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  1. Dissolution performance of binary amorphous drug combinations--Impact of a second drug on the maximum achievable supersaturation.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-12-30

    An increased number of amorphous formulations of poorly water soluble drugs are being introduced into the market due to their higher transient solubility and thus faster absorption and higher bioavailability. While most amorphous drug products contain a single drug substance, there is a growing trend towards co-formulating compounds in the same dosage form to improve patient compliance. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the dissolution behavior and maximum achievable solution concentrations of amorphous solid dispersions of co-formulated ritonavir and lopinavir, and to compare the results with individual amorphous solid dispersion formulations. Dispersions of ritonavir and lopinavir were prepared in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) at a 20% (w/w) total drug loading, both alone and in combination, at three different lopinavir:ritonavir weight ratios. Amorphous films containing both drugs, but no polymer, were also prepared. The dissolution behavior of the dispersions and the amorphous films in non-sink conditions was evaluated, using ultracentrifugation to separate any colloidal material from molecularly dissolved drug. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to characterize colloidal material formed during the dissolution process. Results from the dissolution study revealed that, although supersaturated solutions resulted following dissolution, the maximum achievable concentration of each drug, when present in combination, was dramatically lower than when the individual dispersions were dissolved. The maximum achievable solution concentration for systems containing both drugs was found to decrease as the mole fraction of the drug in the amorphous phase decreased. The type of polymer used to formulate the dispersion also appeared to influence the dissolution behavior whereby the HPMCAS dispersions dissolved rapidly, resulting in the generation of a nanodroplets, while the PVP dispersions did not

  2. The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.

  3. Professional Learning Communities Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jan L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the Professional Learning Community model on student achievement in the state of California. Specifically, the study compared student achievement between two school types: Professional Learning Community schools and Non Professional Learning schools. The research utilized existing API scores for California schools…

  4. Impact of School Technology on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Larry Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the impact of school technology on elementary students in grades three through five attending public schools in Indiana. The investigation focused on the impact of various technologies on student achievement as measured on Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus (ISTEP+). Various comparisons were…

  5. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  6. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  7. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  8. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  9. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  10. The Impact of Interest on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charry, Myrna B.

    There is ample theoretical and experimental evidence showing the positive impact of interest on academic achievement to suggest that college administrators might be well advised to include "expressed interest" in test batteries designed to facilitate the accurate placement of students in particular courses and curricula. J. Dewey was the first to…

  11. Netest: A Tool to Measure the Maximum Burst Size, Available Bandwidth and Achievable Throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guojun; Tierney, Brian

    2003-01-31

    Distinguishing available bandwidth and achievable throughput is essential for improving network applications' performance. Achievable throughput is the throughput considering a number of factors such as network protocol, host speed, network path, and TCP buffer space, where as available bandwidth only considers the network path. Without understanding this difference, trying to improve network applications' performance is like ''blind men feeling the elephant'' [4]. In this paper, we define and distinguish bandwidth and throughput, and debate which part of each is achievable and which is available. Also, we introduce and discuss a new concept - Maximum Burst Size that is crucial to the network performance and bandwidth sharing. A tool, netest, is introduced to help users to determine the available bandwidth, and provides information to achieve better throughput with fairness of sharing the available bandwidth, thus reducing misuse of the network.

  12. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  13. Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them

  14. Achieving Maximum Power from Thermoelectric Generators with Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking Circuits Composed of a Boost-Cascaded-with-Buck Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho

    2015-06-01

    We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.

  15. Mind the bubbles: achieving stable measurements of maximum hydraulic conductivity through woody plant samples

    PubMed Central

    Espino, Susana; Schenk, H. Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (kmax) of a plant sample is a measure of the ability of a plants’ vascular system to transport water and dissolved nutrients under optimum conditions. Precise measurements of kmax are needed in comparative studies of hydraulic conductivity, as well as for measuring the formation and repair of xylem embolisms. Unstable measurements of kmax are a common problem when measuring woody plant samples and it is commonly observed that kmax declines from initially high values, especially when positive water pressure is used to flush out embolisms. This study was designed to test five hypotheses that could potentially explain declines in kmax under positive pressure: (i) non-steady-state flow; (ii) swelling of pectin hydrogels in inter-vessel pit membranes; (iii) nucleation and coalescence of bubbles at constrictions in the xylem; (iv) physiological wounding responses; and (v) passive wounding responses, such as clogging of the xylem by debris. Prehydrated woody stems from Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) and Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) collected from plants grown in the Fullerton Arboretum in Southern California, were used to test these hypotheses using a xylem embolism meter (XYL'EM). Treatments included simultaneous measurements of stem inflow and outflow, enzyme inhibitors, stem-debarking, low water temperatures, different water degassing techniques, and varied concentrations of calcium, potassium, magnesium, and copper salts in aqueous measurement solutions. Stable measurements of kmax were observed at concentrations of calcium, potassium, and magnesium salts high enough to suppress bubble coalescence, as well as with deionized water that was degassed using a membrane contactor under strong vacuum. Bubble formation and coalescence under positive pressure in the xylem therefore appear to be the main cause for declining kmax values. Our findings suggest that degassing of water is essential for achieving stable and precise

  16. Occurrence and Impact of Insects in Maximum Growth Plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, J.T.; Berisford, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of the relationships between intensive management practices and insect infestation using maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine constructed over five years using a hierarchy of cultural treatments-monitoring differences in growth and insect infestation levels related to the increasing management intensities. This study shows that tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management tree growth, at least initially.

  17. Measuring Credential Candidates' Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagans, Kristi S.; Powers, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) requires faculty from educator preparation programs to provide evidence of credential candidates' impact on K-12 student learning. However, there is a paucity of information on preparation programs' use of direct assessments of student learning to gauge credential candidate…

  18. The Achievement Impacts of Arkansas Open-Enrollment Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jonathan N.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Arkansas charter schools on the academic achievement of participating students. Our findings are that charter schools have small but statistically significant, negative impacts on student achievements for both math and literacy. Such negative effects, however, tend to decline with the number of years of charter…

  19. The Impact of the Math Enrichment Program on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickansrud, Kirk M.

    2011-01-01

    This QUAN-QUAL, quasi-experimental, research studied the impact of a math enrichment program on student achievement. Pre and post NJ ASK test data was analyzed to determine the impact of the program on student achievement. Additionally, a student survey was disseminated to inquire into personal perceptions about individual improvement as well as…

  20. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  1. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  2. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  3. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  4. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  5. Curating NASA's Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections: How Do We Achieve Maximum Proficiency?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Zeigler, Ryan; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "... documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working towards a state of maximum proficiency.

  6. On the maximum energy achievable in the first order Fermi acceleration at shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozny, I.; Diamond, P.; Malkov, M.

    2002-11-01

    Astrophysical shocks are considered as the sites of cosmic ray (CR) production. The primary mechanism is the diffusive shock (Fermi) acceleration which operates via multiple shock recrossing by a particle. Its efficiency, the rate of energy gain, and the maximum energy are thus determined by the transport mechanisms (confinement to the shock) of these particles in a turbulent shock environment. The turbulence is believed to be generated by accelerated particles themselves. Moreover, in the most interesting case of efficient acceleration the entire MHD shock structure is dominated by their pressure. This makes this problem one of the challenging strongly nonlinear problems of astrophysics. We suggest a physical model that describes particle acceleration, shock structure and the CR driven turbulence on an equal footing. The key new element in this scheme is nonlinear cascading of the MHD turbulence on self-excited (via modulational and Drury instability) sound-like perturbations which gives rise to a significant enrichment of the long wave part of the MHD spectrum. This is critical for the calculation of the maximum energy.

  7. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear–surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established. PMID:26555738

  8. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-05-01

    Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear-surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established. PMID:26555738

  9. Impact of Orthorectification on Maximum NDVI Composite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, F.; Trishchenko, A.; Khlopenkov, K.; Luo, Y.; Wunderle, S.

    2009-04-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composite data from the 25 year NOAA AVHRR data record have repeatedly been used to study vegetation dynamics at various spatial scales, including mountain areas. However, topography and accuracy of image geometric registration significantly affect the quality of satellite data, since pixels are displaced depending on surface elevation and viewing geometry. This effect should be corrected for through the process of accurate image navigation and orthorectification in order to meet the geolocation accuracy of 1/3 of the pixel field of view for systematic observations specified by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements. Nevertheless, so far, the orthorectification effect was ignored in most AVHRR processing systems and data sets employed for analysis of climate trends. The present study investigates the impact of orthorectification on the accuracy of NDVI composite data for a mountain region in north-western Canada at various spatial resolutions (1 km, 4 km, 5 km, and 8 km). Data from AVHRR onboard NOAA-11 (1989 and 1990) and NOAA-16 (2001, 2002, and 2003) for the month of August are considered. Data are processed using a processing system called CAPS (Canadian AVHRR Processing System) which optionally offers orthorectification and uses MODIS 250 m precisely georeferenced data as a reference imagery for improving AVHRR image navigation. Validation is performed using MODIS NDVI composite data. Obtained results demonstrate the significant impact of orthorectification on composite NDVI data in mountainous terrain. Significant differences between corrected and uncorrected data in terms of mean NDVI as well as spatial NDVI variability are observed for areas covering pronounced topography. The NDVI differences may range from +0.3 to -0.4 at local scale, although they are reduced to smaller numbers when aggregated over large areas. Correlation analysis with MODIS NDVI revealed higher linear correlation

  10. Modeling the Maximum Spreading of Liquid Droplets Impacting Wetting and Nonwetting Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Bong; Derome, Dominique; Guyer, Robert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Droplet impact has been imaged on different rigid, smooth, and rough substrates for three liquids with different viscosity and surface tension, with special attention to the lower impact velocity range. Of all studied parameters, only surface tension and viscosity, thus the liquid properties, clearly play a role in terms of the attained maximum spreading ratio of the impacting droplet. Surface roughness and type of surface (steel, aluminum, and parafilm) slightly affect the dynamic wettability and maximum spreading at low impact velocity. The dynamic contact angle at maximum spreading has been identified to properly characterize this dynamic spreading process, especially at low impact velocity where dynamic wetting plays an important role. The dynamic contact angle is found to be generally higher than the equilibrium contact angle, showing that statically wetting surfaces can become less wetting or even nonwetting under dynamic droplet impact. An improved energy balance model for maximum spreading ratio is proposed based on a correct analytical modeling of the time at maximum spreading, which determines the viscous dissipation. Experiments show that the time at maximum spreading decreases with impact velocity depending on the surface tension of the liquid, and a scaling with maximum spreading diameter and surface tension is proposed. A second improvement is based on the use of the dynamic contact angle at maximum spreading, instead of quasi-static contact angles, to describe the dynamic wetting process at low impact velocity. This improved model showed good agreement compared to experiments for the maximum spreading ratio versus impact velocity for different liquids, and a better prediction compared to other models in literature. In particular, scaling according to We(1/2) is found invalid for low velocities, since the curves bend over to higher maximum spreading ratios due to the dynamic wetting process. PMID:26743317

  11. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  12. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  13. The Impact of Professional Learning Communities on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNardo, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLC) are one strategy aimed at facilitating teacher professional development, with a focus on increasing student achievement. This mixed methods study investigated the impact of professional learning on student achievement. A total of 6 teachers and 121 students recruited from the third and fifth grades of a…

  14. Teacher Impact on the Academic Achievement of Students of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Marshalynn Morgan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated teacher impact on the academic achievement of students of poverty. Teacher impact was analyzed based on two factors: (1) teacher emotional empathy and (2) teacher professional development experiences. The results of this study indicate a non-correlative relationship between teachers' overall emotional empathy and…

  15. Impact of Parent University on Parent Engagement and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Janetta Powers

    2013-01-01

    This research project examined the impact of Parent University on parental engagement and the factors that impact a parent's decision to become involved in their child's education. In addition, the aim of the research was to offer recommendations for improvement, so Parent University is able to enhance academic achievement within MNPS. The key…

  16. Dynamic contact angle effects onto the maximum drop impact spreading on solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, D. C.; Soucemarianadin, A.; Delattre, C.; Roux, D. C. D.

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports experimental investigations of drop impacts onto chemically treated surfaces with wettability from 5° to 160°. To follow in time the drop spreading, a high speed video camera was used, and it allows us to determine precisely the expansion of the drop and the profile of the free surface at the contact line. By changing the impact velocity, between less than 0.5 and 5 m/s, and the viscosity, from 1 to 100 mPa s, at constant surface tension, a broad range of Reynolds and Weber numbers is explored. This paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, the experimental drop evolution during spreading is directly reported and compared with previous works. Secondly, the emphasis is on the importance of the apparent dynamic contact angle for the prediction of the maximum spreading diameter. This achievement is manifested at low Reynolds numbers at which the matching between the experiment and the model is improved greatly.

  17. The Impact of School Buildings on Student Achievement and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Examines the school building's impact on student performance and behavior in 15 categories followed by a synthesis of findings from four studies demonstrating a relationship between student achievement and behavior and the condition of the built environment. Thermal environment, lighting, adequate space, and availability of equipment and…

  18. The Impact of an Online Tutoring Program on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Amy K.; Whetstone, Patti

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored the impact of an online tutoring program, Math Whizz (Whizz Education, 2014), on student mathematics achievement at 15 elementary schools. Students participated in the use of the Math Whizz program for the duration of the school year as a supplement to mathematics instruction. The Math Whizz program recorded such information…

  19. Impact of Teacher's Income on Student's Educational Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an objective overview of the impact of teacher salaries on the educational achievements of students. It is often debated about teacher salaries and improvement or jeopardizing their standard, but educational consequences that may ensue as a result of these intentions are rarely addressed. Teacher's role in…

  20. Teachers' Nonverbal Behavior and Its Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Noureen Asghar; Arif, Manzoor

    2012-01-01

    The observational study was conducted to see the impact of teachers' nonverbal behavior on academic achievement of learners. This also investigated the relationship of nonverbal communication of teachers working in different educational institutions. Main objectives of study were to measure nonverbal behavior of teachers' both male and female…

  1. The Impact of Teacher Licensure Programs on Minority Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Rose S.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the impact of teacher licensure routes, particularly those identified as either traditional or alternative on student achievement by comparing Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) end of year scores in math and reading for minority students in grades six through eight during the period from 2005 through 2009. To compare the…

  2. Energy Budget of Liquid Drop Impact at Maximum Spreading: Numerical Simulations and Experiments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Bong; Derome, Dominique; Dolatabadi, Ali; Carmeliet, Jan

    2016-02-01

    The maximum spreading of an impinging droplet on a rigid surface is studied for low to high impact velocity, until the droplet starts splashing. We investigate experimentally and numerically the role of liquid properties, such as surface tension and viscosity, on drop impact using three liquids. It is found that the use of the experimental dynamic contact angle at maximum spreading in the Kistler model, which is used as a boundary condition for the CFD-VOF calculation, gives good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Analytical models commonly used to predict the boundary layer thickness and time at maximum spreading are found to be less correct, meaning that energy balance models relying on these relations have to be considered with care. The time of maximum spreading is found to depend on both the impact velocity and surface tension, and neither dependency is predicted correctly in common analytical models. The relative proportion of the viscous dissipation in the total energy budget increases with impact velocity with respect to surface energy. At high impact velocity, the contribution of surface energy, even before splashing, is still substantial, meaning that both surface energy and viscous dissipation have to be taken into account, and scaling laws depending only on viscous dissipation do not apply. At low impact velocity, viscous dissipation seems to play an important role in low-surface-tension liquids such as ethanol. PMID:26745364

  3. Impact of Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge and Practices on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    Professional development programs promoting inquiry-based teaching are challenged with providing teachers content knowledge and using pedagogical approaches that model standards based instruction. Inquiry practices are also important for undergraduate students. This paper focuses on the evaluation of an extensive professional development program for chemistry teachers that included chemistry content tests for students and the teachers and the impact of undergraduate research experiences on college students' attitudes towards chemistry. Baseline results for the students showed that there were no gender differences on the achievement test but white students scored significantly higher than non-white students. However, parent/adult involvement with chemistry homework and projects, was a significant negative predictor of 11th grade students' test chemistry achievement score. This paper will focus on students' achievement and attitude results for teachers who are mid-way through the program providing evidence that on-going, sustained professional development in content and pedagogy is critical for improving students' science achievement.

  4. Verification of maximum impact force for interim storage cask for the Fast Flux Testing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.W.; Chang, S.J.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform an impact analysis of the Interim Storage Cask (ISC) of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) for a 4-ft end drop. The ISC is a concrete cask used to store spent nuclear fuels. The analysis is to justify the impact force calculated by General Atomics (General Atomics, 1994) using the ILMOD computer code. ILMOD determines the maximum force developed by the concrete crushing which occurs when the drop energy has been absorbed. The maximum force, multiplied by the dynamic load factor (DLF), was used to determine the maximum g-level on the cask during a 4-ft end drop accident onto the heavily reinforced FFTF Reactor Service Building`s concrete surface. For the analysis, this surface was assumed to be unyielding and the cask absorbed all the drop energy. This conservative assumption simplified the modeling used to qualify the cask`s structural integrity for this accident condition.

  5. Influence of MoOx interlayer on the maximum achievable open-circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell

    2013-03-01

    Transition metal oxides including molybdenum oxide (MoOx) are characterized by large work functions and deep energy levels relative to the organic semiconductors used in photovoltaic cells (OPVs). These materials have been used in OPVs as interlayers between the indium-tin-oxide anode and the active layers to increase the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and power conversion efficiency. We examine the role of MoOx in determining the maximum achievable VOC in planar heterojunction OPVs based on the donor-acceptor pairing of boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) and C60. While causing minor changes in VOC at room temperature, the inclusion of MoOx significantly changes the temperature dependence of VOC. Devices containing no interlayer show a maximum VOC\\ of 1.2 V, while devices containing MoOx show no saturation in VOC, reaching a value of >1.4 V at 110 K. We propose that the MoOx-SubPc interface forms a dissociating Schottky junction that provides an additional contribution to VOC at low temperature. Separate measurements of photoluminescence confirm that excitons in SubPc can be quenched by MoOx. Charge transfer at this interface is by hole extraction from SubPc to MoOx, and this mechanism favors donors with a deep highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level. Consistent with this expectation, the temperature dependence of VOC for devices constructed using a donor with a shallower HOMO level, e.g. copper phthalocyanine, is independent of the presence of MoOx.

  6. Impact of maximum borehole depths on ground warming patterns: A spatial analysis over the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, Hugo; Matharoo, Gurpreet S.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2013-04-01

    Past variations in the Earth's surface energy balance are preserved in the terrestrial subsurface and can be inferred from borehole temperature-depth profiles. These profiles are used to reconstruct past ground surface temperature (GST) histories. Recent work by Beltrami et al. (2011) has shown that estimated GST histories can be significantly impacted by the maximum depth of the borehole temperature measurement. In the present study, we use temperature-depth profiles measured at 558 sites distributed between 30o N and 60o N in the Northern Hemisphere. For each site, the background steady-state temperature profile is estimated using progressively deeper maximum depths of truncation. Additionally, GST histories are reconstructed using multiple maximum depth truncations. In order to control on the influence of the geographical sampling, shallow boreholes are dropped from the analysis once their depth is surpassed. The estimated temperature changes over 50-yr intervals are evaluated in these reconstructions as a function of the maximum truncation depth in the database. Similarly, the total terrestrial heat gain is also estimated using progressive depths of truncations. All calculations show a significant dependence on the maximum depths of the borehole profiles and further indicate the importance of this factor in estimates of past temperature and heat content histories derived from geothermal data. Further, calculations also show that the ground has warmed by 0.5o over last 100 years consistent with the earlier studies by Beltrami and Bourlon (2004).

  7. Impact of cognitive absorption on Facebook on students' achievement.

    PubMed

    Rouis, Sana

    2012-06-01

    In the great expansion of the social networking activity, young people are the main users whose choices have vast influence. This study uses the flow theory to gauge the impact of Facebook usage on Tunisian students' achievements, with the presumption that the high usage level might reduce students' scholar achievements. The research design suggests that this impact would vary among students with different interests for the university and multitasking capabilities. Facebook usage would develop students' satisfaction with friends and family, which could enhance their academic performance. Analyses from 161 Tunisian students show that Facebook usage does not affect significantly students' academic performance and their satisfaction with the family, whereas it decreases their actual satisfaction with friends. Yet, a high level of satisfaction of the student with his family continues to enhance his academic performance. Overall, though, Facebook usage appears to do not have a significant effect on undergraduate students' academic performance. However, this interdependency is significantly moderated by the student's interest for the university and his multitasking capabilities. Students with multitasking skills and students with initial interest for the university might experience a positive effect of Facebook usage on their studies, as they keep control over their activity and make it a beneficial leisure activity. However, students who do not have these characteristics tend to not have any significant effect. Results help to understand the psychological attitude and consequent behavior of the youths on this platform. Implications, limitations, and further research directions are offered. PMID:22703035

  8. WATER/ICY SUPER-EARTHS: GIANT IMPACTS AND MAXIMUM WATER CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Robert A.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Hernquist, Lars; Stewart, Sarah T.

    2010-08-10

    Water-rich super-Earth exoplanets are expected to be common. We explore the effect of late giant impacts on the final bulk abundance of water in such planets. We present the results from smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of impacts between differentiated water(ice)-rock planets with masses between 0.5 and 5 M{sub +} and projectile to target mass ratios from 1:1 to 1:4. We find that giant impacts between bodies of similar composition never decrease the bulk density of the target planet. If the commonly assumed maximum water fraction of 75 wt% for bodies forming beyond the snow line is correct, giant impacts between similar composition bodies cannot serve as a mechanism for increasing the water fraction. Target planets either accrete materials in the same proportion, leaving the water fraction unchanged, or lose material from the water mantle, decreasing the water fraction. The criteria for catastrophic disruption of water-rock planets are similar to those found in previous work on super-Earths of terrestrial composition. Changes in bulk composition for giant impacts onto differentiated bodies of any composition (water rock or rock iron) are described by the same equations. These general laws can be incorporated into future N-body calculations of planet formation to track changes in composition from giant impacts.

  9. Possible ecosystem impacts of applying maximum sustainable yield policy in food chain models.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Bapan; Kar, T K

    2013-07-21

    This paper describes the possible impacts of maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and maximum sustainable total yield (MSTY) policy in ecosystems. In general it is observed that exploitation at MSY (of single species) or MSTY (of multispecies) level may cause the extinction of several species. In particular, for traditional prey-predator system, fishing under combined harvesting effort at MSTY (if it exists) level may be a sustainable policy, but if MSTY does not exist then it is due to the extinction of the predator species only. In generalist prey-predator system, harvesting of any one of the species at MSY level is always a sustainable policy, but harvesting of both the species at MSTY level may or may not be a sustainable policy. In addition, we have also investigated the MSY and MSTY policy in a traditional tri-trophic and four trophic food chain models. PMID:23542048

  10. Analysis of Maximum Reasonably Foreseeable Accidents for the Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    S.B. Ross; R.E. Best; S.J. Maheras; T.I. McSweeney

    2001-08-17

    Accidents could occur during the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This paper describes the risks and consequences to the public from accidents that are highly unlikely but that could have severe consequences. The impact of these accidents would include those to a collective population and to hypothetical maximally exposed individuals (MEIs). This document discusses accidents with conditions that have a chance of occurring more often than 1 in 10 million times in a year, called ''maximum reasonably foreseeable accidents''. Accidents and conditions less likely than this are not considered to be reasonably foreseeable.

  11. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-05-03

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar

  12. Achieving Broader Impacts Through Partnering in a Digital World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    The NSF Broader Impacts review criterion has many possible dimensions: advance discovery and understanding while promoting teaching, training, and learning; broaden participation of under-represented groups; enhance infrastructure for research and education; broad dissemination to enhance scientific and technological understanding; and benefits to society (NSF OPP Advisory Committee). To effectively achieve and demonstrate broader impacts of a research project, it is essential to form meaningful partnerships among many stakeholders: scientists (i.e. content specialists) teachers/faculty, creators of educational resources, students, journalists, policy makers, institutions (e.g. schools, colleges and universities; museums, aquariums, parks), agencies (local, state and federal), and professional societies. Such partnerships are readily supported through digital information technologies and communication networks. The Science Education Resource Center (http://serc.carleton.edu) provides a number of on-line programs that are available for you to participate and contribute in a variety of E&O activities. Exemplars are in development to demonstrate effective ways to integrate research and education. The Using Data in the Classroom portal disseminates data sources, tools, activities and examples. The On the Cutting Edge professional development program will convene a workshop in July 2005 on "Teaching About the Ocean System Using New Research Techniques: Data, Models and Visualizations". The Microbial Life Education Resources digital library is in development and will focus on life in extreme environments this year, and life in the ocean system will be our emphasis in the second year. There is a registry of geochemical analytical instruments to help students and faculty gain access to instrumentation, and geophysical and geospatial analysis facilities will be added in the near future. There are also a wide range of pedagogical resources available to support E&O projects

  13. Biomarkers affected by impact velocity and maximum strain of cartilage during injury.

    PubMed

    Waters, Nicole Poythress; Stoker, Aaron M; Carson, William L; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Cook, James L

    2014-09-22

    Osteoarthritis is one of the most common, debilitating, musculoskeletal diseases; 12% associated with traumatic injury resulting in post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Our objective was to develop a single impact model with cartilage "injury level" defined in terms of controlled combinations of strain rate to a maximum strain (both independent of cartilage load resistance) to study their sensitivity to articular cartilage cell viability and potential PTOA biomarkers. A servo-hydraulic test machine was used to measure canine humeral head cartilage explant thickness under repeatable pressure, then subject it (except sham and controls) to a single impact having controlled constant velocity V=1 or 100mm/s (strain rate 1.82 or 182/s) to maximum strain ε=10%, 30%, or 50%. Thereafter, explants were cultured in media for twelve days, with media changed at day 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12. Explant thickness was measured at day 0 (pre-injury), 6 and 12 (post-injury). Cell viability, and tissue collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) were analyzed immediately post-injury and day 12. Culture media were tested for biomarkers: GAG, collagen II, chondroitin sulfate-846, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Detrimental effects on cell viability, and release of GAG and PGE2 to the media were primarily strain-dependent, (PGE2 being more prolonged and sensitive at lower strains). The cartilage injury model appears to be useful (possibly superior) for investigating the relationship between impact severity of injury and the onset of PTOA, specifically for discovery of biomarkers to evaluate the risk of developing clinical PTOA, and to compare effective treatments for arthritis prevention. PMID:25005436

  14. The Impact of Personal Digital Assistants on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    A positive correlation has been found between laptops and student achievement. Laptops are similar to Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) in many respects. This study seeks to determine the effect of PDA usage on high school student academic achievement. It was hypothesized that a positive correlation between PDA usage and academic achievement in…

  15. Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G. S.; Nickerson, N.

    2011-02-01

    A quantitative assessment is presented for the impact of the maximum depth of a temperature-depth profile on the estimate of the climatic transient and the resultant ground surface temperature (GST) reconstruction used in borehole paleoclimatology. The depth of the profile is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. The quantitative effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of temperature-depth profiles of different depths are presented. Results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. Borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths are shown to provide the most robust GST reconstructions spanning 500 to 1000 ybp. It is further shown that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths shallower than 500-600 m remains even if the time span of the reconstruction target is shortened.

  16. Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G. S.; Nickerson, N.

    2011-07-01

    A quantitative assessment is presented for the impact of the maximum depth of a temperature-depth profile on the estimate of the climatic transient and the resultant ground surface temperature (GST) reconstruction used in borehole paleoclimatology. The depth of the profile is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. The quantitative effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of temperature-depth profiles of different depths are presented. Results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. Borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths are shown to provide the most robust GST reconstructions spanning 500 to 1000 yr BP. It is further shown that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths shallower than 500-600 m remains even if the time span of the reconstruction target is shortened.

  17. Optimization Correction Strength Using Contra Bending Technique without Anterior Release Procedure to Achieve Maximum Correction on Severe Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Saleh, Ifran; Purnaning, Dyah; Kurniawati, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Posterior-only approach with rod and screw corrective manipulation to add strength of contra bending manipulation has correction achievement similar to that obtained by conventional combined anterior release and posterior approach. It also avoids the complications related to the thoracic approach. We reported a case of 25-year-old male adult idiopathic scoliosis with double curve. It consists of main thoracic curve of 150 degrees and lumbar curve of 89 degrees. His curve underwent direct contra bending posterior approach using rod and screw corrective manipulation technique to achieve optimal correction. After surgery the main thoracic Cobb angle becomes 83 degrees and lumbar Cobb angle becomes 40 degrees, with 5 days length of stay and less than 800 mL blood loss during surgery. There is no complaint at two months after surgery; he has already come back to normal activity with good functional activity. PMID:27064801

  18. Limits imposed by solenoid damage on the maximum velocity achieved by an electromagnetic coilgun: A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, S.; Sijoy, C. D.; Pahari, S.; Chaturvedi, S.

    2012-06-01

    CAD has set up an electromagnetic acceleration and impact facility for studies of material fracture and deformation at high strain rates. The target is to reach projectile velocities of 200-500 m/s. The mechanical strength of the solenoid coil and potting material is an important factor affecting coil survival during experiments. We have performed a computational study, using the materials and coil and circuit parameters typically used in experiments, and found the operating limits up to which the coil can survive without breaking.

  19. [ADVANCE-ON Trial; How to Achieve Maximum Reduction of Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes].

    PubMed

    Kanorskiĭ, S G

    2015-01-01

    Of 10,261 patients with type 2 diabetes who survived to the end of a randomized ADVANCE trial 83% were included in the ADVANCE-ON project for observation for 6 years. The difference in the level of blood pressure which had been achieved during 4.5 years of within trial treatment with fixed perindopril/indapamide combination quickly vanished but significant decrease of total and cardiovascular mortality in the group of patients treated with this combination for 4.5 years was sustained during 6 years of post-trial follow-up. The results can be related to gradually weakening protective effect of perindopril/indapamide combination on cardiovascular system, and are indicative of the expedience of long-term use of this antihypertensive therapy for maximal lowering of mortality of patients with diabetes. PMID:26164995

  20. The Impact and Racial Identity on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulzac, Anica Camela

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that academic achievement among racial minority groups, particularly African Americans, and the majority Caucasian group is profoundly disproportionate. A number of variables have been shown to influence the academic achievement of students, such as stereotype threat, racial identity, and academic self-concept (Awad, 2007;…

  1. Gender Differences in Values and Their Impact on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglehart, Marita Rosch; Brown, Donald R.

