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Sample records for achieve maximum flexibility

  1. Estimating Metabolic Fluxes Using a Maximum Network Flexibility Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Megchelenbrink, Wout; Rossell, Sergio; Huynen, Martijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Genome-scale metabolic networks can be modeled in a constraint-based fashion. Reaction stoichiometry combined with flux capacity constraints determine the space of allowable reaction rates. This space is often large and a central challenge in metabolic modeling is finding the biologically most relevant flux distributions. A widely used method is flux balance analysis (FBA), which optimizes a biologically relevant objective such as growth or ATP production. Although FBA has proven to be highly useful for predicting growth and byproduct secretion, it cannot predict the intracellular fluxes under all environmental conditions. Therefore, alternative strategies have been developed to select flux distributions that are in agreement with experimental “omics” data, or by incorporating experimental flux measurements. The latter, unfortunately can only be applied to a limited set of reactions and is currently not feasible at the genome-scale. On the other hand, it has been observed that micro-organisms favor a suboptimal growth rate, possibly in exchange for a more “flexible” metabolic network. Instead of dedicating the internal network state to an optimal growth rate in one condition, a suboptimal growth rate is used, that allows for an easier switch to other nutrient sources. A small decrease in growth rate is exchanged for a relatively large gain in metabolic capability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Results Here, we propose Maximum Metabolic Flexibility (MMF) a computational method that utilizes this observation to find the most probable intracellular flux distributions. By mapping measured flux data from central metabolism to the genome-scale models of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that i) indeed, most of the measured fluxes agree with a high adaptability of the network, ii) this result can be used to further reduce the space of feasible solutions iii) this reduced space improves the quantitative predictions

  2. Maximum likelihood estimation for distributed parameter models of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. W., Jr.; Williams, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    A distributed-parameter model of the NASA Solar Array Flight Experiment spacecraft structure is constructed on the basis of measurement data and analyzed to generate a priori estimates of modal frequencies and mode shapes. A Newton-Raphson maximum-likelihood algorithm is applied to determine the unknown parameters, using a truncated model for the estimation and the full model for the computation of the higher modes. Numerical results are presented in a series of graphs and briefly discussed, and the significant improvement in computation speed obtained by parallel implementation of the method on a supercomputer is noted.

  3. The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.

  4. Academic Achievement, Situational Stress, and Problem-Solving Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Boyd C.; Calder, Colleen

    1975-01-01

    Tested two hypotheses: (1) academic underachievers will have less problem solving flexibility during failure than during success; and (2) academic overachievers will have more problem solving flexibility during failure than during success. Subjects were tenth grade boys. (Author/SDH)

  5. A homotopy algorithm for synthesizing robust controllers for flexible structures via the maximum entropy design equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    One well known deficiency of LQG compensators is that they do not guarantee any measure of robustness. This deficiency is especially highlighted when considering control design for complex systems such as flexible structures. There has thus been a need to generalize LQG theory to incorporate robustness constraints. Here we describe the maximum entropy approach to robust control design for flexible structures, a generalization of LQG theory, pioneered by Hyland, which has proved useful in practice. The design equations consist of a set of coupled Riccati and Lyapunov equations. A homotopy algorithm that is used to solve these design equations is presented.

  6. ULTRASONIC IMAGING USING A FLEXIBLE ARRAY: IMPROVEMENTS TO THE MAXIMUM CONTRAST AUTOFOCUS ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, A. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2009-03-03

    In previous work, we have presented the maximum contrast autofocus algorithm for estimating unknown imaging parameters, e.g., for imaging through complicated surfaces using a flexible ultrasonic array. This paper details recent improvements to the algorithm. The algorithm operates by maximizing the image contrast metric with respect to the imaging parameters. For a flexible array, the relative positions of the array elements are parameterized using a cubic spline function and the spline control points are estimated by iterative maximisation of the image contrast via simulated annealing. The resultant spline gives an estimate of the array geometry and the profile of the surface that it has conformed to, allowing the generation of a well-focused image. A pre-processing step is introduced to obtain an initial estimate of the array geometry, reducing the time taken for the algorithm to convergence. Experimental results are demonstrated using a flexible array prototype.

  7. Maximum margin classification based on flexible convex hulls for fault diagnosis of roller bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ming; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Jinde; Cheng, Junsheng

    2016-01-01

    A maximum margin classification based on flexible convex hulls (MMC-FCH) is proposed and applied to fault diagnosis of roller bearings. In this method, the class region of each sample set is approximated by a flexible convex hull of its training samples, and then an optimal separating hyper-plane that maximizes the geometric margin between flexible convex hulls is constructed by solving a closest pair of points problem. By using the kernel trick, MMC-FCH can be extended to nonlinear cases. In addition, multi-class classification problems can be processed by constructing binary pairwise classifiers as in support vector machine (SVM). Actually, the classical SVM also can be regarded as a maximum margin classification based on convex hulls (MMC-CH), which approximates each class region with a convex hull. The convex hull is a special case of the flexible convex hull. To train a MMC-FCH classifier, time-domain and frequency-domain statistical parameters are extracted not only from raw vibration signals but also from the resulting intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by performing empirical mode decomposition (EMD) on the raw signals, and then the distance evaluation technique (DET) is used to select salient features from the whole statistical features. The experiments on bearing datasets show that the proposed method can reliably recognize different bearing faults.

  8. The Impact of Flexible Interdisciplinary Block Scheduling on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplinger, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the use of a middle school flexible interdisciplinary block schedule would increase eighth-grade students' reading scores, as measured by the Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (OAKS). A 90-minute middle school flexible interdisciplinary block schedule served as the independent variable and…

  9. Analysis to determine the maximum dimensions of flexible apertures in sensored security netting products.

    SciTech Connect

    Murton, Mark; Bouchier, Francis A.; vanDongen, Dale T.; Mack, Thomas Kimball; Cutler, Robert Paul; Ross, Michael P.

    2013-08-01

    Although technological advances provide new capabilities to increase the robustness of security systems, they also potentially introduce new vulnerabilities. New capability sometimes requires new performance requirements. This paper outlines an approach to establishing a key performance requirement for an emerging intrusion detection sensor: the sensored net. Throughout the security industry, the commonly adopted standard for maximum opening size through barriers is a requirement based on square inches-typically 96 square inches. Unlike standard rigid opening, the dimensions of a flexible aperture are not fixed, but variable and conformable. It is demonstrably simple for a human intruder to move through a 96-square-inch opening that is conformable to the human body. The longstanding 96-square-inch requirement itself, though firmly embedded in policy and best practice, lacks a documented empirical basis. This analysis concluded that the traditional 96-square-inch standard for openings is insufficient for flexible openings that are conformable to the human body. Instead, a circumference standard is recommended for these newer types of sensored barriers. The recommended maximum circumference for a flexible opening should be no more than 26 inches, as measured on the inside of the netting material.

  10. Automatic Production Planning System to Achieve Flexible Direct Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi; Wakamatsu, Hidefumi; Tsumaya, Akira; Arai, Eiji

    For shortening of production lead-time, it is needed to eliminate time and efforts for process and operation planning after product design. However, a conventional NC machine tool has no autonomy and intelligence to achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing”. Because CL data and cutting parameters for machining operation have to be determined precisely in process and operation planning. In this study, in order to realize an autonomous and intelligent machine tool, the digital copy milling system which allows to generate tool paths during machining operation, and the trouble free machining strategy which allows to adapt cutting parameters, have been developed. And, an automatic process and operation planning system has been developed to integrate with the functions mentioned. This planning system works on commercial CAD software, and a prototype of autonomous and intelligent machine tool can achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing” which does not require any effort to prepare an NC program.

  11. Netest: A Tool to Measure the Maximum Burst Size, Available Bandwidth and Achievable Throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guojun; Tierney, Brian

    2003-01-31

    Distinguishing available bandwidth and achievable throughput is essential for improving network applications' performance. Achievable throughput is the throughput considering a number of factors such as network protocol, host speed, network path, and TCP buffer space, where as available bandwidth only considers the network path. Without understanding this difference, trying to improve network applications' performance is like ''blind men feeling the elephant'' [4]. In this paper, we define and distinguish bandwidth and throughput, and debate which part of each is achievable and which is available. Also, we introduce and discuss a new concept - Maximum Burst Size that is crucial to the network performance and bandwidth sharing. A tool, netest, is introduced to help users to determine the available bandwidth, and provides information to achieve better throughput with fairness of sharing the available bandwidth, thus reducing misuse of the network.

  12. A flexible decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in hybrid QPSK/OOK coherent optical WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yulong

    2016-04-01

    Although decision-aided (DA) maximum likelihood (ML) phase estimation (PE) algorithm has been investigated intensively, block length effect impacts system performance and leads to the increasing of hardware complexity. In this paper, a flexible DA-ML algorithm is proposed in hybrid QPSK/OOK coherent optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems. We present a general cross phase modulation (XPM) model based on Volterra series transfer function (VSTF) method to describe XPM effects induced by OOK channels at the end of dispersion management (DM) fiber links. Based on our model, the weighted factors obtained from maximum likelihood method are introduced to eliminate the block length effect. We derive the analytical expression of phase error variance for the performance prediction of coherent receiver with the flexible DA-ML algorithm. Bit error ratio (BER) performance is evaluated and compared through both theoretical derivation and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The results show that our flexible DA-ML algorithm has significant improvement in performance compared with the conventional DA-ML algorithm as block length is a fixed value. Compared with the conventional DA-ML with optimum block length, our flexible DA-ML can obtain better system performance. It means our flexible DA-ML algorithm is more effective for mitigating phase noise than conventional DA-ML algorithm.

  13. Faculty career flexibility: Why we need it and how best to achieve it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Kate

    2010-02-01

    Research conducted over the last decade provides compelling evidence that higher education institutions have a strong business case for providing flexibility for their tenure-track and tenured faculty. Flexibility constitutes an effective tool for recruiting and retaining talented faculty. Career flexibility is especially critical to retaining some of the most qualified female PhDs in academic science, engineering, and mathematics. Acquiring the best talent is essential to an institution's ability to achieve excellence and maintain its competitive advantage in a global environment. In an effort to increase the flexibility of faculty careers, the American Council on Education partnered with the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to create the Award for Faculty Career Flexibility. This presentation will address the origins of the award and share findings from the awards process. Fairly simple and cost effective strategies have been successful in accelerating the cultural change necessary to increase the flexibility of faculty careers. This presentation shares these strategies in addition to information about the types of policies and practices being adopted to support faculty work-life balance through career flexibility. )

  14. Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them

  15. Achieving Maximum Power from Thermoelectric Generators with Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking Circuits Composed of a Boost-Cascaded-with-Buck Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho

    2015-06-01

    We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.

  16. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  17. Mind the bubbles: achieving stable measurements of maximum hydraulic conductivity through woody plant samples

    PubMed Central

    Espino, Susana; Schenk, H. Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (kmax) of a plant sample is a measure of the ability of a plants’ vascular system to transport water and dissolved nutrients under optimum conditions. Precise measurements of kmax are needed in comparative studies of hydraulic conductivity, as well as for measuring the formation and repair of xylem embolisms. Unstable measurements of kmax are a common problem when measuring woody plant samples and it is commonly observed that kmax declines from initially high values, especially when positive water pressure is used to flush out embolisms. This study was designed to test five hypotheses that could potentially explain declines in kmax under positive pressure: (i) non-steady-state flow; (ii) swelling of pectin hydrogels in inter-vessel pit membranes; (iii) nucleation and coalescence of bubbles at constrictions in the xylem; (iv) physiological wounding responses; and (v) passive wounding responses, such as clogging of the xylem by debris. Prehydrated woody stems from Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) and Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) collected from plants grown in the Fullerton Arboretum in Southern California, were used to test these hypotheses using a xylem embolism meter (XYL'EM). Treatments included simultaneous measurements of stem inflow and outflow, enzyme inhibitors, stem-debarking, low water temperatures, different water degassing techniques, and varied concentrations of calcium, potassium, magnesium, and copper salts in aqueous measurement solutions. Stable measurements of kmax were observed at concentrations of calcium, potassium, and magnesium salts high enough to suppress bubble coalescence, as well as with deionized water that was degassed using a membrane contactor under strong vacuum. Bubble formation and coalescence under positive pressure in the xylem therefore appear to be the main cause for declining kmax values. Our findings suggest that degassing of water is essential for achieving stable and precise

  18. Evaluation of Flexibility Under "No Child Left Behind": Volume III--The Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP Flex)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Gayle S.; Amerikaner, Ary; Klasik, Daniel; Cohodes, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on flexibility provisions in the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) provision of NCLB. Specifically, it addresses REAP Flex, a program that allows rural districts additional control over how to spend portions of their federal funding. REAP Flex is part of a series of NCLB flexibility initiatives aimed at rural schools.…

  19. Curating NASA's Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections: How Do We Achieve Maximum Proficiency?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Zeigler, Ryan; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "... documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working towards a state of maximum proficiency.

  20. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  1. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  2. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  3. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  4. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  5. On the maximum energy achievable in the first order Fermi acceleration at shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozny, I.; Diamond, P.; Malkov, M.

    2002-11-01

    Astrophysical shocks are considered as the sites of cosmic ray (CR) production. The primary mechanism is the diffusive shock (Fermi) acceleration which operates via multiple shock recrossing by a particle. Its efficiency, the rate of energy gain, and the maximum energy are thus determined by the transport mechanisms (confinement to the shock) of these particles in a turbulent shock environment. The turbulence is believed to be generated by accelerated particles themselves. Moreover, in the most interesting case of efficient acceleration the entire MHD shock structure is dominated by their pressure. This makes this problem one of the challenging strongly nonlinear problems of astrophysics. We suggest a physical model that describes particle acceleration, shock structure and the CR driven turbulence on an equal footing. The key new element in this scheme is nonlinear cascading of the MHD turbulence on self-excited (via modulational and Drury instability) sound-like perturbations which gives rise to a significant enrichment of the long wave part of the MHD spectrum. This is critical for the calculation of the maximum energy.

  6. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear–surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established. PMID:26555738

  7. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-05-01

    Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear-surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established. PMID:26555738

  8. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  9. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  10. PsiMLE: A maximum-likelihood estimation approach to estimating psychophysical scaling and variability more reliably, efficiently, and flexibly.

    PubMed

    Odic, Darko; Im, Hee Yeon; Eisinger, Robert; Ly, Ryan; Halberda, Justin

    2016-06-01

    A simple and popular psychophysical model-usually described as overlapping Gaussian tuning curves arranged along an ordered internal scale-is capable of accurately describing both human and nonhuman behavioral performance and neural coding in magnitude estimation, production, and reproduction tasks for most psychological dimensions (e.g., time, space, number, or brightness). This model traditionally includes two parameters that determine how a physical stimulus is transformed into a psychological magnitude: (1) an exponent that describes the compression or expansion of the physical signal into the relevant psychological scale (β), and (2) an estimate of the amount of inherent variability (often called internal noise) in the Gaussian activations along the psychological scale (σ). To date, linear slopes on log-log plots have traditionally been used to estimate β, and a completely separate method of averaging coefficients of variance has been used to estimate σ. We provide a respectful, yet critical, review of these traditional methods, and offer a tutorial on a maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) and a Bayesian estimation method for estimating both β and σ [PsiMLE(β,σ)], coupled with free software that researchers can use to implement it without a background in MLE or Bayesian statistics (R-PsiMLE). We demonstrate the validity, reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of this method through a series of simulations and behavioral experiments, and find the new method to be superior to the traditional methods in all respects. PMID:25987306

  11. Dissolution performance of binary amorphous drug combinations--Impact of a second drug on the maximum achievable supersaturation.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-12-30

    An increased number of amorphous formulations of poorly water soluble drugs are being introduced into the market due to their higher transient solubility and thus faster absorption and higher bioavailability. While most amorphous drug products contain a single drug substance, there is a growing trend towards co-formulating compounds in the same dosage form to improve patient compliance. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the dissolution behavior and maximum achievable solution concentrations of amorphous solid dispersions of co-formulated ritonavir and lopinavir, and to compare the results with individual amorphous solid dispersion formulations. Dispersions of ritonavir and lopinavir were prepared in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) at a 20% (w/w) total drug loading, both alone and in combination, at three different lopinavir:ritonavir weight ratios. Amorphous films containing both drugs, but no polymer, were also prepared. The dissolution behavior of the dispersions and the amorphous films in non-sink conditions was evaluated, using ultracentrifugation to separate any colloidal material from molecularly dissolved drug. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to characterize colloidal material formed during the dissolution process. Results from the dissolution study revealed that, although supersaturated solutions resulted following dissolution, the maximum achievable concentration of each drug, when present in combination, was dramatically lower than when the individual dispersions were dissolved. The maximum achievable solution concentration for systems containing both drugs was found to decrease as the mole fraction of the drug in the amorphous phase decreased. The type of polymer used to formulate the dispersion also appeared to influence the dissolution behavior whereby the HPMCAS dispersions dissolved rapidly, resulting in the generation of a nanodroplets, while the PVP dispersions did not

  12. Extremely Stable Polypyrrole Achieved via Molecular Ordering for Highly Flexible Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Huang, Yang; Geng, Huiyuan; Zhi, Chunyi

    2016-01-27

    The cycling stability of flexible supercapacitors with conducting polymers as electrodes is limited by the structural breakdown arising from repetitive counterion flow during charging/discharging. Supercapacitors made of facilely electropolymerized polypyrrole (e-PPy) have ultrahigh capacitance retentions of more than 97, 91, and 86% after 15000, 50000, and 100000 charging/discharging cycles, respectively, and can sustain more than 230000 charging/discharging cycles with still approximately half of the initial capacitance retained. To the best of our knowledge, such excellent long-term cycling stability was never reported. The fully controllable electropolymerization shows superiority in molecular ordering, favoring uniform stress distribution and charge transfer. Being left at ambient conditions for even 8 months, e-PPy supercapacitors completely retain the good electrochemical performance. The extremely stable supercapacitors with excellent flexibility and scalability hold considerable promise for the commerical application of flexible and wearable electronics. PMID:26741145

  13. Influence of MoOx interlayer on the maximum achievable open-circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell

    2013-03-01

    Transition metal oxides including molybdenum oxide (MoOx) are characterized by large work functions and deep energy levels relative to the organic semiconductors used in photovoltaic cells (OPVs). These materials have been used in OPVs as interlayers between the indium-tin-oxide anode and the active layers to increase the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and power conversion efficiency. We examine the role of MoOx in determining the maximum achievable VOC in planar heterojunction OPVs based on the donor-acceptor pairing of boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) and C60. While causing minor changes in VOC at room temperature, the inclusion of MoOx significantly changes the temperature dependence of VOC. Devices containing no interlayer show a maximum VOC\\ of 1.2 V, while devices containing MoOx show no saturation in VOC, reaching a value of >1.4 V at 110 K. We propose that the MoOx-SubPc interface forms a dissociating Schottky junction that provides an additional contribution to VOC at low temperature. Separate measurements of photoluminescence confirm that excitons in SubPc can be quenched by MoOx. Charge transfer at this interface is by hole extraction from SubPc to MoOx, and this mechanism favors donors with a deep highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level. Consistent with this expectation, the temperature dependence of VOC for devices constructed using a donor with a shallower HOMO level, e.g. copper phthalocyanine, is independent of the presence of MoOx.

  14. The design of an animal PET: flexible geometry for achieving optimal spatial resolution or high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Terstegge, A; Herzog, H; Reinartz, R; Reinhart, P; Rongen, F; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Halling, H

    1997-10-01

    We present the design of a positron emission tomograph (PET) with flexible geometry dedicated to in vivo studies of small animals (TierPET). The scanner uses two pairs of detectors. Each detector consists of 400 small individual yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) scintillator crystals of dimensions 2 x 2 x 15 mm3, optically isolated and glued together, which are coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT's). The detector modules can be moved in a radial direction so that the detector-to-detector spacing can be varied. Special hardware has been built for coincidence detection, position detection, and real-time data acquisition, which is performed by a PC. The single-event data are transferred to workstations where the radioactivity distribution is reconstructed. The dimensions of the crystals and the detector layout are the result of extensive simulations which are described in this report, taking into account sensitivity, spatial resolution and additional parameters like parallax error or scatter effects. For the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction a genuine 3-D expectation-maximization (EM)-algorithm which can include the characteristics of the detector system has been implemented. The reconstruction software is flexible and matches the different detector configurations. The main advantage of the proposed animal PET scanner is its high flexibility, allowing the realization of various detector-system configurations. By changing the detector-to-detector spacing, the system is capable of either providing good spatial resolution or high sensitivity for dynamic studies of pharmacokinetics. PMID:9368124

  15. Versatile p-Type Chemical Doping to Achieve Ideal Flexible Graphene Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Han, Tae-Hee; Kwon, Sung-Joo; Li, Nannan; Seo, Hong-Kyu; Xu, Wentao; Kim, Kwang S; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-05-17

    We report effective solution-processed chemical p-type doping of graphene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (CF3 SO3 H, TFMS), that can provide essential requirements to approach an ideal flexible graphene anode for practical applications: i) high optical transmittance, ii) low sheet resistance (70 % decrease), iii) high work function (0.83 eV increase), iv) smooth surface, and iv) air-stability at the same time. The TFMS-doped graphene formed nearly ohmic contact with a conventional organic hole transporting layer, and a green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode with the TFMS-doped graphene anode showed lower operating voltage, and higher device efficiencies (104.1 cd A(-1) , 80.7 lm W(-1) ) than those with conventional ITO (84.8 cd A(-1) , 73.8 lm W(-1) ). PMID:27072071

  16. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  17. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  18. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  19. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  20. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  1. Optimization Correction Strength Using Contra Bending Technique without Anterior Release Procedure to Achieve Maximum Correction on Severe Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Saleh, Ifran; Purnaning, Dyah; Kurniawati, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Posterior-only approach with rod and screw corrective manipulation to add strength of contra bending manipulation has correction achievement similar to that obtained by conventional combined anterior release and posterior approach. It also avoids the complications related to the thoracic approach. We reported a case of 25-year-old male adult idiopathic scoliosis with double curve. It consists of main thoracic curve of 150 degrees and lumbar curve of 89 degrees. His curve underwent direct contra bending posterior approach using rod and screw corrective manipulation technique to achieve optimal correction. After surgery the main thoracic Cobb angle becomes 83 degrees and lumbar Cobb angle becomes 40 degrees, with 5 days length of stay and less than 800 mL blood loss during surgery. There is no complaint at two months after surgery; he has already come back to normal activity with good functional activity. PMID:27064801

  2. [ADVANCE-ON Trial; How to Achieve Maximum Reduction of Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes].

    PubMed

    Kanorskiĭ, S G

    2015-01-01

    Of 10,261 patients with type 2 diabetes who survived to the end of a randomized ADVANCE trial 83% were included in the ADVANCE-ON project for observation for 6 years. The difference in the level of blood pressure which had been achieved during 4.5 years of within trial treatment with fixed perindopril/indapamide combination quickly vanished but significant decrease of total and cardiovascular mortality in the group of patients treated with this combination for 4.5 years was sustained during 6 years of post-trial follow-up. The results can be related to gradually weakening protective effect of perindopril/indapamide combination on cardiovascular system, and are indicative of the expedience of long-term use of this antihypertensive therapy for maximal lowering of mortality of patients with diabetes. PMID:26164995

  3. Association of creative achievement with cognitive flexibility by a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Haijiang; Lei, Qiao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2014-11-15

    Although researchers generally concur that creativity involves the production of novel and useful products, the neural basis of creativity remains elusive due to the complexity of the cognitive processes involved. Recent studies have shown that highly creative individuals displayed more cognitive flexibility. However, direct evidence supporting the relationship between creativity and cognitive flexibility has rarely been investigated using both structural and functional neuroimaging techniques. We used a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis to investigate the relationship between individual creativity ability assessed by the creative achievement questionnaire (CAQ), and regional gray matter volume (GMV), as well as intrinsic functional connectivity. Results showed that CAQ scores negatively correlated with GMV in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral dorsal ACC (dACC) extending to supplementary motor area, but positively correlated with GMV in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Further functional connectivity analysis revealed that higher creative achievement was inversely associated with the strength of rsFC between the dACC and medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG), right middle frontal gyrus, and left orbito-frontal insula. Moreover, the association between the dACC-mSFG connectivity and CAQ scores was mediated by cognitive flexibility, assessed by a task-switching paradigm. These findings indicate that individual differences in creative achievement are associated with both brain structure and corresponding intrinsic functional connectivity involved in cognitive flexibility and deliberate creative processing. Furthermore, dACC-mSFG connectivity may affect creative achievement through its impact on cognitive flexibility. PMID:25123973

  4. Systematic approach to determination of maximum achievable capture capacity via leaching and carbonation processes for alkaline steelmaking wastes in a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chun-Da; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Chang, E-E

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was performed in a rotating packed bed (RPB) as a promising process for both CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment. The maximum achievable capture capacity (MACC) via leaching and carbonation processes for BOFS in an RPB was systematically determined throughout this study. The leaching behavior of various metal ions from the BOFS into the CRW was investigated by a kinetic model. In addition, quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) using the Rietveld method was carried out to determine the process chemistry of carbonation of BOFS with CRW in an RPB. According to the QXRD results, the major mineral phases reacting with CO2 in BOFS were Ca(OH)2, Ca2(HSiO4)(OH), CaSiO3, and Ca2Fe1.04Al0.986O5. Meanwhile, the carbonation product was identified as calcite according to the observations of SEM, XEDS, and mappings. Furthermore, the MACC of the lab-scale RPB process was determined by balancing the carbonation conversion and energy consumption. In that case, the overall energy consumption, including grinding, pumping, stirring, and rotating processes, was estimated to be 707 kWh/t-CO2. It was thus concluded that CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of BOFS could be effectively and efficiently performed by coutilizing with CRW in an RPB. PMID:24236803

  5. States' Flexibility Waiver Plans for Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS). Synthesis Report 96

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Edwards, Lynn M.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    All states have alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. For accountability purposes, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) allows up to 1% of students to be counted as proficient with this assessment option. In 2011 the U.S. Department of…

  6. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  7. On enforcing maximum principles and achieving element-wise species balance for advection-diffusion-reaction equations under the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a robust computational framework for advective-diffusive-reactive systems that satisfies maximum principles, the non-negative constraint, and element-wise species balance property. The proposed methodology is valid on general computational grids, can handle heterogeneous anisotropic media, and provides accurate numerical solutions even for very high Péclet numbers. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate advection (which makes the spatial part of the differential operator non-self-adjoint) into the non-negative computational framework, and overcome numerical challenges associated with advection. We employ low-order mixed finite element formulations based on least-squares formalism, and enforce explicit constraints on the discrete problem to meet the desired properties. The resulting constrained discrete problem belongs to convex quadratic programming for which a unique solution exists. Maximum principles and the non-negative constraint give rise to bound constraints while element-wise species balance gives rise to equality constraints. The resulting convex quadratic programming problems are solved using an interior-point algorithm. Several numerical results pertaining to advection-dominated problems are presented to illustrate the robustness, convergence, and the overall performance of the proposed computational framework.

  8. Experimental study of the maximum resolution and packing density achievable in sintered and non-sintered binder-jet 3D printed steel microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Benedict, Michael; Kiggans Jr, James O

    2015-01-01

    Developing high resolution 3D printed metallic microchannels is a challenge especially when there is an essential need for high packing density of the primary material. While high packing density could be achieved by heating the structure to the sintering temperature, some heat sensitive applications require other strategies to improve the packing density of primary materials. In this study the goal is to develop high green or pack densities microchannels on the scale of 2-300 microns which have a robust mechanical structure. Binder-jet 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which droplets of binder are deposited via inkjet into a bed of powder. By repeatedly spreading thin layers of powder and depositing binder into the appropriate 2D profiles, complex 3D objects can be created one layer at time. Microchannels with features on the order of 500 microns were fabricated via binder jetting of steel powder and then sintered and/or infiltrated with a secondary material. The average particle size of the steel powder was varied along with the droplet volume of the inkjet-deposited binder. The resolution of the process, packing density of the primary material, the subsequent features sizes of the microchannels, and the overall microchannel quality were characterized as a function of particle size distribution, droplet sizes and heat treatment temperatures.

  9. MANAGING MANURE TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM VALUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure is an asset to soil productivity and crop production. The current assumption is that more manure is produced today than throughout history in the United States. Analysis of animal production numbers for the past 50 years shows that less manure is produced because of reduced animal productio...

  10. Achieving Maximum Integration Utilizing Requirements Flow Down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archiable, Wes; Askins, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A robust and experienced systems engineering team is essential for a successful program. It is often a challenge to build a core systems engineering team early enough in a program to maximize integration and assure a common path for all supporting teams in a project. Ares I was no exception. During the planning of IVGVT, the team had many challenges including lack of: early identification of stakeholders, team training in NASA s system engineering practices, solid requirements flow down and a top down documentation strategy. The IVGVT team started test planning early in the program before the systems engineering framework had been matured due to an aggressive schedule. Therefore the IVGVT team increased their involvement in the Constellation systems engineering effort. Program level requirements were established that flowed down to IVGVT aligning all stakeholders to a common set of goals. The IVGVT team utilized the APPEL REQ Development Management course providing the team a NASA focused model to follow. The IVGVT team engaged directly with the model verification and validation process to assure that a solid set of requirements drove the need for the test event. The IVGVT team looked at the initial planning state, analyzed the current state and then produced recommendations for the ideal future state of a wide range of systems engineering functions and processes. Based on this analysis, the IVGVT team was able to produce a set of lessons learned and to provide suggestions for future programs or tests to use in their initial planning phase.

