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Sample records for achieve millennium development

  1. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  2. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2004-12-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  3. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  4. Did Tanzania Achieve the Second Millennium Development Goal? Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoti, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Development Goal "Achieve universal primary education", the challenges faced, along with the way forward towards achieving the fourth Sustainable Development Goal "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Statistics show that Tanzania has made very promising steps…

  5. The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

  6. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  7. Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Von, Anna; Hidron, Alicia; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Tellez, Ildefonso; Barragán, Maribel; Jones, Danielle; Náquira, Cesar G; Mendez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Discussion Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease of American trypanosomiasis, will play a key role to enable the most impoverished populations in Latin America the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Most cases of Chagas disease occur among forgotten populations because these diseases persist exclusively in the poorest and the most marginalized communities in Latin America. Summary Addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with T. cruzi infection will contribute to improve the health of the most impoverished populations in Latin America and will ultimately grant them with the opportunity to achieve their full economic potential. PMID:17725836

  8. Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

  9. Sexually harassing behavior against adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh: implications for achieving millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2010-03-01

    This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on sexual harassments of 5,106 girls aged 13-19 years selected randomly. Results reveal that gendered harassments were experienced by 35% of the girls, unwanted sexual attentions by 34%, and sexual intimidations by 14%, yielding prevalence of sexual harassments of any type 43%. Higher girls' education and household economic status heightened their risks of being harassed. Perpetrators were male young spoilt bullies (64%), neighborhood youths (30%), students (22%) and hoodlums (6%). High prevalence of sexual harassments mirrors vulnerability of adolescent girls in the community and deserves to be tackled to achieve millennium development goals (MDGs) in gender equality in health and social development. PMID:19458081

  10. Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

    2011-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

  11. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

  12. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  13. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda

  14. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID

  15. Financing of health systems to achieve the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Fryatt, Robert; Mills, Anne; Nordstrom, Anders

    2010-01-30

    Concern that underfunded and weak health systems are impeding the achievement of the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries led to the creation of a High Level Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems in September, 2008. This report summarises the key challenges faced by the Taskforce and its Working Groups. Working Group 1 examined the constraints to scaling up and costs. Challenges included: difficulty in generalisation because of scarce and context-specific health-systems knowledge; no consensus for optimum service-delivery approaches, leading to wide cost differences; no consensus for health benefits; difficulty in quantification of likely efficiency gains; and challenges in quantification of the financing gap owing to uncertainties about financial commitments for health. Working Group 2 reviewed the different innovative mechanisms for raising and channelling funds. Challenges included: variable definitions of innovative finance; small evidence base for many innovative finance mechanisms; insufficient experience in harmonisation of global health initiatives; and inadequate experience in use of international investments to improve maternal, newborn, and child health. The various mechanisms reviewed and finally recommended all had different characteristics, some focusing on specific problems and some on raising resources generally. Contentious issues included the potential role of the private sector, the rights-based approach to health, and the move to results-based aid. The challenges and disagreements that arose during the work of the Taskforce draw attention to the many issues facing decision makers in low-income countries. International donors and recipient governments should work together to improve the evidence base for strengthening health systems, increase long-term commitments, and improve accountability through transparent and inclusive national approaches. PMID:20113826

  16. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Amal K.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022

  17. Latin America and the Caribbean: assessment of the advances in public health for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amal K; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-05-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022

  18. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V P

    2012-12-01

    Malaria control in India has occupied high priority in health sector consuming major resources of the Central and State governments. Several new initiatives were launched from time to time supported by foreign aids but malaria situation has remained static and worsened in years of good rainfall. At times malaria relented temporarily but returned with vengeance at the local, regional and national level, becoming more resilient by acquiring resistance in the vectors and the parasites. National developments to improve the economy, without health impact assessment, have had adverse consequences by providing enormous breeding grounds for the vectors that have become refractory to interventions. As a result, malaria prospers and its control is in dilemma, as finding additional resources is becoming difficult with the ongoing financial crisis. Endemic countries must contribute to make up the needed resources, if malaria is to be contained. Malaria control requires long term planning, one that will reduce receptivity and vulnerability, and uninterrupted financial support for sustained interventions. While this seems to be a far cry, the environment is becoming more receptive for vectors, and epidemics visit the country diverting major resources in their containment, e.g. malaria, dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers, and Chikungunya virus infection. In the last six decades malaria has taken deep roots and diversified into various ecotypes, the control of these ecotypes requires local knowledge about the vectors and the parasites. In this review we outline the historical account of malaria and methods of control that have lifted the national economy in many countries. While battles against malaria should continue at the local level, there is a need for large scale environmental improvement. Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has provided huge funds for malaria control worldwide touching US$ 2 billion in 2011. Unfortunately it is likely to decline to US$ 1

  19. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria control in India has occupied high priority in health sector consuming major resources of the Central and State governments. Several new initiatives were launched from time to time supported by foreign aids but malaria situation has remained static and worsened in years of good rainfall. At times malaria relented temporarily but returned with vengeance at the local, regional and national level, becoming more resilient by acquiring resistance in the vectors and the parasites. National developments to improve the economy, without health impact assessment, have had adverse consequences by providing enormous breeding grounds for the vectors that have become refractory to interventions. As a result, malaria prospers and its control is in dilemma, as finding additional resources is becoming difficult with the ongoing financial crisis. Endemic countries must contribute to make up the needed resources, if malaria is to be contained. Malaria control requires long term planning, one that will reduce receptivity and vulnerability, and uninterrupted financial support for sustained interventions. While this seems to be a far cry, the environment is becoming more receptive for vectors, and epidemics visit the country diverting major resources in their containment, e.g. malaria, dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers, and Chikungunya virus infection. In the last six decades malaria has taken deep roots and diversified into various ecotypes, the control of these ecotypes requires local knowledge about the vectors and the parasites. In this review we outline the historical account of malaria and methods of control that have lifted the national economy in many countries. While battles against malaria should continue at the local level, there is a need for large scale environmental improvement. Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has provided huge funds for malaria control worldwide touching US$ 2 billion in 2011. Unfortunately it is likely to decline to US$ 1

  20. Free solar lanterns to below poverty line girls in India: a step toward achieving millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Development sectors like health cannot function in isolation. Intersectoral coordination between various departments helps in bringing a positive change in the health-seeking behavior of society in the long run. The decision by the Government of India to provide free solar lanterns (lamps) to the school-going girls of below poverty line families is a welcome step in this context. This initiative would help in reducing the number of school dropout girls and thus help in improving the health indicators that are directly related to women's education. Thus it is an initiative that will help in attainment of Millennium Development Goals through women's education and empowerment. Along with that, the environment-friendly approach will definitely have an impact on health of the girls by switching from kerosene/wood stoves to solar lantern light. Also this initiative would pave the path of real "intersectoral coordination" in the health sector in India that is marred with watertight functioning of various departments. There is an urgent need to popularize the scheme and involve different stakeholders like corporate houses, media, nongovernment organizations, multinational welfare agencies, and local governing bodies for ensuring the availability and utilization of solar lanterns in India. PMID:24802214

  1. Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisen, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

  2. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jane Rw; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Izutsu, Takashi; Tran, Tuan

    2011-01-01

    Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings.In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts.The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well.The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1). It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child mortality, promote gender equality

  3. Malaria and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Owens, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Malaria, as a key disease of poverty, was singled out for special attention in the Millennium Project of 2000. Recent data suggest that malaria incidence and mortality are now declining all over the world. While these figures are cause for celebration, they must be interpreted carefully and with caution, particularly in relation to Africa. There are daunting challenges ahead for those working to achieve malaria eradication, not least of which is the poor quality of the data on which the work is based. In the absence of an affordable and fully effective vaccine, international funding for malaria control needs to be escalated still further. The money is essential to pay for universal access to a set of simple and proven interventions which would save the lives of millions of children over the next 15 years. PMID:25613970

  4. Doctoral Theses from Nursing Postgraduate Programs in Brazil and their Association with the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumet; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Millennium Development Goals are centered around combatting poverty and other social evils all over the world. Thus, this study seeks to identify the Millennium Development Goals as an object of study in theses from Postgraduate Nursing Programs in Brazil scoring 5 (national excellence) and 6 or 7 (international excellence), and evaluate the association between the score for the program and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. METHOD: Exploratory descriptive document research. Data were collected from the Notes on Indicators/Coordination for Higher Education Personnel Improvement for the 15 Postgraduate Nursing Courses scoring between 5 and 7 in the three-year-period of 2010/2012. RESULTS: of the 8 Millennium Development Objectives, 6 were dealt with in the theses. There was an association (Fisher's exact test p-value=0.0059) between the distribution of the theses and the program scores in relation to the Millennium Development Objectives (p-valor=0.0347) CONCLUSION: the doctoral theses were slightly related to the Millennium Development Objectives, covering the population's economic development, health conditions and quality of life. It is recommended that Postgraduate Programs in Nursing pay closer attention to the Millennium Development Objectives.. PMID:26312631

  5. Reducing child mortality: the contribution of Ceará state, northeast of Brazil, on achieving the Millennium Development Goal 4 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante e Silva, Anamaria; Correia, Luciano Lima; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Silveira, Dirlene Mafalda Ildefonso da; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano A L; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Cunha, Antonio Jose Ledo Alves da

    2015-04-01

    To describe the experience of Ceará, Northeast of Brazil, state on improving child survival, over a 20 year period, and discuss its contribution to Brazil's progress toward the achievement of MDG 4. Five population-based, statewide household surveys, with children <3 years of age, known as PESMIC (Mother and Child Health Survey of Ceará), were conducted in 1987, 1990, 1994, 2001 and 2007. They aimed to investigate levels and causes of mortality and access to child health services. The cluster sampling of 8,000 households identified 2,000 children on average. They used the same methodological approach and indicators. Important changes occurred in demographic and health indicators in the 20 year period, including 81 % reduction in the infant mortality rate, 43 % increase in breastfeeding rate and the achievement of a 95 % immunization rate. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition declined from 28 to 13 % and acute malnutrition from 13 to 5 %. Diarrheal diseases contributed with 36.6 % to the infant mortality in 1986 and 3.9 % in 2007. The major improvements in child health contributed substantially to the progress on MDG 4 in Brazil. Results of the 5 surveys produced reliable information for planning and evaluation that contributed to the remarkable progress made by the state. PMID:25095765

  6. [Primary health care and the millennium development goals].

    PubMed

    Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

    2012-01-01

    Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty

  7. Poverty, Education, Gender and the Millennium Development Goals: Reflections on Boundaries and Intersectionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition…

  8. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

  9. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  10. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2011-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  11. Successful behavioral health business development for the millennium.

    PubMed

    Pyrce, J M

    1998-08-01

    The business development framework for provider positioning, market share, and competition has significantly shifted in the late 1990s as providers prepare for the millennium. The use of the Marketing Four Ps is a helpful tool for providers to thoroughly evaluate their product/service viability, pricing objectives, promotional mix, and place accessibility, and will allow organizations to reposition in their marketplace, maximize market share, and develop new partnerships with previous competitors. PMID:10182149

  12. Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative. PMID:20932274

  13. Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fehling, Maya; Nelson, Brett D.; Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showing uneven progress, this review identifies possible limitations arising from the MDG framework itself rather than extrinsic issues. A multidisciplinary literature review was conducted with a focus on limitations in the formulation of the MDGs, their structure, content and implementation. Of 1837 MDG-related articles, 90 met criteria for analysis. Articles describe MDGs as being created by only a few stakeholders without adequate involvement by developing countries and overlooking development objectives previously agreed upon. Others claim MDGs are unachievable and simplistic, not adapted to national needs, do not specify accountable parties and reinforce vertical interventions. While MDGs have promoted increased health and well-being in many countries by recognising and deliberating on the possible constraints of the MDG framework, the post-2015 agenda may have even greater impact. Complex problems have simple, easy to understand, wrong answers (Henry Louis Mencken) PMID:24266508

  14. Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: Past and future progress.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Michelle F; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-10-01

    We review global and regional progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 with respect to their indicators, drawing on the latest data available from the relevant United Nations inter-agency groups responsible for maternal and child mortality estimation, as well as recent reports from individual UN agencies and external monitoring groups reporting on MDG progress. We also draw on recent, comprehensive evidence syntheses to present an overview of a selection of existing effective interventions that, if collectively implemented at scale, would reduce maternal and child deaths well beyond the MDG target levels. We conclude with a summary of why and how a focus on maternal and child health in the post-2015 era should be maintained, as the global development agenda transitions from the MDGs to the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:26277228

  15. Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals have galvanized efforts to improve child survival (MDG-4) and maternal health (MDG-5). There has been important progress on both MDGs at global level, although it now appears that few countries will reach them by the target date of 2015. There are known and efficacious interventions to address most of the major causes of these deaths, but important gaps remain. The biggest challenge is to ensure that all women and children have access to life-saving interventions. Current levels of intervention coverage are too low, representing missed opportunities. Providing services at the community level is an important emerging priority, but preventing maternal and neonatal deaths also requires access to health facilities. Readers of the Medicine for Global Health collection in BMC Medicine are urged to make maternal and child health one of their key concerns, even if they work on other topics. PMID:24228742

  16. Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

  17. Pakistan and the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Child Health: progress and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector. PMID:26744152

  18. Emerging diseases and implications for Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015 - an overview.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Bello, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global 'One Health' movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015. PMID:20560123

  19. Professional leadership in obstetrics and gynecology and its contribution to Millennium Development Goal 5.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David J

    2012-10-01

    National professional associations of obstetrics and gynecology characteristically begin as learned societies holding regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results, and progress to regulating the activities of their members in the public interest (e.g. admission examinations, setting standards). However, they can offer much more to their nation's health by contributing directly to improvements in health care and influencing governmental decisions in favor of the health of women and babies. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), through the Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) initiative, is developing the capacity of national professional associations in Africa and Asia, so that they can contribute to improving clinical practice and influence national health policy toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 5. PMID:22884822

  20. Issues of maternal health in Pakistan: trends towards millennium development goal 5.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammd Faraz Arshad; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

    2014-06-01

    Pakistan has third highest burden of maternal and children mortality across the globe. This grim situation is further intensified by flaws of planning and implementation set forth in health sector. Natural calamities (earth quakes, floods), disease outbreaks and lack of awareness in different regions of country also further aggravate this situation. Despite of all these limitations, under the banner of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a special focus and progress in addressing maternal health issue (set as goal 5) has been made over the last decade. In this review, improvement and short falls pertaining to Goal 5 Improve maternal health have been analyzed in relation to earlier years. A decline in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) (490 maternal deaths in 1990 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 women in 2010) is observed. Reduction in MMR by three quarters was not achieved but a decline from very high mortality to high mortality index was observed. Increase usage of contraceptives (with contraceptive prevalence rate of 11.8 in 1990 to 37 in 2013) also shed light on women awareness about their health and social issues. Based on progress level assessment (WHO guidelines),access of Pakistani women to universal reproductive health unit falls in moderate category in 2010 as compared to earlier low access in 1990. From the data it looks that still a lot of effort is required for achieving the said targets. However, keeping in view all challenges, Pakistan suffered in the said duration, like volatile peace, regional political instability, policy implementation constrains, population growth, this slow but progressive trend highlight a national resilience to address the havoc challenge of maternal health. These understandings and sustained efforts will significantly contribute a best possible accomplishment in Millennium Development Goal 5 by 2015. PMID:25252492

  1. Professional Development for the New Millennium. Professional Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

    In 1998, the Mississippi Legislature amended Mississippi Code Section 37-17 concerning the requirements for local school district professional development programs. The Department of Education then revised this portion of the model to reflect the statutory changes. This handbook contains the definition and purpose of professional development and…

  2. Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria through Non-Formal Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpama, Simon Ibor; Asor, Love Joseph; Erim, Costly M.; Adekola, G.

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) declaration but till now she has not made any significant milestones in actualizing these human development goals. In spite of the coordinated efforts towards mobilizing those in the formal education system to partially address its implementation challenges, serious gaps still exit…

  3. Global Inequality, Capabilities, Social Justice: The Millennium Development Goal for Gender Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for gender equality in education by 2005 has been criticised for its grandiose ambition, its failure to adequately conceptualise the nature of gender inequality or the diverse forms this takes, the inadequate policies developed to put the goal into practice and the limited measurements used for monitoring. The…

  4. The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojogwu, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

  5. Knowledge of Millennium Development Goals among University Faculty in Uganda and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Nabachwa, Mary Sonko; Chamberlain, Jean; Nakalembe, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the level of knowledge of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) among university faculty. The assessment is based on data from 197 academic unit or faculty heads randomly selected from universities in Uganda and Kenya. Frequency distributions and logistic regression were used for analysis. Slightly more than one in three…

  6. The Vanuatu medical supply system – documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Gilbert, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, observational workplace surveys and semi-structured focus groups was developed. This research was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Canberra and was funded through a direct grant from the United Nations Population Fund Suva, Pacific sub regional office. Results: During two weeks of data collection, 21 interviews were conducted, observational workplace surveys were completed in 19 facilities and 22 personnel participated in three focus groups across three provinces. The interviewees had a wide range of primary professional groupings and were representative of the Vanuatu health workforce. A complex array of medical supply issues are described from within the three tiered structure of the medical supply system. Conclusion: The results of this research have further informed our understanding of the competencies required by healthcare personnel to conduct medical supply management activities effectively in Pacific Island countries. As a result of this research, a platform is provided for the government of Vanuatu to engage development partners to work toward a sustainable medical supply system. PMID:23093895

  7. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  8. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the

  9. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed

    Tatem, Andrew J; Garcia, Andres J; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Gaughan, Andrea E; Gilbert, Marius; Linard, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments.Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation.Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the

  10. Subjective Well-Being Approach to the Valuation of International Development: Evidence for the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to the valuation of international development is applied to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Results indicate that the rich countries have particular preference for education, healthcare, and housing; they are willing to accept compensation for a failure to meet the three targets by 2015. The poor…

  11. Five Ways the Sustainable Development Goals Are Better than the Millennium Development Goals and Why Every Educationalist Should Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprani, Lily

    2016-01-01

    For 15 years the millennium development goals (MDGs) were a guiding force for many issues affecting the lives of children and young people around the world. Agreed by UN member states in 2001, the eight MDGs were designed as a framework around which states were expected to develop policy priorities and shape their overseas aid spending plans. The…

  12. Development Communication and the New Millennium: Which Way for Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moemeka, Andrew A.

    Since development communication began in Africa in the 1950s, it has been based on the erroneous belief, first, that development meant westernization and, later, that it meant modernization. This led to two working assumptions: that money and educated (qualified) personnel were all that was needed to create development; and that all efforts should…

  13. Life in a landfill slum, children's health, and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James L; Watson, Lindsey M; Nikitin, Ivan V; Ansariadi; La Ane, Ruslan; Maidin, Alimin

    2015-12-01

    People living in slums can be considered left behind with regard to national successes in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the living and working conditions of waste pickers and their children in a landfill slum located in the largest city in eastern Indonesia. A total of 113 people from the landfill slum and 1184 people from the general population participated in face-to-face interviews. Municipal solid waste (MSW) was analyzed for metals, metalloids and fecal indicator bacteria. Ambient air quality including particulate matter was measured in the landfill. Households in the landfill slum were 5.73 (p=0.04) times more likely to be below the international poverty line (MDG 1: Poverty) and 15.6 times (p<0.01) more likely to have no one in the household possessing a primary education (MDG 2: Universal Education), and 107 times (p<0.01) more likely not to have improved sanitation facilities (MDG 7: Environmental Sustainability) when compared to the general population. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under five in Indonesia. Young children living in the landfill slum were 2.87 times (p=0.02) more likely to develop diarrhea than their general population counterparts. Other survey results and environmental measurements suggest that landfill slum children have additional adverse health effects (e.g. infections and poisoning). Poverty underlies several MDG issues that directly or indirectly affect child health. Therefore, eradicating extreme poverty will continue to be the most critical challenge for the MDGs beyond 2015. PMID:26231771

  14. Food security politics and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Philip; Schneider, Mindi

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews proposals regarding the recent food crisis in the context of a broader, threshold debate on the future of agriculture and food security. While the MDGs have focused on eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, the food crisis pushed the hungry over the one billion mark. There is thus a renewed focus on agricultural development, which pivots on the salience of industrial agriculture (as a supply source) in addressing food security. The World Bank's new 'agriculture for development' initiative seeks to improve small-farmer productivity with new inputs, and their incorporation into global markets via value-chains originating in industrial agriculture. An alternative claim, originating in 'food sovereignty' politics, demanding small-farmer rights to develop bio-regionally specific agro-ecological methods and provision for local, rather than global, markets, resonates in the IAASTD report, which implies agribusiness as usual ''is no longer an option'. The basic divide is over whether agriculture is a servant of economic growth, or should be developed as a foundational source of social and ecological sustainability. We review and compare these different paradigmatic approaches to food security, and their political and ecological implications. PMID:21591303

  15. An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Kaspar

    2004-07-01

    BACKGROUND: For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH) are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in low-income countries. METHODS AND FRAMEWORK: The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling-up of priority

  16. Millennium Development Goal Four and Child Health Inequities in Indonesia: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schröders, Julia; Wall, Stig; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework? Methods and Findings We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable “disadvantaged populations” was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities. Conclusion This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create

  17. Taking stock of Myanmar's progress toward the health-related Millennium Development Goals: current roadblocks, paths ahead.

    PubMed

    Saw, Yu Mon; Win, Khine Lae; Shiao, Laura Wen-Shuan; Thandar, Moe Moe; Amiya, Rachel M; Shibanuma, Akira; Tun, Soe; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-01

    Myanmar is a developing country with considerable humanitarian needs, rendering its pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) an especially high priority. Yet progress to date remains under-examined on key fronts. Particularly within the three health-related MDGs (MDGs 4, 5, and 6), the limited data reported point to patchy levels of achievement. This study was undertaken to provide an overview and assessment of Myanmar's progress toward the health-related MDGs, along with possible solutions for accelerating health-related development into 2015 and beyond. The review highlights off-track progress in the spheres of maternal and child health (MDGs 4 and 5). It also shows Myanmar's achievements toward MDG 6 targets--in the areas of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Such achievements are especially notable in that Myanmar has been receiving the lowest level of official development assistance among all of the least developed countries in Asia. However, to make similar progress in MDGs 4 and 5, Myanmar needs increased investment and commitment in health. Toward moving forward with the post-2015 development agenda, Myanmar's government also needs to take the lead in calling for attention from the World Health Organization and its global development partners to address the stagnation in health-related development progress within the country. In particular, Myanmar's government should invest greater efforts into health system strengthening to pave the road to universal health coverage. PMID:24025845

  18. NASA New Millennium Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Christopher M.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the New Millennium Program (NMP) which was established in 1994 to revolutionize NASA's Space and Earth science programs to achieve more capable, less costly missions in th e 2lst Century by: 1. Developing and flight-validating revolutionary technologies; 2. Reducing development times and life cycle missi0n cost; 3. Enabling highly autonomous spacecraft and 4. Promoting nat ionwide teaming and coordination

  19. Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – the Zambian experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia’s experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs. PMID:24447509

  20. Meeting the 2015 Millennium Development Goals with new interventions for abused women.

    PubMed

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Shehzad, Shireen; Hirani, Saima Shams; Asad, Nargis; Akbar Ali Hirani, Shela; McFarlane, Judith

    2011-12-01

    In a developing country such as Pakistan, where illiteracy, poverty, gender differences, and health issues are prevalent, violence against women is a commonly observed phenomenon. The rising incidences of abuse among women indicate a need to introduce evidence-based community-derived interventions for meeting Millennium Developmental Goals by 2015. This article discusses the application of counseling, economic skills building, and microcredit programs as practical and effective interventions to improve the health outcomes of abused women and, therefore, improving maternal and child health in the Pakistani society. PMID:22055907

  1. Legislative Gaps in Implementation of Health related Millennium Development Goals: a case study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Rabia; Toru, Shehryar Khan; Ahmed, Vaqar

    2016-06-01

    Numerous health legislations concerning child mortality, maternal health and life-threatening diseases such as polio and tuberculosis are crafted in the health sector of Pakistan. A critical assessment of health legislations points to their in-effective or sub-optimal implementation. By engaging with the concept of public law, there is a strong relationship of public health and health legislations. While the basic purpose of health legislations is to craft and enforce essential health legislations for improving public health, an examination of health legislations across Pakistan indicate an extensive health engagement which is facing certain challenges indicating traditional health practices, enforcement constraints arising due to political compulsions and complexities, and systematic problems in the health sector, reflecting issue of governance. Through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews held with policy-makers, senior health officials private health entities and parliamentarian tasks forces on millennium development goals, this study engages with health-sector legislations. In so doing, it focuses on the problematic health sector and interventions. It is observed that unless an overarching legislative framework and a shift from programmatic approach to a human rights approach is adopted, the targets of millennium development goals 4, 5 and 6 would remain off-track in Pakistan. PMID:27339577

  2. South African child deaths 1990–2011: have HIV services reversed the trend enough to meet Millennium Development Goal 4?

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kate J.; Lawn, Joy E.; Johnson, Leigh F.; Mahy, Mary; Dorrington, Rob E.; Phillips, Heston; Bradshaw, Debbie; Nannan, Nadine; Msemburi, William; Oestergaard, Mikkel Z.; Walker, Neff P.; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyse trends in under-five mortality rate in South Africa (1990–2011), particularly the contribution of AIDS deaths. Methods: Three nationally used models for estimating AIDS deaths in children were systematically reviewed. The model outputs were compared with under-five mortality rate estimates for South Africa from two global estimation models. All estimates were compared with available empirical data. Results: Differences between the models resulted in varying point estimates for under-five mortality but the trends were similar, with mortality increasing to a peak around 2005. The three models showing the contribution of AIDS suggest a maximum of 37–39% of child deaths were due to AIDS in 2004–2005 which has since declined. Although the rate of progress from 1990 is not the 4.4% needed to meet Millennium Development Goal 4 for child survival, South Africa's average annual rate of under-five mortality decline between 2006 and 2011 was between 6.3 and 10.2%. Conclusion: In 2005, South Africa was one of only four countries globally with an under-five mortality rate higher than the 1990 Millennium Development Goal baseline. Over the past 5 years, the country has achieved a rate of child mortality reduction exceeded by only three other countries. This rapid turnaround is likely due to scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and to a lesser degree, the expanded roll-out of antiretroviral therapy. Emphasis on these programmes must continue, but failure to address other aspects of care including integrated high-quality maternal and neonatal care means that the decline in child mortality could stall. PMID:23863402

  3. Private Schools and the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education: A Census and Comparative Survey in Hyderabad, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Gomathi, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Development literature suggests that private schools serving the poor are not part of the solution to meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. The study conducted a census and survey of schools in notified slums of Hyderabad, India, to contribute to the sparse literature on the nature and extent of private…

  4. Countdown to 2015: will the Millennium Development Goal for child survival be met?

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Joy E; Costello, Anthony; Mwansambo, Charles; Osrin, David

    2007-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), ratified by most nations in 2000, set specific targets for poverty reduction, eradication of hunger, education, gender equality, health and environmental sustainability. MDG 4 aims to reduce child mortality with a target of reducing under‐five mortality rates by two thirds over the period 1990–2015. Over the last year, Live Aid, Make Poverty History, the G8 summits and prominent entertainers have directed unprecedented attention towards development and health. Africa particularly has been in the spotlight. Reports are published and commitments are made, but is there real progress? Are poor people being reached with essential health care? Who will hold leaders to account: celebrities, activists or health professionals? PMID:17515627

  5. Development of an Ion Thruster and Power Processor for New Millennium's Deep Space 1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Peterson, Todd T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Power, John L.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Anderson, John R.; Bond, Thomas A.; Cardwell, G. I.; Christensen, Jon A.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) will provide a single-string primary propulsion system to NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission which will perform comet and asteroid flybys in the years 1999 and 2000. The propulsion system includes a 30-cm diameter ion thruster, a xenon feed system, a power processing unit, and a digital control and interface unit. A total of four engineering model ion thrusters, three breadboard power processors, and a controller have been built, integrated, and tested. An extensive set of development tests has been completed along with thruster design verification tests of 2000 h and 1000 h. An 8000 h Life Demonstration Test is ongoing and has successfully demonstrated more than 6000 h of operation. In situ measurements of accelerator grid wear are consistent with grid lifetimes well in excess of the 12,000 h qualification test requirement. Flight hardware is now being assembled in preparation for integration, functional, and acceptance tests.

  6. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  7. Vital registration in rural Africa: is there a way forward to report on health targets of the Millennium Development Goals?

    PubMed

    Zachariah, R; Mwagomba, B; Misinde, D; Mandere, B C; Bemeyani, A; Ginindza, T; Cortier, H; Bissel, K; Jahn, A; Harries, A D

    2011-06-01

    Vital registration - the systematic recording of births and deaths - has both legal and health significance. In particular, accurate recording and reporting of vital statistics are public goods to enable the monitoring of progress towards achieving health related targets of the 2015 United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The reality in Africa is that most births and deaths cannot be traced in legal records or official statistics and as such, there is currently no way of assessing progress towards achieving MDG targets and this applies particularly to rural settings in Africa. From the context of a rural district in Malawi, we describe an informal traditional system for the reporting of deaths at village level, and discuss the potential opportunities, challenges and ways forward in the wider implementation and interpretation of vital data generated by such a system. Such a system might provide an interim solution for accelerating the production and use of district level vital statistics for legal, administrative, statistical purposes and to report on the MDG in rural Africa while waiting for more comprehensive national systems to become a reality. PMID:21511318

  8. Child malnutrition and the Millennium Development Goals: much haste but less speed?

    PubMed

    Oruamabo, Raphael S

    2015-02-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide a framework for measuring the progress of nations. Several of these goals relate to child malnutrition, which remains an important contributor to child morbidity and mortality, accounting for approximately 45% of child deaths globally. A high proportion of undernourished children still live in Africa and parts of Asia, and the uneven rate of reduction in the prevalence of various types of child malnutrition among different income groups worldwide is worrying. Attempts to reduce child malnutrition should therefore begin from the grassroots by improving primary healthcare services in developing countries with particular focus on basic requirements. Adequate nutrition should be provided from birth, through infancy, preschool and early childhood to adolescence. The overall strategy should be one of careful and meticulous planning involving all development sectors with an emphasis on a bottom-up approach within a stable and disciplined polity; the MDGs will be only be useful if they are seen not as narrow objectives with unidirectional interventions but as multifaceted and co-ordinated. The setting of deadlines, whether 2015 or 2035, should not be emphasised so as to avoid hasty decision making. The top priority should be the implementation of the essential social services of basic education, primary healthcare, nutrition, reproductive health care, water and sanitation in partnership with the developed economies. PMID:25613961

  9. Resource allocation in Pakistan's health sector: a critical appraisal and a path toward the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Ejaz, Irum; Mazhar, Arslan; Hafeez, Assad

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is trying hard to sustain its progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. However, because of a lack of political commitment to innovative solutions to improve its financing mechanism, the health system is unable to provide even essential and basic services to the people. The country, with more than 70% of the population living on less than two US dollars a day, largely depends on direct taxes for its revenue. Because of inadequate financing, the quality of government services is inexcusably poor; therefore, a majority of people seek healthcare in the private sector. This has led to a horde of issues pertaining to equity, accessibility and fairness. High out-of-pocket expenses on health jeopardize a family's livelihood, pushing it into a vicious circle of poverty. In the wake of recent devolution, this paper presents options for future health financing that enables the provinces to exert their autonomy to safeguard the health of the most vulnerable in the country. Our recommendations follow the vision of the World Health Organization and the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, to achieve universal health coverage and social protection for the poor. PMID:23803492

  10. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Fakir Md.; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population’s access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. PMID:26891310

  11. Health Research and Millennium Development Goals: Identifying the Gap From Public Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    El Lawindi, Mona I; Galal, Yasmine S; Khairy, Walaa A

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research output within the universities could provide an effective means for tracking the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) progress. This analytical database study was designed to assess the trend of research theses conducted by the Public Health Department (PHD), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University during the period 1990 to 2014 as related to the: MDGS, Faculty and department research priority plans and to identify the discrepancies between researchers' priorities versus national and international research priorities. A manual search of the theses was done at the Postgraduate Library using a specially designed checklist to chart adherence of each thesis to: MDGs, Faculty and department research plans (RPs). The theses' profile showed that the highest research output was for addressing the MDGS followed by the PHD and Faculty RPs. Compliance to MDGs 5 and 6 was obvious, whereas; MDGs 2, 3, and 7 were not represented at all after year 2000. No significant difference was found between PH theses addressing the Faculty RPs and those which were not before and after 2010. A significantly lower percent of PH theses was fulfilling the PHD research priorities compared to those which were not after 2010. This study showed a definite decline in research output tackling the MDGS and PHD research priorities, with a non-significant increase in the production of theses addressing the Faculty RPs. The present study is a practical model for policy makers within the universities to develop and implement a reliable monitoring and evaluation system for assessment of research output. PMID:26652084

  12. Social Work Gerontological Practice: The Need for Faculty Development in the New Millennium.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Barbara; Silverstone, Barbara; June Simmons, W; Volland, Patricia J; Howe, Judith L

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to upgrade the gerontological knowledge and skills of practicing social workers. Geriatrics and gerontology, as specialized fields of knowledge, have not been sufficiently integrated into formal academic training programs. There are major trends in the health care environment which impact on social work education, including technological advances, a shift from inpatient to outpatient and community care settings, increasing diversity of the older population, and client and family participation in decisionmaking. These trends necessitate social work education to emphasize new content areas in gerontology and the development of new skills in clinical, case management, care coordination, and teamwork. A significant obstacle to the preparation of future social workers to deliver the complex services needed by older adults and their families is a serious shortage of social work faculty in gerontology. Sustained and broad initiatives, such as the John A. Hartford Foundation funded Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program, are needed to develop academic and practice-based faculty in gerontology. This is crucial if social work is to maintain an important service role in the new millennium. PMID:27135560

  13. Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-01-17

    The present brief review is a survey of the role of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium. After an introduction which deals with the expanding definition of the discipline and the issue of professionality and training, the author approaches the role and novel developments of the field, with particular reference to the past 5 years. Such developments are discussed in a sectorial manner, distinguishing the role of research in the areas of forensic anthropology which deal with human remains and those that deal with the living. As regards the "human remains" domain, advances and stalls still present in the fields of species and postmortem interval determination, sexing, aging and attribution of ancestry are stressed. The need for standards in facial reconstruction and positive identification by bone morphology are underlined, as well as the growing role of the anthropologist in detecting signs of trauma. Finally, the relatively new role of the forensic anthropologist in the domain of identification of the living is described, although this area is still underrepresented as regards research activity: these studies concern the strive to devise methods for identifying faces (e.g. in the case of crimes registered by videosurveillance systems), aging living individuals or juveniles represented in pedopornographic material. PMID:16843626

  14. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. PMID:26891310

  15. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the "millennium bug."