    Gender differences in academic achievement of students in the medical school at the University of Michigan were investigated in this study. Observed achievement differences were attributed to gender differences in values which influence student motivation. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) that men place more importance on mastery-related issues,…

  2. Academic Achievement and Its Impact on Friend Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flashman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Academic achievement in adolescence is a key determinant of future educational and occupational success. Friends play an important role in the educational process. They provide support and resources and can both encourage and discourage academic achievement. As a result, the friends adolescents make may help to maintain and exacerbate inequality…

  3. The Impact of Learning Time on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jez, Su Jin; Wassmer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    As schools aim to raise student academic achievement levels and districts wrangle with decreased funding, it is essential to understand the relationship between learning time and academic achievement. Using regression analysis and a data set drawn from California's elementary school sites, we find a statistically significant and positive…

  4. Teachers Developing Assessment for Learning: Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan; Lee, Clare; Harrison, Christine; Black, Paul

    2004-01-01

    While it is generally acknowledged that increased use of formative assessment (or assessment for learning) leads to higher quality learning, it is often claimed that the pressure in schools to improve the results achieved by students in externally-set tests and examinations precludes its use. This paper reports on the achievement of secondary…

  5. Juvenile Delinquency and Recidivism: The Impact of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.; Zhang, Dalun; Spann, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    For well over a century, behavioral researchers have attempted to understand the relation between juvenile delinquency and academic achievement. The authors review current literature pertaining to academic achievement and its effect on delinquency. While researchers have not yet been able to establish a direct causal relation between these two…

  6. Closing the Achievement Gap: Impact of Inclusion upon Achievement Rates of Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the relationship between the amount of time a student with special needs spends in the inclusive classroom and their achievement passing rates in mathematics and reading. TAKS passing rates for mathematics and reading for third graders in 2007-2008, and the same cohort of fourth graders in…

  7. Managing the Politics of Evaluation to Achieve Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Rakesh; Sullivan, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Should evaluators care about the impact of evaluation on the public policy process? If the larger purpose of evaluation is social betterment, the public policy arena affords tremendous opportunities for evaluators to have both short- and long-term impact by influencing policy formulation, implementation, and outcomes. Working in the public policy…

  8. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions. PMID:26480926

  9. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  10. An Examination of an Online Tutoring Program's Impact on Low-Achieving Middle School Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Shanan; Arnold, Pamela; Nunnery, John; Grant, Melva

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine the impact of synchronous online tutoring services on struggling middle school students' mathematics achievement. The online tutoring was provided as a response to intervention (RTI) Tier 3 support (intensive, individualized intervention) in schools implementing a school-wide mathematics…

  11. How Does Grit Impact College Students' Academic Achievement in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazelais, Paul; Lemay, David John; Doleck, Tenzin

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that achievement is not solely based on the cognitive abilities of the learner, but rather on the combination of cognitive ability and personality traits. This paper explores how grit affects student academic performance and success in first-year college physics students in the context of a Quebec Collège d'enseignement…

  12. How Rural School Superintendents in Illinois Impact Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VonSchnase, Kyle T.

    2010-01-01

    Since the passage of The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a superintendent's role has been redefined and more focus has been placed on student achievement. Research demonstrates that rural public schools are faced with an educational crisis. Rural districts are faced with an epidemic of declining enrollments/budgets, increased drop-out rates, low…

  13. Classroom, School, and District Impacts on Diverse Student Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Lawson, Hal A.; Angelis, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research has investigated the literacy achievement gap with particular focus on ethnically and linguistically diverse students' performance. This study extends that research by examining the relationships among classroom instructional practices, school priorities, and district policies in higher performing schools.…

  14. The Impact of Principal Instructional Leadership Practices on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nason, Kristen Kendrick

    2011-01-01

    The problem addressed in this cross-sectional, quantitative study was a continual stagnation in student achievement in one U.S. state, which is critical to stakeholders responsible for increasing student advancement in college and the 21st century workforce. Specifically, the objective was to identify the relationship between principal-perceived…

  15. Impact of Looping on Middle School Science Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    Looping may be defined as a teacher remaining with a group of students for multiple academic years. In this quantitative study, looping was examined as a factor on science achievement. State-wide eighth grade school level 2010 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) data were used. By responding to a mailing, school administrators…

  16. Suitability of AIOU Television and Its Impact on Students' Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj, Syed Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The requirement of television for educational purposes arises when specific educational objectives are not achieved through traditional way of teaching. There are a number of things television can do better than the average teacher and traditional educational institutions, but situations where both teacher and educational institutions are not…

  17. Impacts of Campus Involvement on Hospitality Student Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Dean; Lei, Simon A.

    2007-01-01

    Campus involvement affecting satisfaction and academic achievement (overall grade point average) of hospitality undergraduate students at a state university in the Midwest (University X) was investigated through a survey research. A four-part survey instrument was developed to facilitate this study. There were a number of academic, professional,…

  18. Student Access to Technology and Its Impact on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    One to One technology initiatives are a national trend, but something districts must weigh heavily as they are costly. The purpose of this study is to explore the One to One initiative in a middle school as it relates to student achievement and reducing economic disparity. Bourdieu's Cultural Capital Theory applies to this study as one would…

  19. Educational Administration Program Quality and the Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Jimmy K.; Slater, Robert O.; Brooks, John

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a connection between quality of education obtained by superintendents in educational administration programs and school effectiveness as measured by student achievement. The best fitting model based on the model deviance test and accounting for the greatest variation in the outcome variable,…

  20. Organizational Dimensions of Climate and the Impact on School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Randy J.; Harris, Lonnie G.

    1998-01-01

    Examines selected factors associated with classroom climate (satisfaction, friction, competition, difficulty, cohesiveness) as perceived by fourth-grade students and explores the relationship between those factors and student academic achievement in the areas of reading, math, and language. Findings indicate that climate plays a relatively minor…

  1. The Impact of "Achievement for All" on School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandford, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The "Achievement for All" (AfA) pilot initiative, delivered in partnership by the Department for Education (DfE), (formerly the Department for Children, Schools and Families [DCSF]), National Strategies and the National College (NCSL), aims to increase the attainment and progress of children in schools with special educational needs and…

  2. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  3. Promoting Achievement in School through Sports. First Year Impact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sports Inst., Mill Valley, CA.

    Promoting Achievement in School through Sports (PASS) is an academic high school curriculum developed by the American Sports Institute. It is a daily, year-long, credit-bearing, physical education elective for students who love sports but are not performing up to their academic potential. PASS is based on the concept that the principles and skills…

  4. The Sibling Size Impact on the Educational Achievement in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adli, Rhonya; Louichi, Ahmed; Tamouh, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of sibling size on children's education. The theoretical framework shows an opposite relationship between the number of children within family and their school performance. Empirical works diverge between those corroborating this theory and those leading to ambiguous results such a positive correlation or the absence of any…

  5. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Elementary Student Achievement in Rural South Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Perez, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Educational inequalities that exist due to socioeconomic status impact the academic achievement of students and contribute to the achievement gap. This study attempted to examine how the predictors of grade level and socioeconomic status impact the passing of state standardized reading and mathematics exams. The 2012-2013 State of Texas Academic…

  6. Teacher Turnover Impact on 1st-8th Grade Student Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Johnnie M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of schools and students not meeting academic achievement standards affects the community and the nation's future workforce. This paper examines many of the factors influencing achievement with special attention given to the facts of teacher turnover in the schools. Teacher turnover and the sad state of the academic achievement of…

  7. Held Back: The Impact of Curricular and Pedagogical Factors on Tested Achievement in High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agvanian, Zara

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of curricular factors and teaching practices on students' tested achievement in mathematics, explored the best predictors of the tested achievement, and examined differences in the tested achievement among student subgroups. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methods and triangulated findings from…

  8. The solar maximum satellite capture cell: Impact features and orbital debris and micrometeoritic projectile materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, D. S.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Schramm, L. S.; Barrett, R. A.; Zook, H. A.; Blanford, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    The physical properties of impact features observed in the Solar Max main electronics box (MEB) thermal blanket generally suggest an origin by hypervelocity impact. The chemistry of micrometeorite material suggests that a wide variety of projectile materials have survived impact with retention of varying degrees of pristinity. Impact features that contain only spacecraft paint particles are on average smaller than impact features caused by micrometeorite impacts. In case both types of materials co-occur, it is belevied that the impact feature, generally a penetration hole, was caused by a micrometeorite projectile. The typically smaller paint particles were able to penetrate though the hole in the first layer and deposit in the spray pattern on the second layer. It is suggested that paint particles have arrived with a wide range of velocities relative to the Solar Max satellite. Orbiting paint particles are an important fraction of materials in the near-Earth environment. In general, the data from the Solar Max studies are a good calibration for the design of capture cells to be flown in space and on board Space Station. The data also suggest that development of multiple layer capture cells in which the projectile may retain a large degree of pristinity is a feasible goal.

  9. Wetting state and maximum spreading factor of microdroplets impacting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces with anisotropic arrays of pillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae Hee; Huh, Hyung Kyu; Lee, Sang Joon

    2013-07-01

    The dynamic behaviors of microdroplets that impact on textured surfaces with various patterns of microscale pillars are experimentally investigated in this study. A piezoelectric inkjet is used to generate the microdroplets that have a diameter of less than 46 μm and a controlled Weber number. The impact and spreading dynamics of an individual droplet are captured by using a high-speed imaging system. The anisotropic and directional wettability and the wetting states on the textured surfaces with anisotropically arranged pillars are revealed for the first time in this study. The impalement transition from the Cassie-Baxter state to the partially impaled state is evaluated by balancing the wetting pressure P wet and the capillary pressure P C even on the anisotropic textured surfaces. The maximum spreading factor is measured and compared with the theoretical prediction to elucidate the wettability of the textured surfaces. For a given Weber number, the maximum spreading factor decreases as the texture area fraction of the textured surface decreases. In addition, the maximum spreading factors along the direction of longer inter-pillar spacing always have smaller values than those along the direction of shorter inter-pillar spacing when a droplet impacts on the anisotropic arrays of pillars.

  10. The Power of Perception: Mediating the Impact of Poverty on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell'Angelo, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Race and class often marginalize students in impoverished urban neighborhoods, and this reality is evident in consistently low student achievement in many of the schools in these neighborhoods. This study examines how a teacher's sense of agency can help mediate the detrimental impact of poverty on student achievement. Teachers in a large…

  11. Exploring the Impacts of Accelerated Delivery on Student Learning, Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Martin, Susan; Walker, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This case study examines the impacts on student learning, achievement and satisfaction when year 13 (final year) students at a large UK sixth-form college take a GCE A level in one year instead of the usual two years. Data relating to the entry qualifications and final A level grades achieved by 879 students on both accelerated and non-accelerated…

  12. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  13. Summer Study: A Two Part Investigation of the Impact of Exposure to Schooling on Achievement Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jane Lisa

    This thesis is composed of two studies which look at the impact of exposure to schooling on achievement growth of children. Both use data from the National Follow Through Evaluation. The first study investigates the hypothesis that the difference in achievement growth between poor and non-poor children is greater during the summer months than…

  14. The Impact of Achievement Press on Student Success in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Page A.; Kearney, W. Sean

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relative impact of achievement press on student success in elementary schools in the Southwestern USA. Design/methodology/approach: Data from individual teacher assessments and student achievement tests are collected and aggregated at the campus level. Hierarchical linear modeling is utilized to…

  15. The Impact on Student Achievement of When CAS Technology Is Introduced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, David

    2012-01-01

    When a Computer Algebra System (CAS) is used as a pedagogical and functional tool in class and as a functional tool in exams, its effect on student achievement can be quite profound. The timing of when students are first introduced to a CAS has an impact on gains in student achievement. In this action research project, the CAS calculator was…

  16. Arts Achieve, Impacting Student Success in the Arts: Preliminary Findings after One Year of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrorilli, Tara M.; Harnett, Susanne; Zhu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The "Arts Achieve: Impacting Student Success in the Arts" project involves a partnership between the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) and five of the city's premier arts organizations. "Arts Achieve" provides intensive and targeted professional development to arts teachers over a three-year period. The goal…

  17. What Is the Impact of Full Access to Technology on the Achievement of the Hispanic Student?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, John E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The problem studied in this research was whether the impact of full access to technology both at home and in school would affect the achievement of Hispanic students. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the access to technology and the achievement of the Hispanic students at a suburban middle school. What are the…

  18. The Impact of the Developmental Discipline Management System on Teaching Effectiveness and Student Achievement in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, J'Anne; Monahan, Alicia K.

    This study analyzed the impact of the Developmental Discipline Management System (DD) on teaching effectiveness and student achievement in special needs classrooms. DD was developed as a human centered, systems approach to education. Its core philosophy was to help each child achieve self mastery and mastery of subjects and to help teachers feel…

  19. The Impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy on Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review explores the potential impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) on teacher efficacy and student achievement. Research conducted to date, focusing on increasing teacher efficacy and student achievement, has produced mixed results. Teachers continue to think, emote, and behave in unhelpful ways. REBT appears to…

  20. Estimating the Impact of the Massachusetts English Immersion Law on Limited English Proficient Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Qian; Koretz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The large number of limited English proficient (LEP) children in U.S. schools and the uncertainty about the impact of bilingual education versus English immersion on their achievement warrant rigorous investigation of the effects of "English immersion laws." We estimated the impact of "Question 2", the Massachusetts English immersion law, and…

  1. Research into the Deployment and Impact of Support Staff Who Have Achieved HLTA Status. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rebekah; Sharp, Caroline; Shuayb, Maha; Kendall, Lesley; Wade, Pauline; Easton, Claire

    2007-01-01

    This report details the findings of two surveys designed to investigate the deployment and impact of support staff who have achieved higher level teaching assistant (HLTA) status in England and to assess the impact or effect they are having in schools, along with interview data collected from nine case-study schools. The study sought to: (1)…

  2. Chicxulub Impact, Yucatan Carbonate Platform, Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary and Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chicxulub formed 66 Ma ago by an asteroid impact on the Yucatan carbonate platform, southern Gulf of Mexico. Impact produced a 200 km diameter crater, platform fracturing, deformation and ejecta emplacement. Carbonate sedimentation restarted and crater was covered by up to 1 km of sediments. Drilling programs have sampled the Paleogene sediments, which record the changing sedimentation processes in the impact basin and platform. Here, results of a study of the Paleocene-Eocene sediments cored in the Santa Elena borehole are used to characterize the K/Pg and PETM. The borehole reached a depth of 504 m and was continuously cored, sampling the post-impact sediments and impact breccias, with contact at 332 m. For this study, we analyzed the section from ~230 to ~340 m, corresponding to the upper breccias and Paleocene-Eocene sediments. The lithological column, constructed from macroscopic and thin-section petrographic analyses, is composed of limestones and dolomitized limestones with several thin clay layers. Breccias are melt and basement clast rich, described as a suevitic unit. Section is further investigated using paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, X-ray fluorescence geochemical and stable isotope analyses. Magnetic polarities define a sequence of reverse to normal, which correlate to the geomagnetic polarity time scale from chrons 29r to 26r. The d13 C values in the first 20 m interval range from 1.2 to 3.5 %0 and d18 O values range from -1.4 to -4.8 %0. Isotope values show variation trends that correlate with the marine carbon and oxygen isotope patterns for the K-Pg boundary and early Paleocene. Positive carbon isotopes suggest relatively high productivity, with apparent recovery following the K-Pg extinction event. Geochemical data define characteristic trends, with Si decreasing gradually from high values in the suevites, low contents in Paleocene sediments with intervals of higher variability and then increased values likely marking the PETM. Variation trends are

  3. Systematic approach to determination of maximum achievable capture capacity via leaching and carbonation processes for alkaline steelmaking wastes in a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chun-Da; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Chang, E-E

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was performed in a rotating packed bed (RPB) as a promising process for both CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment. The maximum achievable capture capacity (MACC) via leaching and carbonation processes for BOFS in an RPB was systematically determined throughout this study. The leaching behavior of various metal ions from the BOFS into the CRW was investigated by a kinetic model. In addition, quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) using the Rietveld method was carried out to determine the process chemistry of carbonation of BOFS with CRW in an RPB. According to the QXRD results, the major mineral phases reacting with CO2 in BOFS were Ca(OH)2, Ca2(HSiO4)(OH), CaSiO3, and Ca2Fe1.04Al0.986O5. Meanwhile, the carbonation product was identified as calcite according to the observations of SEM, XEDS, and mappings. Furthermore, the MACC of the lab-scale RPB process was determined by balancing the carbonation conversion and energy consumption. In that case, the overall energy consumption, including grinding, pumping, stirring, and rotating processes, was estimated to be 707 kWh/t-CO2. It was thus concluded that CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of BOFS could be effectively and efficiently performed by coutilizing with CRW in an RPB. PMID:24236803

  4. Impact of vegetation changes on the dynamics of the atmosphere at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crucifix, Michel; Hewitt, Christopher D.

    2005-10-01

    Much work is under way to identify and quantify the feedbacks between vegetation and climate. Palaeoclimate modelling may provide a mean to address this problem by comparing simulations with proxy data. We have performed a series of four simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21,000 years ago) using the climate model HadSM3, to test the sensitivity of climate to various changes in vegetation: a global change (according to a previously discussed simulation of the LGM with HadSM3 coupled to the dynamical vegetation model TRIFFID); a change only north of 35°N; a change only south of 35°N; and a variation in stomatal opening induced by the reduction in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We focus mainly on the response of temperature, precipitation, and atmosphere dynamics. The response of continental temperature and precipitation mainly results from regional interactions with vegetation. In Eurasia, particularly Siberia and Tibet, the response of the biosphere substantially enhances the glacial cooling through a positive feedback loop between vegetation, temperature, and snow-cover. In central Africa, the decrease in tree fraction reduces the amount of precipitation. Stomatal opening is not seen to play a quantifiable role. The atmosphere dynamics, and more specifically the Asian summer monsoon system, are significantly altered by remote changes in vegetation: the cooling in Siberia and Tibet act in concert to shift the summer subtropical front southwards, weaken the easterly tropical jet and the momentum transport associated with it. By virtue of momentum conservation, these changes in the mid-troposphere circulation are associated with a slowing of the Asian summer monsoon surface flow. The pattern of moisture convergence is slightly altered, with moist convection weakening in the western tropical Pacific and strengthening north of Australia.

  5. Focusing National Institutes of Health HIV/AIDS Research for Maximum Population Impact

    PubMed Central

    Walensky, Rochelle P.; Auerbach, Judith D.; Carpenter, Charles J.; Auerbach, Judith D.; Agosto-Rosario, Moisés; Averitt, Dawn; Bartlett, John G.; Curran, James W.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Haase, Ashley; Hillier, Sharon; Holmes, King K.; Volberding, Paul A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2015-01-01

    Progress in advancing research on the pathophysiology, prevention, treatment, and impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is threatened by the decaying purchasing power of National Institutes of Health (NIH) dollars. A working group of the NIH Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council was charged by the NIH Director with developing a focused and concise blueprint to guide the use of limited funding over the next few years. Science priorities outlined by the working group and reported here are intended to maximally address individuals, groups, and settings most affected by the epidemic, and to redress shortcomings in realizing population-level HIV prevention, treatment, and eradication goals. Optimizing these priorities requires that traditional silos—defined by topic focus and by scientific discipline—be dissolved and that structural issues affecting the pipeline of new investigators and the ability of the Office of AIDS Research to fulfill its role of steward of the NIH HIV/AIDS research program be directly addressed. PMID:25422391

  6. Dinocyst taphonomy, impact craters, cyst ghosts, and the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Lucy E.

    2012-01-01

    Dinocysts recovered from sediments related to the Chesapeake Bay impact structure in Virginia and the earliest Eocene suboxic environment in Maryland show strange and intriguing details of preservation. Features such as curled processes, opaque debris, breakage, microborings and cyst ghosts, among others, invite speculation about catastrophic depositional processes, rapid burial and biological and chemical decay. Selected specimens from seven cores taken in the coastal plain of Virginia and Maryland show abnormal preservation features in various combinations that merit illustration, description, discussion and further study. Although the depositional environments described are extreme, many of the features discussed are known from, or could be found in, other environments. These environments will show both similarities to and differences from the extreme environments here.

  7. Focusing National Institutes of Health HIV/AIDS research for maximum population impact.

    PubMed

    Walensky, Rochelle P; Auerbach, Judith D

    2015-03-15

    Progress in advancing research on the pathophysiology, prevention, treatment, and impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is threatened by the decaying purchasing power of National Institutes of Health (NIH) dollars. A working group of the NIH Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council was charged by the NIH Director with developing a focused and concise blueprint to guide the use of limited funding over the next few years. Science priorities outlined by the working group and reported here are intended to maximally address individuals, groups, and settings most affected by the epidemic, and to redress shortcomings in realizing population-level HIV prevention, treatment, and eradication goals. Optimizing these priorities requires that traditional silos--defined by topic focus and by scientific discipline--be dissolved and that structural issues affecting the pipeline of new investigators and the ability of the Office of AIDS Research to fulfill its role of steward of the NIH HIV/AIDS research program be directly addressed. PMID:25422391

  8. The impact of regulations, safety considerations and physical limitations on research progress at maximum biocontainment.

    PubMed

    Shurtleff, Amy C; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S; Bavari, Sina

    2012-12-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. PMID:23342380

  9. The Impact of Regulations, Safety Considerations and Physical Limitations on Research Progress at Maximum Biocontainment

    PubMed Central

    Shurtleff, Amy C.; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S.; Bavari, Sina

    2012-01-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. PMID:23342380

  10. The impact of collective teacher efficacy on student achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcham, Mark W.

    This dissertation was designed to examine the impact of collective teacher efficacy on high school science achievement by looking at relationships among collective teacher efficacy, its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, and high school science achievement scores at four rural high schools in Northwestern North Carolina. The researcher gathered historical test data from the testing coordinator from the school system and then administered the Collective Teacher Efficacy Instrument, developed by Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk Hoy (2000), to 24 science teachers from the four high schools. Using this information, the researcher conducted statistical analyses to determine the relationships among collective teacher efficacy, group competence, and group task analysis as compared with the tested science curriculum (physical science, biology, chemistry, and physics). The researcher also examined which construct was the most contributing factor and examined differences in efficacy levels and student achievement levels at each high school. Analysis of the data from this study indicated collective teacher efficacy, as well as its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, does have a positive impact on student achievement in high school science. Analysis of the data revealed group competence is the major contributing factor for student achievement in biology and group task analysis is the major contributing factor for student achievement in physical science, chemistry, and physics. Further analysis of the data in this study, also revealed that the two high schools with the highest levels of collective teacher efficacy had the highest levels of student achievement.

  11. Land Use Land Cover Impact on Probable Maximum Flood and Sedimentation for Artificial Reservoirs: A Case Study in Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigzaw, W. Y.; Hossain, F.

    2014-12-01

    Unanticipated peak inflows that can exceed the inflow design flood (IDF) for spillways and result in possible storage loss in reservoirs from increased sedimentation rates lead to a greater risk for downstream floods. Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and probable maximum flood (PMF) are mostly used to determine IDF. Any possible change of PMP and PMF due to future land use and land cover (LULC) change therefore requires a methodical investigation. However, the consequential sediment yield, due to altered precipitation and flow patterns into the reservoir has not been addressed in literature. Thus, this study answers the following question: "What is the combined impact of a modified PMP on PMF and sediment yield for an artificial reservoir? The Owyhee dam of Owyhee River watershed (ORW) in Oregon is selected as a case study area for understanding the impact of LULC change on PMF and sedimentation rates. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) is used for simulating stream flow (PMF) and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to estimate sediment yield over ORW as a result of change in precipitation intensity and LULC. Scenarios that represent pre-Owyhee dam (Pre-Dam) and post Owyhee dam (Non-Irrigation, Control, 1992, 2001, 2006) are used to simulate PMF's and consequential sediment yield. Peak PMF result for Pre-Dam scenarios is found to increase by 26m3s-1 (1%) and 81m3s-1 (3%) from Non-Irrigation and Control scenario, respectively. Considering only LULC change, sediment yield decreased over ORW due to the transformation of LULC from grassland to shrubland (from Pre-Dam period to the post-Dam years). However, increase in precipitation intensity caused a significant (0.1% storage loss over 21days storm period) increase in sediment yield resulting in largely reservoir sedimentation. This study underscores the need to consider future impact of LULC change on IDF calculation as well as sedimentation rates for more robust reservoir operations and planning.

  12. The Impact of Troops to Teachers Participants on Student Achievement: A Causal-Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuch, Kurt Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study is to examine the impact of Troops to Teachers (TTT) participants on student achievement by comparing the mean scores of Texas students in the eighth grade during the 2011-2012 academic year taught by TTT participants with the mean scores of all other Texas eighth grade students on each of four…

  13. The Impact of New York's School Libraries on Student Achievement and Motivation: Phase I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.; Snyder, Jaime; Parker, Katie

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a number of statewide research studies have been conducted to determine the impact of school library media centers and their school library media specialists (SLMSs) on student achievement. Research studies in eighteen states have clearly established the relationship between well-staffed, well-funded school libraries on student…

  14. The Impact of Parental Participation Strategies on Reading Achievement in Elementary Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was used to determine the impact of parental participation strategies on reading achievement of students in an elementary setting. The problem is that the identified school fails to implement strategies to increase parental participation, in preparing students for the 21st century. One hundred…

  15. Online Penalty: The Impact of Online Instruction on the Latino-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupp, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Despite a substantial body of research on the effectiveness of distance education at the post-secondary level, little is known about the impact of online course delivery on the achievement gap. In California, the gap between white and Latino post-secondary student outcomes is significant and persistent, with Latino students overrepresented in…

  16. Investing in Educator Data Literacy Improves Student Achievement. Evidence of Impact: The Oregon Data Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007 the Oregon DATA Project has been investing resources to provide educators on-the-job training around effective data use to improve student achievement. New evidence shows that their efforts are paying off. A 2011 Oregon DATA Project report detailed the impact of their investment in the state's educators, finding the following: (1)…

  17. The Impact of Students' Conceptions of Constructivist Assumptions on Academic Achievement and Drop-out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of students' conceptions of constructivist learning activities on academic achievement and drop-out. Although constructivism represents an influential view of learning, studies investigating how students conceptualize this perspective have not been conducted before. A structural equation modelling approach was…

  18. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  19. The Impact of ICT on Pupils' Achievement and Attitudes in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cener, Emin; Acun, Ismail; Demirhan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of teaching social studies with the help of CT on pupils' achievement in social studies. A history, geography and culture oriented theme was selected from the social studies curriculum for the research, Turks on the Silk Road. A multimedia CD, documentaries, PowerPoint and so on were used to teach…

  20. Technology Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) in Introductory Physics: Impact on Genders and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Ruey S.; Chang, Wheijen; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of "Technology Enabled Active Learning" (TEAL) on students learning general physics, focusing on differences between genders and among various achievement levels. A quasi-experimental investigation was conducted on two semesters of courses offered in 2008. Data sources consisted of pre-tests, post-tests, self-report…

  1. The Impact of Anonymous and Assigned Use of Student Response Systems on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two approaches to use of student response systems (SRSs) on achievement in a study designed to better understand effective use of the devices. One condition was anonymous use of SRSs, in which graduate students selected a random clicker when entering the classroom. The second condition assigned devices to students…

  2. The Impact of Eliminating Extraneous Sound and Light on Students' Achievement: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangipudy, Rajarajeswari

    2010-01-01

    The impact of eliminating extraneous sound and light on students' achievement was investigated under four conditions: Light and Sound controlled, Sound Only controlled, Light Only controlled and neither Light nor Sound controlled. Group, age and gender were the control variables. Four randomly selected groups of high school freshmen students with…

  3. Impact of Preschool Education on Reading Achievement of Kindergarten through Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Melissa H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of various types of preschool care and education on the reading achievement of children, kindergarten through fifth grade, who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K). The participants in this study are located throughout the United States of America. These…

  4. A Study of the Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Academic Achievement in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Mary Kay

    2010-01-01

    The number of public high schools implementing a semester 4 x 4 block scheduling design within the state of South Carolina has tripled since 2005. However, minimal local research has been conducted regarding the impact of block scheduling on student academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist…

  5. Impact of Discussion on Peer Evaluations: Perceptions of Low Achievement and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huenecke, Todd M.; Waas, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors placed 5th-grade students into small groups of 3 in order to examine the impact of group discussion and displayed effort on children's evaluations of a low-achieving peer. Low effort by a target peer resulted in negative evaluations across attributional, affective, help-giving, and social response dimensions. Children who participated…

  6. Impact of Teacher's Behaviour on the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Syed Shafqat Ali

    2009-01-01

    This research article discusses the impact of teacher's behaviour on the academic achievement of university students. All the teachers and students of public sector universities constituted the population. From the 15 public sector universities, 375 teachers and 1500 students from five departments were selected as a sample. Two questionnaires were…

  7. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  8. 75 FR 4788 - FY 2010 Grant Competition Announcement; Promoting Student Achievement at Schools Impacted by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ...The Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) is amending the Promoting Student Achievement at Schools Impacted by Military Force Structure Changes grant competition announcement, which published in the Federal Register on November 24, 2009 (74 FR 61335- 61337). Marion County Schools has been added as a local educational agency associated with Fort...

  9. Impact of Preschool Education on the Academic Achievement of Low Socio-Economic Status Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if attending a four-year-old preschool program had an impact on the academic achievement of elementary age students. With limited funding and the demands of No Child Left Behind legislation, schools are constantly evaluating the effectiveness and cost of ongoing programming. In addition, educational…

  10. The Impacts of Charter Schools on Student Achievement: Evidence from North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bifulco, Robert; Ladd, Helen F.

    2006-01-01

    Using an individual panel data set to control for student fixed effects, we estimate the impact of charter schools on students in charter schools and in nearby traditional public schools. We find that students make considerably smaller achievement gains in charter schools than they would have in public schools. The large negative estimates of the…

  11. Black Suburbanization in Texas Metropolitan Areas and Its Impact on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kain, John F.; O'Brien, Daniel M.

    Suburban schools are generally of higher quality than the inner city schools that continue to serve a disproportionate share of black children. This study provided significant evidence that school quality, measured by the mean test scores for individual grades/campuses, has a large impact on the achievement of individual students. The analysis…

  12. The Impact of Age and Gender on Prep Children's Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Margot

    2006-01-01

    Within the current climate of heightened interest in the education of young children, it is essential that consideration be given to different factors which may impact, either positively or negatively, on the achievement of young learners when their academic progress in literacy and numeracy is considered. The research study reported in this paper…

  13. The Impact of Music on Student Achievement in the Third and Fifth Grade Math Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates students who engage in music exhibit improved cognitive development. The quantitative study was conducted in a large suburban school district in Southeast Georgia. This study investigated the impact of music on student achievement when music is incorporated with the core academic subject of mathematics at the elementary level.…

  14. Examining the Impact of School Climate on Student Achievement: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Kendall H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the changes in principal-teacher relationships and school climate over time as witnessed by staff members in elementary level "Turn Around Schools" in Indiana and how these relationships impacted student achievement. School climate and subsequent principal-teacher relationships…

  15. Promoting Achievement in School through Sports. Third-Year Impact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sports Inst., Mill Valley, CA.

