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Sample records for achieve millennium development

  1. Achieving Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Edwards, Joan E

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health. Maternal mortality rates (MMR) remain high globally, and in the United States there have been recent increases in MMR. Interventions to improve global maternal health are described. Nurses should be aware of the enduring epidemic of global maternal mortality, advocate for childbearing women, and contribute to implementing effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality. PMID:20673318

  2. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  3. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  4. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next.

    PubMed

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  5. Did Tanzania Achieve the Second Millennium Development Goal? Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoti, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Development Goal "Achieve universal primary education", the challenges faced, along with the way forward towards achieving the fourth Sustainable Development Goal "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Statistics show that Tanzania has made very promising steps…

  6. The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

  7. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  8. Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Von, Anna; Hidron, Alicia; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Tellez, Ildefonso; Barragán, Maribel; Jones, Danielle; Náquira, Cesar G; Mendez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Discussion Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease of American trypanosomiasis, will play a key role to enable the most impoverished populations in Latin America the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Most cases of Chagas disease occur among forgotten populations because these diseases persist exclusively in the poorest and the most marginalized communities in Latin America. Summary Addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with T. cruzi infection will contribute to improve the health of the most impoverished populations in Latin America and will ultimately grant them with the opportunity to achieve their full economic potential. PMID:17725836

  9. Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

  10. State downsizing as a determinant of infant mortality and achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4.

    PubMed

    Palma-Solís, Marco Antonio; Alvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide effect of state downsizing policies on achievement of U.N. Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) on infant mortality rates. In an ecological retrospective cohort study of 161 countries, from 1978 to 2002, the authors analyzed changes in government consumption (GC) as determining exposure to achievement of MDG4. Descriptive methods and a multiple logistic regression were applied to adjust for changes in gross domestic product, level of democracy, and income inequality. Excess infant mortality in the exposed countries, attributable to reductions in GC, was estimated. Fifty countries were found to have reduced GC, and 111 had increased GC. The gap in infant mortality rate between these groups of countries doubled in the study period. Non-achievement of MDG4 was associated with reductions in GC and increases in income inequality. The excess infant mortality attributable to GC reductions in the exposed countries from 1990 to 2002 was 4,473,348 deaths. The probability of achieving MDG4 seems to be seriously compromised for many countries because of reduced public sector expenditure during the last 25 years of the 20th century, in response to World Bank/International Monetary Fund Washington Consensus policies. This seeming contradiction between the goals of different U.N. branches may be undermining achievement of MDG4 and should be taken into account when developing future global governance policy. PMID:19492631

  11. Achieving the health Millennium Development Goals for South Africa: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Mickey; Lawn, Joy E; Sanders, David; Barron, Peter; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Flisher, Alan J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tollman, Stephen M; Churchyard, Gavin J; Coovadia, Hoosen

    2009-09-19

    15 years after liberation from apartheid, South Africans are facing new challenges for which the highest calibre of leadership, vision, and commitment is needed. The effect of the unprecedented HIV/AIDS epidemic has been immense. Substantial increases in mortality and morbidity are threatening to overwhelm the health system and undermine the potential of South Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However The Lancet's Series on South Africa has identified several examples of leadership and innovation that point towards a different future scenario. We discuss the type of vision, leadership, and priority actions needed to achieve such a change. We still have time to change the health trajectory of the country, and even meet the MDGs. The South African Government, installed in April, 2009, has the mandate and potential to address the public health emergencies facing the country--will they do so or will another opportunity and many more lives be lost?

  12. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date. PMID:27795754

  13. Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

    2011-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

  14. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

  15. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  16. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda

  17. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID

  18. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Amal K.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022

  19. Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

    2012-01-01

    Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

  20. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria control in India has occupied high priority in health sector consuming major resources of the Central and State governments. Several new initiatives were launched from time to time supported by foreign aids but malaria situation has remained static and worsened in years of good rainfall. At times malaria relented temporarily but returned with vengeance at the local, regional and national level, becoming more resilient by acquiring resistance in the vectors and the parasites. National developments to improve the economy, without health impact assessment, have had adverse consequences by providing enormous breeding grounds for the vectors that have become refractory to interventions. As a result, malaria prospers and its control is in dilemma, as finding additional resources is becoming difficult with the ongoing financial crisis. Endemic countries must contribute to make up the needed resources, if malaria is to be contained. Malaria control requires long term planning, one that will reduce receptivity and vulnerability, and uninterrupted financial support for sustained interventions. While this seems to be a far cry, the environment is becoming more receptive for vectors, and epidemics visit the country diverting major resources in their containment, e.g. malaria, dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers, and Chikungunya virus infection. In the last six decades malaria has taken deep roots and diversified into various ecotypes, the control of these ecotypes requires local knowledge about the vectors and the parasites. In this review we outline the historical account of malaria and methods of control that have lifted the national economy in many countries. While battles against malaria should continue at the local level, there is a need for large scale environmental improvement. Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has provided huge funds for malaria control worldwide touching US$ 2 billion in 2011. Unfortunately it is likely to decline to US$ 1

  1. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V P

    2012-12-01

    Malaria control in India has occupied high priority in health sector consuming major resources of the Central and State governments. Several new initiatives were launched from time to time supported by foreign aids but malaria situation has remained static and worsened in years of good rainfall. At times malaria relented temporarily but returned with vengeance at the local, regional and national level, becoming more resilient by acquiring resistance in the vectors and the parasites. National developments to improve the economy, without health impact assessment, have had adverse consequences by providing enormous breeding grounds for the vectors that have become refractory to interventions. As a result, malaria prospers and its control is in dilemma, as finding additional resources is becoming difficult with the ongoing financial crisis. Endemic countries must contribute to make up the needed resources, if malaria is to be contained. Malaria control requires long term planning, one that will reduce receptivity and vulnerability, and uninterrupted financial support for sustained interventions. While this seems to be a far cry, the environment is becoming more receptive for vectors, and epidemics visit the country diverting major resources in their containment, e.g. malaria, dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers, and Chikungunya virus infection. In the last six decades malaria has taken deep roots and diversified into various ecotypes, the control of these ecotypes requires local knowledge about the vectors and the parasites. In this review we outline the historical account of malaria and methods of control that have lifted the national economy in many countries. While battles against malaria should continue at the local level, there is a need for large scale environmental improvement. Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has provided huge funds for malaria control worldwide touching US$ 2 billion in 2011. Unfortunately it is likely to decline to US$ 1

  2. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V P

    2012-12-01

    Malaria control in India has occupied high priority in health sector consuming major resources of the Central and State governments. Several new initiatives were launched from time to time supported by foreign aids but malaria situation has remained static and worsened in years of good rainfall. At times malaria relented temporarily but returned with vengeance at the local, regional and national level, becoming more resilient by acquiring resistance in the vectors and the parasites. National developments to improve the economy, without health impact assessment, have had adverse consequences by providing enormous breeding grounds for the vectors that have become refractory to interventions. As a result, malaria prospers and its control is in dilemma, as finding additional resources is becoming difficult with the ongoing financial crisis. Endemic countries must contribute to make up the needed resources, if malaria is to be contained. Malaria control requires long term planning, one that will reduce receptivity and vulnerability, and uninterrupted financial support for sustained interventions. While this seems to be a far cry, the environment is becoming more receptive for vectors, and epidemics visit the country diverting major resources in their containment, e.g. malaria, dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers, and Chikungunya virus infection. In the last six decades malaria has taken deep roots and diversified into various ecotypes, the control of these ecotypes requires local knowledge about the vectors and the parasites. In this review we outline the historical account of malaria and methods of control that have lifted the national economy in many countries. While battles against malaria should continue at the local level, there is a need for large scale environmental improvement. Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has provided huge funds for malaria control worldwide touching US$ 2 billion in 2011. Unfortunately it is likely to decline to US$ 1

  3. Geographic differentials in mortality of children in Mozambique: their implications for achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4.

