marzano Research Laboratory (MRL) was commissioned by Promethean Ltd. to conduct a second year evaluation study of the effects of Promethean ActivClassroom on student academic achievement. This report describes the findings from the second year study along with aggregate findings from the first and second year…

  19. The Effect of Community Involvement through PENCIL Partners on School Climate and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that community partnerships could have on school climate and, ultimately, student achievement. Specifically, community partnerships that were formed through the PENCIL (Public Education Needs Community Involvement and Leadership) Foundation in Nashville, Tennessee were researched to determine…

  20. Effects of Interim Assessments on the Achievement Gap: Evidence from an Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, all states operate accountability systems that measure and report school and student performance annually. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of interim assessments on the achievement gap. The authors examine the impact of interim assessments throughout the…

  1. Effects of Achievement, Evaluative Feedback, and Locus of Control on Children's Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; McKnight, Lynda Bidlake

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated that expectations concerning success were determined by past achievement and by evaluative feedback. Immediate past performance had a stronger relative influence on expectations and performance than evaluative feedback. Feedback had a relatively greater effect on self-evaluation. (Author/DB)

  2. The Effect of Inquiry-Based Learning Method on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based learning method on students' academic achievement in sciences lesson. A total of 40 fifth grade students from two different classes were involved in the study. They were selected through purposive sampling method. The group which was assigned as experimental group was…

  3. Masculinity-Femininity of Self-Concept; Its Effect on the Achievement Behavior of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Joanne S.

    1987-01-01

    Examines achievement behavior of women in relation to their masculinity-femininity of self-concept and the mediating effects of the situation. While feminine women did not perform more poorly when competing against lower ability males than against lower ability females, very feminine women were more ambivalent about competing successfully than…

  4. Effects of a Technology-Based Parental-Involvement Program on Student Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Jeannie Whitlock

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of parental involvement in the middle school students' achievement and self-perception of mathematics ability. Alarmingly low math proficiency, along with diminishing involvement with middle school parents, generated the purpose of the study. This research project used technology-based parental-involvement…

  5. Effects of an Afterschool Program on Elementary and Middle School Math Achievement in Georgia Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Connie L.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the demands placed on schools to make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) on state standardized tests, many districts are looking at afterschool programs to help bridge the gap in achievement for students who are at-risk for failing to master standards. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect an afterschool program had on…

  6. Academic Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of School Psychological Climate on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth-and tenth-grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic…

  7. Diagnosis, Remediation, and Locus of Control: Effects on Immediate and Retained Achievement and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders-Harris, Ramona; Yeany, Russell H.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects were assessed for locus of control and experienced either: no diagnosis; diagnosis; or, diagnosis and remediation. Immediate achievement was measured twice during the experiment; retention was measured 30 days later. Findings suggest that diagnostic or diagnostic/remedial instruction is effective in increasing middle school science…

  8. Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Achievement in Ecological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkemdilim, Egbunonu Roseline; Okeke, Sam O. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' achievement in ecological concepts. Quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre-test post test non-equivalent control group design was adopted. The sample consisted of sixty-six (66) senior secondary year two (SS II) biology students, drawn from two…

  9. New Empirical Evidence on the Effect of Educational Tracking on Social Inequalities in Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides

    2015-01-01

    One of the major imperatives behind the comprehensivisation of secondary education was the belief that postponing the age at which students are tracked in different educational routes would mitigate the effect of social background on educational outcomes. Comparative investigations of large-scale international student achievement tests in…

  10. Investigating the Indirect Effects of Dust via Ice-Containing Clouds in the Last Glacial Maximum and Pliocene Paleoclimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagoo, N.; Storelvmo, T.

    2015-12-01

    A longstanding issue in paleoclimate research is that proxy data indicates greater polar amplification than that simulated by climate models. This is true for periods both colder and warmer than today, such as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Pliocene. Resolving this disparity requires a better understanding of climate processes, particularly in the sensitive polar regions. Climate records indicate that atmospheric dust load has varied greatly in the past with greater fluxes during the recent glacials compared to the interglacials. Dust fluxes in the Pliocene were reduced compared to the modern, partly due to the northward expansion of vegetation in Africa, which limited the extent of this major dust source. Mineral dust is an important ice nuclei (IN) in clouds. The presence of dust allows ice-crystals in clouds to form over a wider range of environmental conditions than in its absence. Termed the indirect effect of dust, this process has a considerable impact on the physical and radiative properties of clouds and therefore climate. We investigate the indirect effects of dust on the LGM and Pliocene climates as they represent end member cold / warm climates with a high & low-dust load respectively. We use CAM5 & CESM, state of the art climate models, and a new empirical parameterization for mixed-phase clouds (DeMott et al., 2015) in which dust is able to act as a cloud IN. Cloud ice-formation in our climate model is based on temperature and IN availability as opposed to the overly simple temperature-only parameterization often used. We modify global dustiness and CO2concentrations to create idealized LGM and Pliocene simulations. Our results show that the indirect effects of dust have a strong impact on the climate, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Modifying global dustiness impacts cloud physical and radiative properties, which translate into a large influence on global climate & polar amplification over the Arctic. Global temperatures and polar

  11. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems. PMID:23318940

  12. The effects of teacher mathematics knowledge and pedagogy on student achievement in rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Sorto, M. Alejandra

    2012-04-01

    Why are some teachers more effective than others? The importance of understanding the interplay between teacher preparation, pedagogy and student achievement has motivated a new line of research focusing on teacher knowledge. This study analyses the effects of teacher mathematics knowledge on student achievement using longitudinal data from rural Guatemalan primary schools. After presenting a conceptual framework for linking the work of the teacher with student learning in mathematics together with an overview of the different forms of teacher knowledge, the paper introduces the Guatemalan context and the analytical framework including the sample, data and methods. Overall, the results provide some empirical support for a widely held, if infrequently tested, belief in mathematics education: effective teachers have different kinds of mathematical knowledge. The results also suggest specific mechanisms by which effective teachers can make substantial impacts on student learning, even in extremely poor contexts.