  11. The effects of a technology-enhanced, flexible choice science program on achievement, self-efficacy and the scale learner progression mechanism in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, Lori

    A mixed methods comparative case study of two DRG I urban high schools was used to determine the effectiveness of the Flexible Choice Science Program (FCSP) at producing equitable learning outcomes in students. FCSP recognized both 'among and within learner' differences, while allowing the teacher the semblance of a single lesson. Program sequencing, a differentiated technology platform and allowances for student control and creativity, allowed learners to progress from novice to master at their own pace. Results showed that holistic participation in FCSP by School A students led to significant positive learning effects, particularly for low ability learners. Results of this study challenge current educational grouping techniques that have resulted in inequity, by demonstrating that when students group themselves, their success increases by more than 100%. Results of this research also challenge common notion that cognition most defines student potential by demonstrating that student affect most influences learning.

  12. Improved continuity of reduced graphene oxide on polyester fabric by use of polypyrrole to achieve a highly electro-conductive and flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendjchi, Amirhosein; Khajavi, Ramin; Yousefi, Ali Akbar; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail

    2016-02-01

    A flexible and highly conductive fabric can be applied for wearable electronics and as a pliable counter electrode for photovoltaics. Methods such as surface coating of fabrics with conductive polymers and materials have been developed, but the roughness of fabric is a challenge because it creates discontinuity in the coated layer. The present study first coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric with reduced graphene oxide sheets; RGO and then filled the gaps with polypyrrole (PPy). The samples were first dipped in graphene oxide (GO) and then reduced to RGO. They were next coated with PPy by in situ polymerization. The results showed that the presence of oxidative agent during synthesis of PPy oxidized the RGO to some extent on the previously RGO-coated samples. PPy was more uniform on samples pre-coated with RGO in comparison those coated with raw PET. The RGO-PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values than samples coated only with PPy and RGO, respectively. There was no significant difference between the tenacity of samples but the bending rigidity of samples increased. The RGO-PPy coated fabric displayed properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric.

  13. Current Issues in Flexibility Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane V.; Magnusson, Peter; McHugh, Malachy

    2000-01-01

    Physical activity is extremely important in maintaining good health. Activity is not possible without a certain amount of flexibility. This report discusses issues related to flexibility fitness. Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the range of motion achievable without injury to the joints. Static flexibility…

  14. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  15. Rotating flexible drag mill

    DOEpatents

    Pepper, W.B.

    1984-05-09

    A rotating parachute for decelerating objects travelling through atmosphere at subsonic or supersonic deployment speeds includes a circular canopy having a plurality of circumferentially arranged flexible panels projecting radially from a solid central disk. A slot extends radially between adjacent panels to the outer periphery of the canopy. Upon deployment, the solid disk diverts air radially to rapidly inflate the panels into a position of maximum diameter. Air impinging on the panels adjacent the panel slots rotates the parachute during its descent. Centrifugal force flattens the canopy into a constant maximum diameter during terminal descent for maximum drag and deceleration.

  16. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  17. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  18. Flexible black phosphorus ambipolar transistors, circuits and AM demodulator.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weinan; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Yang, Shixuan; Aldave, Sandra H; Kim, Joon-Seok; Sonde, Sushant; Tao, Li; Lu, Nanshu; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-03-11

    High-mobility two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are desirable for high-performance mechanically flexible nanoelectronics. In this work, we report the first flexible black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors (FETs) with electron and hole mobilities superior to what has been previously achieved with other more studied flexible layered semiconducting transistors such as MoS2 and WSe2. Encapsulated bottom-gated BP ambipolar FETs on flexible polyimide afforded maximum carrier mobility of about 310 cm(2)/V·s with field-effect current modulation exceeding 3 orders of magnitude. The device ambipolar functionality and high-mobility were employed to realize essential circuits of electronic systems for flexible technology including ambipolar digital inverter, frequency doubler, and analog amplifiers featuring voltage gain higher than other reported layered semiconductor flexible amplifiers. In addition, we demonstrate the first flexible BP amplitude-modulated (AM) demodulator, an active stage useful for radio receivers, based on a single ambipolar BP transistor, which results in audible signals when connected to a loudspeaker or earphone. Moreover, the BP transistors feature mechanical robustness up to 2% uniaxial tensile strain and up to 5000 bending cycles. PMID:25715122

  19. Designing Flexible Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Clark R.; Kaff, Marilyn S.; Anderson, Mary Jo; Knackendoffel, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Principals and teachers need a framework that will allow school personnel to reach and teach all students within the general education setting. One such framework is universal design for learning (UDL). UDL is achieved by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that provide alternatives for students with disparities in abilities and…

  20. ESEA Flexibility. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In order to move forward with State and local reforms designed to improve academic achievement and increase the quality of instruction for all students in a manner that was not originally contemplated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), a State educational agency (SEA) may request flexibility, on its own behalf and on behalf of its…

  1. Flexible production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudakov, A. D.; Shchetinin, D. D.

    1986-03-01

    Flexible production systems are a technological tool design to automate multiple product line manufacturing. Flexible production systems provide an efficient means of organizing combined equipment operations and bring the production organization nearer to an unmanned arrangement or one requiring a limited number of workers. This is achieved by intensifying and automating manufacturing processes; coordinating the automated processes involved in warehousing and materials transport to maintain a tight production path; and using computers to automate production preparation and production control. The prerequisites for a change to these new production structures include numerical control NC tools and machining centers, power connection points for robots, automated conveying and warehousing systems controlled by microelectronic devices and control computer complexes consisting primarily of microprocessor-based units capable of controlling equipment via a direct connection and on a real-time basis. The types of flexible production systems in operation are divided into three groups: (1) flexible automated lines (GAL), (2) flexible production modules (GPM); and (3) flexible production complexes (GPK).

  2. Gigahertz flexible graphene transistors for microwave integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hui; Lain, Yi-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Chiao; Liao, Chen-Hung; Moyano, David Ricardo; Hsu, Shawn S H; Chiu, Po-Wen

    2014-08-26

    Flexible integrated circuits with complex functionalities are the missing link for the active development of wearable electronic devices. Here, we report a scalable approach to fabricate self-aligned graphene microwave transistors for the implementation of flexible low-noise amplifiers and frequency mixers, two fundamental building blocks of a wireless communication receiver. A devised AlOx T-gate structure is used to achieve an appreciable increase of device transconductance and a commensurate reduction of the associated parasitic resistance, thus yielding a remarkable extrinsic cutoff frequency of 32 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency of 20 GHz; in both cases the operation frequency is an order of magnitude higher than previously reported. The two frequencies work at 22 and 13 GHz even when subjected to a strain of 2.5%. The gigahertz microwave integrated circuits demonstrated here pave the way for applications which require high flexibility and radio frequency operations. PMID:25062282

  3. Flexible cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, T J; Preminger, G M

    1988-08-01

    Flexible fiberoptic technology was first applied to cystoscopy in 1973, with greatly increased usage since 1982. Most procedures formerly performed with rigid cystoscopes can be done using flexible cystoscopes with minimal or no anesthesia. Patient positioning and precystocopy preparation and draping are simplified with the flexible fiberoptic instruments. Complete examination of the urethra and bladder can be performed with a single-lens system and with the patient in a variety of positions. Fiberoptic cystoscopy is limited in patients who are bleeding or have blood clots in their bladders. Withdrawal of irrigant or bladder drainage is cumbersome, and the fiberoptic image is currently not of the same caliber as that of the rigid-lens systems. Fiberoptic cystoscopy has become the procedure of choice for many urologists for ureteral stenting prior to extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. With the advent of lithotripters that require no anesthesia, this application is likely to broaden. Future applications of flexible cystoscopy may include a flexible videocystoscope for use in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. PMID:3407042

  4. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  5. Flexible phosphorene devices and circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weinan; Yogeesh, Maruthi N.; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors with high carrier mobilities and sizeable bandgap are desirable for future high-speed and low power mechanically flexible nanoelectronics. In this work, we report encapsulated bottom-gated black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors (FETs) on flexible polyimide affording maximum carrier mobility of about 310cm2/V•s and current on/off ratio exceeding 103. Essential circuits of flexible electronic systems enabled by the device ambipolar functionality, high-mobility and current saturation are demonstrated in this work, including digital inverter, frequency doubler, and analog amplifiers featuring a voltage gain of ~8.7, which is the state-of-the-art value for flexible 2D semiconductor based amplifiers. In addition, we demonstrate the single FET based flexible BP amplitude-modulated (AM) demodulator, an active stage in radio receivers.

  6. Guideline Implementation: Processing Flexible Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:27568535

  7. Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang

    2016-07-01

    Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported. PMID:26111403

  8. Maximum power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.

    1983-03-01

    By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.

  9. Ultra-Thin, Flexible Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Brian; McPherson, Ryan; Zhang, Tan; Hou, Zhenwei; Dean, Robert; Johnson, R. Wayne; DelCastillo, Linda; Moussessian, Alina

    2008-01-01

    Thinned die can be used to realize ultra-thin flexible electronics for applications such as conformal and wearable electronics. Three techniques have been developed to achieve this goal using thinned die: die flip chip bonded onto flexible substrates, die laminated onto LCP films, and die embedded in polyimide. A key to achieving each of these techniques is the thinning of die to a thickness of 50 microns or thinner. Conventional CMP processing can be used to thin to 50 microns. At 50 microns, the active die become flexible and must be handled by temporarily bonding them to a holder die, for further processing. Once bonded face down to the holder die, the active die can be further thinned by DRIE etching the exposed backside. The thinned die can then been packaged in or on the flexible substrate.

  10. Flexible sensors for biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Diana; Romeo, Agostino; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Flexible sensing devices have gained a great deal of attention among the scientific community in recent years. The application of flexible sensors spans over several fields, including medicine, industrial automation, robotics, security, and human-machine interfacing. In particular, non-invasive health-monitoring devices are expected to play a key role in the improvement of patient life and in reducing costs associated with clinical and biomedical diagnostic procedures. Here, we focus on recent advances achieved in flexible devices applied on the human skin for biomedical and healthcare purposes. PMID:26675174

  11. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  12. Ultra-flexible multiband terahertz metamaterial absorber for conformal geometry applications.

    PubMed

    Yahiaoui, Riad; Guillet, Jean Paul; de Miollis, Frédérick; Mounaix, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Standard optical lithography relying on clean room and microelectronic facilities is used to fabricate a thin-flexible metamaterial absorber, designed to operate at submillimeter wavelengths over the 0.1-1 THz frequency band. Large terahertz absorption has been demonstrated numerically and through experimental measurements with a maximum level of about 80%. We put emphasis in this present work on the use of single-sized "meta-cells" to achieve multiple absorption peaks. Furthermore, the use of a thin-flexible dielectric spacer makes it promising for stealth technology applications in order to disguise objects and make them less visible to radar and other detection methods. PMID:24281490

  13. Control of flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements for future space missions indicate that many of these spacecraft will be large, flexible, and in some applications, require precision geometries. A technology program that addresses the issues associated with the structure/control interactions for these classes of spacecraft is discussed. The goal of the NASA control of flexible structures technology program is to generate a technology data base that will provide the designer with options and approaches to achieve spacecraft performance such as maintaining geometry and/or suppressing undesired spacecraft dynamics. This technology program will define the appropriate combination of analysis, ground testing, and flight testing required to validate the structural/controls analysis and design tools. This work was motivated by a recognition that large minimum weight space structures will be required for many future missions. The tools necessary to support such design included: (1) improved structural analysis; (2) modern control theory; (3) advanced modeling techniques; (4) system identification; and (5) the integration of structures and controls.

  14. EPA Maximum Achievable Contraction of Technocrats Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Griffith, H. Morgan [R-VA-9

    2013-12-03

    12/16/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Lunar Farming: Achieving Maximum Yield for the Exploration of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    1991-01-01

    A look at what it might be like on a lunar farm in the year 2020 is provided from the point of view of the farmer. Of necessity, the farm would be a Controlled Ecological (or Environment) Life-Support System (CELSS) or a bioregenerative life-support system. Topics covered in the imaginary trip through the farm are the light, water, gasses, crops, the medium used for plantings, and the required engineering. The CELSS is designed with four functioning parts: (1) A plant-production facility with higher plants and algae; (2) food technology kitchens; (3) waste processing and recycling facilities; and (4) control systems. In many cases there is not yet enough information to be sure about matters discussed, but the exercise in imagination pinpoints a number of areas that still need considerable research to resolve the problems perceived.

  16. Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Pengwei Wang, Yanfen; Luo, Cuixian; Li, Gang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-15

    As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams) show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.

  17. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  18. Automatic body flexibility classification using laser doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, I.-Chan; Li, Yung-Hui; Bau, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    Body flexibility is an important indicator that can measure whether an individual is healthy or not. Traditionally, we need to prepare a protractor and the subject need to perform a pre-defined set of actions. The measurement takes place at the same time when the subject performs required action, which is clumsy and inconvenient. In this paper, we propose a statistical learning model using the technique of random forest. The proposed system can classify body flexibility based on LDF signals analyzed in the frequency domain. The reasons of using random forest are because of their efficiency (fast in classification), interpretable structures and their ability to filter out irrelevant features. In addition, using random forest can prevent the problem of over-fitting, and the output model will become more robust to noises. In our experiment, we use chirp Z-transform (CZT), to transform a LDF signal into its energy values in five frequency bands. Combining the power of the random forest algorithm and frequency band analysis methods, a maximum recognition rate of 66% is achieved. Compared to traditional flexibility measuring process, the proposed system shortens the long and tedious stages of measurement to a simple, fast and pre-defined activity set. The major contributions of our work include (1) a novel body flexibility classification scheme using non-invasive biomedical sensor; (2) a set of designed protocol which is easy to conduct and practice; (3) a high precision classification scheme which combines the power of spectrum analysis and machine learning algorithms.

  19. High Speed Flexible Optical Disk with Cylindrically Concaved Stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman, Yasutomo; Onagi, Nobuaki; Murata, Shozo; Sugimoto, Yasunori; Koide, Daiichi; Tokumaru, Haruki

    2007-06-01

    We developed a brand-new stabilizer with a cylindrically concaved active surface for a flexible optical disk system. The unique design enabled extremely stable driving of the flexible disk at rotational speeds over 10,000 rpm. We actually demonstrated the driving at rotational speeds of up to 15,000 rpm, the spindle motor limit of our optical disk tester. This highest rotational speed promises a maximum data transfer rate of more than 600 Mbps for the recording density of a Blu-ray Disc. This stable state was achieved using a simple control that just adjusts the relative axial position of the stabilizer against the flexible disk. Once the adjustment was made, high stability was maintained over a wide rotational speed, ranging from 4,000 to 15,000 rpm. In this stable state, the axial runout on the pickup scanning line was suppressed to less than 10 μm at all rotational speeds. By achieving this high performance with simplified stabilizer control, we have come close to putting our system into practical use.

  20. Can flexibility help you float?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, L. J.; Bush, J. W. M.

    2012-10-01

    We consider the role of flexibility in the weight-bearing characteristics of bodies floating at an interface. Specifically, we develop a theoretical model for a two-dimensional thin floating plate that yields the maximum stable plate load and optimal stiffness for weight support. Plates small relative to the capillary length are primarily supported by surface tension, and their weight-bearing potential does not benefit from flexibility. Above a critical size comparable to the capillary length, flexibility assists interfacial flotation. For plates on the order of and larger than the capillary length, deflection from an initially flat shape increases the force resulting from hydrostatic pressure, allowing the plate to support a greater load. In this large plate limit, the shape that bears the most weight is a semicircle, which displaces the most fluid above the plate for a fixed plate length. Exact results for maximum weight-bearing plate shapes are compared to analytic approximations made in the limits of large and small plate sizes. The value of flexibility for floating to a number of biological organisms is discussed in light of our study.

  1. "Flexibility", Community and Making Parents Responsible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Wayne S.

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on Foucault's concept of governmentality to explore how recent political moves to legalise "flexibility" mobilises education authorities to make "community" a technical means of achieving the political objective of schooling the child. I argue that "flexibility" in this sense is a neo-liberal strategy that shifts relations…

  2. An Improved Maximum Neural Network with Stochastic Dynamics Characteristic for Maximum Clique Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Tang, Zheng; Dai, Hongwei

    Through analyzing the dynamics characteristic of maximum neural network with an added vertex, we find that the solution quality is mainly determined by the added vertex weights. In order to increase maximum neural network ability, a stochastic nonlinear self-feedback and flexible annealing strategy are embedded in maximum neural network, which makes the network more powerful to escape local minima and be independent of the initial values. Simultaneously, we present that solving ability of maximum neural network is dependence on problem. We introduce a new parameter into our network to improve the solving ability. The simulation in k random graph and some DIMACS clique instances in the second DIMACS challenge shows that our improved network is superior to other algorithms in light of the solution quality and CPU time.

  3. Maximum mixing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjorth, Jens

    The unique feature of MEM is that C(-1)(z) = exp(z) amplifies all scales equally. Narayan & Nityananda (1986) have shown that this leads to Gaussian deconvolved peaks. In MMM different scales are treated differently, depending on the choice of C. This gives different peak shapes, but also allows one to experiment with the degree of peak sharpening as a function of peak height. In fact, despite its strong information-theoretic background, MEM is known to redistribute flux incorrectly during deconvolution, thus making the method problematic if the goal is to get correct intensities out. MMM could remedy this problem by using an alternative to the entropy. In conclusion, some ideas connecting the physics of blurring with a proposed reconstruction scheme, dubbed Maximum Mixing Method, have been presented. It has been shown that this physically motivated, non-information theoretic, non-probabilistic, non-Bayesian approach can be turned into a powerful deconvolution technique, competitive with, and having as a special case, the Maximum Entropy Method. Further work within the proposed framework is required to fully explore the consequences of the theory. A paper including proofs and examples is in preparation.

  4. Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summhammer, Johann

    1994-01-01

    In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

  5. Microporous Ni₁₁(HPO₃)₈(OH)₆ nanocrystals for high-performance flexible asymmetric all solid-state supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanping; Zhao, Junhong; Run, Zhen; Zhang, Guangqin; Pang, Huan

    2014-12-01

    Microporous nickel phosphite [Ni11(HPO3)8(OH)6] nanocrystals were prepared using a hydrothermal method, and were successfully applied as a positive electrode in a flexible all solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor. Because of the specific micro/nanostructure, the flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor can achieve a maximum energy density of 0.45 mW h cm(-3), which is higher than most reported supercapacitors. More importantly, the device performance remains efficient for 10,000 cycles. PMID:25329036

  6. Flexible weapons architecture design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  7. Maximum bow force revisited.

    PubMed

    Mores, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Schelleng [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53, 26-41 (1973)], Askenfelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 503-516 (1989)], Schumacher [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1985-1998 (1994)], and Schoonderwaldt, Guettler, and Askenfelt [Acta Acust. Acust. 94, 604-622 (2008)] formulated-in different ways-how the maximum bow force relates to bow velocity, bow-bridge distance, string impedance, and friction coefficients. Issues of uncertainty are how to account for friction or for the rotational admittance of the strings. Related measurements at the respective transitions between regimes of Helmholtz motion and non-Helmholtz motion employ a variety of bowing machines and stringed instruments. The related findings include all necessary parameters except the friction coefficients, leaving the underlying models unconfirmed. Here, a bowing pendulum has been constructed which allows precise measurement of relevant bowing parameters, including the friction coefficients. Two cellos are measured across all strings for three different bow-bridge distances. The empirical data suggest that-taking the diverse elements of existing models as options-Schelleng's model combined with Schumacher's velocity term yields the best fit. Furthermore, the pendulum employs a bow driving mechanism with adaptive impedance which discloses that mentioned regimes are stable and transitions between them sometimes require a hysteresis on related parameters. PMID:27586745

  8. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

    2005-01-01

    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  9. A novel fabrication process to realize a valveless micropump on a flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yang; Torah, Russel; Yang, Kai; Beeby, Steve; Tudor, John

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, on the design, fabrication and testing of a planar valveless micropump, entirely screen printed onto a flexible polyimide (Kapton) substrate using sacrificial, structural, conductive and piezoelectric layers. The sacrificial layer, used to achieve a pump chamber and inlet/outlet channels, is removed using water followed by a 140 ° C heat treatment to evaporate the water from the structure. The fabrication process is analogous to a standard silicon based micro-electro-mechanical system sacrificial process. Applying a sinusoidal AC voltage to the piezoelectric layer drives a flexible membrane which pumps a liquid through the chamber. A maximum flow rate of 38 μl min-1 was achieved using a drive frequency of 3 kHz.

  10. Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states

    SciTech Connect

    Walck, Scott N.; Lyons, David W.

    2007-08-15

    Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: We show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

  11. Flexibility and Muscular Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    1988-01-01

    This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

  12. Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: scheduling application; the motivation for the Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN); characteristics of FERN; types of information needed in requests; where information is stored in requests; FERN structures; generic requests; resource availability for pooled resources; expressive notation; temporal constraints; time formats; changes to FERN; sample FERN requests; the temporal relationship between two steps; maximum activity length to limit step delays; alternative requests; the temporal relationship between two activities; and idle resource usage between steps.

  13. Highly transparent, low-haze, hybrid cellulose nanopaper as electrodes for flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Long; Lubineau, Gilles; Ng, Tienkhee; Ooi, Boon S; Liao, Hsien-Yu; Shen, Chao; Chen, Long; Zhu, J Y

    2016-06-16

    Paper is an excellent candidate to replace plastics as a substrate for flexible electronics due to its low cost, renewability and flexibility. Cellulose nanopaper (CNP), a new type of paper made of nanosized cellulose fibers, is a promising substrate material for transparent and flexible electrodes due to its potentially high transparency and high mechanical strength. Although CNP substrates can achieve high transparency, they are still characterized by high diffuse transmittance and small direct transmittance, resulting in high optical haze of the substrates. In this study, we proposed a simple methodology for large-scale production of high-transparency, low-haze CNP comprising both long cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and short cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). By varying the CNC/CNF ratio in the hybrid CNP, we could tailor its total transmittance, direct transmittance and diffuse transmittance. By increasing the CNC content, the optical haze of the hybrid CNP could be decreased and its transparency could be increased. The direct transmittance and optical haze of the CNP were 75.1% and 10.0%, respectively, greatly improved from the values of previously reported CNP (31.1% and 62.0%, respectively). Transparent, flexible electrodes were fabricated by coating the hybrid CNP with silver nanowires (AgNWs). The electrodes showed a low sheet resistance (minimum 1.2 Ω sq(-1)) and a high total transmittance (maximum of 82.5%). The electrodes were used to make a light emitting diode (LED) assembly to demonstrate their potential use in flexible displays. PMID:27270356

  14. Black Phosphorus Flexible Thin Film Transistors at Gighertz Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; McNicholas, Kyle M; Bank, Seth R; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-04-13

    Black phosphorus (BP) has attracted rapidly growing attention for high speed and low power nanoelectronics owing to its compelling combination of tunable bandgap (0.3 to 2 eV) and high carrier mobility (up to ∼1000 cm(2)/V·s) at room temperature. In this work, we report the first radio frequency (RF) flexible top-gated (TG) BP thin-film transistors on highly bendable polyimide substrate for GHz nanoelectronic applications. Enhanced p-type charge transport with low-field mobility ∼233 cm(2)/V·s and current density of ∼100 μA/μm at VDS = -2 V were obtained from flexible BP transistor at a channel length L = 0.5 μm. Importantly, with optimized dielectric coating for air-stability during microfabrication, flexible BP RF transistors afforded intrinsic maximum oscillation frequency fMAX ∼ 14.5 GHz and unity current gain cutoff frequency fT ∼ 17.5 GHz at a channel length of 0.5 μm. Notably, the experimental fT achieved here is at least 45% higher than prior results on rigid substrate, which is attributed to the improved air-stability of fabricated BP devices. In addition, the high-frequency performance was investigated through mechanical bending test up to ∼1.5% tensile strain, which is ultimately limited by the inorganic dielectric film rather than the 2D material. Comparison of BP RF devices to other 2D semiconductors clearly indicates that BP offers the highest saturation velocity, an important metric for high-speed and RF flexible nanosystems. PMID:26977902

  15. Rigid and flexible OLEDs: prototypes to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monz, Stefan; Wolf, Konrad; Möbius, Hildegard; Blankenbach, Karlheinz

    2011-03-01

    Major achievements of this research project on rigid and flexible OLEDs are: lifetime enhancement by advanced constant luminance (L) operation, integration into textiles and furthermore, the prototype production on flexible PET/ITO substrates of polymer OLEDs. Our OLEDs were manufactured with spin-coating assisted by ink-jet printing. We introduced constant luminance operation (instead of the usual constant current) which was implemented in order to extend the overall lifetime of OLEDs. A threefold lifetime improvement was achieved by maintaining 50% luminance using an advanced microcontroller-based lifetime(LT) model. Various approaches to textile integration and evaluation of environmental issues in clothes (e.g. moisture) were investigated.

  16. Minimizing the probable maximum flood

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbury, M.S.; Pansic, N. ); Eberlein, D.T. )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines Wisconsin Electric Power Company's efforts to determine an economical way to comply with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements at two hydroelectric developments on the Michigamme River. Their efforts included refinement of the area's probable maximum flood model based, in part, on a newly developed probable maximum precipitation estimate.

  17. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50 GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT ~ 0.9 GHz, fMAX ~ 1 GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics. PMID:25295573

  18. Fully Integral, Flexible Composite Driveshaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrie, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    An all-composite driveshaft incorporating integral flexible diaphragms was developed for prime contractor testing. This new approach makes obsolete the split lines required to attach metallic flex elements and either metallic or composite spacing tubes in current solutions. Subcritical driveshaft weights can be achieved that are half that of incumbent technology for typical rotary wing shaft lengths. Spacing tubes compose an integral part of the initial tooling but remain part of the finished shaft and control natural frequencies and torsional stability. A concurrently engineered manufacturing process and design for performance competes with incumbent solutions at significantly lower weight and with the probability of improved damage tolerance and fatigue life.

  19. Flexibility, Is That All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Wim M.

    This paper discusses the design of flexible and intelligent library buildings. The first section addresses how flexibility, as one of the requirements of a library building, that has high priority in the planning process. Intelligent libraries are considered in the second section, and functionality is stressed. The third section examines…

  20. Shear flexibility for structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stangeland, Maynard L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    This device comprises a flexible sheet member having cross convolutions oriented 45.degree. to the shear vector with spherical reliefs at the convolution junctions. The spherical reliefs are essential to the shear flexibility by interrupting the principal stress lines that act along the ridges of the convolutions. The spherical reliefs provide convolutions in both directions in the plane of the cross-convolution ridges.

  1. Shear flexibility for structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stangeland, Maynard L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    This device comprises a flexible sheet member having cross convolutions oriented 45.degree. to the shear vector with spherical reliefs at the convolution junctions. The spherical reliefs are essential to the shear flexibility by interrupting the principal stress lines that act along the ridges of the convolutions. The spherical reliefs provide convolutions in both directions in the plane of the cross-convolution ridges.

  2. Flexible Learning Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    One way for colleges to meet the demand for a wider range of learning opportunities for adults in Great Britain is to provide more flexibility within the further education system. The concept of flexible learning involves the modification of delivery systems, specific providing agencies, target populations, specific determinants such as geographic…

  3. Flexible Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.; Wolf, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Narrow Tube carries 10 watts or more to moving parts. Heat pipe 12 inches long and diameter of 0.312 inch (7.92mm). Bent to minimum radius of 2.5 blocks. Flexible section made of 321 stainless steel tubing (Cajon Flexible Tubing or equivalent). Evaporator and condenser made of oxygen free copper. Working fluid methanol.

  4. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  5. Flexibility within Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica

    2008-01-01

    The authors address concerns regarding manual-based treatments, highlighting the role of flexibility and creativity. A cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety called the Coping Cat program demonstrates the flexible application of manuals and emphasizes the importance of a child-centered, personalized approach that involves the child in the…

  6. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  7. Flexible implementation of rigid solar cell technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, Andrew E.

    2010-08-01

    As a source of clean, remote energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems are an important area of research. The majority of solar cells are rigid materials with negligible flexibility. Flexible PV systems possess many advantages, such as being transportable and incorporable on diverse structures. Amorphous silicon and organic PV systems are flexible; however, they lack the efficiency and lifetime of rigid cells. There is also a need for PV systems that are light weight, especially in space and flight applications. We propose a solution to this problem by arranging rigid cells onto a flexible substrate creating efficient, light weight, and flexible devices. To date, we have created a working prototype of our design using the 1.1cm x 1cm Emcore cells. We have achieved a better power to weight ratio than commercially available PowerFilm{reg_sign}, which uses thin film silicon yielding .034W/gram. We have also tested our concept with other types of cells and verified that our methods are able to be adapted to any rigid solar cell technology. This allows us to use the highest efficiency devices despite their physical characteristics. Depending on the cell size we use, we can rival the curvature of most available flexible PV devices. We have shown how the benefits of rigid solar cells can be integrated into flexible applications, allowing performance that surpasses alternative technologies.