    PubMed

    Macassa, Gloria; Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus; Charsmar, Harry; Walander, Anders; Sundin, Örjan; Soares, Joaquim

    2012-09-01

    In the light of Mozambique's progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing mortality of children aged less than five years (under-five mortality) by two-thirds within 2015, this study investigated the relationship between the province of mother's residence and under-five mortality in Mozambique, using data from the 2003 Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey. The analyses included 10,326 children born within 10 years before the survey. Results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed a significant association between under-five mortality and province (region) of mother's residence. Children of mothers living in the North provinces (Niassa, Cabo Delgado, and Nampula) and the Central provinces (Zambezia, Sofala, Manica, and Tete) had higher risks of mortality than children whose mothers lived in the South provinces, especially Maputo province and Maputo city. However, controlling for the demographic, socioeconomic and environmental variables, the significance found between the place of mother's residence and under-five mortality reduced slightly. This suggests that other variables (income distribution and trade, density of population, distribution of the basic infrastructure, including healthcare services, climatic and ecologic factors), which were not included in the study, may have confounding effects. This study supports the thought that interventions aimed at reducing under-five mortality should be tailored to take into account the subnational/regional variation in economic development. However, research is warranted to further investigate the potential determinants behind the observed differences in under-five mortality.

  4. Do we have the right models for scaling up health services to achieve the Millennium Development Goals?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is widespread agreement on the need for scaling up in the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). But many countries are not on track to reach the MDG targets. The dominant approach used by global health initiatives promotes uniform interventions and targets, assuming that specific technical interventions tested in one country can be replicated across countries to rapidly expand coverage. Yet countries scale up health services and progress against the MDGs at very different rates. Global health initiatives need to take advantage of what has been learned about scaling up. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify conceptual models for scaling up health in developing countries, with the articles assessed according to the practical concerns of how to scale up, including the planning, monitoring and implementation approaches. Results We identified six conceptual models for scaling up in health based on experience with expanding pilot projects and diffusion of innovations. They place importance on paying attention to enhancing organizational, functional, and political capabilities through experimentation and adaptation of strategies in addition to increasing the coverage and range of health services. These scaling up approaches focus on fostering sustainable institutions and the constructive engagement between end users and the provider and financing organizations. Conclusions The current approaches to scaling up health services to reach the MDGs are overly simplistic and not working adequately. Rather than relying on blueprint planning and raising funds, an approach characteristic of current global health efforts, experience with alternative models suggests that more promising pathways involve "learning by doing" in ways that engage key stakeholders, uses data to address constraints, and incorporates results from pilot projects. Such approaches should be applied to current strategies to achieve the MDGs

  5. The impact of GMOs on poor countries: a threat to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals?

    PubMed

    Francescon, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    The first of the Millennium Development Goals - halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger by 2015 - is essential for eradicating poverty, as most of the poor live in rural areas. The role of agriculture is, therefore, key to the fight against poverty.Nevertheless, over the last years rich countries diminished their official development assistance for agricultural development and some of them proposed and pushed for a new model of agriculture based on biotechnology. Such a new model of agriculture is presented by its supporters as a means to contribute to the elimination of poverty, as it intends to maximise the crop production.However, it does not take into consideration that policies fighting hunger: need a more comprehensive approach; must take into consideration socio-economic and environmental peculiarities, especially local needs and traditional knowledge and practices. Genetically modified technology goes against these basic requirements, as it is designed to suit multinational enterprises in the North. When drafting development policies, rich and poor countries must bear in mind that the framework of the Millennium Development Goals, to which 189 Nations committed, requires a coherent approach to empower the poor, especially women, and promote traditional knowledge of indigenous people and local communities, as well as ensuring environmental sustainability. The fight to poverty and hunger will not be won and people will still go hungry if the fundamental causes of hunger and food insecurity are not tackled, whereas genetically modified technology is not based on this assumption.

  6. Free solar lanterns to below poverty line girls in India: a step toward achieving millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Development sectors like health cannot function in isolation. Intersectoral coordination between various departments helps in bringing a positive change in the health-seeking behavior of society in the long run. The decision by the Government of India to provide free solar lanterns (lamps) to the school-going girls of below poverty line families is a welcome step in this context. This initiative would help in reducing the number of school dropout girls and thus help in improving the health indicators that are directly related to women's education. Thus it is an initiative that will help in attainment of Millennium Development Goals through women's education and empowerment. Along with that, the environment-friendly approach will definitely have an impact on health of the girls by switching from kerosene/wood stoves to solar lantern light. Also this initiative would pave the path of real "intersectoral coordination" in the health sector in India that is marred with watertight functioning of various departments. There is an urgent need to popularize the scheme and involve different stakeholders like corporate houses, media, nongovernment organizations, multinational welfare agencies, and local governing bodies for ensuring the availability and utilization of solar lanterns in India.

  7. Expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies--New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals: executive summary report.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Achadi, Endang L; Martorell, Reynaldo; Hadi, Hamam; Thaha, Razak; Jus'at, Idrus; Atmarita; Martianto, Drajat; Ridwan, Hardinsyah; Soekirman

    2009-01-01

    Undernutrition in early childhood has long-term physical and intellectual consequences. Improving child growth should start before the age of two years and be an integrated effort between all sectors, covering all aspects such as diet and nutrient intake, disease reduction, optimum child care, and improved environmental sanitation. To discuss these issues, the Indonesian Danone Institute Foundation organized an expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies: New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals. The objective of the meeting was to have a retrospective view on child growth: lessons learned from programs to overcome under-nutrition in the developed countries and to relate the situation to the Indonesian context, as well as to discuss implications for future programs. Recommendations derived from the meeting include focus intervention on the window of opportunity group, re-activation of the Integrated Health Post at the village level, improvement of infant and young child feeding, expand food fortification intervention programs, strengthen supplementation programs with multi-micronutrient, and strengthening public and private partnership on food related programs.