  13. The effects on interest, instruction, and achievement on the science question level of middle school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccio Schirripa, Santine

    The effects of instruction in writing researchable questions, science topic interest, and achievement (science, reading, and mathematics) on science question level in seventh grade students were investigated experimentally. The hypotheses were: students instructed in researchable questioning in science would outperform students who were not instructed on a measure of science question level; students interested in science topics would score higher on a measure of science question level, than when they are not interested; and high achieving students in mathematics, reading or science would outperform students who are not high achievers on a measure of science question level. Eight classes of normally achieving seventh graders (n = 106 students), from a middle school in west central Florida, were randomly assigned to two treatments. One group received instruction in writing researchable questions in science, the other group did not receive instruction. Each student in each of the eight classes completed "The Middle School Students' Science Topic Interest Rating Scale", developed for this study (test-retest reliability, rsbs =.84), rating each of the thirteen topics from one to three. All students selected two topics in which they were least interested, and two topics in which they were most interested. They then wrote researchable questions for each topic. All students took the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT) in reading, mathematics and science. The questions were rated using the four levels described by "The Middle School Students' Science Question Rating Scale", developed for this study (inter-rater reliability, rsbs =.96). The scores for each question were averaged for two raters then summed for each interest level for each student The means and standard deviations were computed for questions generated at a low level of interest, questions generated at a high level of interest, reading SAT scores, mathematics SAT scores, and science SAT scores. The data were

  14. Audit-based education: a potentially effective program for improving guideline achievement in CKD patients.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Rotmans, Joris I

    2013-09-01

    The achievement of treatment guidelines in patients with chronic kidney disease is poor, and more efforts are needed to improve this. Audit-based education is a program that may contribute to this improvement. de Lusignana et al. investigated whether audit-based education is effective in lowering systolic blood pressure in a primary-care setting. Although the program is inventive and promising, several adjustments are needed before it can be applied as an effective strategy. PMID:23989357

  15. The effects of controversy, concurrence seeking, and individualistic learning on achievement and attitude change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Roger; Brooker, Charlotte; Stutzman, James; Hultman, Donald; Johnson, David W.

    The effects of cooperative-controversy, cooperative-concurrence seeking, and individualistic learning were compared on motivation, achievement, and attitudes toward the science subject being studied. Eighty-four fifth-grade students were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for sex and reading ability. In all three conditions students studied whether wolves should or should not be a protected species. The results indicate that cooperative-controversy resulted in the highest achievement, greatest motivation to learn more about wolves, more positive attitudes toward the wolf, and more positive attitudes toward controversy.

  16. Multilevel Effects of Student and Classroom Factors on Elementary Science Achievement in Five Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the USA and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia and Scotland, were reported. Multilevel effects were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modelling, using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 fourth grade dataset. Overall, the results showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the USA and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the USA and Australia. Recommendations for practice and policy were discussed.

  17. Differential negative air ion effects on learning disabled and normal-achieving children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.; Kershner, J. R.

    1990-03-01

    Forty normal-achieving and 33 learning disabled (LD) children were assigned randomly to either a negative ion or placebo test condition. On a dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel (CV) combinations, both groups showed an ioninduced increase in the normal right ear advantage (REA). However, the mechanisms for this effect were different for each group. The LDs showed the effect at the right ear/left hemisphere (enhancement). The normal achievers showed the effect at the left ear/right hemisphere (inhibition). The results are consistent with an activation-inhibition model of cerebral function and suggest a functional relationship between arousal, interhemispheric activation-inhibition, and learning disabilities. The LDs may have an interhemispheric dysfunction. Both groups showed superior right ear report and the normal achiever showed overall superiority. Normal achievers showed higher consonant intrusion scores, probably due to a greater cognitive capacity. Age was a significant covariate reflecting developmental capacity changes. Negative air ions are seen to be a tool with potential theoretical and remedial applications.

  18. School Context and the Effect ESL Placement on Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Achievement*

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Immigrant adolescents’ academic achievement is crucial to our future economic stability, and Mexican-origin linguistic minority youth in U.S. schools generally demonstrate lower levels of achievement. English as a Second Language (ESL) programs provide an institutional response to these students’ needs, the effect of which may vary by the proportion of immigrant students in the school. Measures Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we estimate the effect of ESL placement on Mexican-origin achievement for first-, second-, and third-generation adolescents separately in schools with many and few immigrant students. Results The estimated effect of ESL placement varies by both immigrant concentration in the school and by students’ generational status. Conclusions We find that ESL enrollment may be protective for second-generation Mexican-origin adolescents in high immigrant concentration schools, and may prove detrimental for first-generation adolescents in contexts with few other immigrant students. PMID:20354570

  19. Midterm peer feedback in problem-based learning groups: the effect on individual contributions and achievement.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Rachelle J A; van Berkel, Henk J M; Popeijus, Herman E; Leppink, Jimmie; Schmidt, Henk G; Dolmans, Diana H J M