  16. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the “millennium bug.”

  17. Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: public health challenges in water and sanitation.

    PubMed

    Rheingans, R; Dreibelbis, R; Freeman, M C

    2006-01-01

    Over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation, greatly contributing to the global burden of disease. The international community has committed to reducing by half the proportion of the world's population lacking access to water and sanitation as a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the disease burden due to poor access, is borne primarily by the poorest countries and the poorest people within them. Simply reducing the proportion of people without adequate access will not automatically result in proportional reductions in the related disease burden. The public health challenge inherent in meeting the MDG targets is ensuring that improvements result in access to water and sanitation for the critical at-risk populations. Innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, and locally acceptable water and sanitation interventions and integrating these approaches into existing social institutions, such as schools, markets, and health facilities. PMID:19153893

  18. Tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals: reaching consensus on child mortality levels and trends.

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The increased attention to tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including Goal 4 of reducing child mortality, has drawn attention to a number of interrelated technical, operational and political challenges and to the underlying weaknesses of country health information systems upon which reliable monitoring depends. Assessments of child mortality published in 2005, for almost all low-income countries, are based on an extrapolation of the trends observed during the 1990s, rather than on the empirical data for more recent years. The validity of the extrapolation depends on the quality and quantity of the data used, and many countries lack suitable data. In the long run, it is hoped that vital registration or sample registration systems will be established to monitor vital events in a sustainable way. However, in the short run, tracking child mortality in high-mortality countries will continue to rely on household surveys and extrapolations of historical trends. This will require more collaborative efforts both to collect data through initiatives to strengthen health information systems at the country level, and to harmonize the estimation process. The latter objective requires the continued activity of a coordinating group of international agencies and academics that aims to produce transparent estimates -- through the consistent application of an agreed-upon methodology --for monitoring at the international level. PMID:16583082

  19. Health inequities, environmental insecurity and the attainment of the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

    2006-09-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16968967

  20. Drivers of Inequality in Millennium Development Goal Progress: A Statistical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries are not on track to reach the public health targets set out in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We evaluated whether differential progress towards health MDGs was associated with economic development, public health funding (both overall and as percentage of available domestic funds), or health system infrastructure. We also examined the impact of joint epidemics of HIV/AIDS and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which may limit the ability of households to address child mortality and increase risks of infectious diseases. Methods and Findings We calculated each country's distance from its MDG goals for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and infant and child mortality targets for the year 2005 using the United Nations MDG database for 227 countries from 1990 to the present. We studied the association of economic development (gross domestic product [GDP] per capita in purchasing-power-parity), the relative priority placed on health (health spending as a percentage of GDP), real health spending (health system expenditures in purchasing-power-parity), HIV/AIDS burden (prevalence rates among ages 15–49 y), and NCD burden (age-standardised chronic disease mortality rates), with measures of distance from attainment of health MDGs. To avoid spurious correlations that may exist simply because countries with high disease burdens would be expected to have low MDG progress, and to adjust for potential confounding arising from differences in countries' initial disease burdens, we analysed the variations in rates of change in MDG progress versus expected rates for each country. While economic development, health priority, health spending, and health infrastructure did not explain more than one-fifth of the differences in progress to health MDGs among countries, burdens of HIV and NCDs explained more than half of between-country inequalities in child mortality progress (R2-infant mortality  = 0.57, R2-under 5 mortality  = 0

  1. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  2. Financial wellness awareness: A step closer to achieve Millennium Development Goals for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Rehana; Katpar, Shahjahan; Khan, Rakhshaan; Hussain, Mehwish

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore financial wellness (FW) awareness amongst public and private sector medical college students of Karachi. Methods: A cross sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted on medical students from 3 public and 5 private sector medical colleges of Karachi from February 2011 to December 2011. All ethnic groups having age range of 18-23 years were included. A questionnaire tailored from wellness wheel evaluated the responses of FW on a four point Likert’s scale ranging from 0-3(never, sometimes, mostly, and always). Factor analysis explored common FW factors among both public and private sector medical college (MC) students. Results: Private MC Students were better in terms of making short and long terms financial goals compared to students in public sector. The students of public MC were more focused to make and restricting to given budgets (p=0.05). The FW element of keeping savings in bank account was responded more by private MC candidates (P < 0.0001) but was spent thrift as well (P < 0.0001). Factor analysis revealed two factors; ‘Financial Security Wellness’ which was better in Private MC Students (p=0.001) and ‘Care towards Expenses Wellness” in which results were not significant. Conclusion: Both groups of medical college students lacked FW awareness element in terms of caring towards financial expenses. The awareness of importance of financial security was practiced better by private MC students in terms of making short and long term financial goals and keeping savings in bank accounts. They were however deficient in the knowledge of making and restricting themselves to budgets. PMID:25878613

  3. Sexually Harassing Behavior against Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh: Implications for Achieving Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on…

  4. Recent Trends in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Brazil: Progress Toward Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Giugliani, Elsa; Maranhão, Ana Goretti; Monteiro, Carlos A.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Bustreo, Flavia; Merialdi, Mario; Victora, Cesar G.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed Brazil's efforts in reducing child mortality, improving maternal and child health, and reducing socioeconomic and regional inequalities from 1990 through 2007. We compiled and reanalyzed data from several sources, including vital statistics and population-based surveys. We also explored the roles of broad socioeconomic and demographic changes and the introduction of health sector and other reform measures in explaining the improvements observed. Our findings provide compelling evidence that proactive measures to reduce health disparities accompanied by socioeconomic progress can result in measurable improvements in the health of children and mothers in a relatively short interval. Our analysis of Brazil's successes and remaining challenges to reach and surpass Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 can provide important lessons for other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:20724669

  5. Establishing cleft malformation surgery in developing nations: a model for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Zbar, R I; Rai, S M; Dingman, D L

    2000-09-01

    This three-stage model outlines a safe and effective method for achieving a local cleft board in a developing region. Maintaining local culture and guaranteeing patient safety are paramount concerns. Success is rooted in the constant assessment and recognition of negative forces, including misdirection and stagnation. The key factors are the identification of an interested local host and a source of funding as the site evolves toward independence. As of June 30, 2000, 501 cases had been performed independently and free of charge by the host healthcare provider in Nepal. There had been no major morbidities or mortalities. PMID:11007405

  6. A World Fit for Children: Millennium Development Goals; Special Session on Children Documents; The Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    In May 2002, participants at the United Nations General Assembly's Special Session on Children committed to a set of specific goals for children and youth and a basic framework for meeting these goals. This report compiles the commitments that were part of the Special Session: (1) the Millennium Development Goals, earlier pledged to by all 189…

  7. Extent of Implementation of Minimum Standards of Basic Education for the Realisation of the Second Millennium Development Goal in Bayelsa State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogochukwu, Emeka; Gbendu, Olaowei Godiva

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out in Salga Education Zone of Bayelsa State specifically to determine the extent of implementation of the minimum standards for basic education in order to ensure the realization of the second millennium development goal. The study adopted the descriptive research design. The population of the study comprised of all the…

  8. Responding to the Gender and Education Millennium Development Goals in South Africa and Kenya: Reflections on Education Rights, Gender Equality, Capabilities and Global Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine; North, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores understandings of gender equality and education and the nature of global goal and target setting, drawing on empirical data collected in central and local government departments in Kenya and South Africa reflecting on their implementation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1, concerned with poverty, MDG 2, concerned with…

  9. New Achievements in Technology Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Safeeullah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Since many decades Education Science and Technology has an achieved tremendous recognition and has been applied to variety of disciplines, mainly Curriculum development, methodology to develop e-learning systems and education management. Many efforts have been taken to improve knowledge of students, researchers, educationists in the field of…

  10. The effect of illicit financial flows on time to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal in Sub-Saharan Africa: a quantitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Makuta, Innocent; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Chiwaula, Levison; Cobham, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper sets out to estimate the cost of illicit financial flows (IFF) in terms of the amount of time it could take to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in 34 African countries. Design We have calculated the percentage increase in gross domestic product (GDP) if IFFs were curtailed using IFF/GDP ratios. We applied the income (GDP) elasticity of child mortality to the increase in GDP to estimate the reduction in time to reach the fourth MDG in 34 African countries. Participants children aged under five years. Settings 34 countries in SSA. Main outcome measures Reduction in time to reach the first indicator of the fourth MDG, under-five mortality rate in the absence of IFF. Results We found that in the 34 SSA countries, six countries will achieve their fourth MDG target at the current rates of decline. In the absence of IFF, 16 countries would reach their fourth MDG target by 2015 and there would be large reductions for all other countries. Conclusions This drain on development is facilitated by financial secrecy in other jurisdictions. Rich and poor countries alike must stem the haemorrhage of IFF by taking decisive steps towards improving financial transparency. PMID:24334911

  11. Progress in health-related millennium development goals in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam Khetrapal

    2012-01-01

    Home to 25% of the world's population and bearing 30% of the Global disease burden, the South-East Asia Region [1] of the World Health Organization has an important role in the progress of global health. Three of the eight million development goal (MDG) goals that relate to health are MDG 4, 5, and 6. There is progress in all three goals within the countries of the region, although the progress varies across countries and even within countries. With concerted and accelerated efforts in some countries and certain specific areas, the region will achieve the targets of the three health MDGs. The key challenges are in sustainable scaling up of evidence-based interventions to improve maternal and child health and controlling communicable diseases. This will require continued focus and investments in strengthening health systems that provide individual and family centered comprehensive package of interventions with equitable reach and that which is provided free at the point of service delivery. Important lessons that have been learnt in implementing the MDG agenda in the past two decades will inform setting up of the post MDG global health agenda. This article provides a snap shot of progress thus far, key challenges and opportunities in WHO South-East Asia Region and lays down the way forward for the global health agenda post 2015. PMID:23354135

  12. Developing a Motivational Model of College Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis

    This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…

  13. Millennium Global Village-Net: bringing together Millennium Villages throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Andrew S; Negin, Joel; Olayo, Bernard; Bukachi, Frederick; Johnson, Edward; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich

    2009-12-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP), based at The Earth Institute at Columbia University, is a bottom-up, community led approach to show how villages in developing countries can get out of the poverty trap that afflicts more than a billion people worldwide. With well-targeted, practical inputs can help the community invest in a path leading to self-sustaining development. There are 80 Millennium Villages clustered in 10 countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa. MVP is an important development process for empowering communities to invest in a package of integrated interventions aiming to increase food production, improve access to safe water, health care, education and infrastructure. The process benefits from synergies of the integrated approach and relies on community leadership as empowered by proven technological inputs. MVP is committed to a science-based approach to assess and monitor the progress of the communities towards clear objectives; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to do so with mechanisms that are scalable and sustainable. This approach offers much more than simply collecting and analyzing data since the mechanism used for recording progress would provide a bridge over the divide which separates the haves and the have-nots (by facilitating the sharing of solutions from one community to another bidirectionally). By so doing, it allows people to enhance their own futures in a sustainable manner. Solutions found in one community are transferable to similar communities in other MVP villages. To achieve this goal, the MVP requires an information and communication system which can provide both necessary infrastructure for monitoring and evaluation, and tools for communicating among the villages, cities and countries. This system is called the Millennium Global Village-Net (MGV-Net). It takes advantage of the latest in open source software (OpenMRS), databases (MySQL), interface terminology, a centralized concept dictionary, and uses appropriate

  14. The post-millennium development goals agenda: include 'end to all wars' as a public health goal!

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-09-01

    The process of identifying global post-millennium development goals (post-MDGs) has begun in earnest. Consensus is emerging in certain areas (e.g. eliminating poverty) and conflicts and violence are recognized as key factors that retard human development. However, current discussions focus on tackling intra-state conflicts and individual-based violence and hardly mention eliminating wars as a goal. Wars create public health catastrophes. They kill, maim, displace and affect millions. Inter-state wars fuel intra-state conflicts and violence. The peace agenda should not be the monopoly of the UN Security Council, and the current consensus-building process setting the post-MDG agenda is a rallying point for the global community. The human rights approach will not suffice to eliminate wars, because few are fought to protect human rights. The development agenda should therefore commit to eliminating all wars by 2030. Targets to reduce tensions and discourage wars should be included. We should act now. PMID:24642595

  15. Behavioral economics: the key to closing the gap on maternal, newborn and child survival for Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5?

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Asch, David A

    2013-05-01

    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 set ambitious targets to reduce maternal, newborn and child mortality by 2015. With 2015 fast approaching, there has been a concerted effort in the global health community to "close the gap" on the MDG targets. Recent consensus initiatives and frameworks have refocused attention on evidence-based, low-cost interventions that can reduce mortality and morbidity, and have argued for additional funding to increase access to and coverage of these life-saving interventions. However, funding alone will not close the gap on MDGs 4 and 5. Even when high-quality, affordable products and services are readily available, uptake is often low. Progress will therefore require not just money, but also advances in health-related behavior change and decision-making. Behavioral economics offers one way to achieve real progress by improving our understanding of how individuals make choices under information and time constraints, and by offering new approaches to make it easier for individuals to do what is in their best interest and harder to do what is not. We introduce five behavioral economic principles and demonstrate how they could boost efforts to improve maternal, newborn, and child health in pursuit of MDGs 4 and 5. PMID:22618489

  16. Setting the stage for equity-sensitive monitoring of the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Meg E.; Balk, Deborah; Delamonica, Enrique; Storeygard, Adam; Sacks, Emma; Minujin, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This analysis seeks to set the stage for equity-sensitive monitoring of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). METHODS: We use data from international household-level surveys (Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)) to demonstrate that establishing an equity baseline is necessary and feasible, even in low-income and data-poor countries. We assess data from six countries using 11 health indicators and six social stratifiers. Simple bivariate stratification is complemented by simultaneous stratification to expose the compound effect of multiple forms of vulnerability. FINDINGS: The data reveal that inequities are complex and interactive: inferences cannot be drawn about the nature or extent of inequities in health outcomes from a single stratifier or indicator. CONCLUSION: The MDGs and other development initiatives must become more comprehensive and explicit in their analysis and tracking of inequities. The design of policies to narrow health gaps must take into account country-specific inequities. PMID:16878225

  17. Professionals with Delivery Skills: Backbone of the Health System and Key to Reaching the Maternal Health Millennium Development Goal

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Meg

    2008-01-01

    The attainment of the fifth Millennium Development Goal requires adequate national reserves of skilled birth attendants. Nurses, midwives, and their equivalents form the frontline of the formal health system are a critical element of global efforts to reduce ill-health and poverty in the poorest areas of the world. Planning and policies supporting these cadres of workers must be placed high on the development agenda and championed by key international and national players. This article first sets forth an argument for the equity and efficiency of nurses, midwives, and their equivalents as the cadre largely responsible for maternal health. Second, it traces the root causes of neglect of this critical cadre, including a vacuum in political will in the context of poverty, lack of protections for frontline workers, the historical political position of the field of midwifery, lack of a pipeline of secondary school graduates, and gender inequity. Investment in the largely female cadre that cares for the majority of the world’s poorer women has simply not been a high enough priority. Key policy recommendations include harnessing political will and adequate metrics, protection of frontline workers’ safety and livelihoods, ensuring an adequate pipeline with a focus on girls’ education and donor support for training and professional organizations. The fifth and final policy recommendation is a call for unified international support of rapid scale-up of cadres of delivery care workers. PMID:18581610

  18. Progress towards millennium development goal 1 in northern rural Nicaragua: Findings from a health and demographic surveillance site

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos) in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it. Methods Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education) linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty. Results Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area. Conclusions Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one- third. PMID:22894144

  19. Technology Development for Human Exploration Beyond LEO in the New Millennium IAA-13-3 Strategies and Plans for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Trevathan, Joseph R.; Baird, R. Scott; Simon, Tom; Peters, T.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As we look forward into the new millennium, the extension of human presence beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) looms large in the plans of NASA. The Agency's Strategic Plan specifically calls out the need to identify and develop technologies for 100 and 1000-day class missions beyond LEO. To meet the challenge of these extended duration missions, it is important that we learn how to utilize the indigenous resources available to us on extraterrestrial bodies. This concept, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) can greatly reduce the launch mass & cost of human missions while reducing the risk. These technologies may also pave the way for the commercial development of space. While no specific target beyond LEO is identified in NASA's Strategic Plan, mission architecture studies have been on-going for the Moon, Mars, Near-Earth Asteroids and Earth/Moon & Earth/Sun Libration Points. As a result of these studies, the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M) through the Johnson and Kennedy Space Centers, is leading the effort to develop ISRU technologies and systems to meet the current and future needs of human missions beyond LEO and on to Mars. This effort also receives support from the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research (Code U), the Office of Space Science (Code S), and the Office of Aerospace Technology (Code R). This paper will present unique developments in the area of fuel and oxidizer production, breathing air production, water production, C02 collection, separation of atmospheric gases, and gas liquefaction and storage. A technology overview will be provided for each topic along with the results achieved to date, future development plans, and the mission architectures that these technologies support.

  20. Development of intelligent robots - Achievements and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitzan, D.

    1985-03-01

    A flexible, intelligent robot is regarded as a general purpose machine system that may include effectors, sensors, computers, and auxiliary equipment and, like a human, can perform a variety of tasks under unpredictable conditions. Development of intelligent robots is essential for increasing the growth rate of today's robot population in industry and elsewhere. Robotics research and development topics include manipulation, end effectors, mobility, sensing (noncontact and contact), adaptive control, robot programming languages, and manufacturing process planning. Past achievements and current issues related to each of these topics are described briefly.

  1. Millennium Development Goal 1: poverty, hunger and decent work in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article considers three questions: 1) what progress has been made in achieving MDG1 targets?; 2) what challenges remain?; and 3) what more could and should be done? To examine these questions, the article assesses the progress of Southeast Asia in seeking to achieve MDG1. It argues that the region is 'on track' to achieve MDG 1 targets, although significant challenges such as inequality remain. Economic growth, significant structural change and incorporation into global value chains have contributed to MDG progress. However, this is a double-edged sword as exposure to global economic turbulence can increase. The longer-term reduction of poverty, inequality and social exclusion is a question of empowerment of local producers within value chains-a shift in economic power and control through pro-poor strategies strong enough to effect substantive structural change. The article outlines key concepts; identifies the main characteristics of Southeast Asian poverty; outlines what more needs to be done; and concludes by reprising the article's findings and weighing the prospects for 2010-15 and beyond. PMID:21584988

  2. Does Curriculum Matter?: Revisiting Women's Access and Rights to Education in the Context of the UN Millennium Development Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…

  3. Educational Development and Reformation in the Malaysian Education System: Challenges in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    bin Zakaria, Haji Azmi

    2000-01-01

    Development of the education system in Malaysia is tied to the National Development Policy. Malaysia will address issues related to equity, access, and democratization of education, education quality, efficiency, and values education as the country responds to the demands of being part of the global village while ensuring domestic growth and…

  4. Learning To Manage Change: Developing Regional Communities for a Local-Global Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ian, Ed.

    This book illustrates the benefits of integrating different approaches to community and regional development for rural Australia. The key theme is community capacity building through lifelong learning, seen as integration of formal, nonformal, and informal education and training at all levels. Other foci include the local-global context, issues…

  5. From Manifesto Days to Millennium Days: Canadian Perspectives on Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona M.

    2009-01-01

    It is just about impossible to find an adult education department in Canada that does not have a critical social justice orientation, quite often oriented to community development. Many of the faculty identify themselves with the local and or global activist community, and they see their work as merging learning and justice concerns to build up…

  6. The Impact of Religion on Women Empowerment as a Millennium Development Goal in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoh, Ambe J.; Akiwumi, Fenda A.

    2012-01-01

    The study examines the impact of religion on women empowerment. Three religions, indigenous African, Islam and Christianity, comprising Africa's triple heritage, are considered. The hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Christianity correlates with each of the four Development Targets specified for women empowerment under the third of the…

  7. Neglected tropical diseases and the millennium development goals: why the "other diseases" matter: reality versus rhetoric.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H; Malecela, Mwele N

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004 there has been an increased recognition of the importance of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) as impediments to development. These diseases are caused by a variety of infectious agents - viruses, bacteria and parasites - which cause a diversity of clinical conditions throughout the tropics. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has defined seventeen of these conditions as core NTDs. The objectives for the control, elimination or eradication of these conditions have been defined in World Health Assembly resolutions whilst the strategies for the control or elimination of individual diseases have been defined in various WHO documents. Since 2005 there has been a drive for the expanded control of these diseases through an integrated approach of mass drug administration referred to as Preventive Chemotherapy via community-based distribution systems and through schools. This has been made possible by donations from major pharmaceutical companies of quality and efficacious drugs which have a proven track record of safety. As a result of the increased commitment of endemic countries, bilateral donors and non-governmental development organisations, there has been a considerable expansion of mass drug administration. In particular, programmes targeting lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma and soil transmitted helminth infections have expanded to treat 887. 8 million people in 2009. There has been significant progress towards guinea worm eradication, and the control of leprosy and human African trypanosomiasis. This paper responds to what the authors believe are inappropriate criticisms of these programmes and counters accusations of the motives of partners made in recently published papers. We provide a detailed response and update the information on the numbers of global treatments undertaken for NTDs and list the success stories to date.The paper acknowledges that in undertaking any health programme in environments such as post

  8. Comparing progress toward the millennium development goal for under-five mortality in León and Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social inequality in child survival hampers the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4). Monitoring under-five mortality in different social strata may contribute to public health policies that strive to reduce social inequalities. This population-based study examines the trends, causes, and social inequality of mortality before the age of five years in rural and urban areas in Nicaragua. Methods The study was conducted in one rural (Cuatro Santos) and one urban/rural area (León) based on data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. We analyzed live births from 1990 to 2005 in the urban/rural area and from 1990 to 2008 in the rural area. The annual average rate reduction (AARR) and social under-five mortality inequality were calculated using the education level of the mother as a proxy for socio-economic position. Causes of child death were based on systematic interviews (verbal autopsy). Results Under-five mortality in all areas is declining at a rate sufficient to achieve MDG4 by 2015. Urban León showed greater reduction (AARR = 8.5%) in mortality and inequality than rural León (AARR = 4.5%) or Cuatro Santos (AARR = 5.4%). Social inequality in mortality had increased in rural León and no improvement in survival was observed among mothers who had not completed primary school. However, the poor and remote rural area Cuatro Santos was on track to reach MDG4 with equitable child survival. Most of the deaths in both areas were due to neonatal conditions and infectious diseases. Conclusions All rural and urban areas in Nicaragua included in this study were on track to reach MDG4, but social stratification in child survival showed different patterns; unfavorable patterns with increasing inequity in the peri-urban rural zone and a more equitable development in the urban as well as the poor and remote rural area. An equitable progress in child survival may also be accelerated in very poor settings. PMID:24428933

  9. Imaging in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Henry, D A

    2000-10-01

    The last few decades of the 20th century were marked by tremendous advances in diagnostic imaging and related therapeutic procedures. The new millennium holds great promise for more spectacular advances. Continuing evolution of computer technology coupled with existing and evolving digital imaging platforms will serve as a catalyst for significant developments in virtually all areas of imaging. This report surveys the potential of these advances in areas relevant to critical care. PMID:11070806

  10. Faculty Development to Address the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillian-Daniel, Donald L.; Kraemer, Sara B.

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in academic achievement between students who are under-represented minorities, the first in their families to go to college, and/or low income and their more privileged peers affects students from kindergarten through college. Inequities throughout their education, as well as other causes affect the ability of high school graduates to…

  11. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues’ perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries’ health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies. PMID:26673477

  12. Can Emphasising Cognitive Development Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K.; Gadzichowski, Marinka K.; Gallington, Deborah A.; Saracina, Robin P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children ordinarily begin their formal education at the age when the great majority of them are capable of understanding the role of addition and subtraction in changing number. In determining critical differences they can apply the oddity principle--the first "pure" abstraction that children ever develop--understanding that when all…

  13. Measuring the Achievement of Professional Development Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Deb; Grigsby, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Universities systematically use assessments to evaluate programs of teacher education. The Professional Development Schools Partnership was a well-established collaboration with more than 11 years of work with area schools. However, two questions became the center of a discussion for evaluating, monitoring, and identifying the accomplishments of…

  14. Passport to the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Mary Grace

    2001-01-01

    Describes a year-long social studies program called "Passport to the Millennium." Students "travel" around the world learning about the history, geography, culture, and economy of different countries. The program is appropriate for students in elementary to secondary grades. Includes a sample lesson plan. (CMK)

  15. Poised for the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Presents advice from five school administrators on how schools are meeting facility and business challenges in the new millennium. Issues discussed concern power needs, the Y2K computer problem, the explosion of new educational technology, school security, educational finance, and building deterioration. (GR)

  16. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  17. The Millennium Development Goals Agenda: Constraints of Culture, Economy, and Empowerment in Influencing the Social Mobility of Pakistani Girls on Mathematics and Science Related Higher Education Courses in Universities in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The third of the eight Millennium Development Goals is to promote gender equality and empower women. This article discusses the factors that are associated with 31 female higher education students' choices and aspirations to pursue education and careers in mathematics and science-related fields. The analysis is based on semistructured interviews.…

  18. Higher Education Is Key To Achieving MDGs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Imagine trying to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) without higher education. As key institutions of civil society, universities are uniquely positioned between the communities they serve and the governments they advise. Through the CIDA-funded University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program, Canadian universities have…

  19. Periodontics in the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Vandersall, D C

    1998-07-01

    This article prognosticates where periodontology will be in the next millennium. The forecasting of such events is wrought with confusion because such predictions are shadowed by bias, dogmatism, prejudice, experiences, and opinions from either a closed or open mind. The results of the survey from 101 periodontists reflect opinions from varied backgrounds, years of clinical experience, and individual levels of success or failure. The responses cannot be tested for accuracy or duplicated by another survey except to wait out the test of time for the year 2025. Clinicians will be challenged to make decisions on accepting new techniques and concepts as these are brought into the therapeutic fold of periodontics. The clinician will be met with new possibilities as a paradigm shift is inevitable for periodontal practice in the next millennium. After all, who would have thought in the 1960s, the soft tissue augmentation era, that 22 years later in 1982, the regeneration of the lost attachment apparatus (alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament) would become a reality. This survey strongly suggests that by the end of the first quarter of the twenty-first century, local delivery of antimicrobials, growth and differentiation factors, and root biomodification agents will have a major impact on the practice of periodontics. One thing is certain, in the next millennium, considering the responses from this survey, a new era in periodontics will be here. By the year 2025, the research, development, and dissemination of new periodontal knowledge will be beyond the imagination from what was considered usual and customary for the twentieth century. PMID:9700454

  20. Teaching Conflict Management Skills in Schools: Prerequisite for Peace and Achievement of Millennium Development Goals in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawo, Jane Irene A.; Wagah, Mical Ongachi

    2011-01-01

    The Kenyan society is experiencing a lot of conflicts, some with devastating effects such as deaths, starvation, disease and destruction. These normally arise out of difference between people. Secondary schools being part of the society have not been left out of this challenge as evidenced by mass media reports on strikes, demonstrations and…

  1. Extending the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework: Development of a Measure of Scientific Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Carter, Alice P.; Lobrano, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The current research sought to extend the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework by developing and testing the Achievement Goals for Research Scale (AGRS). Participants (N = 317) consisted of graduate students in the life, physical, and behavioral sciences. A principal components analysis (PCA) extracted five components accounting for 72.59% of the…

  2. Back to the future: what would the post-2015 global development goals look like if we replicated methods used to construct the Millennium Development Goals?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were ‘top-down’ goals formulated by policy elites drawing from targets within United Nations (UN) summits and conferences in the 1990s. Contemporary processes shaping the new post-2015 development agenda are more collaborative and participatory, markedly different to the pre-MDG era. This study examines what would the outcome be if a methodology similar to that used for the MDGs were applied to the formulation of the post-2015 development goals (Post-2015DGs), identifying those targets arising from UN summits and conferences since the declaration of the MDGs, and aggregating them into goals. Methods The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) list of major UN summits and conferences from 2001 to 2012 was utilised to examine targets. The DESA list was chosen due to the agency’s core mission to promote development for all. Targets meeting MDG criteria of clarity, conciseness and measurability were selected and clustered into broad goals based on processes outlined by Hulme and Vandemoortele. The Post-2015DGs that were identified were formatted into language congruent with the MDGs to assist in the comparative analysis, and then further compared to the 12 illustrative goals offered by the UN High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development (High-Level Panel) Agenda’s May 2013 report. Results Ten Post-2015DGs were identified. Six goals expressly overlapped with the current MDGs and four new goals were identified. Health featured prominently in the MDG agenda, and continues to feature strongly in four of the 10 Post-2015DGs. However the Post-2015DGs reposition health within umbrella agendas relating to women, children and the ageing. Six of the 10 Post-2015DGs incorporate the right to health agenda, emphasising both the standing and interconnection of the health agenda in DESA’s summits and conferences under review. Two Post-2015DGs have been extended into six separate goals by the

  3. New Satellite Services for the Next Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeling, J.

    There are many new satellite communication systems that are either on the verge of commercial service or in the advanced planning and design stages for launch in the next millennium. Many will address what are considered to be new markets for satellites, using services and applications originally developed for terrestrial networks. Many of these services are network oriented and this will require a step change in the way that the satellite resource is managed if these systems are to succeed. This paper discusses these issues and offers some thoughts on what additional future services this change in approach may generate in the next millennium.