    This study examined the impact of the PASS (Promoting Achievement in School through Sports) program on 59 high school students in 4 schools. The PASS program helps athletes to see the connections between athletic and academic success, and focuses on eight fundamental keys to success, including concentration, balance, relaxation, power, rhythm,…

  16. Measuring the Impact of Substance Abuse on Student Academic Achievement and Academic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattermann, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    This research presents data linking the impact of substance disorder to academic achievement, using data gathered at a recovery high school. Recovery schools provide recovery supports and a high-quality education to students with substance use disorders. The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs -- Short Screener and the Northwest Evaluation…

  17. The Impact of Inclusion on the Academic Achievement of High School Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Harold Smith

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the impact of inclusion on the academic achievement outcome of high school special education students as measured by English 1, biology, and algebra 1 as a function of gender, ethnicity, and years of inclusion. The study also examined the generalizations with confidence that could be made about the use of inclusion…

  18. Impacts of CME on the TEC at middle and low latitudes during maximum of the 24th solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoya Orue, Yenca Olivia; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Radicella, Sandro; Nava, Bruno; Kashcheyev, Anton

    2015-04-01

    In this study we analyzed the impacts on the GNSS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) of four selected CME hitting the Earth during the year 2013 at different stations of middle and low latitudes (Ebre, Rabat, Alexandria, San Fernando, M'barara, Matera and Dakar). In order to analyzed the seasonal behavior of TEC under these disturbed conditions in the mentioned stations we have selected four CME events occurred during the different seasons (January 19, March 17, July 9 and October 2) of year 2013, at a maximum of the sunspot cycle 24. At the beginning of each event there is an increase of TEC followed by a decrease. The first increase of TEC is a consequence of the Prompt Penetration of the Electric Field (PPEF). The depletion of the TEC is associated to the Disturbance Dynamo Electric Field (DDEF). In order to interpret the observations we analyzed the convection patterns at high latitudes given by the radar SUPERDARN. At low latitudes, we derived the ionospheric electric current disturbance Diono from ground magnetic variations. Diono is the sum of the DP2 (PPEF) and Ddyn (DDEF) electric current systems. Finally we found that the strength of the impact at middle and low latitudes depends on the time of the impact of the CME and the season.

  19. The impact of environmental education on sixth-grade students' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, Katherine Gillespie

    This study investigated the relationship between student involvement in environmental education (EE) and science achievement. The performance of students engaged in fifth and sixth grade classrooms identified as incorporating environmental education into science instruction was compared to that of students from similar classrooms that use traditional science instruction. Data from 4655 sixth grade students were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression model to determine if environmental education improves prediction of science achievement beyond that afforded by differences in socioeconomic status and previous science achievement. The results indicated that environmental education, when integrated into science instruction, does not improve prediction of CTBS science scores beyond that afforded by differences in previous achievement in science and socioeconomic status. Previous achievement and socioeconomic status were the only two variables that predicted CTBS science subtest scores. The variable previous achievement (Score on fourth grade KIRIS test) explained 27.6% of the variance in CTBS test scores. The variable socioeconomic status (participation in free and reduced lunch program) explained 7.1% of the variance in CTBS science test scores. Participation in a fifth, sixth or both grades environmental education classroom did not add to the prediction of CTBS scores. This study illustrates that environmental education, while not correlated with high science achievement, does not correlate with low science achievement. Environmental education research may benefit from similar studies, which utilize alternative forms of student assessment. This study has implications for researchers interested in examining the impact of environmental education on science achievement, as it provides evidence for the importance of including background characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and previous achievement, in research models. This study provides an example of

  20. The Impact of Including Children with Intellectual Disability in General Education Classrooms on the Academic Achievement of Their Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from…

  1. Satellite splat II: an inelastic collision with a surface-launched projectile and the maximum orbital radius for planetary impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Philip R.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-07-01

    Starting with conservation of energy and angular momentum, we derive a convenient method for determining the periapsis distance of an orbiting object, by expressing its velocity components in terms of the local circular speed. This relation is used to extend the results of our previous paper, examining the effects of an adhesive inelastic collision between a projectile launched from the surface of a planet (of radius R) and an equal-mass satellite in a circular orbit of radius r s. We show that there is a maximum orbital radius r s ≈ 18.9R beyond which such a collision cannot cause the satellite to impact the planet. The difficulty of bringing down a satellite in a high orbit with a surface-launched projectile provides a useful topic for a discussion of orbital angular momentum and energy. The material is suitable for an undergraduate intermediate mechanics course.

  2. Combined impacts of land cover changes and large-scale forcing on Southern California summer daily maximum temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequera, Pedro; González, Jorge E.; McDonald, Kyle; Bornstein, Robert; Comarazamy, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    California near-surface air temperatures are influenced by large-scale, regional and local factors. In that sense, a numerical model experiment was carried out to analyze the contribution of large-scale (changes in atmospheric and oceanic conditions) and regional (increased urbanization) factors on the observed California South Coast Air Basin regional summer daily maximum temperature warming pattern from 1950 to 2013. The simulations were performed with past (1950-1954) and present (2009-2013) land cover and climate conditions. The past land cover was derived from historical digital maps, and the present land cover was updated with high-resolution airborne remote sensing data. Results show that both factors contribute to the total change in daily maximum temperatures. Changes due to large-scale climate conditions dominate in coastal (due to warming sea surface temperatures) and nonurban regions, while changes due to urbanization have an impact mainly in urban areas, especially inland where large-scale warming weakens. Increased urbanization has also reduced sea-breeze intensity due to changes in surface roughness. The model was able to reproduce the regional observed warming pattern, as it incorporates urban heat island effects, otherwise underestimated by large-scale climate change only.

  3. Exploring the impact of climate variability during the Last Glacial Maximum on the pattern of human occupation of Iberia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ariane; Levavasseur, Guillaume; James, Patrick M A; Guiducci, Dario; Izquierdo, Manuel Arturo; Bourgeon, Lauriane; Kageyama, Masa; Ramstein, Gilles; Vrac, Mathieu

    2014-08-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was a global climate event, which had significant repercussions for the spatial distribution and demographic history of prehistoric populations. In Eurasia, the LGM coincides with a potential bottleneck for modern humans and may mark the divergence date for Asian and European populations (Keinan et al., 2007). In this research, the impact of climate variability on human populations in the Iberian Peninsula during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is examined with the aid of downscaled high-resolution (16 × 16 km) numerical climate experiments. Human sensitivity to short time-scale (inter-annual) climate variability during this key time period, which follows the initial modern human colonisation of Eurasia and the extinction of the Neanderthals, is tested using the spatial distribution of archaeological sites. Results indicate that anatomically modern human populations responded to small-scale spatial patterning in climate variability, specifically inter-annual variability in precipitation levels as measured by the standard precipitation index. Climate variability at less than millennial scale, therefore, is shown to be an important component of ecological risk, one that played a role in regulating the spatial behaviour of prehistoric human populations and consequently affected their social networks. PMID:25034085

  4. The Impact of Household Possessions on Youth's Academic Achievement in the Ghana YouthSave Experiment: A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Gina A. N.; Masa, Rainier D.; Wretman, Christopher J.; Ansong, David

    2013-01-01

    Household assets as part of youth's family background have been found to have a significant impact on youth's academic achievement. In this study, the impact of household possessions on youth's academic achievement in the Ghana YouthSave experiment is investigated. Findings support the hypothesized positive direction of the impact of household…

  5. Impact of the point spread function on maximum standardized uptake value measurements in patients with pulmonary cancer.

    PubMed

    Gellee, S; Page, J; Sanghera, B; Payoux, P; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) from fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans is a semi quantitative measure that is increasingly used in the clinical practice for diagnostic and therapeutic response assessment purposes. Technological advances such as the implementation of the point spread function (PSF) in the reconstruction algorithm have led to higher signal to noise ratio and increased spatial resolution. The impact on SUVmax measurements has not been studied in clinical setting. We studied the impact of PSF on SUVmax in 30 consecutive lung cancer patients. SUVmax values were measured on PET-computed tomography (CT) scans reconstructed iteratively with and without PSF (respectively high-definition [HD] and non-HD). HD SUVmax values were significantly higher than non-HD SUVmax. There was excellent correlation between HD and non-HD values. Details of reconstruction and PSF implementation in particular have important consequences on SUV values. Nuclear Medicine physicians and radiologists should be aware of the reconstruction parameters of PET-CT scans when they report or rely on SUV measurements. PMID:25191128

  6. The impacts of Meltwater Pulse-1A in the South Atlantic Ocean deep circulation since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marson, J. M.; Wainer, I.; Liu, Z.; Mata, M. M.

    2013-11-01

    Since 21 000 yr ago, the oceans have received large amounts of freshwater in pulses coming from the melting ice sheets. A specific event, known as meltwater pulse 1A (MWP-1A), has been identified in sea-level and temperature proxy records as responsible for the increase of ~20 m in sea level in less than 500 yr. Although its origin and timing are still under discussion, MWP-1A seems to have had a significant impact on several components of the climatic system. The present work aims to elucidate these impacts on the water mass distribution of the South Atlantic Ocean through the analysis of a transient simulation of the climate evolution from the Last Glacial Maximum to Present Day using a state-of-art CGCM, the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model version 3 (NCAR CCSM3). Results show that the freshwater discharge associated with the timing of MWP-1A was crucial to establish the present thermohaline structure associated with the North Atlantic Deep Water, marking the transition between a shallower and a deeper Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.

  7. Offsetting the impacts of mining to achieve no net loss of native vegetation.

    PubMed

    Sonter, L J; Barrett, D J; Soares-Filho, B S

    2014-08-01

    Offsets are a novel conservation tool, yet using them to achieve no net loss of biodiversity is challenging. This is especially true when using conservation offsets (i.e., protected areas) because achieving no net loss requires avoiding equivalent loss. Our objective was to determine if offsetting the impacts of mining achieves no net loss of native vegetation in Brazil's largest iron mining region. We used a land-use change model to simulate deforestation by mining to 2020; developed a model to allocate conservation offsets to the landscape under 3 scenarios (baseline, no new offsets; current practice, like-for-like [by vegetation type] conservation offsetting near the impact site; and threat scenario, like-for-like conservation offsetting of highly threatened vegetation); and simulated nonmining deforestation to 2020 for each scenario to quantify avoided deforestation achieved with offsets. Mines cleared 3570 ha of native vegetation by 2020. Under a 1:4 offset ratio, mining companies would be required to conserve >14,200 ha of native vegetation, doubling the current extent of protected areas in the region. Allocating offsets under current practice avoided deforestation equivalent to 3% of that caused by mining, whereas allocating under the threat scenario avoided 9%. Current practice failed to achieve no net loss because offsets did not conserve threatened vegetation. Explicit allocation of offsets to threatened vegetation also failed because the most threatened vegetation was widely dispersed across the landscape, making conservation logistically difficult. To achieve no net loss with conservation offsets requires information on regional deforestation trajectories and the distribution of threatened vegetation. However, in some regions achieving no net loss through conservation may be impossible. In these cases, other offsetting activities, such as revegetation, will be required. PMID:24673499

  8. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  9. Ecological Impact of Climate Change on Leaf Economic Strategies Across the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, D. L.; Currano, E. D.; Wilf, P.; Wing, S. L.; Labandeira, C. C.; Lovelock, E. C.

    2007-12-01

    Deciphering the ecological impacts of climate change is a key priority for paleontologists and ecologists alike. An important ecological metric in vegetated settings is the leaf economics spectrum, which represents an adaptive continuum running from rapid resource acquisition to maximized resource retention. This spectrum is comprised of a large number of coordinated traits, including leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf lifespan, photosynthetic rate, nutrient concentration, and palatability to herbivores. Here we apply a recently developed technique for reconstructing LMA to a suite of four isotaphonomic fossil plant sites spanning the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA. This technique is based on the biomechanical scaling between petiole width and leaf mass, and it has been calibrated with 65 present-day sites from five continents and tested on two well-known Eocene fossil localities (Bonanza, Utah and Republic, Washington). There are no significant differences in LMA among plants across the PETM. This stasis is present despite a backdrop of extreme climate change during the PETM in this region, including a three-to-four-fold increase in atmospheric CO2, an ~5 °C rise in temperature, and possible drying. Moreover, quantitative measurements of insect herbivory show, on average, a two-fold increase during the PETM relative to before and after the event. We interpret our results to suggest that leaf-economic relationships can, in some situations, partially decouple. More specifically, our documented increase in insect herbivory during the PETM with no concomitant decrease in LMA implies that during this interval less carbon was being captured by plants per unit of investment. Because the rate and magnitude of climate change during the PETM is similar to present-day anthropogenic changes, our results may provide clues for predictions of ecological impacts in the near future.

  10. On enforcing maximum principles and achieving element-wise species balance for advection-diffusion-reaction equations under the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a robust computational framework for advective-diffusive-reactive systems that satisfies maximum principles, the non-negative constraint, and element-wise species balance property. The proposed methodology is valid on general computational grids, can handle heterogeneous anisotropic media, and provides accurate numerical solutions even for very high Péclet numbers. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate advection (which makes the spatial part of the differential operator non-self-adjoint) into the non-negative computational framework, and overcome numerical challenges associated with advection. We employ low-order mixed finite element formulations based on least-squares formalism, and enforce explicit constraints on the discrete problem to meet the desired properties. The resulting constrained discrete problem belongs to convex quadratic programming for which a unique solution exists. Maximum principles and the non-negative constraint give rise to bound constraints while element-wise species balance gives rise to equality constraints. The resulting convex quadratic programming problems are solved using an interior-point algorithm. Several numerical results pertaining to advection-dominated problems are presented to illustrate the robustness, convergence, and the overall performance of the proposed computational framework.

  11. The impact of three instructional styles of teaching physics on students' achievement and attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arfaj, Maher Mohammed

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of three instructional styles (traditional teaching, problem-based instruction, and teaching by demonstration) of teaching physics on students' attitudes and achievement. The sample consisted of 106 Saudi students in three physics classes in the second semester of the academic year 1998--1999. Three instruments were used in collecting the data for both quantitative and qualitative parts of the study. For the quantitative part, the researcher developed and pilot tested a 35-item questionnaire with versions to measure students' attitudes before the start of the experiment and then to measure students' attitudes toward the method of teaching. In addition, the researcher developed a 12-item achievement test to measure students gain scores which was administered at the beginning and the end of the treatment. For the qualitative part, the researcher constructed an interview guide consisting of five-open ended questions. The questions were geared to discover students' attitudes toward the implemented instructional style, and if this instructional style assisted them to acquire a good understanding of the studied unit. In the quantitative part, the results showed a significant correlation between students' attitudes toward the method of teaching and their achievement on the posttests. Furthermore, the findings from the one-way ANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference among the three groups in terms of achievement. The mean of achievement gain scores was highest for the problem-based group, followed by the group that was taught by demonstration, and then the traditional teaching group. The findings from the ANOVA indicated that there was also no significant difference between the three groups in terms of attitudes. In the qualitative part, the answers of the five questions revealed four themes: attitudes toward the method of teaching, reasons for liking or disliking the method of teaching, methods of

  12. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  13. Impact of climate change on crop yield and role of model for achieving food security.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    In recent times, several studies around the globe indicate that climatic changes are likely to impact the food production and poses serious challenge to food security. In the face of climate change, agricultural systems need to adapt measures for not only increasing food supply catering to the growing population worldwide with changing dietary patterns but also to negate the negative environmental impacts on the earth. Crop simulation models are the primary tools available to assess the potential consequences of climate change on crop production and informative adaptive strategies in agriculture risk management. In consideration with the important issue, this is an attempt to provide a review on the relationship between climate change impacts and crop production. It also emphasizes the role of crop simulation models in achieving food security. Significant progress has been made in understanding the potential consequences of environment-related temperature and precipitation effect on agricultural production during the last half century. Increased CO2 fertilization has enhanced the potential impacts of climate change, but its feasibility is still in doubt and debates among researchers. To assess the potential consequences of climate change on agriculture, different crop simulation models have been developed, to provide informative strategies to avoid risks and understand the physical and biological processes. Furthermore, they can help in crop improvement programmes by identifying appropriate future crop management practises and recognizing the traits having the greatest impact on yield. Nonetheless, climate change assessment through model is subjected to a range of uncertainties. The prediction uncertainty can be reduced by using multimodel, incorporating crop modelling with plant physiology, biochemistry and gene-based modelling. For devloping new model, there is a need to generate and compile high-quality field data for model testing. Therefore, assessment of

  14. Prognostic impact of immunophenotypic complete response in patients with multiple myeloma achieving better than complete response.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Kota; Fujisawa, Manabu; Suehara, Yasuto; Narita, Ken-Taro; Usui, Yoshiaki; Takeuchi, Masami; Matsue, Kosei

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the impact of immunophenotypic complete response [iCR, ≤10(-4) multiple myeloma (MM) cells defined by multicolor flow cytometry (MFC)] on survival in patients with MM, we retrospectively analyzed 78 patients that obtained conventional CR at our hospital. Survivals were landmarked at achievement of CR. The rate of stringent CR (sCR) among patients with CR was 88%, and iCR for CR and sCR patients were 44% and 49%, respectively. Achievement of iCR was associated with significantly longer disease-free survival (DFS) not only in CR patients (p = 0.009) but also in sCR patients (p = 0.002), while sCR attainment per se did not have statistically significant impact on DFS (p = 0.06) or overall survival (OS) (p = 0.587). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that attainment of iCR was independently associated with longer 2-year DFS in addition to creatinine (≤2.0 mg/dL) and maintenance therapy. This study highlights the importance of pursuing iCR even in patients with sCR. PMID:26764045

  15. The Impact of Color-Coding Freshmen Integrated-Science Assignments on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdivant Allen, Anita Kay

    Students in Grade 9 exhibit high rates of grade retention and absenteeism. Educators have used different strategies that will increase the achievement of those students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship existed between student achievement and the strategy to use colored paper for Grade 9 science assignments and tests. Itten's color theory provided the theoretical framework. Itten was one of the first researchers to explore the notion that the human eye can detect wavelengths as colors and that those colors can engage and create order in the human brain. A sample of students assigned to 4 classroom teachers at one high school who volunteered to take part in the study for 18 weeks were used in this quantitative study. Teachers administered student assessments on blue, green, yellow, and white paper. Each class was assigned 1 of the 4 colors for 4.5 weeks. The classes were then assigned a different color for the same length of time until each class had exposure to all 4 colors. Physical science exams given to students in the same grade or subject were used as the dependent variable. An ANOVA indicated that the groups using blue paper scored the highest on the physical science exams; students who used white paper earned the lowest scores. When comparing all 3 groups using colored paper (all three colored paper groups combined into one group) to the white paper groups, t-test results indicated that students using any colored paper scored higher than students using white paper. Further research on the impact of colored paper on student academic performance is necessary. Implications for positive social change indicate that new knowledge about instructional tools that impact student achievement deserves more attention.

  16. The impact of tutoring on early reading achievement for children with and without attention problems.

    PubMed

    Rabiner, David L; Malone, Patrick S

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether the benefits of reading tutoring in first grade were moderated by children's level of attention problems. Participants were 581 children from the intervention and control samples of Fast Track, a longitudinal multisite investigation of the development and prevention of conduct problems. Standardized reading achievement measures were administered after kindergarten and 1st grade, and teacher ratings of attention problems were obtained during 1st grade. During 1st grade, intervention participants received three 30-min tutoring sessions per week to promote the development of initial reading skills. Results replicated prior findings that attention problems predict reduced 1st grade reading achievement, even after controlling for IQ and earlier reading ability. Intervention was associated with modest reading achievement benefits for inattentive children without early reading difficulties, and substantial benefits for children with early reading difficulties who were not inattentive. It had no discernible impact, however, for children who were both inattentive and poor early readers. Results underscore the need to develop effective academic interventions for inattentive children, particularly for those with co-occurring reading difficulties. PMID:15228176

  17. Experimental study of the maximum resolution and packing density achievable in sintered and non-sintered binder-jet 3D printed steel microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Benedict, Michael; Kiggans Jr, James O

    2015-01-01

    Developing high resolution 3D printed metallic microchannels is a challenge especially when there is an essential need for high packing density of the primary material. While high packing density could be achieved by heating the structure to the sintering temperature, some heat sensitive applications require other strategies to improve the packing density of primary materials. In this study the goal is to develop high green or pack densities microchannels on the scale of 2-300 microns which have a robust mechanical structure. Binder-jet 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which droplets of binder are deposited via inkjet into a bed of powder. By repeatedly spreading thin layers of powder and depositing binder into the appropriate 2D profiles, complex 3D objects can be created one layer at time. Microchannels with features on the order of 500 microns were fabricated via binder jetting of steel powder and then sintered and/or infiltrated with a secondary material. The average particle size of the steel powder was varied along with the droplet volume of the inkjet-deposited binder. The resolution of the process, packing density of the primary material, the subsequent features sizes of the microchannels, and the overall microchannel quality were characterized as a function of particle size distribution, droplet sizes and heat treatment temperatures.

  18. Achieving accurate simulations of urban impacts on ozone at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of urbanization on ozone levels have been widely investigated over cities primarily located in temperate and/or humid regions. In this study, nested WRF-Chem simulations with a finest grid resolution of 1 km are conducted to investigate ozone concentrations [O3] due to urbanization within cities in arid/semi-arid environments. First, a method based on a shape preserving Monotonic Cubic Interpolation (MCI) is developed and used to downscale anthropogenic emissions from the 4 km resolution 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI05) to the finest model resolution of 1 km. Using the rapidly expanding Phoenix metropolitan region as the area of focus, we demonstrate the proposed MCI method achieves ozone simulation results with appreciably improved correspondence to observations relative to the default interpolation method of the WRF-Chem system. Next, two additional sets of experiments are conducted, with the recommended MCI approach, to examine impacts of urbanization on ozone production: (1) the urban land cover is included (i.e., urbanization experiments) and, (2) the urban land cover is replaced with the region’s native shrubland. Impacts due to the presence of the built environment on [O3] are highly heterogeneous across the metropolitan area. Increased near surface [O3] due to urbanization of 10-20 ppb is predominantly a nighttime phenomenon while simulated impacts during daytime are negligible. Urbanization narrows the daily [O3] range (by virtue of increasing nighttime minima), an impact largely due to the region’s urban heat island. Our results demonstrate the importance of the MCI method for accurate representation of the diurnal profile of ozone, and highlight its utility for high-resolution air quality simulations for urban areas.

  19. Science homework with video directions for parents: The impact on parental involvement and academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, Kathy L.

    The benefits of effective parental involvement in education have been well documented and can be far reaching. When educators make an effort to involve families, parental involvement can be even more meaningful. Homework is a commonly practiced and accepted connection between school and home and affords parents many opportunities to interact with their children on educational endeavors. However, parental involvement may be limited because educators do not reach out to parents, parents feel their children do not need their help, or parents are unfamiliar with the content and therefore unable to help. The purpose of this study was too develop and implement a tool to enhance parental involvement and academic achievement of fourth grade science students. The tool used in this study was a weekly science video to be viewed by parents when it accompanied science homework assignments. To begin, the researcher created six science videos for parents to watch that supplemented weekly homework assignments. Consequently, the researcher set up treatment and comparison groups to test the effectiveness of the supplemental videos in terms of parental involvement and academic achievement. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data from parents and students throughout the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data was collected throughout this study from both parents and students. Additionally, data was collected from a variety of sources including baseline, midpoint, and endpoint surveys; scores on homework assignments; and focus group interview sessions with parents and students. Data analysis revealed an overall positive impact on parental involvement and academic achievement when the videos were utilized.

  20. Longitudinal Impacts of the Children's Literacy Initiative Professional Development, Coaching, and Model Classroom Intervention on Early Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Julia; Meakin, John; Salinger, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement in literacy has been a focal concern in the United States for many years. Improving teachers' knowledge and skill that leads to improved student achievement, particularly in the early grades, can place children on an improved trajectory that can have long-term impacts on life outcomes. Over the past decade, a large body of…

  1. The Impact of Student-Faculty Interaction on Academic Achievement and College Satisfaction for Black Males Attending Predominately White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Lamar R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student-faculty interactions on academic achievement and college satisfaction among Black males at predominately White institutions. Specifically, the researcher sought to determine if there was a difference in levels of academic achievement and college satisfaction based on how often Black…

  2. An Analysis of the Impact of Title I on Reading and Math Achievement of Elementary School Aged Children. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David E.

    This report presents the findings of a study that examined the impact of compensatory education services on children's academic achievement in grades 1 to 6. Examination of data from the 1976-79 Sustaining Effects Study of Title I revealed the following major conclusions: (1) small positive gains in reading achievement are related to participation…

  3. A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Annual Synthesis, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne T.; Mapp, Karen L.

    Noting that the evidence of families influence on their childrens school achievement is consistent, positive, and convincing, this report examines research on parent and community involvement and its impact on student achievement. Following an introduction, the first section of the report describes the methods used for selecting the studies;…

  4. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development on African American Female Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study will be to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness (RIC) on the academic achievement of African American female college freshmen. This causal-comparative study is intended to provide research based info ration concerning the impact of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of…

  5. The Impact of a Physical Activity Intervention Program on Academic Achievement in a Swedish Elementary School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Käll, Lina B.; Nilsson, Michael; Lindén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the emerging body of research on the potential of physical activity to improve learning and academic achievement, conclusive evidence regarding the effects of physical activity on academic achievement is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a physical activity intervention program on academic…

  6. An Examination of the Impact of Successive and Non-Successive Geometry Classes on High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugg, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of successive versus non-successive scheduling of mathematics courses on the achievement of ninth-grade students in a suburban Oregon high school. The Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills and student performance on the geometry course final exam were employed to compare the achievement of intact groups of…

  7. MANAGING MANURE TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM VALUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure is an asset to soil productivity and crop production. The current assumption is that more manure is produced today than throughout history in the United States. Analysis of animal production numbers for the past 50 years shows that less manure is produced because of reduced animal productio...

  8. Achieving Maximum Integration Utilizing Requirements Flow Down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archiable, Wes; Askins, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A robust and experienced systems engineering team is essential for a successful program. It is often a challenge to build a core systems engineering team early enough in a program to maximize integration and assure a common path for all supporting teams in a project. Ares I was no exception. During the planning of IVGVT, the team had many challenges including lack of: early identification of stakeholders, team training in NASA s system engineering practices, solid requirements flow down and a top down documentation strategy. The IVGVT team started test planning early in the program before the systems engineering framework had been matured due to an aggressive schedule. Therefore the IVGVT team increased their involvement in the Constellation systems engineering effort. Program level requirements were established that flowed down to IVGVT aligning all stakeholders to a common set of goals. The IVGVT team utilized the APPEL REQ Development Management course providing the team a NASA focused model to follow. The IVGVT team engaged directly with the model verification and validation process to assure that a solid set of requirements drove the need for the test event. The IVGVT team looked at the initial planning state, analyzed the current state and then produced recommendations for the ideal future state of a wide range of systems engineering functions and processes. Based on this analysis, the IVGVT team was able to produce a set of lessons learned and to provide suggestions for future programs or tests to use in their initial planning phase.

  9. Achieving the HIV prevention impact of voluntary medical male circumcision: lessons and challenges for managing programs.

    PubMed

    Sgaier, Sema K; Reed, Jason B; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform. PMID:24800840

  10. Achieving the HIV Prevention Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Lessons and Challenges for Managing Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sgaier, Sema K.; Reed, Jason B.; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009–2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection “Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up.” The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform. PMID:24800840

  11. Does Money Really Matter? Estimating Impacts of Family Income on Young Children's Achievement With Data From Random-Assignment Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Greg J.; Morris, Pamela A.; Rodrigues, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists do not agree on the size and nature of the causal impacts of parental income on children's achievement. We revisit this issue using a set of welfare and antipoverty experiments conducted in the 1990s. We utilize an instrumental variables strategy to leverage the variation in income and achievement that arises from random assignment to the treatment group to estimate the causal effect of income on child achievement. Our estimates suggest that a $1,000 increase in annual income increases young children's achievement by 5%–6% of a standard deviation. As such, our results suggest that family income has a policy-relevant, positive impact on the eventual school achievement of preschool children. PMID:21688900

  12. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA): achievements in 10 years and future needs.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Schünemann, H J; Samolinski, B; Demoly, P; Baena-Cagnani, C E; Bachert, C; Bonini, S; Boulet, L P; Bousquet, P J; Brozek, J L; Canonica, G W; Casale, T B; Cruz, A A; Fokkens, W J; Fonseca, J A; van Wijk, R Gerth; Grouse, L; Haahtela, T; Khaltaev, N; Kuna, P; Lockey, R F; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Mullol, J; Naclerio, R; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Passalacqua, G; Pawankar, R; Price, D; Ryan, D; Simons, F E R; Togias, A; Williams, D; Yorgancioglu, A; Yusuf, O M; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agache, I; Aït-Khaled, N; Akdis, C A; Andrianarisoa, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Baiardini, I; Bateman, E D; Bedbrook, A; Beghé, B; Beji, M; Bel, E H; Ben Kheder, A; Bennoor, K S; Bergmann, K C; Berrissoul, F; Bieber, T; Bindslev Jensen, C; Blaiss, M S; Boner, A L; Bouchard, J; Braido, F; Brightling, C E; Bush, A; Caballero, F; Calderon, M A; Calvo, M A; Camargos, P A M; Caraballo, L R; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Cepeda, A M; Cesario, A; Chavannes, N H; Chen, Y Z; Chiriac, A M; Chivato Pérez, T; Chkhartishvili, E; Ciprandi, G; Costa, D J; Cox, L; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Darsow, U; De Blay, F; Deleanu, D; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didi, T; Dokic, D; Dolen, W K; Douagui, H; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; El-Meziane, A; Emuzyte, R; Fiocchi, A; Fletcher, M; Fukuda, T; Gamkrelidze, A; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Guzmán, M A; Hellings, P W; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O'B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jackson, C; Just, J; Kalayci, O; Kaliner, M A; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Khayat, G; Kim, Y Y; Koffi N'goran, B; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kvedariene, V; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Le, L T; Lemière, C; Li, J; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Mahboub, B; Makela, M J; Martin, F; Marshall, G D; Martinez, F D; Masjedi, M R; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Mazon, A; Melen, E; Meltzer, E O; Mendez, N H; Merk, H; Mihaltan, F; Mohammad, Y; Morais-Almeida, M; Muraro, A; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Nekam, K; Neou, A; Niggemann, B; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E; Nyembue, T D; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Orru, M P; Ouedraogo, S; Ozdemir, C; Panzner, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Park, H S; Pigearias, B; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Postma, D S; Potter, P; Rabe, K F; Ratomaharo, J; Reitamo, S; Ring, J; Roberts, R; Rogala, B; Romano, A; Roman Rodriguez, M; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Sheikh, A; Sisul, J C; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spicak, V; Spranger, O; Stein, R T; Stoloff, S W; Sunyer, J; Szczeklik, A; Todo-Bom, A; Toskala, E; Tremblay, Y; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valeyre, D; Valiulis, A; Valovirta, E; Van Cauwenberge, P; Vandenplas, O; van Weel, C; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Wang, D Y; Wickman, M; Wöhrl, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Zuberbier, T; Burney, P G; Johnston, S L; Warner, J O

    2012-11-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma represent global health problems for all age groups. Asthma and rhinitis frequently coexist in the same subjects. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) was initiated during a World Health Organization workshop in 1999 (published in 2001). ARIA has reclassified AR as mild/moderate-severe and intermittent/persistent. This classification closely reflects patients' needs and underlines the close relationship between rhinitis and asthma. Patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals are confronted with various treatment choices for the management of AR. This contributes to considerable variation in clinical practice, and worldwide, patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals are faced with uncertainty about the relative merits and downsides of the various treatment options. In its 2010 Revision, ARIA developed clinical practice guidelines for the management of AR and asthma comorbidities based on the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. ARIA is disseminated and implemented in more than 50 countries of the world. Ten years after the publication of the ARIA World Health Organization workshop report, it is important to make a summary of its achievements and identify the still unmet clinical, research, and implementation needs to strengthen the 2011 European Union Priority on allergy and asthma in children. PMID:23040884

  13. Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison. Effects on Women in Prison, the Prison Environment, Reincarceration Rates and Post-Release Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle; Torre, Maria Elena; Boudin, Kathy; Bowen, Iris; Clark, Judith; Hylton, Donna; Martinez, Migdalia; Missy; Roberts, Rosemarie A.; Smart, Pamela; Upegui, Debora

    The impact of college on women in a maximum-security prison was examined in a 3-year study of current and former inmates of New York's Bedford Hills Correctional Facility (BHCF). The data sources were as follows: (1) a review of program records; (2) one-on-one interviews of 65 inmates conducted by 15 inmates; (3) focus groups with 43 women in BHCF…

  14. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    PubMed

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent. PMID:16402748

  15. The impact of podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts on student achievement in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, Ruben, Jr.