    2014-03-01

    Even though peer process feedback is an often used tool to enhance the effectiveness of collaborative learning environments like PBL, the conditions under which it is best facilitated still need to be investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of individual versus shared reflection and goal setting on students' individual contributions to the group and their academic achievement. In addition, the influence of prior knowledge on the effectiveness of peer feedback was studied. In this pretest-intervention-posttest study 242 first year students were divided into three conditions: condition 1 (individual reflection and goal setting), condition 2 (individual and shared reflection and goal setting), and condition 3 (control group). Results indicated that the quality of individual contributions to the tutorial group did not improve after receiving the peer feedback, nor did it differ between the three conditions. With regard to academic achievement, only males in conditions 1 and 2 showed better academic achievement compared with condition 3. However, there was no difference between both ways of reflection and goal setting with regard to achievement, indicating that both ways are equally effective. Nevertheless, it is still too early to conclude that peer feedback combined with reflection and goal setting is not effective in enhancing students' individual contributions. Students only had a limited number of opportunities to improve their contributions. Therefore, future research should investigate whether an increase in number of tutorial group meetings can enhance the effectiveness of peer feedback. In addition, the effect of quality of reflection and goal setting could be taken into consideration in future research. PMID:23657726

  20. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized an innovative teaching strategy. Fifty-eight eighth-grade high achieving students were selected as the comparison group. The Secondary School Student Questionnaire was conducted to measure all participants' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. In addition, 12 target students from the experimental group (i.e., six active and six passive students) were recruited for weekly classroom observations and follow-up interviews during the intervention. Both quantitative and qualitative findings revealed that experimental group students experienced significant impact as seen through increased attitudes and decreased anxiety of learning science. Implications for practice and research are provided.

  1. The effect of a new prelaboratory procedure on students' achievement in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isom, F. Steven; Rowsey, Robert E.

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop an alternative model, the Prelaboratory Preparation Period (PLPP), to be used to introduce freshman level students to weekly laboratories and to evaluate student academic achievement as the result of attending the Prelaboratory Preparation Period. The sample was composed of 233 students taking introductory chemistry at Auburn University. The data were collected over a four quarter period of time. A posttest-only control group design with five experimental and three control groups was used to investigate the effect of the Prelaboratory Preparation Period. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed between academic achievement of the experimental and control groups. Results of the analysis indicated that a significant difference ( = 0.05) in academic performance existed between the two groups. It was concluded that the Prelaboratory Preparation Period increased the academic achievement of students enrolled in an introductory chemistry course.

  2. Reducing statistics anxiety and enhancing statistics learning achievement: effectiveness of a one-minute strategy.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Wang, Yu-Min; Lee, Li-Tze

    2014-08-01

    Statistical knowledge is widely used in academia; however, statistics teachers struggle with the issue of how to reduce students' statistics anxiety and enhance students' statistics learning. This study assesses the effectiveness of a "one-minute paper strategy" in reducing students' statistics-related anxiety and in improving students' statistics-related achievement. Participants were 77 undergraduates from two classes enrolled in applied statistics courses. An experiment was implemented according to a pretest/posttest comparison group design. The quasi-experimental design showed that the one-minute paper strategy significantly reduced students' statistics anxiety and improved students' statistics learning achievement. The strategy was a better instructional tool than the textbook exercise for reducing students' statistics anxiety and improving students' statistics achievement. PMID:25153964

  3. Effects of Collaborative Group Composition and Inquiry Instruction on Reasoning Gains and Achievement in Undergraduate Biology

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie Lee; Lawson, Anton

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of collaborative group composition and instructional method on reasoning gains and achievement in college biology. Based on initial student reasoning ability (i.e., low, medium, or high), students were assigned to either homogeneous or heterogeneous collaborative groups within either inquiry or didactic instruction. Achievement and reasoning gains were assessed at the end of the semester. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, led to significantly greater gains in reasoning ability and achievement. Inquiry instruction also led to greater confidence and more positive attitudes toward collaboration. Low-reasoning students made significantly greater reasoning gains within inquiry instruction when grouped with other low reasoners than when grouped with either medium or high reasoners. Results are consistent with equilibration theory, supporting the idea that students benefit from the opportunity for self-regulation without the guidance or direction of a more capable peer. PMID:21364101

  4. An Examination of Teachers' Effects on High, Middle, and Low Aptitude Students' Performance on a Standardized Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Thomas L.; Beckerman, Terrill M.

    1978-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness was defined by students' mathematics score on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills while achievement was measured by the Cognitive Abilities Test. Relatively effective teachers generally produced achievement gains from all aptitude levels. Similarly, relatively ineffective teachers did not disproportionately depress achievement for…

  5. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions. MDRC Working Papers on Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  6. Effect of Retention in First Grade on Children’s Achievement Trajectories Over 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the relatively short-term and longer term effects of grade retention in 1st grade on the growth of mathematics and reading achievement over 4 years. The authors initially identified a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance. From this sample, the authors closely matched 1 retained with 1 promoted child (n = 97 pairs) on the basis of propensity scores constructed from 72 background variables and compared growth of retained and promoted children using Rasch-modeled W scores and grade standard scores, which facilitate age-based and grade-based comparisons, respectively. When using W scores, retained children experienced a slower increase in both mathematics and reading achievement in the short term but a faster increase in reading achievement in the longer term than did the promoted children. When using grade standard scores, retained children experienced a faster increase in the short term but a faster decrease in the longer term in both mathematics and reading achievement than did promoted children. Some of the retention effects were moderated by limited English language proficiency, home-school relationship, and children’s externalizing problems. PMID:19337582

  7. Health Status and Residential Exposure to Air Toxics: What Are the Effects on Children's Academic Achievement?

    PubMed

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effects of children's subjective health status and exposure to residential environmental toxins on academic performance for the first time, while adjusting for school-level effects using generalized estimating equations. The analysis employs National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates and individual-level data collected through a mail survey. Results indicate that poorer subjective health status and higher levels of residential air toxins are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages, meaning that there is an independent effect of air pollution on children's academic achievement that cannot be explained by poor health alone. PMID:27214671