  4. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  5. Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian C.; Nayak, P. Pandurang

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of sensor rich, massively distributed, autonomous systems are being developed that have the potential for profound social, environmental, and economic change. These include networked building energy systems, autonomous space probes, chemical plant control systems, satellite constellations for remote ecosystem monitoring, power grids, biosphere-like life support systems, and reconfigurable traffic systems, to highlight but a few. To achieve high performance, these immobile robots (or immobots) will need to develop sophisticated regulatory and immune systems that accurately and robustly control their complex internal functions. To accomplish this, immobots will exploit a vast nervous system of sensors to model themselves and their environment on a grand scale. They will use these models to dramatically reconfigure themselves in order to survive decades of autonomous operations. Achieving these large scale modeling and configuration tasks will require a tight coupling between the higher level coordination function provided by symbolic reasoning, and the lower level autonomic processes of adaptive estimation and control. To be economically viable they will need to be programmable purely through high level compositional models. Self modeling and self configuration, coordinating autonomic functions through symbolic reasoning, and compositional, model-based programming are the three key elements of a model-based autonomous systems architecture that is taking us into the New Millennium.

  6. Revisiting Public Health Challenges in the New Millennium

    PubMed Central

    Anish, TS; Sreelakshmi, PR

    2013-01-01

    Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour. PMID:24116303

  7. Sustainable water management in rural and peri-urban areas: what technology do we need to meet the UN millennium development goals?

    PubMed

    Wilderer, P A

    2005-01-01

    Installation of advanced urban water management systems is one of the most important first steps in the attempt to overcome poverty on earth, outbreak of diseases, crime and even terrorism. Because world wide application of traditional water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment technology requires financial resources which are basically not available within a reasonable short time frame novel solutions must be found, developed and implemented. The combination of high-tech on-site treatment of the various waste streams generated in households, enterprises and industrial sites, and reuse of the valuable materials obtained from the treatment plants, including the purified water, is one of the options which is investigated by various groups of researchers and technology developers, nowadays. This concept may help meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals, provided people are ready to accept this new way of dealing with household wastes. Education is necessary to build up the foundation which modern water technology can be based upon. In parallel, tailored modifications are to be considered to satisfy the specific demands of local communities. In this context, female participation appears to be extremely important in the decision making process. PMID:16104399

  8. The Millennium Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, R. W.

    1997-08-01

    Derived from Hipparcos and Tycho observations, the Millennium Star Atlas is a set of 1548 charts covering the entire sky to about magnitude 11. It stands apart from all previous printed atlases in completeness to magnitude 10 and in uniformity around the sky. The generous chart scale has made possible a number of innovations never before seen in a star atlas: arrows on high-proper-motion stars, double-star ticks conveying separation and position angle for a specific modern epoch, distance labels for nearby stars, and variable stars coded by amplitude, period, and type. Among the nonstellar objects plotted, more than 8000 galaxies are shown with aspect ratio and orientation.

  9. Relationship between Professional Development Expenditures and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was based on convergence of two educational theories: 1) that professional development improves teacher quality and instructional practices and therefore positively affects student achievement and 2) allocation of school resources positively affects student achievement. It is a common educational belief that professional development…

  10. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  11. Accounting for water quality in monitoring access to safe drinking-water as part of the Millennium Development Goals: lessons from five countries

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Rob ES; Wright, Jim A; Yang, Hong; Pedley, Steve; Bartram, Jamie K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine how data on water source quality affect assessments of progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target on access to safe drinking-water. Methods Data from five countries on whether drinking-water sources complied with World Health Organization water quality guidelines on contamination with thermotolerant coliform bacteria, arsenic, fluoride and nitrates in 2004 and 2005 were obtained from the Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality project. These data were used to adjust estimates of the proportion of the population with access to safe drinking-water at the MDG baseline in 1990 and in 2008 made by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, which classified all improved sources as safe. Findings Taking account of data on water source quality resulted in substantially lower estimates of the percentage of the population with access to safe drinking-water in 2008 in four of the five study countries: the absolute reduction was 11% in Ethiopia, 16% in Nicaragua, 15% in Nigeria and 7% in Tajikistan. There was only a slight reduction in Jordan. Microbial contamination was more common than chemical contamination. Conclusion The criterion used by the MDG indicator to determine whether a water source is safe can lead to substantial overestimates of the population with access to safe drinking-water and, consequently, also overestimates the progress made towards the 2015 MDG target. Monitoring drinking-water supplies by recording both access to water sources and their safety would be a substantial improvement. PMID:22461718

  12. School Board Member Professional Development and Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry L.; Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the issue of professional development education for school board members. The research question that guides this mixed study is: does school board member professional development have an effect on student achievement? Design/methodology/approach: The standardized protocol for this study was to send…

  13. Professional Development Schools and Student Learning and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Pia Lindquist; Glass, Ronald David

    2011-01-01

    A central commitment for professional development schools (PDSs) is to link preservice teacher preparation and in-service teacher professional development with improved learning outcomes for pupils. PDSs are expected to improve student achievement in two primary ways: (1) by enriching and intensifying the learning environment through professional…

  14. Achievement Gap. Early Developments. Volume 11, Number 2, Fall 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pam, Ed.; Buysse, Virginia, Ed.; Zimmerman, Tracy, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Research has identified a host of factors that likely contribute to the disparity in achievement, negating the possibility that a one-size-fits-all answer exists. Therefore, the initiatives highlighted in this issue of "Early Developments" address a variety of approaches. This issue of "Early Developments" includes the following articles: (1) The…

  15. The Role of Educational Technology in Developing Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.

    1969-01-01

    Essay focusing on how achievement motivation is developed in students and adults, with some discussion of how various dimensions of educational technology may contribute to this development. Paper written pursuant to contract 0-8-071231-1747 with the U.S. Office of Education, under provisions of the Cooperative Research Program. (LS)

  16. A Quest for the Holy Grail in the New Millennium: In Search of a Unified Theory of Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Sophie; Normandeau, Sylvie; Larivee, Serge

    2000-01-01

    Emphasizes the benefits of cooperation between researchers in developing a comprehensive model of cognitive development that considers the constraints of human brain structures and the interplay of general laws of development and individual differences in developmental pathways within the context of social and cultural environments. (Author)

  17. Gender Equality in Education in the Context of the Millennium Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moletsane, Relebohile

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the question: In the context of poverty, gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV/AIDS currently ravaging under-resourced countries, dare we set our hopes for gender- equitable development in general, and gender equality in education in particular, on the Millenium Development Goals MDGs? The article analyses the…

  18. Implementing IDEA '97 in the New Millennium. The Professional Development Leadership Academy: Enhancing Collaborative Partnerships for Systems Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Harvey; Murray, Karl; Stockhouse, Judy

    The National Association of State Directors of Special Education has established the Professional Development Leadership Academy to assist states in meeting state improvement plan requirements of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Professional development is crucial to this endeavor and will be accomplished…

  19. Carrot Soup, Magic Bullets, and Scientific Research for Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabbott, Colette

    2007-01-01

    Following the UN Millennium Summit in 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set global sector specific development targets to be achieved by the year 2015. In this article, the author explores the role of health and education research in producing technological innovations and global policy options and goals, such as the MDGs. Here, she…

  20. Student Achievement and Education System Performance in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Hok, Ung Ngo; Tinon, Souer; Veasna, Meung; Nissay, Put

    2012-01-01

    The global spread of national assessment testing activities, and the growing pressure to move beyond basic measures of participation in educational monitoring, means that student achievement measures are likely to become increasingly relevant indicators of systemic progress in the developing world. Using data from the CESSP project in Cambodia,…

  1. The Right Achievement Test Makes Sense of Your Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Wayne

    This paper describes the experiences of the Ector County Independent School District (Odessa, Texas) in selecting published achievement test to determine the effectiveness of a newly established curriculum. A task force of 24 faculty and staff met for three months. During this time they reviewed the district's philosophy of testing, developed new…

  2. Spinoff 2001: Special Millennium Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    For the past 43 years, NASA has devoted its facilities, labor force, and expertise to sharing the abundance of technology developments used for its missions with the nation's industries. These countless technologies have not only successfully contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy, but also to the quality of life on Earth. For the past 25 years, NASA's Spinoff publication has brought attention to thousands of technologies, products, and services that were developed as a direct result of commercial partnerships between NASA and the private business sector. Many of these exciting technologies included advances in ceramics, computer technology, fiber optics, and remote sensing. New and ongoing research at the NASA field centers covers a full spectrum of technologies that will provide numerous advantages for the future, many of which have made significant strides in the commercial market. The NASA Commercial Technology Network plays a large role in transferring this progress. By applying NASA technologies such as data communication, aircraft de-icing technologies, and innovative materials to everyday functions, American consumers and the national economy benefit. Moving forward into the new millennium, these new technologies will further advance our country's position as the world leader in scientific and technical innovation. These cutting-edge innovations represent the investment of the U.S. citizen in the Space Program. Some of these technologies are highlighted in Spinoff 2001, an example of NASA's commitment to technology transfer and commercialization assistance. This year's issue spotlights the commercial technology efforts of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Kennedy's extensive network of commercial technology opportunities has enabled them to become a leader in technology transfer outreach. This kind of leadership is exemplified through Kennedy's recent partnership with the State of Florida, working toward the development of the Space Experiment

  3. Design and Development of an Interactive Web-Based Curriculum in Support of the Space Science Education Initiative: Mars Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Leslie; Karl, Rita

    This paper provides an account of the instructional design and development process used by a team of students enrolled in a graduate level course in distance education as the team members conceptualized and created two prototype World Wide Web-based instructional modules, aimed at grades 5 through 12, for the Lunar and Planetary Institute's Mars…

  4. The development, past achievements, and future directions of brain PET

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Terry; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2012-01-01

    The early developments of brain positron emission tomography (PET), including the methodological advances that have driven progress, are outlined. The considerable past achievements of brain PET have been summarized in collaboration with contributing experts in specific clinical applications including cerebrovascular disease, movement disorders, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, addiction, depression and anxiety, brain tumors, drug development, and the normal healthy brain. Despite a history of improving methodology and considerable achievements, brain PET research activity is not growing and appears to have diminished. Assessments of the reasons for decline are presented and strategies proposed for reinvigorating brain PET research. Central to this is widening the access to advanced PET procedures through the introduction of lower cost cyclotron and radiochemistry technologies. The support and expertize of the existing major PET centers, and the recruitment of new biologists, bio-mathematicians and chemists to the field would be important for such a revival. New future applications need to be identified, the scope of targets imaged broadened, and the developed expertize exploited in other areas of medical research. Such reinvigoration of the field would enable PET to continue making significant contributions to advance the understanding of the normal and diseased brain and support the development of advanced treatments. PMID:22434067

  5. The development, past achievements, and future directions of brain PET.

    PubMed

    Jones, Terry; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2012-07-01

    The early developments of brain positron emission tomography (PET), including the methodological advances that have driven progress, are outlined. The considerable past achievements of brain PET have been summarized in collaboration with contributing experts in specific clinical applications including cerebrovascular disease, movement disorders, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, addiction, depression and anxiety, brain tumors, drug development, and the normal healthy brain. Despite a history of improving methodology and considerable achievements, brain PET research activity is not growing and appears to have diminished. Assessments of the reasons for decline are presented and strategies proposed for reinvigorating brain PET research. Central to this is widening the access to advanced PET procedures through the introduction of lower cost cyclotron and radiochemistry technologies. The support and expertize of the existing major PET centers, and the recruitment of new biologists, bio-mathematicians and chemists to the field would be important for such a revival. New future applications need to be identified, the scope of targets imaged broadened, and the developed expertize exploited in other areas of medical research. Such reinvigoration of the field would enable PET to continue making significant contributions to advance the understanding of the normal and diseased brain and support the development of advanced treatments. PMID:22434067

  6. Students' Achievement Values, Goal Orientations, and Interest: Definitions, Development, and Relations to Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigfield, Allan; Cambria, Jenna

    2010-01-01

    Students' achievement task values, goal orientations, and interest are motivation-related constructs which concern students' purposes and reasons for doing achievement activities. The authors review the extant research on these constructs and describe and compare many of the most frequently used measures of these constructs. They also discuss…

  7. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience Comment on "Improving the World's Health Through the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Perspectives from Rwanda".

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues' perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries' health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies. PMID:26673477

  8. Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Nicole L.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Children living in poverty generally perform poorly in school, with markedly lower standardized test scores and lower educational attainment. The longer children live in poverty, the greater their academic deficits. These patterns persist to adulthood, contributing to lifetime-reduced occupational attainment. OBJECTIVE To determine whether atypical patterns of structural brain development mediate the relationship between household poverty and impaired academic performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal cohort study analyzing 823 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 389 typically developing children and adolescents aged 4 to 22 years from the National Institutes of Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development with complete sociodemographic and neuroimaging data. Data collection began in November 2001 and ended in August 2007. Participants were screened for a variety of factors suspected to adversely affect brain development, recruited at 6 data collection sites across the United States, assessed at baseline, and followed up at 24-month intervals for a total of 3 periods. Each study center used community-based sampling to reflect regional and overall US demographics of income, race, and ethnicity based on the US Department of Housing and Urban Development definitions of area income. One-quarter of sample households reported the total family income below 200% of the federal poverty level. Repeated observations were available for 301 participants. EXPOSURE Household poverty measured by family income and adjusted for family size as a percentage of the federal poverty level. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Children’s scores on cognitive and academic achievement assessments and brain tissue, including gray matter of the total brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus. RESULTS Poverty is tied to structural differences in several areas of the brain associated with school readiness skills, with the largest influence

  9. Millennium Modem/Channelizer Special Test Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1995-01-01

    A broadband modem/channelizer test set developed by NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The test set is a fully programmable, bit-error-rate (BER) test set designed for broadband modem-only and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator characterization. It is currently configured for testing a multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator and was developed for the Advanced Research and Projects Agency under a Technology Reinvestment Program Cooperative Agreement entitled 'Millennium: 21st Century Broadband Digital Telecommunications Technology.' The test set can easily be modified to provide testing of other modems and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator systems and is available to industry for such testing.

  10. Quality Science Teacher Professional Development and Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2007-12-01

    Studies show that socio-economic background and parental education accounts for 50-60 percent of a child's achievement in school. School, and other influences, account for the remaining 40-50 percent. In contrast to most other professions, schools require no real apprenticeship training of science teachers. Overall, only 38 percent of United States teachers have had any on-the-job training in their first teaching position, and in some cases this consisted of a few meetings over the course of a year between the beginning teacher and the assigned mentor or master teacher. Since individual teachers determine the bulk of a student's school experiences, interventions focused on teachers have the greatest likelihood of affecting students. To address this deficiency, partnerships between scientists and K-12 teachers are increasingly recognized as an excellent method for improving teacher preparedness and the quality of science education. Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers' (founded in 1990) basic premise is simple: teachers cannot effectively teach science if they have no firsthand experience doing science, hence the Program's motto, "Practice what you teach." Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers provides strong evidence that a teacher research program is a very effective form of professional development for secondary school science teachers and has a direct correlation to increased student achievement in science. The author will present the methodology of the program's evaluation citing statistically significant data. The author will also show the economic benefits of teacher participation in this form of professional development.

  11. New Millennium EO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) is a NASA technology program that focuses on the validation of advanced spacecraft and instrumentation technologies in space. This program specifically seeks technologies that could significantly benefit future space and Earth science missions by enabling new science capabilities and reducing life cycle costs. These technologies must also require a validation in space to mitigate risks to the first science users, and provide cross-cutting benefits to both NASA's Earth and Space Science enterprises. The NASA Office of Earth Science (OES) directed the NMP to focus the third Earth Observing mission, E03, on innovative measurement concepts that would facilitate remote sensing observations from orbits beyond conventional low-Earth orbit (LEO). These orbits include geosynchronous orbits, highly elliptical orbits, mid-Earth and high-Earth orbits, and other unique vantage points such as L1 and L2. To maximize the input from the Earth science community, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released to solicit innovative measurement concepts for this NMP flight. Because the NMP is a technology validation program, rather than a conventional science program, the NRA required that these measurement concepts employ revolutionary technologies and/or measurement strategies that will enable future science missions from orbits beyond LEO. Another requirement was that a validation in space was needed to reduce real or perceived risks of this concept to future science users. The proposals submitted in response to this NRA were peer reviewed by the NASA OES. The measurement concepts selected through this process will be summarized in this presentation. The E03 measurement concept NRA did not solicit complete mission concepts or flight hardware. Instead, the selected investigators will join integrated project formulation teams to define the mission for the demonstration of the measurement technique and participate in mission design trades and

  12. Teachers Developing Assessment for Learning: Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan; Lee, Clare; Harrison, Christine; Black, Paul

    2004-01-01

    While it is generally acknowledged that increased use of formative assessment (or assessment for learning) leads to higher quality learning, it is often claimed that the pressure in schools to improve the results achieved by students in externally-set tests and examinations precludes its use. This paper reports on the achievement of secondary…

  13. Closing the Gap between Professional Development and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Michelle K.

    2009-01-01

    Whenever there is a discussion on closing or bridging the achievement gap in education, one accurately reasons that the "gap" in question is among groups of students from various cultural and/or socioeconomic backgrounds. Stakeholders throughout academia, then, frantically search for solution(s)" to poor student achievement in America's ailing,…

  14. Skills for the New Millennium. Paper Presentations: Session G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains 14 papers from the skills for the new millennium section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Research on Vocational Education and Training as a Field for Knowledge Development--Starting Points for the…

  15. Water recycling at the Millennium Dome.

    PubMed

    Hills, S; Smith, A; Hardy, P; Birks, R

    2001-01-01

    Thames Water is working with the New Millennium Experience Company to provide a water recycling system for the Millennium Dome which will supply 500 m3/d of reclaimed water for WC and urinal flushing. The system will treat water from three sources: rainwater--from the Dome roof greywater--from handbasins in the toilet blocks groundwater--from beneath the Dome site The treatment technologies will range from "natural" reedbeds for the rainwater, to more sophisticated options, including biological aerated filters and membranes for the greywater and groundwater. Pilot scale trials were used to design the optimum configuration. In addition to the recycling system, water efficient devices will be installed in three of the core toilet blocks as part of a programme of research into the effectiveness of conservation measures. Data on water usage and customer behaviour will be collected via a comprehensive metering system. Information from the Dome project on the economics and efficiency of on-site recycling at large scale and data on water efficient devices, customer perception and behaviour will be of great value to the water industry. For Thames Water, the project provides vital input to the development of future water resource strategies. PMID:11436793

  16. The New Millennium Program power technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, A.B.; Das, A.; Cassapakis, C.

    1996-12-31

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) has been established to accelerate the infusion of breakthrough technologies into NASA space science missions. The goal of this technology infusion is to fulfill the NASA vision of frequent, low-cost missions to deep space and to plant Earth. Power is one of the most important keys to cost-effective space science missions. The power subsystem comprises over 25 percent of the mass of a typical space orbiter type spacecraft. The problems of power will become even more acute in the new millennium as deep space missions are asked to go farther from the Sun and get to their destinations faster. Several power technology proposals were submitted to the NMP through its Modular and Multifunctional Systems Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT). The proposals described in this paper received the most consideration and in several cases resulted in the technology being selected for flight on one of the NMP missions. The technologies discussed here are: SCARLET array, Light Flexible array, lithium ion battery, cold temperature battery, inflatable concentrators and a related technology -- Multifunctional Structures.

  17. Global sediment fluxes during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, Victoria; Reick, Christian; Van Oost, Kristof; Hoffmann, Thomas; Pongratz, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Soil redistribution plays an important role in the transport of carbon and nutrients between terrestrial ecosystems. However, quantification of soil redistribution and its effects on the global biogeochemical cycles is currently unknown. This study aims at developing new tools and methods to represent soil redistribution on a global scale, and contribute to the quantification of anthropogenic disturbances to the biogeochemical cycles. We present a new large-scale coarse resolution sediment budget model that can simulate spatial patterns and long-term trends in soil redistribution in floodplains and on hillslope, resulting from external forces such as climate and land use change. First, we validated the model for the Rhine catchment using observed Holocene sediment storage data and observed scaling behavior between sediment storage and catchment area. Then, we applied the model on 20 large river catchments globally, using climate and land cover data from the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for the last millennium (850 - 2005AD). We show that the model can reproduce current observed sediment yields if uncertainty in the observations is taken into account. Furthermore, we find that the change in erosion rates during the last millennium resulted in a significant increase in sediment storage for different global catchments. We identify land use change as the main driver behind this change in sediment storage. Finally, catchments characteristics, such as area and slope, play an important role in buffering or amplifying the effect of land use and other external forces on the change in erosion and sediment storage.

  18. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  19. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  20. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  1. Student Achievement through the Development of Complete High School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamphere, Michael Frederick, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation undertook an investigation of school culture and achievement in the high school setting. The national data set ELS:2002 was used as the pool of variables because it allows for a complete picture of school culture comprising students, parents, administrators, and teachers. The data were selected based on current literature and…

  2. The Development of Randomized Achievement Monitoring. Third Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dwight W.; Gorth, William P.

    The unique character and needs of the Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring (CAM) system has led to the creation of new computer programs and new techniques. Thus, earlier manual strategies (which were subject to error) for the handling of the large banks of behavioral objectives and test items, have been supplanted by a three-phase computer…

  3. Bioengineering in the millennium.

    PubMed

    Ranu, H S

    1998-10-01

    This symposium identified the major challenges in biomedical research that will benefit from bioengineering applications. Attention was focused on the important role that bioengineers will play in future advances in biomedical research. There was considerable discussion about how to integrate bioengineering with biological research in meeting the challenges of the twenty-first century. Symposium presenters showcased the accomplishments of NIH-funded bioengineering researches and increased the visibility of bioengineering to NIH leaders, staff, and members of the intramural and extramural research community. Recommendations were also made for future NIH-funded research projects. Attention was also placed on how basic bioengineering research can lead to commercialization of new health care technology and therefore maintain the nation's leadership in this important area. New products, from biotechnology and novel devices for diagnosis and treatment, are marketed through interactions between universities, medical centers, small start-up firms, and larger, more established companies. In the United States the gross revenue of the bioengineering private sector industry involved in the manufacture of health care products already exceeds $40 billion. More then 750 persons attended this bioengineering symposium. Over 110 scientific posters and exhibits relating to biology and medicine were presented. They provided a forum for showcasing NIH-funded bioengineering projects and fostered future collaboration among academic investigators, industry, and members of the small business community. The contributions of Pugwash bioengineer, Maciej Natecz, a member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, was recognized by the Conference Planning Committee. He was honored for his work in nuclear disarmament. Indian medical scientists should note that this symposium provided a framework for the development of technology in biomedical sciences during the Twenty-First Century. Major

  4. Achieving Universal Primary Education by 2015: A Chance for Every Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Barbara; Mingat, Alain; Rakotomalala, Ramahatra

    Achievement of the second of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)--universal primary education by 2015--is crucial, as education is one of the most powerful instruments for reducing poverty and inequality and for laying the foundation for sustained economic growth, effective institutions, and sound governance. This study assesses whether…

  5. Refugee Children in South Africa: Access and Challenges to Achieving Universal Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meda, L.; Sookrajh, R.; Maharaj, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper questions whether the second Millennium Development Goal of achieving universal primary education targets by 2015 for all children to complete a full course of primary schooling, can be realised. A key contention of this paper is that this forecast is far-fetched when we take into cognizance refugee children's accessibility to…

  6. Achieving Quality Education in Ghana: The Spotlight on Primary Education within the Kumasi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Anin, Emmanuel Kwabena; Vanderpuye, Patience

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ghana being a member of the United Nations, committed to the Universal Primary Education initiative in 2000 and has since implemented series of educational reforms to meet the target for the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2. Despite the numerous government interventions to achieve the MDG 2, many children in Ghana have been denied…

  7. Achievement Place: development of the elected manager system1

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Elery L.; Phillips, Elaine A.; Wolf, Montrose M.; Fixsen, Dean L.

    1973-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to compare several administrative systems at Achievement Place, a family style behavior modification program for pre-delinquent boys. One aspect of the motivation system at Achievement Place was the token economy in which the youths could earn or lose points that could be exchanged for privileges. Several arrangements for assigning routine tasks and for providing token consequences for task performance were compared for their effectiveness in accomplishing the tasks and for their preference by the boys. The independent variables studied included: (1) individually assigned tasks versus group assigned tasks; (2) consequences for individual performance versus consequences for group performance; (3) a peer managership that could be earned by the highest bidder versus a peer managership that could be determined democratically by the peers. The results suggested that among those systems studied the system that best met the criteria of effectiveness and preference involved a democratically elected peer manager who had the authority both to give and to take away points for his peers' performances. PMID:16795439

  8. Electric vehicles in the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, G. G.

    It is well known that the history of battery electric vehicles (EVs) is a long one that covers a period in excess of one hundred years. It is also well known that, in their early days, these vehicles were capable of out-performing their contemporary internal combustion-engined (ICEV) equivalents in terms of speed and acceleration. Since those days, and indeed until quite recently, there has been a quite remarkable difference between the vast strides made in developing ICEVs in general and cars in particular, and the relatively small improvements made in the capabilities of EVs. It is now being argued that this must change and the purpose of this paper is to consider the extent to which it is practical to expect such a change, on a large scale, in the early part of the next millennium.

  9. Using Collaborative Course Development to Achieve Online Course Quality Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ining Tracy; Saj, Tami; Hamilton, Doug

    2010-01-01

    The issue of quality is becoming front and centre as online distance education moves into the mainstream of higher education. Many believe collaborative course development is the best way to design quality online courses. This research uses a case study approach to probe into the collaborative course development process and the implementation of…

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PLANNING PROCESS TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concepts of sustainability are numerous, widely discussed, and necessary, but sustainability needs to be applied to development projects to succeed. However, few applications are made and their measures are unclear. Sustainability indicators are typically used as measures, but ...

  11. Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot I

    2015-02-01

    For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. PMID:25555255

  12. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Chmielewski, A.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program is intended to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  13. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S. A.; Davies, A.; Sherwood, R. L.; Wyman, W.

    2004-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program validates advanced technologies in space and thus lowers the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on future missions. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing re-deployment of resources to other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  14. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  15. Healthy latrine development model to achieve MDGs target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soedjono, Eddy S.; Arumsari, Nurvita

    2014-03-01

    A case happened in Pungging sub-district was one example of low level healthy habits of East Java inhabitants. According to the data of Mojokerto district Health Service until the end of 2010, there are 219 families (or about 8% of total families in Pungging sub-district) which do not have their own latrine. Moreover, if we observe closely to their prosperity level, the percentage of disadvantaged families and prosperous level I is still adequately high about 29,54% of the total number of families in Pungging sub-district. Accordingly, comprehensive studies related to basic sanitation requirement need to be done, not only in the matter of quantity but also in the matter of quality. Furthermore, further studies on people's knowledge and understanding on healthy sanitation also needed in the effort to understand people's demand to own latrine (willingness to pay) and ability to pay. Consequently, the design of healthy latrine which agrees with people's demand and ability is needed in order to achieve the target of Open Defecation Free (ODF) in 2015. The research methodology includes literary study, data collection, data analysis, and healthy latrine design. Out of 75 respondents, only 32% of them who attended counselling program on healthy latrine and only 48% of them who have knowledge on healthy latrine, but in reality 96% of respondents stated that healthy latrine is important. Healthy latrine, according to the respondents, is a place of defecation (BAB) which has components like latrine bowl or septic tank. Estimation on WTP distribution which is divided in two categories; low category with range of willingness to pay from IDR 0 to IDR 200,000 is IDR 90,048,000. On the other hand, high category with range of willingness to pay more than IDR 1,000,000 is IDR 749,964,768. Estimation on respondents' ATP in the area of study on the sanitation maintenance service is from IDR 7,000 to IDR 30,000.

  16. Project Coach: Youth Development and Academic Achievement through Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intrator, Sam M.; Siegel, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and educators have long tried to find the connection between participation in sport-related activities and academic and social development among youths. This article traces the conceptual ideas that led to the design of an after-school sports program (Project Coach). This program promotes positive youth and community development…

  17. Professional Development: Sorting through the Jumble to Achieve Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Few in the education field discount the eminently logical idea that teachers should be supported in the continuous improvement of their craft. But as a term for describing ongoing training investments in the teaching force, "professional development" has become both ubiquitous and all but meaningless. Though frequently invoked by lawmakers and…

  18. Achieving Digital Literacy through Game Development: An Authentic Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to argue that the process of making an original game develops digital literacy skills and provides an authentic learning experience as students create, publish and deploy interactive games. Teaching students to create computer games has become common in both K-12 and tertiary education to introducing programming concepts,…

  19. Systems and Cascades in Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    A large-scale ("N" = 552) controlled multivariate prospective 14-year longitudinal study of a developmental cascade embedded in a developmental system showed that information-processing efficiency in infancy (4 months), general mental development in toddlerhood (18 months), behavior difficulties in early childhood (36 months), psychometric…

  20. Achieving the Goals. Goal 4: Teacher Education and Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Goal 4 of the National Education Goals envisions that teachers will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills. This book examines what federal agencies are doing to enhance teacher preparation, presents information on career-long development, and offers program descriptions and contact names. The first…

  1. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  2. Beaconless search and rescue overview: history, development, and achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Ronald G.; Affens, David W.; Rais, Houra

    1997-06-01

    The NASA Search and Rescue Mission at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is carrying out a technology development project intended to complement the COSPAS-SARSAT satellite-based distress alerting and locating system. This system is based on emergency radio beacons and cannot function when beacons fail to operate. The beaconless search and rescue concept utilizes an airborne or spaceborne remote sensing instrument, such as a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), to aid in searching for downed aircraft in remote regions when no beacon is present. Compared with conventional visual search, a radar-based system would be capable of dramatically improving crash site detection due to its wide area coverage and foliage penetration. Moreover, the performance of this system is unaffected by weather conditions and ambient light level and hence it offers quick response time which is vital to the survival of crash victims. The Search and Rescue Mission has conducted a series of field experiments using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's airborne SAR system (AIRSAR) which has demonstrated the technical feasibility of using SAR. The SAR data processing software (SARDPS) developed at GSFC is used to produce high-quality SAR images for post-processing and analysis. Currently various elements of an operational system are being investigated, including a SAR designed specifically to meet search and rescue needs, real-time or near-real time on-board SAR processing, and processing algorithms for advanced automatic crash site detection, image geo- rectification and map registration.

  3. Sex-Role Attitudes and the Development of Achievement Need in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Phylis M.

    1974-01-01

    Is the development of achievement motivation in women influenced by the social role females are reared to play? The conclusion here is that self-concept and attitudes toward femininity are related and interact in inhibiting achievement need. (Author)

  4. Achieving dependability throughout the development process - A distributed software experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, John P. J.; Murphy, Susan C.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed software engineering techniques and methods for improving the specification and testing phases are considered. With multiversion development, multiple implementations allow the use of an automated approach to testing called back-to-back (B/B) testing in which the outputs are compared to detect any discrepancies. However, a specification defect may lead to similar errors in the multiple versions and the underlying fault may not be detected with a B/B testing approach. The use of diverse formal specifications has been proposed as a solution to this problem, since defects in independently written specifications are likely to be different. To examine these issues, an experiment was performed using the design diversity approach in the specification, design, implementation, and testing of distributed software. In the experiment, three diverse formal specifications were used to produce multiple independent implementations of a distributed communication protocol in Ada. The problems encountered in building complex concurrent processing systems in Ada were also studied. Many pitfalls were discovered in mapping the formal specifications into Ada implementations.

  5. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities.