  8. Achieving the Millennium Development Goal for Under-five Mortality in Bangladesh: Current Status and Lessons for Issues and Challenges for Further Improvements

    PubMed Central

    Nury, Abu Taher Md. Sanaullah; Hossain, Md. Delwar

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed the achievements in, critically reviewed the relevant issues of, and put forward recommendations for achieving the target of the Millennium Development Goal relating to mortality of children aged less than five years (under-five mortality) in Bangladesh within 2015. To materialize the study objectives, a thorough literature review was done. Mortality of under-five children and infants decreased respectively to 65 from 151 and to 52 from 94 per 1,000 livebirths during 1990-2006. The immunization coverage increased from 54% to 81.9% during the same period. The projection shows that Bangladesh will achieve targeted reduction in under-five mortality and infant mortality within the time limit, except immunization coverage. Neonatal mortality contributed to the majority of childhood deaths. Contribution of neonatal mortality to child mortality was the highest. There were remarkable differences in child mortality by sex, division, and residence. To progress further for achieving the target of MDG relating to child mortality, some issues, such as lower use of maternal healthcare services, hazardous environmental effects on childhood illness, high malnutrition among children, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding practices, various child injuries leading to death, low healthcare-use of children, probable future threat of financial shortage, and strategies lacking area-wise focus on child mortality, need to be considered. Without these, the achievement of MDG relating to child mortality may not be possible within 2015. PMID:21608418

  9. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jane Rw; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Izutsu, Takashi; Tran, Tuan

    2011-01-07

    Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings.In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts.The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well.The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1). It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child mortality, promote gender equality

  10. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jane Rw; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Izutsu, Takashi; Tran, Tuan

    2011-01-01

    Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings.In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts.The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well.The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1). It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child mortality, promote gender equality

  11. Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisen, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

  12. [Health, equity, and the Millennium Development Goals].

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristina; Mújica, Oscar J

    2004-06-01

    In September 2000 representatives of 189 countries met for the Millennium Summit, which the United Nations convened in New York City, and adopted the declaration that provided the basis for formulating the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The eight goals are part of a long series of initiatives that governments, the United Nations system, and international financial institutions have undertaken to reduce world poverty. Three of the eight goals deal with health, so the health sector will be responsible for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating measures proposed to meet targets that have been formulated: to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate in children under 5 years of age between 1990 and 2015; to reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate between 1990 and 2015; and to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by the year 2015, as well as to halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria, tuberculosis, and other major diseases. The health sector must also work with other parties to achieve targets connected with two other of the goals: to improve access to affordable essential drugs, and to reduce the proportion of persons who do not have safe drinking water. Adopting a strategy focused on the most vulnerable groups-ones concentrated in locations and populations with the greatest social exclusion-would make possible the largest total reduction in deaths among children, thus reaching the proposed target as well as producing greater equity. In the Region of the Americas the principal challenges in meeting the MDGs are: improving and harmonizing health information systems; designing health programs related to the MDGs that bring together the set of services and interventions that have the greatest impact, according to the special characteristics of the populations who are intended to be the beneficiaries; strengthening the political will to support the MDGs; and guaranteeing funding for the measures undertaken to attain the MDGs.

  13. Premature delivery and the millennium development goal.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies (1 in 10) are born prematurely each year. Prematurity is the leading cause of death among newborns, accounting for 1 million deaths per year, and, after pneumonia, is the second leading cause of death in children under age 5 years. Newborns who do survive preterm delivery (PTD) struggle with visual, auditory, and learning disabilities. In order to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) of reducing the mortality rate in children under age 5 years by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, there must be significantly fewer PTDs. In high-income nations, 50% of babies born at 24 weeks survive, whereas in low-resource nations, this survival rate is not achieved until 32 weeks of gestation. Over 90% of babies born in low-resource settings before 28 weeks die in the first few days of life (< 10% die in high-income nations), a 10:90 survival gap. Over 60% of PTDs worldwide occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Risk factors for PTD include adolescent pregnancy, short interval between births, poor prepregnancy weight (very low or high body mass index), chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension), infectious disease, substance abuse, cervical incompetence, and poor psychological health. Thus, a commitment to improving maternal health and the quality of prenatal care is necessary to achieve the MDG-4. PMID:22866189

  14. Millennium development goals and child undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Patwari, A K

    2013-05-01

    Reduction in prevalence of underweight children (under five years of age) has been included as an indicator for one of the targets to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Goal 1) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The most recent MDG report of 2012 indicates that the target of reducing extreme poverty by half has been reached five years ahead of the 2015 deadline but close to one third of children in Southern Asia were underweight. In India, at the historical rate of decline the proportion of underweight children below 3 years, required to be reduced to 26% by 2015, is expected to come down only to about 33%. With barely 3 years left for achieving MDGs, the level of commitment to reduce child undernutrition needs to be gauged and effectiveness of current strategies and programmes ought to be reviewed. Undernutrition in children is not affected by food intake alone; it is also influenced by access to health services, quality of care for the child and pregnant mother as well as good hygiene practices. Would the scenario be different if child undernutrition was a part of Goal 4 of MDGs? What difference it would have made in terms of strategies and programmes if reduction in undernutrition in children underfive was a target instead of an indicator? It is time for nutrition to be placed higher on the development agenda. A number of simple, cost-effective measures to reduce undernutrition in the critical period from conception to two years after birth are available. There is a need for choosing nutrition strategies relevant in Indian context. Experiences from other countries should lead India toward innovative nutritional strategies to reduce underfive undernutrition in the country- that too on a fast track.

  15. Malaria and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Owens, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Malaria, as a key disease of poverty, was singled out for special attention in the Millennium Project of 2000. Recent data suggest that malaria incidence and mortality are now declining all over the world. While these figures are cause for celebration, they must be interpreted carefully and with caution, particularly in relation to Africa. There are daunting challenges ahead for those working to achieve malaria eradication, not least of which is the poor quality of the data on which the work is based. In the absence of an affordable and fully effective vaccine, international funding for malaria control needs to be escalated still further. The money is essential to pay for universal access to a set of simple and proven interventions which would save the lives of millions of children over the next 15 years. PMID:25613970

  16. Doctoral Theses from Nursing Postgraduate Programs in Brazil and their Association with the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumet; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Millennium Development Goals are centered around combatting poverty and other social evils all over the world. Thus, this study seeks to identify the Millennium Development Goals as an object of study in theses from Postgraduate Nursing Programs in Brazil scoring 5 (national excellence) and 6 or 7 (international excellence), and evaluate the association between the score for the program and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. METHOD: Exploratory descriptive document research. Data were collected from the Notes on Indicators/Coordination for Higher Education Personnel Improvement for the 15 Postgraduate Nursing Courses scoring between 5 and 7 in the three-year-period of 2010/2012. RESULTS: of the 8 Millennium Development Objectives, 6 were dealt with in the theses. There was an association (Fisher's exact test p-value=0.0059) between the distribution of the theses and the program scores in relation to the Millennium Development Objectives (p-valor=0.0347) CONCLUSION: the doctoral theses were slightly related to the Millennium Development Objectives, covering the population's economic development, health conditions and quality of life. It is recommended that Postgraduate Programs in Nursing pay closer attention to the Millennium Development Objectives.. PMID:26312631

  17. Millennium development goals and eye health

    PubMed Central

    Faal, Hannah B

    2012-01-01

    In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020–VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issue–sight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1–the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges. PMID:22944751

  18. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-05-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress has been made. There is not a simple and straight-forward intervention, which by itself will bring maternal mortality significantly down; and it is commonly agreed on that the high maternal mortality can only be addressed if the health system is strengthened. There is a common consensus about the importance of skilled attendance at delivery to address the high, maternal mortality. This consensus is also reflected in the MDG 5, where the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel is considered a key indicator. But even if countries invest massive efforts to increase skilled care, there will be a time lag. In addition, there is a need of major investment in human resources to counter the present momentum of emigration of qualified personnel from low income countries. To address the lack of skilled attendance, alternative strategies should therefore be developed and incorporated within the existing health system. One plausible solution could be to involve lower level providers such as community health workers to provide health facility based care under close supervision of authorized midwives. Upgrade of midlevel staff to provide life-saving obstetric surgery may also be an important innovative strategy. Along with the strategy of aiming at increasing the number of health facility based deliveries and the empowerment of non physicians to provide obstetric surgery, some preventive functions of basic care targeting women who prefer to deliver outside the health facilities should be developed. Finally, political leadership, openness to discuss women's rights, including abortion, and involving the community i.e. MDG 3 is essential to attain MDG 5.