  8. The effects of alcohol use on academic achievement in high school.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ana I; Giuliano, Laura M; French, Michael T

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's GPA abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that increases in alcohol consumption result in small yet statistically significant reductions in GPA for male students and in statistically non-significant changes for females. For females, however, higher levels of drinking result in self-reported academic difficulty. The fixed-effects results are substantially smaller than OLS estimates, underscoring the importance of addressing unobserved individual heterogeneity. PMID:21278841

  9. Divorce, approaches to learning, and children's academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis of mediated and moderated effects.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James Clyde; Amato, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) were used to test the hypothesis that approaches to learning (ATL) mediates the link between parental divorce and academic achievement. Fixed effects regression was utilized to test for mediation, and subsequent moderation analyses examining gender and age at time of divorce also were conducted. Results indicated that divorce was associated with less growth in test scores and that ATL mediated 18% and 12% of this association in reading and mathematics respectively. Parental divorce also was associated with larger negative effects for children who experienced divorce at an older age as well as for girls' mathematics test scores. These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of parental divorce on children's academic achievement and underscore the importance of focusing on the variability of child outcomes following parental divorce. PMID:24930818

  10. Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning on students' achievement in science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Barbara; Johnson, Roger T.; Johnson, David W.

    The effects on students' achievement and attitudes of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic instruction were compared in ninth-grade physical science classes. Forty-four students were included in the study. Students were randomly assigned to conditions stratifying for sex. The results indicate that cooperative learning experiences promoted greater mastery and retention of the material being taught as well as more positive attitudes toward the experience than did competitive and individualistic learning experiences.

  11. Working memory and executive functions: effects of training on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Titz, Cora; Karbach, Julia

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this review is to illustrate the role of working memory and executive functions for scholastic achievement as an introduction to the question of whether and how working memory and executive control training may improve academic abilities. The review of current research showed limited but converging evidence for positive effects of process-based complex working-memory training on academic abilities, particularly in the domain of reading. These benefits occurred in children suffering from cognitive and academic deficits as well as in healthy students. Transfer of training to mathematical abilities seemed to be very limited and to depend on the training regime and the characteristics of the study sample. A core issue in training research is whether high- or low-achieving children benefit more from cognitive training. Individual differences in terms of training-related benefits suggested that process-based working memory and executive control training often induced compensation effects with larger benefits in low performing individuals. Finally, we discuss the effects of process-based training in relation to other types of interventions aimed at improving academic achievement. PMID:24389706

  12. Effects of digital game-based learning on student engagement and academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy W.

    This experimental study was designed to determine the effect of digital game-based learning on student engagement and academic achievement. The sample was comprised of 34 students enrolled in a secondary Biology class in a rural public school. The study utilized an experimental pretest-posttest design with switching replications. After random assignment, students participated in one of two supplemental learning activities: playing a digital game designed to review science concepts or participating in a lab to review the same concepts. Students subsequently switched activities. Student achievement data were collected on mastery of science concepts, and student engagement data were collected utilizing self- and teacher-reported measures. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Results demonstrated that the digital game was as effective as the lab activity at increasing teacher-reported student engagement and academic achievement. These findings may be of interest to school administrators or directors of teacher preparation programs on the potential effectiveness of digital games as a learning tool.

  13. The effect of teacher quality on the achievement of students in Integrated Physics and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Rima

    For many years, researchers, policy makers, and the education community have explored various school variables and their impact on student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Ferguson and Womack 1993; Ferguson and Ladd 1996; Rice, 2003; Rockoff, 2003; Rowan, Chiang, and Miller 1997; Sanders and Horn, 1996; Wright Horn and Sanders, 1997). Invariably, the issue of teacher quality arises. Teacher quality is the single most influential factor under school control that affects student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Rice, 2003; Rockoff, 2003; Sanders and Horn, 1996; Wright Horn and Sanders, 1997). Generally, students taught by highly qualified teachers perform better on standardized tests than students with less qualified teachers (Ferguson and Womack 1993; Ferguson and Ladd 1996; Rowan, Chiang, and Miller 1997). Previous research indicates that teachers indeed matter for the improvement of student achievement, but getting good measures of what is meant by teacher quality is a continuing challenge (Goldhaber, 2002). The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of teacher quality on the achievement of students in Integrated Physics and Chemistry (IPC). In order to achieve this purpose, this study addressed the following research question: chemistry and physics teachers compare to the achievement of students taught by less-qualified IPC teachers? A causal-comparative methodology was employed to address this research question. The independent variable was teacher quality---highly-qualified or less qualified. The teacher attributes that were examined in this study are: (1) teachers' educational background; (2) content knowledge; (3) pedagogical knowledge; and (4) certification. The dependent variable was student achievement in integrated physics and chemistry, as measured by an end-of-course IPC District Assessment of Curriculum, IPC DAC. Descriptive statistics were computed for the independent variable in the study. A Chi Square was performed on the data

  14. Effects of collaboration and inquiry on reasoning and achievement in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jamie Lee

    The primary purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two collaborative grouping strategies and two instructional methods in terms of gains in reasoning ability and achievement in college biology. In order to do so, a quasi-experimental study was performed in which students were placed in one of four treatment conditions: heterogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, homogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, heterogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction, and homogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction. Students were placed in groups based on initial reasoning level. Reasoning levels and achievement gains were assessed at the end of the study. Results showed that within non-inquiry instruction, heterogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement than homogeneous groups. In contrast, within inquiry instruction, homogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, significantly outperformed non-inquiry instruction in the development of reasoning ability. Within inquiry instruction, low-ability students had significantly greater reasoning gains when grouped homogeneously. These results support Piaget's developmental theory and contradict Vygotsky's developmental theory. These results also suggest that the success of one grouping strategy over another is highly dependent upon the nature of instruction, which may be a cause for such conflicting views on grouping strategies within the educational literature. In addition, inquiry instruction led to students having greater confidence in their reasoning ability as well as a more positive attitude toward collaboration. Instructional implications are discussed.