    Educators in today's society are in search for different ways to reach their students in order to keep them engaged and active in the learning process. There are several strategies that teachers have utilized in the classroom in order to reach all students. Now seen more in the classroom is the use of technology in one form or another. There are several types of technologies that one may employ while in the classroom, but seen more recently is the use of podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts. The major purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of using podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts in conjunction with science curriculum on student academic achievement. Two intermediate schools from the south Texas region were chosen as a convenience sample for the study because one school utilized the technology of podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level while the other school did not utilize podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level. The researcher collected scores from curriculum based assessments that were aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for comparison between the two different groups, while controlling grade five science TAKS scores for group equalization. Once all data was collected, scores were entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and were analyzed using an analysis of covariance. The ANCOVA allowed the researcher to see that differences among curriculum based assessments scores existed between the two different schools. Scores were higher for the students who utilized podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level when compared to those scores for students who did not utilize podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts at the student created level. This study showed the benefits reaped of having students create their own podcasts, screencasts, and vodcasts. Having students create their own technology has them actively engaged in the learning

  16. The impact of classroom organization in grade 4 on student achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncanson, Edward Francis

    While qualitative studies of teacher perceptions of classroom organization have been performed, quantitative studies linked to standards-based assessments are noticeably absent. Two questions guided the research: What is the impact of classroom layout in grade 4 on student achievement in science? How does space use change in a classroom when the furniture is reorganized? The study was conducted in five classrooms in two rural, elementary schools. In two classrooms, teachers placed a large science materials table in the center of the room to make science activities a focal point for students. Two classrooms, that were used as controls, continued to operate using their established organization. The organization of the fifth classroom had included a large table in the center of the room for a number of years. This room was also used as a control. Data were collected in three ways. Quantitative data were collected from the New York State Grade-4 Science Program Evaluation Test. Qualitative data were collected using the Classroom Spatial Utilization and Migration Form and by creating a classroom map. The data were presented in quantitative, narrative, and graphic forms. Data from the New York State Grade-4 Science Program Evaluation Test were analyzed using a matrix published by the New York State Education Department and by using SPSS software. Classroom spatial utilization and migration patterns were visually evaluated. The guiding hypothesis that placing a large table in the center of the room would result in improved student performance was not totally supported by the data. Student density was correlated to student achievement. Specifically, classroom space per student was positively correlated to the inquiry science skills of classifying, manipulating materials, measuring, recording data, using non-standard measurement, and making predictions. Classroom arrangement was not as important as open space per student. This research is important because classrooms that

  17. Evaluating Math Recovery: Assessing the Causal Impact of Math Recovery on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas; Cobb, Paul; Farran, Dale; Cordray, David; Munter, Charles; Dunn, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    The authors' goal was to evaluate the potential of Math Recovery (MR), a pullout, one-to-one tutoring program that has been designed to increase mathematics achievement among low-performing first graders, thereby closing the school-entry achievement gap and enabling participants to achieve at the level of their higher-performing peers in the…

  18. Examining the Long-Term Impact of Achievement Loss during the Transition to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joshua S.

    2006-01-01

    Research shows that prior academic achievement is a strong predictor of future academic performance. For some students, the transition from one educational environment to another is associated with academic challenges and achievement loss. This study examined the extent to which achievement loss during the transition from middle school to high…

  19. The Impact of Structured Note Taking Strategies on Math Achievement of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gregory Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Student math achievement continues to be a national, state, and local concern. Research suggests that note taking can improve academic achievement, but current research has failed to report how low achievers might benefit from using note taking during math classes. The purpose of this study was to determine if teaching students structured note…

  20. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  1. The Impact of New York's School Libraries on Student Achievement and Motivation: Phase II--In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.; Snyder, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of the second phase of a three-phase study on the impact of the New York State's school libraries' services and resources on student achievement and motivation. A representative sample of more than 1,600 classroom teachers, students, and school library media specialists (SMLSs) from 47 schools throughout New York…

  2. The Impact of Interactive Whiteboard Technology on Medical Students' Achievement in ESL Essay Writing: An Early Study in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albaaly, Emad; Higgins, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the interactive whiteboard on Egyptian medical students' achievement in essay writing in English as a second language (ESL). First, the writing micro-skills judged essential to help these students improve their essay writing were identified, using a questionnaire which investigated experts' views. This gave…

  3. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Achievement in the California State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Adrian Dee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the 7-year longitudinal study was to examine the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP), a student services intervention, to determine its impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University (CSU) system. Participants included 336 migrant students who were enrolled as first-time, full-time freshmen in fall…

  4. Pilot Study: EatFit Impacts Sixth Graders' Academic Performance on Achievement of Mathematics and English Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…

  5. The Impact of Attendance and Student Characteristics on Academic Achievement: Findings from an Undergraduate Business Management Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    The article provides an empirical investigation into the impact of attendance and student characteristics on academic achievement in higher education. It is based on a study of 127 students who completed coursework for a taught undergraduate business management module at London Metropolitan University between 2003/4 and 2005/6. The article…

  6. The Impact of Afterschool Tutoring on Reading Achievement of Elementary Students in a Mississippi Rural School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Sharone Sanders

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what impact a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-related afterschool tutoring program had on reading achievement of elementary students in a Mississippi rural school setting. The research questions that guided this study were (1) Is there a significant difference between the 2008 and 2009 Mississippi Curriculum…

  7. The Impact of Teachers' Characteristics and Self-Reported Practices on Students' Algebra Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Liza M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of teachers' characteristics and self-reported practices on students' Algebra achievement while controlling for students' characteristics. This study is based on the secondary analysis of data collected from a nationally representative sample of 9 th grade students and their mathematics teachers during…

  8. The Impact of Year-Round Education on Fifth Grade African American Reading Achievement Scores in an Urban Illinois School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Carolyn Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to determine the impact of the year-round education school calendar on the standardized test performance of fifth grade African American students, as measured by the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) in reading. The ISAT reading scores from two year-round education (YRE)…

  9. The Perceptions of Principals and Teachers Regarding Mental Health Providers' Impact on Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals and teachers regarding mental health provider's impact on student achievement and behavior in high poverty schools using descriptive statistics, t-test, and two-way ANOVA. Respondents in this study shared similar views concerning principal and teacher satisfaction and levels of support for the…

  10. Targeted Funding for Educationally Disadvantaged Students: A Regression Discontinuity Estimate of the Impact on High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Fortner, C. Kevin; Thompson, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the impacts of public school funding on student achievement has been an important objective for informing education policymaking but fraught with data and methodological limitations. Findings from prior research have been mixed at best, leaving policymakers with little advice about the benefits of allocating public resources to schools…

  11. An Africentric Rite of Passage Program and Its Impact on Adolescent African-American Male Attendance, Discipline, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Little, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine an Africentric rite of passage program's impact on African-American male high school students. It is intended to determine whether a rite of passage program will affect attendance, discipline and achievement. The study also investigates the development of a school-based Africentric program as well as its…

  12. A Multilevel Modelling Approach to Investigating Factors Impacting Science Achievement for Secondary School Students: PISA Hong Kong Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Letao; Bradley, Kelly D.; Akers, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students,…

  13. A Study on the Impact of Military Parent Deployment on Student Performance; Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, Discipline, and Counselor Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Hilda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if parents' military deployment had an impact on the academic achievement of their children. The study examined if there were a parallel between parental military deployment and absenteeism, parental deployment and discipline, and parental deployment and counselor visits. The study also examined if…

  14. Impact of a Multiyear Professional Development Intervention on Science Achievement of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Deaktor, Rachael; Enders, Craig; Lambert, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 3-year implementation of a professional development intervention on science achievement of culturally and linguistically diverse elementary students. Teachers were provided with instructional units and workshops that were designed to improve teaching practices and foster positive beliefs about science and…

  15. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Academic Achievement in the California State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Adrian D.

    2012-01-01

    The 7-year longitudinal study examined the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University system. Participants included migrant students, Latinos, and general student populations from 2002-2009. The analysis of variance and chi-square test of independence were used to explore…

  16. Judgments of Self-Perceived Academic Competence and Their Differential Impact on Students' Achievement Motivation, Learning Approach, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferla, Johan; Valcke, Martin; Schuyten, Gilberte

    2010-01-01

    Using path analysis, the present study focuses on the development of a model describing the impact of four judgments of self-perceived academic competence on higher education students' achievement goals, learning approach, and academic performance. Results demonstrate that academic self-efficacy, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, academic…

  17. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  18. The Impacts of Charter Schools on Student Achievement: Evidence from North Carolina. Working Papers Series. SAN04-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bifulco, Robert; Ladd, Helen F.

    2004-01-01

    Using an individual panel data set to control for student fixed effects, we estimate the impact of charter schools on students in charter schools and in nearby traditional public schools. We find that students make considerably smaller achievement gains in charter schools than they would have in public schools. The large negative estimates of the…

  19. The Impact of a School Loaner-Instrument Program on the Attitudes and Achievement of Low-Income Music Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ester, Don; Turner, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a public school loaner-instrument program on the attitudes and achievement of low-income students in an urban environment. Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Instrument Status served as independent variables. Participants (N = 245) completed surveys at the beginning and end of the school year,…

  20. The Impact of Education Support Advisors on the Attendance, Discipline, and Achievement of At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative, causal-comparative study utilized ex post facto data to examine the impact of education support advisors (ESAs) on the discipline, attendance, and achievement of at-risk students in Grades 3-12. Fourteen education support advisors working in 16 elementary and 8 secondary schools of this mid-Atlantic school district consistently…

  1. Analytical Modeling of Pressure Wall Hole Size and Maximum Tip-to-Tip Crack Length for Perforating Normal and Oblique Orbital Debris Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Mohamed, Essam

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study whose objective was to develop first-principles-based models of hole size and maximum tip-to-tip crack length for a spacecraft module pressure wall that has been perforated in an orbital debris particle impact. The hole size and crack length models are developed by sequentially characterizing the phenomena comprising the orbital debris impact event, including the initial impact, the creation and motion of a debris cloud within the dual-wall system, the impact of the debris cloud on the pressure wall, the deformation of the pressure wall due to debris cloud impact loading prior to crack formation, pressure wall crack initiation, propagation, and arrest, and finally pressure wall deformation following crack initiation and growth. The model development has been accomplished through the application of elementary shock physics and thermodynamic theory, as well as the principles of mass, momentum, and energy conservation. The predictions of the model developed herein are compared against the predictions of empirically-based equations for hole diameters and maximum tip-to-tip crack length for three International Space Station wall configurations. The ISS wall systems considered are the baseline U.S. Lab Cylinder, the enhanced U.S. Lab Cylinder, and the U.S. Lab Endcone. The empirical predictor equations were derived from experimentally obtained hole diameters and crack length data. The original model predictions did not compare favorably with the experimental data, especially for cases in which pressure wall petalling did not occur. Several modifications were made to the original model to bring its predictions closer in line with the experimental results. Following the adjustment of several empirical constants, the predictions of the modified analytical model were in much closer agreement with the experimental results.

  2. The Impact of Computer Assisted Instruction on Seventh-Grade Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Wilson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The perceived problem of low mathematics achievement is a concern to education leaders at all levels of PK-16 education. Results from various research raise concerns about mathematics learning of U.S. middle school students. Education leaders search for interventions to address issues related to improving mathematics achievement. This article…

  3. Schools in Violent Neighborhoods: The Impact on African American Elementary School Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The academic achievement gap between African American and Caucasian students continues to be a major concern for policymakers and educators. This gap started to shrink in the 1970s and 1980s with integration, but the 1990s showed the achievement gap was on the rise again. The characteristics of the neighborhoods where children live and attend…

  4. Implementation of Comprehensive School Reform and Its Impact on Increases in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Fashola, Olatokunbo; Shkolnik, Jamie; Boyle, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the implementation of comprehensive school reform (CSR) and changes in reading and math achievement from 1999 until 2003. Survey data about CSR implementation and school-level achievement data were collected for multiple years from a sample of CSR schools and compared with a sample of matched comparison…

  5. The Impact of Professional Learning Communities on Urban Teachers and Their Students' Reading and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Deborah Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This study followed a causal comparative research design that utilized mixed methods. This non-experimental investigation sought to identify potential cause and effect relationships between variations in achievement data among schools. The purpose of the study was to determine if urban students' reading and math achievement increased as a result…

  6. Gifted Achievers and Gifted Underachievers: The Impact of Learning Style Preferences in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayneri, Letty J.; Gerber, Brian L.; Wiley, Larry P.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 62 gifted students (grades 6-8) found many low-achievers (n=16) showed a strong need for tactile and kinesthetic modalities; intake of food, drinks, or both; sound in the learning environment; informal seating design; and dim lighting. The low achievers did not perceive themselves to be persistent. (Contains references.)…

  7. The Impact of Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS) on Student Behavior and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Linda Clark

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, policymakers have enforced increasingly greater accountability demands for student achievement and zero tolerance policies. Legislators have outlined proficient measures for student achievement which includes students enrolled in general and special education classes and all ethnicities and socioeconomic levels. Schools…

  8. Within Our Reach: A Study of Professional Community in Schools and Its Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Camille S.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of professional learning community variables on student achievement in three Edison Learning Partnership Schools. The study examined three years of State School Assessment achievement data in reading and math, along with three years of Customer Satisfaction Data as collected by the…

  9. The Impact of Physical Activity and Obesity on Academic Achievement among Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effect of physical activity and obesity on academic achievement and was based on the premise that the health of a child has an effect on his or her ability to learn and to achieve academically. Specifically, health-related topics of inactivity and obesity were considered. The participants included 12,607 third grade…

  10. Under the Radar: The Impact of Relatively Young Age for Grade Level on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryken, Klazina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age differences affect students' academic achievement, and whether age differences affect students in low-income areas differently than those in mixed or higher-income areas. Student achievement data for grades 3, 7, and 11 in language arts and math were obtained from a variety of schools…

  11. An Analysis of the Impact of Continuous Progress Curriculum on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jessica LaRae Ladner

    2012-01-01

    There has been an emphasis on educators to improve student achievement, particularly in low socioeconomic schools. The latest research encourages educators to use student data to drive instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine if using data to arrange students by academic performance improves academic achievement. A middle school in…

  12. The Impact of Single-Gender Classrooms on Student Achievement in Seventh Grade Math Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Antwon M.

    2009-01-01

    A mathematics achievement gap exists between males and females. The measurement of achievement was compared between single-gender and traditional classroom students in the 7th grade to assess whether or not a single-gender environment affected their scores. The Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) state assessment served as the data collection…

  13. The Impact of Charter Schools on Promoting High Levels of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Makel, Matthew C.; Rapp, Kelly E.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares achievement levels for high ability students attending charter schools and students in traditional public schools in Georgia. Researchers examined student achievement (as assessed by the state's Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests) using three comparison groups: students in the closest traditional schools with similar grade…

  14. Kindergarten Entrance Age and Children's Achievement: Impacts of State Policies, Family Background, and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Todd E.; Lubotsky, Darren H.

    2009-01-01

    We present evidence that the positive relationship between kindergarten entrance age and school achievement primarily reflects skill accumulation prior to kindergarten, rather than a heightened ability to learn in school among older children. The association between achievement test scores and entrance age appears during the first months of…

  15. The Impact of Placement on Reading and Mathematics Achievement of Students with High Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Jennifer Stell

    2011-01-01

    The question of where best to educate students with disabilities to maximize their academic achievement has been discussed and researched for over four decades, with inconsistent and contradictory results. This study focused on the mathematics and reading achievement of middle and high school students with mild disabilities in an urban district in…

  16. The Impact of Achievement Goals on Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Does Self-Efficacy Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lochbaum, Marc; Guan, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationships among students' self-efficacy, 2 × 2 achievement goals (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], and performance-avoidance goals), and achievement performance remain largely unanswered. We tested a model of the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between 2 × 2…

  17. The Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage on the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Madyun, Na'im

    2009-01-01

    Contextual analysis of the achievement gap has gained much momentum within the last few decades. This study furthers the discourse by examining the applicability of 2 sociological contextual development approaches on achievement. We analyzed 79 neighborhoods organized by the level of crime and poverty from both a social disorganization and social…

  18. Promoting Achievement in School through Sports: Second-Year Impact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sports Inst., Mill Valley, CA.

    Promoting Achievement in School through Sports (PASS) is an academic high school curriculum developed by the American Sports Institute for students who love sports but are not performing up to their academic potential. The program seeks to demonstrate that PASS is an effective intervention for promoting academic achievement and school success.…

  19. The Impact of Grading Standards on Student Achievement, Educational Attainment, and Entry-Level Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Julian R.; Grogger, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the High School and Beyond survey, estimates the effects of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings. Finds that higher standards raise test scores throughout the distribution of achievement, but have no positive effect on educational attainment--in fact have negative effects on…

  20. A Penny and a Half and a Pool: Lead Poisoning and Its Impact on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrman, Matthew Paul

    2011-01-01

    Lead is a neurotoxin that has been shown to have a long and lasting impact on the brains, bodies, and behaviors of those who are poisoned. It also has a greater presence in communities with high levels of poverty and minority populations. Compounded over time, the effects of lead poisoning, even at low levels of exposure, impact a child's…

  1. The Differential Impact of Early Father and Mother Involvement on Later Student Achievement

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin; Liu, Ying; Brown, Geoffrey L.; Hong, Sungjin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of early parenting on later parental school involvement and student achievement. The sample, pulled from the first and second waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics – Child Development Supplement data set, consisted of 390 children ages 2–5 at time 1 and their families. Fathers’ and mothers’ participation in five dimensions of early parenting behaviors were assessed at time 1, while later parental school involvement and student achievement were assessed at time 2. Although early paternal and maternal parenting behaviors were not directly related to later student achievement, differences were revealed in the pattern of relationships between early parenting and later parental school involvement for fathers and mothers. In addition, fathers’ later school involvement was found to be negatively related to student achievement while maternal school involvement was found to be positively related to student achievement. These findings provide partial support for the hypothesized differential relationship between fathers’ and mothers’ early parenting and later student achievement. PMID:25414521

  2. Learning nanotechnology with texts and comics: the impacts on students of different achievement levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-05-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two media which attract high-school students to learn science. A mixed-method quasi-experimental design was adopted. The participants were 697 grade ten students from eight schools with different levels of academic achievement. Two similar classes in each of the eight schools were assigned as the comic group or the text group. The results indicated that the science comic book benefited medium achievers more than the science text booklet did, but the contrary result was found for the high achievers. In comparison, the two media benefited the low achievers equally, but both had only a limited effect due to the students' lack of prior knowledge. We conclude four kinds of evidence, including perceived difficulty of comprehension, reasons for interest/disinterest, emotional perceptions of learning science, and learning time, to support the phenomenon of the learning benefit of media specific to certain achievers' science learning.

  3. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  4. The impact of teacher preparation on student achievement in rural secondary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Shontier Prescott

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine significant differences, if any, in student achievement in the area of math and science of students taught by traditionally certified teachers and alternatively certified teachers. This study examined alternatively certified teachers, as identified from through the Georgia TAPP (Teacher Alternative Preparation Program), and traditionally certified teachers in rural high schools in the Central Savannah River Area of Georgia. Student achievement was measured by student scores on the Algebra I and Physical Science End-Of-Course Test, a criterion-referenced test aligned with state adopted curriculum standards. The study utilized frequency distributions, correlations, descriptive statistics, and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the data. Univariate tests were done to find individual differences for each dependent variable. The ANOVA was used for the single dependent (student achievement) and formed comparisons and tracked the effect of the independent variable (teacher preparation), each of which (traditional and alternative) may have a number of levels and may interact to affect the dependent variable. The covariates, the independent variables not manipulated, but still affecting the response, are students' ethnicity, gender, and school socioeconomic status were also analyzed to predict student achievement. KEY WORDS. Teacher Preparation, Student Achievement, Math, Science, Traditionally certified teachers, Alternatively certified teachers, Georgia TAPP (Teacher Alternative Preparation Program), End-Of-Course Test (EOCT), Performance standard.

  5. An exploration of the impact of reform-based science instruction on second graders' academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Valeisha Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether possible relationships might exist between the quality of reform-based science instruction and science and reading achievement in second grade. The study also examined separately possible interactions between quality of instruction and gender and race. The study involved an analysis of data previously collected in a larger one-group pre/post test study of a science instructional intervention (ISI Science) (Connor et al., 2010). In the original study, six teachers and two graduate assistants taught two science units designed based upon constructivist principles and reform-based practices. Using the 5-E Learning Cycle (Bybee, 1997), reading and science were integrated into each lesson. Videotapes were made of all lessons and science and reading achievement data were collected. For the current study, dependent achievement variables were science achievement measured by the Iowa Science Test; reading comprehension, by the Woodcock Passage Comprehension; and vocabulary, by the Iowa Vocabulary. Pre- and post-tests scores on the dependent measures were available for 96 children from the original study. Quality of instruction was measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Sawanda & Piburn, 2000). Videotapes of 24 science lessons from the larger study were analyzed using the RTOP. Reliability of ratings for the RTOP in the study was determined to be .96. No significant results were found for relations between instructional quality (RTOP) and any of the achievement variables although significant pre to post increases on all three measures were observed. No differences by race or gender were found. This latter finding was noteworthy given the research in science identifying both gender and race differences in science achievement. Recommendations for future research and teacher education are discussed.

  6. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  7. Impact of Video Presentation Features on Instructional Achievement and Intrinsic Motivation in Secondary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Ronald B.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed instructional achievement and intrinsic motivation among 21st century secondary students utilizing a video lecture incorporating both student reaction cutaway images and immediate content interaction within the lecture. Respondents (n = 155) were from multiple classes and grade levels at a suburban Texas high school. Four…

  8. The Impact of Instructional Methodology on the Reading Achievement of African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terri I.

    2012-01-01

    The academic achievement gap that exists between African American students and their Caucasian peers is a challenging national concern for which an absolute solution has been elusive. Specifically, the African American male over-represents failure in most academic categories. Policy makers and educators acknowledge that this represents a national…

  9. Leadership for School Numeracy: How School Leaders' Knowledge and Attitudes Impact Student Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Glenn, Michelle Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Although most high schools espouse school-wide literacy initiatives, few schools place equal emphasis on numeracy, or quantitative literacy. This lack of attention to quantitative skills is ironic in light of documented deficiencies in student mathematics achievement. While significant research exists regarding best practices for mathematics…

  10. Sustained Silent Reading in Middle School and Its Impact on Students' Attitudes and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Margaret Peggy S.

    2013-01-01

    Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) is a period of time given to students to read self-selected materials during their school day. This study examines the effect of participation in a SSR program on reading attitudes and reading achievement of students as measured by the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) and the Northwest Evaluation…

  11. Impact of Principal Leadership on Catholic High School Students' Academic Achievement in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhangbe, Osayamen Samson

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, students of Catholic High/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High/Senior secondary schools…

  12. Impact of Reading Strategy Use on Girls' and Boys' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchamma, Yamina; Poulin, Vincent; Ruel, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    We examined the reading strategies of boys and girls and identified those determining academic achievement in 13-year-old Canadian students. Students from each province and one territory (N = 20,094) answered a questionnaire on, among others, reading strategies. T-test results showed that girls use these strategies more regularly compared to boys.…

  13. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "KIPP Middle Schools: Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes, Final Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether attending a Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) middle school improved students' reading, math, social studies, and science achievement for up to 4 years following enrollment. The study reported that students attending KIPP middle schools scored statistically significantly higher than matched students on all of the state…

  14. The Impact of School Building Condition and Student Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Glen I.

    This paper examines study findings on the relationship between the educational facility and the student variables of academic achievement and student behavior, revealing the extent that thermal environment, proper illumination, space, and equipment and furnishings have on students. Additionally discussed is the relationship between parental…

  15. The Impact of Early Childhood Education upon the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zane, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    It can be argued that the current Black-White achievement gap provides evidence for a long-standing history of racial inequity within American society, as well as an informative barometer of progress toward educational parity. By all accounts, the measurements registered by this barometer continue to be cause for alarm. The disturbing Black-White…

  16. The North Carolina Community College Leadership Program: Impact on Career Achievement as Perceived by Women Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Laura S.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of women participants in the North Carolina Community College Leadership Program (NCCCLP) to determine what effect, if any, those experiences may have had on subsequent career achievement. The NCCCLP is a one-year leadership-training program designed to give women and minorities the skills…

  17. Classroom Learning and Achievement: How the Complexity of Classroom Interaction Impacts Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podschuweit, Sören; Bernholt, Sascha; Brückmann, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complexity models have provided a suitable framework in various domains to assess students' educational achievement. Complexity is often used as the analytical focus when regarding learning outcomes, i.e. when analyzing written tests or problem-centered interviews. Numerous studies reveal negative correlations between the complexity of…

  18. The Impact of Acculturation on the Perception of Academic Achievement by Immigrant Mothers and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Geva, Esther; Rogers, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of acculturation on definitions and attributions towards children's school achievement. Iranian and Iranian-Canadian immigrant mothers and their upper-elementary school children were interviewed about their definitions and attributions about school success and failure. There were significant effects of…

  19. The Differential Impact of Early Father and Mother Involvement on Later Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin; Liu, Ying; Brown, Geoffrey L.; Hong, Sungjin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of early parenting on later parental school involvement and student achievement. The sample, pulled from the 1st and 2nd waves of the Child Development Supplement data set of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, consisted of 390 children age 2-5 at Time 1 and their…

  20. A History of Black Achievement as Impacted by Federal Court Decisions in the Last Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The major decisions of pre-and post-Brown and the history of African American student achievement are discussed through an analysis of select federal court decisions. One can conclude that the struggle for equal educational opportunity for African Americans in the United States is vying for the attention of more conservative Federal Court judges.

  1. The Impact of Fast ForWord on MCT Scores and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vinkle, Michael Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Educators today were concerned with how the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 dealt with the improvement of education throughout the United States. Schools should have put forth a greater effort and reduced the achievement gap between different groups of students based on race, gender, special education status, and if that student was economically…

  2. The Impact of School Management Strategies on Academic Achievement in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogundokun, Olubunmi K.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between school management strategies and student's academic achievement, while controlling for factors such as the school principals' age, gender, experience, as well as school size and location, Student's Social Economics Status (SES), English as a Second Language learner's population…

  3. Instructional Innovations: The Impact of Comprehensive School Reforms on Middle School Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Senetha G.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. middle schools are beset with a multitude of problems that encompasses a lack of achievement, access to necessary resources, failure to make adequate yearly progress, and an inadequate supply of effective teachers. This is particularly alarming because social and intellectual capital have become the prevailing values of the 21st century.…

  4. An Exploration of the Impact of Reform-Based Science Instruction on Second Graders' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Valeisha Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether possible relationships might exist between the quality of reform-based science instruction and science and reading achievement in second grade. The study also examined separately possible interactions between quality of instruction and gender and race. The study involved an analysis of data…

  5. The Impact of No Child Left Behind on Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 15531

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas; Jacob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act compelled states to design school-accountability systems based on annual student assessments. The effect of this Federal legislation on the distribution of student achievement is a highly controversial but centrally important question. This study presents evidence on whether NCLB has influenced student…

  6. The Impact of Scaffolding and Student Achievement Levels in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Krista D.; Klein, James D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how scaffolds and student achievement levels influence inquiry and performance in a problem-based learning environment. The scaffolds were embedded within a hypermedia program that placed students at the center of a problem in which they were trying to become the youngest person to fly around the world in a balloon. One-hundred…

  7. The Impact of Storybooks on Kindergarten Children's Mathematical Achievement and Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keat, Jane B.; Wilburne, Jane M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study that explored how storybooks influence kindergarten children's mathematical achievement and approaches to mathematics learning. Teachers' observations and research stating primary grade children's lack of mathematical knowledge and negative attitudes towards mathematics served as the impetus for the study.…

  8. The Impact of Teacher Preparation on Student Achievement in Rural Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Shontier Prescott

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine significant differences, if any, in student achievement in the area of math and science of students taught by traditionally certified teachers and alternatively certified teachers. This study examined alternatively certified teachers, as identified from through the Georgia TAPP (Teacher Alternative…

  9. The Impact of Principal Leadership on School Culture and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Lisa Dorman

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the United States school principals are subject to increasingly high demands for student accountability. Under the pressures and mandates of this federal legislation, principals are asking themselves what specific leadership practices affect student achievement. A review of literature shows that principals are regarded as a major factor…

  10. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  11. Parent Involvement and the Impact on Student Achievement in Grades 2-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Yvonne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative research study examined the relationship between student achievement in reading and mathematics on the STAR (Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading and Mathematics) and parent involvement in specific character development activities. The research design was quantitative in nature and conducted in two similar elementary…

  12. The Impact of Discovery Learning in Writing Instruction on Fifth-Grade Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Julie Wilson

    2010-01-01

    The problem is that 5th-grade students are not achieving sufficient writing scores on Georgia state-mandated writing assessments, which the researcher hypothesized was due to the teacher-directed instructional approach utilized at the school. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine whether discovery learning, a method based on the…

  13. The Impact of the Data Team Structure on Collaborative Teams and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rone, Brenda Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if implementing a specific collaborative structure would create effective teacher teams that in turn would lead to improved student achievement. An effective team can be viewed as one that uses collaboration to increase its knowledge and improve its practices. The structure that was implemented during…

  14. National Board Certification: Impact on Student Achievement and Teacher Practices. Information Capsule. Volume 0917

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    The combination of difficult economic times and increased accountability has led policymakers to call for evidence that students taught by National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)-certified teachers make greater achievement gains than those taught by non-NBPTS-certified teachers. Overall, studies show mixed results regarding the…

  15. Impact of Health on Education Access and Achievement. Policy Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, P.