  19. Are the health Millennium Development Goals appropriate for Eastern Europe and Central Asia?

    PubMed

    Rechel, Bernd; Shapo, Laidon; McKee, Martin

    2005-09-01

    This article argues that the health-related Millennium Development Goals do not appropriately address the challenges faced by the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. By ignoring adult mortality, their achievement would result in relatively small gains in life expectancy. To achieve greater impact, policies in this region must supplement the classical Millennium Development Goals with indicators of adult health, in particular cardiovascular diseases and external causes of death. In addition, countries, with support from the international community, must improve the quality of vital registration data to enable more accurate estimation of the disease burden.

  20. [Primary health care and the millennium development goals].

    PubMed

    Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

    2012-01-01

    Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty

  1. [Primary health care and the millennium development goals].

    PubMed

    Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

    2012-01-01

    Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty

  2. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

  3. Poverty, Education, Gender and the Millennium Development Goals: Reflections on Boundaries and Intersectionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition…

  4. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2011-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  5. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  6. Developing a Model of Compulsory Basic Education Completion Acceleration in Support of Millennium Development Goals in Magelang, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukarno; Haryati, Sri

    2015-01-01

    This article reports Year One of a two-year study to develop a model to accelerate compulsory basic education completion toward Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Magelang, Indonesia. The study focuses on five issues: (1) profile of MDGs in Magelang, (2) achievement of MDGs, (3) problems in MDGs implementation, (4) model of compulsary basic…

  7. Successful behavioral health business development for the millennium.

    PubMed

    Pyrce, J M

    1998-08-01

    The business development framework for provider positioning, market share, and competition has significantly shifted in the late 1990s as providers prepare for the millennium. The use of the Marketing Four Ps is a helpful tool for providers to thoroughly evaluate their product/service viability, pricing objectives, promotional mix, and place accessibility, and will allow organizations to reposition in their marketplace, maximize market share, and develop new partnerships with previous competitors.

  8. Successful behavioral health business development for the millennium.

    PubMed

    Pyrce, J M

    1998-08-01

    The business development framework for provider positioning, market share, and competition has significantly shifted in the late 1990s as providers prepare for the millennium. The use of the Marketing Four Ps is a helpful tool for providers to thoroughly evaluate their product/service viability, pricing objectives, promotional mix, and place accessibility, and will allow organizations to reposition in their marketplace, maximize market share, and develop new partnerships with previous competitors. PMID:10182149

  9. Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative. PMID:20932274

  10. Women's right to health and the Millennium Development Goals: promoting partnerships to improve access.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D

    2006-09-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MGD) represent a commitment of 189 member states that adopted them during the Millennium Summit in September 2000. This UN General Assembly recognized that gender equality and women's empowerment are both central to achieving sustainable development by means of combating poverty, hunger and disease. Neither reproductive nor sexual health was explicitly articulated in the original MDGs and indicators-a critical omission, as globally women are more disadvantaged than men. However, a clear link exists between all of the MDGs and the reproductive and sexual health of women, who cannot contribute to sustainable development, unless their right to health is met through improved access. The FIGO 2006 World Report on Women's Health addresses many issues critical to the success of the MDGs, with a focus on how partnerships have become a crucial vehicle to improve access to health for women.

  11. Did the Millennium Development Goals Change Trends in Child Mortality?

    PubMed

    French, Declan

    2016-10-01

    There has been little assessment of the role the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have had in progressing international development. There has been a 41% reduction in the under-five mortality rate worldwide from 1990 to 2011 and an acceleration in the rate of reduction since 2000. This paper explores why this has occurred, and results for all developing countries indicate that it is not due to more healthcare or public health interventions but is driven by a coincidental burst of economic growth. Although the MDGs are considered to have played an important part in securing progress against poverty, hunger and disease, there is very little evidence to back this viewpoint up. A thorough analysis of the successes and failures of the MDGs is therefore necessary before embarking on a new round of global goals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dawei; Bassie, Ludovic; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Farre, Gemma; Rivera, Sol M; Banakar, Raviraj; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Avilla, Eva; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Ugidos-Damboriena, Nerea; López, Alberto; Almacellas, David; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Hahne, Gunther; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world's poorest countries. Many of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing world, and hence, plant biotechnology has an important role to play in helping to achieve MDG targets. In this opinion article, we discuss each of the MDGs in turn, provide examples to show how plant biotechnology may be able to accelerate progress towards the stated MDG objectives, and offer our opinion on the likelihood of such technology being implemented. In combination with other strategies, plant biotechnology can make a contribution towards sustainable development in the future although the extent to which progress can be made in today's political climate depends on how we deal with current barriers to adoption.

  13. The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dawei; Bassie, Ludovic; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Farre, Gemma; Rivera, Sol M; Banakar, Raviraj; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Avilla, Eva; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Ugidos-Damboriena, Nerea; López, Alberto; Almacellas, David; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Hahne, Gunther; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world's poorest countries. Many of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing world, and hence, plant biotechnology has an important role to play in helping to achieve MDG targets. In this opinion article, we discuss each of the MDGs in turn, provide examples to show how plant biotechnology may be able to accelerate progress towards the stated MDG objectives, and offer our opinion on the likelihood of such technology being implemented. In combination with other strategies, plant biotechnology can make a contribution towards sustainable development in the future although the extent to which progress can be made in today's political climate depends on how we deal with current barriers to adoption. PMID:21249369

  14. Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

  15. Pakistan and the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Child Health: progress and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector. PMID:26744152

  16. Pakistan and the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Child Health: progress and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector.

  17. Emerging diseases and implications for Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015 - an overview.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Bello, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global 'One Health' movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015. PMID:20560123

  18. Emerging diseases and implications for Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015 - an overview.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Bello, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global 'One Health' movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015.

  19. Measuring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and the missing millions.

    PubMed

    Carr-Hill, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    The 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is fast approaching, but there is very little discussion of the validity of the indicators used to measure progress. In particular, there has been little attention given to the problems that arise when assessments of progress are based on household surveys. These are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor. Typically, they omit by design those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations; and, in practice, household surveys will typically under-represent those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; and those in urban slums and insecure areas of a country. Those six subgroups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the "poorest of the poor." Between 300 and 500 million people--mainly in developing countries--will be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of household surveys.

  20. Measuring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and the missing millions.

    PubMed

    Carr-Hill, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    The 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is fast approaching, but there is very little discussion of the validity of the indicators used to measure progress. In particular, there has been little attention given to the problems that arise when assessments of progress are based on household surveys. These are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor. Typically, they omit by design those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations; and, in practice, household surveys will typically under-represent those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; and those in urban slums and insecure areas of a country. Those six subgroups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the "poorest of the poor." Between 300 and 500 million people--mainly in developing countries--will be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of household surveys. PMID:23713207

  1. Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

    2015-02-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15 years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4-to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals.