  15. Effect of school belonging trajectories in grades 6-8 on achievement: Gender and ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung Hee; Allee, Paula J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the association between trajectories of school belonging across grades 6-8 and academic achievement in grade 8 in an ethnically diverse sample of 527 academically at-risk adolescents. Students reported annually on school belonging. Reading and math achievement were assessed at grade 5 (baseline) and grade 8. Interactive effects of gender and ethnicity were found in the conditional growth models for school belonging. Girls of all ethnicities had identical growth trajectories and reported higher initial school belonging than Euro-American or Latino boys. Latino and Euro-American males had lower initial level of school belonging than African American males, and Latino males had lower growth in school belonging than Euro-American males. In structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses, initial level of school belonging predicted grade 8 reading for girls and grade 8 math for boys and girls, above prior achievement and school and child covariates, but growth in school belonging predicted grade 8 achievement only for African American students. Implications for strategies to improve school belonging among academically at-risk youth are discussed. PMID:26563601

  16. Aerobic training effects on maximum oxygen consumption, lactate threshold and lactate disappearance during exercise recovery of dogs.

    PubMed

    Proscurshim, P; Russo, A K; Silva, A C; Piçarro, I C; Freire, E; Tarasantchi, J

    1989-01-01

    1. Dogs were submitted to an aerobic training schedule and its maximum oxygen consumption, lactate threshold and lactate concentration during recovery were compared among the following conditions: not trained (UT), after 1 month of training (T1), after 2 months of training (T2) and after detraining (DT). 2. Maximum oxygen consumption increased significantly in relation to UT condition only at T2 condition. The detraining reversed this alteration. 3. Lactate threshold when expressed as Vo2 or absolute work load increased significantly after aerobic training (T2) but did not present any alteration when it was expressed as % of Vo2 max. 4. The lactate decreasing during recovery did not differ between the four experimental conditions (after 10 min). 5. The latency time for the lactate concentration to reach the top values was reduced by aerobic training (T2). PMID:2575959

  17. The effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in 5th grade science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Pamela Mccrea

    2007-12-01

    At-risk students show consistent patterns of under achievement and social maladjustment in school which leads to their demise in high school (McMillian & Reed, 1994). Similarly, special education students are at increased risk of not completing high school and do not perform as well on national achievement tests than their nondisabled peers (Land & Legters, 2002). It is possible that students at-risk for academic failure will not meet graduation requirements unless interventions are put in place to alleviate this problem. It has been documented that science textbooks contain difficult vocabulary and high reading levels that are challenging for struggling students. Using approaches such as activities oriented instruction, which supports the cooperative learning/peer tutoring model is one approach that has been successful with normally achieving and special education students. This research examined the effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements with peer tutoring on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in science. A crossover design was implemented in three fifth grade inclusive classes, consisting of typically achieving students, students at-risk, and students with learning disabilities. The participants included 16 at-risk students, three special education students and 44 normally achieving students. The science review activities were implemented during two consecutive science units. One unit covered Earth and Space science. The other unit covered Light and Sound. Each curriculum enhancement had identification and production level activities. The identification level provided prompts; the production level did not provide prompts. Pretest and posttest were administered. Overall findings of the study revealed a significant interaction between experimental condition and treatment order, suggesting an advantage for students using differentiated curriculum enhancements. Main effects analysis suggested that students performed better on one

  18. The effect of A teacher questioning strategy training program on teaching behavior, student achievement, and retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Paul B.; Schuck, Robert F.

    The use of questions in the classroom has been employed throughout the recorded history of teaching. One still hears the term Socratic method during discussions of questioning procedures. The use of teacher questions is presently viewed as a viable procedure for effective instruction. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of training teachers in the use of a questioning technique and the resultant effect upon student learning. The Post-Test Only Control Group Design was used in randomly assigning teachers and students to experimental and control groups. A group of teachers was trained in the use of a specific questioning technique. Follow-up periodic observations were made of questioning technique behavior while teaching science units to groups of students. Post-unit achievement tests were administered to the student groups to obtain evidence of a relationship between the implementation of specific types of teacher questions and student achievement and retention. Analysis of observation data indicated a higher use of managerial and rhetorical questions by the control group than the experimental group. The experimental group employed a greater number of recall and data gathering questions as well as higher order data processing and data verification type questions. The student posttest achievement scores for both units of instruction were greater for the experimental groups than for the control groups. The retention scores for both units were Beater for the experimental groups than for the control groups.

  19. The Effect of Co-Teaching on Student Achievement in Ninth Grade Physical Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFever, Karen M.

    Co-teaching is a method that is increasing within schools across the US as educators strive to leave no child behind. It is a costly method, having two paid instructors in one classroom, with an average of 24 students shared between them. If it significantly increases the achievement of all students, it is well worth the costs involved. However, few studies have analyzed the effectiveness of this method on student achievement. This research follows the academic accomplishments of students in a ninth grade physical science course. Nine sections of the course "Force and Motion" were taught with a single teacher, and two additional sections were co-taught, one led by a science-certified and special educator, and another co-taught by two science certified teachers. Subgroup achievement performance was analyzed to determine whether significant differences exist between students with or without IEPs, as well as other factors such as free and reduced lunch status or gender. The results show significance with the presence of a co-teacher, while there is minimal effect size of co-teaching in this study for students with IEPs. The benefactors in these ninth grade co-taught classes were the students without IEPs, an unintended result of co-teaching.