  8. Layered-MnO₂ Nanosheet Grown on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Template as a Composite Cathode for Flexible Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchuan; Miao, Xiaofei; Fang, Jianhui; Zhang, Xiangxin; Chen, Sujing; Li, Wei; Feng, Wendou; Chen, Yuanqiang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yining

    2016-03-01

    Flexible solid-state supercapacitors provide a promising energy-storage alternative for the rapidly growing flexible and wearable electronic industry. Further improving device energy density and developing a cheap flexible current collector are two major challenges in pushing the technology forward. In this work, we synthesize a nitrogen-doped graphene/MnO2 nanosheet (NGMn) composite by a simple hydrothermal method. Nitrogen-doped graphene acts as a template to induce the growth of layered δ-MnO2 and improves the electronic conductivity of the composite. The NGMn composite exhibits a large specific capacitance of about 305 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1). We also create a cheap and highly conductive flexible current collector using Scotch tape. Flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated with NGMn cathode, activated carbon anode, and PVA-LiCl gel electrolyte. The device can achieve a high operation voltage of 1.8 V and exhibits a maximum energy density of 3.5 mWh cm(-3) at a power density of 0.019 W cm(-3). Moreover, it retains >90% of its initial capacitance after 1500 cycles. Because of its flexibility, high energy density, and good cycle life, NGMn-based flexible solid state asymmetric supercapacitors have great potential for application in next-generation portable and wearable electronics. PMID:26842681

  9. Fast Flexible Transistors with a Nanotrench Structure.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Ling, Tao; Gong, Shaoqin; Zhou, Weidong; Ma, Alice L; Guo, L Jay; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-01-01

    The simplification of fabrication processes that can define very fine patterns for large-area flexible radio-frequency (RF) applications is very desirable because it is generally very challenging to realize submicron scale patterns on flexible substrates. Conventional nanoscale patterning methods, such as e-beam lithography, cannot be easily applied to such applications. On the other hand, recent advances in nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) may enable the fabrication of large-area nanoelectronics, especially flexible RF electronics with finely defined patterns, thereby significantly broadening RF applications. Here we report a generic strategy for fabricating high-performance flexible Si nanomembrane (NM)-based RF thin-film transistors (TFTs), capable of over 100 GHz operation in theory, with NIL patterned deep-submicron-scale channel lengths. A unique 3-dimensional etched-trench-channel configuration was used to allow for TFT fabrication compatible with flexible substrates. Optimal device parameters were obtained through device simulation to understand the underlying device physics and to enhance device controllability. Experimentally, a record-breaking 38 GHz maximum oscillation frequency fmax value has been successfully demonstrated from TFTs with a 2 μm gate length built with flexible Si NM on plastic substrates. PMID:27094686

  10. Fast Flexible Transistors with a Nanotrench Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Ling, Tao; Gong, Shaoqin; Zhou, Weidong; Ma, Alice L.; Guo, L. Jay; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-04-01

    The simplification of fabrication processes that can define very fine patterns for large-area flexible radio-frequency (RF) applications is very desirable because it is generally very challenging to realize submicron scale patterns on flexible substrates. Conventional nanoscale patterning methods, such as e-beam lithography, cannot be easily applied to such applications. On the other hand, recent advances in nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) may enable the fabrication of large-area nanoelectronics, especially flexible RF electronics with finely defined patterns, thereby significantly broadening RF applications. Here we report a generic strategy for fabricating high-performance flexible Si nanomembrane (NM)-based RF thin-film transistors (TFTs), capable of over 100 GHz operation in theory, with NIL patterned deep-submicron-scale channel lengths. A unique 3-dimensional etched-trench-channel configuration was used to allow for TFT fabrication compatible with flexible substrates. Optimal device parameters were obtained through device simulation to understand the underlying device physics and to enhance device controllability. Experimentally, a record-breaking 38 GHz maximum oscillation frequency fmax value has been successfully demonstrated from TFTs with a 2 μm gate length built with flexible Si NM on plastic substrates.

  11. Fast Flexible Transistors with a Nanotrench Structure

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Ling, Tao; Gong, Shaoqin; Zhou, Weidong; Ma, Alice L.; Guo, L. Jay; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-01-01

    The simplification of fabrication processes that can define very fine patterns for large-area flexible radio-frequency (RF) applications is very desirable because it is generally very challenging to realize submicron scale patterns on flexible substrates. Conventional nanoscale patterning methods, such as e-beam lithography, cannot be easily applied to such applications. On the other hand, recent advances in nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) may enable the fabrication of large-area nanoelectronics, especially flexible RF electronics with finely defined patterns, thereby significantly broadening RF applications. Here we report a generic strategy for fabricating high-performance flexible Si nanomembrane (NM)-based RF thin-film transistors (TFTs), capable of over 100 GHz operation in theory, with NIL patterned deep-submicron-scale channel lengths. A unique 3-dimensional etched-trench-channel configuration was used to allow for TFT fabrication compatible with flexible substrates. Optimal device parameters were obtained through device simulation to understand the underlying device physics and to enhance device controllability. Experimentally, a record-breaking 38 GHz maximum oscillation frequency fmax value has been successfully demonstrated from TFTs with a 2 μm gate length built with flexible Si NM on plastic substrates. PMID:27094686

  12. Recent Observations on Shortfin Mako Scale Flexibility as a Mechanism for Separation Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Amy; Motta, Philip; Habegger, Maria; Jones, Emily; Hueter, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Recent results obtained from examining the skin of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) suggest that scale flexibility may provide a passive, flow actuated mechanism for controlling flow separation. The shortfin mako is considered to be one of the fastest and most agile marine predators. High contragility, or the ability to change direction while already in a turn, requires minimal form drag and thus control of flow separation on body regions aft of the point of maximum girth. Recent biological observations have found that the shortfin mako has highly flexible scales, or denticles, particularly on the sides of the body downstream of the gills; in these regions scale crowns can be easily manipulated to angles in excess of 60 degrees. Histological data of the skin provides preliminary evidence that this flexibility is achieved due, in part, to a reduction in the size of the base of the scale where it is anchored into the skin. Experimental measurements of maximum angle of denticle bristling observed as a function of body location will be presented and a probable mechanism leading to separation control will be discussed.

  13. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  14. Flexible Ablators: Applications and Arcjet Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin A S.; Mcguire, Kathy; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Gorbunov, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Flexible ablators were conceived in 2009 to meet the technology pull for large, human Mars Exploration Class, 23 m diameter hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerators. As described elsewhere, they have been recently undergoing initial technical readiness (TRL) advancement by NASA. The performance limits of flexible ablators in terms of maximum heat rates, pressure and shear remain to be defined. Further, it is hoped that this emerging technology will vastly expand the capability of future NASA missions involving atmospheric entry systems. This paper considers four topics of relevance to flexible ablators: (1) Their potential applications to near/far term human and robotic missions (2) Brief consideration of the balance between heat shield diameter, flexible ablator performance limits, entry vehicle controllability and aft-body shear layer impingement of interest to designers of very large entry vehicles, (3) The approach for developing bonding processes of flexible ablators for use on rigid entry bodies and (4) Design of large arcjet test articles that will enable the testing of flexible ablators in flight-like, combined environments (heat flux, pressure, shear and structural tensile loading). Based on a review of thermal protection system performance requirements for future entry vehicles, it is concluded that flexible ablators have broad applications to conventional, rigid entry body systems and are enabling to large deployable (both inflatable and mechanical) heat shields. Because of the game-changing nature of flexible ablators, it appears that NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) will fund a focused, 3-year TRL advancement of the new materials capable of performance in heat fluxes in the range of 200-600 W/sq. cm. This support will enable the manufacture and use of the large-scale arcjet test designs that will be a key element of this OCT funded activity.

  15. Flexible high-energy Li-ion batteries with fast-charging capability.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Hee; Noh, Mijung; Lee, Sanghan; Ko, Minseong; Chae, Sujong; Sim, Soojin; Choi, Sinho; Kim, Hyejung; Nam, Haisol; Park, Soojin; Cho, Jaephil

    2014-07-01

    With the development of flexible mobile devices, flexible Li-ion batteries have naturally received much attention. Previously, all reported flexible components have had shortcomings related to power and energy performance. In this research, in order to overcome these problems while maintaining the flexibility, honeycomb-patterned Cu and Al materials were used as current collectors to achieve maximum adhesion in the electrodes. In addition, to increase the energy and power multishelled LiNi0.75Co0.11Mn0.14O2 particles consisting of nanoscale V2O5 and LixV2O5 coating layers and a LiδNi0.75-zCo0.11Mn0.14VzO2 doping layer were used as the cathode-anode composite (denoted as PNG-AES) consisting of amorphous Si nanoparticles (<20 nm) loaded on expanded graphite (10 wt %) and natural graphite (85 wt %). Li-ion cells with these three elements (cathode, anode, and current collector) exhibited excellent power and energy performance along with stable cycling stability up to 200 cycles in an in situ bending test. PMID:24892499

  16. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, Donald R.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  17. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D. R.

    1985-09-10

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  18. A flexible cruciform journal bearing mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, A. E.; Geiger, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Flexible mount achieves low roll, pitch and yaw stiffnesses while maintaining high radial stiffness by holding bearing pad in fixed relationship to deep web cruciform member and holding this member in fixed relationship to bearing support. This mount has particular application in small, high performance gas turbines.

  19. Density of mechanisms within the flexibility window of zeolites.

    PubMed

    Kapko, V; Dawson, C; Rivin, I; Treacy, M M J

    2011-10-14

    By treating idealized zeolite frameworks as periodic mechanical trusses, we show that the number of flexible folding mechanisms in zeolite frameworks is strongly peaked at the minimum density end of their flexibility window. 25 of the 197 known zeolite frameworks exhibit an extensive flexibility, where the number of unique mechanisms increases linearly with the volume when long wavelength mechanisms are included. Extensively flexible frameworks therefore have a maximum in configurational entropy, as large crystals, at their lowest density. Most real zeolites do not exhibit extensive flexibility, suggesting that surface and edge mechanisms are important, likely during the nucleation and growth stage. The prevalence of flexibility in real zeolites suggests that, in addition to low framework energy, it is an important criterion when searching large databases of hypothetical zeolites for potentially useful realizable structures. PMID:22107389

  20. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage. PMID:27186563

  1. Modeling flexible active nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Michael; Selinger, Robin

    We study active nematic phases of self-propelled flexible chains in two dimensions using computer simulation, to investigate effects of chain flexibility. In a ``dry'' phase of self-propelled flexible chains, we find that increasing chain stiffness enhances orientational order and correlation length, narrows the distribution of turning angles, increases persistence length, and increases the magnitude of giant density fluctuations. We further adapt the simulation model to describe behavior of microtubules driven by kinesin molecular motors in two different environments: on a rigid substrate with kinesin immobilized on the surface; and on a lipid membrane where kinesin is bonded to lipid head groups and can diffuse. Results are compared to experiments by L. Hirst and J. Xu. Lastly, we consider active nematics of flexible particles enclosed in soft, deformable encapsulation in two dimensions, and demonstrate novel mechanisms of pattern formation that are fundamentally different from those observed in bulk. Supported by NSF-DMR 1409658.

  2. Composite flexible blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An improved composite flexible blanket insulation is presented comprising top silicon carbide having an interlock design, wherein the reflective shield is composed of single or double aluminized polyimide and wherein the polyimide film has a honeycomb pattern.

  3. Flexible memory networks.

    PubMed

    Curto, Carina; Degeratu, Anda; Itskov, Vladimir

    2012-03-01

    Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological condition is H (1)(X;ℤ)=0, where X is the clique complex associated to the network's constraint graph; this condition is generically satisfied for large random networks that are not overly sparse. In order to prove our main results, we develop some matrix-theoretic tools and present them in a self-contained section independent of the neuroscience context. PMID:21826564

  4. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrov, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses some questions connected with Cauchy's theorem which states that two convex closed polyhedral surfaces whose corresponding faces are congruent and whose faces adjoin each other in the same way are congruent. Describes how to construct a flexible polyhedron. (ASK)

  5. Flexibility in insulin prescription.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage. PMID:27186563

  6. Nanomaterials processing toward large-scale flexible/stretchable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Toshitake

    In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in large-scale mechanically flexible electronics, where electrical components are fabricated on non-crystalline substrates such as plastics and glass. These devices are currently serving as the basis for various applications such as flat-panel displays, smart cards, and wearable electronics. In this thesis, a promising approach using chemically synthesized nanomaterials is explored to overcome various obstacles current technology faces in this field. Here, we use chemically synthesized semiconducting nanowires (NWs) including group IV (Si, Ge), III-V (InAs) and II-IV (CdS, CdSe) NWs, and semiconductor-enriched SWNTs (99 % purity), and developed reliable, controllable, and more importantly uniform assembly methods on 4-inch wafer-scale flexible substrates in the form of either parallel NW arrays or SWNT random networks, which act as the active components in thin film transistors (TFTs). Thusly obtained TFTs composed of nanomaterials show respectable electrical and optical properties such as 1) cut-off frequency, ft ~ 1 GHz and maximum frequency of oscillation, fmax ~ 1.8 GHz from InAs parallel NW array TFTs with channel length of ~ 1.5 μm, 2) photodetectors covering visible wavelengths (500-700 nm) using compositionally graded CdSxSe1-x (0 < x < 1) parallel NW arrays, and 3) carrier mobility of ~ 20 cm2/Vs, which is an order of magnitude larger than conventional TFT materials such as a-Si and organic semiconductors, without sacrificing current on/off ratio (Ion/Ioff ~ 104) from SWNT network TFTs. The capability to uniformly assemble nanomaterials over large-scale flexible substrates enables us to use them for more sophisticated applications. Artificial electronic skin (e-skin) is demonstrated by laminating pressure sensitive rubber on top of nanomaterial-based active matrix backplanes. Furthermore, an x-ray imaging device is also achieved by combining organic photodiodes with this backplane technology.

  7. High Performance, Robust Control of Flexible Space Structures: MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft systems have ambitious objectives that place stringent requirements on control systems. Achievable performance is often limited because of difficulty of obtaining accurate models for flexible space structures. To achieve sufficiently high performance to accomplish mission objectives may require the ability to refine the control design model based on closed-loop test data and tune the controller based on the refined model. A control system design procedure is developed based on mixed H2/H(infinity) optimization to synthesize a set of controllers explicitly trading between nominal performance and robust stability. A homotopy algorithm is presented which generates a trajectory of gains that may be implemented to determine maximum achievable performance for a given model error bound. Examples show that a better balance between robustness and performance is obtained using the mixed H2/H(infinity) design method than either H2 or mu-synthesis control design. A second contribution is a new procedure for closed-loop system identification which refines parameters of a control design model in a canonical realization. Examples demonstrate convergence of the parameter estimation and improved performance realized by using the refined model for controller redesign. These developments result in an effective mechanism for achieving high-performance control of flexible space structures.

  8. Flexible sliding seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallenhorst, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Circular seal both slides and flexes to accomodate relative motion between two sealed members. Originally developed for Space Shuttle orbiter, it contains sliding seal to accommodate engine gimbaling and flexible seal that absorbs forward motion at high thrust of engine heat shield relative to airframe. Other possible applications are in support structures of heavy machinery and vehicle engines. Flexible sliding seal is ring about 7 feet in diameter and can withstand temperatures up to 1,600 F.

  9. Efficient maximum entropy algorithms for electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.N.; Roeder, H.; Voter, A.F.; Kress, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    Two Chebyshev recursion methods are presented for calculations with very large sparse Hamiltonians, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) and the maximum entropy method (MEM). If limited statistical accuracy and energy resolution are acceptable, they provide linear scaling methods for the calculation of physical properties involving large numbers of eigenstates such as densities of states, spectral functions, thermodynamics, total energies for Monte Carlo simulations and forces for molecular dynamics. KPM provides a uniform approximation to a DOS, with resolution inversely proportional to the number of Chebyshev moments, while MEM can achieve significantly higher, but non-uniform, resolution at the risk of possible artifacts. This paper emphasizes efficient algorithms.

  10. Oscillations caused by flexible attached elements of satellite constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatikhin, V. Ye.; Semenov, L. P.; Artemenko, Yu. H.; Borysenko, V. M.; Helenko, O. O.

    We consider oscillations caused by flexible attached elements of satellite constructions, namely, solar array panels and antenna. An analysis of models of oscillations produced by solar array panels is carried out. We give some recommendations concerning the improvement of calculations of oscillations caused by flexible elements of satellite constructions with allowance made for modern achievements in the space material science.

  11. Balancing Flexible Constraints and Measurement Precision in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Eric L.; Galindo, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2012-01-01

    Managing test specifications--both multiple nonstatistical constraints and flexibly defined constraints--has become an important part of designing item selection procedures for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in achievement testing. This study compared the effectiveness of three procedures: constrained CAT, flexible modified constrained CAT,…

  12. Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.

  13. The Maximum Density of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  14. Fabrication of SWCNT based flexible chemiresistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Mayank; Kaur, Rajvinder; Das, S.; Kumar, Anil

    2016-04-01

    Carboxyl (-COOH) functionalized SWCNT chemiresistors have been realized on Kapton substrate patterned with Au microelectrodes by the drop casting of functionalized SWCNT dispersion in DI water. I-V measurements on fabricated chemiresistor showed ohmic behavior at different temperatures (25°C-120°C). The effect of bending on flexible functionalized SWCNT chemiresistor for different diameter has been measured. It has been found that bending at different radius of curvature doesn't change the ohmic behavior of fabricated chemiresistor. Achieved results are promising for cheap flexible electronic devices.

  15. Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.

  16. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  17. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-03-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  18. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Dalibor; Ebr, Jan; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana

    2016-03-01

    We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the superposition model. We present two examples that demonstrate what consequences can be drawn for energy dependent changes in the primary composition.

  19. Flexible transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  20. Printed Microinductors for Flexible Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik; Whitacre, Jay; Wesseling, Emily

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabricating planar, flexible microinductors that exhibit a relatively high quality factor (Q) between 1 and 10 MHz has been devised. These inductors are targeted for use in flexible, low-profile power-converter circuits. They could also be incorporated into electronic circuits integrated into flexible structures, including flexible antenna and solar-sail structures that are deployable.

  1. A miniature flexible sampler for subsurface lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yun; Lu, Wei; Xiong, Pengwen; Song, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    Lunar subsurface sampling is one of the critical technologies in the advancement of space exploration, and a lunar sampler with low weight, small volume, and low power consumption would significantly reduce the cost of space exploration. Thus, this paper proposes a novel miniature lunar sampler which adopts a flexible tape spring as its sampling arm. Compared with existing rigid-arm samplers, the proposed sampler has the merits of very low weight, reduced volume, and little power consumption. The mechanical design is illustrated in detail, the corresponding flexible kinematics model is built by considering flexibility compensation, and the working space of the sampler is depicted. The performance, e.g. the maximum acceleration, the maximum load capacity, and the sampling depth of the flexible arm, is analyzed through experiments, and each limit is established. In addition, the sampling process is demonstrated with the lab-based experiments, and the feasibility of the sampler is verified.

  2. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  3. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. PMID:23161399

  4. Maximum Power Point Regulator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simola, J.; Savela, K.; Stenberg, J.; Tonicello, F.

    2011-10-01

    The target of the study done under the ESA contract No.17830/04/NL/EC (GSTP4) for Maximum Power Point Regulator System (MPPRS) was to investigate, design and test a modular power system (a core PCU) fulfilling requirement for maximum power transfer even after a single failure in the Power System by utilising a power concept without any potential and credible single point failure. The studied MPPRS concept is of a modular construction, able to track the MPP individually on each SA sections, maintaining its functionality and full power capability after a loss of a complete MPPR module (by utilizingN+1module).Various add-on DCDC converter topology candidates were investigated and redundancy, failure mechanisms and protection aspects were studied

  5. Highly transparent, low-haze, hybrid cellulose nanopaper as electrodes for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Long; Lubineau, Gilles; Ng, Tienkhee; Ooi, Boon S.; Liao, Hsien-Yu; Shen, Chao; Chen, Long; Zhu, J. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Paper is an excellent candidate to replace plastics as a substrate for flexible electronics due to its low cost, renewability and flexibility. Cellulose nanopaper (CNP), a new type of paper made of nanosized cellulose fibers, is a promising substrate material for transparent and flexible electrodes due to its potentially high transparency and high mechanical strength. Although CNP substrates can achieve high transparency, they are still characterized by high diffuse transmittance and small direct transmittance, resulting in high optical haze of the substrates. In this study, we proposed a simple methodology for large-scale production of high-transparency, low-haze CNP comprising both long cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and short cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). By varying the CNC/CNF ratio in the hybrid CNP, we could tailor its total transmittance, direct transmittance and diffuse transmittance. By increasing the CNC content, the optical haze of the hybrid CNP could be decreased and its transparency could be increased. The direct transmittance and optical haze of the CNP were 75.1% and 10.0%, respectively, greatly improved from the values of previously reported CNP (31.1% and 62.0%, respectively). Transparent, flexible electrodes were fabricated by coating the hybrid CNP with silver nanowires (AgNWs). The electrodes showed a low sheet resistance (minimum 1.2 Ω sq-1) and a high total transmittance (maximum of 82.5%). The electrodes were used to make a light emitting diode (LED) assembly to demonstrate their potential use in flexible displays.Paper is an excellent candidate to replace plastics as a substrate for flexible electronics due to its low cost, renewability and flexibility. Cellulose nanopaper (CNP), a new type of paper made of nanosized cellulose fibers, is a promising substrate material for transparent and flexible electrodes due to its potentially high transparency and high mechanical strength. Although CNP substrates can achieve high transparency, they are

  6. Flexible radiator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The soft tube radiator subsystem is described including applicable system requirements, the design and limitations of the subsystem components, and the panel manufacturing method. The soft tube radiator subsystem is applicable to payloads requiring 1 to 12 kW of heat rejection for orbital lifetimes per mission of 30 days or less. The flexible radiator stowage volume required is about 60% and the system weight is about 40% of an equivalent heat rejection rigid panel. The cost should also be considerably less. The flexible radiator is particularly suited to shuttle orbiter sortie payloads and also whose mission lengths do not exceed the 30 day design life.

  7. Thin flexible intercalation anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.; Klassen, S.E.; Lagasse, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile) fibers have been pyrolyzed under various conditions to form flexible carbon yarns capable of intercalating lithium ions. These fibers have also been formed into both woven and non woven cloths. Potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic tests have been conducted with these materials in several electrolytes. In some tests, a potential hold was used after each constant current charge and discharge. These tests have shown some of these flexible materials to reversibly intercalate lithium ions to levels that are suitable for use as a practical battery anode.

  8. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices.

    PubMed

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2015-12-01

    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area. PMID:25393596

  9. Flexible Nanogenerators for Energy Harvesting and Self-Powered Electronics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Feng Ru; Tang, Wei; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-01

    Flexible nanogenerators that efficiently convert mechanical energy into electrical energy have been extensively studied because of their great potential for driving low-power personal electronics and self-powered sensors. Integration of flexibility and stretchability to nanogenerator has important research significance that enables applications in flexible/stretchable electronics, organic optoelectronics, and wearable electronics. Progress in nanogenerators for mechanical energy harvesting is reviewed, mainly including two key technologies: flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) and flexible triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs). By means of material classification, various approaches of PENGs based on ZnO nanowires, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), 2D materials, and composite materials are introduced. For flexible TENG, its structural designs and factors determining its output performance are discussed, as well as its integration, fabrication and applications. The latest representative achievements regarding the hybrid nanogenerator are also summarized. Finally, some perspectives and challenges in this field are discussed. PMID:26748684

  10. Solar maximum: Solar array degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  11. Light outcoupling enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Ou, Qing-Dong; Xu, Lu-Hai; Zhang, Wen-Yue; Li, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Zhao, Xin-Dong; Chen, Jing-De; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2016-03-21

    Flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are emerging as a leading technology for rollable and foldable display applications. For the development of high-performance flexible OLEDs on plastic substrate, we report a transparent nanocomposite electrode with superior mechanical, electrical, and optical properties, which is realized by integrating the nanoimprinted quasi-random photonic structures into the ultrathin metal/dielectric stack to collectively optimize the electrical conduction and light outcoupling capabilities. The resulting flexible OLEDs with green emission yield the enhanced device efficiency, reaching the maximum external quantum efficiency of 43.7% and luminous efficiency of 154.9 cd/A, respectively. PMID:27136885

  12. Flexible Classroom Furniture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim Hassell,

    2011-01-01

    Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

  13. Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

  14. Diversity and Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Responds to five major articles by Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, Sampson, and Goodyear on issues pertaining to testing and assessment in counseling psychology. Suggests that such a diversity of approaches leads to a more comprehensive and flexible model of counseling, adaptable to differences in clients, context, and counselor personalities. (TE)

  15. Flexible photovoltaic device

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, E.

    1989-03-28

    A photovoltaic device is described comprising a transparent substrate, a transparent conductive layer adjacent to the transparent substrate, a TFS layer adjacent to the transparent conductive layer, and a conductive layer adjacent to the TFS layer, the transparent substrate being a tetrafluoroethyleneperfluoroalkooxy resin in the form of a flexible film.

  16. Flexible optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.

  17. Kirchhoff's loop law and the maximum entropy production principle.

    PubMed

    Zupanović, Pasko; Juretić, Davor; Botrić, Srećko

    2004-11-01

    In contrast to the standard derivation of Kirchhoff's loop law, which invokes electric potential, we show, for the linear planar electric network in a stationary state at the fixed temperature, that loop law can be derived from the maximum entropy production principle. This means that the currents in network branches are distributed in such a way as to achieve the state of maximum entropy production. PMID:15600693

  18. Economics and Maximum Entropy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.

  19. Getting to Results. Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Tory

    2008-01-01

    The "Closing the Achievement Gap" series explores the Casey Foundation's education investments and presents stories, results, and lessons learned. This publication describes efforts to develop a flexible but rigorous results measurements system that enables the Foundation and its grantees to reflect on practice and course-correct as needed to…

  20. FSD- FLEXIBLE SPACECRAFT DYNAMICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, J. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control program (FSD) was developed to aid in the simulation of a large class of flexible and rigid spacecraft. FSD is extremely versatile and can be used in attitude dynamics and control analysis as well as in-orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. FSD has been used to analyze the in-orbit attitude performance and antenna deployment of the RAE and IMP class satellites, and the HAWKEYE, SCATHA, EXOS-B, and Dynamics Explorer flight programs. FSD is applicable to inertially-oriented spinning, earth oriented, or gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. The spacecraft flexibility is treated in a continuous manner (instead of finite element) by employing a series of shape functions for the flexible elements. Torsion, bending, and three flexible modes can be simulated for every flexible element. FSD can handle up to ten tubular elements in an arbitrary orientation. FSD is appropriate for studies involving the active control of pointed instruments, with options for digital PID (proportional, integral, derivative) error feedback controllers and control actuators such as thrusters and momentum wheels. The input to FSD is in four parts: 1) Orbit Construction FSD calculates a Keplerian orbit with environmental effects such as drag, magnetic torque, solar pressure, thermal effects, and thruster adjustments; or the user can supply a GTDS format orbit tape for a particular satellite/time-span; 2) Control words - for options such as gravity gradient effects, control torques, and integration ranges; 3) Mathematical descriptions of spacecraft, appendages, and control systems- including element geometry, properties, attitudes, libration damping, tip mass inertia, thermal expansion, magnetic tracking, and gimbal simulation options; and 4) Desired state variables to output, i.e., geometries, bending moments, fast Fourier transform plots, gimbal rotation, filter vectors, etc. All FSD input is of free format, namelist construction. FSD

  1. An indium tin oxide-free polymer solar cell on flexible glass.

    PubMed

    Formica, Nadia; Mantilla-Perez, Paola; Ghosh, Dhriti S; Janner, Davide; Chen, Tong Lai; Huang, Minghuang; Garner, Sean; Martorell, Jordi; Pruneri, Valerio

    2015-03-01

    Future optoelectronic devices and their low-cost roll-to-roll production require mechanically flexible transparent electrodes (TEs) and substrate materials. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely used TE because of its high optical transmission and low electrical sheet resistance. However, ITO, besides being expensive, has very poor performance under mechanical stress because of its fragile oxide nature. Alternative TE materials have thus been sought. Here we report the development of a multilayer TiO2/Ag/Al-doped ZnO TE structure and an ITO-free polymer solar cell (PSC) incorporating it. Electro-optical performances close to those of ITO can be achieved for the proposed TE and corresponding PSC with an additional advantage in their mechanical flexibility, as demonstrated by the fact that the cell efficiency maintains 94% of its initial value (6.6%) after 400 cycles of bending, with 6 and 3 cm maximum and minimum radii, respectively. Instead of common plastic materials, our work uses a very thin (0.14 mm) flexible glass substrate with several benefits, such as the possibility of high-temperature processes, superior antipermeation properties against oxygen and moisture, and improved film adhesion. PMID:25654433

  2. Highly flexible and lightweight organic solar cells on biocompatible silk fibroin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuqiang; Qi, Ning; Song, Tao; Jia, Mingliang; Xia, Zhouhui; Yuan, Zhongcheng; Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Sun, Baoquan

    2014-12-10

    Organic electronics have gained widespread attention due to their flexibility, lightness, and low-cost potential. It is attractive due to the possibility of large-scale roll-to-roll processing. However, organic electronics require additional development before they can be made commercially available and fully integrated into everyday life. To achieve feasibility for commercial use, these devices must be biocompatible and flexible while maintaining high performance. In this study, biocompatible silk fibroin (SF) was integrated with a mesh of silver nanowires (AgNWs) to build up flexible organic solar cells with maximum power conversion efficiency of up to 6.62%. The AgNW/SF substrate exhibits a conductivity of ∼11.0 Ω/sq and transmittance of ∼80% in the visible light range. These substrates retained their conductivity, even after being bent and unbent 200 times; this surprising ability was attributed to its embedded structure and the properties of the specific SF materials used. To contrast, indium tin oxide on synthetic plastic substrate lost its conductivity after the much less rigid bending. These lightweight and silk-based organic solar cells pave the way for future biocompatible interfaces between wearable electronics and human skin. PMID:25405590

  3. Enhanced film conductance of silver nanowire-based flexible transparent & conductive networks by bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xingda; Yang, Bingchu; Zhang, Xiang; Zhou, Conghua

    2015-07-01

    Bending is usually used to test durability of flexible transparent and conductive films. Due to the large stress incurred by this technique, bending has always been observed to deteriorate conductance of electrodes such as indium tin oxide film. In contrast, we here demonstrate that bending could be used to improve conductance of silver nanowire-based flexible transparent and conductive films. The enhanced conductance is due to improved contact between nanowires, which was favored by the hydrogen bond formed between residential polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on silver nanowire and TiOx nanoparticles pre-coated on the substrate. The enhanced conductance was found to be affected by bending direction; bending towards the substrate not only yielded quicker decrease in sheet resistance, but also showed better film conductance than bending towards the nanowires. Then, with assistance of surface modification of substrate and ultra-long silver nanowires (averaged at 124 μm, maximum at 438 μm), optoelectronic performance of 90.2% (transmittance at 550 nm) and 12.5 Ω sq-1 (sheet resistance) has been achieved by bending. Such performance was better than commercialized flexible ITO films, and even competed with that obtained from thermal annealing at temperature of 200 °C. Moreover, Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy study showed strong coordination between C=O (heterocyclic ring of PVP) and silver atoms, showing obvious capping behavior of PVP on silver nanowires.