  6. Enhanced Formation Flying for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) New Millennium Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Quinn, David

    1997-01-01

    With scientific objectives for Earth observation programs becoming more ambitious and spacecraft becoming more autonomous, the need for new technical approaches on the feasibility of achieving and maintaining formations of spacecraft has come to the forefront. The trend to develop small low cost spacecraft has led many scientists to recognize the advantage of flying several spacecraft in formation, an example of which is shown in the figure below, to achieve the correlated instrument measurements formerly possible only by flying many instruments on a single large platform. Yet, formation flying imposes additional complications on orbit maintenance, especially when each spacecraft has its own orbit requirements. However, advances in automation proposed by GSFC Codes 550 and 712 allow more of the burden in maneuver planning and execution to be placed onboard the spacecraft, mitigating some of the associated operational concerns. The purpose of this analysis is to develop the fundamentals of formation flying mechanics, concepts for understanding the relative motion of free flying spacecraft, and an operational control theory for formation maintenance of the Earth Observing-1 (EO-l) spacecraft that is part of the New Millennium. Results of this development can be used to determine the appropriateness of formation flying for a particular case as well as the operational impacts. Applications to the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Earth Observing System (EOS) and New Millennium (NM) were highly considered in analysis and applications. This paper presents the proposed methods for the guidance and control of the EO-1 spacecraft to formation fly with the Landsat-7 spacecraft using an autonomous closed loop three axis navigation control, GPS, and Cross link navigation support. Simulation results using various fidelity levels of modeling, algorithms developed and implemented in MATLAB, and autonomous 'fuzzy logic' control using AutoCon will be presented. The results of these

  7. Gendering the millennium: globalising women.

    PubMed

    Afshar, H

    2000-08-01

    As the century has just changed for the Western calendar it should be borne in mind that for a vast part of the world the centuries are rolling at a different time and under different conditions. So, although we live and trade in a "global village", we are yet divided by time, space, and ideologies. The hope is that the 21st century will enable us to have a closer look at each other and that the global networks, the web sites, and the electronic mailing systems, will work as a bridge rather than as a new means of widening the gaps. This article is a plea for a better understanding of the different priorities and views that Islamist women have of themselves, of their place in history, and what it is that they need to fight for. It is also a call for the universality of sisterhood and a wish that the solidarity that was forged in the latter part of the 20th century will not be fragmented into smithereens in the new millennium. PMID:12349747

  8. The Millennium Run Observatory: first light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overzier, R.; Lemson, G.; Angulo, R. E.; Bertin, E.; Blaizot, J.; Henriques, B. M. B.; Marleau, G.-D.; White, S. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of galaxy evolution aim to capture our current understanding as well as to make predictions for testing by future experiments. Simulations and observations are often compared in an indirect fashion: physical quantities are estimated from the observational data and compared to models. However, many applications can benefit from a more direct approach, where the observing process is also simulated, so that the models are seen fully from the observer's perspective. To facilitate this, we have developed the Millennium Run Observatory (MRObs), a theoretical virtual observatory which uses virtual telescopes to `observe' semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations based on the suite of Millennium Run (MR) dark matter simulations. The MRObs produces data that can be processed and analysed using the standard observational software packages developed for real observations. At present, we produce images in 40 filters covering the rest-frame ultraviolet to infrared for two stellar population synthesis models, for three different models of absorption by the intergalactic medium, and in two cosmologies (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe year 1 and 7). Galaxy distributions for a large number of mock light cones can be `observed' using models of major ground- and space-based telescopes. The data include light cone catalogues linked to structural properties of galaxies, pre-observation model images, mock telescope images and Source Extractor products that can all be traced back to the higher level dark matter, semi-analytic galaxy and light cone catalogues available in the MR data base. Here, we describe our methods and announce a first public release of simulated observations that emulate a large number of extragalactic surveys [e.g. Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHT-LS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), GOODS/Early Release Science (ERS), Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS

  9. New Space Industries for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

  10. The Forms of Capital and the Developed Achievement of Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the association of the various forms of capital on the developed achievement of Black males. As one of the richest longitudinal family economic data sets, the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics is used to estimate multilevel growth models of the math and reading achievement of Black…

  11. Hispanic Students and the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program: Promising Results Extending to the Third College Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, Leticia; Denson, Nida; Hurtado, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Financing college is increasingly difficult for many college students and it can be especially difficult for low-income students. Using data from the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program, this study provides a portrait of the 1st and 3rd year experiences of a sample of both high achieving Hispanic scholarship recipients and non-recipients.…

  12. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs). PMID:24550246

  13. Challenges of toxicology for the millennium.

    PubMed

    Wong, S H

    2000-02-01

    In meeting the challenges of toxicology, clinical and forensic toxicologists should expand their services and engage in research and development to meet changing needs. Expanding roles could potentially derive from the threat of terrorism, genotyping for interpretation of potential toxic drug interactions, and criminalistic testings. At the threshold of the next millennium, terrorism via weapons of mass destruction (WMD) has migrated from the war zones to civilian settings. These WMD may be in the form of nuclear, biological, and chemical devices (NBC). Recently, the possible use of chemical/biological weapons in the Middle East conflicts, the use of sarin in a Tokyo subway station, and the unregulated availability of nuclear fuel in some countries all have heightened the potential for international and domestic NBC. In preparation for NBC, both government and civilians in major American cities have been trained for safe handling of patients and casualties. Forensic and clinical toxicologists should be knowledgeable about the clinical pharmacology, safe samples processing, and possible screening and/or analysis of samples exposed to or containing: vesicants; cyanide; and nerve, riot control, and pulmonary agents. These samples may be transported for further analysis and confirmed by designated central laboratories. In criminal/correctional settings, toxicologists should engage in quality assurance and consultation with attorneys, judges, and correctional professionals. With the emergence of pharmacogenetics, genotyping may enhance rational drug therapy for enhanced patient care, and may explain adverse or fatal drug reactions in postmortem analysis. PMID:10688259

  14. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  15. High Performance Computing Facilities for the Next Millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, William; Verdier, Francesca; Fitzgerald, Keith; Craw, James; Welcome, Tammy.

    1999-10-01

    High Performance Computing facilities face increased pressures to survive and thrive in the next millennium. HPC facilities must combine effective techniques of the past with innovative methods of the future. This tutorial explores requirements and pressures on HPC centers, and presents effective methods being employed and new approaches to employ to overcome these challenges. Topics include: The current state of HPC computing and projections; System management that allows MPPs running many large jobs to achieve greater than 90% utilization of CPUs; Archive storage issues of improving transfer bandwidth and practical advice for running Terabyte archives; Innovations for client services to ensure the ''intellectual resource'' is equally val2048by clients as the systems; Introduce the Effective System Performance Test a new way to objectively measure and compare not just system performance (e.g. sustained performance of applications) but also system effectiveness (e.g. how many system resources, especially CPU time can really be used by the workload over time); Integrating production with a good is critical to maintaining a robust HPC facility: The tutorial will address how to achieve and maintain this delicate balance. It explores what a facility needs to do to thrive in the new millennium.

  16. TEND 2000: Proceedings of the Technological Education and National Development Conference, "Crossroads of the New Millennium" (2nd, April 8-10, 2000, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Colleges of Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates).

    This document contains a total of 57 welcoming speeches, theme addresses, seminar and workshop papers, and poster sessions that were presented at a conference on technological education and national development. The papers explore the ways technology and technological advances have both necessitated and enabled changes in the way education is…

  17. The Prevalence, Development and Domain Specificity of Elementary School Students' Achievement Goal Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen in de Wal, Joost; Hornstra, Lisette; Prins, Frans J.; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2016-01-01

    This study's aim was to examine the prevalence, development and domain specificity of fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school students' achievement goal profiles. Achievement goals were measured for language and mathematics among 722 pupils at three points in time. These data were analysed through latent profile analysis and latent transition…

  18. The Determinants of School Achievement in Developing Countries: A Review of the Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, John; Alexander, Leigh

    The goal of the review is to identify the factors which promote student cognitive achievement as measured by several studies conducted in developing countries. The major tool of analysis which measures the relationship between the school inputs, like teacher quality and school facilities, and cognitive achievement is the educational production…

  19. Achievement Motivation as a Case of Re-Socialization in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna

    The question of achievement motivation in relation to developing countries is explored. A foundation for the study is achieved through discussion of the socialization processes as they are affected by education and economic growth. It is suggested that the societal system determines motivation and values which in turn cause and determine the…

  20. Reading Development and Achievement of 4th-Grade Hmong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…

  1. Self-Beliefs and Behavioural Development as Related to Academic Achievement in Canadian Aboriginal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydala, Lola; Rasmussen, Carmen; Birch, June; Sherman, Jody; Wikman, Erik; Charchun, Julianna; Kennedy, Merle; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between measures of self-belief, behavioural development, and academic achievement in Canadian Aboriginal children. Standardized measures of intelligence are unable to consistently predict academic achievement in students from indigenous populations. Exploring alternative factors that may be both predictive…

  2. Gaining Retention and Achievement for Students Program (GRASP): A Faculty Development Program To Increase Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShannon, Judith

    This study investigated the effects of a faculty development program offered to increase positive interactions between students and faculty and the effects of these interactions on student achievement and retention. The Gaining Retention and Achievement for Students (GRASP) program supports the accreditation process of the Accreditation Board of…

  3. Developing and Improving Modified Achievement Level Descriptors: Rationale, Procedures, and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Albus, Debra; Rogers, Chris; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    Some states are developing alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) to measure the academic achievement of some students with disabilities (Albus, Lazarus, Thurlow, & Cormier, 2009; Lazarus, Thurlow, Christensen, & Cormier, 2007). These assessments measure the same content as the general assessment for a given…

  4. A multi-proxy, high-resolution record of peatland development and its drivers during the last millennium from the subalpine Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Knaap, W. O.; Lamentowicz, M.; van Leeuwen, J. F. N.; Hangartner, S.; Leuenberger, M.; Mauquoy, D.; Goslar, T.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Lamentowicz, Ł.; Kamenik, C.

    2011-11-01

    We present a record of peatland development during the last 1000 years from Mauntschas mire in the eastern Swiss Alps (Upper Engadine valley; 1818 m a.s.l.) inferred from testate amoebae (pH and depth to the water table (DWT) reconstructions), stable oxygen isotopes in Sphagnum (δ 18O; proxy for water vapour pressure) and carbon isotopes in Sphagnum (δ 13C; proxy for mire surface wetness), peat accumulation rates, charcoal (indicating local burning), pollen and spores (proxies for human impact), and plant macrofossils (reflecting local vegetation and trophic state). Past human impact on the local mire conditions was strong but fluctuating during AD 1000-1570 (±50 yr; depth-age model based on 29 14C AMS dates) with local irrigation of nutrient-enriched water and grazing. Human impact was minor AD 1570-1830 (±30 yr) with partial recovery of the local mire vegetation, and it was absent AD 1830 (±30 yr)-present when hummock formation took place. Correlations among DWT, pH, δ 13C, and δ 18O, carried out both with the raw data and with linear trends removed, suggest that the factors driving peatland development changed over time, since only testate amoeba-based pH and DWT co-varied during all the three aforementioned periods. δ 18O correlates with δ 13C only in the period AD 1830-present and with DWT only during AD 1570-1830, δ 13C correlates with DWT only during AD 1000-1570. Part of this apparent instability among the four time series might be attributed to shifts in the local mire conditions which potentially formed very different (non-analogue) habitats. Lack of analogues, caused, for example, by pre-industrial human impact, might have introduced artefacts in the reconstructions, since those habitats are not well represented in some proxy transfer functions. Human impact was probably the main factor for peatland development, distorting most of the climate signals.

  5. Teacher Learning and ELL Reading Achievement in Sheltered Instruction Classrooms: Linking Professional Development to Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Ellen; Kyle, Diane; Chen, Cheng-Ting; Munoz, Marco; Beldon, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The increase in language minority students in U.S. schools has drawn attention to instructional models designed to assist these students. It is critical that literacy educators understand the potential of these models for literacy achievement. This study was designed to examine reading achievement of elementary English language learners in…

  6. Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and…

  7. Relationship between Professional Development, Teachers' Instructional Practices, and the Achievement of Students in Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Thomas, Kelli; Lawrenz, Frances

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between different types of professional development, teachers' instructional practices, and the achievement of students in science and mathematics. The types of professional development studied included immersion, examining practice, curriculum implementation, curriculum development, and…

  8. Theoretical mechanics: Crowd synchrony on the Millennium Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan; Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward

    2005-11-01

    Soon after the crowd streamed on to London's Millennium Bridge on the day it opened, the bridge started to sway from side to side: many pedestrians fell spontaneously into step with the bridge's vibrations, inadvertently amplifying them. Here we model this unexpected and now notorious phenomenon - which was not due to the bridge's innovative design as was first thought - by adapting ideas originally developed to describe the collective synchronization of biological oscillators such as neurons and fireflies. Our approach should help engineers to estimate the damping needed to stabilize other exceptionally crowded footbridges against synchronous lateral excitation by pedestrians.

  9. Theoretical mechanics: crowd synchrony on the Millennium Bridge.

    PubMed

    Strogatz, Steven H; Abrams, Daniel M; McRobie, Allan; Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward

    2005-11-01

    Soon after the crowd streamed on to London's Millennium Bridge on the day it opened, the bridge started to sway from side to side: many pedestrians fell spontaneously into step with the bridge's vibrations, inadvertently amplifying them. Here we model this unexpected and now notorious phenomenon--which was not due to the bridge's innovative design as was first thought--by adapting ideas originally developed to describe the collective synchronization of biological oscillators such as neurons and fireflies. Our approach should help engineers to estimate the damping needed to stabilize other exceptionally crowded footbridges against synchronous lateral excitation by pedestrians. PMID:16267545

  10. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  11. Roe v. Wade. Into the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Sanger, A C

    1998-01-01

    In order to take the fight for reproductive rights into the next millennium, women in the US must be reminded of what life was like for women when contraception and abortion were illegal, and the silent majority of women who accept that abortion is a private decision must be marshalled to express their views politically. In the US, abortion was allowed until the mid- to late-1800s when Protestant leaders feared that Protestant births were being outnumbered by births to Irish Roman Catholic immigrants. There was only minimal organized opposition to abortion during the period when it was illegal and millions of women were dying as a result. An estimated 30,000 women died each year of illegal abortion in the US, and by the 1960s, illegal abortion was the greatest killer of women of reproductive age. Organized medicine, which witnessed these tragedies, never rallied to assure women quality reproductive health care. In fact, one of the first projects of the American Medical Association (AMA) was an anti-abortion campaign designed to put competitors out of business. The AMA waited until 1937 to endorse contraception and until the late 1960s to make efforts to legalize abortion. In 1997, the AMA again abandoned women by supporting the ban on late-term abortions. Pro-choice forces should prioritize the promotion of technological advances that will allow women to control conception and abortion. The means of achieving medical abortion and emergency contraception should be available in every physician's office and should be covered by every health insurance scheme. Reproductive health advocates must also work to inspire honesty about sex and sexuality in our sexually-obsessed, sexually-repressed society. Sex education in Denmark has nearly obliterated adolescent pregnancy and led to an 80% decline in the abortion rate over 30 years. In the US, nearly half of women have an abortion, and anti-abortion advocates should face the reality that their wives, daughters, mothers, and

  12. "COMPARE" Forum: The Post-2015 Education and Development Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf; Sprague, Terra; Turner, David; Smith, Alan; Paulson, Julia; Shields, Robin; Shrestha, Purna Kumar; Unterhalter, Elaine; Vaughan, Rosie Peppin; Smail, Amy; Tungaraza, Frida; Sutherland, Margaret; Stack, Niamah; Barrett, Angeline M.; Bunwaree, Vasant K.; Alhawsawi, Sajjad; Hanna, Helen; Soudien, Crain; Motivans, Albert

    2013-01-01

    As the 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approaches, there are a growing number of processes, preparations and debates on what a post-2015 agenda and framework will look like. The United Nations Development Group (UNDG) (as chaired by the United Nations Development Programme) is leading the planning of efforts…

  13. Making Sense of the Links: Professional Development, Teacher Practices, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Marjorie R.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Although there is substantial evidence that high-quality professional development can improve teacher practices, less evidence exists for the effects of teacher professional development on intermediate outcomes, such as teacher practices, and their ultimate effects on K-12 student achievement. This work links professional…

  14. Writing Project Professional Development Continues to Yield Gains in Student Writing Achievement. Research Brief No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Writing Project (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Writing Project (NWP) has expanded its national portfolio of research projects conducted at local Writing Project sites to 16 studies that examine professional development, teacher practices, and student writing achievement. NWP sites emphasize common principles of high-quality instruction and the professional development necessary to…

  15. Developing an Achievement Test for the Subject of Sound in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözen, Merve; Bolat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an achievement test which includes the basic concepts about the subject of sound and its properties in middle school science lessons and which at the same time aims to reveal the alternative concepts that the students already have. During the process of the development of the test, studies in the field and…

  16. Linking Faculty Development to Community College Student Achievement: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Robert W.; Oliver, Diane E.

    2016-01-01

    Using a mixed methods, multilevel research design, this pilot inquiry explored the relationship between college faculty professional development and the academic achievement of diverse students by coupling two separate links: (a) the effects that professional development activities have on improving teaching strategies, and (b) the effects these…

  17. Elementary School Principals' Knowledge of Literacy Development and Instruction and Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to determine if the knowledge of literacy development and reading instruction practices an elementary school principal possesses impacts the level of reading achievement of his/her students. Principals' scores on an assessment of knowledge of literacy development and instruction were compared to students'…

  18. Staff Development Designed To Improve the Achievement of Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn; Majors, Martha

    This paper describes how the University of Massachusetts (Boston) developed partnership programs to improve achievement of students with significant disabilities just beginning to participate in a standards-based general curriculum. Fundamental to the effort was development of a 12-credit graduate certificate program focused on adapting the…

  19. Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACHIEVEMENT MEASURES FOR TRADE AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION. PROGRESS REPORT NUMBER THREE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALDWIN, THOMAS S.

    DURING THIS PERIOD FROM SEPTEMBER 1 THROUGH NOVEMBER 30, 1966, 35 FIELD CONSULTANTS COMPLETED ANALYSIS OF THEIR INDIVIDUAL TRADE AND TECHNICAL CURRICULUMS. THESE ANALYSES WERE DEVELOPED INTO AN OUTLINE TO SERVE AS A GUIDE FOR DEVELOPING ACHIEVEMENT TESTS. THE FINAL OUTLINE WAS DIVIDED INTO AS MANY DIFFERENT AREAS AS THE CONSULTANTS FELT NECESSARY…

  1. Development of brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity and the relationship to formal math academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha

    2015-02-01

    A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting nonlinguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or "formal" math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6-12 years old), 14 adolescents (13-17 years old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development. PMID:25327879

  2. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  3. Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-01-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  4. Space Transportation in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of Space Transportation in the New Millennium. Pictures are shown of the space shuttle lift Off, rocket motion, the space shuttle main engine, the space shuttle external tank, the space shuttle solid rocket booster, the X-33, X-34, X-37, X-38, magnetic levitation, the rbcc, nuclear thermal propulsion, anti-matter propulsion system, the NTP or anti-matter concept vehicles, and the Space Elevator.

  5. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to

  6. A Mixed-Method Analysis of the Alignment of Title I Achieving Schools' Professional Development to NCLB Professional Development Provisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of schools has been a central discussion among educators, legislators, and stakeholders, with professional development being acknowledged as a fundamental topic for the success of the education system. Studying the alignment of professional development programs provided at Title I Achieving schools to NCLB research based…

  7. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  8. Effects of Developed Electronic Instructional Medium on Students' Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinna, Nsofor Caroline; Dada, Momoh Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of developed electronic instructional medium (video DVD instructional package) on students' achievement in Biology. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-postest control group design. The sample comprised of 180 senior secondary, year two students from six…

  9. The Development of Product Parity Sensitivity in Children with Mathematics Learning Disability and in Typical Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Parity helps us determine whether an arithmetic equation is true or false. The current research examines the development of sensitivity to parity cues in multiplication in typically achieving (TA) children (grades 2, 3, 4 and 6) and in children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD, grades 6 and 8), via a verification task. In TA children…

  10. Influence of School Climate on Students' Achievement and Teachers' Productivity for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeogun, A. A.; Olisaemeka, Blessing U.

    2011-01-01

    The study covers ten secondary schools in Lagos State of Nigeria. The purpose is to ascertain the relationship between school climate and student achievements and teachers' productivity for sustainable development. A total sample of 150 respondents was taken. Ten principals, seven teachers and seven students were randomly picked per school. This…

  11. Evaluating a Newly Developed Differentiation Approach in Terms of Student Achievement and Teachers' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Ozdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate a differentiation approach that was recently developed to teach mathematics to gifted middle school students in terms of its practice by teachers by studying the effect of the approach on achievement among both gifted and non-gifted students. From mixed research methods, the study used an explanatory design. It was…

  12. The Relationship between Middle Level Grade Span Configuration, Professional Development, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Vicki L.

    2004-01-01

    One goal of professional development is to improve student achievement through improved teacher practice. The middle school philosophy, which supports the rationale that student learning is inextricably interwoven into the fabric of an active learning environment, contains many promising practices that "mirror" what is often considered to be high…

  13. Incorporating Student Input in Developing Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Andrew T.; Beddow, Peter A.; Kurz, Alexander; Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2010-01-01

    In developing alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS), several states have modified existing test items with the aim of enhancing accessibility and reducing difficulty for students with disabilities. Using Grade 8 multiple-choice test items in unmodified and modified forms, two studies examined student…

  14. A Study of the Relationship between Professional Development Evaluation and Middle School Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnant Rogers, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    As a result of poor student performance, professional development has emerged as a key strategy for improving instruction and achievement. In times of reduced resources and increased accountability, schools must evaluate their efforts in order to make sound decisions about policy and practice. This mixed method study was designed to investigate…

  15. The Effect of the Developed Differentiation Approach on the Achievements of the Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: The present study is of importance for designing a differentiation approach, which enables gifted students to use their present potential in mathematics effectively and enables them to develop their achievement, while looking at the effect of the approach on both gifted and non-gifted students. Within the scope of the developed…

  16. Heuristic Literacy Development and Its Relation to Mathematical Achievements of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koichu, Boris; Berman, Abraham; Moore, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The relationships between heuristic literacy development and mathematical achievements of middle school students were explored during a 5-month classroom experiment in two 8th grade classes (N = 37). By heuristic literacy we refer to an individual's capacity to use heuristic vocabulary in problem-solving discourse and to approach scholastic…

  17. Developing a Latino Mentoring Program: Project MALES (Mentoring to Achieve Latino Educational Success)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sáenz, Victor B.; Ponjuan, Luis; Segovia, Jorge, Jr.; Del Real Viramontes, José

    2015-01-01

    This chapter highlights the development of Project MALES (Mentoring to Achieve Latino Educational Success). At the center of Project MALES is a mentoring program that aims to cultivate an engaged support network for males of color at the University of Texas at Austin and across surrounding communities. Specifically, there is a discussion of the…

  18. The Interaction of Selective Attention and Cognitive Development on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Namdi N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study tried to examine the interaction between two independent variables of selective attention and cognitive development on Achievement in Genetics at the Secondary School level. In looking at the problem of this study three null hypotheses were generated for testing at 0.05 level of significance. Factorial Analysis of Variance design with…

  19. Urban Professional Development Working to Create Successful Teachers and Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Deborah S.; Vogel, Robert

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools are being held accountable for measurable increases in student academic achievement as evidenced by performance on standardized tests. This movement has significant implications for the professional development of teachers who are ultimately responsible for ensuring that their…

  20. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  1. The Impact of the Shifting Knowledge Base, from Development to Achievement, on Early Childhood Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kathleen P.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in child development as a knowledge base for early childhood education programs flourished in the 1970s as a result of the theories and philosophies of Jean Piaget and other cognitive developmentalists. During subsequent decades in America, reform movements emphasizing accountability and achievement became a political and social…

  2. Development of a Valid and Reliable Student-Achievement and Process-Skills Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce, Diane M.; VandenPlas, Jessica R.; Neiles, Kelly Y.; Flens, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Development of a research instrument to measure student achievement requires planning and reliability and validity testing before the instrument is used to collect data. These steps are often overlooked in research studies, but when the instrument is to be used across a wider population, the inclusion of these steps is vital to address the…

  3. Goals, Data Use, and Instruction: The Effect of a Teacher Professional Development Program on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design. Applying propensity score…

  4. Saving for Success: Financial Education and Savings Goal Achievement in Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Mary L.; Mauldin, Teresa; Sabia, Joseph J.; Koonce, Joan; Palmer, Lance

    2011-01-01

    Using microdata from the American Dream Demonstration, the current study examines factors associated with savings and savings goal achievement (indicated by a matched withdrawal) among participants of individual development account (IDA) programs. Multinomial logit results show that hours of participation in financial education programs, higher…

  5. Vaccinology in the third millennium: scientific and social challenges.

    PubMed

    Poland, Gregory A; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Poland, Caroline M; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    The epidemiology of deaths due to vaccine-preventable diseases has been significantly and positively altered through the use of vaccines. Despite this, significant challenges remain in vaccine development and use in the third millennium. Both new (Ebola, Chikungunya, Zika, and West Nile) and re-emerging diseases (measles, mumps, and influenza) require the development of new or next-generation vaccines. The global aging of the population, and accumulating numbers of immunocompromised persons, will require new vaccine and adjuvant development to protect large segments of the population. After vaccine development, significant challenges remain globally in the cost and efficient use and acceptance of vaccines by the public. This article raises issues in these two areas and suggests a way forward that will benefit current and future generations. PMID:27039875

  6. Biotech crops: imperative for achieving the millenium development goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era.

    PubMed

    Husaini, Amjad M; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological intervention in the development of crops has opened new vistas in agriculture. Central to the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), biotech-agriculture is essential in meeting these targets. Biotech crops have already made modest contributions toward ensuring food and nutrition security by reducing losses and increasing productivity, with less pesticide input. These crops could help address some of the major challenges in agriculture-based economies created by climate change. Projections of global climate change expect the concentration of greenhouse gases to increase, aridization of the environment to increase, temperature fluctuations to occur sharply and frequently, and spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall to be disturbed-all of which will increase abiotic stress-related challenges to crops. Countering these challenges and to meet the food requirement of the ever-increasing world population (expected to reach 9 billion by 2030) we need to (1) develop and use biotech crops for mitigating adverse climatic changes; (2) develop biotech crops resilient to adverse environmental conditions; and (3) address the issues/non-issues raised by NGO's and educate the masses about the benefits of biotech crops. PMID:23160541

  7. Energy for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Goldemberg, J; Johansson, T B; Reddy, A K; Williams, R H

    2001-09-01

    The evolution of thinking about energy is discussed. When the authors began collaborating 20 years ago, energy was typically considered from a growth-oriented, supply-side perspective, with a focus on consumption trends and how to expand supplies to meet rising demand. They were deeply troubled by the environmental, security and equity implications of that approach. For instance, about two billion people lack access to affordable modern energy, seriously limiting their opportunities for a better life. And energy is a significant contributor to environmental problems, including indoor air pollution, urban air pollution, acidification, and global warming. The authors saw the need to evolve a different perspective in which energy is provided in ways that help solve such serious problems. They argued that energy must become an instrument for advancing sustainable development--economically viable, need-oriented, self-reliant and environmentally sound development--and that the focus should be on the end uses of energy and the services that energy provides. Energy technological options that can help meet sustainable development goals are discussed. The necessity of developing and employing innovative technological solutions is stressed. The possibilities of technological leap-frogging that could enable developing countries to avoid repeating the mistakes of the industrialized countries is illustrated with a discussion of ethanol in Brazil. The role foreign direct investment might play in bringing advanced technologies to developing countries is highlighted. Near- and long-term strategies for rural energy are discussed. Finally, policy issues are considered for evolving the energy system so that it will be consistent with and supportive of sustainable development. PMID:11757280

  8. Development of brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity and the relationship to formal math academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H.; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha

    2015-01-01

    A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting non-linguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or “formal” math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional MRI study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6–12 years-old), 14 adolescents (13–17 years-old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development. PMID:25327879

  9. Mathematics for the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2004-01-01

    Courses below calculus need to be refocused to emphasise conceptual understanding and realistic applications via mathematical modelling rather than an overarching focus on developing algebraic skills that may be needed for calculus. Without understanding the concepts, students will not be able to transfer the mathematics to new situations or to…

  10. Design of RTPV generators integrated with new millennium spacecraft for outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1996-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's recently inaugurated New Millennium program, with its emphasis on miniaturized spacecraft, has generated interest in a low-power (10- to 30-watt), low-mass, high-efficiency RTPV (Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic) power system. This led to a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored design study of such a system, which was assigned to OSC (formerly Fairchild) personnel, who have been conducting similar studies of a 75-watt RTPV system with very encouraging results. The 75-watt design employed two 250-watt General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules that DOE had previously developed and safety-qualified for various space missions. These modules were too large for the small RTPVs described in this paper. To minimize the need for new development and safety verification studies, OSC generated derivative designs for 125-watt and 62.5-watt heat source modules containing identical fuel pellets, clads, impact shell, and thermal insulation. OSC also generated a novel heat source support scheme to reduce the heat losses through the structural supports, and a new and much simpler radiator structure, employing no honeycombs or heat pipes. OSC's previous RTPV study had been based on the use of GaSb PV cells and spectrally selective IR filters that had been partially developed and characterized by Boeing (now EDTEK) personnel, who had supplied us with spectral data on filter reflectivities and cell quantum efficiencies. Because of the very encouraging results of our system design studies, OSC in the fall of 1994 initiated an experimental program at EDTEK to develop improved filters and cells, to demonstrate how much improvement can actually be achieved. OSC requested that first priority be given to filter improvements, because our system studies indicated that improved filters would have a much greater effect on system performance than cell improvements. By September 1995 EDTEK had achieved about 94% of the filter performance

  11. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Space Technology 9 (ST-9) mission is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. ST-9 is an integrated system validation project and part of New Millennium Program effort to identify the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that require validation in deep space to help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. NASA prepared a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) that solicited proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. The technology providers were selected to provide needed technology advances in these areas in FY 2005. One these five technologies capability areas will be selected in a timeframe

  12. Water resources in the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren

    As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.

  13. From Domination to Partnership: Meeting the UN Millennium Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisler, Riane; Corral, Thais

    2005-01-01

    The UN Millennium goals envision a more just and sustainable future. This article explains why there is a need to shift from domination model to a partnership model in meeting the UN Millennium goals. The domination model is a configuration based on top-down rankings of control, while the partnership model is a configuration that can support a…

  14. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark A.; Rogers, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  15. Intelligent robot trends and predictions for the new millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Mundhenk, Terrell N.

    1999-08-01

    An intelligent robot is a remarkably useful combination of a manipulator, sensors and controls. The current use of these machines in outer space, medicine, hazardous materials, defense applications and industry is being pursued with vigor but little funding. In factory automation such robotics machines can improve productivity, increase product quality and improve competitiveness. The computer and the robot have both been developed during recent times. The intelligent robot combines both technologies and requires a thorough understanding and knowledge of mechatronics. In honor of the new millennium, this paper will present a discussion of futuristic trends and predictions. However, in keeping with technical tradition, a new technique for 'Follow the Leader' will also be presented in the hope of it becoming a new, useful and non-obvious technique.

  16. Technology readiness levels for the new millennium program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Minning, C. P.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) seeks to advance space exploration by providing an in-space validating mechanism to verify the maturity of promising advanced technologies that cannot be adequately validated with Earth-based testing alone. In meeting this objective, NMP uses NASA Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) as key indicators of technology advancement and assesses development progress against this generalized metric. By providing an opportunity for in-space validation, NMP can mature a suitable advanced technology from TRL 4 (component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment) to a TRL 7 (system prototype demonstrated in an Earth-based space environment). Spaceflight technology comprises a myriad of categories, types, and functions, and as each individual technology emerges, a consistent interpretation of its specific state of technological advancement relative to other technologies is problematic.