  2. Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15 years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4—to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals. PMID:25613971

  3. Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

    2015-02-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15 years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4-to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals. PMID:25613971

  4. Professional Development for the New Millennium. Professional Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

    In 1998, the Mississippi Legislature amended Mississippi Code Section 37-17 concerning the requirements for local school district professional development programs. The Department of Education then revised this portion of the model to reflect the statutory changes. This handbook contains the definition and purpose of professional development and…

  5. Issues of maternal health in Pakistan: trends towards millennium development goal 5.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammd Faraz Arshad; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

    2014-06-01

    Pakistan has third highest burden of maternal and children mortality across the globe. This grim situation is further intensified by flaws of planning and implementation set forth in health sector. Natural calamities (earth quakes, floods), disease outbreaks and lack of awareness in different regions of country also further aggravate this situation. Despite of all these limitations, under the banner of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a special focus and progress in addressing maternal health issue (set as goal 5) has been made over the last decade. In this review, improvement and short falls pertaining to Goal 5 Improve maternal health have been analyzed in relation to earlier years. A decline in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) (490 maternal deaths in 1990 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 women in 2010) is observed. Reduction in MMR by three quarters was not achieved but a decline from very high mortality to high mortality index was observed. Increase usage of contraceptives (with contraceptive prevalence rate of 11.8 in 1990 to 37 in 2013) also shed light on women awareness about their health and social issues. Based on progress level assessment (WHO guidelines),access of Pakistani women to universal reproductive health unit falls in moderate category in 2010 as compared to earlier low access in 1990. From the data it looks that still a lot of effort is required for achieving the said targets. However, keeping in view all challenges, Pakistan suffered in the said duration, like volatile peace, regional political instability, policy implementation constrains, population growth, this slow but progressive trend highlight a national resilience to address the havoc challenge of maternal health. These understandings and sustained efforts will significantly contribute a best possible accomplishment in Millennium Development Goal 5 by 2015. PMID:25252492

  6. The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojogwu, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

  7. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  8. Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria through Non-Formal Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpama, Simon Ibor; Asor, Love Joseph; Erim, Costly M.; Adekola, G.

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) declaration but till now she has not made any significant milestones in actualizing these human development goals. In spite of the coordinated efforts towards mobilizing those in the formal education system to partially address its implementation challenges, serious gaps still exit…

  9. Global Inequality, Capabilities, Social Justice: The Millennium Development Goal for Gender Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for gender equality in education by 2005 has been criticised for its grandiose ambition, its failure to adequately conceptualise the nature of gender inequality or the diverse forms this takes, the inadequate policies developed to put the goal into practice and the limited measurements used for monitoring. The…

  10. Knowledge of Millennium Development Goals among University Faculty in Uganda and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Nabachwa, Mary Sonko; Chamberlain, Jean; Nakalembe, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the level of knowledge of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) among university faculty. The assessment is based on data from 197 academic unit or faculty heads randomly selected from universities in Uganda and Kenya. Frequency distributions and logistic regression were used for analysis. Slightly more than one in three…

  11. [Orphans, AIDS, and the Millennium Development Goals: models and capacity to act].

    PubMed

    Kojoué Kamga, Larissa

    2009-01-01

    The impact of HIV/AIDS on children is considerable. Parental illness and loss affect their children's psychosocial, economic and family well-being, limit the children's access to basic social services and undermining their chances of survival and their future. Although these children, orphaned and vulnerable because of HIV/AIDS, present a true social crisis, they have, since the beginning of the epidemic, been largely left out of the global and national fight against AIDS. The aim of this study is to analyse the achievement of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6 through the support for these children in Africa. Using an inductive comprehensive approach based on the history of the fight against AIDS in three countries Cameroon, Uganda and South Africa, we seek to show that achievement of the MDGs is largely contextual. The weaknesses, deficiencies and policy failures of MDGs should not be treated as mere technical or local issues. They involve political and social questions that are not new. The second approach, from a top-down perspective, helped us to study the State in action. What can we learn about the State's capacity to reach the MDGs by 2015 from the care they currently provide to orphaned and vulnerable children? PMID:20185389

  12. The Vanuatu medical supply system – documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Gilbert, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, observational workplace surveys and semi-structured focus groups was developed. This research was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Canberra and was funded through a direct grant from the United Nations Population Fund Suva, Pacific sub regional office. Results: During two weeks of data collection, 21 interviews were conducted, observational workplace surveys were completed in 19 facilities and 22 personnel participated in three focus groups across three provinces. The interviewees had a wide range of primary professional groupings and were representative of the Vanuatu health workforce. A complex array of medical supply issues are described from within the three tiered structure of the medical supply system. Conclusion: The results of this research have further informed our understanding of the competencies required by healthcare personnel to conduct medical supply management activities effectively in Pacific Island countries. As a result of this research, a platform is provided for the government of Vanuatu to engage development partners to work toward a sustainable medical supply system. PMID:23093895

  13. Impact of training on emergency resuscitation skills: Impact on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2015-11-01

    Although significant progress has been made towards Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 and 5 targets, maternal and neonatal mortality rates remain unacceptably high in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The potential for improvements in maternal and neonatal health outcomes with increased facility utilization in these countries is undermined by a lack of appropriate and timely treatment. Skilful emergency resuscitation can be the difference between life and death; therefore, training in emergency resuscitation is essential for health-care practitioners at all levels, with regular refresher sessions to ensure skill retention. Whilst there is little robust evidence on the impact of resuscitation training interventions on practitioner skills or patient outcomes, such training interventions are likely to have the greatest impact if integrated into a broader approach to improve the quality of care. Accelerated investments in training must go hand in hand with ensuring the availability of quality equipment and upgrading infrastructure to reduce the gap between current MDG status and what is achieved by the end of 2015; and to accelerate reductions in mortality rates beyond 2015 towards new Countdown targets.

  14. Professional Development & Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Marianne, Ed.; Blaser, Stephanie, Ed.; Raack, Lenaya, Ed.; Cooper, Cinder, Ed.; Kinder, Ann, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Professional development is viewed from several perspectives--time, funding, planning, and student outcomes--and includes both an urban and a rural story. This issue provides a special pullout section designed as a checklist to help guide professional development planning activities. The following articles are included: "Perspectives on Managing…

  15. Five Ways the Sustainable Development Goals Are Better than the Millennium Development Goals and Why Every Educationalist Should Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprani, Lily

    2016-01-01

    For 15 years the millennium development goals (MDGs) were a guiding force for many issues affecting the lives of children and young people around the world. Agreed by UN member states in 2001, the eight MDGs were designed as a framework around which states were expected to develop policy priorities and shape their overseas aid spending plans. The…

  16. Subjective Well-Being Approach to the Valuation of International Development: Evidence for the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to the valuation of international development is applied to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Results indicate that the rich countries have particular preference for education, healthcare, and housing; they are willing to accept compensation for a failure to meet the three targets by 2015. The poor…

  17. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  18. Life in a landfill slum, children's health, and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James L; Watson, Lindsey M; Nikitin, Ivan V; Ansariadi; La Ane, Ruslan; Maidin, Alimin