  20. The Temporal Effects of Divorces and Separations on Children’s Academic Achievement and Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an examination of the effects of the divorce and separation process on children’s academic achievement over time. By using child fixed effects and establishing a baseline period that is 4-or-more years prior to a family disruption, I can examine how children are affected in different periods relative to the disruption and whether any negative effects subside, persist, or escalate as time passes from the disruption. With a sample of 7-14 year olds, I find: children are affected at least 2-4 years before the disruption; reading test scores are most affected; and for Reading Comprehension, the negative effects persist and even escalate as time passes from the disruption. PMID:25580066

  1. The Feminization of Primary Education: Effects of Teachers' Sex on Pupil Achievement, Attitudes and Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert

    2007-03-01

    Since the mid-1990s, considerable concern has been expressed about the feminization of education. The underlying assumption is that the increasing number of female teachers is leading to a lack of male role models, which may then have negative consequences for the achievement and behaviour of boys in particular. For this reason, policy is currently being pursued in several countries to increase the number of male teachers. In the present article, the theoretical foundation for this policy will be shown to be weak at best. To test this empirically, a large-scale study of Dutch primary schools was conducted, which involved 5181 grade eight pupils, 251 teachers and 163 schools. This study confirmed that teacher sex has no effect whatsoever on the achievement, attitudes or behaviour of pupils. This finding holds for both boys and girls, for both minority and non-minority pupils and for both children from lower and higher social-economic milieus.

  2. Systematic modeling versus the learning cycle: Comparative effects on integrated science process skill achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Rochelle L.; Norman, John T.

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the systematic modeling teaching strategy on integrated science process skills and formal reasoning ability. Urban middle school students received a three-month process skill intervention treatment from teachers trained in either the use of systematic modeling or the learning-cycle model. A third, control group received traditional science instruction. The analysis of data revealed that (a) students receiving modeled instruction demonstrated a significant difference in their achievement of process skills when compared to either of the control groups. (b) Students taught by teachers who had received special process skill and strategy training demonstrated a significant difference in their process skill achievement when compared with the control group. (c) Students at different cognitive reasoning levels demonstrated significantly different process skill ability.

  3. The Effect of Interactive e-Book on Students' Achievement at Najran University in Computer in Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebied, Mohammed Mohammed Ahmed; Rahman, Shimaa Ahmed Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to examine the effect of interactive e-books on students' achievement at Najran University in computer in education course. Quasi-experimental study design is used in the study and to collect data the researchers built achievement test to measure the dependent variable represented in the achievement affected by experimental…

  4. The effect of inclusion classrooms on the science achievement of general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Matthew Robert

    General education and Special Education students from three high schools in Rutherford County were sampled to determine the effect on their academic achievement on the Tennessee Biology I Gateway Exam in Inclusion classrooms. Each student's predicted and actual Gateway Exam scores from the academic year 2006--2007 were used to determine the effect the student's classroom had on his academic achievement. Independent variables used in the study were gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, grade point average, type of classroom (general or Inclusion), and type student (General Education or Special Education). The statistical tests used in this study were a t-test and a Mann--Whitney U Test. From this study, the effect of the Inclusion classroom on general education students was not significant statistically. Although the Inclusion classroom allows the special education student to succeed in the classroom, the effect on general education students is negligible. This study also provided statistical data that the Inclusion classroom did not improve the special education students' academic performances on the Gateway Exam. Students in a general education classroom with a GPA above 3.000 and those from a household without a low socioeconomic status performed at a statistically different level in this study.

  5. Effects of Long-Term Fluid Injection on Maximum Magnitude and Induced Seismicity Parameters at Northwestern The Geysers Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnhoff, M.; Kwiatek, G.; Martínez-Garzón, P.; Dresen, G. H.; Sone, H.; Hartline, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    The long-term temporal and spatial changes in statistical, source and stress characteristics of one cluster of induced seismicity recorded at The Geysers geothermal field (US) are analyzed in relation to the field operations, fluid migration and constraints on the maximum likely magnitude. Two injection wells, Prati-9 and Prati-29, located in the northwestern part of the field and their associated seismicity composed of 1,776 events recorded throughout a seven-year period were analyzed. The seismicity catalog was relocated and the source characteristics including focal mechanisms and static source parameters were refined using first-motion polarity, spectral fitting and mesh spectral ratio techniques. The source characteristics together with statistical parameters (b-value) and cluster dynamics were used to investigate and understand the details of fluid migration scheme in the vicinity of injection wells. The observed temporal, spatial and source characteristics were clearly attributed to fluid injection and fluid migration towards greater depths, involving increasing pore pressure in the reservoir. Increasing poroelastic stresses at greater depths affect the kinematic properties of the seismicity in that at reservoir depths normal faulting mechanism events dominate, whereas at larger depths the contribution of strike-slip events are is significantly increasing. The seasonal changes of injection rates were found to directly impact the shape and spatial extent of the seismic cloud. A tendency of larger seismic events to occur closer to injection wells and a correlation between the spatial extent of the seismic cloud and source sizes of the largest events was observed suggesting geometrical constraints on the maximum likely magnitude. The observed maximum magnitude was found to be clearly correlated to the dimensions of seismic cloud which is related to the volume of formation weakened by fluid injection and injection rate, and the average pore pressure change in

  6. Temperature profiles of ethanol tolerance: effects of ethanol on the minimum and the maximum temperatures for growth of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces fragilis

    SciTech Connect

    Sa-Correia, I.; Van Uden, N.

    1983-06-01

    Difficulties experienced by brewers with yeast performance in the brewing of lager at low temperatures has led the authors to study the effect of ethanol on the minimum temperature for growth (T. min). It has been found that both the maximum temperature (T max) and T min were adversely affected by ethanol and that ethanol tolerance prevailed at intermediate temperatures. (Refs. 8).