  17. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  18. Nuclear energy for the third millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1997-10-01

    The major energy sources of today are expected to last for only a small fraction of the millennium starting three years hence. In the plans of most people, nuclear energy has been ruled out for four separate reasons: 1. The danger of radioactivity from a reactor accident or from reactor products during a long period after reactor shutdown; 2. The proposed fuels, U-235 and also Pu-239, as obtained by presently available procedures will serve only for a limited duration; 3. Energy from nuclear reactors will be more expensive than costs of present alternatives; 4. The possibility of misusing the products for military purposes is an unacceptable danger. The development described below 1 attempts to meet all four objections. Specifically, we propose a structure as an example of future reactors that is deployed two hundred meters underground in loose and dry earth. The reactor is designed to function for thirty years, delivering electrical power on demand up to a level of thousand electrical megawatts. From the time that the reactor is started to the time of its shutdown thirty years later, the functioning is to be completely automatic. This is an obviously difficult condition to fulfill. The most important factor in making it possible is to design and operate the reactor without moving mechanical parts. At the start, the reactor functions on thermal neutrons within a structure containing uranium enriched in U-235 or having an addition of plutonium. That part of the reactor is to deliver energy for approximately one year after which a neighboring portion of the reactor containing thorium has been converted into Th-233 which rather rapidly decays into fissile U-233. This part of the assembly works on fission by fast neutrons. It will heat-up if insufficient thermal energy is withdrawn from the reactor`s core, under the negative feedback action of engineered-in thermostats. Indeed, these specifically designed thermostatic units absorb neutrons if excessive reactor core

  19. The effects of professional development related to classroom assessment on student achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzie, Dawn Danielle

    This study investigated the relationship between students' standardized test scores in science and (a) increases in teacher assessment literacy and (b) teacher participation in a Teacher Quality Research (TQR) project on classroom assessment. The samples for these studies were teachers from underperforming schools who volunteered to take part in a professional development program in classroom assessment. School groups were randomly assigned to the treatment group. For Study 1, teachers in the treatment received professional development in classroom assessment from a trained assessment coach. Teachers in the control received no professional development. For Study 2, teachers in Treatment 1 received professional development in classroom assessment from a trained assessment coach and teachers in Treatment 2 received professional development in classroom assessment from a facilitator with one day of training. Teachers in both groups completed a measure of assessment literacy, the Teacher Quality Research Test of Assessment Literacy Skills (TQR_TALS), prior to the beginning and then again at the conclusion of the four month professional development program. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between students' standardized test scores in science and (a) increases in teacher assessment literacy and (b) teacher TQR status. Based upon these analyses, the professional development program increased teachers' assessment literacy skills; however, the professional development had no significant impact on students' achievement.

  20. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement Among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between EF and science achievement among normally developing 10 year olds. A sample of fifth grade students from a Northeastern suburban community participated in tests of EF, science, and intelligence. Consistent with adult models of EF, principal components analysis identified a three-factor model of EF organization in middle childhood, including cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function processes of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition were all predictive of science performance. Post hoc analyses revealed that high-performing science students differed significantly from low-performing students in both cognitive flexibility and working memory. These findings suggest that complex academic demands specific to science achievement rely on the emergence and maturation of EF components.

  1. Private Schooling in Less Economically Developed Countries: Asian and African Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Prachi, Ed.; Walford, Geoffrey, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The increased marketisation and privatisation of schooling in economically developing countries struggling to achieve Education for All and Millennium Development Goals warrants a focused examination of the phenomenon. However, there is little work on the nature and extent of private provision in countries that, on the one hand, are striving to…

  2. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler

    2016-01-01

    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported

  3. Friction drag reduction achievable by near-wall turbulence manipulation in spatially developing boundary-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannier, Amaury; Garnier, Eric; Sagaut, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Various control strategies, such as active feedback control or riblets, end up restraining near-wall turbulence. An analytical study is conducted to estimate the drag-reduction achievable by such control in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary-layers. Based on an idealized control which damps all fluctuations within a near-wall layer, a composite flow profile is established. It leads to explicit models for both the drag-reduction and the boundary-layer development rate. A skin-friction decomposition is applied and gives physical insights on the underlying phenomena. The control is found to alter the spatial development of the boundary-layer, resulting in detrimental impact on the skin-friction. However, the drag-reducing mechanism, attributed to the turbulence weakening, is found predominant and massive drag reductions remain achievable at high Reynolds number, although a minute part of the boundary-layer is manipulated. The model is finally assessed against Large Eddy Simulations of riblet-controlled flow.

  4. Achieving a Prioritized Research and Technology Development Portfolio for the Dust Management Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Abel, Phillip; Delaune, Paul; Fishman, Julianna; Kohli, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    Mission architectures for human exploration of the lunar surface continue to advance as well as the definitions of capability needs, best practices and engineering design to mitigate the impact of lunar dust on exposed systems. The NASA DMP has been established as the agency focal point for dust characterization, technology, and simulant development. As described in this paper, the DMP has defined a process for selecting and justifying its R&T portfolio. The technology prioritization process, which is based on a ranking system according to weighted criteria, has been successfully applied to the current DMP dust mitigation technology portfolio. Several key findings emerged from this assessment. Within the dust removal and cleaning technologies group, there are critical technical challenges that must be overcome for these technologies to be implemented for lunar applications. For example, an in-situ source of CO2 on the moon is essential to the CO2 shower technology. Also, significant development effort is required to achieve technology readiness level TRL 6 for the electrostatic cleaning system for removal of particles smaller than 50 pm. The baseline materials related technologies require considerable development just to achieve TRL 6. It is also a nontrivial effort to integrate the materials in hardware for lunar application. At present, there are no terrestrial applications that are readily adaptable to lunar surface applications nor are there any obvious leading candidates. The unique requirements of dust sealing systems for lunar applications suggest an extensive development effort will be necessary to mature dust sealing systems to TRL 6 and beyond. As discussed here, several alternate materials and technologies have achieved high levels of maturity for terrestrial applications and warrant due diligence in ongoing assessment of the technology portfolio. The present assessment is the initial step in an ongoing effort to continually evaluate the DMP technology

  5. Finding a Fit or Developing It: Implicit Theories About Achieving Passion for Work.

    PubMed

    Chen, Patricia; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Schwarz, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    "Passion for work" has become a widespread phrase in popular discourse. Two contradictory lay perspectives have emerged on how passion for work is attained, which we distill into the fit and develop implicit theories. Fit theorists believe that passion for work is achieved through finding the right fit with a line of work; develop theorists believe that passion is cultivated over time. Four studies examined the expectations, priorities, and outcomes that characterize these implicit theories. Our results show that these beliefs elicit different motivational patterns, but both can facilitate vocational well-being and success. This research extends implicit theory scholarship to the work domain and provides a framework that can fruitfully inform career advising, life coaching, mentorship, and employment policies. PMID:26231591

  6. Geothermal Field Development in the European Community Objectives, Achievements and Problem Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ungemach, Pierre

    1983-12-15

    Achievements and problem areas are reviewed with respect to various engineering implications of geothermal field development in the European Community (EC). Current and furture development goals address three resource settings. (a) low enthalpy sources (30-150{degrees}C), an outlook common to all Member states as a result of hot water aquifers flowing in large sedimentary units with normal heat flow, widespread thoughout the EC; (b) high enthalpy sources (<150{degrees}C) in areas of high heat flow which, as a consequence of the geodynamics of the Eurasian plate, are limited to Central and South-West Italy and to Eastern Greece; (c) hot dry rocks (HDR), whose potential for Europe, and also the difficulties in implementing the heat mining concept, are enormous. A large scale experiment conducted at medium depth in Cornwall (UK) proves encouraging though. It has provided the right sort of scientific inputs to the understanding of the mechanics of anisotropic brittle basement rocks.

  7. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H; Abrams, Daniel M; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people. PMID:17358316

  8. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people.

  9. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Theoretical biology in the third millennium.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, S

    1999-01-01

    During the 20th century our understanding of genetics and the processes of gene expression have undergone revolutionary change. Improved technology has identified the components of the living cell, and knowledge of the genetic code allows us to visualize the pathway from genotype to phenotype. We can now sequence entire genes, and improved cloning techniques enable us to transfer genes between organisms, giving a better understanding of their function. Due to the improved power of analytical tools databases of sequence information are growing at an exponential rate. Soon complete sequences of genomes and the three-dimensional structure of all proteins may be known. The question we face in the new millennium is how to apply this data in a meaningful way. Since the genes carry the specification of an organism, and because they also record evolutionary changes, we need to design a theoretical framework that can take account of the flow of information through biological systems. PMID:10670016

  11. Basic mechanisms for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1998-09-01

    This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

  12. Patrick Moore's millennium yearbook : the view from AD 1001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick, Chapman, Allan

    In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.

  13. Investing in Our Teachers: What Focus of Professional Development Leads to the Highest Student Gains in Mathematics Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to better understand the relationship between the substantive-content focus of professional development for inservice teachers of mathematics and their students' achievement. That professional development for teachers enhances student achievement has been well established by recent studies; however, those…

  14. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark; Rogers, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These risk assessments typically cover the concept phase of a DRM, i.e. when little more than a general idea of the mission is known and are used to help establish "best estimates" for proposed program and agency level risk requirements. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  15. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark; Rogers, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These risk assessments typically cover the concept phase of a DRM, i.e. when little more than a general idea of the mission is known and are used to help establish "best estimates" for proposed program and agency level risk requirements. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  16. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  17. Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them

  18. Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

  19. Longitudinal Mediators of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading in Typical and Atypical Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and which are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n = 30) and typically developing children (n = 35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations; phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency; and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

  20. Technology Selection and Validation: New Millennium Flight Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, C.; Buehler, M.; Fujita, T.; Lansing, F.; Man, G.; Aljabri, A.; Stevens, C.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) was created to accelerate the insertion of advanced space-related technologies into future science missions by validating these technologies on deep space and Earth-orbiting technology validation missions.

  1. 76 FR 46786 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    .... Box 1565, Pearl River, New York 10965, filed in the above referenced docket an application pursuant to... & Secretary, Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC, One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh Floor, P.O. Box 1565, Pearl...

  2. Crises in EFL Proficiency and Teacher Development in the Context of International Donation and Transformation Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbirso, Dereje Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Since 2000, Ethiopia has been working to come out of social crises, modernise itself and achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Although provided with billions of dollars by the West and their international agents, little has been changed and the crises seem never to abate, especially in the educational system. This study, thus, critically…

  3. Librarians’ Role in Development and Achievement of Central Library Users’ Information Literacy (a Case Study: Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Siamian, Hasan; Shahrabi, Afsaneh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the development of technologies, communications, databases and information resource varieties in today’s information age, our various social, economic, cultural and political needs cannot be fulfilled by relying merely on past knowledge and skills as done previously. Information literacy (IL) as a set of necessary skills for all of us is an effective way of treating new technologies and their effective application in our lives. The study aimed to survey the library users’ views in the Central Library of Babol University of Medical Sciences (The Library), Iran, on the role and influences of librarians on their IL development and improvement. Methods: This analytical survey used a researcher-made questionnaire for data collection. Research population consisted of all users referring Information Unit of The Library during 22 September - 20 December 2010. Of them, 150 users participating in at least 5 workshops held by The Library were selected as the study sample. Results: Based on the findings, 52.7 percent of the subjects rated the influence of the librarians on their IL development much and very much. 44.7 percent claimed that they more acquired IL skills from librarians rather than others. 100 (63.3%) subjects preferred workshops held by the librarian to other workshops. Conclusion: The users of Information Unit of The Library perceived the training IL skills by librarians as a main influencing factor in their IL development and achievement. This emphasized the necessity of teaching IL to users and training the librarians in better teaching IL skills to library user. PMID:24511265

  4. [Langerhans cell sarcoma developing acute myeloid leukemia after achieving complete response by THP-COP].

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Kota; Hashimoto, Akari; Fujimi, Akihito; Kanisawa, Yuji; Shibata, Takanori; Nakajima, Chisa; Hayasaka, Naotaka; Yamada, Shota; Okuda, Toshinori; Minami, Shinya; Kamihara, Yusuke; Ohshima, Koichi; Kato, Junji

    2015-12-01

    An 86-year-old man presented with enlarged left submandibular, left inguinal, and superficial femoral lymph nodes. He was diagnosed with Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) on the basis of the histopathological findings of the left inguinal lymph node biopsy. In addition, laboratory examinations revealed normocytic normochromic anemia, and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy led to a diagnosis of idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS). Because of the patient's age, he was administered a regimen of cyclophosphamide, pirarubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (THP-COP), and achieved a partial response after six courses. However, he developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) 11 months after completion of the THP-COP therapy, and received only supportive care until his death. LCS is an extremely rare and aggressive dendritic cell neoplasm. To the best of our knowledge, only 67 cases have been reported in the literature. There are case reports describing the concurrence of hematological malignancies. Herein, we report the first documented development of LCS in a patient with ICUS who progressed to AML, and summarize the published data on the epidemiology of and therapeutic options for LCS. PMID:26725355

  5. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development on African American Female Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study will be to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness (RIC) on the academic achievement of African American female college freshmen. This causal-comparative study is intended to provide research based info ration concerning the impact of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of…

  6. Evaluation of Science Achievement and Science Test Development in an International Context: The IEA Study in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the development of cognitive tests and their administration to four student populations in a cross-nation study on science achievement by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Included are illustrative items, a table of behavior-subject area grid, and test scores by countries. (CC)

  7. Evaluating an Adolescent Behavioral Program: Leadership, Education, Achievement, and Development for Adolescent Female Offenders in Corrections.

    PubMed

    Panosky, Denise M; Shelton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a pilot study designed to: test the feasibility of implementation, assess implementation barriers, and determine the effectiveness of a modified evidence-based program designed for adolescent female offenders in a women's correctional facility in the United States. A therapeutic expressive arts behavioral program, Leadership, Education, Achievement and Development (LEAD), has been used in community settings as a health promotion program. This behavioral program was adapted to LEAD-Corrections (LEAD-C) and serves incarcerated adolescent female offenders. Results of this pilot study show that it is feasible to offer LEAD-C in a correctional setting. Positive effects were noted on session satisfaction surveys as well as formative and summative evaluations. Implementation of LEAD-C, using therapeutic expressive arts interventions, included coping strategies to help adolescents become confident and self-assured and review better choices. Adolescents were taught to utilize these learned coping strategies in their life, which may help to overcome adversity, enhance resilience, and support youth transition at the time of reentry to the community. PMID:26186153

  8. Developing the next-generation climate system models: challenges and achievements.

    PubMed

    Slingo, Julia; Bates, Kevin; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Piggott, Matthew; Roberts, Malcolm; Shaffrey, Len; Stevens, Ian; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Weller, Hilary

    2009-03-13

    Although climate models have been improving in accuracy and efficiency over the past few decades, it now seems that these incremental improvements may be slowing. As tera/petascale computing becomes massively parallel, our legacy codes are less suitable, and even with the increased resolution that we are now beginning to use, these models cannot represent the multiscale nature of the climate system. This paper argues that it may be time to reconsider the use of adaptive mesh refinement for weather and climate forecasting in order to achieve good scaling and representation of the wide range of spatial scales in the atmosphere and ocean. Furthermore, the challenge of introducing living organisms and human responses into climate system models is only just beginning to be tackled. We do not yet have a clear framework in which to approach the problem, but it is likely to cover such a huge number of different scales and processes that radically different methods may have to be considered. The challenges of multiscale modelling and petascale computing provide an opportunity to consider a fresh approach to numerical modelling of the climate (or Earth) system, which takes advantage of the computational fluid dynamics developments in other fields and brings new perspectives on how to incorporate Earth system processes. This paper reviews some of the current issues in climate (and, by implication, Earth) system modelling, and asks the question whether a new generation of models is needed to tackle these problems. PMID:19087925

  9. OUTLINING THE WINDOWS OF ACHIEVEMENT OF INTERSUBJECTIVE MILESTONES IN TYPICALLY DEVELOPING TODDLERS.

    PubMed

    Sadurní Brugué, Marta; Pérez Burriel, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Babies are born with an innate drive or intrinsic motive formation with which to communicate and share meanings with others and that some authors have called intersubjectivity (S. Bråten & C. Trevarthen, 2007; C. Trevarthen, 1974, 2001). Around the ninth month of life, this motivation changes and passes from a person-to-person dyadic (primary intersubjectivity) to a person-person-object relationship (secondary intersubjectivity). S. Bråten and C. Trevarthen (2007) also proposed a third form or layer of intersubjectivity known as tertiary intersubjectivity. One hundred fifteen free-play sessions of 27 mother-child dyads (13 girls and 14 boys ages 9-37 months) were filmed and categorized using the Level of Intersubjective Attunement Scale (LISA-T; M. Pérez Burriel & M. Sadurní Brugué, 2014; M. Sadurní Brugué & M. Pérez Burriel, 2012). Results from these nine hierarchical levels are presented, following a developmental sequence or population trajectory around an interindividual variability. In this article, we propose viewing these age-related levels as windows of achievement of intersubjective milestones. The statistical analysis suggested a redesign of the LISA-T levels of intersubjectivity; thus, results from this redesign and the debate on the implications of these transitions in infant mental health development are presented. PMID:27348723

  10. Tracking Student Achievement in Music Performance: Developing Student Learning Objectives for Growth Model Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement growth data are increasingly used for assessing teacher effectiveness and tracking student achievement in the classroom. Guided by the student learning objective (SLO) framework, music teachers are now responsible for collecting, tracking, and reporting student growth data. Often, the reported data do not accurately reflect the…

  11. Examining the Effectiveness of Closing the Achievement Gap Professional Development Demonstration Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry J.; Hixson, Nate; Hammer, Patricia Cahape; Smith, Diana L.; D'Brot, Juan

    2010-01-01

    A study examined the impact of the "Closing the Achievement Gap" (CAG schools) program on the academic achievement of students in 30 schools serving high percentages of African American and economically disadvantaged students in West Virginia (WV), 2004-2008. The program assigned experienced educators, "CAG liaisons", to the schools to provide…

  12. Achievement First: Developing a Teacher Performance Management System That Recognizes Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are the single most important school-related factor in students' learning, and improving student learning is the single most important goal at Achievement First (AF), a fast-growing public charter school network in the Northeast. To achieve this goal, the AF team has worked to establish a common understanding of effective instructional…

  13. How Important Is Personal/Social Development to Academic Achievement? The Elementary School Counselor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, Jennifer S.; Brott, Pamelia E.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored elementary school counselors' perceptions of importance and implementation for state standards in support of academic achievement. Results indicate that Academic and Personal/Social standards are important to achievement with no statistical difference between the standards. Further, counselors implement Personal/Social…

  14. Latest developments in gene transfer technology: achievements, perspectives, and controversies over therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Romano, G; Michell, P; Pacilio, C; Giordano, A

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, more than 300 phase I and phase II gene-based clinical trials have been conducted worldwide for the treatment of cancer and monogenic disorders. Lately, these trials have been extended to the treatment of AIDS and, to a lesser extent, cardiovascular diseases. There are 27 currently active gene therapy protocols for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in the USA. Preclinical studies are currently in progress to evaluate the possibility of increasing the number of gene therapy clinical trials for cardiopathies, and of beginning new gene therapy programs for neurologic illnesses, autoimmuno diseases, allergies, regeneration of tissues, and to implement procedures of allogeneic tissues or cell transplantation. In addition, gene transfer technology has allowed for the development of innovative vaccine design, known as genetic immunization. This technique has already been applied in the AIDS vaccine programs in the USA. These programs aim to confer protective immunity against HIV-1 transmission to individuals who are at risk of infection. Research programs have also been considered to develop therapeutic vaccines for patients with AIDS and generate either preventive or therapeutic vaccines against malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis A, B and C viruses, influenza virus, La Crosse virus, and Ebola virus. The potential therapeutic applications of gene transfer technology are enormous. However, the effectiveness of gene therapy programs is still questioned. Furthermore, there is growing concern over the matter of safety of gene delivery and controversy has arisen over the proposal to begin in utero gene therapy clinical trials for the treatment of inherited genetic disorders. From this standpoint, despite the latest significant achievements reported in vector design, it is not possible to predict to what extent gene therapeutic interventions will be effective in patients, and in what time frame. PMID:10661569

  15. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Many countries have enacted legislation to protect animals. In the 1800's the primary concern was to protect animals from cruelty but more recent legislative changes also seek to ensure that human beings uphold a duty of care towards those animals for which they are responsible. Today animal welfare concerns all aspects of our interaction with other animals. Although, the diversity of views in society can present challenges, the whole community needs to be engaged in the development and implementation of policies and initiatives so as to achieve sustainable improvements in animal welfare. Abstract Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted

  16. Open problems on the eve of the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szebehely, Victor

    1996-03-01

    To predict the future of Celestial Mechanics and to investigate unsolved problems for the next millennium contradicts the nature of our field of science which is based on non-integrable and transcendental equations with short time predictability. The reliability and predictability in our field depend on several factors, most of them unpredictable. Numerical predictions depend on the development of computer technology, which is itself not predictable. New analytical approaches call for the genius of Newton. We must realize that between Ptolemaeus (100 178) and Copernicus (1473 1543) our field received little attention. Between 1700 and 1800 the explosion occurred (Newton, Euler, Laplace, Lagrange and Gauss) followed by the period of 1800 1900 associated with Hamilton, Hill, Jacobi, Poincaré and Tisserand. Can we expect anyone to make similar contributions in the next 1000 years? The entrance and emphasis of probability in our field certainly will continue. Speaking about bounds of trajectories instead of individual orbits gains significant popularity. Theory of stability and chaos are expected to receive more and more attention together with Poincare's conjectures concerning the denseness of periodic orbits in the set of bounded orbits. Planetary computations for long time have shown considerable advances, partly due to computer advances as well as the selection of the proper formulation of the problems. The preparation of “exact” short time ephemerides and qualitative long time predictions require initial conditions with small observational errors, the use of proper models (including relativity effects and non-conservative forces) and the use of correct values of astronomical constants. The results of such calculations in the future should include approximate estimations of errors in the outcome. The observations and orbital calculations of Earth-crossing asteroids should receive special attention along with development of various techniques of space dynamics

  17. Mastering the value chain. An interview with Mark Levin of Millennium Pharmaceuticals. Interview by David Champion.

    PubMed

    Levin, M

    2001-06-01

    As today's business leaders are all too aware, a new scientific or technological break-through can quickly transform an industry's competitive landscape. The upheaval is often traumatic for the companies involved, forcing them to rethink their strategies and redefine their boundaries. But an industry in flux also creates vast opportunities. To seize them, companies must see how the current upheavals will affect the future distribution of profits--and then reinvent themselves to capitalize on the new sources of value. In this interview with HBR senior editor David Champion, Mark Levin, the founder and CEO of Millennium Pharmaceuticals, describes his vision of the future of the pharmaceutical industry in the wake of the genetics revolution and new technologies that have altered the economics of drug development. No company, he argues, will create serious long-term value by staying in just one or two stages of the value of chain. That's why Millennium, which started out doing basis research into genes and proteins and selling its findings to pharmaceutical giants, has moved downstream - toward the patients who actually use and pay for the drugs. He explains why the research end has become less lucrative than the more mechanical tasks of identifying, testing, and manufacturing molecules. Levin talks about the changes Millennium has undergone since its inception in 1993-from 30 workers to more than 1,000, and from one end of the value chain to the other. He discusses the company's cultural transformations as well as the partnerships and acquisitions that have helped millennium become involved in every stage of the chain-from gene to patient. Levin's vigorous approach to balancing long-term strategy with short-term tactics offers important lessons to any executive facing an industry upheaval. PMID:11408971

  18. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines. PMID:26135450

  19. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C.; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.

  20. Child health in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    2000-10-01

    In today's modern, industrialized and affluent countries, like Japan and Australia, better living conditions and hygiene, plentiful nutritious food and rapid advances in biology and medical technologies have helped to bring about dramatic improvements in child health. The previous heavy burdens of infections and undernutrition have been eliminated or can now be controlled or effectively treated. In these countries, child health standards are higher than ever and expectation of life at birth is much higher than in the past. Some of the technological advances that have helped bring about this transformation are immunization, antimicrobial therapy, successful treatment of childhood leukemias, transplantation of vital organs and implementation of genetic diagnosis and gene therapy. The use of genetically modified foods and the prospects for cloning of humans are areas of intense interest and controversy. However, these advances have their disadvantages (e.g. antibiotic-induced drug resistance). Urbanization has encouraged the 'westernization' of dietary patterns and the long-term 'lifestyle diseases' that can follow in adults. Accidents, violence and drug abuse are major problems in many parts of the world. Changes in attitudes to sexuality and the spread of HIV/AIDS is another major problem, especially in Africa and Asia. Environmental pollution and the degradation of agricultural lands, rivers and seas are also important. Ironically, standards of child health and the prospects for long life in countries like Japan are better than ever before, but social and environmental changes are presenting children and their carers with new and unanswered challenges as we enter the 21 st century and the new millennium. PMID:11059531

  1. Children who were very low birth weight: development and academic achievement at nine years of age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N K; Hack, M; Breslau, N

    1989-02-01

    Children born at very low birth weights (VLBW) (less than or equal to 1500 g) who were beneficiaries of modern neonatal intensive care are reaching middle childhood, and their school achievement can be evaluated. We compared 65 9-year-old children born in 1976, who were very low birth weight and who were free of neurological impairment, with 65 children of normal birth weight who had been matched for race, sex, age, and social class on measures of IQ, cognitive, visuo-motor, and fine motor abilities, and academic achievement. VLBW children scored significantly lower than controls on the WISC-R, Bender-Gestalt, Purdue Pegboard, subtests from the Woodcock Johnson Cognitive Abilities Battery, and reading and mathematics (math) achievement. Exploratory analysis of a subset of 43 VLBW and matched controls with IQ scores greater than or equal to 85 yielded a similar trend, except that, on achievement tests, differences were significant only in math. Further analyses revealed that the differential in math achievement between VLBW and control children is not fully attributable to differences in IQ. PMID:2925866

  2. Asian monsoon extremes and humanity's response over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. M.; Lieberman, V. B.; Zottoli, B.

    2012-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen significant development in the production of paleo proxies for the Asian monsoon, exemplified by the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas that was comprised of more than 300 tree ring chronologies. Noteworthy among them is the Vietnamese cypress tree-ring record which reveals that the two worst droughts of the past 7 centuries, each more than a decade in length, coincided with the demise of the Khmer civilization at Angkor in the early 15th century CE. The 18th century was nearly as tumultuous a period across Southeast Asia, where several polities fell against a backdrop of epic decadal-scale droughts. At this time all of the region's charter states saw rapid realignment in the face of drought, famine, disease and a raft of related and unrelated social issues. Several other droughts, some more extreme but of lesser duration, punctuate the past millennium, but appear to have had little societal impact. Historical documentation is being used not only to provide corroborative evidence of tree-ring reconstructed climate extremes, but to attempt to understand the dynamics of the coupled human-natural systems involved, and to define what kinds of thresholds need to be reached before societies respond. This paleo perspective can assist our analyses of the role of climate extremes in the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate across the highly populated areas of Asia.

  3. The Role of Mediators in the Development of Longitudinal Mathematics Achievement Associations.

    PubMed

    Watts, Tyler W; Duncan, Greg J; Chen, Meichu; Claessens, Amy; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Engel, Mimi; Siegler, Robert; Susperreguy, Maria I

    2015-01-01

    Despite research demonstrating a strong association between early and later mathematics achievement, few studies have investigated mediators of this association. Using longitudinal data (n = 1,362), this study tested the extent to which mathematics self-concepts, school placement, executive functioning, and proficiency in fractions and division account for the association between mathematics achievement in first grade and at age 15. As hypothesized, a strong longitudinal association between first-grade and adolescent mathematics achievement was present (β = .36) even after controlling for a host of background characteristics, including cognitive skills and reading ability. The mediators accounted for 39% of this association, with mathematics self-concept, gifted and talented placement, and knowledge of fractions and division serving as significant mediators. PMID:26332124

  4. Physically Developed and Exploratory Young Infants Contribute to Their Own Long-Term Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2014-01-01

    A developmental cascade defines a longitudinal relation in which one psychological characteristic uniquely affects another psychological characteristic later in time, separately from other intrapersonal and extrapersonal factors. Here, we report results of a large-scale (N = 374), normative, prospective, 14-year longitudinal, multivariate, multisource, controlled study of a developmental cascade from infant motor-exploratory competence at 5 months to adolescent academic achievement at 14 years, through conceptually related and age-appropriate measures of psychometric intelligence at 4 and 10 years and academic achievement at 10 years. This developmental cascade applied equally to girls and boys and was independent of children’s behavioral adjustment and social competence; mothers’ supportive caregiving, verbal intelligence, education, and parenting knowledge; and the material home environment. Infants who were more motorically mature and who explored more actively at 5 months of age achieved higher academic levels as 14-year-olds. PMID:23964000

  5. What Is an Education for Sustainable Development Supposed to Achieve--A Question of What, How and Why

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This is a theoretical article to open the discussion of what an education for sustainable development is supposed to achieve and how teachers can help students to develop skills that might be needed in order to support a sustainable future. The focus in the article will be on education. As it is an article aiming to open this kind of discussion…

  6. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development of African American Male Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Dora

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of African American male college freshmen. In the late 1900s Black identity models were developed to help African Americans grasp hold of who they were, as they lived in the residues of the peculiar institution of slavery.…

  7. The Board of Trustees' Professional Development and Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korelich, Kathryn; Maxwell, Gerri

    2015-01-01

    With the pressure for school districts to perform well on state assessments (Brown, Jones & Scheunermann, 2012) and the school boards blamed for the problems within a school district (Fridley, 2006), the inquiry of how to increase student achievement continues to be a forerunner in the circles of educators, parents, business and community…

  8. Developing Prospective Elementary Teachers' Abilities to Identify Evidence of Student Mathematical Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Sandy M.; Phelps, Christine M.; Beyers, James E. R.; Johnson, Delayne Y.; Sieminski, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a classroom intervention on prospective elementary teachers' ability to evaluate evidence of student achievement of mathematical learning goals. The intervention was informed by a framework for teacher education which aims to provide prospective teachers (PTs) with the skills needed to systematically learn…

  9. Connection between Organizational Culture and Development of Achievement Motive of Students of the Faculty of Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubulj, Milan; Arsenijevi, Olja; Simic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this paper are engaged in studying the organizational culture and achievement motive, by carrying out their studies among the students of the Faculty of Management in Novi Sad, AP Vojvodina, Serbia. The problem of this paper's research was set by the question: is there a connection of a dominantly present organizational culture and…

  10. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this…

  11. Strategic Development in Exact Calculation: Group and Individual Differences in Four Achievement Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Judith; Jordan, Julie-Ann; Mulhern, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study sought to identify developmental changes in strategy use between 5 and 7 years of age when solving exact calculation problems. Four mathematics and reading achievement subtypes were examined at four time points. Five strategies were considered: finger counting, verbal counting, delayed retrieval, automatic retrieval, and…

  12. Cognitive Correlates of Mathematical Achievement in Children with Cerebral Palsy and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Moor, Jan M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Remarkably few studies have investigated the nature and origin of learning difficulties in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Aims: To investigate math achievement in terms of word-problem solving ability in children with CP and controls. Because of the potential importance of reading for word-problem solving, we investigated reading…

  13. How Many Pathways Underlie Socioeconomic Differences in the Development of Cognition and Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are more highly educated enjoy greater age-linked gains in cognitive abilities and academic achievement. Different researchers have typically focused on different outcomes, and the extent to which parental education relates to multiple child outcomes via a single developmental pathway has received little empirical attention.…

  14. Effects of Full-Day Kindergarten on Academic Achievement and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Harris; Batts Allen, Ashley; Patall, Erika A.; Dent, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis found that attending full-day (or all-day) kindergarten had a positive association with academic achievement (compared to half-day kindergarten) equal to about one quarter standard deviation at the end of the kindergarten year. But the association disappeared by third grade. Reasons for this fade-out are discussed. Social…

  15. Achievement and Morality: A Further Consideration of Culture, Development, and Attributional Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salili, Farideh; And Others

    This study examines the interactive roles of social, cultural, and cognitive developmental factors in determining children's moral and achievement judgments. A total of 1485 male and female Iranian children/students of diverse social background (ranging in age from 4-18) served as subjects. Subjects were asked to evaluate (reward/punishment) the…

  16. Teacher Professional Development to Improve Science and Literacy Achievement of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Buxton, Cory A.