    2015-12-01

    People living in slums can be considered left behind with regard to national successes in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the living and working conditions of waste pickers and their children in a landfill slum located in the largest city in eastern Indonesia. A total of 113 people from the landfill slum and 1184 people from the general population participated in face-to-face interviews. Municipal solid waste (MSW) was analyzed for metals, metalloids and fecal indicator bacteria. Ambient air quality including particulate matter was measured in the landfill. Households in the landfill slum were 5.73 (p=0.04) times more likely to be below the international poverty line (MDG 1: Poverty) and 15.6 times (p<0.01) more likely to have no one in the household possessing a primary education (MDG 2: Universal Education), and 107 times (p<0.01) more likely not to have improved sanitation facilities (MDG 7: Environmental Sustainability) when compared to the general population. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under five in Indonesia. Young children living in the landfill slum were 2.87 times (p=0.02) more likely to develop diarrhea than their general population counterparts. Other survey results and environmental measurements suggest that landfill slum children have additional adverse health effects (e.g. infections and poisoning). Poverty underlies several MDG issues that directly or indirectly affect child health. Therefore, eradicating extreme poverty will continue to be the most critical challenge for the MDGs beyond 2015.

  19. The learning network. Leadership development for the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, J

    1995-02-01

    The complex process of creating a learning organization demands new methods for development and learning. Individuals need to find new ways of working together by increasing self-knowledge and changing their behavior. Learning networks, a simple but profound approach to learning, offer participants an opportunity to exchange experiences in a safe and supportive environment. Participants review their most important and difficult work and develop their interpersonal skills and self-awareness to new heights. In the spirit of empowerment and creating a learning culture, colleagues learn to listen and observe as well as ask helpful questions and offer alternative perspectives and practical ideas. They also give and receive feedback. The author explores the concepts, experiences, structures, and results of learning networks that allow readers the opportunity to contemplate a new form of development for themselves and their staffs.

  20. Food security politics and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Philip; Schneider, Mindi

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews proposals regarding the recent food crisis in the context of a broader, threshold debate on the future of agriculture and food security. While the MDGs have focused on eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, the food crisis pushed the hungry over the one billion mark. There is thus a renewed focus on agricultural development, which pivots on the salience of industrial agriculture (as a supply source) in addressing food security. The World Bank's new 'agriculture for development' initiative seeks to improve small-farmer productivity with new inputs, and their incorporation into global markets via value-chains originating in industrial agriculture. An alternative claim, originating in 'food sovereignty' politics, demanding small-farmer rights to develop bio-regionally specific agro-ecological methods and provision for local, rather than global, markets, resonates in the IAASTD report, which implies agribusiness as usual ''is no longer an option'. The basic divide is over whether agriculture is a servant of economic growth, or should be developed as a foundational source of social and ecological sustainability. We review and compare these different paradigmatic approaches to food security, and their political and ecological implications.

  1. Food security politics and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Philip; Schneider, Mindi

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews proposals regarding the recent food crisis in the context of a broader, threshold debate on the future of agriculture and food security. While the MDGs have focused on eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, the food crisis pushed the hungry over the one billion mark. There is thus a renewed focus on agricultural development, which pivots on the salience of industrial agriculture (as a supply source) in addressing food security. The World Bank's new 'agriculture for development' initiative seeks to improve small-farmer productivity with new inputs, and their incorporation into global markets via value-chains originating in industrial agriculture. An alternative claim, originating in 'food sovereignty' politics, demanding small-farmer rights to develop bio-regionally specific agro-ecological methods and provision for local, rather than global, markets, resonates in the IAASTD report, which implies agribusiness as usual ''is no longer an option'. The basic divide is over whether agriculture is a servant of economic growth, or should be developed as a foundational source of social and ecological sustainability. We review and compare these different paradigmatic approaches to food security, and their political and ecological implications. PMID:21591303

  2. Developing nursing's future role: a challenge for the millennium: 1.

    PubMed

    Naughton, M; Nolan, M

    Over the past decade health care in general and nursing in particular have experienced a period of unprecedented change resulting from a variety of factors including demography, advances in technology and the introduction of differing service delivery systems. For nursing this has created a number of tensions, especially between professional aspirations and the demands of a new managerial culture. Many nurses have found themselves torn between the push towards the ideal of individualized holistic care and the reality of resource constrained environments. The new White Paper 'The New NHS: Modern, Dependable' (Secretary of State for Health, 1997) heralds a move away from the 'short termism' of the internal market towards a partnership model of integrated care. It also reaffirms the Government's commitment to further develop the role of the nurse. This article, the first of two, considers the challenges nurses face in responding to a managerial agenda while simultaneously maintaining the development of the nursing profession. The opportunities afforded by the recent White Paper are identified and the need to address a number of current tensions are highlighted. Developments at the Northern General Hospital in Sheffield are briefly described, with the results of a major survey being presented in the second article.

  3. Millennium Development Goal Four and Child Health Inequities in Indonesia: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schröders, Julia; Wall, Stig; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework? Methods and Findings We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable “disadvantaged populations” was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities. Conclusion This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create

  4. Health literacy and the Millennium Development Goals: United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) regional meeting background paper (abstracted).

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a health literacy "lens" to look at key global health challenges, including the achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the reduction of disease burden due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Available global evidence is summarized related to: assessment of the impact of health literacy on health and development; identification of measures for reporting progress; exploring ways to strengthen multisectoral collaboration at the national, regional, and international levels to undertake joint actions for increasing health literacy; finding ways to promote better access and use of information through information and communication technology and empowerment; and building capacity for sustained action to increase health literacy. Key action messages are identified. Findings presented informed the 2009 ECOSOC Ministerial Declaration on Health Literacy.

  5. Taking stock of Myanmar's progress toward the health-related Millennium Development Goals: current roadblocks, paths ahead.

    PubMed

    Saw, Yu Mon; Win, Khine Lae; Shiao, Laura Wen-Shuan; Thandar, Moe Moe; Amiya, Rachel M; Shibanuma, Akira; Tun, Soe; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-09-11

    Myanmar is a developing country with considerable humanitarian needs, rendering its pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) an especially high priority. Yet progress to date remains under-examined on key fronts. Particularly within the three health-related MDGs (MDGs 4, 5, and 6), the limited data reported point to patchy levels of achievement. This study was undertaken to provide an overview and assessment of Myanmar's progress toward the health-related MDGs, along with possible solutions for accelerating health-related development into 2015 and beyond. The review highlights off-track progress in the spheres of maternal and child health (MDGs 4 and 5). It also shows Myanmar's achievements toward MDG 6 targets--in the areas of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Such achievements are especially notable in that Myanmar has been receiving the lowest level of official development assistance among all of the least developed countries in Asia. However, to make similar progress in MDGs 4 and 5, Myanmar needs increased investment and commitment in health. Toward moving forward with the post-2015 development agenda, Myanmar's government also needs to take the lead in calling for attention from the World Health Organization and its global development partners to address the stagnation in health-related development progress within the country. In particular, Myanmar's government should invest greater efforts into health system strengthening to pave the road to universal health coverage.