  4. PDMS-based flexible energy harvester with Parylene electret and copper mesh electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Y.; Lee, M. H.; Wu, S.-H.

    2015-10-01

    Currently, most vibrational energy harvesters have rigid and resonant structures to scavenge kinetic energy from periodic motion in specific directions. However, in some situations the motion is random in amplitude, frequency, and direction; or the targeted energy sources apply direct deformation or displacement to the harvesters. In these applications, flexible energy harvesters that are light, flat, and conformable to arbitrary 3D surfaces of the sources are desired to scavenge the energy from device deformation, rather than the motion of a moving mass. Therefore we propose and demonstrate a PDMS-based flexible energy harvester with Parylene-C electret that can be attached to deformable surfaces. Furthermore, copper mesh is embedded in the flexible electrodes for robust electrode metallization as compared with traditional sputtered metal thin films. The fabricated harvesters achieved net output power of 2.2 μW, area power density of 2.2 μW cm-2, and volume power density of 22 μW cm-3 at the maximum test frequency of 20 Hz. Power generation by finger tapping and bending was demonstrated. Such harvesters have the potential for wearable and implantable electronic applications.

  5. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    DOEpatents

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Wines, Robin Renee; Takacs, James Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

  6. Flexible rotor dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, F. A.

    1973-01-01

    A digital computer program was developed to analyze the general nonaxisymmetric and nonsynchronous transient and steady-state rotor dynamic performance of a bending- and shear-wise flexible rotor-bearing system under various operating conditions. The effects of rotor material mechanical hysteresis, rotor torsion flexibility, transverse effects of rotor axial and torsional loading and the anisotropic, in-phase and out-of-phase bearing stiffness and damping force and moment coefficients were included in the program to broaden its capability. An optimum solution method was found and incorporated in the computer program. Computer simulation of experimental data was made and qualitative agreements observed. The mathematical formulations, computer program verification, test data simulation, and user instruction was presented and discussed.

  7. Flexible spacecraft simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Verification of control algorithms for flexible spacecraft can be done only through simulation and test; these are necessary to understand control/structure interaction (C/SI) sufficiently to design robust controllers for future spacecraft. The objective persued is to develop a low-cost facility which simulates the fundamental problem of C/SI; and to provide accessibility for designs so that experience can be gained in applying various multivariable control design methods to an actual structure. A test facility is being constructed with test elements that provide 3 rigid body and 6 flexible modes, all in the horizontal plane, with frequencies below 2.5 Hz. The control force actuator are on/off air jets with sensing by optical displacement sensors. Loop closure is provided by a digital computer with control algorithms designed using the IAC and MATRIX-X.

  8. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    SciTech Connect

    Brindza, P.D.; Wines, R.R.; Takacs, J.J.

    1999-12-21

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

  9. FLEXIBLE GEIGER COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Richter, H.G.; Gillespie, A.S. Jr.

    1963-11-12

    A flexible Geiger counter constructed from materials composed of vinyl chloride polymerized with plasticizers or co-polymers is presented. The counter can be made either by attaching short segments of corrugated plastic sleeving together, or by starting with a length of vacuum cleaner hose composed of the above materials. The anode is maintained substantially axial Within the sleeving or hose during tube flexing by means of polystyrene spacer disks or an easily assembled polyethylene flexible cage assembly. The cathode is a wire spiraled on the outside of the counter. The sleeving or hose is fitted with glass end-pieces or any other good insulator to maintain the anode wire taut and to admit a counting gas mixture into the counter. Having the cathode wire on the outside of the counter substantially eliminates the objectional sheath effect of prior counters and permits counting rates up to 300,000 counts per minute. (AEC)

  10. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, D. F.; Razavi, H.

    2012-07-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  11. Maximum entropy and drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Charter, M K; Gull, S F

    1991-10-01

    The application of maximum entropy to the calculation of drug absorption rates was introduced in an earlier paper. Here it is developed further, and the whole procedure is presented as a problem in scientific inference to be solved using Bayes' theorem. Blood samples do not need to be taken at equally spaced intervals, and no smoothing, interpolation, extrapolation, or other preprocessing of the data is necessary. The resulting input rate estimates are smooth and physiologically realistic, even with noisy data, and their accuracy is quantified. Derived quantities such as the proportion of the dose absorbed, and the mean and median absorption times, are also obtained, together with their error estimates. There are no arbitrarily valued parameters in the analysis, and no specific functional form, such as an exponential or polynomial, is assumed for the input rate functions. PMID:1783989

  12. Discrimination networks for maximum selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence. PMID:14690714

  13. PTFE films with improved flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. F.; Koch, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development and application of flexible polytetrafluroethylene films for expulsion bladders in spacecraft propellant tanks are described. Flexibility of material is obtained by reducing crystallinity through annealing and quenching in water. Physical and mechanical properties of material are presented.

  14. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  15. Flexible multiply towpreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzzy, John D. (Inventor); Varughese, Babu (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved flexible towpreg and a method of production therefor. The improved flexible towpreg comprises a plurality of towpreg plies which comprise reinforcing filaments and matrix forming material; the reinforcing filaments being substantially wetout by the matrix forming material such that the towpreg plies are substantially void-free composite articles, and the towpreg plies having an average thickness less than about 100 microns. The method of production for the improved flexible towpreg comprises the steps of spreading the reinforcing filaments to expose individually substantially all of the reinforcing filaments; coating the reinforcing filaments with the matrix forming material in a manner causing interfacial adhesion of the matrix forming material to the reinforcing filaments; forming the towpreg plies by heating the matrix forming material contacting the reinforcing filaments until the matrix forming material liquifies and coats the reinforcing filaments; and cooling the towpreg plies in a manner such that substantial cohesion between neighboring towpreg plies is prevented until the matrix forming material solidifies.

  16. Flexible materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of all presently defined or proposed large space systems indicated an ever increasing demand for flexible components and materials, primarily as a result of the widening disparity between the stowage space of launch vehicles and the size of advanced systems. Typical flexible components and material requirements were identified on the basis of recurrence and/or functional commonality. This was followed by the evaluation of candidate materials and the search for material capabilities which promise to satisfy the postulated requirements. Particular attention was placed on thin films, and on the requirements of deployable antennas. The assessment of the performance of specific materials was based primarily on the failure mode, derived from a detailed failure analysis. In view of extensive on going work on thermal and environmental degradation effects, prime emphasis was placed on the assessment of the performance loss by meteoroid damage. Quantitative data were generated for tension members and antenna reflector materials. A methodology was developed for the representation of the overall materials performance as related to systems service life. A number of promising new concepts for flexible materials were identified.

  17. Flexible Multi-Shock Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L. (Inventor); Crews, Jeanne L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Flexible multi-shock shield system and method are disclosed for defending against hypervelocity particles. The flexible multi-shock shield system and method may include a number of flexible bumpers or shield layers spaced apart by one or more resilient support layers, all of which may be encapsulated in a protective cover. Fasteners associated with the protective cover allow the flexible multi-shock shield to be secured to the surface of a structure to be protected.

  18. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  19. Flexible-Path Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, B.; Adler, M.; Alkalai, L.; Burdick, G.; Coulter, D.; Jordan, F.; Naderi, F.; Graham, L.; Landis, R.; Drake, B.; Hoffman, S.; Grunsfeld, J.; Seery, B. D.

    2010-01-01

    In the fourth quarter of 2009 an in-house, multi-center NASA study team briefly examined "Flexible Path" concepts to begin understanding characteristics, content, and roles of potential missions consistent with the strategy proposed by the Augustine Committee. We present an overview of the study findings. Three illustrative human/robotic mission concepts not requiring planet surface operations are described: assembly of very large in-space telescopes in cis-lunar space; exploration of near Earth objects (NEOs); exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. For each, a representative mission is described, technology and science objectives are outlined, and a basic mission operations concept is quantified. A fourth type of mission, using the lunar surface as preparation for Mars, is also described. Each mission's "capability legacy" is summarized. All four illustrative missions could achieve NASA's stated human space exploration objectives and advance human space flight toward Mars surface exploration. Telescope assembly missions would require the fewest new system developments. NEO missions would offer a wide range of deep-space trip times between several months and two years. Phobos exploration would retire several Marsclass risks, leaving another large remainder set (associated with entry, descent, surface operations, and ascent) for retirement by subsequent missions. And extended lunar surface operations would build confidence for Mars surface missions by addressing a complementary set of risks. Six enabling developments (robotic precursors, ISS exploration testbed, heavy-lift launch, deep-space-capable crew capsule, deep-space habitat, and reusable in-space propulsion stage) would apply across multiple program sequence options, and thus could be started even without committing to a specific mission sequence now. Flexible Path appears to be a viable strategy, with meaningful and worthy mission content.

  20. The maximum drag reduction asymptote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].

  1. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-05-01

    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  2. Objects of Maximum Electromagnetic Chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Fruhnert, Martin; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. Reciprocal objects attain the upper bound if and only if they are transparent for all the fields of one polarization handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e., helicity preservation upon interaction, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal objects to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal objects. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar objects or on the material constitutive relations for continuous media. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: a twofold resonantly enhanced and background-free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle-independent helicity filtering glasses. Finally, we use the theoretically obtained requirements to guide the design of a specific structure, which we then analyze numerically and discuss its performance with respect to maximal electromagnetic chirality.

  3. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  4. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  5. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  6. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  7. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  8. 25 CFR 273.4 - Policy of maximum Indian participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy of maximum Indian participation. 273.4 Section 273.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND... achievement and satisfaction which education can and should provide. Consistent with this concept,...

  9. 25 CFR 273.4 - Policy of maximum Indian participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Policy of maximum Indian participation. 273.4 Section 273.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND... achievement and satisfaction which education can and should provide. Consistent with this concept,...

  10. 25 CFR 273.4 - Policy of maximum Indian participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy of maximum Indian participation. 273.4 Section 273.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND... achievement and satisfaction which education can and should provide. Consistent with this concept,...

  11. Efficient flapping flight using flexible wings oscillating at resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Alexander; Masoud, Hassan

    2010-11-01

    Using a fully-coupled computational approach that integrates the lattice Boltzmann and lattice spring models, we investigate the three-dimensional aerodynamics of flexible flapping wings at resonance. The wings are tilted from the horizontal and oscillate vertically driven by a force applied at the wing root. Our simulations reveal that resonance oscillations drastically enhance the aerodynamic efficiency of low-Reynolds-number plunging, and yield lift and lift-to-weight ratio comparable to the values typical for small insects. Within the resonance band, we identify two flapping regimes leading to the maximum lift and the maximum efficiency, which are characterized by different bending modes of flexible flapping wings. Our results indicate the feasibility of using flexible wings driven by a simple harmonic stroke for designing efficient microscale flying machines.

  12. Viscous pumping inspired by flexible propulsion.

    PubMed

    Arco, Roger M; Vélez-Cordero, J Rodrigo; Lauga, Eric; Zenit, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Fluid-suspended microorganisms have evolved different swimming and feeding strategies in order to cope with an environment dominated by viscous effects. For instance, ciliated organisms rely on the collective motion of flexible appendages to move and feed. By performing a non-reciprocal motion, flexible filaments can produce a net propulsive force, or pump fluid, in the absence of inertia. Inspired by such a fundamental concept, we propose a strategy to produce macroscopic pumping and mixing in creeping flow. We measured experimentally the net motion of a Newtonian viscous fluid induced by the reciprocal motion of a flapper. When the flapper is rigid no net motion is induced. In contrast, when the flapper is made of a flexible material, a net fluid pumping is measured. We quantify the effectiveness of this pumping strategy and show that optimal pumping is achieved when the length of the flapper is on the same order as the elasto-hydrodynamic penetration length. We finally discuss the possible applications of flexible impellers in mixing operations at low Reynolds numbers. PMID:24667497

  13. Flexible spin-orbit torque devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, OukJae; You, Long; Jang, Jaewon; Subramanian, Vivek; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-12-21

    We report on state-of-the-art spintronic devices synthesized and fabricated directly on a flexible organic substrate. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was achieved in ultrathin ferromagnetic heterostructures of Pt/Co/MgO sputtered on a non-rigid plastic substrate at room temperature. Subsequently, a full magnetic reversal of the Co was observed by exploiting the spin orbit coupling in Pt that leads to a spin accumulation at the Pt/Co interface when an in-plane current is applied. Quasi-static measurements show the potential for operating these devices at nano-second speeds. Importantly, the behavior of the devices remained unchanged under varying bending conditions (up to a bending radius of ≈ ±20–30 mm). Furthermore, the devices showed robust operation even after application of 10{sup 6} successive pulses, which is likely sufficient for many flexible applications. Thus, this work demonstrates the potential for integrating high performance spintronic devices on flexible substrates, which could lead to many applications ranging from flexible non-volatile magnetic memory to local magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Fast flexible electronics with strained silicon nanomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Seo, Jung-Hun; Paskiewicz, Deborah M.; Zhu, Ye; Celler, George K.; Voyles, Paul M.; Zhou, Weidong; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2013-01-01

    Fast flexible electronics operating at radio frequencies (>1 GHz) are more attractive than traditional flexible electronics because of their versatile capabilities, dramatic power savings when operating at reduced speed and broader spectrum of applications. Transferrable single-crystalline Si nanomembranes (SiNMs) are preferred to other materials for flexible electronics owing to their unique advantages. Further improvement of Si-based device speed implies significant technical and economic advantages. While the mobility of bulk Si can be enhanced using strain techniques, implementing these techniques into transferrable single-crystalline SiNMs has been challenging and not demonstrated. The past approach presents severe challenges to achieve effective doping and desired material topology. Here we demonstrate the combination of strained- NM-compatible doping techniques with self-sustained-strain sharing by applying a strain-sharing scheme between Si and SiGe multiple epitaxial layers, to create strained print-transferrable SiNMs. We demonstrate a new speed record of Si-based flexible electronics without using aggressively scaled critical device dimensions. PMID:23416347

  15. Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Pitts, William C. (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  16. A flexible business focus

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-11-01

    The challenge of sourcing equipment to meet customer needs around the world remains a prerequisite for boiler and CFB manufacturers as they strive to maintain a strong business presence in key markets. Boiler vendors are learning to meet their targets based upon what the market is, not what they hope it will become. An elastic equipment supply strategy is bolstering new business activity for internationally active boiler and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) vendors. Techniques such as flexible sourcing and expanded scope capability are helping suppliers gain market advantage in new global growth areas.

  17. Flexible composite radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, Edward B.

    2006-12-05

    A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

  18. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  19. Flexible Material Systems Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John K.; Shook, Lauren S.; Ware, Joanne S.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to better characterize the stress-strain characteristics of flexible material systems to support a NASA ground test program for inflatable decelerator material technology. A goal of the current study is to investigate experimental methods for the characterization of coated woven material stiffness. This type of experimental mechanics data would eventually be used to define the material inputs of fluid-structure interaction simulation models. The test methodologies chosen for this stress-strain characterization are presented along with the experimental results.

  20. Maximum Entropy Principle for Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilich, F.; DaSilva, R.

    2008-11-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  1. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  2. Flexible TWDM PON system with pluggable optical transceiver modules.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ning; Gao, Jianhe; Xu, Chengzhi; Gao, Bo; Liu, Dekun; Wang, Lei; Wu, Xuming; Zhou, Xiaoping; Lin, Huafeng; Effenberger, Frank

    2014-01-27

    A flexible TWDM PON system is proposed which allows pay-as-you-grow in capacity, supports load balancing among different ODNs, and achieves significant power saving at OLT. Integrated OLT transceiver in enhanced CFP module and low-cost tunable ONU transceiver in SFP+ module are developed, for the first time, for cost effective deployment of TWDM PONs. System experiments demonstrate error free performance with 36 dB power budget in a flexible TWDM PON test bed. PMID:24515217

  3. Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Mountcastle, Andrew M.; Combes, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic force production has emerged as a central question in insect flight research. However, physical and computational models have yielded conflicting results regarding whether wing deformations enhance or diminish flight forces. By experimentally stiffening the wings of live bumblebees, we demonstrate that wing flexibility affects aerodynamic force production in a natural behavioural context. Bumblebee wings were artificially stiffened in vivo by applying a micro-splint to a single flexible vein joint, and the bees were subjected to load-lifting tests. Bees with stiffened wings showed an 8.6 per cent reduction in maximum vertical aerodynamic force production, which cannot be accounted for by changes in gross wing kinematics, as stroke amplitude and flapping frequency were unchanged. Our results reveal that flexible wing design and the resulting passive deformations enhance vertical force production and load-lifting capacity in bumblebees, locomotory traits with important ecological implications. PMID:23536604

  4. Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2013-05-22

    The effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic force production has emerged as a central question in insect flight research. However, physical and computational models have yielded conflicting results regarding whether wing deformations enhance or diminish flight forces. By experimentally stiffening the wings of live bumblebees, we demonstrate that wing flexibility affects aerodynamic force production in a natural behavioural context. Bumblebee wings were artificially stiffened in vivo by applying a micro-splint to a single flexible vein joint, and the bees were subjected to load-lifting tests. Bees with stiffened wings showed an 8.6 per cent reduction in maximum vertical aerodynamic force production, which cannot be accounted for by changes in gross wing kinematics, as stroke amplitude and flapping frequency were unchanged. Our results reveal that flexible wing design and the resulting passive deformations enhance vertical force production and load-lifting capacity in bumblebees, locomotory traits with important ecological implications. PMID:23536604

  5. A multinomial maximum likelihood program /MUNOML/. [in modeling sensory and decision phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    A multinomial maximum likelihood program (MUNOML) for signal detection and for behavior models is discussed. It is found to be useful in day to day operation since it provides maximum flexibility with minimum duplicated effort. It has excellent convergence qualities and rarely goes beyond 10 iterations. A library of subroutines is being collected for use with MUNOML, including subroutines for a successive categories model and for signal detectability models.

  6. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  7. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Electrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm) based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  8. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  9. Control of a small working robot on a large flexible manipulator for suppressing vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Han

    1991-01-01

    The short term objective of this research is the completion of experimental configuration of the Small Articulated Robot (SAM) and the derivations of the actuator dynamics of the Robotic Arm, Large and Flexible (RALF). In order to control vibrations SAM should have larger bandwidth than that of the vibrations. The bandwidth of SAM consist of 3 parts; structural rigidity, processing speed of controller, and motor speed. The structural rigidity was increased to a reasonably high value by attaching aluminum angles at weak points and replacing thin side plates by thicker ones. The high processing speed of the controller was achieved by using parallel processors (three 68000 process, three interface board, and one main processor (IBM-XT)). Maximum joint speed and acceleration of SAM is known as about 4 rad/s and 15 rad/sq s. Hence SAM can move only .04 rad at 3 Hz which is the natural frequency of RALF. This will be checked by experiment.

  10. Flexible transparent graphene/polymer multilayers for efficient electromagnetic field absorption

    PubMed Central

    Batrakov, K.; Kuzhir, P.; Maksimenko, S.; Paddubskaya, A.; Voronovich, S.; Lambin, Ph; Kaplas, T.; Svirko, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to its high electrical conductivity, a graphene plane presents a good shielding efficiency against GHz electromagnetic radiations. Several graphene planes separated by thin polymer spacers add their conductivities arithmetically, because each of them conserves the intrinsic properties of isolated graphene. Maximum absorption of radiations for frequency around 30 GHz is achieved with six separated graphene planes, which is the optimum number. This remarkable result is demonstrated experimentally from electromagnetic measurements performed in the Ka band on a series of multilayers obtained by piling 1, 2, 3 … graphene/PMMA units on a silica substrate. Theoretical calculations convincingly explain the observed absorption and transmission data in the GHz domain. It is concluded that graphene/PMMA multilayers can be used as an efficient optically transparent and flexible shielding media. PMID:25424525

  11. Flexible and monolithic zinc oxide bionanocomposite foams by a bacterial cellulose mediated approach for antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peipei; Zhao, Jun; Xuan, Ruifei; Wang, Yun; Zou, Chen; Zhang, Zhiquan; Wan, Yizao; Xu, Yan

    2014-05-14

    The use of self-assembled biomacromolecules in the development of functional bionanocomposite foams is one of the best lessons learned from nature. Here, we show that monolithic, flexible and porous zinc oxide bionanocomposite foams with a hierarchical architecture can be assembled through the mediation of bacterial cellulose. The assembly is achieved by controlled hydrolysis and solvothermal crystallization using a bacterial cellulose aerogel as a template in a non-aqueous polar medium. The bionanocomposite foam with a maximum zinc oxide loading of 70 wt% is constructed of intimately packed spheres of aggregated zinc oxide nanocrystals exhibiting a BET surface area of 92 m(2) g(-1). The zinc oxide bionanocomposite foams show excellent antibacterial activity, which give them potential value as self-supporting wound dressing and water sterilization materials. PMID:24647467

  12. Flexible Organic Transistors with Controlled Nanomorphology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung Hoon; Hsu, Ben B Y; Patel, Shrayesh N; Labram, John; Luo, Chan; Bazan, Guillermo C; Heeger, Alan J

    2016-01-13

    We report the controlled nanomorphology of semiconducting polymers on chemically and mechanically stable nanogrooved polymer substrates. By employing silicon dioxide thin films with finely adjusted thicknesses on nanogrooved polymer substrates, semiconducting polymer thin films oriented and aligned along the nanogrooves were obtained. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) fabricated from the oriented semiconducting polymer, poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-alt-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo-[3,4-c]pyridine] (PCDTPT), yielded saturation hole mobilities as high as 19.3 cm(2) V(-1 )s(-1), and the flexible "plastic" transistors demonstrated excellent mechanical stability under various bending conditions. These results represent important progress for solution-processed flexible OFETs and demonstrate that directed self-assembly of semiconducting polymers can be achieved by soft nanostructures. PMID:26645364

  13. Tuning strain in flexible graphene nanoelectromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Fen; Kumaravadivel, Piranavan; Averin, Dmitri V.; Du, Xu

    2015-11-01

    The structural flexibility of low dimensional nanomaterials offers unique opportunities for studying the impact of strain on their physical properties and for developing innovative devices utilizing strain engineering. A key towards such goals is a device platform which allows the independent tuning and reliable calibration of the strain. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of graphene nanoelectromechanical resonators (GNEMRs) on flexible substrates. Combining substrate bending and electrostatic gating, we achieve the independent tuning of the strain and sagging in graphene and explore the nonlinear dynamics over a wide parameter space. Analytical and numerical studies of a continuum mechanics model, including the competing higher order nonlinear terms, reveal a comprehensive nonlinear dynamics phase diagram, which quantitatively explains the complex behaviors of GNEMRs.

  14. Fuel optimal propulsive reboost of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, Larry; Redmond, Jim

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time an exact solution to the fuel optimal propulsive reboost problem for flexible spacecraft. The spacecraft undergoes rigid-body motion and flexible-body motion and reboost is achieved propulsively through the use of reaction control jets. The exact fuel optimal solution to the associated minimization problem is found numerically based on an adaptive grid bisection search. The reboost of the floating harmonic oscillator reveals properties of the fuel optimal solution. Nondimensional plots of minimum fuel versus maneuver time expose the nature of the solution classes depending on the maneuver time. Some very interesting properties are observed, among them, the shifting of impulses to the smaller oscillator mass, and comparisons are made with near fuel optimal solutions obtained by other investigators.

  15. Fuel optimal propulsive reboost of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Larry; Redmond, Jim

    This paper presents for the first time an exact solution to the fuel optimal propulsive reboost problem for flexible spacecraft. The spacecraft undergoes rigid-body motion and flexible-body motion and reboost is achieved propulsively through the use of reaction control jets. The exact fuel optimal solution to the associated minimization problem is found numerically based on an adaptive grid bisection search. The reboost of the floating harmonic oscillator reveals properties of the fuel optimal solution. Nondimensional plots of minimum fuel versus maneuver time expose the nature of the solution classes depending on the maneuver time. Some very interesting properties are observed, among them, the shifting of impulses to the smaller oscillator mass, and comparisons are made with near fuel optimal solutions obtained by other investigators.

  16. Scheduling the future NASA Space Network: Experiences with a flexible scheduling prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happell, Nadine; Moe, Karen L.; Minnix, Jay

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Space Network (SN) provides telecommunications and tracking services to low earth orbiting spacecraft. One proposal for improving resource allocation and automating conflict resolution for the SN is the concept of flexible scheduling. In this concept, each Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) will possess a Space Network User POCC Interface (SNUPI) to support the development and management of flexible requests. Flexible requests express the flexibility, constraints, and repetitious nature of the user's communications requirements. Flexible scheduling is expected to improve SN resource utilization and user satisfaction, as well as reduce the effort to produce and maintain a schedule. A prototype testbed has been developed to better understand flexible scheduling as it applies to the SN. This testbed consists of a SNUPI workstation, an SN scheduler, and a flexible request language that conveys information between the two systems. All three are being evaluated by operations personnel. Benchmark testing is being conducted on the scheduler to quantify the productivity improvements achieved with flexible requests.

  17. Generalized flexibility-rigidity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc Duy; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) has been developed as a robust, accurate, and efficient method for macromolecular thermal fluctuation analysis and B-factor prediction. The performance of FRI depends on its formulations of rigidity index and flexibility index. In this work, we introduce alternative rigidity and flexibility formulations. The structure of the classic Gaussian surface is utilized to construct a new type of rigidity index, which leads to a new class of rigidity densities with the classic Gaussian surface as a special case. Additionally, we introduce a new type of flexibility index based on the domain indicator property of normalized rigidity density. These generalized FRI (gFRI) methods have been extensively validated by the B-factor predictions of 364 proteins. Significantly outperforming the classic Gaussian network model, gFRI is a new generation of methodologies for accurate, robust, and efficient analysis of protein flexibility and fluctuation. Finally, gFRI based molecular surface generation and flexibility visualization are demonstrated.

  18. Flexible transformation plasmonics using graphene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei Bing; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Hong Ju; Ni, Zhen Hua; Dong, Zheng Gao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2013-05-01

    The flexible control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is important and intriguing due to its wide application in novel plasmonic devices. Transformation optics (TO) offers the capability either to confine the SPP propagation on rigid curved/uneven surfaces, or to control the flow of SPPs on planar surfaces. However, TO has not permitted us to confine, manipulate, and control SPP waves on flexible curved surfaces. Here, we propose to confine and freely control flexible SPPs using TO and graphene. We show that SPP waves can be naturally confined and propagate on curved or uneven graphene surfaces with little bending and radiation losses, and the confined SPPs are further manipulated and controlled using TO. Flexible plasmonic devices are presented, including the bending waveguides, wave splitter, and Luneburg lens on curved surfaces. Together with the intrinsic flexibility, graphene can be served as a good platform for flexible transformation plasmonics. PMID:23669904

  19. Approaches to Encapsulation of Flexible CIGS Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Larry C.; Gross, Mark E.; Graff, Gordon L.; Kundu, Sambhu N.; Chu, Xi; Lin, Steve

    2008-07-16

    Thin-film solar cells based on CIGS are being considered for large scale power plants as well as building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications. Past studies indicate that CIGS cells degrade rapidly when exposed to moisture. As a result, an effective approach to encapsulation is required for CIGS cells to satisfy the international standard IEC 61646. CIGS modules fabricated for use in large power plants can be encapsulated with glass sheets on the top and bottom surfaces and can be effectively sealed around the edges. In the case of BIPV applications, however, it is desirable to utilize CIGS cells grown on flexible substrates, both for purposes of achieving reduced weight and for cases involving non-flat surfaces. For these cases, approaches to encapsulation must be compatible with the flexible substrate requirement. Even in the case of large power plants, the glass-to-glass approach to encapsulation may eventually be considered too costly. We are investigating encapsulation of flexible CIGS cells by lamination. Sheets of PET or PEN coated with multilayer barrier coatings are used to laminate the flexible cells. Results are discussed for laminated cells from two CIGS manufacturers. In both cases, the cell efficiency decreases less than 10% after 1000 hours of exposure to an environment of 85C/85%RH. This paper discusses these two approaches, reviews results achieved with cells and mini-modules fabricated by the former Shell Solar, Industries (SSI) stressed at 60C/90%RH (60/90), and recent studies of encapsulated IEC cells subjected to an environment of 85ºC/85%RH (85/85).

  20. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  1. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Taura, Joseph Charles; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Demiroglu, Mehmet; Predmore, Daniel Ross

    1999-01-01

    A seal assembly having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch therebetween which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal.

  2. Damped flexible seal

    DOEpatents

    DuBois, Neil J.; Amaral, Antonio M.