    2008-01-01

    Access to education is recognized as a basic human right and yet projections based on current trends show that more than 50 countries will not achieve universal primary education by 2015. This briefing paper looks at the role of malnutrition and diseases in the failure of countries to meet EFA targets. It is based on the CREATE Pathways to Access…

  16. Peer Effects in Urban Schools: Assessing the Impact of Classroom Composition on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of classroom peers on standardized testing achievement for all third- and fourth-grade students in the Philadelphia School District over 6 school years. With a comprehensive individual-and multilevel data set of all students matched to teachers, classrooms, and schools, two empirical strategies are employed. The…

  17. Impact of Facebook Usage on Students' Academic Achievement: Role of Self-Regulation and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouis, Sana; Limayem, Moez; Salehi-Sangari, Esmail

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The paper provides a preliminary analysis of the effects of Facebook usage by undergraduate students at Lulea University of Technology in Sweden. The proposed research model tests the perceived effect of personality traits, self-regulation, and trust on students' achievements. Based on flow theory, the model suggests negative…

  18. Learning Nanotechnology with Texts and Comics: The Impacts on Students of Different Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-01-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two…

  19. Impact of Attending Jump Start Literacy Camp on Reading Achievement among Third and Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Carrie B.

    2010-01-01

    The Jump Start Literacy Camp was developed as a means to combat summer learning loss. The camp utilized high-energy activities to target phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. This study examined the effects of the Jump Start Literacy Camp on reading achievement for rising third and fourth grade students in an urban…

  20. The Impact of the Shifting Knowledge Base, from Development to Achievement, on Early Childhood Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kathleen P.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in child development as a knowledge base for early childhood education programs flourished in the 1970s as a result of the theories and philosophies of Jean Piaget and other cognitive developmentalists. During subsequent decades in America, reform movements emphasizing accountability and achievement became a political and social…

  1. The Impact of Recordings on Student Achievement in Critical Language Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheyder, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the use of classroom recordings and student achievement in critical foreign languages. Recording classrooms has become popular in recent years with the advent of digital media and inexpensive devices to play such files. It is now easy to create audio recordings of face-to-face classes and post them…

  2. The Impact on Writing Achievement of Two Bilingual Education Models for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Angela L.

    2012-01-01

    The number of English language learners (ELLs) within the school system in one Western U.S. state continues to rise; writing scores of ELLs lag well behind those of their English speaking peers. The purpose of this ex post facto quantitative causal comparative study was to examine the writing achievement of fourth grade ELLs instructed within a…

  3. Making the Cut: The Impact of an Integrated Learning System on Low Achieving Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Byrne, B.; Securro, S.; Jones, J.; Cadle, C.

    2006-01-01

    Research in integrated learning systems has demonstrated a need for rigorous studies that identify how such systems influence learning, and in particular that of low achieving students. No Child Left Behind legislation mandated evidence-based interventions as the standard for instructional approaches in American public schools. This…

  4. The Impact of Home and School Collaboration on Student Achievement in K-5 Reading and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Joy L.

    2012-01-01

    Public schools struggle with ways to encourage parental involvement in the classroom. Home and school collaboration is needed if students are to succeed academically. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a significant difference in the reading achievement of students by the number of workshop sessions attended by parents…

  5. A History of NAEP Achievement Levels: Issues, Implementation, and Impact 1989-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Mary Lyn

    2009-01-01

    A history of the achievement levels for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) could be documented in different ways. A chronological history might be the obvious approach, but in the author's view, that could miss the most salient aspects of setting student performance standards on an assessment like NAEP. Further, new initiatives…

  6. The Impact of Reading Success Academy on High School Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlison, Kelly; Chave, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the Reading Success Academy on the reading achievement of the selected group of ninth-grade students in a comprehensive high school. We examine in what ways the Reading Success Academy may improve the reading proficiency rates and amount of reading growth of ninth-grade students. The results indicate that…

  7. An Investigation of the Impact of Asynchronous Online Learning on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Asynchronous online learning is well documented with adults, but fewer studies of effectiveness have emphasized elementary education learning environments. This study investigated student achievement on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test for fifth grade students who had participated in synchronous and asynchronous courses…

  8. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent. PMID:24041313

  9. Academic Achievement in Norwegian Secondary Schools: The Impact of Violence during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lihong; Mossige, Svein

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a national survey (N = 6,979) of young people in their last year in Norwegian secondary schools in 2007 (aged 18 and 19), this paper examines the effect of experience of violence including sexual abuse during childhood (before the age of 13) on the later academic achievement of young people. This investigation includes three types…

  10. Impact of TI MathForward on Mathematics Achievement for General Mathematics and Algebra I Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empirical Education Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    At Richardson Independent School District (RISD), 7th and 8th grade students who used TI MathForward achieved higher scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Mathematics than similar 7th and 8th grade students who used other mathematics programs during previous years. This study found evidence that the strongest application of…

  11. Examining the Impact of Leadership Style and School Climate on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…

  12. Impact of Teacher Qualification on Student Achievement at the Elementary and Middle School Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Although the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires that classroom teachers be highly qualified, the assumption that achieving the highly qualified endorsement equates to teacher effectiveness in the classroom is unverified. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of teacher qualification, as defined by the NCLB Act and…

  13. Lagging in the Race: The Impact of Teacher Morale on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Char-Shenda D.

    2010-01-01

    The effect teachers have on student achievement is perennial. Several factors contribute to declining teacher morale. Teachers have an insuperable amount of responsibilities and duties. Stress related to increased federal, state, and local demands, low pay, lack of administrative support, and heightened discipline problems, are all factors that…

  14. The Impact of Music Education and Athletic Participation on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Timothy W.; Klotz, Jack

    This study sought to determine if participation as a musician or an athlete had an effect on academic achievement as measured by standardized test scores. It was hypothesized that students who received training as musicians would score higher on the core battery composite of reading, language, and mathematics sections of the California Achievement…

  15. The Economic Impact of Achievement Gaps in Pennsylvania's Public Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.

    2015-01-01

    This study documents the magnitude of the gaps in student performance for public school students in Pennsylvania and estimates the economic consequences of those education performance gaps. Although Pennsylvania is one of the top-scoring states on the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) on average, the achievement gaps between…

  16. Predictors of Creative Achievement: Assessing the Impact of Entrepreneurial Potential, Perfectionism, and Employee Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmetoglu, Gorkan; Harding, Xanthe; Akhtar, Reece; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a key ingredient of organizational effectiveness, business innovation, and entrepreneurship. Yet there remain substantial gaps in the literature in terms of understanding the antecedents of creative achievement. This study investigated the effect of perfectionism, employee engagement, and entrepreneurial potential as predictors of…

  17. Training Your Own: The Impact of New York City's Aspiring Principals Program on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Weinstein, Meryle

    2012-01-01

    The New York City Leadership Academy represents a unique experiment by a large urban school district to train and develop its own school leaders. Its 14-month Aspiring Principals Program (APP) selects and prepares aspiring principals to lead low-performing schools. This study provides the first systematic evaluation of achievement in APP-staffed…

  18. Impact of Explicit Vocabulary Instruction on Writing Achievement of Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solati-Dehkordi, Seyed Amir; Salehi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Studying explicit vocabulary instruction effects on improving L2 learners' writing skill and their short and long-term retention is the purpose of the present study. To achieve the mentioned goal, a fill-in-the-blank test including 36 single words and 60 lexical phrases were administrated to 30 female upper-intermediate EFL learners. The EFL…

  19. The Impact of Reading Recovery on the Reading Achievement of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    There are so many different intervention programs for educators to use to increase the reading achievement of below grade level students, that it can often be difficult to choose the appropriate one for the students. Most programs are scripted and are used with small groups of students. Reading Recovery is not a scripted program and is taught in a…

  20. The impact of home computers on 12th grade students' achievement in the computer science curriculum in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljuwaiber, Mohammed A.

    Technology has improved many educational issues. This is a very exciting time for technology and education. The primary purpose of this study was aimed at understanding the impact of home computer use on academic achievement in the computer curriculum of the 12th grade students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In particular, the study attempted to determine if the use of home computers would be an effective manner for increasing students' academic achievement. The participants of the study were 240 male and female students as a random sample from 12th grade from eight random high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An achievement exam and survey were developed by the researcher based on the computer science curriculum topics, the quantitative data was collected in both a single achievement exam and a single survey from a sample of 240 Saudi high school students. Both the survey and an achievement exam were split equally between male and female students. The study sought the answer to 10 questions. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by tests of simple main effects and post hoc comparisons using Scheffe, as well as Pearson Correlation were conducted to answer the research questions. The study results pointed out that home computers were important to support the students in their academic achievement in the computer science curriculum. Therefore, more attention must be given to the use of home computers for all students. Moreover, we should attempt to treat the difficulties which students face for getting computers in their homes.

  1. Impact of Online Professional Development on Teacher Quality and Student Achievement in Fifth Grade Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Sheralyn; de Kramer, Raquel Magidin; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Masters, Jessica; Russell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of online professional development (OPD) programs, relatively few studies have been conducted to examine the efficacy of such programs for teachers and students. This manuscript presents findings from an impact study of OPD courses in fractions, algebraic thinking, and measurement on 79 fifth grade teachers'…

  2. An Integrated Learning System: Impact on At-Risk Students' Ninth Grade TAKS Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tina D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an integrated learning system on students who were considered at-risk of academic failure on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment. Voyager Math (VMath), an integrated learning system had been implemented to address the needs of students at-risk of…

  3. The Impact of Interactive Engagement Methods on Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Hofman, Adriaan; Winnips, Koos; Beetsma, Yta

    2014-01-01

    Interactive engagement (IE) is a process that promotes students' conceptual understanding through activities, combined with immediate feedback from peers and/or instructors. The present study investigates the impact of IE on students' academic performance, using the comprehensive model of educational effectiveness. Engineering students…

  4. Impact of a Professional Learning Community on Teacher Collaboration, Teaching Practice, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Iris J.

    2011-01-01

    Best instructional practice occurs when teachers work collaboratively. Many teachers in the target elementary school appeared to work in isolation, struggling to respond to the needs of low-performing students without the benefit of collaboration with colleagues. The purpose of this applied dissertation was to investigate the impact of a…

  5. The Impact of Music Education on Academic Achievement in Reading and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deere, Kelli Beth

    2010-01-01

    Increased scrutiny on the place of music education in school systems has caused some school systems to eliminate their music program entirely. School systems are being forced to place more emphasis on increased testing and accountability with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. This study examined the impact music education has on academic…

  6. Bridging or Buffering? The Impact of Schools' Adaptive Strategies on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Michael F.; Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Rational and open system theories offer divergent sets of tactics on how best to deal with factors outside the boundary of the school. This study compared two competing strategies that emerge from these theories: bridging and buffering. The impact of how schools interact with their environments was examined in relation to student…

  7. Impact of Teacher Perceptions of Their Working Conditions on Elementary School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vause, Bonnie W.

    2012-01-01

    Reading and math proficiency is important for all students because education is a leading indicator of personal health and success and national prosperity. Improved student performance has also been linked to teacher satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of teacher perceptions of their working conditions on student…

  8. Evaluating the Impact of National Educational Policy to Reduce Retention and Increase Achievement in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, M. Clara; Calheiros, M. Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João; Lima, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence that retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful remedial strategy, several countries struggle with high levels of retention in compulsory schooling. This article provides evidence of the impact of the Portuguese national educational policy "Programa Mais Sucesso Escolar" (PMSE) using class size,…

  9. The Impact of Public Housing Demolitions on Student Achievement in Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.

    This paper exploits a natural experiment created by public housing closings in Chicago to examine the impact of residential relocation on educational outcomes. During the 1990s, the Chicago Housing Authority closed over 7,400 units of public housing as part of redevelopment and consolidation efforts. Households affected by the closures were…

  10. Impact of National Board for the Professional Teaching Standards Certification on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belson, Sarah Irvine; Husted, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of teachers have undertaken National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification training since its inception over twenty-five years ago. Previous empirical research on the impact of NBCTs on student performance has focused on state or district-level exams in individual states and found mixed results. This…

  11. Technology Facilitated PBL Pedagogy and Its Impact on Nursing Students' Academic Achievement and Critical Thinking Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wei-Chieh Wayne; Lin, Chunfu Charlie; Ho, Mei-Hsin; Wang, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The impact of particular learning environments and self-regulation could be a beneficial area for research focus. More specifically, there has not been sufficient attention given to the role played by disposition or "will" in facilitating self-regulation to be successful. A student can possess the skills or ability to think critically…

  12. The Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Mathematics Achievement of Underachieving Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Simmons, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of computer-assisted instruction on the mathematics performance of underachieving fifth-grade students in a rural school district in South Carolina. The instructional technology program ([IF) is South Carolina's response to addressing the needs of its young, struggling math students. The 449 fifth-grade students in…

  13. Impact of Guided Notes on Achievement in K-12 and Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen H.; Dawson, Daniel; Erickson, Matthew; Larwin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The common practice of using of guided notes in the K-12 and special education classroom is not fully appreciated or understood. In an effort to add to the existing research about this phenomenon, the current investigation expands on previously published research and one previously published meta-analysis that examined the impact of guided notes…

  14. The Impact of Guided Notes on Post-Secondary Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The common practice of using of guided notes in the post-secondary classroom is not fully appreciated or understood. In an effort to add to the existing research about this phenomenon, the current investigation expands on previously published research and one previously published meta-analysis that examined the impact of guided notes on…

  15. Canopy In The Clouds: Achieving Broader Impacts in Graduate Student Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, G. R.; Fulton, A. D.; Witherill, C. D.; Dukeshire, E. E.; Dawson, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    Federal science funding agencies are mandating that broader impacts associated with grant making are implemented because of the critical need to enhance scientific literacy and public perception of the roles science plays in society. As emphasis on broader impacts increases, scientists at all levels will need to incorporate explicit education and outreach activities into their programs. This will include a need to train and facilitate graduate student participation in outreach. For instance, the NSF includes broader impact statements in both their graduate research fellowship program and in their doctoral dissertation improvement grants. Here we present a collaborative science educational multimedia project initiated by a graduate student. Canopy In The Clouds uses interactive and immersive media designed around a tropical montane cloud forest as a platform for K-12 earth and life science education. Presented free of cost via the web in English and Spanish, Canopy In The Clouds has resources for students, educators and the general public. This includes a growing body of lesson plans standardized to current National Science Education Standards. We discuss the opportunities, challenges, and rewards associated with balancing research and outreach, interdisciplinary collaboration, and obtaining funding as a graduate student for such an effort. Finally, we consider how graduate student programs in the sciences can consider formalizing training in broader impacts and outreach. Canopy In The Clouds provides an example of effective science outreach, as well as a template for considering future best practices.

  16. The Impact of Part-Time Jobs in Years 12 and 13 on Qualification Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Presents data from nationally representative sample of the England/Wales Youth Cohort Study, describing patterns of paid work among full-time students in Years 12/13 working for qualifications. Shows paid work of a few hours has negligible impact on "A" level grades, but long working hours significantly reduce grades. (BT)

  17. The Impact of SMART Board Technology on Growth in Mathematics Achievement of Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riska, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether SMART Board technology increased growth in mathematics performance of fourth grade gifted students. Gifted students in North Carolina were studied to determine if the use of SMART Board technology during mathematics instruction impacted their growth on standardized state tests. The sample consisted of 175 students from…

  18. The Impact of Supplemental Instruction on Low-Achieving Adolescents' Reading Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Rintamaa, Margaret; Carter, Janis C.; Pennington, Jessica; Buckman, D. Matt

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of a supplemental reading course on 462 sixth-grade students' reading engagement and performance as compared with 389 students in a control group. They further explored students' cognitive strategy use through think aloud processes with a subset of students who participated in the intervention.…

  19. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government`s interest is approximately 78% and CUSA`s interest is approximately 22%. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS).

  20. The impact of integrated instruction on achievement and attitudes towards science of vocational students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillipson, Todd

    Integrated instruction provides students with instruction that is related to their experiences and previous knowledge. This research study used an integrated lesson plan protocol to design integrated science lessons for career and technical students. Students were assigned to either a traditional teaching approach or an integrated teaching approach and achievement and attitudes were then compared. In addition, both the students and the instructor were interviewed regarding their views of the lessons. No significant differences were found in student achievement and attitudes between the traditional and integrated groups but it was found that students thought that a more hands-on approach to learning science would be more effective. The instructor interview also revealed a perception that students in the integrated classroom had a deeper understanding of science content.

  1. Impact of instructional Approaches to Teaching Elementary Science on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kensinger, Seth H.

    Strengthening our science education in the United States is essential to the future success of our country in the global marketplace. Immersing our elementary students with research-based quality science instruction is a critical component to build a strong foundation and motivate our students to become interested in science. The research for this study pertained to the type of elementary science instruction in correlation to academic achievement and gender. Through this study, the researcher answered the following questions: 1. What is the difference in achievement for elementary students who have been taught using one of the three science instructional approaches analyzed in this study: traditional science instruction, inquiry-based science instruction with little or no professional development and inquiry-based science instruction with high-quality professional development? 2. What is the difference in student achievement between inquiry-based instruction and non-inquiry based (traditional) instruction? 3. What is the difference in student achievement between inquiry with high quality professional development and inquiry with little or no professional development? 4. Do the three instructional approaches have differentiated effects across gender? The student achievement was measured using the 2010 fourth grade Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) in Science. Data was collected from 15 elementary schools forming three main groupings of similar schools based on the results from the 2009 third grade PSSA in Mathematics and student and community demographics. In addition, five sub-group triads were formed to further analyze the data and each sub-group was composed of schools with matching demographic data. Each triad contained a school using a traditional approach to teaching science, a school utilizing an inquiry science approach with little or no professional development, and a school incorporating inquiry science instruction with high quality

  2. A Scientist's Guide to Achieving Broader Impacts through K–12 STEM Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Komoroske, Lisa M.; Hameed, Sarah O.; Szoboszlai, Amber I.; Newsom, Amanda J.; Williams, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    The National Science Foundation and other funding agencies are increasingly requiring broader impacts in grant applications to encourage US scientists to contribute to science education and society. Concurrently, national science education standards are using more inquiry-based learning (IBL) to increase students’ capacity for abstract, conceptual thinking applicable to real-world problems. Scientists are particularly well suited to engage in broader impacts via science inquiry outreach, because scientific research is inherently an inquiry-based process. We provide a practical guide to help scientists overcome obstacles that inhibit their engagement in K–12 IBL outreach and to attain the accrued benefits. Strategies to overcome these challenges include scaling outreach projects to the time available, building collaborations in which scientists’ research overlaps with curriculum, employing backward planning to target specific learning objectives, encouraging scientists to share their passion, as well as their expertise with students, and transforming institutional incentives to support scientists engaging in educational outreach. PMID:26955078

  3. Prediction of the likely impact of climate change on monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature in the Chaliyar river basin, India, using ANN-based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, N. R.; Thampi, Santosh G.; Surapaneni, Sujith; Nannapaneni, Revanth; Reddy, A. Ashok Kumar; Kumar, J. Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    In this work, an approach based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has been employed to assess the likely impact of climate change on mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature ( T max and T min) in the Chaliyar river basin, Kerala, India. ANN is trained to downscale temperature from the General Circulation Model (GCM) from a coarser resolution to the required resolution of the river basin. The work aims to estimate the GCMs' output to the scales compatible with that employed in a hydrologic model of the river basin. In order to satiate this purpose, predictor variables were obtained from the National Centre for Environmental Prediction and National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data; this was utilized for training the ANN using a feed-forward network with a back-propagation algorithm. These models were validated further and used to downscale CGCM3 GCM simulations for the scenarios outlined in the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). Results showed that both T max and T min are increasing consistently in all the scenarios. T max exhibited an average increase of maximum 3 °C during the dry season (December-May) and 1 °C during the wet season (June-November) by the year 2100, while T min showed an average increase of 2.5 °C in the dry season and 0.5 °C in the wet season.

  4. Superior Ballistic Impact Resistance Achieved by the Co-Base Alloy Haynes 25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Revilock, Duane M.

    2003-01-01

    The fan case in a jet engine is required to contain a fan blade in the rare event of a blade loss during operation. Because of its function, the fan case is the largest structural component in high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines used in commercial aircraft. Therefore, the use of lighter and stronger materials would be advantageous in most engines and is practically a necessity in the latest generation of high-bypass engines. Small panels, 7 in. wide by 7 in. long, of a number of metallic alloys were impact tested at room temperature with a 0.50-caliber blunt-nose titanium alloy projectile at the NASA Glenn Research Center (ref. 1). These metallic systems included several high-strength aluminum (Al) alloys, Al-based laminates, aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs), nickel-base superalloys (Inconel 718 and 625), several titanium (Ti) alloys in different heat treated conditions, 304L stainless steel, a stainless-steel-based laminate, and a high strength steel (Nitronic 60). It was determined that a simple Co-base alloy (Haynes 25) had the best impact resistance on an areal weight basis. Haynes 25 was at least 10 percent better than IMI 550, the best titanium alloy tested to date, and it was far superior to other metals, especially at higher impact velocities (greater than 1100 ft/sec). Because this material could be ideal for fan containment applications in supersonic aircraft as a replacement for titanium, impact tests were also conducted at 371 oC and compared with results from alloys tested at elevated temperature under previous programs (i.e., Inconel 718, Ti-6242, M-152, Timetal 21S, and Aeromet 100). Although cobalt-base alloys are used in some high-temperature engine applications, to our knowledge they are not used in any containment systems. Advantages of cobalt over titanium include lower cost, easier processing, better high-temperature strength, and no fire hazard if tip rub occurs. Future plans include testing of lightweight sandwich panels with Haynes

  5. A New Technique for Achieving Impact Velocities Greater Than 10 km/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.; Nolen, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This Contractor Report describes and presents the results of work that was done in an attempt to develop an augmented acceleration technique that would launch small projectiles of known shape, mass, and state to velocities of 10 km/sec and higher. The higher velocities were to be achieved by adding a third stage to a conventional two-stage, light-gas gun and using a modified firing cycle for the third stage. The technique did not achieve the desired results and was modified for use during the development program. Since the design of the components used for the augmented-acceleration, three-stage launcher could be readily adapted for use as a three-stage launcher that used a single-stage acceleration cycle; the remainder of the contract period was spent performing test firings using the modified three-stage launcher. Work with the modified three-stage launcher, although not complete, did produce test firings in which an 0.11-g cylindrical nylon projectile was launched to a velocity of 8.65 km/sec.

  6. Advancing Efforts to Achieve Health Equity: Equity Metrics for Health Impact Assessment Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Jonathan; Givens, Marjory L.; Yuen, Tina K.; Gould, Solange; Benkhalti Jandu, Maria; Bourcier, Emily; Choi, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA) Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1) the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2) the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3) the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4) the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric. PMID:25347193

  7. Asymmetric material impact: Achieving free surfaces velocities nearly double that of the projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, Tariq; Dattelbaum, Dana; Gustavsen, Richard; Scharff, Robert; Byers, Mark

    2015-05-19

    Hypervelocity impact speeds are often limited by practical considerations in guns and explosive driven systems. In particular, for gas guns (both powder driven and light gas guns), there is the general trend that higher projectile speeds often come at the expense of smaller diameters, and thus less time for examining shock phenomena prior to two dimensional release waves affecting the observed quantities of interest. Similarly, explosive driven systems have their own set of limiting conditions due to limitations in explosive energy and size of devices required as engineering dimensions increase. The focus in this study is to present a methodology of obtaining free surface velocities well in excess of the projectile velocity. The key to this approach is in using a high impedance projectile that impacts a series of progressively lower impedance materials. The free surface velocity (if they were separated) of each of the progressively lower impedance materials would increase for each material. The theory behind this approach, as well as experimental results are presented.

  8. Asymmetric material impact: Achieving free surfaces velocities nearly double that of the projectile

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aslam, Tariq; Dattelbaum, Dana; Gustavsen, Richard; Scharff, Robert; Byers, Mark

    2015-05-19

    Hypervelocity impact speeds are often limited by practical considerations in guns and explosive driven systems. In particular, for gas guns (both powder driven and light gas guns), there is the general trend that higher projectile speeds often come at the expense of smaller diameters, and thus less time for examining shock phenomena prior to two dimensional release waves affecting the observed quantities of interest. Similarly, explosive driven systems have their own set of limiting conditions due to limitations in explosive energy and size of devices required as engineering dimensions increase. The focus in this study is to present a methodologymore » of obtaining free surface velocities well in excess of the projectile velocity. The key to this approach is in using a high impedance projectile that impacts a series of progressively lower impedance materials. The free surface velocity (if they were separated) of each of the progressively lower impedance materials would increase for each material. The theory behind this approach, as well as experimental results are presented.« less

  9. Classroom learning and achievement: how the complexity of classroom interaction impacts students' learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podschuweit, Sören; Bernholt, Sascha; Brückmann, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Background: Complexity models have provided a suitable framework in various domains to assess students' educational achievement. Complexity is often used as the analytical focus when regarding learning outcomes, i.e. when analyzing written tests or problem-centered interviews. Numerous studies reveal negative correlations between the complexity of a task and the probability of a student solving it. Purpose: Thus far, few detailed investigations explore the importance of complexity in actual classroom lessons. Moreover, the few efforts made so far revealed inconsistencies. Hence, the present study sheds light on the influence the complexity of students' and teachers' class contributions have on students' learning outcomes. Sample: Videos of 10 German 8th grade physics courses covering three consecutive lessons on two topics each (electricity, mechanics) have been analyzed. The sample includes 10 teachers and 290 students. Design and methods: Students' and teachers' verbal contributions were coded manual-based according to the level of complexity. Additionally, pre-post testing of knowledge in electricity and mechanics was applied to assess the students' learning gain. ANOVA analysis was used to characterize the influence of the complexity on the learning gain. Results: Results indicate that the mean level of complexity in classroom contributions explains a large portion of variance in post-test results on class level. Despite this overarching trend, taking classroom activities into account as well reveals even more fine-grained patterns, leading to more specific relations between the complexity in the classroom and students' achievement. Conclusions: In conclusion, we argue for more reflected teaching approaches intended to gradually increase class complexity to foster students' level of competency.

  10. Petroleum production at maximum efficient rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Draft Supplement to the 1979 Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The proposed action involves the continued operation of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficiency Rate (MER) through the year approximately 2025 in accordance with the requirements of the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-258). NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field comprising 74 square miles. MER production primarily includes continued operation and maintenance of existing facilities; a well drilling and abandonment program; construction and operation of future gas processing, gas compression, and steamflood, waterflood, cogeneration, and butane isomerization facilities; and continued implementation of a comprehensive environmental protection program. The basis for the draft environment impact statement (DSEIS) proposed action is the April 1989 NPR-1 Long Range Plan which describes a myriad of planned operational, maintenance, and development activities over the next 25--30 years. These activities include the continued operation of existing facilities; additional well drilling; expanded steamflood operations; expanded waterflood programs; expanded gas compression, gas lift, gas processing and gas injection; construction of a new cogeneration facility; construction of a new isobutane facility; and a comprehensive environmental program designed to minimize environmental impacts.

  11. Positive futures? The impact of HIV infection on achieving health, wealth and future planning.

    PubMed

    Harding, Richard; Molloy, Tim

    2008-05-01

    Although HIV is now cast as a chronic condition with favourable clinical outcomes under new treatments, it is unclear how living with HIV affects expectations and planning for the future. This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate UK gay men's expectations of their own future when living with HIV, and to identify the heath and social interventions required to enhance roles, participation and personal fulfilment. A preliminary focus group identified relevant domains of enquiry for a subsequent online cross-sectional survey. A total of 347 gay men living in the UK with HIV participated in the survey, and 56.6% were currently on treatment. However, high 7-day prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms was identified (42.6% in pain, 80.2% worrying); 57.8% perceived reduced career options due to their infection and 71.8% reduced life expectancy. Being on treatment was not significantly associated with perceived life expectancy. Coded open-ended survey data identified eight principle themes related to goal planning and attainment. The integrated open and closed data items offer an understanding of barriers and challenges that focus on poor mental health due to clinical inattention, discrimination and stigma, poor career and job opportunities due to benefit and workplace inflexibility and lack of understanding, a lack of personal goals and associated skills deficit related to confidence and self esteem. Gay men living with HIV require an integrated holistic approach to wellbeing that incorporates clinical, social and individual intervention in order to lead productive lives with maximum benefit from treatment gains. PMID:18484326

  12. Semiparametric Estimation of the Impacts of Longitudinal Interventions on Adolescent Obesity using Targeted Maximum-Likelihood: Accessible Estimation with the ltmle Package

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Anna L.; Hubbard, Alan; Crespi, Catherine M.; Seto, Edmund Y.W.; Wang, May C.

    2015-01-01

    While child and adolescent obesity is a serious public health concern, few studies have utilized parameters based on the causal inference literature to examine the potential impacts of early intervention. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the causal effects of early interventions to improve physical activity and diet during adolescence on body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, using improved techniques. The most widespread statistical method in studies of child and adolescent obesity is multi-variable regression, with the parameter of interest being the coefficient on the variable of interest. This approach does not appropriately adjust for time-dependent confounding, and the modeling assumptions may not always be met. An alternative parameter to estimate is one motivated by the causal inference literature, which can be interpreted as the mean change in the outcome under interventions to set the exposure of interest. The underlying data-generating distribution, upon which the estimator is based, can be estimated via a parametric or semi-parametric approach. Using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 10-year prospective cohort study of adolescent girls, we estimated the longitudinal impact of physical activity and diet interventions on 10-year BMI z-scores via a parameter motivated by the causal inference literature, using both parametric and semi-parametric estimation approaches. The parameters of interest were estimated with a recently released R package, ltmle, for estimating means based upon general longitudinal treatment regimes. We found that early, sustained intervention on total calories had a greater impact than a physical activity intervention or non-sustained interventions. Multivariable linear regression yielded inflated effect estimates compared to estimates based on targeted maximum-likelihood estimation and data-adaptive super learning. Our analysis demonstrates that sophisticated

  13. Cluster-randomized trial demonstrating impact on academic achievement of elementary social-emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article. PMID:25485463

  14. The Impact of a Teaching-Learning Program Based on a Brain-Based Learning on the Achievement of the Female Students of 9th Grade in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabatat, Kawthar; Al-Tarawneh, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the impact of teaching-learning program based on a brain-based learning on the achievement of female students of 9th grade in chemistry, to accomplish the goal of this study the researchers designed instruments of: instructional plans, pre achievement and past achievement exams to use them for the study-validity and…

  15. Impact of a school district's science reform effort on the achievement and attitudes of third- and fourth-grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shymansky, James A.; Yore, Larry D.; Anderson, John O.