  6. The Papua New Guinea medical supply system - documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Limited human resources are widely recognised as an impediment to achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals in Pacific Island Countries, with the availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply chain. This paper presents our findings as we seek to answer the research question ‘What factors influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Papua New Guinea?’ Methods We used a qualitative, triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, workplace observation and semi-structured focus groups. The parallel use of the interview tool and workplace observation tool allowed identification of ‘know-do’ gaps between what the interviewee said they did in their work practices, and the actual evidence of these practices. Focus groups provided further opportunities for raising and elaborating issues. Results During 2 weeks of data collection we conducted 17 interviews and 15 observational workplace surveys in 15 facilities. Sixteen health personnel participated in 3 focus groups across 2 provinces and one district. An array of medical supply issues across all levels of the medical supply chain were revealed, including standard operating procedures, facilities, transport, emergency medical kits, the cold chain and record keeping. The influence of health worker training and competency was found to be common across all of these issues. Conclusion The factors influencing the availability of medical supplies in PNG consist of a range of interrelating issues, consisting of both simple and complex problems involving the different levels and cadres of workers within the medical supply chain. Health systems sustainability theory suggests that a coordinated approach which addresses the inter-related nature of these issues, led by the PNG government and supported by suitable development partners, will be required for sustainable health

  7. Private Schools and the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education: A Census and Comparative Survey in Hyderabad, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Gomathi, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Development literature suggests that private schools serving the poor are not part of the solution to meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. The study conducted a census and survey of schools in notified slums of Hyderabad, India, to contribute to the sparse literature on the nature and extent of private…

  8. No Pending National Elections, Who Cares? What Newspaper Publications Reveal about Local Efforts Towards Millennium Development Goal 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Arku, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has become a catch phrase in development discourse. This study is an assessment of the MDG 3: to promote gender equality at all levels of education in Ghana. The Daily Graphic (a newspaper in Ghana) which is Ghana's prominent newspaper was reviewed from 2000 to 2011 to determine the frequency of articles…

  9. Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: public health challenges in water and sanitation.

    PubMed

    Rheingans, R; Dreibelbis, R; Freeman, M C

    2006-01-01

    Over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation, greatly contributing to the global burden of disease. The international community has committed to reducing by half the proportion of the world's population lacking access to water and sanitation as a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the disease burden due to poor access, is borne primarily by the poorest countries and the poorest people within them. Simply reducing the proportion of people without adequate access will not automatically result in proportional reductions in the related disease burden. The public health challenge inherent in meeting the MDG targets is ensuring that improvements result in access to water and sanitation for the critical at-risk populations. Innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, and locally acceptable water and sanitation interventions and integrating these approaches into existing social institutions, such as schools, markets, and health facilities.

  10. Development of an Ion Thruster and Power Processor for New Millennium's Deep Space 1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Peterson, Todd T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Power, John L.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Anderson, John R.; Bond, Thomas A.; Cardwell, G. I.; Christensen, Jon A.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) will provide a single-string primary propulsion system to NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission which will perform comet and asteroid flybys in the years 1999 and 2000. The propulsion system includes a 30-cm diameter ion thruster, a xenon feed system, a power processing unit, and a digital control and interface unit. A total of four engineering model ion thrusters, three breadboard power processors, and a controller have been built, integrated, and tested. An extensive set of development tests has been completed along with thruster design verification tests of 2000 h and 1000 h. An 8000 h Life Demonstration Test is ongoing and has successfully demonstrated more than 6000 h of operation. In situ measurements of accelerator grid wear are consistent with grid lifetimes well in excess of the 12,000 h qualification test requirement. Flight hardware is now being assembled in preparation for integration, functional, and acceptance tests.

  11. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  12. From home to hospital, a continuum of care: making progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C; Saha, S

    2011-09-01

    The Lutheran Aid to Medicine in Bangladesh (LAMB) health and development project in rural Bangladesh has developed an integrated maternal and child healthcare system providing appropriate, accessible and affordable health services for the poor, through a home-to-hospital, continuum-of-care approach. LAMB is thus an example of how high-quality maternity health services accessible to women of all socio-economic classes in a rural context can be provided, making progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5.

  13. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  14. Child malnutrition and the Millennium Development Goals: much haste but less speed?

    PubMed

    Oruamabo, Raphael S

    2015-02-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide a framework for measuring the progress of nations. Several of these goals relate to child malnutrition, which remains an important contributor to child morbidity and mortality, accounting for approximately 45% of child deaths globally. A high proportion of undernourished children still live in Africa and parts of Asia, and the uneven rate of reduction in the prevalence of various types of child malnutrition among different income groups worldwide is worrying. Attempts to reduce child malnutrition should therefore begin from the grassroots by improving primary healthcare services in developing countries with particular focus on basic requirements. Adequate nutrition should be provided from birth, through infancy, preschool and early childhood to adolescence. The overall strategy should be one of careful and meticulous planning involving all development sectors with an emphasis on a bottom-up approach within a stable and disciplined polity; the MDGs will be only be useful if they are seen not as narrow objectives with unidirectional interventions but as multifaceted and co-ordinated. The setting of deadlines, whether 2015 or 2035, should not be emphasised so as to avoid hasty decision making. The top priority should be the implementation of the essential social services of basic education, primary healthcare, nutrition, reproductive health care, water and sanitation in partnership with the developed economies.

  15. Social Work Gerontological Practice: The Need for Faculty Development in the New Millennium.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Barbara; Silverstone, Barbara; June Simmons, W; Volland, Patricia J; Howe, Judith L

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to upgrade the gerontological knowledge and skills of practicing social workers. Geriatrics and gerontology, as specialized fields of knowledge, have not been sufficiently integrated into formal academic training programs. There are major trends in the health care environment which impact on social work education, including technological advances, a shift from inpatient to outpatient and community care settings, increasing diversity of the older population, and client and family participation in decisionmaking. These trends necessitate social work education to emphasize new content areas in gerontology and the development of new skills in clinical, case management, care coordination, and teamwork. A significant obstacle to the preparation of future social workers to deliver the complex services needed by older adults and their families is a serious shortage of social work faculty in gerontology. Sustained and broad initiatives, such as the John A. Hartford Foundation funded Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program, are needed to develop academic and practice-based faculty in gerontology. This is crucial if social work is to maintain an important service role in the new millennium.

  16. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies.

  17. Household water treatment and the millennium development goals: keeping the focus on health.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas F

    2010-10-01

    Waterborne diseases such as diarrhea are a major killer in low-income settings, particularly of young children. For those without access to safe drinking water, household water treatment, such as boiling, chlorinating, and filtering water in the home, when combined with safe storage (HWTS) can significantly improve water quality and prevent disease, thereby contributing to the child survival and other health priorities encompassed within the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is uncertainly, however, about whether HWTS should count toward the MDG water target, which promotes "sustainable access to safe drinking water". This paper reviews the relevant research and concludes that it should not. Although HWTS can significantly improve water quality, it does not improve water quantity and access-key aspects of the MDG water target that are essential for optimal improvements in health and development. A policy that excludes HWTS from the MDG water target will discourage governments from diverting scarce public resources from comprehensive and long-term improvements in water supplies. At the same time, the health-oriented MDGs provide a sufficient case for scaling up effective and appropriate HWTS among target populations. Moreover, a health-based strategy for HWTS will help ensure that promotion of the intervention is driven by measurable improvements in outcomes rather than inputs, thus encouraging advances in both hardware and programmatic delivery that will make HWTS more effective, appropriate, and accessible to vulnerable populations.