    1992-10-27

    A damped flexible seal assembly for a torpedo isolates the tailcone thereof rom vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly. A pair of outside flanges, each of which include an inwardly facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, provide a watertight seal against the outer non-rotating surface of the drive shaft assembly. An inside flange includes an outwardly-facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, and provides a watertight seal against the inner surface of the tail cone. Two cast-in-place elastomeric seals provide a watertight seal between the flanges and further provide a damping barrier between the outside flanges and the inside flanges for damping vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly before the energy can reach the tailcone through the seal assembly.

  3. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Taura, J.C.; Aksit, M.F.; Demiroglu, M.; Predmore, D.R.

    1999-06-29

    A seal assembly is described having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch there between which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal. 7 figs.

  4. Flexible swivel connection

    DOEpatents

    Hoh, J.C.

    1985-02-19

    A flexible swivel boot connector for connecting a first boot shield section to a second boot shield section, both first and second boot sections having openings therethrough, the second boot section having at least two adjacent accordian folds at the end having the opening, the second boot section being positioned through the opening of the first boot section such that a first of the accordian folds is within the first boot section and a second of the accordian folds is outside of the first boot, includes first and second annular discs, the first disc being positioned within and across the first accordian fold, the second disc being positioned within and across the second accordian fold, such that the first boot section is moveably and rigidly connected between the first and second accordian folds of the second boot section.

  5. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. PMID:27038223

  6. A Better Lemon Squeezer? Maximum-Likelihood Regression with Beta-Distributed Dependent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithson, Michael; Verkuilen, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Uncorrectable skew and heteroscedasticity are among the "lemons" of psychological data, yet many important variables naturally exhibit these properties. For scales with a lower and upper bound, a suitable candidate for models is the beta distribution, which is very flexible and models skew quite well. The authors present maximum-likelihood…

  7. Porous dimanganese trioxide microflowers derived from microcoordinations for flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Pang, Huan; Li, Xinran; Li, Bing; Zhang, Yizhou; Zhao, Qunxing; Lai, Wen-Yong; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Dimanganese trioxide microflowers are easily obtained from a Mn(ii) 8-hydroxyquinoline microcoordination after calcination in air. We also look into the possible formation mechanism of the flower-like morphology, and find that the reaction time affects the morphology of the coordination. Furthermore, the as-prepared porous Mn2O3 microflowers are made of many nanoplates which form many nanogaps and nanochannels. Interestingly, the assembled electrode based on the as-prepared porous Mn2O3 microflowers proves to be a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. The electrode shows a specific capacitance of 994 F g(-1), which can work well even after 4000 cycles at 0.75 A g(-1). More importantly, the porous Mn2O3 microflowers and activated carbons are assembled into a high-performance flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor with a specific capacitance of 312.5 mF cm(-2). The cycle test shows that the device can offer 95.6% capacity of the initial capacitance at 2.0 mA cm(-2) after 5000 cycles with little decay. The maximum energy density of the device can achieve 6.56 mWh cm(-3) and the maximum power density can also achieve 283.5 mW cm(-3), which are among the best results for manganese based materials. PMID:27221767

  8. Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Generalized Rasch Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Jan; Verhelst, Norman

    1986-01-01

    Maximum likelihood procedures are presented for a general model to unify the various models and techniques that have been proposed for item analysis. Unconditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Wright and Haberman, and conditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Rasch and Andersen, are shown as important special cases. (JAZ)

  9. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  10. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  11. Picosecond UV laser induced scribing of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films for the enhancement of their flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Gi; Kim, Changhwan; Lee, Yong Joong; Kim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Ho

    2016-08-01

    Flexible devices has received a great attention due to their high portability, lightness, and ease of shape reconfiguration. To achieve high flexibility, controlling the mechanical properties of the substrate materials is of importance. In this paper, we controlled the local flexibility of PET films via UV laser scribing. The bending test of the films revealed that their bending curvatures, the associated mechanical damages, and the required bending forces could be successfully tuned by controlling the number and the depth of the scribed lines. Our simple strategy of using laser scribing will find its usefulness in flexible device applications where high flexibility and mechanical stability are required.

  12. NOTE FROM THE EDITOR: Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzynski, L.

    2008-10-01

    The Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods are now standard routines in various data analyses, irrespective of ones own preference to the more conventional approach based on so-called frequentists understanding of the notion of the probability. It is not the purpose of the Editor to show all achievements of these methods in various branches of science, technology and medicine. In the case of condensed matter physics most of the oldest examples of Bayesian analysis can be found in the excellent tutorial textbooks by Sivia and Skilling [1], and Bretthorst [2], while the application of the Maximum Entropy Methods were described in `Maximum Entropy in Action' [3]. On the list of questions addressed one finds such problems as deconvolution and reconstruction of the complicated spectra, e.g. counting the number of lines hidden within the spectrum observed with always finite resolution, reconstruction of charge, spin and momentum density distribution from an incomplete sets of data, etc. On the theoretical side one might find problems like estimation of interatomic potentials [4], application of the MEM to quantum Monte Carlo data [5], Bayesian approach to inverse quantum statistics [6], very general to statistical mechanics [7] etc. Obviously, in spite of the power of the Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods, it is not possible for everything to be solved in a unique way by application of these particular methods of analysis, and one of the problems which is often raised is connected not only with a uniqueness of a reconstruction of a given distribution (map) but also with its accuracy (error maps). In this `Comments' section we present a few papers showing more recent advances and views, and highlighting some of the aforementioned problems. References [1] Sivia D S and Skilling J 2006 Data Analysis: A Bayesian Tutorial 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [2] Bretthorst G L 1988 Bayesian Spectruim Analysis and Parameter Estimation (Berlin: Springer) [3] Buck B and

  13. Central auditory neurons display flexible feature recombination functions.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2014-03-01

    Recognition of natural stimuli requires a combination of selectivity and invariance. Classical neurobiological models achieve selectivity and invariance, respectively, by assigning to each cortical neuron either a computation equivalent to the logical "AND" or a computation equivalent to the logical "OR." One powerful OR-like operation is the MAX function, which computes the maximum over input activities. The MAX function is frequently employed in computer vision to achieve invariance and considered a key operation in visual cortex. Here we explore the computations for selectivity and invariance in the auditory system of a songbird, using natural stimuli. We ask two related questions: does the MAX operation exist in auditory system? Is it implemented by specialized "MAX" neurons, as assumed in vision? By analyzing responses of individual neurons to combinations of stimuli we systematically sample the space of implemented feature recombination functions. Although we frequently observe the MAX function, we show that the same neurons that implement it also readily implement other operations, including the AND-like response. We then show that sensory adaptation, a ubiquitous property of neural circuits, causes transitions between these operations in individual neurons, violating the fixed neuron-to-computation mapping posited in the state-of-the-art object-recognition models. These transitions, however, accord with predictions of neural-circuit models incorporating divisive normalization and variable polynomial nonlinearities at the spike threshold. Because these biophysical properties are not tied to a particular sensory modality but are generic, the flexible neuron-to-computation mapping demonstrated in this study in the auditory system is likely a general property. PMID:24353301

  14. New Flexible Photocell Module for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitnar, Bernd; Durisch, Wilhelm; Meyer, Andreas; Palfinger, Günther

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the practical implementation of TPV systems. As a key part of these systems, we developed a new flexible photocell module for TPV applications. The module consists of commercially available monocrystalline silicon solar cells, which were cut into small stripes that are series connected to achieve a high voltage and a reduced current for operation at an illumination density of 5 - 10 suns. For an easy mounting into a heating boiler, the module is highly flexible and can be bent into a cylindrical shape. The rear side of the module is electrically isolated, but achieves a good heat coupling through a covering aluminium foil to the boiler wall. Thus, it can directly be mounted into a water-cooled boiler housing without the need of an additional water-cooling circuit. A first test module with an active cell area of 481 cm2 achieved an electricity output of 50 W by irradiation with an Yb2O3 mantle emitter heated with a 20 kW methane burner.

  15. Obama Outlines NCLB Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele; Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    The Obama administration will waive cornerstone requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, including the 2014 deadline for all students to be proficient in math and reading/language arts, and will give states the freedom to set their own student-achievement goals and design their own interventions for failing schools. In exchange for that…

  16. VCSEL-based flexible opto-fluidic fluorescence sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongseok; Gai, Boju; Yoon, Jongseung

    2016-03-01

    Flexible opto-fluidic fluorescence sensors based on microscale vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (micro-VCSELs) and silicon photodiodes (Si-PDs) are demonstrated, where arrays of 850 nm micro-VCSELs and thin film Si-PDs are heterogeneously integrated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by transfer printing, in conjunction with elastomeric fluidic channel. Enabled with optical isolation trenches together with wavelength- and angle-selective spectral filters implemented to suppress the absorption of excitation light, the integrated flexible fluorescence sensors exhibited significantly enhanced signal-to-background ratio, resulting in a maximum sensitivity of 5 × 10-5 wt% of infrared-absorbing organic dyes.

  17. High performance flexible electronics for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Giovanni A; Munzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Petti, Luisa; Troster, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic electronics is soft, deformable and lightweight and it is suitable for the realization of devices which can form an intimate interface with the body, be implanted or integrated into textile for wearable and biomedical applications. Here, we present flexible electronics based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (a-IGZO) whose performance can achieve MHz frequency even when bent around hair. We developed an assembly technique to integrate complex electronic functionalities into textile while preserving the softness of the garment. All this and further developments can open up new opportunities in health monitoring, biotechnology and telemedicine. PMID:25570912

  18. Teacher Flexibility in Mathematical Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leikin, Roza; Dinur, Sariga

    2007-01-01

    The significance of discussion in mathematics classes has been prominently debated in the research literature. Different studies have stressed the importance of teacher flexibility in orchestrating the discussion. We introduce an operational definition of teacher flexibility. In a case study with one secondary-school mathematics teacher, we…

  19. Determination Of The Maximum Explosion Pressure And The Maximum Rate Of Pressure Rise During Explosion Of Wood Dust Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuracina, Richard; Szabová, Zuzana; Čekan, Pavol

    2015-06-01

    The article deals with the measurement of maximum explosion pressure and the maximum rate of exposure pressure rise of wood dust cloud. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds and the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dt)max of dust clouds. The wood dust cloud in the chamber is achieved mechanically. The testing of explosions of wood dust clouds showed that the maximum value of the pressure was reached at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value is 7.95 bar. The fastest increase of pressure was observed at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value was 68 bar / s.

  20. Optimal thickness of silicon membranes to achieve maximum thermoelectric efficiency: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Claudia; Neogi, Sanghamitra; Donadio, Davide

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanostructures with reduced dimensionality, such as nanowires, membranes, and thin films, are promising thermoelectric materials, as they exhibit considerably reduced thermal conductivity. Here, we utilize density functional theory and Boltzmann transport equation to compute the electronic properties of ultra-thin crystalline silicon membranes with thickness between 1 and 12 nm. We predict that an optimal thickness of ˜7 nm maximizes the thermoelectric figure of merit of membranes with native oxide surface layers. Further thinning of the membranes, although attainable in experiments, reduces the electrical conductivity and worsens the thermoelectric efficiency.

  1. [The flexibility of family medicine].

    PubMed

    Minguet, C; Aubrege, A; Aubart, M; Cornuz, J; di Patrizio, P; Du Boullay, D; Farghadani, H; Flammang, M; Haas, N; Kacenelenbogen, N; Kopp, M; Leners, J C; Levêque, M; Mbengue, M; Paur, H; Paur, I; Raphaël, F; Rausch, S; Shetgen, M; Stein R; Tabouring, P; Thomas, J M; Vignon, G

    2015-01-01

    We are a European academic group of family doctors and we propose a definition of flexibility in family medicine. A review of the literature shows that flexibility and complexity are emerging concepts in the field of family practice. The outcomes of a workshop at the WONCA-Europe congress in 2014 are discussed. The flexibility is a capability of the general practitioner to deal with complex clinical situations in a biomedical and societal changing world. Flexibility is framed by ethics. It could improve the quality of care, be useful against burnout and used in medical research. In conclusion, family medicine should adopt a specific definition of the flexibility describing its specificity, a useful and teachable capacity. PMID:26946851

  2. Conformational flexibility of mephenesin.

    PubMed

    Écija, Patricia; Evangelisti, Luca; Vallejo, Montserrat; Basterretxea, Francisco J; Lesarri, Alberto; Castaño, Fernando; Caminati, Walther; Cocinero, Emilio J

    2014-05-22

    The mephenesin molecule (3-(2-methylphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol) serves as a test bank to explore several structural and dynamical issues, such as conformational flexibility, the orientation of the carbon linear chain relative to the benzene plane, or the effect of substituent position on the rotational barrier of a methyl group. The molecule has been studied by rotational spectroscopy in the 4-18 GHz frequency range by Fourier-transform methods in a supersonic expansion. The experiment has been backed by a previous conformational search plus optimization of the lowest energy structures by ab initio and density functional quantum calculations. The three lowest-lying conformers that can interconvert to each other by simple bond rotations have been detected in the jet. Rotational parameters for all structures have been obtained, and methyl torsional barriers have been determined for the two lowest-lying rotamers. The lowest-lying structure of mephenesin is highly planar, with all carbon atoms lying nearly in the benzene ring plane, and is stabilized by the formation of cooperative intramolecular hydrogen bonding. An estimation of the relative abundance of the detected conformers indicates that the energetically most stable conformer will have an abundance near 80% at temperatures relevant for biological activity. PMID:24754523

  3. Multiple element airfoils optimized for maximum lift coefficient.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Chen, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Optimum airfoils in the sense of maximum lift coefficient are obtained for incompressible fluid flow at large Reynolds number. The maximum lift coefficient is achieved by requiring that the turbulent skin friction be zero in the pressure rise region on the airfoil upper surface. Under this constraint, the pressure distribution is optimized. The optimum pressure distribution is a function of Reynolds number and the trailing edge velocity. Geometries of those airfoils which will generate these optimum pressure distributions are obtained using a direct-iterative method which is developed in this study. This method can be used to design airfoils consisting of any number of elements. Numerical examples of one- and two-element airfoils are given. The maximum lift coefficients obtained range from 2 to 2.5.

  4. Underlying principle of efficient propulsion in flexible plunging foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao-Jue; He, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Xing

    2014-12-01

    Passive flexibility was found to enhance propulsive efficiency in swimming animals. In this study, we numerically investigate the roles of structural resonance and hydrodynamic wake resonance in optimizing efficiency of a flexible plunging foil. The results indicates that (1) optimal efficiency is not necessarily achieved when the driving frequency matches the structural eigenfrequency; (2) optimal efficiency always occurs when the driving frequency matches the wake resonant frequency of the time averaged velocity profile. Thus, the underlying principle of efficient propulsion in flexible plunging foil is the hydrodynamic wake resonance, rather than the structural resonance. In addition, we also found that whether the efficiency can be optimized at the structural resonant point depends on the strength of the leading edge vortex relative to that of the trailing edge vortex. The result of this work provides new insights into the role of passive flexibility in flapping-based propulsion.

  5. No difference in pre- and postexercise stretching on flexibility.

    PubMed

    Beedle, Barry B; Leydig, Summer N; Carnucci, Jennifer M

    2007-08-01

    According to the American College of Sports Medicine (1), there is limited information about when to stretch during an exercise session. The purpose of this study was to determine if the placement of static stretching, either before or after a workout, would affect flexibility in the hip, knee, and ankle. Thirty college-age men (n = 12) and women (n = 18) volunteered to participate. Nine were highly trained, 13 were moderately trained, and 8 were sedentary. Subjects participated in both treatments, which were randomly assigned and were 48-72 hours apart. In one treatment, subjects warmed-up first by walking on a treadmill for 5 minutes at approximately 50% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, and then performed 3 static stretches: quadriceps, hamstrings, and calf muscles. Each stretch was held 3 times, 15 seconds each. Next, flexibility measurements were determined for the hip, hamstrings, and ankle using a goniometer. The other treatment consisted of performing 20 minutes of walking or jogging at a moderate intensity, then the same stretching exercises were performed and the same flexibility measurements were taken. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.90-0.96. There were no significant differences in any of the flexibility measurements except for hip flexibility, which approached significance (p = 0.06) and therefore favored stretching after the workout. The placement of stretching, before or after a workout, does not make a difference in its effect on flexibility. PMID:17685710

  6. Room temperature synthesis of cobalt-manganese-nickel oxalates micropolyhedrons for high-performance flexible electrochemical energy storage device

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Zhao, Junhong; Xia, Jing; Wang, Lulu; Lai, Wen-Yong; Pang, Huan; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-manganese-nickel oxalates micropolyhedrons were successfully fabricated by a room temperature chemical co-precipitation method. Interestingly, the Co0.5Mn0.4Ni0.1C2O4*nH2O micropolyhedrons and graphene nanosheets have been successfully applied as the positive and negative electrode materials (a battery type Faradaic electrode and a capacitive electrode, respectively) for flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. More importantly, the as-assembled device achieved a maximum energy density of 0.46 mWh·cm−3, a decent result among devices with similar structures. The as-assembled device showed good flexibility, functioning well under both normal and bent conditions (0°–180°). The resulting device showed little performance decay even after 6000 cycles, which rendered the Co0.5Mn0.4Ni0.1C2O4*nH2O//Graphene device configuration a promising candidate for high-performance flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors in the field of high-energy-density energy storage devices. PMID:25705048

  7. Directly-Grown Hierarchical Carbon Nanotube@Polypyrrole Core-Shell Hybrid for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yesi, Yesi; Shown, Indrajit; Ganguly, Abhijit; Ngo, Trung Truc; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2016-02-19

    A hierarchical carbon nanotube-polypyrrole (CNT-PPy) core-shell composite was fabricated by growing CNTs directly on carbon cloth (CC) as a skeleton followed by electropolymerization of PPy with controlled polymerization time. Direct fabrication of electroactive (CNT-PPy) materials on the flexible CC electrode could reduce the interfacial resistance between the electrode and electrolyte and improve the ion diffusion. The supercapacitor electrode based on optimized PPy/CNT-CC exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, with the highest gravimetric capacitance being roughly 1038 F g(-1) per active mass of PPy and up to 486.1 F g(-1) per active mass of the PPy/CNT composite. Notably, excellent flexibility and cycle stability up to 10 000 cycles with only 18 % capacitance loss was achieved. At the same time, the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor (PPy/CNT-CC∥CNT-CC) shows the maximum power density of 10 962 W kg(-1) at an energy density of 3.9 Wh kg(-1) under the operating potential of 1.4 V. The overall high cycle stability and high performance of the fabricated PPy/CNT-CC flexible electrode is due to the novel binder-free direct growth process. PMID:26791424

  8. Room temperature synthesis of cobalt-manganese-nickel oxalates micropolyhedrons for high-performance flexible electrochemical energy storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Zhao, Junhong; Xia, Jing; Wang, Lulu; Lai, Wen-Yong; Pang, Huan; Huang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Cobalt-manganese-nickel oxalates micropolyhedrons were successfully fabricated by a room temperature chemical co-precipitation method. Interestingly, the Co0.5Mn0.4Ni0.1C2O4*nH2O micropolyhedrons and graphene nanosheets have been successfully applied as the positive and negative electrode materials (a battery type Faradaic electrode and a capacitive electrode, respectively) for flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. More importantly, the as-assembled device achieved a maximum energy density of 0.46 mWh.cm-3, a decent result among devices with similar structures. The as-assembled device showed good flexibility, functioning well under both normal and bent conditions (0°-180°). The resulting device showed little performance decay even after 6000 cycles, which rendered the Co0.5Mn0.4Ni0.1C2O4*nH2O//Graphene device configuration a promising candidate for high-performance flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors in the field of high-energy-density energy storage devices.

  9. Indium tin oxide modified transparent nanotube thin films as effective anodes for flexible organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jianfeng; Liu Jun; Wang, Lian; Marks, Tobin J.; Hu Liangbing; Gruener, George

    2008-08-25

    Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) modified single-walled carbon nanotube (SW-CNT) transparent electrodes are fabricated on flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates by stamp printing SW-CNT films, followed by room temperature ion-assisted deposition of ITO. Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) using such film as anodes exhibit superior performance versus CNT-only controls. Flexible PLEDs with the following structure: PET/CNT(30 nm)-ITO(45 nm)/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly (styrenesulfonate)/[poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co-N- (4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine)]+(4,4{sup '}-bis[(p-trichlorosilyl propylphenyl)-phenylamino]biphenyl)/[poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole)]/CsF/Al, achieve a maximum light output of 8900 cd/m{sup 2} with a current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A. Bending test comparisons with ITO/PET show the ITO modified CNT/PET electrodes to be far more mechanically flexible.

  10. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  11. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  12. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  13. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  14. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  15. Flexible pressure sensors for burnt skin patient monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Gwang-Wook; Kim, Se-Hoon; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2015-04-01

    To monitor hypertrophic scars in burnt skin we proposed and demonstrated a hybrid polymer/carbon tube-based flexible pressure sensor. To monitor the pressure on skin by measurement, we were focusing on the fabrication of a well-defined hybrid polydimethylsiloxsane/functionalized multi-walled carbon tube array formed on the patterned interdigital transducer in a controllable way for the application of flexible pressure sensing devices. As a result, the detection at the pressure of 20 mmHg is achieved, which is a suggested optimal value of resistance for sensing pressure. It should be noted that the achieved value of resistance at the pressure of 20 mmHg is highly desirable for the further development of sensitive flexible pressure sensors. In addition we demonstrate a feasibility of a wearable pressure sensor which can be in real-time detection of local pressure by wireless communication module. Keywords:

  16. Flexibility within the Rotor and Stators of the Vacuolar H+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chun Feng; Papachristos, Kostas; Rawson, Shaun; Huss, Markus; Wieczorek, Helmut; Paci, Emanuele; Trinick, John; Harrison, Michael A.; Muench, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    The V-ATPase is a membrane-bound protein complex which pumps protons across the membrane to generate a large proton motive force through the coupling of an ATP-driven 3-stroke rotary motor (V1) to a multistroke proton pump (Vo). This is done with near 100% efficiency, which is achieved in part by flexibility within the central rotor axle and stator connections, allowing the system to flex to minimise the free energy loss of conformational changes during catalysis. We have used electron microscopy to reveal distinctive bending along the V-ATPase complex, leading to angular displacement of the V1 domain relative to the Vo domain to a maximum of ~30°. This has been complemented by elastic network normal mode analysis that shows both flexing and twisting with the compliance being located in the rotor axle, stator filaments, or both. This study provides direct evidence of flexibility within the V-ATPase and by implication in related rotary ATPases, a feature predicted to be important for regulation and their high energetic efficiencies. PMID:24312643

  17. A Flexible Arrayed Eddy Current Sensor for Inspection of Hollow Axle Inner Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Zou, Cheng; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    A reliable and accurate inspection of the hollow axle inner surface is important for the safe operation of high-speed trains. In order to improve the reliability of the inspection, a flexible arrayed eddy current sensor for non-destructive testing of the hollow axle inner surface was designed, fabricated and characterized. The sensor, consisting of two excitation traces and 28 sensing traces, was developed by using the flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) technique to conform the geometric features of the inner surfaces of the hollow axles. The main innovative aspect of the sensor was the new arrangement of excitation/sensing traces to achieve a differential configuration. Finite element model was established to analyze sensor responses and to determine the optimal excitation frequency. Experimental validations were conducted on a specimen with several artificial defects. Results from experiments and simulations were consistent with each other, with the maximum relative error less than 4%. Both results proved that the sensor was capable of detecting longitudinal and transverse defects with the depth of 0.5 mm under the optimal excitation frequency of 0.9 MHz. PMID:27347952

  18. A Flexible Arrayed Eddy Current Sensor for Inspection of Hollow Axle Inner Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Zou, Cheng; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    A reliable and accurate inspection of the hollow axle inner surface is important for the safe operation of high-speed trains. In order to improve the reliability of the inspection, a flexible arrayed eddy current sensor for non-destructive testing of the hollow axle inner surface was designed, fabricated and characterized. The sensor, consisting of two excitation traces and 28 sensing traces, was developed by using the flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) technique to conform the geometric features of the inner surfaces of the hollow axles. The main innovative aspect of the sensor was the new arrangement of excitation/sensing traces to achieve a differential configuration. Finite element model was established to analyze sensor responses and to determine the optimal excitation frequency. Experimental validations were conducted on a specimen with several artificial defects. Results from experiments and simulations were consistent with each other, with the maximum relative error less than 4%. Both results proved that the sensor was capable of detecting longitudinal and transverse defects with the depth of 0.5 mm under the optimal excitation frequency of 0.9 MHz. PMID:27347952

  19. Swarming: flexible roaming plans.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Jonathan D; Harshey, Rasika M

    2013-03-01

    Movement over an agar surface via swarming motility is subject to formidable challenges not encountered during swimming. Bacteria display a great deal of flexibility in coping with these challenges, which include attracting water to the surface, overcoming frictional forces, and reducing surface tension. Bacteria that swarm on "hard" agar surfaces (robust swarmers) display a hyperflagellated and hyperelongated morphology. Bacteria requiring a "softer" agar surface (temperate swarmers) do not exhibit such a dramatic morphology. For polarly flagellated robust swarmers, there is good evidence that restriction of flagellar rotation somehow signals the induction of a large number of lateral flagella, but this scenario is apparently not relevant to temperate swarmers. Swarming bacteria can be further subdivided by their requirement for multiple stators (Mot proteins) or a stator-associated protein (FliL), secretion of essential polysaccharides, cell density-dependent gene regulation including surfactant synthesis, a functional chemotaxis signaling pathway, appropriate cyclic (c)-di-GMP levels, induction of virulence determinants, and various nutritional requirements such as iron limitation or nitrate availability. Swarming strategies are as diverse as the bacteria that utilize them. The strength of these numerous designs stems from the vantage point they offer for understanding mechanisms for effective colonization of surface niches, acquisition of pathogenic potential, and identification of environmental signals that regulate swarming. The signature swirling and streaming motion within a swarm is an interesting phenomenon in and of itself, an emergent behavior with properties similar to flocking behavior in diverse systems, including birds and fish, providing a convenient new avenue for modeling such behavior. PMID:23264580

  20. Swarming: Flexible Roaming Plans

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Movement over an agar surface via swarming motility is subject to formidable challenges not encountered during swimming. Bacteria display a great deal of flexibility in coping with these challenges, which include attracting water to the surface, overcoming frictional forces, and reducing surface tension. Bacteria that swarm on “hard” agar surfaces (robust swarmers) display a hyperflagellated and hyperelongated morphology. Bacteria requiring a “softer” agar surface (temperate swarmers) do not exhibit such a dramatic morphology. For polarly flagellated robust swarmers, there is good evidence that restriction of flagellar rotation somehow signals the induction of a large number of lateral flagella, but this scenario is apparently not relevant to temperate swarmers. Swarming bacteria can be further subdivided by their requirement for multiple stators (Mot proteins) or a stator-associated protein (FliL), secretion of essential polysaccharides, cell density-dependent gene regulation including surfactant synthesis, a functional chemotaxis signaling pathway, appropriate cyclic (c)-di-GMP levels, induction of virulence determinants, and various nutritional requirements such as iron limitation or nitrate availability. Swarming strategies are as diverse as the bacteria that utilize them. The strength of these numerous designs stems from the vantage point they offer for understanding mechanisms for effective colonization of surface niches, acquisition of pathogenic potential, and identification of environmental signals that regulate swarming. The signature swirling and streaming motion within a swarm is an interesting phenomenon in and of itself, an emergent behavior with properties similar to flocking behavior in diverse systems, including birds and fish, providing a convenient new avenue for modeling such behavior. PMID:23264580

  1. Electronic applications of flexible graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiangcheng; Chugh, Randy; Biller, Brian C.; Hoi, Yie Meng; Chung, D. D. L.

    2002-05-01

    Flexible graphite is effective for electronic applications, specifically electromagnetic interference (EMI) gasketing, resistive heating, thermoelectric-energy generation, and heat dissipation. It is comparable to or better than conductive-filled silicone materials for EMI gasketing. The shielding effectiveness reaches 125 dB. Flexible graphite as a heating element provides temperatures up to 980°C, response half-time down to 4 sec, and heat output at 60 sec up to 5600 J. The through-thickness, absolute thermoelectric power of flexible graphite is -2.6 µV/°C. Flexible graphite is effective as a thermal-interface material if the thickness is low (0.13 mm), the density is low (1.1 g/cm3), and the contact pressure is high (11.1 MPa). These applications make use of the flexibility and compliance of flexible graphite, in addition to its electronic and thermal behavior. Compliance is particularly important for the use of flexible graphite as interface materials, whether the interface is electrom agnetic, thermoelectric, or thermal.

  2. Duality in a maximum generalized entropy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Shinto; Komori, Osamu; Ohara, Atsumi

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a possible generalization for the maximum entropy principle. A class of generalized entropy is introduced by that of generator functions, in which the maximum generalized distribution model is explicitly derived including q-Gaussian distributions, Wigner semicircle distributions and Pareto distributions. We define a totally geodesic subspace in the total space of all probability density functions in a framework of information geometry. The model of maximum generalized entropy distributions is shown to be totally geodesic. The duality of the model and the estimation in the maximum generalized principle is elucidated to give intrinsic understandings from the point of information geometry.