    2013-01-01

    The school-aged population in the United States is becoming more culturally and linguistically diverse, while achievement gaps across content areas persist. At the same time, more rigorous academic demands are being placed on all students, including English language learners (ELLs). Teachers of ELLs face the double challenge of promoting English…

  17. Testing for All: The Emergence and Development of International Assessment of Student Achievement, 1958-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizmony-Levy, Oren

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines a vital catalyst in the globalization of education: international assessments--that involve testing and rankings--of student achievement in academic subjects. Nearly all high-income countries participate in international assessments such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Progress in…

  18. Preferences of High Achieving High School Students in Their Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this study was to identify the needs and preference of high-achieving high school students. In terms of career related programs in high school, students listed AP courses and mentoring as their preferred career-related programs. Also, students stated that career guidance by counselors, workshops or sessions, and tech prep were the…

  19. The Development of Emotions in Preschool Children during Achievement-Oriented Striving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Klaus

    An attempt was made to document the beginning of children's ability to make cognitive-emotional discriminations between skill-dependent outcomes and chance-dependent outcomes of performance on tasks. Children between the ages of 2 and 5 years were administered structurally similar achievement games and effect games. It was thought that as soon as…

  20. Developing Intrinsic Motivation: Student Perceived Autonomy, Relatedness and Competence and the Relationship to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, DeAnn M.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods action study examines the relationship of students' three psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence as presented in the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to the level of achievement of high school seniors at Litchfield High School. In the quantitative phase of the study, the quantitative…

  1. Grading Practice as Valid Measures of Academic Achievement of Secondary Schools Students for National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiekem, Enwefa

    2015-01-01

    Assigning grades is probably the most important measurement decision that classroom teachers makes. When teachers are provided with some measurement instruction, they still use subjective value judgments when assigning grades to students. This paper therefore, examines the grading practice as valid measures of academic achievement in secondary…

  2. Patterns of School Readiness Forecast Achievement and Socioemotional Development at the End of Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Terri J.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A person-oriented approach examined patterns of functioning in social and executive function domains at 54 months and in turn forecasted 5th-grade socioemotional and achievement outcomes for 944 children. Six distinct profiles of 54-month school readiness patterns predicted outcomes in 5th grade with indications of cross-domain association between…

  3. The Role of Utility Value in the Development of Interest and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, I evaluate whether helping students see the value in their coursework contributes to interest and achievement. Part 1 describes two studies that test the effectiveness of an instructional intervention to promote perceptions of utility value and interest--particularly for students with lower competence beliefs--compared to a…

  4. Girls' Access to Education in China: Actors, Cultures and the Windmill of Development Management. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaojun Grace

    2010-01-01

    The world has a mixed record towards achieving EFA [Education for All] and the MDGs [Millennium Development Goals] in relation to the targets on gender equity in basic education. For researchers and practitioners, this raises the question of which factors influence the processes leading to the improvement of access and quality of girls' education…

  5. NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakians, H.; Kim, Y.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R., Jr.; Zsoldos, J.; McDermott, T.

    2007-08-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; Ultraflex 175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The Ultraflex 175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultracompact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It

  6. NASA's New Millennium ST-8 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakians, H.; Bothwell, M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R.; Zsoldos, J.; McDermott, T.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; UltraFlex-175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The UltraFlex-175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform

  7. NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakians, H.; Botwell, M.; Chmielski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R.; Zsoldos, J.

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft, four technologies These are : 1. Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; 2. SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; 3. UltraFlex-175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array 3. Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The UltraFlex-175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fanfolded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3 ), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. 1 The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this

  8. NASA's New Millennium ST-8 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Fujita, T.; Minning, C.; Nelson, R. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; Sampson, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    NASA's Space Technology 8 project (ST-8) is subsystem demonstration which will validate four technologies that have been identified as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. NASA's New Millennium Program, with input from the science community, identified the following four technologies: Miniature Loop Heat Pipe with Multiple Evaporators Thermal Management System (MLHP), Scalable Architecture for the Investigation of the Load Managing Attributes of a Slender Truss (SAILMAST), Next Generation UltraFlex (NGU), and Environmentally Adaptive Fault Tolerant Computing (EAFTC). Once validated on a deep space mission, these technologies will be available for use on future science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The MLHP, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The NGU will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The EAFTC will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high

  9. NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; Ultraflex 175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The Ultraflex 175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform

  10. Requirements for a reliable millennium temperature reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Bo; Ljungqvist, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative temperature reconstructions are hampered by several problems. Proxy records are sparse which is witnessed by the fact that roughly half of all available high-resolution millennia-long proxy data have been published in the last five years. Moreover, proxies are inhomogeneously distributed around the globe and they often have coarse temporal resolution. The period of overlap between proxies and instrumental observations - the calibration period - is brief and dominated by a strong warming trend. Furthermore, proxies are often only weakly correlated to temperature and it is common that some form of screening procedure is applied to select only informative proxies. We study the influence of these limitations on the reliability of temperature reconstructions for the previous millennium. This influence depends on the spatial and temporal correlation structure of the surface temperature field. It also depends on the reconstruction methodology. We use gridded surface temperature data from GISTEMP and HadCRUT4 to investigate the geographical distribution of the spatial decorrelation length and of the temporal decorrelation time. The spatial decorrelation length varies with more than a factor of 5 with the largest values in the region dominated by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The temporal decorrelation time varies less with typical values of 1-2 years over land and 2-5 years over ocean. We also investigate the correlations between proxies and local temperatures (using the 91 proxies from Christiansen and Ljungqvist 2012) and between local temperatures and the NH mean temperature. These correlations have typical values around 0.3 but cover a wide range from weakly negative to larger than 0.8. The results outlined above allow us to identify regions where the effect of the lack of proxies is most important. They also inform us on the consequences of the short calibration period and on the influence of the recent trend. Finally, we demonstrate the effect of a

  11. 75 FR 71465 - Notice of the December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... CORPORATION Notice of the December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 10 a.m. to 12 p.m., Wednesday... Directors (the ``Board'') of the Millennium Challenge Corporation (``MCC'') will hold a meeting to...

  12. 75 FR 52990 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...Section 608(d) of the Millennium Challenge Act of 2003 requires the Millennium Challenge Corporation to publish a report that identifies countries that are ``candidate countries'' for Millennium Challenge Account assistance during FY 2011. The report is set forth in full...

  13. 77 FR 68115 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 1, 2012, Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Millennium), One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh... Gas Transmission, L.L.C. in Ramapo, New York and points further east. In addition, depending...

  14. 76 FR 55419 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... CORPORATION Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal... requires the Millennium Challenge Corporation to publish a report that identifies countries that are ``candidate countries'' for Millennium Challenge Account assistance during FY 2012. The report is set forth...

  15. Early Literacy Instruction for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, W. Dorsey, Ed.; Raphael, Taffy E., Ed.

    Noting that early reading achievement is increasingly being named as a top priority in venues ranging from national policy arenas to local schools and school districts, this book consolidates and summarizes research on early reading achievement, making it accessible to parents, teachers, administrators, and others concerned with children's reading…

  16. Accelerating the development of formal thinking in middle and high school students II: Postproject effects on science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayer, Michael; Adey, Philip S.

    A one-year lag was found between the effect of an intervention intended to promote formal operational thinking in students initially 11 or 12 years of age and the appearance of substantial science achievement in the experimental groups. A one-year lag was also reported on cognitive development: Whereas at the end of the two-year intervention the experimental groups were up to 0.9 ahead of the control groups, one year later the differential on Piagetian measures had disappeared, but the experimentals now showed better science achievement of even greater magnitude. Although the control groups showed normal distribution both on science achievement and cognitive development, the experimental groups showed bi- or trimodal distribution. Between one-half and one-quarter of the students involved in the experiment in different groups showed effects of the order of 2 both on cognitive development and science achievement; some students appeared unaffected (compared with the controls), and others demonstrated modest effects on science achievement. An age/gender interaction is reported: the most substantial effects were found in boys initially aged 12+ and girls initially 11+. The only group to show no effects was boys initially aged 11+. It is suggested that the intervention methods may have favored the abstract analytical learning style as described by Cohen 1986.

  17. Chemistry of 1-aza-1,3-enynes: achievements and key trends of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, M. V.; Garabadzhiu, A. V.; Belyaev, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    The data on the chemistry of 1-aza-1,3-enynes published in the past 15 years have been summarized and systematized. Achievements in the synthesis of these compounds, as well as their transformations into various acyclic and heterocyclic nitrogenous products, have been surveyed. Particular attention has focused on the addition reactions at the azomethine and/or carbon–carbon triple bonds. Practical applications of the products of these transformations, first of all, in synthesis of complex natural and biologically active compounds, are discussed. The bibliography includes 161 references.

  18. Professional Development in the Accountability Context: Building Capacity to Achieve Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochberg, Eric D.; Desimone, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    For professional development to be effective as an accountability policy mechanism, it must address challenges posed by accountability while also building teachers' capacity to change. This article details the role of professional development in the accountability system and provides a review of literature on effective professional development,…

  19. The Challenge of Universal Primary Education: Strategies for Achieving the International Development Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for International Development, London (England).

    The Department for International Development (DFID) is the British government department responsible for promoting development and the reduction of poverty in sites in developing and transition countries around the world. This paper focuses on the education dimension of poverty reduction, and specifically the attainment of the International…

  20. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Other Egregious Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2002-01-01

    Argues that 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, providing increased protection against unauthorized access to copyrighted electronic media, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, extending the term of most copyrighted books, unduly burden users of electronic media and books. Discusses the negative impact of recent federal laws to…

  1. Literacy: The First Decade of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack; Ortlieb, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of literacy instruction has remained constant since the beginning of the new millennium, literacy trends have shifted, often alongside acts of legislation. Areas of literacy education that were once overlooked in the past like adolescent literacy and RTI are now receiving increased attention, whereas areas of literacy like…

  2. Critical Thinking for the New Millennium: A Pedagogical Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Andrew Ann Dinkins

    The pedagogical imperative to prepare students to become critical thinkers, critical readers, and critical writers for the coming millennium necessitates a comprehensive college discourse on critical thinking. The paper cites seminars and workshops that incorporate theoretical and practical dimensions of teaching critical-analytical thinking…

  3. 1,000 Ways To Share the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collard , Sneed B. III

    1999-01-01

    The author of "1,000 Years Ago on Planet Earth" shares his reasons for taking a backward glance at civilizations all over the globe at the start of the last millennium. He also considers several other new books in various genres and the context such books offer children in approaching both history and the future. Includes books for the millennium…

  4. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 1: Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  5. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and partnership; (2)…

  6. Relations between the Development of Future Time Perspective in Three Life Domains, Investment in Learning, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2011-01-01

    Relations between the development of future time perspectives in three life domains (i.e., school and professional career, social relations, and leisure time) and changes in students' investment in learning and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the first and 584 in the second year of the lower…

  7. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing the Sixth Grade Students Decision-Making Skill and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…

  8. Differential Validity and Utility of Successive and Simultaneous Approaches to the Development of Equivalent Achievement Tests in French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Gierl, Mark J.; Tardif, Claudette; Lin, Jie; Rinaldi, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Described in this paper are the first three activities of a research program designed to assess the differential validity and utility of successive and simultaneous approaches to the development of equivalent achievement tests in the French and English languages. Two teams of multilingual/multicultural French-English teachers used the simultaneous…

  9. A Program To Develop through LOGO the Computer Self-Confidence of Seventh Grade Low-Achieving Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Marion D.

    This practicum report describes the development of a program designed to improve self-confidence in low-achieving seventh grade girls towards computers. The questionnaire "My Feelings Towards Computers" was used for pre- and post-comparisons. Students were introduced to the computer program LOGO, were taught to compose programs using the Logo…

  10. Improving Learning Achievements, Motivations and Problem-Solving Skills through a Peer Assessment-Based Game Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hung, Chun-Ming; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a peer assessment-based game development approach is proposed for improving students' learning achievements, motivations and problem-solving skills. An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in a science course at an elementary school. A total of 167 sixth graders participated in…

  11. Issues in the Development of Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for WIDA Consortium States. WCER Working Paper No. 2008-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, H. Gary; Wilmes, Carsten; Boals, Tim; Santos, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Title III of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) requires state education agencies to develop progress and attainment benchmarks for school districts, called annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAOs), for English language learners (ELLs). AMAOs must be based on annual assessments of English proficiency in the domains of listening,…

  12. Role of Student-Faculty Interactions in Developing College Students' Academic Self-Concept, Motivation, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komarraju, Meera; Musulkin, Sergey; Bhattacharya, Gargi

    2010-01-01

    Student-faculty interactions can be crucial in developing students' academic self-concept and enhancing their motivation and achievement. Although most interactions with faculty tend to occur within the formal classroom setting, students who experience informal interactions tend to be more motivated, engaged, and actively involved in the learning…

  13. Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Kwang Suk; Duncan, Teresa; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Scarloss, Beth; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2007-01-01

    The Regional Educational Laboratory - Southwest (REL Southwest) conducted a systematic and comprehensive review of the research-based evidence on the effects of professional development (PD) on growth in student achievement in three core academic subjects (reading/ELA, mathematics, and science). The primary goal of this study was to address the…

  14. Challenge and Success: A Qualitative Study of the Career Development of Highly Achieving Women With Physical and Sensory Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Brigid M.; Gallor, Susanna M.; Hensler-McGinnis, Nancy F.; Fassinger, Ruth E.; Wang, Shihwe; Goodman, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the career development experiences of 17 highly achieving women with physical and sensory disabilities. Interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using modified grounded theory strategies (A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1998). The emergent theoretical model was conceptualized as a system of influences organized…

  15. Impact of a Multiyear Professional Development Intervention on Science Achievement of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Deaktor, Rachael; Enders, Craig; Lambert, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 3-year implementation of a professional development intervention on science achievement of culturally and linguistically diverse elementary students. Teachers were provided with instructional units and workshops that were designed to improve teaching practices and foster positive beliefs about science and…

  16. Teaching Aids a Special Pedagogy Tool of Brain Development in School Children, Interest and Academic Achievement to Enhance Future Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohwojero, Chamberlain Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The school system is an institution where teachers adopt different teaching methods to impact knowledge and skills. The teaching method adopted by a class teacher has a great effect on children interest, academic achievement and brain development of a child. To support this fact the researcher used two groups of children from ten schools to carry…

  17. Achieving Business Success by Developing Clients and Community: Lessons from Leading Companies, Emerging Economies and a Nine Year Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardez, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Empirical evidence and recent revisions of conventional business doctrine indicate that companies that actively promote social performance and develop their clients' markets and skills as part of business strategy have a better chance of achieving sustainable profitability and growth than those that do not. This article discusses how landmark…

  18. Courseware Development Model (CDM): The Effects of CDM on Primary School Pre-Service Teachers' Achievements and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efendioglu, Akin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to design a "Courseware Development Model" (CDM) and investigate its effects on pre-service teachers' academic achievements in the field of geography and attitudes toward computer-based education (ATCBE). The CDM consisted of three components: content (C), learning theory, namely, meaningful learning (ML), and…

  19. The Effect of Curriculum for Developing Efficient Studying Skills on Academic Achievements and Studying Skills of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Semra; Kilinc, Mehmet; Dogan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to examine the effect of "Development of Efficient Studying Skills Curriculum" on academic achievements and studying skills of 7th grade primary school students. In this study, pre-test post-test from experiment models and semi-experimental model with control group were preferred. The reason for the preference is…

  20. Superintendent Perceptions of Their Professional Development in Leadership for Student Achievement at Texas Regional Education Service Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maze, Jerry G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to capture and analyze perceptions of Texas superintendents practicing in the 2008-2009 school year regarding their professional development at Texas Regional Education Service Centers (RESCs) in the area of leading student achievement. Superintendents statewide were surveyed and results analyzed using Analysis of…

  1. Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a…

  2. Effects of the Digital Game-Development Approach on Elementary School Students' Learning Motivation, Problem Solving, and Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Hung, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the game-based development approach is proposed for improving the learning motivation, problem solving skills, and learning achievement of students. An experiment was conducted on a learning activity of an elementary school science course to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. A total of 59 sixth graders from two…

  3. The "D.C. Study": A Longitudinal Look at Children's Development and Achievement under Varying Educational and Familial Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    This longitudinal research study summarizes how inner-city children's development and achievement are affected by preschool attendance, varying educational models, parent involvement, and identified risk-factors. The study of Washington, DC schools began with 3 cohorts of 4-year-olds enrolled in 3 different preschool models: child initiated,…

  4. Validity of the Simultaneous Approach to the Development of Equivalent Achievement Tests in English and French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Lin, Jie; Rinaldi, Christia M.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence gathered in the present study supports the use of the simultaneous development of test items for different languages. The simultaneous approach used in the present study involved writing an item in one language (e.g., French) and, before moving to the development of a second item, translating the item into the second language (e.g.,…

  5. Environmental Factors Associated with Early Reading Achievement in the Developing World: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Educational research from the developed world is often used as the basis for policies and programs in the developing world. However, local contextual factors should be taken into consideration in any transfer of research findings. This study examines associations that socioeconomic status (SES) and the home literacy environment (HLE) have with…

  6. LAND-USE, ECONOMICS AND HYDROLOGIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A SECOND STEP TOWARDS ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past and present development and land-use patterns have drastically altered the hydrologic function of our nation's watersheds. What is only now widely recognized is that the increased storm water volume and peak flows resulting from development in watersheds, not just the pollu...

  7. Racial Identity Development and Academic Achievement of Academically Gifted African American Students: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2014-01-01

    Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…

  8. So What's Different? Student Achievement and Attitude Results from Instructional Development Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, J. Nicholls; Van Horn, Kathleen L.

    Reported are the results of instructional development projects at Utah State University, funded under mini grants, faculty development grants, or developmental grants to departments. These projects involve redesign of courses in media production, library resources, pattern design and fitting, counselling psychology, quantitative methods,…

  9. Development and Confirmatory Factory Analysis of the Achievement Task Value Scale for University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Yu-Chiung; Lin, Hsiao-Fang; Lin, Chin-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to develop a scale to measure university students' task value and (b) to use confirmatory factor analytic techniques to investigate the construct validity of the scale. The questionnaire items were developed based on theoretical considerations and the final version contained 38 items divided into 4 subscales.…

  10. New millennium program ST6: autonomous technologies for future NASA spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Wyman, William; Brady, T.; Buckley, S.; Tillier, C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The focus of NMP is only on those technologies which need space environment for proper validation. The ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve spacecraft's ability to: make decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground, determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing.

  11. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  12. Impact of Online Professional Development on Teacher Quality and Student Achievement in Fifth Grade Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Sheralyn; de Kramer, Raquel Magidin; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Masters, Jessica; Russell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of online professional development (OPD) programs, relatively few studies have been conducted to examine the efficacy of such programs for teachers and students. This manuscript presents findings from an impact study of OPD courses in fractions, algebraic thinking, and measurement on 79 fifth grade teachers'…

  13. Creating/Developing/Using a Wiki Study Guide: Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Britt, Virginia G.

    2012-01-01

    Wikis are gaining popularity in classrooms because of their many benefits. Despite these benefits, there is a shortage of empirical data regarding their effectiveness in increasing knowledge. This study examined (a) the effectiveness of creating/developing/using a wiki to increase knowledge of Web 2.0 tools for 103 preservice teachers; (b) their…

  14. Professional Development for Reading Achievement: Results from the Collaborative Language and Literacy Instruction Project (CLLIP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porche, Michelle V.; Pallante, Daniel H.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    The Collaborative Language and Literacy Instruction Project (CLLIP) is a model of professional development designed to help teachers incorporate research-based practices of literacy instruction, support mastery, and sustained use of these practices through coaching, and serve as a foundation for whole-school reform efforts. We describe the model,…

  15. Innovative Learning and Developments in Motivation and Achievement in Upper Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea; Volman, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has shown the potential of innovative learning for enhancing motivation and learning outcomes, further understanding is needed on which aspects of IL are most effective and whether these are equally motivating for different types of students. The present study investigated how developments in students' motivation and…

  16. Computer Assisted Instruction in Schools: Achievements, Present Developments, and Projections for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    This overview of computer assisted instruction (CAI) traces the development and use of computers in learning and instruction and describes some current CAI projects including PLATO, CDC PLATO, TICCIT, and others at Stanford University and the Computer Curriculum Corporation, and in Chicago, Los Nietos (California), Minnesota, Europe, and Canada.…

  17. Entrepreneurship Education in Delta State Tertiary Institution as a Means of Achieving National Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osakwe, Regina N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined entrepreneurship education in Delta Sate tertiary institutions as a means of national growth and development. Two research questions were asked to guide the study. The population comprised all the 1,898 academic staff in eight tertiary institutions in the state. A sample of 800 lecturers was drawn through the multi stage and…

  18. Mental health services development in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements, barriers and facilitating factors.

    PubMed

    Caldas de Almeida, J M

    2013-03-01

    Mental health services reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean in the last 20 years have led to a significant improvement of mental health services. They also contributed to the development of new evidence that may help the implementation of future reforms. These advances, however, were clearly insufficient to respond to the huge challenges countries of Latin American and the Caribbean face to improve mental health services. Insufficient funding, one of the most important barriers to mental health services development found in most countries, was related to the absence of a strong consensus among all stakeholders and the weakness of user and family associations. Other barriers were the lack of technical capacity of the coordination unit responsible for development of services in the ministries of health, resistance from professionals towards changing to new models of care and lack of human resources. Transition to democracy in some countries and natural disasters proved to be windows of opportunity for mental health services reform. Facilitating factors included alliance with the human rights defence movement, development of research capacity in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and international cooperation. PMID:24029840

  19. Achieving and Sustaining New Knowledge Development in High-Expectation Start-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2010-01-01

    In markets characterized by strong competition, new knowledge and new knowledge development are generally recognized as the key means for an enterprise to gain competitive advantage. This knowledge-based competitive advantage is critical for all commercial ventures, but is especially so for high-expectation start-ups (technology-based ventures…

  20. Lessons Scooped from the Melting Pot: California District Increases Achievement through English Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Nelson, John

    2010-01-01

    Consider the challenges facing one district: 27,000 students in 44 elementary schools in a southern California border district. Most students--72%--are classified as English language learners (ELL) as measured by the California English Language Development Test (CELDT). Although 65% of the students are Hispanic/Latino and speak Spanish as a first…

  1. Improving Elementary Science Instruction and Student Achievement: The Impact of a Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M.; Cotner, Bridget A.; Lee, Reginald S.; Boydston, Theodore L.; Lanehart, Rheta

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish the efficacy of Teaching SMART (Teaching Science, Mathematics and Relevant Technologies); a science professional development program for teachers with students in grades 3 through 5. Teaching SMART promotes scientific inquiry and emphasizes the importance of equity, empowerment, exploration, and fun in the…

  2. The Essential Role of Curricular Analyses in Comparative Studies of Mathematics Achievement: Developing "Fair" Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Oscar; Papick, Ira; Ross, Dan J.; Grouws, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the process of development of assessment instruments for the Comparing Options in Secondary Mathematics: Investigating Curriculum (COSMIC) project. The COSMIC project was a three-year longitudinal comparative study focusing on evaluating high school students' mathematics learning from two distinct…

  3. The development and achievement of a healthy cities network in Taiwan: sharing leadership and partnership building.

    PubMed

    Hu, Susan C; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Healthy Cities (HC) projects are the best known of the settings-based approaches to health promotion. They engage local governments in health development through a process of political commitment, institutional change, capacity-building, partnership-based planning and innovative projects. Many cities have promoted HC projects in Taiwan since 2002. In 2008, the Taiwan Alliance for Healthy Cities (TAHC) was launched to assist local governments in effectively establishing, operating and promoting HC projects. In this article, we share our experiences of establishing a platform and network to promote the HC program in Taiwan. Based on individual city profiles and governance in Taiwan, the TAHC developed a well-organized framework and model to encourage strong leadership in local governments and to promote participation and engagement in their communities. In the last 6 years, leaders from Taiwan's local governments in HC networks have integrated the HC concepts into their governance models, actively engaging and combining various resources with practical expertise and private sectors. The network of health in Taiwan allows each city to develop its unique perspective on the HC projects. Using this method, not only local government meets its needs, but also increases governance efficiency and effectiveness, resulting in the promotion of its citizens' overall sustainable urban health development. This HC network in Taiwan has partnerships with government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), with academic support and citizen involvement, a dynamic data collection system and demonstrated leadership in the sharing of information in the Asian region. PMID:27199013

  4. Beliefs about Teaching Science: The Relationship between Elementary Teachers' Participation in Professional Development and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpe, Andrew; Czerniak, Charlene; Haney, Jodi; Beltyukova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Because of increasing calls for school accountability, an increased emphasis placed on the role of the teacher, and theoretical connections between teacher beliefs and classroom action, a critical need exists to examine teacher professional development programs to determine their impact on teacher belief systems, teaching practices, and student…

  5. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidi Nnorom, Innocent; Osibanjo, Oladele; Onyedikachi Nnorom, Stanley

    Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

  6. Magnitude of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Indonesia at Postmillennium Development Goals Era.

    PubMed

    Wibawa, Tri; Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul

    2016-01-01

    The world will enter the postmillennium development goals 2015 era. The achievements of the millennium development goals (MDGs) as a global development target need to be evaluated. A sustainable new reasonable target is important for neglected tropical diseases (NTD) elimination in Indonesia. This review describes the NTD situation in Indonesia and highlights problems beneath the NTD transmission. Multidisciplinary approach is a promising strategy to help the marginalized people. PMID:27190525

  7. Magnitude of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Indonesia at Postmillennium Development Goals Era

    PubMed Central

    Wibawa, Tri; Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul

    2016-01-01

    The world will enter the postmillennium development goals 2015 era. The achievements of the millennium development goals (MDGs) as a global development target need to be evaluated. A sustainable new reasonable target is important for neglected tropical diseases (NTD) elimination in Indonesia. This review describes the NTD situation in Indonesia and highlights problems beneath the NTD transmission. Multidisciplinary approach is a promising strategy to help the marginalized people. PMID:27190525

  8. Biosensors in Health Care: The Milestones Achieved in Their Development towards Lab-on-Chip-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Suprava; Nanda, Rachita; Sahoo, Sibasish; Mohapatra, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Immense potentiality of biosensors in medical diagnostics has driven scientists in evolution of biosensor technologies and innovating newer tools in time. The cornerstone of the popularity of biosensors in sensing wide range of biomolecules in medical diagnostics is due to their simplicity in operation, higher sensitivity, ability to perform multiplex analysis, and capability to be integrated with different function by the same chip. There remains a huge challenge to meet the demands of performance and yield to its simplicity and affordability. Ultimate goal stands for providing point-of-care testing facility to the remote areas worldwide, particularly the developing countries. It entails continuous development in technology towards multiplexing ability, fabrication, and miniaturization of biosensor devices so that they can provide lab-on-chip-analysis systems to the community. PMID:27042353

  9. The Development of Computational Biology in South Africa: Successes Achieved and Lessons Learnt

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Christoffels, Alan; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gamieldien, Junaid; Hazelhurst, Scott; Joubert, Fourie; Kumuthini, Judit; Pillay, Ché S.; Snoep, Jacky L.; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatics is now a critical skill in many research and commercial environments as biological data are increasing in both size and complexity. South African researchers recognized this need in the mid-1990s and responded by working with the government as well as international bodies to develop initiatives to build bioinformatics capacity in the country. Significant injections of support from these bodies provided a springboard for the establishment of computational biology units at multiple universities throughout the country, which took on teaching, basic research and support roles. Several challenges were encountered, for example with unreliability of funding, lack of skills, and lack of infrastructure. However, the bioinformatics community worked together to overcome these, and South Africa is now arguably the leading country in bioinformatics on the African continent. Here we discuss how the discipline developed in the country, highlighting the challenges, successes, and lessons learnt. PMID:26845152

  10. The Development of Computational Biology in South Africa: Successes Achieved and Lessons Learnt.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Christoffels, Alan; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gamieldien, Junaid; Hazelhurst, Scott; Joubert, Fourie; Kumuthini, Judit; Pillay, Ché S; Snoep, Jacky L; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki

    2016-02-01

    Bioinformatics is now a critical skill in many research and commercial environments as biological data are increasing in both size and complexity. South African researchers recognized this need in the mid-1990s and responded by working with the government as well as international bodies to develop initiatives to build bioinformatics capacity in the country. Significant injections of support from these bodies provided a springboard for the establishment of computational biology units at multiple universities throughout the country, which took on teaching, basic research and support roles. Several challenges were encountered, for example with unreliability of funding, lack of skills, and lack of infrastructure. However, the bioinformatics community worked together to overcome these, and South Africa is now arguably the leading country in bioinformatics on the African continent. Here we discuss how the discipline developed in the country, highlighting the challenges, successes, and lessons learnt. PMID:26845152

  11. The Development, Validation and Application of an External Criterion Measure of Achievement Test Item Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Robert A.

    Based on John Rawls' theory of justice as fairness, a nine-item rating scale was developed to serve as a criterion in studies of test item bias. Two principles underlie the scale: (1) Within a defined usage, test items should not affect students so that they are unable to do as well as their abilities would indicate; and (2) within the domain of a…

  12. Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International

  13. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method.

    PubMed

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed "MDVM", which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30-90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850-2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950-1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450-1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data. PMID:26751947

  14. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed “MDVM”, which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30–90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850–2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950–1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450–1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data. PMID:26751947

  15. Ten years of RELEA: achievements and challenges for astronomy education development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Jafelice, Luiz Carlos; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    When an area of education, and more particularly the research within this area, is aimed to development, a basic requirement is the existence of a regular publication that accounts for the scientific production in that area. This study aims to analyze 10 years of Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA). Publishing policies of the RELEA and their context are discussed in relation to submission, refereeing and publication. The 75 articles published in 18 editions are analyzed and classified by: year of publication, edition, the authors' institutions, school level, study focus and content. The results present trends and shortcomings of the production. A comparison with the number of articles published in other Brazilian journals of education and an analysis of the international scene in relation to other type publications along these ten years is made. Given that this journal is now consolidated, its future prospects in the international landscape are further considered. The challenges related to article submission are discussed: how to increase their number, the submission of Latin American countries, and how to bring in the issues and subjects not addressed until now. It is also considered the possibility of encouraging graduate studies, new lines of research in astronomy education, and dissemination of material in schools and universities for teachers and students. Finally, future possibilities are discussed given the IAU development programs. For example, more article submission from Portuguese-speaking countries with the support of Regional Nodes and Language Expertise Centers, and opportunities for volunteer IAU members and global projects for the development of astronomy education.

  16. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities. PMID:24786765

  17. Can developing countries achieve adequate improvements in child health outcomes without engaging the private sector?

    PubMed Central

    Bustreo, Flavia; Harding, April; Axelsson, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The private sector exerts a significant and critical influence on child health outcomes in developing countries, including the health of poor children. This article reviews the available evidence on private sector utilization and quality of care. It provides a framework for analysing the private sector's influence on child health outcomes. This influence goes beyond service provision by private providers and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Pharmacies, drug sellers, private suppliers, and food producers also have an impact on the health of children. Many governments are experimenting with strategies to engage the private sector to improve child health. The article analyses some of the most promising strategies, and suggests that a number of constraints make it hard for policy-makers to emulate these approaches. Few experiences are clearly described, monitored, and evaluated. The article suggests that improving the impact of child health programmes in developing countries requires a more systematic analysis of how to engage the private sector most effectively. The starting point should include the evaluation of the presence and potential of the private sector, including actors such as professional associations, producer organizations, community groups, and patients' organizations. PMID:14997241

  18. Achieving Innovation and Affordability Through Standardization of Materials Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, M. H.; Zook, L. M.; Raley, R. E.; Chapman, C.