    2004-10-01

    This article is about one school district's effort to reform its elementary science curriculum through a program of professional development called Science, Parents, Activities and Literature (Science PALs). The differential exposure of the district's K-6 teachers to Science PALs and differences in how well teachers implemented Science PALs-type inquiry strategies allowed us to conduct a quasi-experimental study of the impact of Science PALs on student achievement and attitudes. We measured achievement with an instrument based on items taken from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS; International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, [1997]) and selected attitudes about science with the Student Perceptions of Classroom Climate (SPOCC; Yore et al., [1998]), an instrument that we designed. Our analyses of student attitude scores as a function of years of teacher participation in Science PALs and supervisor's rating of a teacher's implementation of the project's instructional approaches showed a significant overall positive impact on student attitudes toward school science. Student TIMSS scores on multiple-choice items or constructed-response items did not improve significantly when analyzed by the number of years a student's teacher was involved in the Science PALs effort or by the supervisor's rating of that implementation. We found no significant differences in attitude or achievement scores among students taught by a series of teachers rated high, medium, or low in quality of implementation by the district's science supervisor. We discuss possible explanations for the lack of clear and positive connections between Science PALs and student performance in light of the increased focus on accountability in reform projects.

  16. The Impact of Interactive Lecture Experiments on Student Academic Achievement, Motivation and Attitudes towards Science (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina M.; Moll, R.; Kotlicki, A.; Bates, F.; Rieger, G.; Nashon, S.

    2006-12-01

    Interactive Lecture Experiments (ILE) have been used in the introductory physics course at the University of British Columbia for over two years. During the Fall of 2006 a systematic study was conducted using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS), Force Concept Inventory (FCI), physics open-ended exam problems and focus group interviews to determine the impact of ILE on student academic achievement, motivation and attitudes towards physics. Three sections of students (750 students) experienced four ILE experiments. FCI and CLASS were administered twice and academic results for students who experienced the ILE for a particular topic were compared to students, from a different section, who did not complete the ILE for that topic. Qualitative data on students’ attitudes was also collected using open ended survey questions and interviews. Preliminary results will be presented with conclusions about the impact of using ILE as an effective pedagogy in large introductory physics courses.

  17. Achieving low-wavefront specifications for DUV lithography: impact of residual stress in HPFS fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladison, Julie L.; Ellison, Joseph F.; Allan, Douglas C.; Fladd, David R.; Fanning, Andrew W.; Priestley, Richard

    2001-09-01

    As optical lithographers push to extend optical lithography technologies to create smaller features with higher NA, lower k1 values and shorter wavelengths, transmitted wavefront specifications for HPFSR fused silica blanks continue to tighten. HPFSR fused silica blanks are typically certified for acceptance using an interferometer operating at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. As the market demands increasingly tighter homogeneity specifications, it has become critical to understand the sources of variation in wavefront measurements. Corning has recently initiated a study to identify those sources of variation. One glass attribute being studied is the impact of residual stress on the wavefront. It is known that residual stresses can alter the refractive index of fused silica. To obtain the residual stress measurements, birefringence measurements were obtained at 632.8 nm for comparison to wavefront measurements at 632.8 nm. The relationship between residual birefringence and transmitted wavefront measurements, at 632.8 nm on Corning HPFSR fused silica blanks, is explored in this paper.

  18. The National COSEE Network's decade of assisting scientists to achieve high-quality Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotaling, L. A.; Yoder, J. A.; Scowcroft, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many ocean scientists struggle with defining Broader Impact (BI) activities that will satisfy reviewers or fit within budget and time constraints, and many scientists are uncertain as to how to find assistance in crafting sound BI plans. In 2002, the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network began engaging and connecting scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. COSEE's success in engaging scientists in BI activities is due to the Network's ability to find and create opportunities for education and outreach, assist scientists in designing programs that feature their research, and support scientists with courses, workshops and tools, which assist them in becoming better communicators of their research to non-scientific audiences. Among its most significant accomplishments to date is the development of a network of ocean scientists that is connected to education and outreach professionals, formal K-12 educators and students, informal science professionals, learning sciences experts, and graduate and undergraduate students. In addition to networking, COSEE Centers have developed and implemented the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts and the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for grades K-12. COSEE has also helped engage scientists with public audiences, facilitating the use of real-time ocean observing systems (OOS) data in formal and informal education settings, creating new distance learning and online resources for ocean sciences education, and promoting high quality ocean sciences education and outreach in universities and formal/informal venues. The purpose of this presentation is to review several tools that the COSEE Network has developed to assist ocean scientists with BI activities and to describe the Network's efforts to prepare young scientists to communicate their research to non-expert audiences.

  19. Quality of vegetable oil prior to fortification is an important criteria to achieve a health impact.

    PubMed

    Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

    2014-11-01

    Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2-3 months, while PO2's shelf life was a few weeks and PO3's only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. PMID:25393689

  20. Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact

    PubMed Central

    Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

    2014-01-01

    Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2–3 months, while PO2’s shelf life was a few weeks and PO3’s only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. PMID:25393689

  1. Impact of mobilization and remobilization strategies on achieving sufficient stem cell yields for autologous transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pusic, Iskra; Jiang, Shi Yuan; Landua, Scott; Uy, Geoffrey L; Rettig, Michael P; Cashen, Amanda F; Westervelt, Peter; Vij, Ravi; Abboud, Camille N; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith E; Sempek, Diane S; Smith, Angela L; DiPersio, John F

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine historic institutional autologous stem cell mobilization practices and evaluate factors influencing mobilization failure and kinetics. In this retrospective study we analyzed clinical records of 1834 patients who underwent stem cell mobilization for autologous transplantation from November 1995 to October 2006 at the Washington University in St. Louis. Successful mobilization was defined as collection of > or =2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. From 1834 consecutive patients, 1040 met our inclusion criteria (502 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [NHL], 137 Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 401 multiple myeloma [MM]). A total of 976 patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and 64 received G-CSF plus chemotherapy (G/C) for the initial mobilization. Although the median CD34(+) cell yield was higher in G/C group than in G-CSF alone group, the failure rates were similar: 18.8% and 18.6%, respectively. Overall, 53% of patients collected > or =2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg during the first apheresis with either mobilization regimen. Regardless of mobilization regimen used, MM patients had the highest total CD34(+) cell yield and required less aphereses to collect > or =2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. Mobilized, preapheresis, peripheral blood CD34(+) count correlated with first day apheresis yield (r = .877, P < .001) and 20 cells/microL was the minimum threshold needed for a successful day 1 collection. For the remobilization analysis we included patients from the whole database. A total of 269 of 1834 patients underwent remobilization using G/C, G-CSF, and/or GM-CSF, and G-CSF plus plerixafor. Only 23% of remobilized patients achieved > or =2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg and 29.7% failed to pool sufficient number of stem cells from both collections. Patients receiving G-CSF plus plerixafor had lowest failure rates, P = .03. NHL patients remobilized with G-CSF who waited > or =25 days before remobilization had lower CD34(+) cell yield than those

  2. Qualitative research study of high-achieving females' life experiences impacting success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Ann Patrice

    2003-07-01

    This qualitative study investigated the life experiences of five academically gifted female students in math and science in reflection of their elementary learning prior to enrollment at a prestigious science and mathematics high school. The elite high school limits admission to the state of Illinois' top students. The purpose of this study is to unfold the story of five academically gifted females in attendance at the elite high school reflecting on their life experiences in elementary school that contributed to their current academic success. Twelve female students, who at the time of this study were currently in their senior year (12th grade) of high school, were solicited from the top academic groups who are regarded by their teachers as highly successful in class. Students were selected as part of the study based on academic status, survey completion and interest in study, Caucasian and Asian ethnicity, locale of elementary school with preference given to the variety of school demographics---urban, suburban, and rural---further defined the group to the core group of five. All female participants were personally interviewed and communicated via Internet with the researcher. Parents and teachers completing surveys as well met the methodological requirements of triangulation. An emergent theme of paternal influence came from the research. Implications supported in the research drawn from this study to increase achievement of academically gifted females include: (a) proper early identification of learner strengths plays a role; (b) learning with appropriate intellectual peers is more important than learning with their age group; (c) teachers are the greatest force for excellent instruction; (d) effective teaching strategies include cooperative learning, multi-sensory learning, problem-based learning, and hands-on science; (e) rigor in math is important; (f) gender and stereotypes need not be barriers; (g) outside interests and activities are important for self

  3. The impact of modality and working memory capacity on achievement in a multimedia environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromfors, Charlotte M.

    This study explored the impact of working memory capacity and student learning in a dual modality, multimedia environment titled Visualizing Topography. This computer-based instructional program focused on the basic skills in reading and interpreting topographic maps. Two versions of the program presented the same instructional content but varied the modality of verbal information: the audio-visual condition coordinated topographic maps and narration; the visual-visual condition provided the same topographic maps with readable text. An analysis of covariance procedure was conducted to evaluate the effects due to the two conditions in relation to working memory capacity, controlling for individual differences in spatial visualization and prior knowledge. The scores on the Figural Intersection Test were used to separate subjects into three levels in terms of their measured working memory capacity: low, medium, and high. Subjects accessed Visualizing Topography by way of the Internet and proceeded independently through the program. The program architecture was linear in format. Subjects had a minimum amount of flexibility within each of five segments, but not between segments. One hundred and fifty-one subjects were randomly assigned to either the audio-visual or the visual-visual condition. The average time spent in the program was thirty-one minutes. The results of the ANCOVA revealed a small to moderate modality effect favoring an audio-visual condition. The results also showed that subjects with low and medium working capacity benefited more from the audio-visual condition than the visual-visual condition, while subjects with a high working memory capacity did not benefit from either condition. Although splitting the data reduced group sizes, ANCOVA results by gender suggested that the audio-visual condition favored females with low working memory capacities. The results have implications for designers of educational software, the teachers who select software, and

  4. Modeling the impact of hepatitis C viral clearance on end-stage liver disease in an HIV co-infected cohort with Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, Mireille E; Moodie, Erica EM; van der Laan, Mark J; Platt, Robert W; Klein, Marina B

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite modern effective HIV treatment, hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is associated with a high risk of progression to end-stage liver disease (ESLD) which has emerged as the primary cause of death in this population. Clinical interest lies in determining the impact of clearance of HCV on risk for ESLD. In this case study, we examine whether HCV clearance affects risk of ESLD using data from the multicenter Canadian Co-infection Cohort Study. Complications in this survival analysis arise from the time-dependent nature of the data, the presence of baseline confounders, loss to follow-up, and confounders that change over time, all of which can obscure the causal effect of interest. Additional challenges included non-censoring variable missingness and event sparsity. In order to efficiently estimate the ESLD-free survival probabilities under a specific history of HCV clearance, we demonstrate the doubly-robust and semiparametric efficient method of Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation (TMLE). Marginal structural models (MSM) can be used to model the effect of viral clearance (expressed as a hazard ratio) on ESLD-free survival and we demonstrate a way to estimate the parameters of a logistic model for the hazard function with TMLE. We show the theoretical derivation of the efficient influence curves for the parameters of two different MSMs and how they can be used to produce variance approximations for parameter estimates. Finally, the data analysis evaluating the impact of HCV on ESLD was undertaken using multiple imputations to account for the non-monotone missing data. PMID:24571372

  5. Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

  6. Epidemiological impact of achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for HIV care in India: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Maddali, Manoj V; Gupta, Amita; Shah, Maunank

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent UNAIDS ‘90-90-90’ targets propose that to end the HIV epidemic by 2030, 90% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide should know their diagnosis, 90% of diagnosed PLWH should be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 90% of PLWH on ART should be virally suppressed by 2020. We sought to quantify the epidemiological impact of achieving these targets in India. Methods We constructed a dynamic-transmission model of the Indian HIV epidemic to project HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths that would occur in India over 15 years. We considered several scenarios: continuation of current care engagement (with early ART initiation), achieving 90-90-90 targets on time and delaying achievement by 5 or 10 years. Results In the base case, assuming continuation of current care engagement, we project 794 000 (95% uncertainty range (UR) 571 000–1 104 000) HIV infections and 689 000 (95% UR 468 000–976 000) AIDS-related deaths in India over 15 years. In this scenario, nearly half of PLWH diagnosed would fail to achieve viral suppression by 2030. With achievement of 90-90-90 targets, India could avert 392 000 (95% UR 248 000–559 000) transmissions (48% reduction) and 414 000 (95% UR 260 000–598 000) AIDS-related deaths (59% reduction) compared to the base-case scenario. Furthermore, fewer than 20 000 (95% UR 12 000–30 000) HIV infections would occur in 2030. Delaying achievement of targets resulted in a similar reduction in HIV incidence by 2030 but at the cost of excess overall infections and mortality. Conclusions India can halve the epidemiological burden of HIV over 15 years with achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Reaching the targets on time will require comprehensive healthcare strengthening, especially in early diagnosis and treatment, expanded access to second-line and third-line ART and long-term retention in care. PMID:27388363

  7. How Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Project-Based Learning (PBL) Affects High, Middle, and Low Achievers Differently: The Impact of Student Factors on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sunyoung; Capraro, Robert; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participating in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) project-based learning (PBL) activities effected students who had varied performance levels and to what extent students' individual factors influenced their mathematics achievement. STEM PBL has been a critical challenge…

  8. How Does Teacher Qualifications Impact Student Achievement in Relation to the Achievement Model Established by the Mississippi State Department of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Timothy Darren

    2011-01-01

    The following study was conducted in a six-county geographical region and involved teachers from various high schools that taught classes which were involved in the subject area testing program. Each participant taught one of the four state-mandated subject area classes that are tested to determine achievement levels and accreditation ratings for…

  9. STEAM: A National Study of the Integration of the Arts Into STEM Instruction and its Impact on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, Mark E.

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between exposure to the arts and performance in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) subjects. STEAM, an integration of arts-based instruction into science and math related fields, is viewed as an alternative to traditional STEM academies. The literature briefly examines the current state of STEM programs and the deficiencies in graduate quality and quantity and the call from employers for a more innovative workforce. Advocates for STEAM argue for arts as a means to improve creativity, collaboration, risk-taking and exploration. Arguments against arts in STEM are grounded in political opinions concerning arts funding and logistical complications of implementing STEAM. However, some schools and STEM programs have embraced the STEAM premise and have begun to integrate arts into the traditional curriculum. The 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) dataset was utilized to determine a correlation between the number of arts credits earned and mathematics/science achievement. Results from the NAEP dataset indicated a correlation between the amount of arts credits and increased achievement scores in science and math. The same correlation was found when controlling for demographic factors such as gender, race, and socio-economic status (SES). Overall, the arts' greatest impact was on students identified as "at-risk" or underrepresented in STEM fields. Controlling for these variable groups, one can note the quantifiable differences in scores. Overall, findings of the study provide empirical support for the addition of arts in STEM.

  10. An Examination of the Impact That Selected School Characteristics Have on the Academic Achievement of Students Attending High Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of school locale, size and poverty levels (SES) on student achievement has been of great interest in school research for more than the last five decades. The increasing public demand to hold schools accountable for their effects on student outcomes lends urgency to the task of exploring variables related to student achievement that are…

  11. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Achievement of High School Students Participating in a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weers, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of socioeconomic status on the achievement of high school students participating in a one-to-one laptop computer program. Students living in poverty struggle to achieve in schools across the country, educators must address this issue. The independent variable in this study is socioeconomic…

  12. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Impact of For-Profit and Nonprofit Management on Student Achievement: The Philadelphia Intervention, 2002-2008"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Impact of For-Profit and Nonprofit Management on Student Achievement: The Philadelphia Intervention, 2002-2008" examined whether shifting from traditional district management to management by a for-profit or nonprofit organization improves student achievement. The study analyzed data on six cohorts of elementary and middle school students…

  13. Year-Round School versus Traditional School: The Impact of Academic Calendars on Student Achievement at Selected Elementary Schools in North Central South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay-Brown, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact that a year-round school calendar and a traditional school calendar may have on student achievement at selected elementary schools in North Central South Carolina. Specifically it investigated mean differences in academic achievement between elementary students at two year-round schools versus two traditional…

  14. The Impact of a School-Based Enterprise Program on the Achievement and Behavior of Special Education Students Attending High Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilot, Grover Cleve

    2011-01-01

    Our nation's K-12 schools are faced with numerous critical challenges that affect student achievement and consequently impact society. Key challenges, such as elevating academic achievement, meeting state and No Child Left Behind (NCLB) standards, high dropout rates, at-risk students, parental involvement, and the recruitment and retention of…

  15. Differential Impacts of Intensive District-Level Technical Assistance on Student Achievement: A Study of California's District Assistance and Intervention Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; McEachin, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Building on Strunk, McEachin, and Westover (2011), the authors examine whether or not District Assistance and Intervention Teams (DAITs) have a differential impact on student performance across school and student characteristics. They use a quasi-experimental design to examine the impacts of DAITs on student achievement on math and English…

  16. The Impact of a State Takeover on Academic Achievement, School Performance, and School Leadership in a Rural South Carolina School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Janice Zissette

    2009-01-01

    This case study on the impact of a state takeover in one of South Carolina's most rural school districts ("referred to as the County School District") was completed using a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to examine the impact on academic achievement, school performance, and school leadership as a result of the South Carolina Department of…

  17. Considering the Sociolinguistic Impact of Instability of Educational Philosophy on Reading Achievement of Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sandra G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the sociolinguistic impact of philosophical instability on reading comprehension achievement of students who are deaf and hard of hearing at a state school for the deaf. The research conducted examined the sociolinguistic impact by investigating the following: (1) what non-malleable factors influenced…

  18. An analysis of the impact of three high school schedules on student achievement in advanced placement biology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arons-Polan, Bonnie

    This study examined the effect of three schedule types on student achievement in Advanced Placement Biology classes. AP Biology test scores from students on three types of full-year schedules were analyzed to assess the impact schedule type had on student achievement. The three schedules included the block and traditional schedules, and the rotating/hybrid, a blend of the former two schedules. The results indicated the variable most closely associated with success on the AP Biology exam was the length of experience the teachers had teaching the course, regardless of schedule type. Although significant differences were seen in mean AP Biology test scores among the three schedule types, this could be explained by the relationship between instructors' experience and schedule type. Regression analysis determined the two strongest predictors of successful performance on the AP Biology exam were instructors' experience and perceived teaching style, regardless of schedule type. It appears that the economically developed suburbs, had teachers with the largest amount of experience teaching AP Biology, and these teachers reported using a direct approach to teaching, using lecture greater than 50% of the time. The results of this study also suggest when restructuring to improve student achievement, educators should examine other variables in addition to the high school schedule. Restructuring the day to allow for longer classes must be accompanied by professional staff development to allow teachers to develop new teaching methods. Most of the teachers in the survey reported using lecture a great deal of the time, regardless of schedule type. Comments from the teachers from the various schedules revealed that the ability to add student centered, inquiry based activities and labs were dependent on adequate class time. No information on whether or not the teachers were given professional development to expand their repertoire of teaching methods when the school adopted a block

  19. How the impact of median neuropathy on sensorimotor control capability of hands for diabetes: an achievable assessment from functional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Haw-Yen; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin; Yu, Hui-I; Hua, Shih-Che; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    To comprehend the sensorimotor control ability in diabetic hands, this study investigated the sensation, motor function and precision pinch performances derived from a pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA) test of the hands of diabetic patients and healthy subjects. The precision, sensitivity and specificity of the PHUA test in the measurements of diabetic patients were also analyzed. We hypothesized that the diabetic hands would have impacts on the sensorimotor functions of the hand performances under functionally quantitative measurements. One hundred and fifty-nine patients with clinically defined diabetes mellitus (DM) and 95 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM), static and moving two-point discrimination (S2PD and M2PD), maximal pinch strength and precision pinch performance tests were conducted to evaluate the sensation, motor and sensorimotor status of the recruited hands. The results showed that there were significant differences (all p<0.05) in SWM, S2PD, M2PD and maximum pinch strength between the DM and control groups. A higher force ratio in the DM patients than in the controls (p<0.001) revealed a poor ability of pinch force adjustment in the DM patients. The percentage of maximal pinch strength was also significantly different (p<0.001) between the DM and control groups. The sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.85, 0.51, and 0.724, respectively, for the PHUA test. Statistically significant degradations in sensory and motor functions and sensorimotor control ability were observed in the hands of the diabetic patients. The PHUA test could be feasibly used as a clinical tool to determine the sensorimotor function of the hands of diabetic patients from a functional perspective. PMID:24722361

  20. The Impact of Coteaching on Regular Education Eighth Grade Student Achievement on a Basic Skills Algebra Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigdon, Misty B.

    2010-01-01

    Coteaching strategies have been implemented in many of the inclusion math classrooms in an attempt to improve the achievement of students. Math achievement continues to be a concern as reported by the National Mathematics Advisory Council in 2007. Educators and previous research reported that coteaching does not improve student achievement. The…

  1. The Differential Impact of Motivation on the Self-Regulated Strategy Use of High- and Low-Achieving College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Low-achieving college students (N=94) evidenced less use of self-regulating strategies and a stronger relationship of self-regulated strategy use to positive motivational orientation than high-achieving students (N=49). Samples were predominantly white and female. Encouraging the use of these strategies may improve low achievers' academic…

  2. Impact of Violation of the Missing-at-Random Assumption on Full-Information Maximum Likelihood Method in Multidimensional Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.; Guo, Fanmin

    2014-01-01

    The full-information maximum likelihood (FIML) method makes it possible to estimate and analyze structural equation models (SEM) even when data are partially missing, enabling incomplete data to contribute to model estimation. The cornerstone of FIML is the missing-at-random (MAR) assumption. In (unidimensional) computerized adaptive testing…

  3. Impact of a proposed change in the maximum permissible dose limit for neutrons to radiation-protection programs at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.

    1981-09-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has issued a statement advising that it is considering lowering the maximum permissible dose for neutrons. This action would present substantive problems to radiation protection programs at DOE facilities where a potential for neutron exposure exists. In addition to altering administrative controls, a lowering of the maximum permissible dose for neutrons will require advances in personnel neutron dosimetry systems, and neutron detection and measurement instrumentation. Improvement in the characterization of neutron fields and spectra at work locations will also be needed. DOE has initiated research and development programs in these areas. However, problems related to the control of personnel neutron exposure have yet to be resolved and investigators are encouraged to continue collaboration with both United States and international authorities.

  4. Examining the Impact of Online Labeling on Tutoring Behavior and Its Effect on the English Learning and Motivation of Low-Achieving University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ejean; Yang, Shu Ching

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the differential impact of tutor labeling vs. non-labeling approaches on the performance; motivation beliefs; and cognitive, social, and teaching presence of low-achieving students. Two interactive tutoring strategy patterns are investigated based on the taxonomical e-moderating model of Salmon. In addition, the tutees' online…

  5. Impact of STS (Context-Based Type of Teaching) in Comparison with a Textbook Approach on Attitudes and Achievement in Community College Chemistry Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of a context-based teaching approach (STS) versus a more traditional textbook approach on the attitudes and achievement of community college chemistry students. In studying attitudes toward chemistry within this study, I used a 30-item Likert scale in order to study the importance of chemistry in…

  6. The Impact of Prior Mathematics Achievement on the Relationship between High School Mathematics Curricula and Postsecondary Mathematics Performance, Course-Taking, and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Medhanie, Amanuel; Harwell, Michael; Norman, Ke Wu; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Muchlinski, Thomas; Andersen, Edwin; Monson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the impact of prior mathematics achievement on the relationship between high school mathematics curricula and student postsecondary mathematics performance. The sample (N = 4,144 from 266 high schools) was partitioned into 3 strata by ACT mathematics scores. Students completing 3 or more years of a commercially…

  7. Exploring the Causal Impact of the McREL Balanced Leadership Program on Leadership, Principal Efficacy, Instructional Climate, Educator Turnover, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung; Miller, Robert; Goddard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a randomized design to assess the impact of the Balanced Leadership program on principal leadership, instructional climate, principal efficacy, staff turnover, and student achievement in a sample of rural northern Michigan schools. Participating principals report feeling more efficacious, using more effective leadership practices,…

  8. Impact of Attitudinal Adaptation on Academic Achievement among Students: A Comparative Study of Boys and Girls in Boarding Secondary Schools in Meru County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murithi, Grace Gatune; Nyaga, Veronica Karimi; Barchok, Hillary K.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of attitudinal adaptation on academic achievement among boys and girls in boarding secondary schools in Meru County in Kenya. The descriptive survey research design was adapted for the study whose sample size was 384 students, school counsellors and deputy principals in the boarding secondary schools. The…

  9. The Impact of Interpersonal Interaction on Academic Engagement and Achievement in a College Success Strategies Course with a Blended Learning Instructional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosser, Brent Steven

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-experiment was carried out in a college success strategies course to evaluate the impact of structured interpersonal interaction on undergraduate students' Academic Engagement and Academic Achievement. The course, EPL 259: Individual Learning and Motivation, employs a blended learning instructional model that requires students to spend the…

  10. The Impact of Institutional Factors on the Relationship Between High School Mathematics Curricula and College Mathematics Course-Taking and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analytic methods were used to examine the moderating effect of institutional factors on the relationship between high school mathematics curricula and college mathematics course-taking and achievement from a sample of 32 colleges. The findings suggest that the impact of curriculum on college mathematics outcomes is not generally moderated by…

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Impact of the Rural Ugandan Village Library and Other Factors on the Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, Valeda Frances

    2012-01-01

    This study used archival data to explore the impact of the rural village library and other factors on the academic achievement of secondary school students in the Ugandan village of Kitengesa, and related these findings to rural library development currently taking place in Uganda and other African countries such as Burkina Faso and Ghana. A…

  12. Teacher Collaboration in Music Education: The Impact of the DuFour Model on Music Teachers' Attitudes and Their Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Cathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    The DuFour PLC model is one of several reforms today based on the theory that organizing teachers into learning communities will promote professional collaboration and collegial relationships which will improve teacher skills, motivation, and increase student achievement. A small number of studies have explored the impact of PLC's on teaching…

  13. The Impact of Online or F2F Lecture Choice on Student Achievement and Engagement in a Large Lecture-Based Science Course: Closing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Cheryl A.; Stewart, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning options vary and universities are exploring an assortment of instructional combinations, some involving video lectures as a replacement for face-to-face (f2f) lectures. This methodological study investigates the impact of the provision of lecture choice (online or f2f) on overall student achievement and course engagement. This…

  14. The Impacts of Success for All on Reading Achievement in Grades 3-5: Does Intervening during the Later Elementary Grades Produce the Same Benefits as Intervening Early?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, Paul; Borman, Geoffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of Success for All literacy instruction in grades 3 through 5 using data from the same cluster randomized trial used to evaluate effects in the earlier grades (K-2). In contrast to the early benefits, there is no effect on reading achievement in the later grades, either overall or for students and schools with high or low…

  15. A Qualitative Study: The Impact of Selected Non-Cognitive Variables on the Academic Success and Achievement of Culturally Diverse Academic Scholarship Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Linda Louise

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether select non-cognitive variables such as, (Sedlacek, 1989, 1991, 1993, 2004; Tracey & Sedlacek 1984, 1985, 1987, 1989) impacted the academic achievement, retention and graduation rates of culturally diverse academic scholarship students at a predominantly white higher education institutions. The subjects of the study were…

  16. Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact: The Donors' Education Collaborative of New York City. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, constituency building and advocacy for better public education have grown steadily in New York City. "Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact" explores how that growth was fueled by the Donors' Education Collaborative of New York, which pools its members' financial resources and expertise to advance shared grantmaking…

  17. The Impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory Instruction on the Achievement in Physics, Science Process Skills and Computer Attitudes of 10th-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kun-Yuan; Heh, Jia-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory (IVPL) instruction with traditional laboratory instruction in physics academic achievement, performance of science process skills, and computer attitudes of tenth grade students. One-hundred and fifty students from four classes at one private…

  18. An Analysis of the Impact of Parent Education Level and Family Income on the Academic Achievement of Students of Hispanic and White Ethnicities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the socioeconomic factors of parent education level and family income on the academic achievement of students of Hispanic and white ethnicities. Scaled scores from the 2009 administration of the California Standards Tests in English language arts and mathematics and matched demographic…

  19. An Analysis of the Impact of Demographic, Structural, Student, and Financial Factors on Texas High School Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of demographic (indicators describing student characteristics), structural (indicators describing school characteristics), student (indicators of student academic achievement), and financial (indicators of instructional expenditures) factors to student mathematics achievement. A sample (n…

  20. The Impact of Principal Perception on Student Academic Climate and Achievement in High School: How Does It Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the independent direct effects of student and principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement in high school. To date, few studies have considered the influence of principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement. In the present study, we test a set of two-level hierarchical…

  1. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and…

  2. Changing Self-Esteem: The Impact of Self-Esteem Changes on At-Risk Students Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elaine M.

    Participants in a program to raise the academic achievement of at-risk elementary school students in the Newark (New Jersey) School District by raising their self-esteem showed both increased self-esteem and achievement gains. The program included individual and group counseling sessions, parent participation, and the use of the Toward Affective…

  3. Intervention That Adds Up: The Impact of Merit Software on Standardized Achievement Test Scores of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Securro, Samuel; Jones, Jerry D.; Cantrell, Danny; Blackwell, James

    2006-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind" Act mandated the need for research-based interventions to increase and to improve learning and achievement for all youngsters. Research in computer-based instruction and intervention for learning basic skills and related achievements in content area subjects has documented the need for controlled investigations…

  4. No Boy Left Behind: The Impact of Boy-Friendly Strategies on the Gender Writing Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Janet Lee

    2012-01-01

    A study of the implementation of boy-friendly strategies for teaching writing was conducted in order to determine if the strategies would improve the writing achievement of fifth grade boys, thereby narrowing the gender achievement gap in writing. The strategies were categorized in four modalities: self-efficacy, perception/attitude, performance,…

  5. The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

  6. Adjusting skewness and maximum 0.5 hour intensity in CLIGEN to improve extreme event and sub-daily intensity generation for assessing climate change impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both measured data and GCM/RCM projections show an general increasing trend in extreme rainfall events as temperature rises in US. Proper simulation of extreme events is particularly important for assessing climate change impacts on soil erosion and hydrology. The objective of this paper is to fin...

  7. Maximum power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.

    1983-03-01

    By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.