  3. US objectives generally achieved at broadcasting satellite international conference. Improvements can help in future conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-08-01

    The implementation of broadcasting satellite service for the Western Hemisphere was planned. Broadcasting satellites transmit television programs and other information services from Earth orbit to home or office antennas. At the request of the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State and the Judiciary, GAO reviewed conference results as compared to established conference objectives and examined the interagency coordination of U.S. participation in this international conference. The United States basically achieved its two most important conference objectives: adopting a technically and procedurally flexible plan for broadcasting satellite service and obtaining a sufficient allocation of satellite orbit slots and frequencies to meet domestic needs. The U.S. was unable, however, to obtain agreement on adopting a maximum signal power level for satellites. The Department of State could improve its preparation, internal coordination, and administrative support for future international conferences and recommends actions to the Secretary of State to improve its international telecommunications activities.

  4. The joys and perils of flexible fitting.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Niels

    2014-01-01

    While performing their functions, biological macromolecules often form large, dynamically changing macromolecular assemblies. Only a relatively small number of such assemblies have been accessible to the atomic-resolution techniques X-ray crystallography and NMR. Electron microscopy in conjunction with image reconstruction has become the preferred alternative for revealing the structures of such macromolecular complexes. However, for most assemblies the achievable resolution is too low to allow accurate atomic modeling directly from the data. Yet, useful models often can be obtained by fitting atomic models of individual components into a low-resolution reconstruction of the entire assembly. Several algorithms for achieving optimal fits in this context were developed recently, many allowing considerable degrees of flexibility to account for binding-induced conformational changes of the assembly components. This chapter describes the advantages and potential pitfalls of these methods and puts them into perspective with alternative approaches such as iterative modular fitting of rigid-body domains. PMID:24446360

  5. Modular optical design for flexible beam expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, U.; Wickenhagen, S.

    2015-09-01

    Monolithic beam expansion elements, which can be used as a cascade and achieve construction lengths much smaller than those of conventional systems are presented. Furthermore, this system is diffraction-limited, and offers a high level of flexibility and continuous extensibility using new elements. The compensation for wavefront errors and divergence introduce by changing the wavelength away from the design wavelength is achieved by employing an add-on element, the SPA Waveλdapt, which enables the use of monolithic beam expanders from 500nm to 1600nm. We will present experimental results on the diffraction limited performance for some typical combinations out of the 230 possible setups. Furthermore, another module - a zoom lens - is introduced. Adding this element overcomes the discreet incrementation of the monolithic elements and allows for continuous enlargement from 1x to 32x.

  6. Balinese dance exercises improve the maximum aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Adiputra, N; Alex, P; Sutjana, D P; Tirtayasa, K; Manuaba, A

    1996-06-01

    The maximum aerobic capacity can be used to predict the maximum working capacity. The maximum working capacity plays an important role in achieving the best performance. Therefore, physical fitness program for maintaining maximum working capacity is a must. A study on the application of Balinese dance exercise was carried out. Sixty young male Balinese, aged from 17 to 19 years were used as subjects. They were divided into two groups: Experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) based on their VO2max. The EG participated in a program of Balinese dance exercise 3 x 50 min per week for 8 weeks. Pretest-posttest control group design was applied. The maximum aerobic capacity was measured, based on the Modified Harvard Step-up Test and nomogram of Astrand. The results are as follows: there is a very significant improvement of VO2max from 2.7 +/- 0.5 l/min or 51.1 +/- 9.1 ml/kg/min into 3.1 +/- 0.5 l/min or 58.9 +/- 9.8 ml/kg/min. Other parameters such as resting heart rate, blood pressure and percent body fat were decreased significantly. The study concludes that Balinese dance exercise could be used as a program for physical fitness maintenance. PMID:9551128

  7. Rolling-cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, D.R.

    1982-09-27

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping, is described. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  8. High performance flexible heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, R. M.; Gernert, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Phase I SBIR NASA program for developing and demonstrating high-performance flexible heat pipes for use in the thermal management of spacecraft is examined. The program combines several technologies such as flexible screen arteries and high-performance circumferential distribution wicks within an envelope which is flexible in the adiabatic heat transport zone. The first six months of work during which the Phase I contract goal were met, are described. Consideration is given to the heat-pipe performance requirements. A preliminary evaluation shows that the power requirement for Phase II of the program is 30.5 kilowatt meters at an operating temperature from 0 to 100 C.

  9. Flexibly guiding of acoustic waves by one-dimensional sonic crystal with omnidirectional bandgap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hai-Long; Ou-Yang, Shi-Liang; He, Zhaojian; Deng, Ke; Zhao, Heping

    2015-09-01

    An acoustic waveguide based on the omnidirectional reflection of one-dimensional (1D) sonic crystal (sc) is designed to realize the flexible guiding of sound waves. Numerical simulations indicate that high-efficiency transmission can be achieved at arbitrary bending angle and over a wide frequency range. Moreover, flexible waveguide branches can also be easily constructed by introducing more crystal structures into the waveguides. Owing to its designing flexibility, this waveguide would be very useful in various integrated applications based on SCs.

  10. A Neurobehavioral Model of Flexible Spatial Language Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinski, John; Schneegans, Sebastian; Sandamirskaya, Yulia; Spencer, John P.; Schoner, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    We propose a neural dynamic model that specifies how low-level visual processes can be integrated with higher level cognition to achieve flexible spatial language behaviors. This model uses real-word visual input that is linked to relational spatial descriptions through a neural mechanism for reference frame transformations. We demonstrate that…

  11. Flexible Work Arrangements: Accessibility in a University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafizad, Fleur; Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Attraction and retention of highly qualified employees has become an area of concern for Australian universities. It has been suggested that flexible work arrangements can be utilised to achieve this goal once the factors affecting their uptake have been identified. This mixed-method study of 495 academic and general staff at an Australian…

  12. Flexible Learning in a Digital World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty; Moonen, Jef

    2002-01-01

    Defines flexible learning and describes components of flexible learning in higher education, including technology, pedagogy or instructional approach, implementation strategies, and institutional framework. Considers factors constraining learning flexibility; changing student characteristics; and the need for lifelong learning, particularly in the…

  13. Interplanetary monitoring platform engineering history and achievements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    In the fall of 1979, last of ten Interplanetary Monitoring Platform Satellite (IMP) missions ended a ten year series of flights dedicated to obtaining new knowledge of the radiation effects in outer space and of solar phenomena during a period of maximum solar flare activity. The technological achievements and scientific accomplishments from the IMP program are described.

  14. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.29 Maximum draft. (a) Notwithstanding any provision herein, the...

  15. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  16. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  17. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  18. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  19. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  20. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  1. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  2. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  3. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  4. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  5. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  6. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  7. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...

  8. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...

  9. Does SAQ training improve the speed and flexibility of young soccer players? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojsa; Sekulić, Damir; James, Nic; Vučković, Goran

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12 week speed, agility and quickness (SAQ) training program on speed and flexibility in young soccer players. One hundred and thirty-two soccer players were randomly assigned to experimental (EG; n=66, mean±SD: age: 18.5±0.4 years (range 17-19 years); body mass: 71.30±5.93 kg; stature: 177.2±6.5 cm) and control groups (CG; n=66, mean±SD: age: 18.6±0.6 years (range 17-19 years); body mass: 70.63±4.87 kg; stature: 175.9±5.7 cm). The experimental group performed SAQ training whilst the control group undertook straight-line sprint training matched for volume and duration. Sprint performance was assessed using 5 and 10 m sprints and a further test including maximal speed, a 20 m sprint. Flexibility was assessed using sit and reach, V-sit and reach, leg lift from supine position and lateral leg lift while lying on the side tests. Sprints over 5, 10 and 20 m did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12, the 5m sprint had significantly improved (P<.05) in the SAQ training group compared to the control group (1.40±0.13 vs. 1.46±0.12s, respectively) although this improvement had a trivial effect size (ES=0.15). The 10 m sprint time had improved by 3.3% (P<.01) in the SAQ group with a moderate effect size (ES=0.66). No significant differences (P>.05) for all flexibility tests were found between experimental and control group at baseline and after the training programs. Consequently SAQ training was found to be an effective way of improving sprint time for short distances over 5 and 10 m but not over 20 m (where maximum speed was achieved) or flexibility. These results indicate that SAQ training may be more effective for improving sprint performance for some soccer players but more research is required to determine ideal training methods for improving acceleration and flexibility in young soccer players. PMID:25457418

  10. Photocatalytic reactor with flexible supports

    DOEpatents

    Jacoby, William A.; Blake, Daniel M.

    1995-01-01

    Organic pollutants and bioaerosols in a gaseous stream are oxidized by exposure to light (e.g., UV light) in the presence of semiconductor catalyst particles or coatings supported on flexible strips suspended in the gaseous stream.

  11. Photocatalytic reactor with flexible supports

    DOEpatents

    Jacoby, W.A.; Blake, D.M.

    1995-09-12

    Organic pollutants and bioaerosols in a gaseous stream are oxidized by exposure to light (e.g., UV light) in the presence of semiconductor catalyst particles or coatings supported on flexible strips suspended in the gaseous stream. 3 figs.

  12. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas. PMID:27276698

  13. Marine Technology: Diversity and Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Dale R.

    1973-01-01

    Training for a specific field must reflect the diversity of that field and also remain flexible enough to accommodate fluctuations in the job market and the field, as marine technology illustrates. (Editor)

  14. Flexible low-voltage organic integrated circuits with megahertz switching frequencies (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschieschang, Ute; Takimiya, Kazuo; Zaki, Tarek; Letzkus, Florian; Richter, Harald; Burghartz, Joachim N.; Klauk, Hagen

    2015-09-01

    A process for the fabrication of integrated circuits based on bottom-gate, top-contact organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) with channel lengths as short as 1 µm on flexible plastic substrates has been developed. In this process, all TFT layers (gate electrodes, organic semiconductors, source/drain contacts) are patterned with the help of high-resolution silicon stencil masks, thus eliminating the need for subtractive patterning and avoiding the exposure of the organic semiconductors to potentially harmful organic solvents or resists. The TFTs employ a low-temperature-processed gate dielectric that is sufficiently thin to allow the TFTs and circuits to operate with voltages of about 3 V. Using the vacuum-deposited small-molecule organic semiconductor 2,9-didecyl-dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (C10 DNTT), TFTs with an effective field-effect mobility of 1.2 cm2/Vs, an on/off current ratio of 107, a width-normalized transconductance of 1.2 S/m (with a standard deviation of 6%), and a signal propagation delay (measured in 11-stage ring oscillators) of 420 nsec per stage at a supply voltage of 3 V have been obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first time that megahertz operation has been achieved in flexible organic transistors at supply voltages of less than 10 V. In addition to flexible ring oscillators, we have also demonstrated a 6-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in a binary-weighted current-steering architecture, based on TFTs with a channel length of 4 µm and fabricated on a glass substrate. This DAC has a supply voltage of 3.3 V, a circuit area of 2.6 × 4.6 mm2, and a maximum sampling rate of 100 kS/s.

  15. A prototype of a flexible grid electrode to treat widespread superficial tumors by means of Electrochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Luca G.; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Forzan, Michele; Rossi, Carlo R.; Sieni, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, superficial chest wall recurrence from breast cancer can be effectively treated by means of electrochemotherapy, with the majority of patients achieving response to treatment. Nevertheless, tumor spread along superficial lymphatic vessels makes this peculiar type of tumor recurrence prone to involve large skin areas and difficult to treat. In these cases, electroporation with standard, small size needle electrodes can be time-consuming and produce an inhomogeneous coverage of the target area, ultimately resulting in patient under treatment. Materials and methods Authors designed and developed a prototype of a flexible grid electrode aimed at the treatment of large skin surfaces and manufactured a connection box to link the pulse applicator to a voltage pulse generator. Laboratory tests on potato tissue were performed in order to evaluate the electroporation effect, which was evaluated by observing color change of treated tissue. Results A device has been designed in order to treat chest wall recurrences from breast cancer. According to preliminary tests, the new flexible support of the electrode allows the adaptability to the surface to be treated. Moreover, the designed devices can be useful to treat a larger surface in 2–5 minutes. Conclusions Authors developed the prototype of a new pulse applicator aimed at the treatment of widespread superficial tumors. This flexible grid needle electrode was successfully tested on potato tissue and produced an electroporation effect. From a clinical point of view, the development of this device may shorten electrochemotherapy procedure thus allowing clinicians to administer electric pulses at the time of maximum tumor exposure to drugs. Moreover, since the treatment time is 2–5 min long, it could also reduce the time of anesthesia, thus improving patient recovery. PMID:27069449

  16. Magnetic field generated resistivity maximum in graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollam, J. A.; Kreps, L. W.; Rojeski, M.; Vold, T.; Devaty, R.

    1976-01-01

    In zero magnetic field, B, the electrical resistivity, rho(O,T) of highly oriented pyrolytic (polycrystalline) graphite drops smoothly with decreasing T, becoming constant below 4 K. However, in a fixed applied magnetic field B, the resistivity rho(B,T) goes through a maximum as a function of T, with larger maximum for larger B. The temperature of the maximum increases with B, but saturates to a constant value near 25 K (exact T depends on sample) at high B. In single crystal graphite a maximum in rho(B,T) as a function of T is also present, but has the effects of Landau level quantization superimposed. Several possible explanations for the rho(B,T) maximum are proposed, but a complete explanation awaits detailed calculations involving the energy band structure of graphite, and the particular scattering mechanisms involved.

  17. Dynamic response of flexible retaining walls

    SciTech Connect

    Younan, A.H.; Veletsos, A.S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.

    1997-01-01

    Making use of an extension of a recently proposed, relatively simple, approximate method of analysis, a critical evaluation is made of the response to horizontal ground shaking of flexible walls retaining a uniform, linear, viscoelastic stratum of constant thickness and semiinfinite extent in the horizontal direction. Both cantilever and top-supported walls are examined. Following a detailed description of the method and of its rate of convergence, comprehensive numerical solutions are presented that elucidate the action of the system and the effects of the various parameters involved. The parameters varied include the flexibility of the wall, the condition of top support, and the characteristics of the ground motion. The effects of both harmonic base motions and an actual earthquake record are examined. Special attention is paid to the effects of long-period, effectively static excitations. A maximum dynamic response is then expressed as the product of the corresponding static response and an appropriate amplification or deamplification factor. The response quantities examined include the displacements of the wall relative to the moving base, the dynamic wall pressures, and the total wall force, base shear and base moment.

  18. Noise suppression by flexible fan silencers

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, J.; Kelly, T.R.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results on noise testing of a fan only, as well as the results of a steel silencer and of flexible silencers that were connected directly to a fan. On-site facilities and free-field method set by the British Standards Institution were used to measure and then compare the fan only and different practical silencer configuration setups. In order to determine the fan-silencer combination that would give the maximum noise attenuation, total noise intensity, noise contributed to by the fan motor only, as well as aerodynamical noise created through air interacting with the fan parts were considered to obtain decibel readings for the octave bands. Subsequently, the optimal configuration found was the setup with flexible silencers on the fan inlet and the fan outlet. If only one silencer is used, it should be installed on the fan inlet. The aerodynamic noise affects the low frequencies. The flow noise is then overtaken at 1 kHz by the mechanical noise.

  19. Bioelectricity versus bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: is it worth being flexible?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is the most efficient crop for production of (1G) ethanol. Additionally, sugarcane bagasse can be used to produce (2G) ethanol. However, the manufacture of 2G ethanol in large scale is not a consolidated process yet. Thus, a detailed economic analysis, based on consistent simulations of the process, is worthwhile. Moreover, both ethanol and electric energy markets have been extremely volatile in Brazil, which suggests that a flexible biorefinery, able to switch between 2G ethanol and electric energy production, could be an option to absorb fluctuations in relative prices. Simulations of three cases were run using the software EMSO: production of 1G ethanol + electric energy, of 1G + 2G ethanol and a flexible biorefinery. Bagasse for 2G ethanol was pretreated with a weak acid solution, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, while 50% of sugarcane trash (mostly leaves) was used as surplus fuel. Results With maximum diversion of bagasse to 2G ethanol (74% of the total), an increase of 25.8% in ethanol production (reaching 115.2 L/tonne of sugarcane) was achieved. An increase of 21.1% in the current ethanol price would be enough to make all three biorefineries economically viable (11.5% for the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery). For 2012 prices, the flexible biorefinery presented a lower Internal Rate of Return (IRR) than the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery. The impact of electric energy prices (auction and spot market) and of enzyme costs on the IRR was not as significant as it would be expected. Conclusions For current market prices in Brazil, not even production of 1G bioethanol is economically feasible. However, the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery is closer to feasibility than the conventional 1G + electric energy industrial plant. Besides, the IRR of the 1G + 2G biorefinery is more sensitive with respect to the price of ethanol, and an increase of 11.5% in this value would be enough to achieve feasibility. The ability of the flexible biorefinery to take

  20. Flexible solar-array mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    One of the key elements of the flexible rolled-up solar array system is a mechanism to deploy, retract, and store the flexible solar-cell arrays. The selection of components, the design of the mechanism assembly, and the tests that were performed are discussed. During 6 months in orbit, all mission objectives were satisfied, and inflight performance has shown good correlation with preflight analyses and tests.

  1. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  2. Flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Schneemann, A; Bon, V; Schwedler, I; Senkovska, I; Kaskel, S; Fischer, R A

    2014-08-21

    Advances in flexible and functional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also called soft porous crystals, are reviewed by covering the literature of the five years period 2009-2013 with reference to the early pertinent work since the late 1990s. Flexible MOFs combine the crystalline order of the underlying coordination network with cooperative structural transformability. These materials can respond to physical and chemical stimuli of various kinds in a tunable fashion by molecular design, which does not exist for other known solid-state materials. Among the fascinating properties are so-called breathing and swelling phenomena as a function of host-guest interactions. Phase transitions are triggered by guest adsorption/desorption, photochemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Other important flexible properties of MOFs, such as linker rotation and sub-net sliding, which are not necessarily accompanied by crystallographic phase transitions, are briefly mentioned as well. Emphasis is given on reviewing the recent progress in application of in situ characterization techniques and the results of theoretical approaches to characterize and understand the breathing mechanisms and phase transitions. The flexible MOF systems, which are discussed, are categorized by the type of metal-nodes involved and how their coordination chemistry with the linker molecules controls the framework dynamics. Aspects of tailoring the flexible and responsive properties by the mixed component solid-solution concept are included, and as well examples of possible applications of flexible metal-organic frameworks for separation, catalysis, sensing, and biomedicine. PMID:24875583

  3. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  4. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Achieving production..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.4 Achieving production readiness. (a) In order to achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war,...

  5. Estimating the seasonal maximum light use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa

    2014-11-01

    Light use efficiency (LUE) is a key parameter in estimating gross primary production (GPP) based on global Earth-observation satellite data and model calculations. In current LUE-based GPP estimation models, the maximum LUE is treated as a constant for each biome type. However, the maximum LUE varies seasonally. In this study, seasonal maximum LUE values were estimated from the maximum incident LUE versus the incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the fraction of absorbed PAR. First, an algorithm to estimate maximum incident LUE was developed to estimate GPP capacity using a light response curve. One of the parameters required for the light response curve was estimated from the linear relationship of the chlorophyll index and the GPP capacity at a high PAR level of 2000 (µmolm-2s-1), and was referred to as" the maximum GPP capacity at 2000". The relationship was determined for six plant functional types: needleleaf deciduous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf evergreen trees, C3 grass, and crops. The maximum LUE values estimated in this study displayed seasonal variation, especially those for deciduous broadleaf forest, but also those for evergreen needleleaf forest.

  6. 40 CFR 142.61 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... level for fluoride. 142.61 Section 142.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride. (a) The Administrator, pursuant to section 1415(a)(1... means generally available for achieving compliance with the Maximum Contaminant Level for fluoride....

  7. 40 CFR 142.61 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... level for fluoride. 142.61 Section 142.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride. (a) The Administrator, pursuant to section 1415(a)(1... means generally available for achieving compliance with the Maximum Contaminant Level for fluoride....

  8. Shape optimization for maximum stability and dynamic stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szyszkowski, W.

    1990-01-01

    Any optimization of structures for maximum stability or for maximum dynamic stiffness deals with an eigenvalue problem. The goal of this optimization is to raise the lowest eigenvalue (or eigenvalues) of the problem to its highest (optimal) level at a constant volume of the structure. Likely the lowest eigenvalue may be either inherently multi-modal or it can become multi-modal as a result of the optimization process. The multimodeness introduces some ambiguity to the eigenvalue problem and make the optimization difficult to handle. Thus far, only the simplest cases of multi-modal structures have been effectively optimized using rather elaborate analytical methods. Numerous publications report design of a minimum volume structure with different eigenvalues constraints, in which, however, the modality of the problem is assumed a priori. The method presented here utilizes a multi-modal optimality criteria and allows for inclusion of an arbitrary number of buckling or vibrations modes which might influence the optimization process. The real multi-modality of the problem, that is the number of modes participating in the final optimal design is determined iteratively. Because of a natural use of the FEM technique the method is easy to program and might be helpful in design of large flexible space structures.

  9. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  10. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  11. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  12. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  13. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  14. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  8. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  9. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  10. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  13. Liquid plug propagation in flexible microchannels: A small airway model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Fujioka, H.; Bian, S.; Torisawa, Y.; Huh, D.; Takayama, S.; Grotberg, J. B.

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, we investigate the effect of wall flexibility on the plug propagation and the resulting wall stresses in small airway models with experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimentally, a flexible microchannel was fabricated to mimic the flexible small airways using soft lithography. Liquid plugs were generated and propagated through the microchannels. The local wall deformation is observed instantaneously during plug propagation with the maximum increasing with plug speed. The pressure drop across the plug is measured and observed to increase with plug speed, and is slightly smaller in a flexible channel compared to that in a rigid channel. A computational model is then presented to model the steady plug propagation through a flexible channel corresponding to the middle plane in the experimental device. The results show qualitative agreements with experiments on wall shapes and pressure drops and the discrepancies bring up interesting questions on current field of modeling. The flexible wall deforms inward near the plug core region, the deformation and pressure drop across the plug increase with the plug speed. The wall deformation and resulting stresses vary with different longitudinal tensions, i.e., for large wall longitudinal tension, the wall deforms slightly, which causes decreased fluid stress and stress gradients on the flexible wall comparing to that on rigid walls; however, the wall stress gradients are found to be much larger on highly deformable walls with small longitudinal tensions. Therefore, in diseases such as emphysema, with more deformable airways, there is a high possibility of induced injuries on lining cells along the airways because of larger wall stresses and stress gradients.

  14. Array of reconfigurable diffractive lens on flexible substrate (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghimi, Mohammad J.; Jiang, Hongrui

    2016-03-01

    We designed and fabricated microscale lens arrays on a flexible substrate. The flexibility of the substrate allows for wide field of view imaging as well as optical focus scanning. Fresnel zone plates (FZPs), which are compact and lightweight, are used as microlenses for focusing. The arrangement of FZPs on flexible substrate can be reconfigured to maximize FOV. Tunable focus can also be achieved by stretching the FZPs laterally. In addition, the lightweight microlenses can be actuated to scan the focus axially. The lenses have a wide range of applications including displays, contact lenses, microscopy, surveillance and optical communications. The diameter of the microlenses ranges from 100 to 500 µm. The thickness of the lenses is 100 µm. Unlike refractive and reflective lenses, the focusing capability of FZPs is achieved via diffraction. FZPs consist of alternating black and white zones to modulate the phase of the incident light. The light diffracted from edge of the regions to achieve multiple focus. Most of the energy is diffracted into the first focus. The dark regions are made of silicon nanowires which are highly absorbent for visible spectrum. Standard processes, including wet and dry etching, are used to etch silicon substrate and form nanowires. The white zones are designed for both reflective and transmissive lenses. The lenses are implemented on PDMS as flexible substrate. The silicon nanowires are embedded into PDMS so that the shape of individual lens as well as the arrangement of the array can be reconfigured. In this article, we report our design, fabrication process and experiments.

  15. Resistive switching of aluminum oxide for flexible memory

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sungho; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2008-06-02

    The unipolar resistive switching of the Al/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Al structure is investigated for nonvolatile memory. Following the production of aluminum oxide film (Al{sub x}O{sub y}) by plasma oxidation, a high ratio of on-state and off-state currents ({>=}10{sup 4}) is achieved, and characteristics of switching endurance are reported. Due to the good ductility of aluminum, the performance of resistive switching on a flexible substrate is not degraded by severe substrate bending. The low process temperature of the plasma oxidation process is advantageous for the fabrication of flexible electronic devices and modern interconnection processes.

  16. A spectrum-scan routing scheme in flexible optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Hua, Nan; Wan, Xin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhigang

    2011-12-01

    The routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) is one of the key problems in flexible optical networks. When in a gridless fashion, the shortest-path RSA algorithms have exponential computational complexity, and are thus not suitable to be employed in real networks. On the other hand, today most optical components cannot support fully gridless tunability, which also limits the application of gridless RSA schemes. In this paper, we propose a novel grid-based spectrum-scan routing (SSR) scheme in flexible optical networks. The SSR scheme achieves optimal routing with a polynomial computational complexity. Compared with other RSA schemes, SSR has shorter computation time, lower blocking probability, and higher resource utilization.

  17. A Flexible Variable Truncated Power Series Algebra in Zlib

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.T.; /SLAC

    2011-08-25

    Zlib is a numerical library for Truncated Power Series Algebra (TPSA) and Lie Algebra for application to nonlinear analysis of single particle dynamics. The first version was developed in 1990 with the use of the One-Step Index Pointers (OSIP's). The OSIP's form the Zlib nerve that offers optimal computation and alloworder grading as well as flexible initialization of the global number of variables for the TPSA. While the OSIP's are still kept for minimum index passing to achieve efficient computation, Zlib has been being upgraded to allow flexible and gradable local number of variables in each C++ object of the Truncated Power Series (Tps) class. Possible applications using Zlib are discussed.

  18. The Maximum Entropy Principle for Generalized Entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Makoto

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that Gibbs states and the Gaussian distribution are characterized by the maximum entropy principle. In this paper we discuss probability distributions which maximize generalized entropies including Rényi's and Tsal-lis's.

  19. Limitations to maximum running speed on flat curves.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Hui; Kram, Rodger

    2007-03-01

    Why is maximal running speed reduced on curved paths? The leading explanation proposes that an increase in lateral ground reaction force necessitates a decrease in peak vertical ground reaction force, assuming that maximum leg extension force is the limiting factor. Yet, no studies have directly measured these forces or tested this critical assumption. We measured maximum sprint velocities and ground reaction forces for five male humans sprinting along a straight track and compared them to sprints along circular tracks of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 m radii. Circular track sprint trials were performed either with or without a tether that applied centripetal force to the center of mass. Sprinters generated significantly smaller peak resultant ground reaction forces during normal curve sprinting compared to straight sprinting. This provides direct evidence against the idea that maximum leg extension force is always achieved and is the limiting factor. Use of the tether increased sprint speed, but not to expected values. During curve sprinting, the inside leg consistently generated smaller peak forces compared to the outside leg. Several competing biomechanical constraints placed on the stance leg during curve sprinting likely make the inside leg particularly ineffective at generating the ground reaction forces necessary to attain maximum velocities comparable to straight path sprinting. The ability of quadrupeds to redistribute function across multiple stance legs and decouple these multiple constraints may provide a distinct advantage for turning performance. PMID:17337710

  20. Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1983-08-01

    The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

  1. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  2. Flexible Cryogenic Heat Pipe Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A heat pipe was designed for operation in the 100 - 200 K temperature range with maximum heat transport as a primary design goal; another designed for operation in the 15 - 100 K temperature range with maximum flexibility as a design goal. Optimum geometry and materials for the container and wicking systems were determined. The high power (100 - 200 K) heat pipe was tested with methane at 100 - 140 K, and test data indicated only partial priming with a performance limit of less than 50 percent of theoretical. A series of tests were conducted with ammonia at approximately 280 K to determine the performance under varying fluid charge and test conditions. The low temperature heat pipe was tested with oxygen at 85 - 95 K and with methanol at 295 - 315 K. Performance of the low temperature heat pipe was below theoretical predictions. Results of the completed testing are presented and possible performance limitation mechanisms are discussed. The lower-than-expected performance was felt to be due to small traces of non-condensible gases which prevented the composite wick from priming.

  3. Paper-Thin Coating Offers Maximum Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wessex Incorporated has recently taken a technology that was originally developed for NASA as a protective coating for ceramic materials used in heatshields for space vehicles, and modified it for use in applications such as building materials, machinery, and transportation. The technology, developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a protective coating for flexible ceramic composites (PCC), is environmentally safe, water-based, and contains no solvents. Many other flame-retardant materials contain petroleum-based components, which can produce toxic smoke under flame. Wessex versions of PCC can be used to shield ceramics, wood, plasterboard, steel, plastics, fiberglass, and other materials from catastrophic fires. They are extraordinarily tough and exhibit excellent resistance to thermal shock, vibration, abrasion, and mechanical damage. One thin layer of coating provides necessary protection and allows for flexibility while avoiding excessive weight disadvantages. The coating essentially reduces the likelihood of the underlying material becoming so hot that it combusts and thus inhibits the "flashover" phenomenon from occurring.

  4. Flexible fibers in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhille, Gautier; Brouzet, Christophe; Le Gal, Patrice; Irphe Team

    2014-11-01

    We describe, for the first time, an experiment devoted to the study of the spatial conformation of a flexible fiber in a turbulent flow. We propose a model for the transition from rigid to flexible regimes as the intensity of turbulence is increased or the elastic energy of the fiber is decreased. This transition occurs for a fiber typical length which is observed experimentally and recovered by our analysis. We also demonstrate that the conformations of flexible fibers in a turbulent flow are analog to conformations of flexible polymers in a good solvent. This last result opens some new and creative ways to model flexible fiber distortions in turbulent flows while addressing fundamental problems in polymer dynamics. This work has been carried out in the framework of the Labex MEC Project (No. ANR-10-LABX-0092) and of the A*MIDEX Project (No. ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02), funded by the `Investissements d'Avenir' French Government program managed by the French National Research.