    2011-01-01

    The successful expansion of development, innovation, and production within the aeronautics industry during the 20th century was facilitated by collaboration of government agencies with the commercial aviation companies. One of the initial products conceived from the collaboration was the ANC-5 Bulletin, first published in 1937. The ANC-5 Bulletin had intended to standardize the requirements of various government agencies in the design of aircraft structure. The national space policy shift in priority for NASA with an emphasis on transferring the travel to low earth orbit to commercial space providers highlights an opportunity and a need for the national and global space industries. The same collaboration and standardization that is documented and maintained by the industry within MIL-HDBK-5 (MMPDS-01) and MIL-HBDK-17 (nonmetallic mechanical properties) can also be exploited to standardize the thermal performance properties, processing methods, test methods, and analytical methods for use in aircraft and spacecraft design and associated propulsion systems. In addition to the definition of thermal performance description and standardization, the standardization for test methods and analysis for extreme environments (high temperature, cryogenics, deep space radiation, etc) would also be highly valuable to the industry. Its subsequent revisions and conversion to MIL-HDBK-5 and then MMPDS-01 established and then expanded to contain standardized mechanical property design values and other related design information for metallic materials used in aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It also includes guidance on standardization of composition, processing, and analytical methods for presentation and inclusion into the handbook. This standardization enabled an expansion of the technologies to provide efficiency and reliability to the consumers. It can be established that many individual programs within the government agencies have been overcome with development costs

  19. Development of seriation and its relation to the achievement of inferential transitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Julia V.

    Sixty kindergarten and first grade children took part in an intervention program during which they were confronted with problems requiring concrete operational thought. The study was designed to ascertain the influence of an intervention in the development of operational seriation and transitivity in kindergarten and first grade children who initially failed to demonstrate the ability to do seriation and transitivity problems. Seriation of size, presumably a prerequisite operation for transitive size relations, was also studied. The subjects showed significant advancement toward concrete operation on the seriation problems but failed to show significant improvement on the transitivity problems. In addition, subjects who showed understanding of transitive inference also demonstrated success on seriation, but subjects who showed clear understanding of seriation did not demonstrate success on making transitive inference. Results were interpreted in the context of Piaget's equilibration theory (Genetic epistemology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970).

  20. Developing programmes to achieve a healthy society: creating healthy workplaces in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Addley, K

    1999-07-01

    Healthy workplaces help to prevent occupational disease and injury as well as promoting positive healthy lifestyle behaviours. The concept of creating healthy workplaces through workplace health promotion has been identified as a legitimate area of activity for public health policy in Northern Ireland, supporting as it does, the settings approach as a means of improving the health and well-being of the population at large. Benefits accrue to businesses, organizations and individuals from the enhancement of positive healthy lifestyle messages in addition to reinforcing the principles of good occupational health practices. Developing a framework for the creation of healthy workplaces is part of a joint initiative between the Northern Ireland Health Promotion and Health and Safety Agencies. Commitment to delivering the concept is required from all the key players who include: employers, employees, trade union groups and health and safety professionals. A healthy workplace model needs to be created which is flexible and adaptable to suit all types of business and in particular the needs of small businesses which predominate in Northern Ireland. The principles underpinning the Business Excellence Model may be a useful vehicle for delivering workplace health promotion onto an organization's agenda. PMID:10628059

  1. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  2. What makes siblings different? The development of sibling differences in academic achievement and interests.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Alexander C; McHale, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    To illuminate processes that contribute to the development of sibling differences, this study examined cross-lagged links between parents' beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability and differences between siblings' grade point averages (GPAs), and cross-lagged links between differences in siblings' GPAs and sibling differences in academic interests. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, firstborn youth (M age at Time 1 = 15.71, SD = 1.07), and secondborn youth (M age at Time 1 = 13.18, SD = 1.29) from 388 European American families on 3 annual occasions. Findings revealed that, after controlling for siblings' average grades and prior differences in performance, parents' beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability predicted differences in performance such that youth rated by parents as relatively more competent than their sibling earned relatively higher grades the following year. Siblings' relative school performance, however, did not predict parents' beliefs about differences between siblings' competencies. Further, after controlling for average interests and grades, sibling differences in GPA predicted differences in siblings' interests such that youth who had better grades than their siblings reported relatively stronger academic interests the following year. Differences in interest, however, did not predict sibling differences in GPA. Findings are discussed in terms the role of sibling dynamics in family socialization. PMID:26053351

  3. What Makes Siblings Different? The Development of Sibling Differences in Academic Achievement and Interests

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Alexander C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    To illuminate processes that contribute to the development of sibling differences, this study examined cross lagged links between parents’ beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability and differences between siblings’ grade point averages (GPAs), and cross lagged links between differences in siblings’ GPAs and sibling differences in academic interests. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, firstborn (M age at Time 1 = 15.71, SD = 1.07) and secondborn (M age at Time 1 = 13.18, SD = 1.29) youth from 388 European American Families on three annual occasions. Findings revealed that, after controlling for siblings’ average grades and prior differences in performance, parents’ beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability predicted differences in performance such that youth rated by parents as relatively more competent than their sibling earned relatively higher grades the following year. Siblings’ relative school performance, however, did not predict parents’ beliefs about differences between siblings’ competencies. Further, after controlling for average interests and grades, sibling differences in GPA predicted differences in siblings’ interests such that youth who had better grades than their siblings reported relatively stronger academic interests the following year. Differences in interest, however, did not predict sibling differences in GPA. Findings are discussed in terms the role of sibling dynamics in family socialization. PMID:26053351

  4. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  5. Solar activity and climate during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, S. K.; Usoskin, I.; Schüssler, M.

    The sunspot number is the longest running direct index of solar activity, with direct measurements starting in 1610. For many purposes, e.g., for comparisons with climate indices, it is still too short. We present a reconstruction of the cycle-averaged sunspot number over the last millennium based on 10Be concentrations in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. As intermediate steps of the method, we also reconstruct the cosmic ray flux at Earth and the Sun's open magnetic flux. The reconstructions are validated by comparison with direct measurements or independent reconstructions. We also compare with records of global climate, in particular with the global temperature ("hockey stick") curve of Mann et al (1998). A reasonable agreement is found for the entire millennium, excluding only the last decades, when the two curves start diverging from each other.

  6. SCARLET Photovoltaic Concentrator Array Selected for Flight Under NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center continues to demonstrate its expertise in the development and implementation of advanced space power systems. For example, during the past year, the NASA New Millennium Program selected the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) photovoltaic array as the power system for its Deep Space-1 (DS-1) mission. This Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) managed DS-1 mission, which represents the first operational flight of a photovoltaic concentrator array, will provide a baseline for the use of this technology in a variety of future government and commercial applications. SCARLET is a joint NASA Lewis/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization program to develop advanced photovoltaic array technology that uses a unique refractive concentrator design to focus sunlight onto a line of photovoltaic cells located below the optical element. The general concept is based on previous work conducted at Lewis under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with AEC-Able Engineering, Inc., for the Multiple Experiments to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. The SCARLET II design selected by the New Millennium Program is a direct adaptation of the smaller SCARLET I array built for METEOR. Even though SCARLET I was lost during a launch failure in October 1995, the hardware (designed, built, and flight qualified within 6 months) provided invaluable information and experience that led to the selection of this technology as the primary power source for DS-1.

  7. Last Millennium Climate and Its Variability in CCSM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Landrum, L.; Conley, A.; Lawrence, P.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Last Millennium simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) reproduces many large-scaled climate patterns suggested by historical and proxy-data records including cooling from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, a "hockey-stick" pattern of surface temperature changes from 850-2005, and a broad cooling with a delayed La Niña-type of pattern in the tropical Pacific response to large volcanic events. Atmospheric modes, one oceanic mode (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation), and one ocean-atmosphere coupled mode (the El Niño-Southern Oscillation) of variability show little or no change in their variances, teleconnection patterns and spectra between the Last Millennium simulation and the 1850 non-transient control run. Two oceanic modes, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have higher variances and increased power at low frequencies in the Last Millennium simulation compared with the control run, suggesting long-term oceanic response to natural solar and volcanic forcings.

  8. Accelerating the Development of Formal Thinking in Pakistan Secondary School Students: Achievement Effects and Professional Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Hafiz M.; Shayer, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the results of using, in the context of secondary education in Pakistan, an intervention program which earlier was shown in British schools to have a substantial effect over a two-year period on the cognitive development of pupils. (Author/CCM)

  9. Enabling implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan: developing investment cases to achieve targets for measles and rubella prevention.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Strebel, Peter M; Dabbagh, Alya; Cherian, Thomas; Cochi, Stephen L

    2013-04-18

    Global prevention and control of infectious diseases requires significant investment of financial and human resources and well-functioning leadership and management structures. The reality of competing demands for limited resources leads to trade-offs and questions about the relative value of specific investments. Developing investment cases can help to provide stakeholders with information about the benefits, costs, and risks associated with available options, including examination of social, political, governance, and ethical issues. We describe the process of developing investment cases for globally coordinated management of action plans for measles and rubella as tools for enabling the implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). We focus on considerations related to the timing of efforts to achieve measles and rubella goals independently and within the context of ongoing polio eradication efforts, other immunization priorities, and other efforts to control communicable diseases or child survival initiatives. Our analysis suggests that the interactions between the availability and sustainability of financial support, sufficient supplies of vaccines, capacity of vaccine delivery systems, and commitments at all levels will impact the feasibility and timing of achieving national, regional, and global goals. The timing of investments and achievements will determine the net financial and health benefits obtained. The methodology, framing, and assumptions used to characterize net benefits and uncertainties in the investment cases will impact estimates and perceptions about the value of prevention achieved overall by the GVAP. We suggest that appropriately valuing the benefits of investments of measles and rubella prevention will require the use of integrated dynamic disease, economic, risk, and decision analytic models in combination with consideration of qualitative factors, and that synthesizing information in the form of investment cases may help

  10. The Determinants of School Achievement in Developing Countries: The Educational Production Function. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Staff Working Paper No. 201.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Leigh; Simmons, John

    A number of studies are reviewed in an attempt to identify those schooling inputs that affect schooling outcomes, specifically cognitive achievement of students, in developing countries. Part 1 of the paper outlines the nature of the major tool of analysis, the educational production function (EPF), and the problems associated with its use as a…

  11. Hunger After the Millennium: Perspectives and Demands.

    PubMed

    Lupien, John R.

    2002-01-01

    Problems of over- and under-nutrition are changing with continued world population growth, rapid urbanization, and improved economic access to food. Still about 800 million lack reliable access to good quality and safe food. This article suggests action necessary to develop systems of sustainable food production in developing countries to help improve national development and food security, and give people better access to food. PMID:12131784

  12. DMCA Section 104 Report: A Report of the Register of Copyrights Pursuant to [Section] 104 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    As required under section 104 of Public Law No. 105-304, this Report evaluates the effects of title I of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998 and the development of electronic commerce and associated technology on the operation of sections 109 and 117 of title 17, U.S.C. It also evaluates the relationship between existing and…

  13. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1–3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

  14. Millennium tree-ring reconstruction of drought variability in the eastern Qilian Mountains, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Xiaohua; Deng, Yang; Gao, Linlin; Chen, Fahu; Cook, Edward; Yang, Meixue; Zhang, Fen

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of natural long-term drought variability is essential for water resource management and planning, especially in arid and sub-arid regions of the world. In the eastern Qilian Mountains of China, long-term drought variability based on high-resolution proxy records such as tree-ring data are still scarce to date. Here we present a new tree-ring chronology from the eastern Qilian Mountains which provides a valuable 1,002-year record (1009-2010 CE) of drought variability. The new reconstruction of June-July 5-month scale standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index is the first millennium tree-ring estimate of past climate developed in the eastern Qilian Mountains. The record shows that this region has experienced several persistent droughts and pluvials over the past millennium, with significantly drier climate during the fifteenth century and dramatic wetting since the nineteenth century. The low frequency generally agrees with other nearby studies based on both tree-ring data and other proxy data.

  15. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J S

    2014-01-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1-3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

  16. The new millennium program EO-1 mission and spacecraft design concept.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, D.; Hestnes, P.; Perry, M.; Stabnow, B.

    Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) is the first in a series of Earth Orbiter spacecraft for NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). Government, academia and industry have been teamed together to develop the EO-1 spacecraft. The mission, instruments, NMP technologies, and spacecraft subsystems are discussed. The remote sensing science instruments which will be flown on the EO-1 spacecraft are the Advanced Land Imager and the Atmospheric Corrector. The NMP technologies planned for spaceflight validation by EO-1 include an X-band phased array antenna, a pulsed plasma thruster, a high-rate fiber optic data bus, a lightweight flexible solar array, formation flight with Landsat-7, and carbon-carbon thermal radiators. The data subsystem contains several new technologies. Other subsystems include attitude control, power, RF communications, structure and mechanisms, and thermal subsystem. The EO-1 mission is a good example of the faster-better-cheaper philosophy that NASA has adopted for its spacecraft, and paves the way for constructing future spacecraft in the new millennium.

  17. Comet and Asteroid Missions in NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Chainpollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered

  18. Teacher Research Programs: An Effective Form of Professional Development to Increase Student Achievement and Benefit the Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2008-12-01

    U.S. high school students perform markedly less well in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) than students in other economically advanced countries. This low level of STEM performance endangers our democracy and economy. The President's Council of Advisors in Science and Technology's 2004 report attributed the shortfall of students attracted to the sciences is a result of the dearth of teachers sufficiently conversant with science and scientists to enable them to communicate to their students the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery, and the opportunities science provides for highly rewarding and remunerative careers. Nonetheless, the United States has made little progress in correcting these deficiencies. Studies have shown that high-quality teaching matters more to student achievement than anything else schools do. This belief is buttressed by evidence from Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP) that highly motivated, in-service science teachers require professional development to enable them and their students to perform up to their potential. Columbia's Summer Research Program is based on the premise that to teach science effectively requires experience in using the tools of contemporary science to answer unsolved questions. From its inception, SRP's goal has been to enhance interest and improve performance in science of students. It seeks to achieve this goal by increasing the professional competence of teachers. The reports of Elmore, Sanders and Rivers, and our own studies, show that professional development is a "key lever for improving student outcomes." While most middle and high school science teachers have taken college science courses that include cookbook laboratory exercises, the vast majority of them have never attempted to answer an unsolved question. Just as student learning depends on the expertise of teachers, the expertise of teachers depends on the quality of their professional

  19. Development of a process to achieve residue-free photoresist removal after high-dose ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McOmber, Janice I.; Nair, Rajesh S.

    1991-04-01

    Photoresist subjected to high-dose ion implantation tends to bubble and explode during the plasma photoresist stripping process in single-wafer ashers. A process has been developed to achieve the goals of complete photoresist removal with no bubbling or residues, minimum particulates, and minimal-CV shifts. These goals are accomplished by suitable photoresist pretreatment and optimization of resist strip parameters. Deep UV bake prior to implantation along with reduced platen temperature topside-lamp-assisted ashing have resulted in a residue-free ash with a low-CV shift.

  20. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  1. Role of Teacher Education in the Achievement of MDGs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Amardeep; Singh, Kulwinder

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which include eight goals have been framed to address the world's major development challenges by 2015. In India, considerable progress has been reported to be made in the field of basic universal education, gender equality in education, economic growth and other human development related aspects. Even…

  2. The Great Work of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Berry explores the meaning of work from the standpoint of human civilization responding to the call of the universe, replacing use and exploitation of nature with the wonder, rapport, and intimacy so important to the psychic balance of the developing human and natural harmony of life on Earth. The Great Work is defined as the work of…

  3. Unofficial Technology Marvel of the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricart, Glenn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the Internet, particularly on higher education. Highlights include a history of the development of the Internet; a leadership plan for higher education; authentication of personal identity; security; information quality; the concept of Internet time; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  4. Curriculum Directions for the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashway, Robert M.; And Others

    This paper reviews and uses current research to present guidelines for curriculum development and delivery. The presenters demonstrate why manipulatives, laboratories and other "hands on" approaches are not appropriate introductory learning tools for adults. They argue that laboratory and similar strategies are the tools of an…

  5. An Education Millennium Development Goal for Quality: Complexity and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Angeline M.

    2011-01-01

    A good quality education is inclusive, relevant and democratic. Of these three characteristics, the author contends that democratic is the most fundamental and underpins the other two. Education can only truly be inclusive and relevant if its goals are continuously the subject of open democratic debate, since education is a value-based,…

  6. Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…

  7. Cooperative Education in the New Millennium: Implications for Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Cal

    1997-01-01

    Colleges and universities are being challenged to examine their mission, structure, and delivery of services for two reasons with far-reaching implications for cooperative education. The first is the move from an industrial to a postindustrial economy. The second deals with incorrect assumptions about learning based on outmoded information and…

  8. Peroral cholangioscopy in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    Parsi, Mansour A

    2011-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopy was first described in 1970s and has recently gained popularity. Peroral cholangioscopy is appealing to therapeutic endoscopists because a direct intraluminal view of the biliary duct system offers possibilities for diagnosis and interventions beyond that which other imaging or endoscopic modalities can provide. As the image quality of cholangioscopies improves, so too does their diagnostic capability, and as their durability and maneuverability increases, so too does their potential use for therapeutic applications. This editorial is intended to provide a brief review of recent developments in peroral cholangioscopy and current indications for its use. PMID:21218076

  9. Inter-hemispheric temperature variability over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukom, Raphael; Gergis, Joëlle; Karoly, David J.; Wanner, Heinz; Curran, Mark; Elbert, Julie; González-Rouco, Fidel; Linsley, Braddock K.; Moy, Andrew D.; Mundo, Ignacio; Raible, Christoph C.; Steig, Eric J.; van Ommen, Tas; Vance, Tessa; Villalba, Ricardo; Zinke, Jens; Frank, David

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's climate system is driven by a complex interplay of internal chaotic dynamics and natural and anthropogenic external forcing. Recent instrumental data have shown a remarkable degree of asynchronicity between Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere temperature fluctuations, thereby questioning the relative importance of internal versus external drivers of past as well as future climate variability. However, large-scale temperature reconstructions for the past millennium have focused on the Northern Hemisphere, limiting empirical assessments of inter-hemispheric variability on multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Here, we introduce a new millennial ensemble reconstruction of annually resolved temperature variations for the Southern Hemisphere based on an unprecedented network of terrestrial and oceanic palaeoclimate proxy records. In conjunction with an independent Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction ensemble, this record reveals an extended cold period (1594-1677) in both hemispheres but no globally coherent warm phase during the pre-industrial (1000-1850) era. The current (post-1974) warm phase is the only period of the past millennium where both hemispheres are likely to have experienced contemporaneous warm extremes. Our analysis of inter-hemispheric temperature variability in an ensemble of climate model simulations for the past millennium suggests that models tend to overemphasize Northern Hemisphere-Southern Hemisphere synchronicity by underestimating the role of internal ocean-atmosphere dynamics, particularly in the ocean-dominated Southern Hemisphere. Our results imply that climate system predictability on decadal to century timescales may be lower than expected based on assessments of external climate forcing and Northern Hemisphere temperature variations alone.

  10. Major Mesoamerican droughts of the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Diaz, J. Villanueva; Burnette, D. J.; Paredes, J. Cerano; Heim, R. R., Jr.; Fye, F. K.; Acuna Soto, R.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Stahle, D. K.

    2011-03-01

    Ancient Montezuma baldcypress (Taxodium mucronatum) trees found in Barranca de Amealco, Queretaro, have been used to develop a 1,238-year tree-ring chronology that is correlated with precipitation, temperature, drought indices, and crop yields in central Mexico. This chronology has been used to reconstruct the spring-early summer soil moisture balance over the heartland of the Mesoamerican cultural province, and is the first exactly dated, annually resolved paleoclimatic record for Mesoamerica spanning the Late Classic, Post Classic, Colonial, and modern eras. The reconstruction indicates that the Terminal Classic drought extended into central Mexico, supporting other sedimentary and speleothem evidence for this early 10th century drought in Mesoamerica. The reconstruction also documents severe and sustained drought during the decline of the Toltec state (1149-1167) and during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec state (1514-1539), providing a new precisely dated climate framework for Mesoamerican cultural change.

  11. Telepathology: a diagnostic tool for the millennium?

    PubMed

    Wells, C A; Sowter, C

    2000-05-01

    Many developments in science have their origins in science fiction and telepathology is no exception. The concept was first illustrated in 1924 in the magazine 'Radio News'. It was not until 1980, however, that the first working telepathology system was demonstrated. Although the system was shown to work, it required special hardware, dedicated software and special microwave transmission links to be installed. Little interest was shown worldwide because of the very high cost and the inability of many people to replicate such a system. Ten years later, the personal computer (PC) was able to provide more than adequate performance at low cost for both image display quality and speed, and the development of video technology had resulted in high quality images being produced by television cameras that were now easily affordable. Microscopes were also relatively cheaper. Thus, by 1993 or 1994, all the hardware necessary to produce a telepathology system was available at reasonable cost. Telepathology can now be used for remote primary diagnosis, remote referral to a specialist pathologist, remote teaching, remote presentation of post-mortem or microscopic findings, quality assurance image circulation and feedback, and consensus diagnosis for pathological review in clinical trials. There are two residual problems. The first concerns the speed of data transmission, commonly referred to as the bandwidth. The second is that the software provided by most of the manufacturers and suppliers of these systems is not entirely suitable to the task and the systems are not interoperable. It is clear that the approach of the manufacturers is at present unlikely to produce telepathology systems which pathologists feel comfortable in using. A somewhat different approach is illustrated by the accompanying article in this issue from the Berlin group, where a relatively simple Java-based applet and the Internet are used to allow single or multiple users to view slides on a robotic

  12. Northern high latitude climate variability of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Heather J.

    This work explores the causes of northern high-latitude climate variations over the last millennium, and industrial and future periods. Attribution studies are performed on a suite of global climate simulations, and four historical reconstructions of Greenland surface temperatures and precipitation (two of which are new to this work). The simulations followed the protocols of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 3 and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. At least half of the multi-decadal variability in simulated Greenland climate variations over the last millennium is reproduced by a linear, empirically-generated model including terms for volcanic emissions, solar insolation changes (including total solar irradiance and orbital components) and an index associated with latitudinal shifts in the North Atlantic jet. Empirical model parameters are obtained by regressing simulated Greenland temperatures and precipitation against time series for each of the response variables. Greenhouse gas radiative forcing changes are unimportant to simulated Greenland conditions over the last millennium, although they dominate after the mid-20th century. Most of the historical Greenland climate reconstructions are restricted to the industrial period, due to a lack of spatially-comprehensive climate records. They exhibit substantial differences in the timing, phasing and amplitudes of past climate variations, due to regional sensitivities in the source data and the reconstruction methodologies. Reconstructions indicate that Greenland temperatures did not begin to follow hemispheric greenhouse gas warming patterns until the mid-1990s. This discrepancy indicates either that the warming hiatus was associated with internal climate variability, or that the simulations are missing processes important to Greenland climate. For example, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols are not captured in the climate model employed here. All of the external climate forcings

  13. Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.

  14. Medicine for the millennium: the challenge of postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Chan, J J; Chan, J E

    2000-04-01

    As the new millennium dawns, Australian society is becoming more post-modern, whereas the medical system remains increasingly modernist in its outlook. In this article, we discuss the emerging prevalence of post-modernism and examine current medical education and practice strategies, such as evidence-based medicine, from a post-modern perspective. We argue that if medicine does not respond to the ideas of post-modernism, which challenges the concepts of truth and our ability to be objective, it may become increasingly irrelevant to the needs of a changing society. PMID:10844921

  15. The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, H.; Courty, M.-A.; Wetterstrom, W.; Guichard, F.; Senior, L.; Meadow, R.; Curnow, A.

    1993-08-01

    Archaeological and soil-stratigraphic data define the origin, growth, and collapse of Subir, the third millennium rain-fed agriculture civilization of northern Mesopotamia on the Habur Plains of Syria. At 2200 B.C., a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, induced a considerable degradation of land-use conditions. After four centuries of urban life, this abrupt climatic change evidently caused abandonment of Tell Leilan, regional desertion, and collapse of the Akkadian empire based in southern Mesopotamia. Synchronous collapse in adjacent regions suggests that the impact of the abrupt climatic change was extensive.

  16. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire among Nigerian Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Fatade, Alfred O.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The stability of the achievement goal orientation across different contexts has been a source of further research since the new millennium. Through theoretically-driven and empirically-based analyses, this study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elliot and McGregor 2x2 framework for achievement goal questionnaire within…

  17. The 2010 millennium technology grand prize: dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gerald J

    2010-08-24

    The 2010 Millennium Technology Grand Prize was awarded to Michael Gratzel for his ground-breaking research that has led to the practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells. Although Gratzel began his research well before nanotechnology had the "buzz" that it does today, the mesoscopic thin films he has developed have paved the way for generations of scientists to exploit the nanoscale for energy conversion. In addition to practical application, his research has led to a deeper understanding of photoinitiated charge-transfer processes at semiconductor interfaces. Here, the key scientific developments that guided early progress in dye-sensitized solar cells are summarized, with emphasis on fundamental advances that have enabled practical application. PMID:20731419

  18. Talented football players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Philip; Höner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is regarded as a key developmental phase in the course of talented football players' careers. The present study focuses on early adolescent players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions. Based on the multidimensional and dynamic nature of talent, the development of multifaceted personality characteristics is an important issue in the context of sports talent research. According to previous findings in psychology, personality characteristics' development is defined by both stability and change, and the current study analyses four different types: differential stability (I), mean-level change (II), individual-level change (III), and structural stability (IV). The sample consists of 151 male players in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. Psychological diagnostics of the personality characteristics are implemented across longitudinal sections over a time period of three seasons, from the U12 to U14 age classes. The results reveal that the personality characteristics show (I) moderate test-retest correlations over one-year intervals (.43 ≤ rtt ≤ .62), and lower coefficients for a two-year period (.26 ≤ rtt ≤ .53). (II) Most of the personality characteristics' mean values differ significantly across the age classes with small effect sizes (.01 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ .03). (III) Only minor individual-level changes in the football players' development are found. (IV) The personality characteristics' associations within a two-factor structure do not stay invariant over time. From the results of the present study, conclusions are drawn regarding the talent identification and development process. PMID:26313875

  19. Predicting Levels of Reading and Writing Achievement in Typically Developing, English-Speaking 2nd and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jasmin Niedo; Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2014-01-01

    Human traits tend to fall along normal distributions. The aim of this research was to evaluate an evidence-based conceptual framework for predicting expected individual differences in reading and writing achievement outcomes for typically developing readers and writers in early and middle childhood from Verbal Reasoning with or without Working Memory Components (phonological, orthographic, and morphological word storage and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and rapid switching attention for cross-code integration). Verbal Reasoning (reconceptualized as Bidirectional Cognitive-Linguistic Translation) plus the Working Memory Components (reconceptualized as a language learning system) accounted for more variance than Verbal Reasoning alone, except for handwriting for which Working Memory Components alone were better predictors. Which predictors explained unique variance varied within and across reading (oral real word and pseudoword accuracy and rate, reading comprehension) and writing (handwriting, spelling, composing) skills and grade levels (second and fifth) in this longitudinal study. Educational applications are illustrated and theoretical and practical significance discussed. PMID:24948868

  20. Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): achievements, open questions and strategies for the way forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy

    2010-06-01

    This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of humankind. It suggests that, while there has been progress, much remains to be achieved. Several key challenges are identified. With regard to overcoming these obstacles, it focuses on macro-level strategies that would allow the development of environments in which actions can take root and grow so that the work of the DESD endures beyond the decade itself. Finally, it suggests that there are some opportunities that can be seized to make the task ahead easier to accomplish.

  1. International Conference on Population and Development at 15 Years: Achieving Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All?

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Mindy Jane

    2010-01-01

    Sexual and reproductive health remains the contentious concept it was at the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, Egypt. In light of the recent 15-year review of ICPD, we suggest several areas where advocates, practitioners, and researchers can inform future progress for sexual and reproductive health. These include the following: improving measurement and accountability related to the evidence base for sexual and reproductive health, indicators of program success, and the tracking of resource flows; creating and renewing alliances to strengthen advocacy; and employing new resource mobilization strategies. Given the 20-year goals established at ICPD, now is the time to move toward finally achieving the sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. PMID:20075310

  2. 78 FR 13904 - Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY...: Meeting will be closed to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Board of Directors (the ``Board'')...

  3. 77 FR 14835 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012 AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., Wednesday, March 22, 2012. PLACE...: Meeting will be closed to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Board of Directors (the ``Board'')...

  4. Interactive Instructional Video-Tapes, Scholastic Aptitude, Cognitive Development and Locus of Control as Variables Influencing Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeany, Russell H.; And Others

    Results are reported of a study that: (1) examined the relationships between university students' entry characteristics and achievement in biological science; and (2) assessed the effectiveness of interactive instructional video-tapes in improving science achievement. Among the variables examined as likely to predict achievement were scholastic…

  5. Development and validation of an achievement test in introductory quantum mechanics: The Quantum Mechanics Visualization Instrument (QMVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataloglu, Erdat

    The purpose of this study was to construct a valid and reliable multiple-choice achievement test to assess students' understanding of core concepts of introductory quantum mechanics. Development of the Quantum Mechanics Visualization Instrument (QMVI) occurred across four successive semesters in 1999--2001. During this time 213 undergraduate and graduate students attending the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) at University Park and Arizona State University (ASU) participated in this development and validation study. Participating students were enrolled in four distinct groups of courses: Modern Physics, Undergraduate Quantum Mechanics, Graduate Quantum Mechanics, and Chemistry Quantum Mechanics. Expert panels of professors of physics experienced in teaching quantum mechanics courses and graduate students in physics and science education established the core content and assisted in the validating of successive versions of the 24-question QMVI. Instrument development was guided by procedures outlined in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA-APA-NCME, 1999). Data gathered in this study provided information used in the development of successive versions of the QMVI. Data gathered in the final phase of administration of the QMVI also provided evidence that the intended score interpretation of the QMVI achievement test is valid and reliable. A moderate positive correlation coefficient of 0.49 was observed between the students' QMVI scores and their confidence levels. Analyses of variance indicated that students' scores in Graduate Quantum Mechanics and Undergraduate Quantum Mechanics courses were significantly higher than the mean scores of students in Modern Physics and Chemistry Quantum Mechanics courses (p < 0.05). That finding is consistent with the additional understanding and experience that should be anticipated in graduate students and junior-senior level students over sophomore physics majors and majors in another field. The moderate

  6. Indian Monsoon and its Variability during the last Millennium - a Model-Proxy-Intercomparison Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanski, S.; Fallah, B.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-12-01

    et al., 2012, Prasad et al. (unpublished) and Sinha et al., 2011). The reconstructions help to verify the model results and the model has been also used to check the consistency of the proxy data. A good agreement between the reconstructed relative moisture signal based on the different sites and the ECHAM5 simulated relative annual rainfall anomalies is shown for "MWP minus PI" whereas the other periods demonstrate more opposite signals between both. Due to the less spatial density of proxy data over India and their relative low temporal resolution more proxy data with a higher temporal resolution for that region are needed for a) to get a more realistic verification of the rainfall changes between the different climatic periods within the last Millennium and b) to achieve a more detailed study of extreme events on very short time scales and a high spatial resolution especially in comparison with results of regional climate simulations, which will be done in the next step of the analysis with the COSMO-CLM Regional Climate Model.

  7. Simulation of Drought in Central Asia during the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Bijan; Polanski, Stefan; Prasad, Sushma; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Within the Central Asian Climate Dynamics project (CADY), we aim to apply multiproxy reconstructions and climate models to analyse and (semi)quantify the Last Millennium climate variability and regional hydrology in Central Asia. In this context, we have used simulations of the uncoupled atmosphere version of global COSMOS Model (ECHAM5) in T31L19 spatial resolution within the Last Millennium; Medieval Warm Period (MWP; 900-1100 AD), the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1515-1715 AD) and after industrialization (REC; 1800-2000 AD) to drive the COSMO-CLM regional climate model at its lateral boundaries for 30 year time-slices based on the definition of extreme spells in the past climate. The Palmer Drought Severity Index over Central Asia has been calculated for both global and regional simulations. The simulated PDSI from COSMO-CLM driven by ERA-INTERIM data shows very good agreements compared to observations (PDSI from Dai et al., 2004) in space-time-frequency. Based on the EOF analysis, the simulated drought patterns are well captured compared to the reconstructed PDSI from Cook et al., 2010 ( pattern correlation = 0.68 (0.83) for LIA(REC) at a 99% significance level). Further, historical droughts can be identified by the simulated PDSI (e.g. Ming Dynasty Drought and The Great Drought). The Principal Components of simulated PDSI also show significant correlations with SST anomalies for the period from 1856 to 2000.