  8. The longitudinal impact of an eighth-grade inquiry curriculum on students' beliefs and achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhok, Jacqueline Joan

    2006-12-01

    Education in science should foster beliefs and skills that promote lifelong learning. This research addresses four main questions: (1) Do students' beliefs about science and science learning align with autonomous learning as a result of participation in an inquiry science curriculum? (2) How do beliefs about science and science learning correlate with achievement in school science? (3) Do changes in beliefs about science and science learning persist after the instruction that influences them is completed? (4) How do beliefs about science and science learning interact with achievement for specific groups, including low achieving students, and males and females? These questions are evaluated in the context of a longitudinal study of 42 eighth grade science students. This research analyzes students' achievements in an inquiry science curriculum over an 11-year period, as well as longitudinally, in order to demonstrate that beliefs about science and learning influence achievement in science, i.e., students who adopt an autonomous learning perspective are hypothesized to succeed in school science and show continuous interest in careers that include science. The large sample study provides a valuable large-scale analysis of this curriculum across 11 years with more than 1300 students. The longitudinal study follows 42 students through high school, contrasting attitudes toward science, achievements and career goals of At-risk and Typical students and providing a unique view of how students' beliefs evolve over a substantial portion of their schooling, and in a few cases, into college and career. Results showed significant gains in students' beliefs during the eighth grade curriculum, followed by a general pattern of continuing increase through the 9th grade and a subsequent decline by the end of the l1 th grade. Questions are raised about how high school classes may negatively affect students' beliefs. The studies reported here are particularly important in their emphasis

  9. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Yılmaz; Yeşilyurt, Selami

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research. After the treatment, general achievement in CAT increased in favor of experimental groups. Instructional software programs also had the positive effect to the awareness of students' understandings to the general functions of mitosis and meiosis. However, the current study revealed that there were still some misconceptions in the experimental groups even after the treatment. It was also noticed that only using edutainment software program significantly changed students' attitudes towards biology.

  10. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing the Sixth Grade Students Decision-Making Skill and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…

  11. The Impact of Teacher Classroom Practices on Student Achievement during the Implementation of a Reform-Based Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Gillian; Garrow, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    Evidence of a gap in student understanding has been well documented in chemistry: the typical student holds an abundance of misconceptions. The current expectation is that educational reform will foster greater student achievement via inquiry teaching within classrooms. Using assessments involving both conceptual and algorithmic knowledge of gas…

  12. Examining the Early Impacts of the Leading Educators Fellowship on Student Achievement and Teacher Retention. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihaly, Kata; Master, Benjamin K.; Yoon, Cate

    2015-01-01

    The Leading Educators Fellowship program selects promising mid-career teachers through a competitive application process and develops their skills as leaders of school improvement efforts. The specific objectives of the program are to (1) increase the leadership skills and capacity of teacher leaders in order to improve student achievement in…

  13. Do Intervention Impacts on Academic Achievement Vary by School Climate? Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2015-01-01

    Given established links between social-emotional skills and academic achievement, there is growing support for implementing universal social/behavioral interventions in early schooling (Jones & Bouffard, 2012). Advocates have been particularly interested in implementing such programming in low income urban schools where students are likely to…

  14. Impact of the Child Development Program on Reading Achievement of Kindergarten through Eighth Grade Students in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Tai E.

    2013-01-01

    Educational leaders are charged with making informed decisions regarding various aspects of schooling that affect the overall achievement of students. Numerous legislative ideas, funding initiatives, programming standards, and practicing guidelines for early childhood education programs have been introduced (Buyssee & Wesley, 2006). Early care…

  15. The Impact of Guided Student-Generated Questioning on Chemistry Achievement and Self-Efficacy of Elementary Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine; Bonner, Emily; Ibey, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Guided Student-Generated Questioning (GSGQ) as a metacognitive instructional strategy to increase chemistry achievement and self-efficacy of elementary preservice teachers. The Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES), modified from the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES),was used to determine elementary preservice…

  16. The Relationship between Gender, Ethnicity, and Technology on the Impact of Mathematics Achievement in an After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xudong; Craig, Scotty D.; Xie, Jun; Graesser, Arthur C.; Okwumabua, Theresa; Cheney, Kyle R.; Hu, Xiangen

    2013-01-01

    The gap among ethnicities and gender in mathematics achievement is a well-known problem. While the gap has been shrinking over the past three decades, it has not completely diminished (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; McGraw, Lubienski, & Strutchens, 2006). The ALEKS, Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces, tutoring system is one promising…

  17. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development of African American Male Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Dora

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of African American male college freshmen. In the late 1900s Black identity models were developed to help African Americans grasp hold of who they were, as they lived in the residues of the peculiar institution of slavery.…

  18. The Impact of AP® Achievement Institute I on Students' AP Performance. Research Report No. 2012-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Laitusis, Vytas

    2012-01-01

    The AP Achievement Institute I (APAI I) is a four-day professional development program offered to teachers and administrators by EXCELerator™, a district reform program operated by the College Board. The APAI I program is designed to help teachers develop effective AP instructional strategies for a diverse student body and to help district,…

  19. Integrating Argument-Based Science Inquiry with Modal Representations: Impact on Science Achievement, Argumentation, and Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbag, Mehmet; Gunel, Murat

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of integrating the Argument-Based Science Inquiry (ABSI) approach with multi-modal representations on students' achievement, and their argumentation and writing skills. The study was conducted with 62 female and 57 male college students at the Central Anatolian Turkish University. All participants…

  20. The Impact of Employment on the Academic Achievement of Full-Time Community College Students. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks; And Others

    Is college student academic performance harmed by competing employment obligations? At what point do the hours spent on the job begin to interfere with the predicted academic achievement of full-time students? This study addresses these questions by analyzing data collected from students at two non-residential community colleges. Using an outcomes…

  1. The Impact of Chess Instruction on the Critical Thinking Ability and Mathematical Achievement of Developmental Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, Darrin K.

    2012-01-01

    This sequential explanatory mixed-methods study determined whether the game of chess can be used as an educational tool to improve critical thinking skills of developmental mathematics students and improve mathematics achievement for these students. Five research questions were investigated. These questions were as follows: (a) Is there a…

  2. The Impact of Leadership Practices on the Academic Achievement of Elementary Students in Satisfactory Schools and Unsatisfactory Schools in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Our nation's k-12 schools are faced with numerous critical challenges: elevating academic achievement, recruitment and retention of high-caliber teachers, improving teacher quality, and meeting the mandates of the "No Child Left Behind" ("NCLB") legislation and state standards (Simpson, Lacava, & Graner, 2004; & (Kowalski, 2009). Today's school…

  3. Improving Achievement in Secondary Schools: Impact of a Literacy Project on Reading Comprehension and Secondary School Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mei Kuin; Wilson, Aaron; McNaughton, Stuart; Hsiao, Selena

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether a literacy intervention involving generic and content area literacy components can improve both achievement on a standardized reading test and the attainment of secondary school qualifications, and whether the intervention can be implemented by teachers in their regular classroom settings. We report on a design-based…

  4. The Continued Evaluation of Voucher Impact on the Achievement of Elementary Students in a Majority African American Public School District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Kim K.; Boone, William J.; Legan, Natalie A.; Paul, Kelli M.

    Vouchers for students in urban school districts may promote the increased participation of underrepresented groups in the fields of science and engineering in at least two ways: (a) by optimizing the achievement of students who use vouchers and (b) by expanding the scope of educational and curricular options available to students. Presently, nearly 5,000 children in Cleveland, Ohio, attend private schools with publicly funded vouchers. This study presents the results of evaluating the achievement of a cohort of these students from the fall of first grade to the spring of fourth grade. For public school students, first grade seems to be a time during which they catch up with peers who attend private schools with vouchers. The analysis of data using adjusted measures suggests no differences in achievement from first grade to fourth grade with respect to achievement in many content areas. The use of unadjusted measures suggests possible differences with respect to fourth grade reading (with voucher students performing at a statistically higher level than their peers). The present data set neither clearly supports nor refutes the use of vouchers.

  5. The Relationship between Weather and Lunar Changes on Student Achievement and Measures School Districts Utilize to Combat Potential Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Classroom disruptions present an obstacle to raising student achievement for teachers and school administrators. This study was designed to investigate potential relationships between weather, specifically barometric pressure, or the lunar cycle, and whether either had a direct correlation with student discipline referrals. The intent was to…

  6. A Quantitative Investigation into the Impacts of 1:1 iPads on Early Learners' ELA and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebell, Damian; Pedulla, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Many parents, educators, and policy makers see great potential for leveraging tools like laptop computers, tablets, and smartphones in the classrooms of the world. Although increasing students' technology access may be associated with increased student achievement, there is little research directly investigating objective measures of student…

  7. Achieve 3000: An Analysis of Usage and Impact, 2013-14. Technical Note. Volume 3, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdegar, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Achieve 3000 is an online differentiated reading program for students with disabilities and English Language Learners in grades 6-8. The software delivers differentiated assignments at 12 different reading levels. The software features internal assessments that continuously gauge students' reading levels, provides feedback to teachers, and…

  8. The Impact of Every Classroom, Every Day on High School Student Achievement: Results from a School-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane M.; Berg, Juliette K.; Alicea, Stacey; Si, Yajuan; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Every Classroom, Every Day (ECED) is a set of instructional improvement interventions designed to increase student achievement in math and English/language arts (ELA). ECED includes three primary components: (a) systematic classroom observations by school leaders, (b) intensive professional development and support for math teachers and…

  9. The Impact of Involvement of African American Parents on Students' Achievement in a Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    This applied dissertation was designed to provide better understanding of issues related to parental involvement to school officials and scholars. The parental involvement at the school was very low and academic achievement was also low. The school leaders were requested to increase parental involvement and the School Improvement Plan specified…

  10. The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit. NBER Working Paper No. 14599

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Gordon; Lochner, Lance

    2008-01-01

    Past estimates of the effect of family income on child development have often been plagued by endogeneity and measurement error. In this paper, we use two simulated instrumental variables strategies to estimate the causal effect of income on children's math and reading achievement. Our identification derives from the large, non-linear changes in…

  11. A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarofim, M. C.; Martinich, J.; Waldhoff, S.; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, J.; Jantarasami, L.; Shouse, K.; Crimmins, A.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project establishes a new multi-model framework to systematically assess the physical impacts, economic damages, and risks from climate change. The primary goal of this framework is to estimate the degree to which climate change impacts and damages in the United States are avoided or reduced in the 21st century under multiple greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation scenarios. The first phase of the CIRA project is a modeling exercise that included two integrated assessment models and 15 sectoral models encompassing five broad impacts sectors: water resources, electric power, infrastructure, human health, and ecosystems. Three consistent socioeconomic and climate scenarios are used to analyze the benefits of global GHG mitigation targets: a reference scenario and two policy scenarios with total radiative forcing targets in 2100 of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2. In this exercise, the implications of key uncertainties are explored, including climate sensitivity, climate model, natural variability, and model structures and parameters. This presentation describes the motivations and goals of the CIRA project; the design and academic contribution of the first CIRA modeling exercise; and briefly summarizes several papers published in a special issue of Climatic Change. The results across impact sectors show that GHG mitigation provides benefits to the United States that increase over time, the effects of climate change can be strongly influenced by near-term policy choices, adaptation can reduce net damages, and impacts exhibit spatial and temporal patterns that may inform mitigation and adaptation policy discussions.

  12. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  13. Shifting Distributions of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon Amidst Post-Industrialization and Future Impacts in the Delaware River: a Maximum Entropy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Breece, Matthew W.; Oliver, Matthew J.; Cimino, Megan A.; Fox, Dewayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19th century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19th century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960’s. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species. PMID:24260570

  14. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach.

    PubMed

    Breece, Matthew W; Oliver, Matthew J; Cimino, Megan A; Fox, Dewayne A

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19(th) century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19(th) century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960's. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species. PMID:24260570

  15. Small Rural School District Consolidation in Texas: An Analysis of Its Impact on Cost and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Dwight A.; Floyd, Koy A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the number of public school districts in the United States has decreased despite a dramatic increase in the number of students enrolled. Although public school district consolidation has impacted districts of all sizes, since the late 1930's smaller rural districts facing dwindling community resources have merged or consolidated with…

  16. The Impact of School Improvement Grants on Achievement: Plans for a National Evaluation Using a Regression Discontinuity Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deke, John; Dragoset, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Does receipt of School Improvement Grants (SIG) funding to implement a school intervention model have an impact on outcomes for low-performing schools? This study answers this question using a regression discontinuity design (RDD) that exploits cutoff values on the continuous variables used to define SIG eligibility tiers, comparing outcomes in…

  17. Assessing the Impact of Reading First Programs on Student Achievement in K-3 Classrooms in Selected Mississippi Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Meeks, Angel LaKease

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the implementation and impact of Reading First programs in 8 elementary schools across the state of Mississippi. The study assessed how principals, literacy coaches, and kindergarten through third grade teachers perceived the implementation of the Reading First program at their respective schools. Data from these three…

  18. Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps Career Academies and Their Impact on Academic Achievement in Urban Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Sheryl Austin

    2012-01-01

    Low attendance, poor behavior, low test scores, and low graduation rates among at-risk students have created a concern in urban school districts. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the impact of Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) Academy programs on students' academic performance. The theoretical foundation of the research…

  19. Teacher Ratings and Achievement Measures of At-Risk Adolescent Black Males in the Positive Impact Program (PIP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbs, Charles R.; Enger, John M.

    The Positive Impact Program (PIP) is a program that involves the community through role models as mentors in striving to meet the needs of at-risk students. The program is directed by 16 black men who work every week with school-age black males (N=18) who have been identified as being "at-risk" by their teachers. The teachers identified the…

  20. Impact of General Chemistry on Student Achievement and Progression to Subsequent Chemistry Courses: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Ginger V.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Winschel, Grace A.

    2015-01-01

    General chemistry is a gateway course that impacts the STEM trajectory of tens of thousands of students each year, and its role in the introductory curriculum as well as its pedagogical design are the center of an ongoing debate. To investigate the role of general chemistry in the curriculum, we report the results of a posthoc analysis of 10 years…

  1. The Impact of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on Participation and Achievement in Science: A 10-Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Alex; Knipe, Damian; Gallagher, Tony

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of government science education policy through the uptake of science A level subjects and patterns of attainment among boys and girls. Whereas recent evidence from Britain has been popularly interpreted as showing the educational advantage of single-sex schooling, the evidence of this study suggests that pupils are more likely…

  2. The Impact of Inclusion on the Achievement of Middle School Students with Mild to Moderate Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Ruth Carol

    2011-01-01

    According to IDEA and NCLB requirements, students with disabilities are held to the same standards established for nondisabled students. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the impact of a special education inclusion program for middle school students with mild to moderate learning disabilities. Student outcomes were measured…

  3. An Examination of the Impact of Teacher Quality and "Opportunity Gap" on Student Science Achievement in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Danhui; Campbell, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to better understand questions related to the impact of teacher quality and access to qualified teachers in China. A large-scale data set collected in 2010 in China was used along with concurrently collected teacher questionnaires. In total, surveys from 9,943 8th grade students from 343 middle schools in 6 provinces were used,…

  4. The Achievement and Social Adjustment of Accelerated Students: The Impact of Academic Talent Search after Seven Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Terry A.

    Academic Talent Search (ATS) provided advanced instruction in a 6-week summer school for talented middle school students on the campus of California State University, Sacramento. A survey was conducted to examine the long-term impact of the ATS program on students over a period of 7 years. Data were collected pertaining to high school and college…

  5. Measuring the Impact of Advanced Placement Failure on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutchner, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the impact that Advanced Placement (AP) coursework had on students attending college with specific emphasis on those who failed the exam. The study comprised four years of entering freshmen students between the academic years 2006-2009. The study was comprehensive in that it revealed all AP attempts regardless of…

  6. The Impact of a Cash Transfer Program on Cognitive Achievement: The "Bono de Desarrollo Humano" of Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Juan; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout Latin America, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs play an important role in social policy. These programs aim to influence the accumulation of human capital, as well as reduce poverty. In terms of educational outcomes, a number of impact evaluation studies have shown that such programs have led to an increase in school enrollment,…

  7. The Impact of Teaching Assistants on Improving Pupils' Academic Achievement in Mainstream Schools: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Peter; Alborz, Alison; Howes, Andy; Pearson, Diana

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses key findings from one aspect of a systematic review of the literature carried out by the Inclusion Review Group at Manchester University, on behalf of the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information (EPPI) Centre. The specific focus of this element of the review was on the impact of teaching assistants (TAs) (or their…

  8. EPA Maximum Achievable Contraction of Technocrats Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Griffith, H. Morgan [R-VA-9

    2013-12-03

    12/16/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Lunar Farming: Achieving Maximum Yield for the Exploration of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    1991-01-01

    A look at what it might be like on a lunar farm in the year 2020 is provided from the point of view of the farmer. Of necessity, the farm would be a Controlled Ecological (or Environment) Life-Support System (CELSS) or a bioregenerative life-support system. Topics covered in the imaginary trip through the farm are the light, water, gasses, crops, the medium used for plantings, and the required engineering. The CELSS is designed with four functioning parts: (1) A plant-production facility with higher plants and algae; (2) food technology kitchens; (3) waste processing and recycling facilities; and (4) control systems. In many cases there is not yet enough information to be sure about matters discussed, but the exercise in imagination pinpoints a number of areas that still need considerable research to resolve the problems perceived.

  10. Prognostic impact of initial maximum standardized uptake value of 18F-FDG PET/CT on treatment response in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma treated with erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Kus, Tulay; Aktas, Gokmen; Sevinc, Alper; Kalender, Mehmet Emin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kul, Seval; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Oktay, Cemil; Camci, Celaletdin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether the initial maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has a prognostic significance in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. Patients and methods Sixty patients (24 females, mean age: 57.9±12 years) with metastatic stage lung adenocarcinoma who used erlotinib and underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT at the time of diagnosis between May 2010 and May 2014 were enrolled in this retrospective study. The patients were stratified according to the median SUVmax value, which was found as 11. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates for 3, 6, and 12 months were examined for SUVmax values and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status. Results The number of EGFR-sensitizing mutation positive/negative/unknown was 26/17/17, respectively, and the number of patients using erlotinib at first-line, second-line, and third-line therapy was 15, 31, and 14 consecutively. The PFS rates of EGFR mutation positive, negative, and unknown patients for 3 months were 73.1%, 35.3%, and 41.2% (P=0.026, odds ratio [OR]=4.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–13.26), respectively. The PFS rates of EGFR positive, negative, and unknown patients for 6 months were 50%, 29.4%, and 29.4% (P=0.267, OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 0.82–6.96), respectively. The PFS rates of EGFR positive, negative, and unknown patients for 12 months were 42.3%, 29.4%, 23.5% (P=0.408, OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 0.42–5.26), respectively. Thirty-one of 60 patients had SUVmax values ≤11. The PFS rates for 3, 6, and 12 months were 70.5%/28% (P=0.001, OR=9.0; 95% CI: 2.79–29.04), 61.7%/8% (P<0.001, OR=28.35; 95% CI: 5.5–143), and 52.9%/8% (P<0.001, OR=18.69; 95% CI: 3.76–92.9) for low SUVmax (≤11) group/high SUVmax (>11) group, respectively. Conclusion Initial SUVmax value on 18F-FDG PET/CT is found to be a prognostic factor anticipating the response to erlotinib for 3, 6, and 12-month rates of PFS in both EGFR

  11. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  12. The Impacts of Budget Reductions on Indiana's Public Schools: The Impact of Budget Changes on Student Achievement, Personnel, and Class Size for Public School Corporations in the State of Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Del W.; Boyland, Lori G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, economic downturn and changes to Indiana's school funding have resulted in significant financial reductions in General Fund allocations for many of Indiana's public school corporations. The main purpose of this statewide study is to examine the possible impacts of these budget reductions on class size and student achievement. This…

  13. Achieving Research Impact Through Co‐creation in Community‐Based Health Services: Literature Review and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, CLAIRE; SHAW, SARA; JANAMIAN, TINA

    2016-01-01

    Policy Points: Co‐creation—collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders—is an increasingly popular approach to aligning research and service development.It has potential for “moving beyond the ivory towers” to deliver significant societal impact via dynamic, locally adaptive community‐academic partnerships.Principles of successful co‐creation include a systems perspective, a creative approach to research focused on improving human experience, and careful attention to governance and process.If these principles are not followed, co‐creation efforts may fail. Context Co‐creation—collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders—reflects a “Mode 2” relationship (knowledge production rather than knowledge translation) between universities and society. Co‐creation is widely believed to increase research impact. Methods We undertook a narrative review of different models of co‐creation relevant to community‐based health services. We contrasted their diverse disciplinary roots and highlighted their common philosophical assumptions, principles of success, and explanations for failures. We applied these to an empirical case study of a community‐based research‐service partnership led by the Centre of Research Excellence in Quality and Safety in Integrated Primary‐Secondary Care at the University of Queensland, Australia. Findings Co‐creation emerged independently in several fields, including business studies (“value co‐creation”), design science (“experience‐based co‐design”), computer science (“technology co‐design”), and community development (“participatory research”). These diverse models share some common features, which were also evident in the case study. Key success principles included (1) a systems perspective (assuming emergence, local adaptation, and nonlinearity); (2) the framing of research as a creative enterprise with human

  14. The impact of crowd noise on officiating in muay thai: achieving external validity in an experimental setting.

    PubMed

    Myers, Tony; Balmer, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Numerous factors have been proposed to explain the home advantage in sport. Several authors have suggested that a partisan home crowd enhances home advantage and that this is at least in part a consequence of their influence on officiating. However, while experimental studies examining this phenomenon have high levels of internal validity (since only the "crowd noise" intervention is allowed to vary), they suffer from a lack of external validity, with decision-making in a laboratory setting typically bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. Conversely, observational and quasi-experimental studies with high levels of external validity suffer from low levels of internal validity as countless factors besides crowd noise vary. The present study provides a unique opportunity to address these criticisms, by conducting a controlled experiment on the impact of crowd noise on officiating in a live tournament setting. Seventeen qualified judges officiated on thirty Thai boxing bouts in a live international tournament setting featuring "home" and "away" boxers. In each bout, judges were randomized into a "noise" (live sound) or "no crowd noise" (noise-canceling headphones and white noise) condition, resulting in 59 judgments in the "no crowd noise" and 61 in the "crowd noise" condition. The results provide the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. A cross-classified statistical model indicated that crowd noise had a statistically significant impact, equating to just over half a point per bout (in the context of five round bouts with the "10-point must" scoring system shared with professional boxing). The practical significance of the findings, their implications for officiating and for the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed. PMID:23049520

  15. The Impact of Crowd Noise on Officiating in Muay Thai: Achieving External Validity in an Experimental Setting

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Tony; Balmer, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Numerous factors have been proposed to explain the home advantage in sport. Several authors have suggested that a partisan home crowd enhances home advantage and that this is at least in part a consequence of their influence on officiating. However, while experimental studies examining this phenomenon have high levels of internal validity (since only the “crowd noise” intervention is allowed to vary), they suffer from a lack of external validity, with decision-making in a laboratory setting typically bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. Conversely, observational and quasi-experimental studies with high levels of external validity suffer from low levels of internal validity as countless factors besides crowd noise vary. The present study provides a unique opportunity to address these criticisms, by conducting a controlled experiment on the impact of crowd noise on officiating in a live tournament setting. Seventeen qualified judges officiated on thirty Thai boxing bouts in a live international tournament setting featuring “home” and “away” boxers. In each bout, judges were randomized into a “noise” (live sound) or “no crowd noise” (noise-canceling headphones and white noise) condition, resulting in 59 judgments in the “no crowd noise” and 61 in the “crowd noise” condition. The results provide the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. A cross-classified statistical model indicated that crowd noise had a statistically significant impact, equating to just over half a point per bout (in the context of five round bouts with the “10-point must” scoring system shared with professional boxing). The practical significance of the findings, their implications for officiating and for the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed. PMID:23049520

  16. An exploration of the impact of family background factors on the science achievement of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinder, Patrice J.

    Ogbu and Simons (1998) defined voluntary immigrants as individuals who chose to migrate to the United States (U.S.). Involuntary immigrants are defined as individuals whose ancestors were brought to the U.S. by force (Obgu & Simons, 1998). There have been recent reports indicating that voluntary immigrants are outperforming involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Williams, Fleming, Jones, & Griffin, 2007). There seems to be a trend in voluntary immigrants exhibiting a higher academic achievement pattern than involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Rong & Preissle, 1998; Williams et al., 2007). However, the reason for the groups' differences in achievement has not been extensively explored. The primary objective of this research study was to explore the impact of family background on the academic achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States. The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of eighty-seven high school students. Eighteen of the participants were Afro-Caribbean students, and sixty-seven were African American students. Chemistry test scores for the students were also provided. The results of the study indicated that Afro-Caribbean students outperformed African American students on the test of science achievement. The difference was statistically significant (t= 2.43, p<0.05). Additionally, results suggested that there were a few significant differences in Afro-Caribbean and African American students' family backgrounds. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that the positive impact of arrival status on the first-generation of Afro-Caribbean immigrants may be influencing their children's academic success in science. The present study holds a few implications for parents and teachers of immigrant minority students. Additionally, the current researcher has offered several implications for future research on ethnicity

  17. Achieving a “Grand Convergence” in Global Health: Modeling the Technical Inputs, Costs, and Impacts from 2016 to 2030

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Colin F.; Levin, Carol; Hatefi, Arian; Madriz, Solange; Santos, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background The Commission on Investing in Health published its report, GlobalHealth2035, in 2013, estimating an investment case for a grand convergence in health outcomes globally. In support of the drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), we estimate what the grand convergence investment case might achieve—and what investment would be required—by 2030. Methods and Findings Our projection focuses on a sub-set of low-income (LIC) or lower-middle-income countries (LMIC). We start with a country-based (bottom-up) analysis of the costs and impact of scaling up reproductive, maternal, and child health tools, and select HIV and malaria interventions. We then incorporate global (top-down) analyses of the costs and impacts of scaling up existing tools for tuberculosis, additional HIV interventions, the costs to strengthen health systems, and the costs and benefits from scaling up new health interventions over the time horizon of this forecast. These data are then allocated to individual countries to provide an aggregate projection of potential cost and impact at the country level. Finally, incremental costs of R&D for low-income economies and the costs of addressing NTDs are added to provide a global total cost estimate of the investment scenario. Results Compared with a constant coverage scenario, there would be more than 60 million deaths averted in LIC and 70 million deaths averted in LMIC between 2016 and 2030. For the years 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030, the incremental costs of convergence in LIC would be (US billion) $24.3, $21.8, $24.7, and $27, respectively; in LMIC, the incremental costs would be (US billion) $34.75, $38.9, $48.7, and $56.3, respectively. Conclusion Key health outcomes in low- and low-middle income countries can significantly converge with those of wealthier countries by 2030, and the notion of a “grand convergence” may serve as a unifying theme for health indicators in the SDGs. PMID:26452263

  18. Impact of nutritional status at the onset of elementary school on academic aptitude test achievement at the end of high school in a multicausal approach.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Daniza M; Rodríguez, María Del Pilar N; Pérez, Hernán T; Alvear, Jorge A; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Urrutia, María Soledad C; Cruz, Arturo L; Ivanovic, Rodolfo M

    2009-07-01

    Like in many other countries, few investigations have been carried out in Chile to measure the long-term effects of nutritional status at an early age on scholastic achievement in a multicausal approach. The objectives of the present study were to describe the impact of nutritional, intellectual, family, educational and socio-economic variables at the onset of elementary school in 1987 that may affect achievement on the academic aptitude test (AAT) taken in 1998 at the end of high school, and to quantify the impact of these independent variables on the AAT. The present study comprises two cross-sectional stages: in 1987, a representative sample of 813 elementary school first-grader Chilean children from the Metropolitan Region was randomly chosen; in 1998, 12 years later, 632 school-age children were located and only 351 of them graduated from high school and, from these, 260 students took the AAT. In 1987 nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric parameters, intellectual ability by the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, scholastic achievement through Spanish language and mathematics tests, and socio-economic status using Graffar's modified scale; family variables were also recorded. Maternal schooling, scholastic achievement, intellectual ability and head circumference-for-age z-score (anthropometric indicator of both nutritional background and brain development) all in 1987 were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for AAT variance in 1998 (r2 0.402). These results provide a foundation to identify the risk factors at an early age that affect AAT scores and should be useful to improve nutritional and educational policies. PMID:19138441

  19. The impact of early school behavior and educational achievement on adult drug use disorders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Ensminger, Margaret E; Green, Kerry M; Crum, Rosa M; Robertson, Judith; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2008-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of education on drug use disorders among community populations of African Americans. This study explores the impact of multiple early education indicators on later problem drug use in an African American population followed for more than 35 years. The initial cohort comprised all 1st graders (N=1242, 51% female) living in the Woodlawn community of Chicago in 1966. Follow-up assessments were conducted in adolescence (1975-76), early adulthood (1992-93), and mid adulthood (2002-03). One or both adult interviews were completed by 1053 individuals providing information for identifying lifetime drug use disorders. Logistic regression with multiple imputation revealed several important relationships between early education indicators and DSM-III-R/DSM-IV drug use disorders. Specifically, the risk for adult problem drug use was related to: underachievement in 1st grade; low 7th and 8th grade standardized math scores; both suspension from and skipping school in adolescence; not having a high school diploma (compared to having a college degree), and having a diploma or GED (compared to having a college degree). Also, 1st graders characterized as shy by their teachers were less likely to develop problem drug use in adulthood. Results indicate potential opportunities for targeted intervention at multiple life stages. PMID:17869029

  20. A curricular frame for physics education: Development, comparison with students' interests, and impact on students' achievement and self-concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häussler, Peter; Hoffmann, Lore

    2000-11-01

    This article presents three interlinked studies aimed at: (1) developing a curricular frame for physics education; (2) assessing the students' interest in the contents, contexts, and activities that are suggested by that curricular frame; and (3) developing a curriculum that is in line with that frame and measuring its cognitive and emotional effects on students. The curricular frame was developed by adopting the Delphi technique and drawing on the expertise of 73 persons selected according to specified selection criteria. Interest data of some 8000 students and information of the presently taught physics curriculum were sampled longitudinally as well as cross-sectionally in various German Länder (states) by questionnaire. The third study comprised 23 experimental and 7 control classes. As a result of the comparison between the features of the curricular frame, the interest structure of students, and the current physics curriculum, there is a remarkable congruency between students' interest in physics and the kind of physics education identified in the Delphi study as being relevant. However, there is a considerable discrepancy between students' interest and the kind of physics instruction practiced in the physics classroom. Regression analysis revealed that students' interest in physics as a school subject is hardly related to their interest in physics, but mainly to the students' self-esteem of being good achievers. The data strongly suggest physics be taught so that students have a chance to develop a positive physics-related self-concept and to link physics with situations they encounter outside the classroom. A curriculum based on these principles proved superior compared to a traditional curriculum.

  1. Training Research: Practical Recommendations for Maximum Impact

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Koerner, Kelly; Weingardt, Kenneth R.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This review offers practical recommendations regarding research on training in evidence-based practices for mental health and substance abuse treatment. When designing training research, we recommend: (a) aligning with the larger dissemination and implementation literature to consider contextual variables and clearly defining terminology, (b) critically examining the implicit assumptions underlying the stage model of psychotherapy development, (c) incorporating research methods from other disciplines that embrace the principles of formative evaluation and iterative review, and (d) thinking about how technology can be used to take training to scale throughout all stages of a training research project. An example demonstrates the implementation of these recommendations. PMID:21380792

  2. Maximum mixing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjorth, Jens

    The unique feature of MEM is that C(-1)(z) = exp(z) amplifies all scales equally. Narayan & Nityananda (1986) have shown that this leads to Gaussian deconvolved peaks. In MMM different scales are treated differently, depending on the choice of C. This gives different peak shapes, but also allows one to experiment with the degree of peak sharpening as a function of peak height. In fact, despite its strong information-theoretic background, MEM is known to redistribute flux incorrectly during deconvolution, thus making the method problematic if the goal is to get correct intensities out. MMM could remedy this problem by using an alternative to the entropy. In conclusion, some ideas connecting the physics of blurring with a proposed reconstruction scheme, dubbed Maximum Mixing Method, have been presented. It has been shown that this physically motivated, non-information theoretic, non-probabilistic, non-Bayesian approach can be turned into a powerful deconvolution technique, competitive with, and having as a special case, the Maximum Entropy Method. Further work within the proposed framework is required to fully explore the consequences of the theory. A paper including proofs and examples is in preparation.