  5. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  6. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-06-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters.

  7. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Howe, Jacob N W; Piotrowski, Alexander M; Noble, Taryn L; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M; Bayon, Germain

    2016-01-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ(13)C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters. PMID:27256826

  8. Peyronie's Reconstruction for Maximum Length and Girth Gain: Geometrical Principles

    PubMed Central

    Egydio, Paulo H.; Sansalone, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    Peyronie's disease has been associated with penile shortening and some degree of erectile dysfunction. Surgical reconstruction should be based on giving a functional penis, that is, rectifying the penis with rigidity enough to make the sexual intercourse. The procedure should be discussed preoperatively in terms of length and girth reconstruction in order to improve patient satisfaction. The tunical reconstruction for maximum penile length and girth restoration should be based on the maximum length of the dissected neurovascular bundle possible and the application of geometrical principles to define the precise site and size of tunical incision and grafting procedure. As penile rectification and rigidity are required to achieve complete functional restoration of the penis and 20 to 54% of patients experience associated erectile dysfunction, penile straightening alone may not be enough to provide complete functional restoration. Therefore, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, self-injection, or penile prosthesis may need to be added in some cases. PMID:19081785

  9. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-01-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial–interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters. PMID:27256826

  10. An Improved Forecasting Method of Sunspot Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Z.; Tian, L.; Han, Y.; Wang, B.; Han, Y.

    2015-12-01

    It has been paid more and more attention for forecasting sunspot maximum of future solar cycle in recent decades, and a variety of forecasting methods have been studied. However, to make an accurate prediction is still very difficult due to the complexities of the characteristics of solar activity. Some authors summerized a variety of methods for the maximum predictions of 22nd, 23rd, 24th solar cycles, the incomplete statistics are 63, 54 and 75 cases respectively, results of the methods, which the difference between forecasting and observed values within the range of ±15%, are 27.0%, 25.9% and 24.3% respectively. Using the 13 points smoothed value of monthly sunspot numbers, we studied correlation between sunspot number rising rate of the first 24 months of the solar cycle and the coming cycle maximum, published forecasting result that the maximum value was 139.2 ± 18.8 for 23rd solar cycle (Han et al., 2000), and the observed value is 120.8, the error is about 15.2%. The present paper describes our improved forecasting methods. First, Vondrak smoothing method is used to deal with the monthly sunspot numbers. It is studied that the relationship between the rise rate of earlier months of sunspot numbers of this smoothed sequence and the coming maximum value in each solar cycles. The results show that the first 22, 23, 24 months rise rate of sunspot numbers are highly related with the coming maximum values, and simulated prediction of maximum for 22~24 cycles show that using the 22-month rise rate of three solar cycles, the maximum forecasting error is about 13.2%, using 23-month rise rate, the maximum error is about 11.2%, while using 24-month rise rate, the maximum error is only about 9.3%. The new method not only improves the forecasting accuracy but also can make the forecasting time in advance at least half a year than the common method using 13 points monthly smoothed value.

  11. Fabrication, characterization and applications of flexible vertical InGaN micro-light emitting diode arrays.

    PubMed

    Tian, Pengfei; McKendry, Jonathan J D; Gu, Erdan; Chen, Zhizhong; Sun, Yongjian; Zhang, Guoyi; Dawson, Martin D; Liu, Ran

    2016-01-11

    Flexible vertical InGaN micro-light emitting diode (micro-LED) arrays have been fabricated and characterized for potential applications in flexible micro-displays and visible light communication. The LED epitaxial layers were transferred from initial sapphire substrates to flexible AuSn substrates by metal bonding and laser lift off techniques. The current versus voltage characteristics of flexible micro-LEDs degraded after bending the devices, but the electroluminescence spectra show little shift even under a very small bending radius 3 mm. The high thermal conductivity of flexible metal substrates enables high thermal saturation current density and high light output power of the flexible micro-LEDs, benefiting the potential applications in flexible high-brightness micro-displays and high-speed visible light communication. We have achieved ~40 MHz modulation bandwidth and 120 Mbit/s data transmission speed for a typical flexible micro-LED. PMID:26832299

  12. Analyses to improve operational flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Trikouros, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    Operational flexibility is greatly enhanced if the technical bases for plant limits and design margins are fully understood, and the analyses necessary to evaluate the effect of plant modifications or changes in operating modes on these parameters can be performed as required. If a condition should arise that might jeopardize a plant limit or reduce operational flexibility, it would be necessary to understand the basis for the limit or the specific condition limiting operational flexibility and be capable of performing a reanalysis to either demonstrate that the limit will not be violated or to change the limit. This paper provides examples of GPU Nuclear efforts in this regard. Examples of Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island operating experiences are discussed.

  13. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  14. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  15. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  16. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  17. Nursing shortages: let's be flexible.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Christine; Reading, Sonya

    2002-10-01

    The following paper is a report outlining a significant work pattern change in an acute cardiac ward at a large Brisbane-based private hospital. The nursing staff expressed the desire for more flexible rostering and the opportunity to work 12-hour shifts. After agreement was reached between the hospital, the union and the Industrial Relations Board, guidelines were put in place and a Flexible Rostering System was proposed and trialed. An 80% consensus of staff was required both to proceed with the trial and to implement any permanent changes. Initially, the trial was conducted for three months and extended to six months. The shifts trialed were between four and 12 hours in length with varied starting and finishing times. The Flexible Rostering System was evaluated using feedback from staff surveys and the results of a staff vote. In addition, patient feedback, incident reports, financial and managerial evaluation of staff costs, hours per patient day utilised, sick leave, and the use of permanent staff for voluntary extra shifts were also monitored. The outcome of the trial was positive with over 80% of staff voting to implement the Flexible Rostering System permanently. A significant reduction in sick leave of 41% and improved retention of skilled registered nursing staff was noted. There was no increase in the number of incident reports or patient complaints. Both patients and nurses commented on the improved continuity of care. Salaries and wages were within budget. Staff surveys showed positive feedback such as increased morale, increased flexibility with rosters, decreased fatigue levels, improved patient assessment on night duty and an increase in number of days off. In conclusion, the Flexible Rostering System has been accepted as a positive change for staff and is cost effective for the hospital. In light of nursing shortages, the outcome of this trial cannot be ignored. PMID:12539924

  18. Evaluation of curving characteristics of flexible liquid crystal displays fabricated using polycarbonate substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Akihito; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Fujikake, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The improvement of the contrast ratio of flexible liquid crystal displays (LCDs) fabricated using plastic substrates in a curved state is an important problem to achieve high-quality flexible LCDs. In this study, we evaluated the distributions of in-plane phase retardation and slow axis direction of polycarbonate substrates and the effects of curvature on the electro-optical properties of flexible LCDs. As a result, we clarified that the polycarbonate substrates have high uniformity in the in-plane phase retardation and slow axis direction, and that the change in the phase retardation of the polycarbonate substrate caused by the curvature deformation has a small effect on the electro-optical characteristics of flexible LCDs. We successfully achieved a high contrast ratio of 1042:1 by fabricating the device using polycarbonate substrates. This result indicates that it is possible to realize high-quality images in flexible LCDs fabricated using polycarbonate substrates even in the curved state.

  19. Flexible structure experiments at JPL and WPAFB - H-infinity controller designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buddie, Scott A.; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Ozguner, Umit; Smith, Malcolm C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe some control system experiments which were carried out on flexible structure facilities at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). They document some recent design studies for two contrasting flexible structure facilities. The first facility was the JPL/AFAL flexible antenna in Pasadena, California. The second was the WPAFB 12-meter cantilever truss in Dayton, Ohio. Each structure possessed a number of flexible modes of vibration which were lightly damped. The purpose of the experiments was to achieve active damping of the flexible modes via a digital control system. The feedback controllers were designed using the H-infinity technique of weighted gap optimization to increase the structural damping and achieve robust control.

  20. [Flexibility competencies: emotional organization management].

    PubMed

    Caballero Muñoz, Domingo; Blanco Prieto, Antonio

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the transferral of flexibility from contemporary organizations to workers. Through the approach of management by competencies, organizations try to develop in their workers behaviours that are related to efficient job performance. In order to appraise the importance of this approach, we used a critical-rational perspective to discuss the productivity demands that are characteristic of advanced industrial societies. The article shows how the link between workers' flexibility management and their emotional competencies affects their lives, which, like the organizations, should be versatile and adaptable to change. PMID:17959116

  1. Flexible Dermal Armor in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2012-04-01

    Many animals possess dermal armor, which acts primarily as protection against predators. We illustrate this through examples from both our research and the literature: alligator, fish (alligator gar, arapaima, and Senegal bichir), armadillo, leatherback turtle, and a lizard, the Gila monster. The dermal armor in these animals is flexible and has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining mineralized units (scales, tiles, or plates). This combination significantly increases the strength and flexibility in comparison with a simple monolithic mineral composite or rigid dermal armor. This dermal armor is being studied for future bioinspired armor applications providing increased mobility.

  2. Flexible graphene based microwave attenuators.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kisik; Ju Park, Yong; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Min, Byung-Wook

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate flexible 3 dB and 6 dB microwave attenuators using multilayer graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition method. On the basis of the characterized results of multilayer graphene and graphene-Au ohmic contacts, the graphene attenuators are designed and measured. The flexible graphene-based attenuators have 3 dB and 6 dB attenuation with a return loss of less than -15 dB at higher than 5 GHz. The devices have shown durability in a bending cycling test of 100 times. The circuit model of the attenuator based on the characterized results matches the experimental results well. PMID:25590144

  3. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  4. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war, the... power, fuel, and water, or on long-distance communications; with spare replacements for...

  5. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war, the... power, fuel, and water, or on long-distance communications; with spare replacements for...

  6. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war, the... power, fuel, and water, or on long-distance communications; with spare replacements for...

  7. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war, the... power, fuel, and water, or on long-distance communications; with spare replacements for...

  8. Response of long, flexible cantilever beams applied root motions. [spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralich, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an analysis of the response of long, flexible cantilever beams to applied root rotational accelerations. Maximum values of deformation, slope, bending moment, and shear are found as a function of magnitude and duration of acceleration input. Effects of tip mass and its eccentricity and rotatory inertia on the response are also investigated. It is shown that flexible beams can withstand large root accelerations provided the period of applied acceleration can be kept small relative to the beam fundamental period.

  9. Multifunctional, flexible electronic systems based on engineered nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hyunhyub; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Zhang, Xiaobo; Javey, Ali

    2012-08-01

    The development of flexible electronic systems has been extensively researched in recent years, with the goal of expanding the potential scope and market of modern electronic devices in the areas of computation, communications, displays, sensing and energy. Uniquely, the use of soft polymeric substrates enables the incorporation of advanced features beyond mechanical bendability and stretchability. In this paper, we describe several functionalities which can be achieved using engineered nanostructured materials. In particular, reversible binding, self-cleaning, antireflective and shape-reconfigurable properties are introduced for the realization of multifunctional, flexible electronic devices. Examples of flexible systems capable of spatial mapping and/or responding to external stimuli are also presented as a new class of user-interactive devices.

  10. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    So, Hye-Mi; Sim, Jin Woo; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun; Chang, Won Seok

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate.

  11. A pseudo-single-crystalline germanium film for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, H.; Yamada, S.; Kanashima, T.; Hamaya, K.; Kasahara, K.; Park, J.-H.; Miyao, M.; Kudo, K.; Okamoto, H.; Moto, K.; Tsunoda, I.

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate large-area (∼600 μm), (111)-oriented, and high-crystallinity, i.e., pseudo-single-crystalline, germanium (Ge) films at 275 °C, where the temperature is lower than the softening temperature of a flexible substrate. A modulated gold-induced layer exchange crystallization method with an atomic-layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier and amorphous-Ge/Au multilayers is established. From the Raman measurements, we can judge that the crystallinity of the obtained Ge films is higher than those grown by aluminum-induced-crystallization methods. Even on a flexible substrate, the pseudo-single-crystalline Ge films for the circuit with thin-film transistor arrays can be achieved, leading to high-performance flexible electronics based on an inorganic-semiconductor channel.

  12. Development of intelligent robots - Achievements and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitzan, D.

    1985-03-01

    A flexible, intelligent robot is regarded as a general purpose machine system that may include effectors, sensors, computers, and auxiliary equipment and, like a human, can perform a variety of tasks under unpredictable conditions. Development of intelligent robots is essential for increasing the growth rate of today's robot population in industry and elsewhere. Robotics research and development topics include manipulation, end effectors, mobility, sensing (noncontact and contact), adaptive control, robot programming languages, and manufacturing process planning. Past achievements and current issues related to each of these topics are described briefly.

  13. Maximum modulation of plasmon-guided modes by graphene gating.

    PubMed

    Radko, Ilya P; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Grigorenko, Alexander N

    2016-04-18

    The potential of graphene in plasmonic electro-optical waveguide modulators has been investigated in detail by finite-element method modelling of various widely used plasmonic waveguiding configurations. We estimated the maximum possible modulation depth values one can achieve with plasmonic devices operating at telecom wavelengths and exploiting the optical Pauli blocking effect in graphene. Conclusions and guidelines for optimization of modulation/intrinsic loss trade-off have been provided and generalized for any graphene-based plasmonic waveguide modulators, which should help in consideration and design of novel active-plasmonic devices. PMID:27137265

  14. Cell Development obeys Maximum Fisher Information

    PubMed Central

    Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10μm and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6μm. The NM contains ≈ 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order δI = 0 and approximate 2nd-order δ2I ≈ 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1–4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F ≈1016 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL → IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information → non-equilibrium, one condition for life. PMID:23747917

  15. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  16. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos O; Mcdonough, John; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at 0.25 A$g1 achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F$g1 on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to 0.43 F$cm2.

  17. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos R.; McDonough, John K.; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-10-20

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at ~0.25 A·g⁻¹ achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F·g⁻¹ on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to ~0.43 F·cm⁻².

  18. Three-dimensional, flexible graphene bioelectronics.

    PubMed

    Chun, SungGyu; Choi, Jonghyun; Ashraf, Ali; Nam, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    We report 3-dimensional (3D) graphene-based biosensors fabricated via 3D transfer of monolithic graphene-graphite structures. This mechanically flexible all-carbon structure is a prospective candidate for intimate 3D interfacing with biological systems. Monolithic graphene-graphite structures were synthesized using low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process relying on the heterostructured metal catalyst layers. Nonplanar substrates and wet-transfer method were used with a thin Au film as a transfer layer to achieve the 3D graphene structure. Instead of the typical wet-etching method, vapor-phase etching was performed to minimize the delamination of the graphene while removing the transfer layer. We believe that the monolithic graphene-graphite synthesis combined with the conformal 3D transfer will pave the way for the 3D conformal sensing capability as well as the intracellular recording of living cells in the future. PMID:25571182

  19. A Flexible Turbulent Vector Field Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassi, A.; Davis, A.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis and generation of turbulent vector fields is a necessity in many areas, such as Atmospheric Science. A candidate model of vector field must be flexible enough to tune some features, such as the spacial distribution of vortices, sinks and sources, according to physical measures. To achieve that goal, we propose a model that depends upon a given matricial function called "topolet" and a law of random vectors family. This model has a hierarchical structure. Its spinal column is a tree: the encoding tree of the domain where the vector field lives. The sets of vortices, sinks and sources are driven by some Bernouilli subtrees, directly giving their fractal dimension. At each node of the tree is attached a rate of energy loose giving the spectral slope. All those quantities are independantly identifiable on the base of mathematical proofs. A primitive version of this model have been proposed for generating clouds.

  20. Actuator Grouping Optimization on Flexible Space Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jeffrey R.; Wang, K. W.; Fang, Houfei; Quijano, Ubaldo

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid advances in deployable membrane and mesh antenna technologies, the feasibility of developing large, lightweight reflectors has greatly improved. In order to achieve the required surface accuracy, precision surface control is needed on these lightweight reflectors. For this study, an analytical model is shown which combines a flexible Kapton reflector with Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) actuators for surface control. Surface errors are introduced that are similar to real world scenarios, and a least squares control algorithm is developed for surface control. Experimental results on a 2.4 meter reflector show that while the analytical reflector model is generally correct, due to idiosyncrasies in the reflector it cannot be used for online control. A new method called the En Mass Elimination algorithm is used to determine the optimal grouping of actuators when the number of actuators in the system exceeds the number of power supplies available.

  1. Flexible Microstrip Circuits for Superconducting Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, James; Mateo, Jennette

    2013-01-01

    Flexible circuits with superconducting wiring atop polyimide thin films are being studied to connect large numbers of wires between stages in cryogenic apparatus with low heat load. The feasibility of a full microstrip process, consisting of two layers of superconducting material separated by a thin dielectric layer on 5 mil (approximately 0.13 mm) Kapton sheets, where manageable residual stress remains in the polyimide film after processing, has been demonstrated. The goal is a 2-mil (approximately 0.051-mm) process using spin-on polyimide to take advantage of the smoother polyimide surface for achieving highquality metal films. Integration of microstrip wiring with this polyimide film may require high-temperature bakes to relax the stress in the polyimide film between metallization steps.

  2. Deceit: A flexible distributed file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Alex; Birman, Kenneth; Marzullo, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Deceit, a distributed file system (DFS) being developed at Cornell, focuses on flexible file semantics in relation to efficiency, scalability, and reliability. Deceit servers are interchangeable and collectively provide the illusion of a single, large server machine to any clients of the Deceit service. Non-volatile replicas of each file are stored on a subset of the file servers. The user is able to set parameters on a file to achieve different levels of availability, performance, and one-copy serializability. Deceit also supports a file version control mechanism. In contrast with many recent DFS efforts, Deceit can behave like a plain Sun Network File System (NFS) server and can be used by any NFS client without modifying any client software. The current Deceit prototype uses the ISIS Distributed Programming Environment for all communication and process group management, an approach that reduces system complexity and increases system robustness.

  3. Flexible operability and amplification of gray pulses.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingliang; Zhang, Shumin; Han, Mengmeng; Zhang, Huaxing; Wen, Fang; Yang, Zhenjun

    2014-07-15

    We have investigated experimentally the flexible production and amplification of gray pulses for the first time to our knowledge. Switchable wavelengths, tunable pulse-widths, and adjustable contrasts have all been obtained in a fiber laser. Amplification of gray pulses was also experimentally investigated in detail. The contrast of the pulses could also be increased in an amplifier. The robust stability that results from the interactions between adjacent harmonic mode locking counterparts of gray pulses was found to last for up to ten hours. To the best of our knowledge, the gray pulses trains we have generated are the most stable achieved to date in an all-fiber laser system. This finding can be used as a guide for the establishment of robust gray pulses as laser sources. PMID:25121665

  4. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K.; Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A.

    2001-11-06

    coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the

  5. Surface tension maximum of liquid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Hasegawa, Syuichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Okuda, Yuichi

    2000-07-01

    The surface tension of liquid 3He was measured using the capillary-rise method. Suzuki et al. have reported that its temperature dependence was almost quenched below 120 mK. Here we have examined it with higher precision and found that it has a small maximum around 100 mK. The amount of the maximum is about 3×10 -4 as a fraction of the surface tension at 0 K. The density of liquid 3He increases with temperature by about 5×10 -4 in Δ ρ/ ρ between 0 and 100 mK. This density change could be one of the reasons of the surface tension maximum around 100 mK.

  6. The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2012-12-01

    Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.

  7. Nonmagnetic rigid and flexible outer sheath with pneumatic interlocking mechanism for minimally invasive surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiromasa; Zuo, Siyang; Masamune, Ken; Liao, Hongen; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2009-01-01

    We developed a nonmagnetic rigid and flexible outer sheath with pneumatic interlocking mechanism using flexible toothed links and a wire-driven bending distal end. The outer sheath can be switched between rigid and flexible modes easily depending on surgical scenes, and the angle of its distal end can be controlled by three nylon wires. All components of flexible parts are made of MRI-compatible nonmagnetic plastics. We manufactured the device with 300-mm long, 16-mm outer diameter, 7-mm inner diameter and 90-mm bending distal end. Holding power of the device in rigid mode was maximum 3.6 N, which was sufficient for surgical tasks in body cavity. In vivo experiment using a swine, our device performed smooth insertion of a flexible endoscope and a biopsy forceps into reverse side of the liver, intestines and spleen with a curved path. In conclusion, our device shows availability of secure approach of surgical instruments into deep cavity. PMID:20426015

  8. The phase behavior of linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids and the solubility of hard spheres in hard-sphere chain fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzún, Bernardo; van Westen, Thijs; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.

    2013-05-01

    The liquid crystal phase behavior of linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids and the solubility of hard spheres in hard-sphere chain fluids are studied by constant pressure Monte Carlo simulations. An extensive study on the phase behavior of linear fluids with a length of 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 20 beads is carried out. The phase behavior of partially flexible fluids with a total length of 8, 10, 14, and 15 beads and with different lengths for the linear part is also determined. A precise description of the reduced pressure and of the packing fraction change at the isotropic-nematic coexistence was achieved by performing long simulation runs. For linear fluids, a maximum in the isotropic to nematic packing fraction change is observed for a chain length of 15 beads. The infinite dilution solubility of hard spheres in linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids is calculated by the Widom test-particle insertion method. To identify the effect of chain connectivity and molecular anisotropy on free volume, solubility is expressed relative to that of hard spheres in a hard sphere fluid at same packing fraction as relative Henry's law constants. A linear relationship between relative Henry's law constants and packing fraction is observed for all linear fluids. Furthermore, this linearity is independent of liquid crystal ordering and seems to be independent of chain length for linear chains of 10 beads and longer. The same linear relationship was observed for the solubility of hard spheres in nematic forming partially flexible fluids for packing fractions up to a value slightly higher than the nematic packing fraction at the isotropic-nematic coexistence. At higher packing fractions, the small flexibility of these fluids seems to improve solubility in comparison with the linear fluids.

  9. A Deterministic Approximation Algorithm for Maximum 2-Path Packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, Ruka; Chen, Zhi-Zhong

    This paper deals with the maximum-weight 2-path packing problem (M2PP), which is the problem of computing a set of vertex-disjoint paths of length 2 in a given edge-weighted complete graph so that the total weight of edges in the paths is maximized. Previously, Hassin and Rubinstein gave a randomized cubic-time approximation algorithm for M2PP which achieves an expected ratio of 35/67 - ε ≈ 0.5223 - ε for any constant ε > 0. We refine their algorithm and derandomize it to obtain a deterministic cubic-time approximation algorithm for the problem which achieves a better ratio (namely, 0.5265 - ε for any constant ε > 0).

  10. Porous dimanganese trioxide microflowers derived from microcoordinations for flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Huan; Li, Xinran; Li, Bing; Zhang, Yizhou; Zhao, Qunxing; Lai, Wen-Yong; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Dimanganese trioxide microflowers are easily obtained from a Mn(ii) 8-hydroxyquinoline microcoordination after calcination in air. We also look into the possible formation mechanism of the flower-like morphology, and find that the reaction time affects the morphology of the coordination. Furthermore, the as-prepared porous Mn2O3 microflowers are made of many nanoplates which form many nanogaps and nanochannels. Interestingly, the assembled electrode based on the as-prepared porous Mn2O3 microflowers proves to be a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. The electrode shows a specific capacitance of 994 F g-1, which can work well even after 4000 cycles at 0.75 A g-1. More importantly, the porous Mn2O3 microflowers and activated carbons are assembled into a high-performance flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor with a specific capacitance of 312.5 mF cm-2. The cycle test shows that the device can offer 95.6% capacity of the initial capacitance at 2.0 mA cm-2 after 5000 cycles with little decay. The maximum energy density of the device can achieve 6.56 mWh cm-3 and the maximum power density can also achieve 283.5 mW cm-3, which are among the best results for manganese based materials.Dimanganese trioxide microflowers are easily obtained from a Mn(ii) 8-hydroxyquinoline microcoordination after calcination in air. We also look into the possible formation mechanism of the flower-like morphology, and find that the reaction time affects the morphology of the coordination. Furthermore, the as-prepared porous Mn2O3 microflowers are made of many nanoplates which form many nanogaps and nanochannels. Interestingly, the assembled electrode based on the as-prepared porous Mn2O3 microflowers proves to be a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. The electrode shows a specific capacitance of 994 F g-1, which can work well even after 4000 cycles at 0.75 A g-1. More importantly, the porous Mn2O3 microflowers and activated carbons are

  11. Maximum likelihood clustering with dependent feature trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The decomposition of mixture density of the data into its normal component densities is considered. The densities are approximated with first order dependent feature trees using criteria of mutual information and distance measures. Expressions are presented for the criteria when the densities are Gaussian. By defining different typs of nodes in a general dependent feature tree, maximum likelihood equations are developed for the estimation of parameters using fixed point iterations. The field structure of the data is also taken into account in developing maximum likelihood equations. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed multispectral scanner imagery data are included.

  12. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  13. Flexibility in Language and Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Many words can be used flexibly: a book can be physically heavy, but also have provocative content, a "chicken" might live in a coop, but could also be tasty to eat. What do the uses of "polysemous" words such as these reveal about the structure of language and thought? Paper 1 examined 4-year-old children's representations of polysemous words…

  14. Flexible Metal-Fabric Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Cynthia; Nguyen, Hai D.; Ruemmele, Warren; Andish, Kambiz K.; McCalley, Sean

    2005-01-01

    Flexible metal-fabric radiators have been considered as alternative means of dissipating excess heat from spacecraft and space suits. The radiators also may be useful in such special terrestrial applications as rejecting heat from space-suit-like protective suits worn in hot work environments. In addition to flexibility and consequent ease of deployment and installation on objects of varying sizes and shapes, the main advantages of these radiators over conventional rigid radiators are that they weigh less and occupy less volume for a given amount of cooling capacity. A radiator of this type includes conventional stainless-steel tubes carrying a coolant fluid. The main radiating component consists of a fabric of interwoven aluminum-foil strips bonded to the tubes by use of a proprietary process. The strip/tube bonds are strong and highly thermally conductive. Coolant is fed to and from the tubes via flexible stainless-steel manifolds designed to accommodate flexing of, and minimize bending forces on, the fabric. The manifolds are sized to minimize pressure drops and distribute the flow of coolant evenly to all the tubes. The tubes and manifolds are configured in two independent flow loops for operational flexibility and protective redundancy.

  15. PNF and Other Flexibility Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.

    Effective flexibility procedures are one of the essential tools by which excellence can be attained. Although stretching exercises provide obvious benefits, negative outcomes can result unless effective stretching procedures are incoroporated. Characteristics of effective stretching include warmup before stretching, stretch before and after…

  16. Trading Accountability for Greater Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ted

    1991-01-01

    Describes the plight of two risk-taking principals who drastically improved their schools' academic performance, only to be defeated by bureaucratic regulations and business-as-usual attitudes. Allowing schools greater flexibility in exchange for increased accountability will free talented teachers and principals to restructure schools and solve…

  17. Pipelined Flexible Krylov Subspace Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanan, Patrick; Schnepp, Sascha M.; May, Dave A.

    2015-04-01

    State-of-the-art geophysical forward models expend most of their computational resources solving large, sparse linear systems. To date, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods have proven to be the only algorithmically scalable approach to solving these systems. However, at `extreme scale', the global reductions required by the inner products within these algorithms become a computational bottleneck, and it becomes advantageous to use pipelined Krylov subspace methods. These allow overlap of global reductions with other work, at the expense of using more storage and local computational effort, including overhead required to synchronize overlapping work. An impediment to using currently-available pipelined solvers for relevant geophysical forward modeling is that they are not `flexible', meaning that they cannot support nonlinear or varying preconditioners. Such preconditioners are effective for solving challenging linear systems, notably those arising from modelling of Stokes flow with highly heterogeneous viscosity structure. To this end, we introduce, for the first time, Krylov subspace methods which are both pipelined and flexible. We implement and demonstrate pipelined, flexible Conjugate Gradient, GMRES, and Conjugate Residual methods, which will be made publicly available via the open source PETSc library. Our algorithms are nontrivial modifications of the flexible methods they are based on (that is, they are not equivalent in exact arithmetic), so we analyze them mathematically and through a number of numerical experiments employing multi-level preconditioners. We highlight the benefits of these algorithms by solving variable viscosity Stokes problems directly relevant to lithospheric dynamics.

  18. Flexible Systems Invade the Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnucan, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are systems that can be programed to alter their procedures to suit varying production requirements. Use of and trends related to these systems in the United States and foreign countries are discussed. A detailed diagram of a hypothetical FMS is provided. (JN)

  19. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  20. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  1. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  2. Adaptive Control For Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Ih, Che-Hang Charles; Wang, Shyh Jong

    1988-01-01

    Paper discusses ways to cope with measurement noise in adaptive control system for large, flexible structure in outer space. System generates control signals for torque and thrust actuators to turn all or parts of structure to desired orientations while suppressing torsional and other vibrations. Main result of paper is general theory for introduction of filters to suppress measurement noise while preserving stability.