  7. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  8. The effect of self-regulated learning strategy instruction on strategy use and academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cekolin, Catherine Helen

    This study investigated the effects of self-regulated learning strategy instruction on strategy use and academic achievement in middle school science classes. Gender differences in strategy use and academic achievement were evaluated. The research questions focused on the development of instructional strategies to help students become self-regulated learners. Groups of students were given the opportunity to use self-regulated learning strategies with and without prompting. Gender differences within instructional group and strategy use were evaluated. According to these research findings, prompting appears to be a critical component of self-regulated learning strategy instruction with all groups. Selected groups showed greater increases in both academic achievement and self-regulated learning strategy use when prompting was a component of self-regulated learning strategy instruction. Students who demonstrated either below average self-regulated learning strategy skills, or lower GPAs showed the greatest gain from prompting plus instruction. Gender differences were demonstrated, with females showing greater self-regulated learning strategy use compared to males. The findings from this study emphasize the importance of self-regulated learning strategy instruction, especially for middle school students.

  9. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own classrooms. The study analyzed the mean scale scores for the science portion of the state's high school graduation test for the years 2004 through 2007 to determine whether schools receiving the intervention scored significantly higher than comparison schools receiving no intervention. The results showed that all schools achieved significant improvement of scale scores between 2004 and 2007, but there were no significant performance differences between intervention and comparison schools, nor were there any significant differences between various subgroups in intervention and comparison schools. However, one subgroup, economically disadvantaged (ED) students, from high-level intervention schools closed the achievement gap with ED students from no-intervention schools across the period of the study. The study provides important information to guide future research on and design of large-scale professional development programs to foster inquiry-based science.

  10. Parent reinforcement for child achievement: the use of a lottery to maximize parent training effects.

    PubMed Central

    Muir, K A; Milan, M A

    1982-01-01

    This study describes and evaluates a reinforcement program in which parents earned lottery tickets and won prizes for the progress made by their handicapped children during home-based intervention. An ABAB reversal design replicated across three families was used to assess the effects of the lottery on the children's mastery of language skills. Results showed that the reinforcement of the parents for training accomplishments, as indexed by their children's achievements, produced clinically significant increases in the children's progress when compared with the children's progress under the routine supportive practices of the baseline condition. The implications of the findings for parent training programs in general are discussed. PMID:6183247

  11. Achieving nonreciprocal unidirectional single-photon quantum transport using the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Luqi; Xu, Shanshan; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-11-15

    We show that nonreciprocal unidirectional single-photon quantum transport can be achieved with the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. The system consists of a 1D waveguide coupling to two three-level atoms of the V-type. The two atoms, in addition, are each driven by an external coherent field. We show that the phase of the external coherent field provides a gauge potential for the photon states. With a proper choice of the phase difference between the two coherent fields, the transport of a single photon can exhibit unity contrast in its transmissions for the two propagation directions. PMID:26565819

  12. Feature extraction of micro-motion frequency and the maximum wobble angle in a small range of missile warhead based on micro-Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Jiang, Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Micro-Doppler effect is induced by the micro-motion dynamics of the radar target itself or any structure on the target. In this paper, a simplified cone-shaped model for ballistic missile warhead with micro-nutation is established, followed by the theoretical formula of micro-nutation is derived. It is confirmed that the theoretical results are identical to simulation results by using short-time Fourier transform. Then we propose a new method for nutation period extraction via signature maximum energy fitting based on empirical mode decomposition and short-time Fourier transform. The maximum wobble angle is also extracted by distance approximate approach in a small range of wobble angle, which is combined with the maximum likelihood estimation. By the simulation studies, it is shown that these two feature extraction methods are both valid even with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  13. Effects on seventh-grade students' achievement and science anxiety of alternatives to conventional frog dissection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszalek, Christine Susan

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study in a suburban school district was to investigate and compare the level of learning and long-term retention of frog internal anatomy between seventh-grade students using an interactive CD tutorial, a desktop microworld, and conventional frog dissection. Students' anxiety toward science was also compared across the three treatment groups and between genders. Additional data on the students' preferred learning style were used to explore possible interaction effects with their respective instructional activity. Subjects participating in the study were all seventh-grade students in one junior-high school, numbering 280 in total. Classes were randomly assigned to the three modes of instruction for the dissection of a frog: a CD-tutorial dissection, a desktop microworld dissection, and a conventional dissection. The Conventional treatment was the traditional physical dissection using a preserved frog specimen and lab dissection tools. The CD-Tutorial treatment was the interactive tutorial Digital Frog from Digital Frog International. The Microworld treatment was a desktop microworld environment composed of Operation Frog on CD supplemented with other programs to provide additional avenues for learning. Data collection and testing occurred prior to treatment, one day after treatment, and three months after treatment. Data collected showed mixed results for all measures taken. The differences in achievement gained favoring the conventional treatment from pretest to both posttests appear to have leveled out somewhat over time. Although anxiety levels declined for both genders after treatment, females continued to report significantly higher science anxiety than males. There appears to be a relationship between treatment and gender in terms of effect on science anxiety. For all three measures taken--pretest, immediate posttest and delayed posttest--no significant difference in achievement by learning style was observed. Learning style alone does not

  14. Arsenic trioxide plus PX-478 achieves effective treatment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lang, Mingxiao; Wang, Xiuchao; Wang, Hongwei; Dong, Jie; Lan, Chungen; Hao, Jihui; Huang, Chongbiao; Li, Xin; Yu, Ming; Yang, Yanhui; Yang, Shengyu; Ren, He