  3. Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summhammer, Johann

    1994-01-01

    In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

  4. Investigating the impact of socioeconomic status on the effectiveness of a pamphlet on achieving and maintaining bone health in breast cancer survivors: a patient education resource development primer.

    PubMed

    Adirim, Tara; Chafranskaia, Aleksandra; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2012-03-01

    Considerable need exists to raise awareness of breast cancer (BC) treatment-induced bone loss and provide management and preventative strategies. We describe the development and evaluation process of an educational pamphlet for BC survivors on achieving and maintaining bone health. A Participatory Design approach was used. The pamphlet was first critically evaluated by interdisciplinary healthcare professionals and less vulnerable members of the target audience prior to evaluation by 45 BC survivors, who completed two questionnaires inquiring about demographics and pamphlet evaluation and satisfaction. Pamphlet effectiveness was correlated with income and education to determine differences between socioeconomic groups. Perceived knowledge increased significantly after reading the brochure for all groups. Socioeconomic status had no impact on pamphlet effectiveness. This methodological approach is presented as a blueprint to promote knowledge translation in cancer patient education contexts aiming to provide cancer patients with the best possible resources for effective self-management of their conditions. PMID:21748475

  5. How the Alliance for Climate Education engages national and local partners to achieve collective impact in climate literacy and action (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappe, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Shanley Hope, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) has a mission to educate and inspire young people to break through the challenge of climate change. ACE believes that achieving a safe and stable climate in our lifetime requires the ideas, action and influence of young people. Since 2009, ACE has reached almost 2 million teens in 2,200 schools in over 20 states across the US. In order to support these young people to become leaders in their schools and communities, ACE works closely with local and national partners. In this presentation, ACE will discuss strategic partnerships that have yielded measurable impact and explore how nonprofits, universities, school districts, private companies and government agencies can more effectively align efforts to achieve shared goals. Examples of successful partnerships discussed will include PG&E, Chicago Public Schools, Monterey Bay Aquarium, DC Public Schools, the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network, NOAA, The Next Generation, Los Angeles Public Schools and research universities. ACE will also discuss how research in the field of transformational leadership informs our partnership strategy.

  6. Maximum bow force revisited.

    PubMed

    Mores, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Schelleng [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53, 26-41 (1973)], Askenfelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 503-516 (1989)], Schumacher [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1985-1998 (1994)], and Schoonderwaldt, Guettler, and Askenfelt [Acta Acust. Acust. 94, 604-622 (2008)] formulated-in different ways-how the maximum bow force relates to bow velocity, bow-bridge distance, string impedance, and friction coefficients. Issues of uncertainty are how to account for friction or for the rotational admittance of the strings. Related measurements at the respective transitions between regimes of Helmholtz motion and non-Helmholtz motion employ a variety of bowing machines and stringed instruments. The related findings include all necessary parameters except the friction coefficients, leaving the underlying models unconfirmed. Here, a bowing pendulum has been constructed which allows precise measurement of relevant bowing parameters, including the friction coefficients. Two cellos are measured across all strings for three different bow-bridge distances. The empirical data suggest that-taking the diverse elements of existing models as options-Schelleng's model combined with Schumacher's velocity term yields the best fit. Furthermore, the pendulum employs a bow driving mechanism with adaptive impedance which discloses that mentioned regimes are stable and transitions between them sometimes require a hysteresis on related parameters. PMID:27586745

  7. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

    2005-01-01

    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  8. Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states

    SciTech Connect

    Walck, Scott N.; Lyons, David W.

    2007-08-15

    Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: We show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

  9. Maximum outreach. . . minimum budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laychak, Mary Beth

    2011-06-01

    Many astronomical institutions have budgetary constraints that prevent them from spending large amounts on public outreach. This is especially true for smaller organizations, such as the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), where manpower and funding are at a premium. To maximize our impact, we employ unconventional and affordable outreach techniques that underscore our commitment to astronomy education and our local community. We participate in many unique community interactions, ranging from rodeo calf-dressing tournaments to art gallery exhibitions of CFHT images. Further, we have developed many creative methods to communicate complex astronomical concepts to both children and adults, including the use of a modified webcam to teach infrared astronomy and the production of online newsletter for parents, children, and educators. This presentation will discuss the outreach methods CFHT has found most effective in our local schools and our rural community.

  10. Maximum Entropy Principle for Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilich, F.; DaSilva, R.

    2008-11-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  11. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  12. The impact of a science-based integrated instructional protocol on the motivation, reading comprehension, and science achievement of fourth and fifth graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Kathy E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of implementing an integrated instructional protocol of science-based informational texts as teacher read alouds, student independent reading, and written journal responses on motivation, reading comprehension, and science achievement of fourth- and fifth-grade students with attention to specific student groups, including gender and ethnicities. A mixed methods research design included a 12-week intervention conducted with 68 fourth and fifth graders and 30 nonintervention fourth and fifth graders. Participating fourth and fifth graders completed the comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test ([GMRT] MacGinitie, MacGinitie, Maria, & Dreyer, 2000) and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills ([TAKS] Texas Education Agency [TEA], 2005a). The Reading Survey of the Motivation to Read Profile ([MRP], Gambrell, Palmer, Codling, & Mazzoni, 1996) served as another quantitative data source. Qualitative data sources included classroom observations, key informant interviews, and student journal entries. The GMRT results indicated that the intervention fourth graders demonstrated the largest growth in reading comprehension achievement. Significant differences were noted by GMRT results between the intervention and nonintervention fourth graders. A significant difference was found between fourth-grade males and females on the GMRT, with a larger gain posted by the females. No significant differences were found on the GMRT in fifth grade Reading TAKS results indicated a significant difference between intervention fourth-grade Hispanic and African American students, while fifth-grade Science TAKS results indicated no significant differences. The MRP Reading Survey results indicated no significant differences; however, fourth-grade Hispanic and fifth-grade male students demonstrated significant growth. Classroom observations documented the progress of the 12-week intervention; 9 primary instructional and

  13. Impact of STS (Context-Based Type of Teaching) in Comparison With a Textbook Approach on Attitudes and Achievement in Community College Chemistry Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Gita

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of a context-based teaching approach (STS) versus a more traditional textbook approach on the attitudes and achievement of community college chemistry students. In studying attitudes toward chemistry within this study, I used a 30-item Likert scale in order to study the importance of chemistry in students' lives, the importance of chemistry, the difficulty of chemistry, interest in chemistry, and the usefulness of chemistry for their future career. Though the STS approach students had higher attitude post scores, there was no significant difference between the STS and textbook students' attitude post scores. It was noted that females had higher postattitude scores in the STS group, while males had higher postattitude scores in the textbook group. With regard to postachievement, I noted that males had higher scores in both groups. A correlation existed between postattitude and postachievement in the STS classroom. In summary, while an association between attitude and achievement was found in the STS classroom, teaching approach or sex was not found to influence attitudes, while sex was also not found to influence achievement. These results, overall, suggest that attitudes are not expected to change on the basis of either teaching approach or gender, and that techniques other than changing the teaching approach would need to be used in order to improve the attitudes of students. Qualitative analysis of an online discussion activity on Energy revealed that STS students were able to apply aspects of chemistry in decision making related to socioscientific issues. Additional analysis of interview and written responses provided insight regarding attitudes toward chemistry, with respect to topics of applicability of chemistry to life, difficulties with chemistry, teaching approach for chemistry, and the intent for enrolling in additional chemistry courses. In addition, the surveys of female students brought out

  14. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  15. The Appropriateness of Consolidation in Illinois: A Study of the Impact of Poverty, District Type, and Size on Expenditures and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, James A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether or not enrollment, poverty rate, and district type could be used to predict cost and achievement, as measured on the Illinois Standards Achievement Test and Prairie State Achievement Exam, at the building and district levels within the state of Illinois. This study provides quantitative data that will aid educational…

  16. Minimizing the probable maximum flood

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbury, M.S.; Pansic, N. ); Eberlein, D.T. )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines Wisconsin Electric Power Company's efforts to determine an economical way to comply with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements at two hydroelectric developments on the Michigamme River. Their efforts included refinement of the area's probable maximum flood model based, in part, on a newly developed probable maximum precipitation estimate.

  17. The Impact of a Project-Based Science Curriculum on Minority Student Achievement, Attitudes, and Careers: The Effects of Teacher Content and Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Inquiry-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, David E.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    Project-based science (PBS) curricula have project- and inquiry-based aspects that leverage the strengths of urban students from ethnic and racial groups underrepresented in science careers, potentially impacting positively these students' science achievement and attitudes and thus their college and career plans. We aimed to determine the extent…

  18. A Multi-Site Case Study of a Professional Learning Community Model: The Impact of Learning Team Meetings on Teacher Practice and Student Achievement from the Perspective of Teachers and Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meles, Ora

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the implementation of a structured professional learning community model referred to as Learning Team Meetings (LTMs) on teacher practice and student achievement from the perspective of teachers and instructional leaders at high-need schools. To accomplish this purpose, a multi-site case study…

  19. The Impact of a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program on the Literacy Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students with Differing Measured Cognitive Skill Levels Who Are Eligible and Not Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a one-to-one laptop computer program on the literacy achievement of eighth-grade students with above average, average, and below average measured cognitive skill levels who are eligible and not eligible for free or reduced price lunch program participation. The study analyzed, student…

  20. Exploring the Impact of Phonological Awareness, Visual-Spatial Working Memory, and Preschool Quantity--Number Competencies on Mathematics Achievement in Elementary School: Findings from a 3-year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Kristin; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the importance of kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, working memory, and quantity-number competencies (QNC) for predicting mathematical school achievement in third graders (mean age 8 years 8 months). It was found that the impact of phonological awareness and visual-spatial working memory, assessed at…

  1. The Impact of Learning Styles on Student Achievement in a Web-Based versus an Equivalent Face-to-Face Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharis, Nick Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between students' learning styles and their achievement in two different learning environments: online instruction and traditional instruction. The results indicated that a) students in the traditional learning group had higher, but not statistically significant higher, levels of achievement than students…

  2. The Impacts of Student-, Teacher- and School-Level Factors on Mathematics Achievement: An Exploratory Comparative Investigation of Singaporean Students and the USA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Reports from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) consistently show that there is a substantial gap in average mathematics achievement between Singapore and the USA. This study conducts an exploratory comparative investigation on the multilevel factors influencing the mathematics achievement of students from these two…

  3. The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships and Achievement Motivation on Students' Intentions to Dropout According to Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…

  4. The Impact of Resources on Education: A Position Paper on How Theories of Social Capital Provide Insight on the Achievement Gap in the United States Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeisler, Kayla

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a gap in educational achievement between socioeconomic and racial groups in the public education system in the United States. This paper identifies the link between resources and academic achievement. Through examining educational resources, from in-school factors, such as facilities and teacher quality, to…

  5. Tracking Achievement Gaps and Assessing the Impact of NCLB on the Gaps: An In-Depth Look into National and State Reading and Math Outcome Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2006-01-01

    This study offers systematic trend analyses of NAEP national and state-level public school fourth and eighth graders' reading and math achievement results during pre-NCLB (1990-2001) and post-NCLB (2002-2005) periods. It compares post-NCLB trends in reading and math achievement with pre-NCLB trends among different racial and socioeconomic groups…

  6. The Impact of Substance Use and Violence/Delinquency on Academic Achievement for Groups of Middle and High School Students in Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Dorothy J.; Hill, Sheri L.; Carter, Louise; Brandon, Richard N.

    Noting that little is known about how the social environment affects academic achievement among groups of students, this study examined the associations among substance use, violent/delinquent behavior, and academic achievement in groups of middle and high school students. Data sources for middle school students were the 1998 Washington State…

  7. Overview of the Special Issue: A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project establishes a new multi-model framework to systematically assess the impacts, economic damages, and risks from climate change in the United States. The primary goal of this framework to estimate how climate change impac...

  8. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  9. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  10. Efficient maximum entropy algorithms for electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.N.; Roeder, H.; Voter, A.F.; Kress, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    Two Chebyshev recursion methods are presented for calculations with very large sparse Hamiltonians, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) and the maximum entropy method (MEM). If limited statistical accuracy and energy resolution are acceptable, they provide linear scaling methods for the calculation of physical properties involving large numbers of eigenstates such as densities of states, spectral functions, thermodynamics, total energies for Monte Carlo simulations and forces for molecular dynamics. KPM provides a uniform approximation to a DOS, with resolution inversely proportional to the number of Chebyshev moments, while MEM can achieve significantly higher, but non-uniform, resolution at the risk of possible artifacts. This paper emphasizes efficient algorithms.

  11. Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.

  12. Overview of the Special Issue: A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Martinich, Jeremy; Sarofim, Marcus; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, Jim; Jantarasami, Lesley; Shouse, Kate C.; Crimmins, Allison; Ohrel, Sara; Li, Jia

    2015-07-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) modeling exercise is a unique contribution to the scientific literature on climate change impacts, economic damages, and risk analysis that brings together multiple, national-scale models of impacts and damages in an integrated and consistent fashion to estimate climate change impacts, damages, and the benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation actions in the United States. The CIRA project uses three consistent socioeconomic, emissions, and climate scenarios across all models to estimate the benefits of GHG mitigation policies: a Business As Usual (BAU) and two policy scenarios with radiative forcing (RF) stabilization targets of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 in 2100. CIRA was also designed to specifically examine the sensitivity of results to uncertainties around climate sensitivity and differences in model structure. The goals of CIRA project are to 1) build a multi-model framework to produce estimates of multiple risks and impacts in the U.S., 2) determine to what degree risks and damages across sectors may be lowered from a BAU to policy scenarios, 3) evaluate key sources of uncertainty along the causal chain, and 4) provide information for multiple audiences and clearly communicate the risks and damages of climate change and the potential benefits of mitigation. This paper describes the motivations, goals, and design of the CIRA modeling exercise and introduces the subsequent papers in this special issue.

  13. Commentary Regarding Bui, Craig, and Imberman (2011): "Is Gifted Education a Bright Idea? Assessing the Impacts of Gifted and Talented Programs on Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Tonya R.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a large southwestern school district, Bui, Craig, and Imberman investigated the effects of gifted and talented programming on middle school students' achievement and behavior (attendance and discipline) through two avenues. Using a regression discontinuity design for the first set of analyses, the authors took advantage of a…

  14. The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit. Discussion Paper No. 1361-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Gordon; Lochner, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Past estimates of the effect of family income on child development have often been plagued by endogeneity and measurement error. In this paper, we use two simulated instrumental variables strategies to estimate the causal effect of income on children's math and reading achievement. Our identification derives from the large, non-linear changes…

  15. The Impact of Differentiated Reading Homework Assignments on Students' Attitudes toward Homework, Motivation to Read, Interest in Reading, and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickerson, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that there is no relationship between traditional homework completion and academic achievement among elementary grade students. Yet, elementary school teachers continue to utilize this practice. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the relationship between nontraditional, differentiated reading…

  16. The Differential Impact of Pre-College and Self-Regulatory Factors on Academic Achievement of University Students with and without Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruban, Lilia; McCoach, D. Betsy; Nora, Amaury

    Even though research on academic self-regulation has proliferated in recent years, no studies have investigated the question of whether the perceived usefulness and the use of standard self-regulated learning strategies and compensation strategies provide a differential prediction of academic achievement for college students with and without…

  17. The Impact of Additional Weekdays of Active Commuting to School on Children Achieving a Criterion of 300+ Minutes of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly-Smith, Andy J. W.; McKenna, Jim; Radley, Duncan; Long, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of additional days of active commuting for meeting a criterion of 300+ minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 60+ mins/day x 5) during the school week. Methods: Based on seven-day diaries supported by teachers, binary logistic regression analyses were used to predict achievement of MVPA…

  18. Does Subject Matter Matter? Estimating the Impact of Instructional Practices and Resources on Student Achievement in Science and Mathematics: Findings from TIMSS 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabah, Saed; Hammouri, Hind

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of selected classroom factors (the emphasis on a student-centred approach, the shortage of instructional resources and homework) on the science and mathematics achievement of Jordanian eighth graders using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study of 2007. The analytical model also included…

  19. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  20. Understanding the Effect of KIPP as It Scales: Volume I, Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes. Final Report of KIPP's "Investing in Innovation Grant Evaluation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gleason, Philip; Knechtel, Virginia; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Booker, Kevin; Chojnacki, Gregory; Coen, Thomas; Goble, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longer-term…

  1. Understanding the Effect of KIPP as It Scales: Volume I, Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes. Final Report of KIPP's Investing in Innovation Grant Evaluation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gleason, Philip; Knechtel, Virginia; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Booker, Kevin; Chojnacki, Gregory; Coen, Thomas; Goble, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longer-term…

  2. The Impact of Nursing Students' Chemistry Learning Performance Assessment in Taiwan: Competitive versus Non-Competitive Student Team Achievement Division Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior…

  3. An Analysis of the Entropy Index Diversity Scores of Selected North Carolina Urban High Schools and the Impact on Teacher Quality, Student Achievement, and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert Pernell

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the differences in teacher quality, student achievement, and graduation rates among select North Carolina urban high schools based on their racial segregation when measured by the entropy index. The entropy index is a measure of evenness among racial groups used to determine the level of segregation…

  4. Examining the Impact of an Integrative Method of Using Technology on Students' Achievement and Efficiency of Computer Usage and on Pedagogical Procedure in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurevich, Irina; Gurev, Dvora

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we follow the development of the pedagogical procedure for the course "Constructions in Geometry" that resulted from using dynamic geometry software (DGS), where the computer became an integral part of the educational process. Furthermore, we examine the influence of integrating DGS into the course on students' achievement and…

  5. The Impact of Using Technology on Student Achievement: Teaching Functions with the TI-Nspire to 9th Grade Algebra Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Barbara Renee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TI-Nspire graphing calculator use on student achievement and on teacher behavior variables of planning, teaching, and assessing. This study investigated the teaching of functions by teachers using the TI-Nspire graphing calculator versus teachers using a non-graphing scientific calculator. …

  6. The Impact of Shadow Education on Student Academic Achievement: Why the Research Is Inconclusive and What Can Be Done about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have brought global expansion of private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education. Such tutoring consumes considerable resources and is usually viewed by participating households as an investment that will increase the recipients' academic achievements. However, research on the effectiveness of tutoring has…

  7. Impact of a Career Intervention on At-Risk Middle School Students' Career Maturity Levels, Academic Achievement, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legum, Harry L.; Hoare, Carol H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 9-week career intervention program on at-risk middle school students' career maturity levels, self-esteem, and academic achievement. This study was based on a pretest and posttest design using a control group. Data were collected from 27 at-risk middle school students representing the…

  8. The Impact of Montessori Teaching on Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students in a Central Texas School District: A Causal-Comparative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Minerva Mungia

    2013-01-01

    Providing a meaningful and experiential learning environment for all students has long created a concern for alternate ways to teach students who are reportedly demonstrating non-mastery on state standardized assessments. As the benchmark for showing successful academic achievement increases, so does the need for discovering effective ways for…

  9. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to…

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Elementary Principals' Perceptions of Their Leadership Behaviors and the Impact on One Year of Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between principals' perceptions of their learning-centered leadership behaviors and one year of reading achievement scores. Perceptions of principals were gathered from 31 out of 42 elementary schools in a district located in Central Virginia. This study explored the relationship between…

  11. Impact of National Board Certification, Advanced Degree, and Socio-Economic Status on the Literacy Achievement Rate of 11th Grade Students in Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Merlina Tamara

    2011-01-01

    The researcher explored whether there was a significant difference between the literacy achievement rates among eleventh grade students taught by National Board Certified Teachers versus students taught by non-National Board Certified Teachers with or without advanced degrees and of varied socio-economic levels. The researcher also explored the…

  12. The Maximum Density of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  13. Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.

  14. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  15. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-03-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  16. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Dalibor; Ebr, Jan; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana

    2016-03-01

    We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the superposition model. We present two examples that demonstrate what consequences can be drawn for energy dependent changes in the primary composition.

  17. An Investigation of Linguistic, Cognitive, and Affective Factors that Impact English Language Learners' Performance on a State Standardized Reading Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strebel Halpern, Carine S.

    2009-01-01

    The explicit teaching of reading comprehension strategies has been proposed as a means to better prepare secondary school-aged students for today's information-dense, fast-paced, fast-changing global society, and to improve the academic performance of struggling adolescent readers. This proposition of a direct and positive impact of reading…

  18. The Impact of Cooperative and Traditional Learning on the Academic Achievement of Third Grade Students in Selected Rural School Districts in Northeast, South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shawn Lamont L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact that cooperative learning and traditional learning have on the academic performance of elementary school students in rural school districts. Cooperative learning is considered a typical model that can maximize the effectiveness of constructivism. Slavin (1991, p. 71) completed a synthesis of research on cooperative…

  19. Master Principals' Perceptions of the Impact of the Arkansas Leadership Academy's Master Principal Program on Leadership Practices, School Cultures and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Diana

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative dissertation study was conducted to examine the impact of the Arkansas Leadership Academy's Master Principal Program through the perspective of those who have completed the entire program and attained designation as a Master Principal. A logic model for the Master Principal Program offered a context for the study. A review of…

  20. Preparation, Practice, and Performance: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Standards-Based Instruction on Secondary Students' Math and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    For almost two decades proponents of educational reform have advocated the use of standards-based education in maths and science classrooms for improving teacher practices, increasing student learning, and raising the quality of maths and science instruction. This study empirically examined the impact of specific standards-based teacher…

  1. A Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Impacts of GIS on the Motivation and Achievement in Geography among Underachieving Students of Smart School in Sabah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Soon Singh Bikar; Kleeman, Grant; Van Bergen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    In 1988, the integrated secondary school curriculum was introduced as a continuation of the curriculum changes introduced in the primary school. These changes have impacted geography subject in the secondary school. Geography becomes a compulsory subject for lower secondary and elective subject at the upper secondary school level. As a result,…

  2. The Impact of a Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum on Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Case of Investigations in Number, Data, and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of a Standards-based elementary mathematics curriculum on third grade students' mathematics performance. A total of 707 students participated in this study. Of this total, 368 students were from eight schools located within the same school district in a racially and ethnically diverse large…

  3. An Assessment of the Impact of a Science Outreach Program, Science In Motion, on Student Achievement, Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Phillip Allen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the science outreach program, Science In Motion (SIM), located in Mobile, Alabama. This research investigated what impact the SIM program has on student cognitive functioning and teacher efficacy and also investigated teacher perceptions and attitudes regarding the program. To investigate student…

  4. Achieving College Success: The Impact of the College Success/STEM Program on Students' Matriculation to and Persistence in College. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett; Souvanna, Phomdaen

    2014-01-01

    This College Success Research Brief is one of a series of briefs documenting the implementation and impact of Mass Insight's College Success/STEM program. The research briefs are intended to share key findings, highlight ongoing questions and lines of inquiry, and inform the thinking of practitioners and policymakers on how to scale up efforts to…

  5. Distinguishing Models of Professional Development: The Case of an Adaptive Model's Impact on Teachers' Knowledge, Instruction, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koellner, Karen; Jacobs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We posit that professional development (PD) models fall on a continuum from highly adaptive to highly specified, and that these constructs provide a productive way to characterize and distinguish among models. The study reported here examines the impact of an adaptive mathematics PD model on teachers' knowledge and instructional practices as…

  6. Assessing the Impact of School Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    PubMed Central

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between School-Based Health Center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in non-randomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English Language Learners, was conducted for each outcome including: proportion of students participating in three College Board Exams, graduation rates, and meeting University graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes, but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts. PMID:27009589

  7. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California.

    PubMed

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in nonrandomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English-language learners, were conducted for each outcome including proportion of students participating in three College Board exams, graduation rates, and meeting university graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts. PMID:27009589

  8. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  9. Achieving a Healthy Zoning Policy in Baltimore: Results of a Health Impact Assessment of the TransForm Baltimore Zoning Code Rewrite

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Amelia; Fichtenberg, Caroline M.; Feingold, Beth J.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Jennings, Jacky M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The social determinants of health (SDH) include factors apart from genes and biology that affect population health. Zoning is an urban planning tool that influences neighborhood built environments. We describe the methods and results of a health impact assessment (HIA) of a rezoning effort in Baltimore, Maryland, called TransForm Baltimore. We highlight findings specific to physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. Methods We conducted a multistage HIA of TransForm Baltimore using HIA practice guidelines. Key informant interviews identified focus areas for the quantitative assessment. A literature review and a zoning code analysis evaluated potential impacts on neighborhood factors including physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. We estimated potential impacts in high- and low-poverty neighborhoods. The findings resulted in recommendations to improve the health-promoting potential of TransForm Baltimore. Results Mixed-use and transit-oriented development were key goals of TransForm Baltimore. Health impacts identified by stakeholders included walkability and healthy communities. For Baltimore residents, we estimated that (1) the percentage of people living in districts allowing mixed-use and off-premise alcohol outlets would nearly triple, (2) 18% would live in transit-oriented development zones, and (3) all residents would live in districts with new lighting and landscaping guidelines. Limiting the concentration of off-premise alcohol outlets represented an opportunity to address health promotion. Conclusions Changes to Baltimore's zoning code could improve population health including decreasing violent crime. HIAs are an important platform for applying SDH to public health practice. This HIA specifically linked municipal zoning policy with promoting healthier neighborhoods. PMID:24179284

  10. Maximum Power Point Regulator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simola, J.; Savela, K.; Stenberg, J.; Tonicello, F.

    2011-10-01

    The target of the study done under the ESA contract No.17830/04/NL/EC (GSTP4) for Maximum Power Point Regulator System (MPPRS) was to investigate, design and test a modular power system (a core PCU) fulfilling requirement for maximum power transfer even after a single failure in the Power System by utilising a power concept without any potential and credible single point failure. The studied MPPRS concept is of a modular construction, able to track the MPP individually on each SA sections, maintaining its functionality and full power capability after a loss of a complete MPPR module (by utilizingN+1module).Various add-on DCDC converter topology candidates were investigated and redundancy, failure mechanisms and protection aspects were studied

  11. Solar maximum: Solar array degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  12. Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang

    2016-07-01

    Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported. PMID:26111403

  13. The supplemental instruction program: Student perceptions of the learning environment and impact on student academic achievement in college science at California State University, San Marcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizer, Suzanne Elizabeth

    Higher education in science has been criticized and calls to increase student learning and persistence to degree has been recognized as a national problem by the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council, and the National Academy of Sciences. One mode of academic assistance that may directly address this issue is the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in science courses. SI is a specific model of academic assistance designed to help students in historically difficult science classes master course content, thus increasing their academic achievement and retention. This study assessed the SI program at California State University, San Marcos, in supported science courses. Specifically, academic achievement based on final course grades were compared between SI participating and nonparticipating students, multiple affective factors were measured at the beginning and end of the semester, and students' perceptions of the classroom and SI session learning environments recorded. Overall, students who attended five or more SI sessions achieved higher final course grades. Students who chose to participate in SI had higher initial levels of responsibility and anxiety. Additionally, SI participants experienced a reduction in anxiety over the semester whereas nonparticipants experienced an increase in anxiety from beginning to the end of the semester. The learning environment of SI embodies higher levels of constructivist principles of active learning such as cooperation, cohesiveness, innovation, and personalization---with one exception for the physics course, which is a based on problem-based learning. Structural equation modeling of variables indicates that high self-efficacy at the end of the semester is directly related to high final course grades; this is mediated by cohesion in the classroom and the cooperation evidenced in SI sessions. These findings are elaborated by student descriptions of what happened in SI

  14. Estimates of the maximum time required to originate life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Fogleman, Guy

    1989-01-01

    Fossils of the oldest microorganisms exist in 3.5 billion year old rocks and there is indirect evidence that life may have existed 3.8 billion years ago (3.8 Ga). Impacts able to destroy life or interrupt prebiotic chemistry may have occurred after 3.5 Ga. If large impactors vaporized the oceans, sterilized the planets, and interfered with the origination of life, life must have originated in the time interval between these impacts which increased with geologic time. Therefore, the maximum time required for the origination of life is the time that occurred between sterilizing impacts just before 3.8 Ga or 3.5 Ga, depending upon when life first appeared on earth. If life first originated 3.5 Ga, and impacts with kinetic energies between 2 x 10 the the 34th and 2 x 10 to the 35th were able to vaporize the oceans, using the most probable impact flux, it is found that the maximum time required to originate life would have been 67 to 133 million years (My). If life originated 3.8 Ga, the maximum time to originate life was 2.5 to 11 My. Using a more conservative estimate for the flux of impacting objects before 3.8 Ga, a maximum time of 25 My was found for the same range of impactor kinetic energies. The impact model suggests that it is possible that life may have originated more than once.

  15. Impact of the Positive Action program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai‘i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2nd ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai‘i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently. PMID:20414477

  16. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  17. Kirchhoff's loop law and the maximum entropy production principle.

    PubMed

    Zupanović, Pasko; Juretić, Davor; Botrić, Srećko

    2004-11-01

    In contrast to the standard derivation of Kirchhoff's loop law, which invokes electric potential, we show, for the linear planar electric network in a stationary state at the fixed temperature, that loop law can be derived from the maximum entropy production principle. This means that the currents in network branches are distributed in such a way as to achieve the state of maximum entropy production. PMID:15600693

  18. The Impact of Vouchers on the Science and Mathematics Achievement of Elementary Students in a Majority African American Public School District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Patricia A.; Boone, William J.; Metcalf, Kim K.

    In many settings, the issue of publicly funded vouchers for students is being discussed. This article presents the results of evaluating test data from students living within the city boundaries of Cleveland, Ohio. In Cleveland, a limited number of low - socioeconomic status students can receive publicly funded vouchers. Data were analyzed using multivariate and univariate techniques. The results suggest that (a) students who did not return to the scholarship program from third to fourth grade exhibited lower achievement levels than those who remained in the program, (b) scholarship students who continued in the scholarship program from third to fourth grade continue to be very much like their public school counterparts, and (c) the effects of the program on scholarship students' academic performance are slightly positive but are mediated by the schools they attend. This study is important because vouchers may or may not provide a mechanism by which the participation of underrepresented groups in science and mathematics can be increased.

  19. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women

    PubMed Central

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo

    2015-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0°C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women. PMID:26514619

  20. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women.

    PubMed

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo; Nose, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0 °C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women. PMID:26514619