  8. A curricular frame for physics education: Development, comparison with students' interests, and impact on students' achievement and self-concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häussler, Peter; Hoffmann, Lore

    2000-11-01

    This article presents three interlinked studies aimed at: (1) developing a curricular frame for physics education; (2) assessing the students' interest in the contents, contexts, and activities that are suggested by that curricular frame; and (3) developing a curriculum that is in line with that frame and measuring its cognitive and emotional effects on students. The curricular frame was developed by adopting the Delphi technique and drawing on the expertise of 73 persons selected according to specified selection criteria. Interest data of some 8000 students and information of the presently taught physics curriculum were sampled longitudinally as well as cross-sectionally in various German Länder (states) by questionnaire. The third study comprised 23 experimental and 7 control classes. As a result of the comparison between the features of the curricular frame, the interest structure of students, and the current physics curriculum, there is a remarkable congruency between students' interest in physics and the kind of physics education identified in the Delphi study as being relevant. However, there is a considerable discrepancy between students' interest and the kind of physics instruction practiced in the physics classroom. Regression analysis revealed that students' interest in physics as a school subject is hardly related to their interest in physics, but mainly to the students' self-esteem of being good achievers. The data strongly suggest physics be taught so that students have a chance to develop a positive physics-related self-concept and to link physics with situations they encounter outside the classroom. A curriculum based on these principles proved superior compared to a traditional curriculum.

  9. Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children With Mathematics Learning Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were related to one of the operands via a shared multiplication row (e.g., 3 × 4 = 16). Distance was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were close in magnitude to the true result (e.g., 6 × 8 = 49). The presence of these effects indicates that participants are sensitive to numerical features of products. TA children demonstrated sensitivity to relatedness and distance from second grade onward. With age their sensitivity expanded from easy problems (e.g., 2 × 3) to difficult ones (e.g., 8 × 9). Children with MLD were sensitive to relatedness on easy problems. Their sensitivity to distance differed from the pattern seen in sixth grade and was partial in eighth grade. The presence of numerical sensitivity in children with MLD calls for instructional methods that would further develop their number sense. PMID:24509566

  10. Sutherland's legacy in the new millennium: the osteopathic cranial model and modern osteopathy.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cranial osteopathy was introduced by W. G. Sutherland, DO, and became the foundation for setting the rules for use of skull palpation and many other techniques in the many types of dysfunctional patterns that craniosacral therapy treats. Sutherland's theories enabled modern osteopathy to develop and improve. The mechanism of primary respiration as well as the motion of neurocranial and viscerocranial sutures are phenomena intrinsic to the field and can be found in every living organism, independent of thoracic breathing and cardiac impulse. The sphenobasilar synchondrosis (ie, the joint between the base of the occiput and the body of the sphenoid bone) is the pillar supporting the concepts of craniosacral therapy. This article compares the cranial model devised by Sutherland with the present, relevant scientific research, aiming at clarifying the possibility of applying the craniosacral model in the new millennium. PMID:25831430

  11. Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium*

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2015-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature. PMID:25672302

  12. A Comparison of Career Technical Education--16 Career Pathway High School Participants with Non-Participants on Academic Achievement, School Engagement, and Development of Technical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, Edith Aimee

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare Career Technical Education--16 Career Pathway high school participants with non-participants on academic achievement, development of technical skills and school engagement. Academic achievement was measured by Exit Level Math and English Language Arts Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)…

  13. Socioeconomic Status, School Quality, and National Economic Development: A Cross-National Analysis of the "Heyneman-Loxley Effect" on Mathematics and Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.; Goesling, Brian; Letendre, Gerald K.

    2002-01-01

    Based on 1970s data, the "Heyneman-Loxley (HL) effect" proposed that in developing nations, school variables were more important than family socioeconomic status in determining academic achievement. A reassessment of the HL effect using 1990s TIMSS data found the relationship between family background and student achievement to be similar across…

  14. Performance of Major Flare Watches from the Max Millennium Program (2001 - 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, D. S.; Gallagher, P. T.; Marquette, W. H.; Milligan, R. O.; Canfield, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    The physical processes that trigger solar flares are not well understood, and significant debate remains around processes governing particle acceleration, energy partition, and particle and energy transport. Observations at high resolution in energy, time, and space are required in multiple energy ranges over the whole course of many flares to build an understanding of these processes. Obtaining high-quality, co-temporal data from ground- and space- based instruments is crucial to achieving this goal and was the primary motivation for starting the Max Millennium program and Major Flare Watch (MFW) alerts, aimed at coordinating observations of all flares ≥ X1 GOES X-ray classification (including those partially occulted by the limb). We present a review of the performance of MFWs from 1 February 2001 to 31 May 2010, inclusive, which finds that (1) 220 MFWs were issued in 3407 days considered (6.5 % duty cycle), with these occurring in 32 uninterrupted periods that typically last 2 - 8 days; (2) 56% of flares ≥ X1 were caught, occurring in 19 % of MFW days; (3) MFW periods ended at suitable times, but substantial gain could have been achieved in percentage of flares caught if periods had started 24 h earlier; (4) MFWs successfully forecast X-class flares with a true skill statistic (TSS) verification metric score of 0.500, that is comparable to a categorical flare/no-flare interpretation of the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Centre probabilistic forecasts (TSS = 0.488).

  15. Effects of Lab Instruction Emphasizing Process Skills on Achievement of College Students Having Different Cognitive Development Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkosz, Margaret; Yeany, Russell H.

    This study compared the process skill achievement of students (N=107) completing traditional laboratory exercises with students (N=127) not only completing the same exercises but also receiving instruction in such integrated process skills as identifying variables and stating hypotheses. The relationships among process skill achievement, cognitive…

  16. Longitudinal Impacts of the Children's Literacy Initiative Professional Development, Coaching, and Model Classroom Intervention on Early Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Julia; Meakin, John; Salinger, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement in literacy has been a focal concern in the United States for many years. Improving teachers' knowledge and skill that leads to improved student achievement, particularly in the early grades, can place children on an improved trajectory that can have long-term impacts on life outcomes. Over the past decade, a large body of…

  17. Is Early Ability Grouping Good for High-Achieving Students' Psychosocial Development? Effects of the Transition into Academically Selective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; Neumann, Marko; Tetzner, Julia; Böse, Susanne; Knoppick, Henrike; Maaz, Kai; Baumert, Jürgen; Lehmann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates school context effects on psychosocial characteristics (academic self-concept, peer relations, school satisfaction, and school anxiety) of high-achieving and gifted students. Students who did or did not make an early transition from elementary to secondary schools for high-achieving and gifted students in 5th grade…

  18. Developing a Structural Model on the Relationship among Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadlelmula, Fatma Kayan; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Sungur, Semra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among students' motivational beliefs (i.e. achievement goal orientations, perception of classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy), use of self-regulated learning strategies (i.e. elaboration, organization, and metacognitive self-regulation strategies), and achievement in mathematics, by proposing and…

  19. Achieving Excellence and Equity: Reflections on the Development of Practices in One Local District over 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscow, Mel

    2010-01-01

    As education systems in many countries respond to demands for higher standards, they face the challenge of how to achieve equity. Put simply, how can systems continue to raise overall levels of achievement whilst reducing the gap between higher and lower performing groups of learners? This paper reflects on evidence collected as a result of a…

  20. Development and Validation of a Physics Achievement Test to Identify Instructor Variables Associated with Students' Physics Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacambra, Wilfredo T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common ways of detecting whether an improvement is achieved by an education institution is through measuring the students' achievement in a test. Testing is generally thought of as a means of assessing the knowledge and skills students have acquired through learning (Du-chastel and Nungester, 1998). Test results, besides assisting…

  1. A Comparison of Strategic Development for Multiplication Problem Solving in Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Barrett, Dave E.; Xin, Yan Ping; Liu, Ru-de

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the differences of strategy use between low-, average-, and high-achieving students when solving different multiplication problems. Nineteen high-, 48 average-, and 17 low-achieving students participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete three different multiplication tests and to explain how…

  2. A Review of Literature to Understand the Complexity of Equity, Ethics and Management for Achieving Public Health Goals in India

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Pankaj; Nagpal, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    In the context of inadequate public spending on health care in India (0.9% of the GDP); government liberalized its policies in the form of subsidized lands and tax incentives, resulting in the mushrooming of private hospitals and clinics in India. Paradoxically, a robust framework was not developed for the regulation of these health care providers, resulting in disorganized health sector, inadequate financing models, and lack of prioritization of services, as well as a sub-optimal achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). We systematically reviewed the evidence base regarding regulation of private hospitals, applicability of private-public mix, state of health insurance and effective policy development for India, while seeking lessons on regulation of private health systems, from South African (a developing country) and Australian (a developed country) health care systems. PMID:24701465

  3. A review of literature to understand the complexity of equity, ethics and management for achieving public health goals in India.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj; Nagpal, Jitender

    2014-02-01

    In the context of inadequate public spending on health care in India (0.9% of the GDP); government liberalized its policies in the form of subsidized lands and tax incentives, resulting in the mushrooming of private hospitals and clinics in India. Paradoxically, a robust framework was not developed for the regulation of these health care providers, resulting in disorganized health sector, inadequate financing models, and lack of prioritization of services, as well as a sub-optimal achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). We systematically reviewed the evidence base regarding regulation of private hospitals, applicability of private-public mix, state of health insurance and effective policy development for India, while seeking lessons on regulation of private health systems, from South African (a developing country) and Australian (a developed country) health care systems. PMID:24701465

  4. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Hydroclimate, Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation over the Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Wake, C. P.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S.; Birkel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    While tree ring and lake sediment core studies have revealed a great deal about North Pacific (e.g. Alaska) surface temperature variability over the past millennium, we do not have an equivalent understanding of North Pacific hydroclimate variability or temperatures at high elevations. A millennial-length precipitation proxy record is needed to place late 20th century Alaskan precipitation increases into longer context, and to evaluate hydroclimate changes during the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. High-elevation summer temperature records would be valuable for understanding the sensitivity of Alaskan glaciers to past warm and cool periods. Here we present an overview of the new Denali Ice Core record collected from the summit plateau (4000 m a.s.l.) of Mt. Hunter (63° N, 151° W) in Denali National Park, Alaska. Two parallel ice cores were collected to bedrock (208 m in length) in May-June 2013, sampled using the Dartmouth continuous melter system, and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, particle concentration and size distribution, and stable isotope ratios at Dartmouth and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores are dated using robust annual oscillations in dust elements, methanesulfonate, ammonium, and stable isotopes, and validated using major volcanic eruptions recorded as sulfate, chloride and heavy metal spikes, and the 1963 nuclear weapons testing 137Cs spike. Preliminary analyses indicate a significant increase in both summer temperature and annual accumulation over the 20th century, and significant relationships with major ocean-atmospheric modes including the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We compare the new Denali record to the Eclipse Icefield and Mt. Logan ice core records and develop composite records of North Pacific hydroclimate and atmospheric circulation variability over the past millennium.

  5. Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium BC in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Salque, Mélanie; Bogucki, Peter I; Pyzel, Joanna; Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Iwona; Grygiel, Ryszard; Szmyt, Marzena; Evershed, Richard P

    2013-01-24

    The introduction of dairying was a critical step in early agriculture, with milk products being rapidly adopted as a major component of the diets of prehistoric farmers and pottery-using late hunter-gatherers. The processing of milk, particularly the production of cheese, would have been a critical development because it not only allowed the preservation of milk products in a non-perishable and transportable form, but also it made milk a more digestible commodity for early prehistoric farmers. The finding of abundant milk residues in pottery vessels from seventh millennium sites from north-western Anatolia provided the earliest evidence of milk processing, although the exact practice could not be explicitly defined. Notably, the discovery of potsherds pierced with small holes appear at early Neolithic sites in temperate Europe in the sixth millennium BC and have been interpreted typologically as 'cheese-strainers', although a direct association with milk processing has not yet been demonstrated. Organic residues preserved in pottery vessels have provided direct evidence for early milk use in the Neolithic period in the Near East and south-eastern Europe, north Africa, Denmark and the British Isles, based on the δ(13)C and Δ(13)C values of the major fatty acids in milk. Here we apply the same approach to investigate the function of sieves/strainer vessels, providing direct chemical evidence for their use in milk processing. The presence of abundant milk fat in these specialized vessels, comparable in form to modern cheese strainers, provides compelling evidence for the vessels having being used to separate fat-rich milk curds from the lactose-containing whey. This new evidence emphasizes the importance of pottery vessels in processing dairy products, particularly in the manufacture of reduced-lactose milk products among lactose-intolerant prehistoric farming communities. PMID:23235824

  6. Hemispherically Asymmetric Volcanic Forcing of Tropical Hydroclimate During the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colose, Christopher M.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic aerosols exert the most important natural radiative forcing of the last millennium. State-of-the-art paleoclimate simulations of this interval are typically forced with diverse spatial patterns of volcanic forcing, leading to different responses in tropical hydroclimate. Recently, theoretical considerations relating the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position to the demands of global energy balance have emerged in the literature, allowing for a connection to be made between the paleoclimate simulations and recent developments in the understanding of ITCZ dynamics. These energetic considerations aid in explaining the well-known historical, paleoclimatic, and modeling evidence that the ITCZ migrates away from the hemisphere that is energetically deficient in response to asymmetric forcing. Here we use two separate general circulation model (GCM) suites of experiments for the last millennium to relate the ITCZ position to asymmetries in prescribed volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere and related asymmetric radiative forcing. We discuss the ITCZ shift in the context of atmospheric energetics and discuss the ramifications of transient ITCZ migrations for other sensitive indicators of changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle, including global streamflow. For the first time, we also offer insight into the large-scale fingerprint of water isotopologues in precipitation (delta sup 18 Op) in response to asymmetries in radiative forcing. The ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with greater volcanic forcing. Since the isotopic composition of precipitation in the ITCZ is relatively depleted compared to areas outside this zone, this meridional precipitation migration results in a large-scale enrichment (depletion) in the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in regions the ITCZ moves away from (toward). Our results highlight the need for careful consideration of the spatial structure of volcanic forcing for interpreting volcanic signals in

  7. The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1999-03-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

  8. Questions of identity in the millennium round of Commonwealth censuses.

    PubMed

    Christopher, A J

    2006-11-01

    All Commonwealth census authorities have posed questions about identity in the millennium round of enumerations. The most controversial issue has been ethnicity. No universal definition or classification system has been devised and each of the 71 states and dependencies has tended to pursue the enquiry in virtual isolation from its neighbours. The attempt to describe the population in terms of race and ethnicity has been inherited from the colonial era. More recently the requirements of monitoring affirmative-action programmes in multicultural populations have resulted in the introduction or refinement of questions on these categories. A few states-a small minority of Commonwealth countries-remain hostile to such enquiries. Where the issues of race and identity are not pursued, questions of nationality, language, and religion often fill the gaps left, adding further refinements to the definition of identity. An examination of current questioning about identity in Commonwealth censuses reveals a highly complex picture. PMID:17060057

  9. Characterizing the best cosmic telescopes with the millennium simulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, K. Decker; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark; Keeton, Charles R.; Angulo, Raul E.

    2014-04-10

    Certain configurations of massive structures projected along the line of sight (LOS) maximize the number of detections of gravitationally lensed z ∼ 10 galaxies. We characterize such LOSs with the étendue σ{sub μ}, the area in the source plane magnified over some threshold μ. We use the Millennium I and Millennium XXL cosmological simulations to determine the frequency of high σ{sub μ} beams on the sky, their properties, and efficient selection criteria. We define the best beams as having σ{sub μ>3} > 2000 arcsec{sup 2}, for a z ∼ 10 source plane, and predict 477 ± 21 such beams on the sky. The total mass in the beam and σ{sub μ>3} are strongly correlated. After controlling for total mass, we find a significant residual correlation between σ{sub μ>3} and the number of cluster-scale halos (>10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) in the beam. Beams with σ{sub μ>3} > 2000 arcsec{sup 2}, which should be best at lensing z ∼ 10 galaxies, are 10 times more likely to contain multiple cluster-scale halos than a single cluster-scale halo. Beams containing an A1689-like massive cluster halo often have additional structures along the LOS, including at least one additional cluster-scale (M {sub 200} > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) halo 28% of the time. Selecting beams with multiple, massive structures will lead to enhanced detection of the most distant and intrinsically faint galaxies.

  10. Early identification of young children at risk for poor academic achievement: preliminary development of a parent-report prediction tool

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Early school success is clearly related to later health. A prediction index that uses parent report to assess children's risk for poor academic achievement could potentially direct targeted service delivery to improve child outcomes. Methods We obtained risk factors through literature review and used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child Files to examine the predictive associations of these factors with academic achievement scores. Results Twenty predictors were identified including four strong predictors (maternal education, child gender, family income, and low birth weight). Significantly, 12 predictors explained 17-24% of score variance. Conclusions Parent-reported factors provide predictive accuracy for academic achievement. PMID:21851586

  11. A Quest for Increasing Student Math Achievement and Promoting Rigorous Evaluation in Italy: Evidence from the M@t.abel Teacher Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argentin, Gianluca; Pennisi, Aline; Vidoni, Daniele; Abbiati, Giovanni; Caputo, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Research has proven that teachers have a fundamental influence on student results. Moreover, effective teacher professional development is one of the key mechanisms for improving student achievement. By the most recent OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) definition, "Professional development is defined as activities that…

  12. Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement Among U.S. Children From Ages 5 to 14.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Eric J; Beaver, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test from ages 5 to 14. While models controlling for within-family covariates showed that prenatal caloric intake was associated with lower reading and mathematical achievement at age 5, models controlling for between-family covariates (such as maternal IQ) and unobserved familial confounders revealed only a statistically significant association between siblings differentially exposed to prenatal caloric intake and mathematical achievement at age 5. PMID:26306885

  13. 77 FR 14010 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed: Minisink Compressor Project The staff of the Federal...

  14. 75 FR 24943 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...-approved maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) on its Hickory Grove Lateral Line from 1072 pounds per.... CP98-150, et al; however, in Millenniums application the MAOP of the pipeline is listed at 1072...

  15. A Development of a Collaborative Blended Learning Model to Enhance Learning Achievement and Thinking Ability of Undergraduate Students at the Institute of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingpum, Peerasak; Ruangsuwan, Chaiyot; Chaicharoen, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop a model of a collaborative blended learning (CoBl) to develop learning achievement and thinking ability of undergraduate students in the Institute of Physical Education. The research is divided into three phases using the blended learning model via collaborative learning with thinking abilities approach as follows:…

  16. Homework Works If Homework Quality Is High: Using Multilevel Modeling to Predict the Development of Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettmers, Swantje; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Kunter, Mareike; Baumert, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of 2 indicators of homework quality (homework selection and homework challenge) with homework motivation, homework behavior, and mathematics achievement. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data from a representative national sample of 3,483 students in Grades 9 and 10; homework effects…

  17. Developing Local Curriculum Framework on Water Resource and Disaster Course for Enhancing Students' Learning Achievements in the Basic Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunrasaksakun, Chunwadee; Sanrattana, Unchalee; Tungkasamit, Angkana; Srisawat, Niwat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to administer and prepare teachers for management to their students' learning achievements within the curriculum framework of water resource and disaster management. This course was compared to manage learning into different school sizes with the sample size in the lower secondary education schools with two groups of 28…

  18. Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement among U.S. Children from Ages 5 to 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Eric J.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the…

  19. A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACHIEVEMENT IN PSSC PHYSICS AND EXPERIENCE IN RECENTLY DEVELOPED COURSES IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACKERSON, PAUL BERNDT

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT IN PSSC PHYSICS TO EXPERIENCE IN SMSG MATHEMATICS, CHEM STUDY CHEMISTRY, CBA CHEMISTRY, AND BSCS BIOLOGY WAS DETERMINED. DATA WERE GATHERED IN 25 HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS CLASSES IN SEVEN HIGH SCHOOLS. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE WAS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF THE DATA. PSSC TESTS FIVE AND TEN WERE USED AS CRITERIA OF…

  20. Impact of the Child Development Program on Reading Achievement of Kindergarten through Eighth Grade Students in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Tai E.

    2013-01-01

    Educational leaders are charged with making informed decisions regarding various aspects of schooling that affect the overall achievement of students. Numerous legislative ideas, funding initiatives, programming standards, and practicing guidelines for early childhood education programs have been introduced (Buyssee & Wesley, 2006). Early care…

  1. Having Your Cake and Eating It Too: Maximizing Achievement and Cognitive-Social Development and Socialization through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    Research on the educational outcomes of cooperative learning strategies suggests that educators can "have their cake and eat it too" since these strategies have been found to promote simultaneously high achievement, constructive student-student relationships, positive attitudes toward subject areas, continuing education, critical thinking,…

  2. Surmounting the Challenges of Improving Academic Performance: Closing the Achievement Gap through Social-Emotional and Character Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; White, Gwyne; Stepney, Cesalie

    2014-01-01

    While educators and policy makers have an intuitive understanding of the influence of socioeconomic factors and race on student achievement, these factors make the current emphasis on standardized test scores as a primary criterion for evaluating schools and teachers indefensible and ineffective. The research presented illustrates the limits of…

  3. The Importance of Morphemic Awareness to Reading Achievement and the Potential of Signing Morphemes to Supporting Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke, Barbara; Stryker, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to access and understand the meaning of multi-morphemic words is essential for age-appropriate literacy growth as well as for achievement in other participants, such as science and social studies, which are so print-dependent. This paper provides a theoretical basis for focusing on the morphology of English when teaching students who…

  4. A Critical Review of Some Recent Developments in Quantitative Research on Gender and Achievement in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Over recent years the findings of a number of quantitative research studies have been published in the UK on gender and achievement. Much of this work has emanated from Stephen Gorard and his colleagues and has not only been highly critical of existing approaches to handling quantitative data but has also suggested a number of alternative and,…

  5. Addressing Low U.S. Student Achievement in Mathematics and Science through Changes in Professional Development and Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabernik, Anna Maria; Williams, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    "When compared with high-achieving countries around the world, the U.S. appears to be significantly behind in providing certain kinds of professional learning opportunities" (Wei, Darling-Hammond, Andree, Richardson, & Orphanos, 2009, p. 39). The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between sustained, targeted professional…

  6. Massive Halos in Millennium Gas Simulations: Multivariate Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, R.; Rasia, E.; Evrard, A. E.; Pearce, F.; Gazzola, L.

    2010-06-01

    The joint likelihood of observable cluster signals reflects the astrophysical evolution of the coupled baryonic and dark matter components in massive halos, and its knowledge will enhance cosmological parameter constraints in the coming era of large, multiwavelength cluster surveys. We present a computational study of intrinsic covariance in cluster properties using halo populations derived from Millennium Gas Simulations (MGS). The MGS are re-simulations of the original 500 h -1 Mpc Millennium Simulation performed with gas dynamics under two different physical treatments: shock heating driven by gravity only (GO) and a second treatment with cooling and preheating (PH). We examine relationships among structural properties and observable X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals for samples of thousands of halos with M 200 >= 5 × 1013 h -1 M sun and z < 2. While the X-ray scaling behavior of PH model halos at low redshift offers a good match to local clusters, the model exhibits non-standard features testable with larger surveys, including weakly running slopes in hot gas observable-mass relations and ~10% departures from self-similar redshift evolution for 1014 h -1 M sun halos at redshift z ~ 1. We find that the form of the joint likelihood of signal pairs is generally well described by a multivariate, log-normal distribution, especially in the PH case which exhibits less halo substructure than the GO model. At fixed mass and epoch, joint deviations of signal pairs display mainly positive correlations, especially the thermal SZ effect paired with either hot gas fraction (r = 0.88/0.69 for PH/GO at z = 0) or X-ray temperature (r = 0.62/0.83). The levels of variance in X-ray luminosity, temperature, and gas mass fraction are sensitive to the physical treatment, but offsetting shifts in the latter two measures maintain a fixed 12% scatter in the integrated SZ signal under both gas treatments. We discuss halo mass selection by signal pairs, and find a minimum mass

  7. Investigation of dust particles with future Russian lunar missions: achievements of further development of PmL instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Ilya; Zakharov, Alexander; Afonin, Valeri; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Lyash, Andrey; Dolnikov, Gennady; Popel, Sergey; Lisin, Evgeny

    2016-07-01

    , solar emission. Dust analyzer instrument PmL for future Russian lander missions intends for investigation the dynamics of dusty plasma near lunar surface. PmL consists of three parts in the case of Luna-Glob: Impact Sensor and two Electric Field Sensors (EFC). There are 9 parts of PmL instrument for Luna-Resource mission: two Impact Sensors, 5 EFC (three on the Boom and two on the lander) and 2 Solar Wind and Dust Analyzers. These days the engineering model of PmL for LG-mission is finished. We obtained first practical results from the simulating chambers with dust particles injectors and plasma inside. All the important achievements are presented in this report as well as the roadmap for further development of PmL instruments in both of Russian lunar missions.

  8. Variability of the Indian Ocean Dipole during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abram, N.; Gagan, M. K.; Dixon, B.; Hantoro, W. S.; Shen, C.; WU, C.; Suwargadi, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) climate mode interacts with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Asian monsoon systems to drive climatic extremes around the Indian Ocean region. Coral reconstructions of the interannual variability of the IOD since the 1850s show an intensification in the frequency and strength of the positive phase of the IOD in recent decades, as well as strengthening of the interconnection between the IOD and Asian monsoon systems. Reconstructions of the mean climate state across the tropical Indian Ocean since the mid-Holocene also demonstrate the dynamic nature of the mean configuration of tropical Indian Ocean climate, suggesting that the IOD variability and interactions observed on interannual time scales may also persist over century to millennial scales. Here we present new oxygen isotope (δ18O) records from modern Porites corals collected on a transect along Java-Sumatra coasts. These corals, located within the IOD upwelling zone, are used to identify the location where optimum information about the occurrence and magnitude of positive IOD events can be gained from single corals. Precisely-dated fossil corals from this location of optimum IOD variability are then used to reconstruct highly resolved windows of IOD variability during the last millennium, including intervals corresponding to the northern hemisphere Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period.

  9. Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephen R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; DeFries, Ruth S.; Díaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K.; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V.; Sarukhan, José; Scholes, Robert J.; Whyte, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social–ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social–ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social–ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services. PMID:19179280

  10. Millennium regional PACS management: strategies for successful implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Brad; Romlein, John R.; Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin

    2000-05-01

    With the advent of the new Millennium, Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS) technology has matured to levels sufficient to support open systems based, regional implementations. This shifts the site-centric PACS paradigm into broader scale, impacting facilities, workflow, business plans and ultimately patient care on a regional basis. Prudent and effective management of a regional implementation is critical to overall project success based upon a number of competing influences fundamental to the PACS including network infrastructure, clinical workflow, acquisition modalities, planning documentation, site preparation, acceptance testing, project communication, interface integration issues, etc. Risk mitigation is possible by understanding and managing the interrelationships of these influences through a phased approach with embedded management controls. The overall phases of regional implementation are not unlike site-centric implementations, consisting of Discovery, Planning, Preparation, Installation; Acceptance and Warranty/Maintenance; however, details which manifest over time are what provide significant management challenges. When balanced using a culturally reinforced policy of open, frequent and hands-on communication, regional PACS projects can be successfully implemented maintaining budget, schedule and scope thresholds.

  11. History of psychiatry in Sweden during a millennium.

    PubMed

    Wetterberg, Lennart

    2012-03-01

    This report covers a millennium, from year 1000 when Sweden had only 0.4 million people until today's 9.4 million. In the 13th century, the first Swedish legal text about the mentally ill and the first hospital to treat them are documented. Control, care and cure of the ill have been shaped by social and cultural changes from time to time, e.g. King Gustav Vasa introduced a paradigm shift of care after the Reformation, when he altered Catholic buildings into state hospitals. He also ordered that medical texts should no longer be written in Latin but in Swedish. The first book dealing with mental illnesses was published in 1578. Laypersons ran the mental hospitals for centuries until the medical perspective and doctors were engaged in the 1800 s. To advance the hospital doctors' competence and skill, a Swedish Psychiatric Association was established in 1905. Severely psychotic patients could not be effectively treated until the introduction of chlorpromazine in the 1950s and there is still no cure available. Following the deinstitutionalization, from more than 35,000 beds 50 years ago down to about 4500 today, the request for outpatient treatment increased. Mandatory training in psychotherapies for all psychiatrists started in the 1970s. A major "psychiatry reform", with the hope of improving the situation for the mentally ill, and to reduce the stigma, was introduced in Sweden in 1995. The historic long-term effect of the reform cannot yet be fully evaluated. PMID:21770823

  12. The Internet and the menopause consultation: menopause management in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Grant P; Currie, Heather

    2005-09-01

    The Internet was born in 1969; it was originally developed so that computers could share information on research and development in the scientific and military fields. The original Internet consisted of four university computers networked in the United States. Email became available two years later. The infant Internet initially required complex computing knowledge to be used. However, this was all to change with the development of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s, which made the Internet much more widely accessible. The Internet has since grown at a phenomenal rate and has evolved into a global communications tool. It is by nature anarchic, in that it is an unrestricted broadcast medium. Although this lack of censorship is a strength, it is also a weakness. The quality of information available on the Web is variable and discernment is required. With the growth of e-health, medicine and its allied specialties are faced with the challenges of providing their services in a novel way while maintaining the first principle of medicine, primum non nocere (first, do no harm). This provision of e-health care is in its infancy and this review explores issues arising from the use of the Internet as a medium for organizing menopausal health care in the third millennium. PMID:16157001

  13. Educational Change and International Trade in Teacher Development: Achieving Local Goals within/despite a Transnational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Janinka; Alam, Safayet; Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2014-01-01

    The study in one country to support the development of education in another is a regular event in the field of contemporary tertiary education, and it is likely to grow as developing countries accelerate their educational development projects and as Western universities seek international student funding. This article reports the case study of a…

  14. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  15. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  16. "Achieving Ensemble": Communication in Orthopaedic Surgical Teams and the Development of Situation Awareness--An Observational Study Using Live Videotaped Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Alan; Allard, Jon; Hobbs, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Focused dialogue, as good communication between practitioners, offers a condition of possibility for development of high levels of situation awareness in surgical teams. This has been termed "achieving ensemble". Situation awareness grasps what is happening in time and space with regard to one's own unfolding work in relation to that of…

  17. The Effect of Blended Learning Approach on Fifth Grade Students' Academic Achievement in My Beautiful Language Textbook and the Development of Their Verbal Creative Thinking in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of Blended Learning approach compared to the traditional learning approach on fifth grade students' achievement in My Beautiful Language Textbook and the development of their verbal creative thinking. The study consisted of 49 students among which 25 are males in the Experimental Group and 24 females in…

  18. Linking Student Achievement Growth to Professional Development Participation and Changes in Instruction: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Students and Teachers in Title I Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura; Smith, Thomas M.; Phillips, Kristie J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Most reforms in elementary education rely on teacher learning and improved instruction to increase student learning. This study increases our understanding of which types of professional development effectively change teaching practice in ways that boost student achievement. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study:…

  19. Does Classroom Composition Make a Difference: Effects on Developments in Motivation, Sense of Classroom Belonging, and Achievement in Upper Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea; Volman, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of socioeconomic and ethnic classroom composition on developments in students' motivation, sense of classroom belonging, and achievement. A sample of 722 primary school students completed questionnaires from 3rd to 6th grade. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that the reading comprehension scores of…

  20. Can Explicit Instruction in Social and Emotional Learning Skills Benefit the Social-Emotional Development, Well-Being, and Academic Achievement of Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashdown, Daniela Maree; Bernard, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a social and emotional learning skills curriculum, the "You Can Do It! Early Childhood Education Program" (YCDI), on the social-emotional development, well-being, and academic achievement of 99 preparatory and grade 1 students attending a Catholic school in Melbourne, Australia. One preparatory and one grade 1…