    2016-08-10

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been selected as a promising treatment not only in leukemia but also in solid tumors. Previous studies showed that the cytotoxicity of ATO mainly depends on the induction of reactive oxygen species. However, ATO has only achieved a modest effect in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, suggesting that the existing radical scavenging proteins, such as hypoxia inducible factor-1, attenuate the effect. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of combination treatment of ATO plus PX-478 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1 inhibitor) and its underlying mechanism. Here, we showed that PX-478 robustly strengthened the anti-growth and pro-apoptosis effect of ATO on Panc-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Meanwhile, in vivo mouse xenograft models also showed the synergistic effect of ATO plus PX-478 compared with any single agent. Further studies showed that the anti-tumor effect of ATO plus PX-478 was derived from the reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis. We next confirmed that Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 cleared reactive oxygen species by its downstream target, forkhead box O transcription factors, and this effect may justify the strategy of ATO plus PX-478 in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27212442

  15. Crystallization sequences of Ca-Al-rich inclusions from Allende - The effects of cooling rate and maximum temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolper, E.; Paque, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The crystallization sequences, mineral chemistries, and textures resulting from the cooling in air from 1275-1580 C to below 100 C at rates between 0.5 and 100 c/hr of an average Type B Ca-Al-rich inclusion composition are investigated. Comparison of experimental results with petrographic observations of Type B CaIs indicates that most inclusions were partially melted and then cooled at rates of the order of a few tenths to tens of degrees per hour, with maximum temperatures of about 1400 C suggested for intermediate Type B Allende inclusions. Data are consistent with the drag heating of particles falling though nebular gas, heating in nebular shock fronts, or other thermal heterogeneities in the early nebula allowing time scales for heating of CAIs much shorter than those for the nebular cloud as a whole.

  16. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  17. Growing minds: The effect of school gardening programs on the science achievement of elementary students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemmer, Cynthia Davis

    Science literacy refers to a basic knowledge and understanding of science concepts and processes needed to consider issues and make choices on a daily basis in an increasingly technology-driven society. A critical precursor to producing science literate adults is actively involving children in science while they are young. National and state (TX) science standards advocate the use of constructivist methods including hands-on, experiential activities that foster the development of science process skills through real-world investigations. School gardens show promise as a tool for implementing these guidelines by providing living laboratories for active science. Gardens offer opportunities for a variety of hands-on investigations, enabling students to apply and practice science skills. School gardens are increasing in popularity; however, little research data exists attesting to their actual effectiveness in enhancing students' science achievement. The study used a quasi-experimental posttest-only research design to assess the effects of a school gardening program on the science achievement of 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade elementary students. The sample consisted of 647 students from seven elementary schools in Temple, Texas. The experimental group participated in school gardening activities as part of their science curriculum. The control group did not garden and were taught using traditional classroom-based methods. Results showed higher scores for students in the experimental group which were statistically significant. Post-hoc tests using Scheffe's method revealed that these differences were attributed to the 5th grade. No statistical significance was found between girls and boys in the experimental group, indicating that gardening was equally effective for both genders. Within each gender, statistical significance was found between males in the experimental and control groups at all three grade levels, and for females in the 5 th grade. This research indicated that

  18. Effects of School-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames. PMID:26556088

  19. The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on middle school students' student achievement and motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, John

    A problem facing science educators is determining the most effective means of science instruction so that students will meet or exceed the new rigorous standards. The theoretical framework for this study was based on reform and research efforts that have informed science teachers that using constructivism is the best method of science instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the constructivist method of science instruction affected student achievement and student motivation in a sixth grade science classroom. The guiding research question involved understanding which method of science instruction would be most effective at improving student achievement in science. Other sub-questions included the factors that contribute to student motivation in science and the method of science instruction students receive that affects motivation to learn science. Quantitative data were collected using a pre-test and post-test single group design. T-test and ANCOVA were used to test quantitative hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected using student reflective journals and classroom discussions. Students' perspectives were transcribed, coded and used to further inform quantitative findings. The findings of this study supported the recommendations made by science reformists that the best method of science instruction was a constructivist method. This study also found that participant comments favored constructivist taught classes. The implications for social change at the local level included potential increases in student achievement in science and possibly increased understanding that can facilitate similar changes at other schools. From a global perspective, constructivist-oriented methods might result in students becoming more interested in majoring in science at the college level and in becoming part of a scientifically literate work force.

  20. Learning anatomy via mobile augmented reality: Effects on achievement and cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Sevda; Kapakin, Samet; Göktaş, Yüksel

    2016-10-01

    Augmented reality (AR), a new generation of technology, has attracted the attention of educators in recent years. In this study, a MagicBook was developed for a neuroanatomy topic by using mobile augmented reality (mAR) technology. This technology integrates virtual learning objects into the real world and allow users to interact with the environment using mobile devices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning anatomy via mAR on medical students' academic achievement and cognitive load. The mixed method was applied in the study. The random sample consisted of 70 second-year undergraduate medical students: 34 in an experimental group and 36 in a control group. Academic achievement test and cognitive load scale were used as data collection tool. A one-way MANOVA test was used for analysis. The experimental group, which used mAR applications, reported higher achievement and lower cognitive load. The use of mAR applications in anatomy education contributed to the formation of an effective and productive learning environment. Student cognitive load decreased as abstract information became concrete in printed books via multimedia materials in mAR applications. Additionally, students were able to access the materials in the MagicBook anytime and anywhere they wanted. The mobile learning approach helped students learn better by exerting less cognitive effort. Moreover, the sensory experience and real time interaction with environment may provide learning satisfaction and enable students to structure their knowledge to complete the learning tasks. Anat Sci Educ 9: 411-421. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26950521