  3. Student Involvement, Flexibility and Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryberg, Donald

    1971-01-01

    Innovative curricular reforms in language instruction at an inner-city experimental high school are described in this article. The primary concern for flexibility in enrollment procedures, language offerings, planning of learning opportunities, and, in general, the total curriculum, is prompted by the recognition of individual differences and…

  4. Flexible Learning: A Luddite View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggaley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the flexible learning concept through the eyes of the 19th-century industrial activists known as the Luddites. During a period of economic uncertainty, the Luddite perspective provides a sensitive justification for a change-free educational environment, and for a backlash in favour of "inflexible learning" (IL). The…

  5. Exploring Quadrilaterals through Flexible Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Kerri; Reynolds, Anne; Schwartz, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    The quadrilaterals problem is a particularly rich task, applicable to in-service teachers as well as to the students they teach. The ways in which students engage in this task, the strategies they use, and the mathematics that results align well with this "MT" Focus Issue on flexible mathematical thinking. The authors offer their observations of…

  6. States Seek Flexibility on Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele; Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With the debut of common assessments less than two years away, states and districts are worried about the accountability systems that hinge on those tests. A growing chorus of policy groups is urging more flexibility in how states evaluate teachers, label schools, and enforce other high-stakes consequences during what's likely to be a messy…

  7. Flexible separator for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Device is fabricated from low-cost readily-available commercial-materials by automated methods utilizing conventional paper coating processes. Flexibility of unit prevents cracking and disintegration caused by electrode warpage and dendrite growth, major causes of early battery failure with present separators.

  8. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  9. Distributed Traffic Complexity Management by Preserving Trajectory Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idris, Husni; Vivona, Robert A.; Garcia-Chico, Jose-Luis; Wing, David J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to handle the expected increase in air traffic volume, the next generation air transportation system is moving towards a distributed control architecture, in which groundbased service providers such as controllers and traffic managers and air-based users such as pilots share responsibility for aircraft trajectory generation and management. This paper presents preliminary research investigating a distributed trajectory-oriented approach to manage traffic complexity, based on preserving trajectory flexibility. The underlying hypotheses are that preserving trajectory flexibility autonomously by aircraft naturally achieves the aggregate objective of avoiding excessive traffic complexity, and that trajectory flexibility is increased by collaboratively minimizing trajectory constraints without jeopardizing the intended air traffic management objectives. This paper presents an analytical framework in which flexibility is defined in terms of robustness and adaptability to disturbances and preliminary metrics are proposed that can be used to preserve trajectory flexibility. The hypothesized impacts are illustrated through analyzing a trajectory solution space in a simple scenario with only speed as a degree of freedom, and in constraint situations involving meeting multiple times of arrival and resolving conflicts.

  10. Effects of flexibility on bio-inspired aquatic propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Peter; Boschitsch, Birgitt; Smits, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation aimed at understanding the role that flexibility plays in bio-inspired aquatic propulsion. A rectangular pitching panel apparatus, where both the flexibility and aspect ratio can be systematically varied, is utilized as a simplified model for bio-inspired propulsion in water at a Reynolds number of 7200. It is found that, when optimized, flexibility can double the thrust produced and propulsive efficiency achieved in comparison to a rigid panel. There is a notable thrust enhancement when the flexible panels are operating near resonance; however, it is found that resonance is not the primary mechanism governing efficient propulsion. Peaks in propulsive efficiency are found below, at, and above the resonant frequency depending on the flexibility of the panel. Finally, a scaling law is derived that is shown to collapse the thrust production, power consumption, and propulsive efficiency data across all panels examined. The authors would like to acknowledge the generous support from the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI grant number N00014-08-1-0642.

  11. Understanding the Change Styles of Teachers to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Arlene May Green

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the understanding of teacher change styles to improve student achievement. Teachers from public schools in a state located in the northern plains were surveyed regarding their Change Styles (preferred approaches to change) and flexibility scores. The results were statistically analyzed to determine if there were…

  12. Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. )

    1990-07-15

    Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.

  13. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....

  14. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....

  15. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....

  16. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... tendency to list or squat, so as to avoid striking bottom.1 1 The main channels between the Port...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  18. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  19. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  20. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  1. Maximum hyperchaos in chaotic nonmonotonic neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, J. W.; Chen, Z. X.; Liu, R. T.; Wu, B. X.

    1997-07-01

    Hyperchaos in chaotic nonmonotonic neuronal networks is discussed with computer simulations. Maximum chaos with all Lyapunov exponents positive is found not only in the present dissipative model with weak coupling connections between neurons, but also with some strong-coupling connections. Although the model presented is a noninvertible map, the information dimension of simple chaos still yields a good approximation to the Lyapunov dimension.

  2. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  4. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  5. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    PubMed Central

    Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Milstead, W. Bryan; Urrutia, M. Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset – Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ∼28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945

  6. Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhekar, Sarang

    1991-01-01

    Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)

  7. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  8. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  9. Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

    1922-01-01

    Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

  10. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section 200.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  11. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section 200.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  12. Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

  13. The 2011 Northern Hemisphere Solar Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altrock, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Altrock (1997, Solar Phys. 170, 411) discusses a process in which Fe XIV 530.3 nm emission features appear at high latitudes and gradually migrate towards the equator, merging with the sunspot "butterfly diagram". In cycles 21 - 23 solar maximum occurred when the number of Fe XIV emission regions per day > 0.19 (averaged over 365 days and both hemispheres) first reached latitudes 18°, 21° and 21°, for an average of 20° ± 1.7°. Another high-latitude process is the "Rush to the Poles" of polar crown prominences and their associated coronal emission, including Fe XIV. The Rush is a harbinger of solar maximum (cf. Altrock, 2003, Solar Phys. 216, 343). Solar maximum in cycles 21 - 23 occurred when the center line of the Rush reached a critical latitude. These latitudes were 76°, 74° and 78°, respectively, for an average of 76° ± 2°. Cycle 24 displays an intermittent Rush that is only well-defined in the northern hemisphere. In 2009 an initial slope of 4.6°/yr was found in the north, compared to an average of 9.4 ± 1.7 °/yr in the previous three cycles. However, in 2010 the slope increased to 7.5°/yr. Extending that rate to 76° ± 2° indicates that the solar maximum smoothed sunspot number in the northern hemisphere already occurred at 2011.6 ± 0.3. In the southern hemisphere the Rush is very poorly defined. A linear fit to several maxima would reach 76° in the south at 2014.2. In 1999, persistent Fe XIV coronal emission connected with the ESC appeared near 70° in the north and began migrating towards the equator at a rate 40% slower than the previous two solar cycles. A fit to the early ESC would not reach 20° until 2019.8. However, in 2009 and 2010 an acceleration occurred. Currently the greatest number of emission regions is at 21° in the north and 24°in the south. This indicates that solar maximum is occurring now in the north but not yet in the south. The latest global smoothed sunspot numbers show an inflection point in late 2011, which

  14. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  15. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  16. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  17. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  18. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  19. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  20. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  1. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  2. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  3. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  4. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  5. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  6. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  7. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  8. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  9. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  10. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  11. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  12. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  13. Graphene-based materials for flexible supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuanlong; El-Kady, Maher F; Wang, Lisa J; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi; Mousavi, Mir F; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-06-01

    The demand for flexible/wearable electronic devices that have aesthetic appeal and multi-functionality has stimulated the rapid development of flexible supercapacitors with enhanced electrochemical performance and mechanical flexibility. After a brief introduction to flexible supercapacitors, we summarize current progress made with graphene-based electrodes. Two recently proposed prototypes for flexible supercapacitors, known as micro-supercapacitors and fiber-type supercapacitors, are then discussed. We also present our perspective on the development of graphene-based electrodes for flexible supercapacitors. PMID:25898904

  14. Effect of maximum ventilation on abdominal muscle relaxation rate.

    PubMed Central

    Kyroussis, D.; Mills, G. H.; Polkey, M. I.; Hamnegard, C. H.; Wragg, S.; Road, J.; Green, M.; Moxham, J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When the demand placed on the respiratory system is increased, the abdominal muscles become vigorously active to achieve expiration and facilitate subsequent inspiration. Abdominal muscle function could limit ventilatory capacity and a method to detect abdominal muscle fatigue would be of value. The maximum relaxation rate (MRR) of skeletal muscle has been used as an early index of the onset of the fatiguing process and precedes failure of force generation. The aim of this study was to measure MRR of abdominal muscles and to investigate whether it slows after maximum isocapnic ventilation (MIV). METHODS: Five normal subjects were studied. Each performed short sharp expiratory efforts against a 3 mm orifice before and immediately after a two minute MIV. Gastric pressure (PGA) was recorded and MRR (% pressure fall/10 ms) for each PGA trace was determined. RESULTS: Before MIV the mean (SD) maximum PGA MRR for the five subjects was 7.1 (0.8)% peak pressure fall/10 ms. Following MIV mean PGA MRR was decreased by 30% (range 25-35%), returning to control values within 5-10 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The MRR of the abdominal muscles, measured from PGA, is numerically similar to that described for the diaphragm and other skeletal muscles. After two minutes of maximal isocapnic ventilation abdominal muscle MRR slows, indicating that these muscles are sufficiently heavily loaded to initiate the fatiguing process. PMID:8711679

  15. A Neurobehavioral Model of Flexible Spatial Language Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, John; Schneegans, Sebastian; Sandamirskaya, Yulia; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    We propose a neural dynamic model that specifies how low-level visual processes can be integrated with higher level cognition to achieve flexible spatial language behaviors. This model uses real-word visual input that is linked to relational spatial descriptions through a neural mechanism for reference frame transformations. We demonstrate that the system can extract spatial relations from visual scenes, select items based on relational spatial descriptions, and perform reference object selection in a single unified architecture. We further show that the performance of the system is consistent with behavioral data in humans by simulating results from 2 independent empirical studies, 1 spatial term rating task and 1 study of reference object selection behavior. The architecture we present thereby achieves a high degree of task flexibility under realistic stimulus conditions. At the same time, it also provides a detailed neural grounding for complex behavioral and cognitive processes. PMID:21517224

  16. Surface deformation over flexible joints using spline blending techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haavardsholm, Birgitte; Bratlie, Jostein; Dalmo, Rune

    2014-12-01

    Skinning over a skeleton joint is the process of skin deformation based on joint transformation. Popular geometric skinning techniques include implicit linear blending and dual quaternions. Generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) is a blending type spline construction where local functions at each knot are blended by Ck-smooth basis functions. A smooth skinning surface can be constructed over a transformable skeleton joint by combining various types of local surface constructions and applying local Hermite interpolation. Compared to traditional spline methods, increased flexibility and local control with respect to surface deformation can be achieved using the GERBS blending construction. We present a method using a blending-type spline surface for skinning over a flexible joint, where local geometry is individually adapted to achieve natural skin deformation based on skeleton transformations..

  17. Thermophysical properties of supercritical water and bond flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2015-07-01

    Molecular dynamics results are reported for the thermodynamic properties of supercritical water using examples of both rigid (TIP 4 P /2005 ) and flexible (TIP 4 P /2005 f ) transferable interaction potentials. Data are reported for pressure, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, Joule-Thomson coefficient, speed of sound, self-diffusion coefficient, viscosities, and thermal conductivity. Many of these properties have unusual behavior in the supercritical phase such as maximum and minimum values. The effectiveness of bond flexibility on predicting these properties is determined by comparing the results to experimental data. The influence of the intermolecular potential on these properties is both variable and state point dependent. In the vicinity of the critical density, the rigid and flexible potentials yield very different values for the compressibilities, heat capacities, and thermal expansion coefficient, whereas the self-diffusion coefficient, viscosities, and thermal conductivities are much less potential dependent. Although the introduction of bond flexibility is a computationally expedient way to improve the accuracy of an intermolecular potential, it can be counterproductive in some cases and it is not an adequate replacement for incorporating the effects of polarization.

  18. Unsteady flow over flexible wings at different low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genç, Mustafa Serdar; Özden, Mustafa; Hakan Açikel, Halil; Demir, Hacımurat; Isabekov, Iliasbek

    2016-03-01

    In this study, unsteady flow around flexible membrane wing which had aspect ratio of 1 (AR=1) was investigated experimentally at various Reynolds numbers (Re = 25000 and Re = 50000). Smoke-wire technique for flow visualization over the flexible membrane wing was utilized in the experiments. Digital Image Correlation system (DIC) was used for measuring deformation of AR = 1 flexible membrane wing. Instantaneous deformation measurements of membrane wing were combined with the flow field measurements. In low aspect ratio flexible membrane wings, unsteadiness includes tip vortices and vortex shedding, and the combination of tip vortices. In these types of wings, complex unsteady deformations occurred due to vortex shedding. The results showed that the increasing angle of attack results in increase of membrane deformation. Moreover, it was concluded that analysis of the instantaneous deformation revealed chordwise and spanwise, modes which were due to the shedding of leading-edge vortices as well as tip vortices. Consequently, vibrational mode decreased and maximum standard deviation location approached to the trailing edge by reason of increasing angle of attack.

  19. Co-Design Method and Wafer-Level Packaging Technique of Thin-Film Flexible Antenna and Silicon CMOS Rectifier Chips for Wireless-Powered Neural Interface Systems.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Kenji; Jeewan, Horagodage Prabhath; Yamagiwa, Shota; Kawano, Takeshi; Ishida, Makoto; Akita, Ippei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a co-design method and a wafer-level packaging technique of a flexible antenna and a CMOS rectifier chip for use in a small-sized implantable system on the brain surface are proposed. The proposed co-design method optimizes the system architecture, and can help avoid the use of external matching components, resulting in the realization of a small-size system. In addition, the technique employed to assemble a silicon large-scale integration (LSI) chip on the very thin parylene film (5 μm) enables the integration of the rectifier circuits and the flexible antenna (rectenna). In the demonstration of wireless power transmission (WPT), the fabricated flexible rectenna achieved a maximum efficiency of 0.497% with a distance of 3 cm between antennas. In addition, WPT with radio waves allows a misalignment of 185% against antenna size, implying that the misalignment has a less effect on the WPT characteristics compared with electromagnetic induction. PMID:26694407

  20. Co-Design Method and Wafer-Level Packaging Technique of Thin-Film Flexible Antenna and Silicon CMOS Rectifier Chips for Wireless-Powered Neural Interface Systems

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Kenji; Jeewan, Horagodage Prabhath; Yamagiwa, Shota; Kawano, Takeshi; Ishida, Makoto; Akita, Ippei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a co-design method and a wafer-level packaging technique of a flexible antenna and a CMOS rectifier chip for use in a small-sized implantable system on the brain surface are proposed. The proposed co-design method optimizes the system architecture, and can help avoid the use of external matching components, resulting in the realization of a small-size system. In addition, the technique employed to assemble a silicon large-scale integration (LSI) chip on the very thin parylene film (5 μm) enables the integration of the rectifier circuits and the flexible antenna (rectenna). In the demonstration of wireless power transmission (WPT), the fabricated flexible rectenna achieved a maximum efficiency of 0.497% with a distance of 3 cm between antennas. In addition, WPT with radio waves allows a misalignment of 185% against antenna size, implying that the misalignment has a less effect on the WPT characteristics compared with electromagnetic induction. PMID:26694407

  1. Flexible healthcare structures: analysis and evaluation of possible strategies and technologies.

    PubMed

    Buffoli, M; Nachiero, D; Capolongo, S

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals are complex buildings because of their articulation, function, organization and technology equipment. Planning hospitals needs an interdisciplinary approach in order to organize efficiently the construction of qualitative and flexible units, that must be able to answer to all the requirements of different users and to the fast changes due to the research innovations. Human and care activities have a rapid progress, that creates a constant demand of modernizations of the hospitals and readjustment of the functional connections. Flexibility becomes the core of all the modifications depending on the progress of the medical science. The future challenge is to build structures that promote sustainable flexibility and also allow to achieve wellness in a synergic relation with complementary external activities. Therefore the research aims to identify lay-out models, technical and constructive solutions to guarantee different levels of flexibility. The research was made of different stages to define flexibility inside healthcare structures using strategies and technologies. The first step has followed the evolution of hospital structures during the centuries. It illustrates the most efficient methods and solutions used in last fifty years to achieve the flexibility. The second step was the analysis of the most important contemporaries healthcare structures. In that analysis, the hospitals will be compared through an evaluation matrix made by diferent flexibility levels that underlines the most efficient technologies and strategies used. At the end it was made a list of design indications focused on the definition of a new design approach that guarantees flexibility for these complex systems. PMID:23234192

  2. Scenario aggregation for supply chain quantity-flexibility contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gitae; Wu, Chih-Hang

    2013-11-01

    In this research, we apply a scenario aggregation approach to solving the supply chain contract model formulated by two-stage stochastic programming problem. The supply chain contract can achieve the coordination between the buyer and the supplier. We formulate the stochastic programming model for a quantity-flexibility contract. The scenario aggregation method called the progressive hedging method is used to solve this problem. Experimental results show the convergence behaviour of the algorithm and the sensitivity of parameters.

  3. The maximum intelligible range of the human voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boren, Braxton

    This dissertation examines the acoustics of the spoken voice at high levels and the maximum number of people that could hear such a voice unamplified in the open air. In particular, it examines an early auditory experiment by Benjamin Franklin which sought to determine the maximum intelligible crowd for the Anglican preacher George Whitefield in the eighteenth century. Using Franklin's description of the experiment and a noise source on Front Street, the geometry and diffraction effects of such a noise source are examined to more precisely pinpoint Franklin's position when Whitefield's voice ceased to be intelligible. Based on historical maps, drawings, and prints, the geometry and material of Market Street is constructed as a computer model which is then used to construct an acoustic cone tracing model. Based on minimal values of the Speech Transmission Index (STI) at Franklin's position, Whitefield's on-axis Sound Pressure Level (SPL) at 1 m is determined, leading to estimates centering around 90 dBA. Recordings are carried out on trained actors and singers to determine their maximum time-averaged SPL at 1 m. This suggests that the greatest average SPL achievable by the human voice is 90-91 dBA, similar to the median estimates for Whitefield's voice. The sites of Whitefield's largest crowds are acoustically modeled based on historical evidence and maps. Based on Whitefield's SPL, the minimal STI value, and the crowd's background noise, this allows a prediction of the minimally intelligible area for each site. These yield maximum crowd estimates of 50,000 under ideal conditions, while crowds of 20,000 to 30,000 seem more reasonable when the crowd was reasonably quiet and Whitefield's voice was near 90 dBA.

  4. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... civil monetary penalties per the Inflation Act. See 74 FR 68701 (December 29, 2009). FRA's maximum and... materials violation was $275. 69 FR 30590, May 28, 2004. To implement these SAFETEA-LU amendments to the maximum and minimum penalties, FRA issued a final rule that was published on December 26, 2006, 71...

  5. Theoretical Analysis of Maximum Flow Declination Rate versus Maximum Area Declination Rate in Phonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…

  6. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...PHMSA is issuing an Advisory Bulletin to remind operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform detailed threat and risk analyses that integrate accurate data and information from their entire pipeline system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum......

  7. Lightweight flexible rooftop PV module

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M.; Ovshinsky, H.C.; Whelan, K.

    1994-12-31

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) and United Solar Systems Corp. (United Solar) are developing lightweight, flexible photovoltaic modules that can replace conventional roofing materials and be economically and aesthetically integrated into residential and commercial buildings. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency multi-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. These cells are produced on thin, flexible, stainless steel substrates. Two types of products 1 ft by 10 ft overlapping PV shingles and 1.3 ft by 20 ft PV roof panels are being developed by United Solar and ECD, respectively. United Solar`s shingle type design uses a roof mounting procedures similar to those used with conventional asphalt shingles, while ECD`s PV panel uses mounting procedures conforming to metal roof systems. Thus, they can be installed on roof sheathings, replacing ordinary shingles or metal roofing panels, on a standard wood roof construction.

  8. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  9. Automated design of flexible linkers.

    PubMed

    Manion, Charles; Arlitt, Ryan; Campbell, Matthew I; Tumer, Irem; Stone, Rob; Greaney, P Alex

    2016-03-14

    This paper presents a method for the systematic and automated design of flexible organic linkers for construction of metal organic-frameworks (MOFs) in which flexibility, compliance, or other mechanically exotic properties originate at the linker level rather than from the framework kinematics. Our method couples a graph grammar method for systematically generating linker like molecules with molecular dynamics modeling of linkers' mechanical response. Using this approach we have generated a candidate pool of >59,000 hypothetical linkers. We screen linker candidates according to their mechanical behaviors under large deformation, and extract fragments common to the most performant candidate materials. To demonstrate the general approach to MOF design we apply our system to designing linkers for pressure switching MOFs-MOFs that undergo reversible structural collapse after a stress threshold is exceeded. PMID:26687337

  10. Flexible Temperature Sensors on Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Sibinski, Maciej; Jakubowska, Malgorzata; Sloma, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and linear characteristics were obtained by special technological process and applied temperature profiles. As a thermo-sensitive materials the innovative polymer compositions filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used. Elaborated material was adapted to printing and dip-coating techniques to produce NTC composites. Nanotube sensors were free from tensometric effect typical for other carbon-polymer sensor, and demonstrated TCR of 0.13%/K. Obtained temperature sensors, compatible with textile structure, can be applied in rapidly developing smart textiles and be used for health and protections purposes. PMID:22163634

  11. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  12. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  13. Flexible gratings fabricated in polymeric plate using femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Sung-Hak

    2011-05-01

    Flexible gratings embedded in poly-dimethlysiloxane (PDMS) were fabricated using femtosecond laser pulses. Photo-induced gratings in a flexible PDMS plate were directly written by a high-intensity femtosecond (130 fs) Ti: Sapphire laser ( λp=800 nm). Refractive index modifications with 4 μm diameters were photo-induced after irradiation of the femtosecond pulses with peak intensities of more than 1×10 11 W/cm 2. The graded refractive index profile was fabricated to be symmetric around the center of the focal point. The diffraction efficiency of the grating samples is measured by an He-Ne laser. The maximum value of refractive index change (Δ n) in the laser-modified regions was estimated to be approximately 3.17×10 -3.

  14. Evaluation of flexible transducers for motion energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Michael; Behrens, Sam; McGarry, Scott

    2009-03-01

    Personal electronic devices such as mobile/cell phones, radios and wireless sensors traditionally depend on energy storage technologies, such as batteries, for operation. By harvesting energy from the local environment, these devices can achieve greater run-times without the need for battery recharging or replacement. Harvesting energy could also achieve a reduction in the weight and volume of the personal devices - as batteries often make up more than half the weight/volume of these devices. Motion energy harvesting is one such approach where energy from mechanical motion can be converted into electrical energy. This can be achieved through the use of flexible piezoelectric transducer materials such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). A problem with these transducer materials it that their behaviour is non-linear due to operating and environmental conditions. Hence, for this reason researchers have found it has been difficult to measure the harvesting performance i.e. mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency. At CSIRO we are currently evaluating the performance of flexible transducers for use as motion energy harvesters. Preliminary results suggest an overall energy harvesting conversion efficiency of 0.65% for a flexible transducer material.

  15. AGFATL- ACTIVE GEAR FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT TAKEOFF AND LANDING ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Active Gear, Flexible Aircraft Takeoff and Landing Analysis program, AGFATL, was developed to provide a complete simulation of the aircraft takeoff and landing dynamics problem. AGFATL can represent an airplane either as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom or as a flexible body with multiple degrees of freedom. The airframe flexibility is represented by the superposition of up to twenty free vibration modes on the rigid-body motions. The analysis includes maneuver logic and autopilots programmed to control the aircraft during glide slope, flare, landing, and takeoff. The program is modular so that performance of the aircraft in flight and during landing and ground maneuvers can be studied separately or in combination. A program restart capability is included in AGFATL. Effects simulated in the AGFATL program include: (1) flexible aircraft control and performance during glide slope, flare, landing roll, and takeoff roll under conditions of changing winds, engine failures, brake failures, control system failures, strut failures, restrictions due to runway length, and control variable limits and time lags; (2) landing gear loads and dynamics for up to five gears; (3) single and multiple engines (maximum of four) including selective engine reversing and failure; (4) drag chute and spoiler effects; (5) wheel braking (including skid-control) and selective brake failure; (6) aerodynamic ground effects; (7) aircraft carrier operations; (8) inclined runways and runway perturbations; (9) flexible or rigid airframes; 10) rudder and nose gear steering; and 11) actively controlled landing gear shock struts. Input to the AGFATL program includes data which describe runway roughness; vehicle geometry, flexibility and aerodynamic characteristics; landing gear(s); propulsion; and initial conditions such as attitude, attitude change rates, and velocities. AGFATL performs a time integration of the equations of motion and outputs comprehensive information on the airframe

  16. Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  17. Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Barendse, M. T.; Ligtvoet, R.; Timmerman, M. E.; Oort, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log–likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two–way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136

  18. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic. PMID:25871054

  19. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Chris H.; Subaşı, Yiǧit; Calabrese, Justin M.

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  20. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  1. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    PubMed

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope. PMID:26159097

  2. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  3. Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices.

    PubMed

    Fay, C W; Liu, J W; Duxbury, P M

    2006-05-01

    Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem. PMID:16803003

  4. Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood.

    PubMed

    Barendse, M T; Ligtvoet, R; Timmerman, M E; Oort, F J

    2016-01-01

    Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log-likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two-way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136

  5. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March ... methamphetamine use, such as tobacco smoking. Can the Brain Recover? The UCLA study’s findings underscore the importance ...

  6. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  7. Flexible Seal Accommodates Part Mismatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobb, I.

    1983-01-01

    Chain of plates embedded in flexible seal enables it to withstand side loading of 2,300 psi (116MPa) while sealing gap of up to 0.5 inch (13 mm) between cylindrical chamber wall and test fixture. Pressure-actuated seal along inner edge forces seal into contact even though cylinder wall becomes eccentric as cylinder pressure increases. Seal has many industrial applications, particularly where heat or pressure causes distortion of chamber being sealed.

  8. Putting the Flex in Flexible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dynacs Engineering Company, Inc. has commercialized a software product originally developed for the International Space Station. The image processing and 3-D graphics tool was first designed at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1985. The software was so successful it became an industry standard for simulation of flexible spacecraft. Dynacs was funded to further enhance the software and decided to acquire the copyright in 1994.

  9. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, D.L.

    1993-02-01

    The applicability of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) concept to automate machining and inspecting a family of stainless steel and aluminum hardware for electrical components has been evaluated. FMS was found to be appropriate and justifiable and a project was initiated to purchase and implement an FMS system. System specifications and procurement methodologies were developed that resulted in a conventional competitive bid procurement A proposal evaluation technique was developed consisting of 40% price, 40% technical compliance, and 20% supplier management capabilities.

  10. Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-08

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  11. Maximum entropy production - Full steam ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2012-05-01

    The application of a principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP, or less ambiguously MaxEP) to planetary climate is discussed. This idea suggests that if sufficiently free of dynamical constraints, the atmospheric and oceanic heat flows across a planet may conspire to maximize the generation of mechanical work, or entropy. Thermodynamic and information-theoretic aspects of this idea are discussed. These issues are also discussed in the context of dust devils, convective vortices found in strongly-heated desert areas.

  12. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.

  13. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, Luisa; Münzenrieder, Niko; Vogt, Christian; Faber, Hendrik; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Tröster, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In particular

  14. [Flexibility and safety in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Fara, G M; Barni, M

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the reasons according to which the newly-planned hospitals must adopt the concept of advanced flexibility (structural, technological, organizational, diagnostic and therapeutic), in order to avoid the risk of being already obsolete at the moment of their opening, and this due to the fact that too much time elapses in this Country between the moment of planning a new hospital and the moment of the start of its activity. Flexibility is needed at different levels: at low or medium levels for what concerns administrative spaces and also patient rooms (except, in this latter case, when differential intensity of care is adopted); at advanced levelfor what concerns diagnostic and therapeutic areas, which must be rapidly adaptable to new solutions offered by advances in technology and organization. From a different standpoint, flexibility applies also to the fact that hospital must increasingly become a node of a large net including territorial health services: the latter devoted to take care of chronicity, while hospitals should concentrate on acute pathology. Of course the territory surrounding the hospital, through its outpatient service and consultories, is in charge also for first level diagnosy and therapy, leaving the hospital to more sophisticated activities. PMID:21770227

  15. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1998-06-23

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

  16. Flexible helical-axis stellarator

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.

  17. Sensor registration using airlanes: maximum likelihood solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hwa-Tung

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution, the maximum likelihood estimation of sensor registration parameters, such as range, azimuth and elevation biases in radar measurements, using airlane information is proposed and studied. The motivation for using airlane information for sensor registration is that it is freely available as a source of reference and it provides an alternative to conventional techniques that rely on synchronised and correctly associated measurements from two or more sensors. In the paper, the problem is first formulated in terms of a measurement model that is a nonlinear function of the unknown target state and sensor parameters, plus sensor noise. A probabilistic model of the target state is developed based on airlane information. The maximum likelihood and also maximum a posteriori solutions are given. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is derived and simulation results are presented for the case of estimating the biases in radar range, azimuth and elevation measurements. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared against the Cramer-Rao lower bound and that of an existing two-sensor alignment method. It is concluded that sensor registration using airlane information is a feasible alternative to existing techniques.

  18. Sensor registration using airlanes: maximum likelihood solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hwa-Tung

    2003-12-01

    In this contribution, the maximum likelihood estimation of sensor registration parameters, such as range, azimuth and elevation biases in radar measurements, using airlane information is proposed and studied. The motivation for using airlane information for sensor registration is that it is freely available as a source of reference and it provides an alternative to conventional techniques that rely on synchronised and correctly associated measurements from two or more sensors. In the paper, the problem is first formulated in terms of a measurement model that is a nonlinear function of the unknown target state and sensor parameters, plus sensor noise. A probabilistic model of the target state is developed based on airlane information. The maximum likelihood and also maximum a posteriori solutions are given. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is derived and simulation results are presented for the case of estimating the biases in radar range, azimuth and elevation measurements. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared against the Cramer-Rao lower bound and that of an existing two-sensor alignment method. It is concluded that sensor registration using airlane information is a feasible alternative to existing techniques.

  19. Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C. PMID:26896862

  20. "SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.