  18. Social Work Gerontological Practice: The Need for Faculty Development in the New Millennium.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Barbara; Silverstone, Barbara; June Simmons, W; Volland, Patricia J; Howe, Judith L

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to upgrade the gerontological knowledge and skills of practicing social workers. Geriatrics and gerontology, as specialized fields of knowledge, have not been sufficiently integrated into formal academic training programs. There are major trends in the health care environment which impact on social work education, including technological advances, a shift from inpatient to outpatient and community care settings, increasing diversity of the older population, and client and family participation in decisionmaking. These trends necessitate social work education to emphasize new content areas in gerontology and the development of new skills in clinical, case management, care coordination, and teamwork. A significant obstacle to the preparation of future social workers to deliver the complex services needed by older adults and their families is a serious shortage of social work faculty in gerontology. Sustained and broad initiatives, such as the John A. Hartford Foundation funded Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program, are needed to develop academic and practice-based faculty in gerontology. This is crucial if social work is to maintain an important service role in the new millennium. PMID:27135560

  19. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. PMID:26891310

  20. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Fakir Md.; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population’s access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. PMID:26891310

  1. Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-01-17

    The present brief review is a survey of the role of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium. After an introduction which deals with the expanding definition of the discipline and the issue of professionality and training, the author approaches the role and novel developments of the field, with particular reference to the past 5 years. Such developments are discussed in a sectorial manner, distinguishing the role of research in the areas of forensic anthropology which deal with human remains and those that deal with the living. As regards the "human remains" domain, advances and stalls still present in the fields of species and postmortem interval determination, sexing, aging and attribution of ancestry are stressed. The need for standards in facial reconstruction and positive identification by bone morphology are underlined, as well as the growing role of the anthropologist in detecting signs of trauma. Finally, the relatively new role of the forensic anthropologist in the domain of identification of the living is described, although this area is still underrepresented as regards research activity: these studies concern the strive to devise methods for identifying faces (e.g. in the case of crimes registered by videosurveillance systems), aging living individuals or juveniles represented in pedopornographic material.

  2. Health Research and Millennium Development Goals: Identifying the Gap From Public Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    El Lawindi, Mona I; Galal, Yasmine S; Khairy, Walaa A

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research output within the universities could provide an effective means for tracking the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) progress. This analytical database study was designed to assess the trend of research theses conducted by the Public Health Department (PHD), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University during the period 1990 to 2014 as related to the: MDGS, Faculty and department research priority plans and to identify the discrepancies between researchers' priorities versus national and international research priorities. A manual search of the theses was done at the Postgraduate Library using a specially designed checklist to chart adherence of each thesis to: MDGs, Faculty and department research plans (RPs). The theses' profile showed that the highest research output was for addressing the MDGS followed by the PHD and Faculty RPs. Compliance to MDGs 5 and 6 was obvious, whereas; MDGs 2, 3, and 7 were not represented at all after year 2000. No significant difference was found between PH theses addressing the Faculty RPs and those which were not before and after 2010. A significantly lower percent of PH theses was fulfilling the PHD research priorities compared to those which were not after 2010. This study showed a definite decline in research output tackling the MDGS and PHD research priorities, with a non-significant increase in the production of theses addressing the Faculty RPs. The present study is a practical model for policy makers within the universities to develop and implement a reliable monitoring and evaluation system for assessment of research output. PMID:26652084

  3. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the “millennium bug.”

  4. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the "millennium bug."

  5. Tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals: reaching consensus on child mortality levels and trends.

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The increased attention to tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including Goal 4 of reducing child mortality, has drawn attention to a number of interrelated technical, operational and political challenges and to the underlying weaknesses of country health information systems upon which reliable monitoring depends. Assessments of child mortality published in 2005, for almost all low-income countries, are based on an extrapolation of the trends observed during the 1990s, rather than on the empirical data for more recent years. The validity of the extrapolation depends on the quality and quantity of the data used, and many countries lack suitable data. In the long run, it is hoped that vital registration or sample registration systems will be established to monitor vital events in a sustainable way. However, in the short run, tracking child mortality in high-mortality countries will continue to rely on household surveys and extrapolations of historical trends. This will require more collaborative efforts both to collect data through initiatives to strengthen health information systems at the country level, and to harmonize the estimation process. The latter objective requires the continued activity of a coordinating group of international agencies and academics that aims to produce transparent estimates -- through the consistent application of an agreed-upon methodology --for monitoring at the international level. PMID:16583082

  6. Implementing the millennium development food security goals Challenges of the southern African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, David; Twomlow, Steve; Mupangwa, Walter; van der Zaag, Pieter; Gumbo, Bekithemba

    The Millennium Development Goals’ target to halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger is extremely important in southern Africa, where food security has become increasingly problematic over the last 20 years. One “quick-win” proposal is replenishment of soil nutrients for smallholder farmers, through free or subsidised chemical fertilisers. Other proposals include appropriate irrigation technology, improved inputs and interventions targeted at women. Analysis of over 10 years of agro-hydrological and agro-economic studies from southern African show that a different approach is required to interventions proposed. There are sustainability problems with free chemical fertiliser due to transport costs and ancillary costs. Furthermore, recent studies in Zimbabwe and Mozambique show that significant increases in yield can only be obtained when soil fertility management is combined with good crop husbandry, e.g. timely planting and weeding. Ongoing replenishment of fertility would be dependent on a continued free or subsidised fertiliser supply, and transport system. Increasing access to irrigation will help, but is not the only solution and cannot reach even a majority of farmers. It has been determined that short dryspells are often the major cause of low yields in sub-Saharan Africa. Soil-water conservation approaches, e.g. winter weeding and conservation tillage, can reduce risk and increase yield. The following specific recommendations are made for urgent interventions to contribute sustainably to food security in southern Africa: (i) To increases access to fertiliser, consider development of strong input markets at end-user level. (ii) Intensification of technology transfer, focusing on capacity building for transfer of existing technologies and much closer collaboration between state and NGO sectors, agronomists and water engineers. (iii) Increasing the uptake of soil-water conservation methods, including conservation tillage and weeding, and

  7. Early childhood nutritional status in CARICOM countries: an overview with respect to five nutrition related millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Pamela S; Nielsen, Anders L; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C

    2014-01-01

    Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.

  8. Health inequities, environmental insecurity and the attainment of the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

    2006-09-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

  9. From Millennium Development Goals to post-2015 sustainable development: sexual and reproductive health and rights in an evolving aid environment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Huntington, Dale; Dodd, Rebecca; Buttsworth, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Using research from country case studies, this paper offers insights into the range of institutional and structural changes in development assistance between 2005 and 2011, and their impact on the inclusion of a sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda in national planning environments. At a global level during this period, donors supported more integrative modalities of aid - sector wide approaches, poverty reduction strategy papers, direct budgetary support - with greater use of economic frameworks in decision-making. The Millennium Development Goals brought heightened attention to maternal mortality, but at the expense of a broader sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. Advocacy at the national planning level was not well linked to programme implementation; health officials were disadvantaged in economic arguments, and lacked financial and budgetary controls to ensure a connection between advocacy and action. With increasing competency in higher level planning processes, health officials are now refocusing the post-2015 development goals. If sexual and reproductive health and rights is to claim engagement across all its multiple elements, advocates need to link them to the key themes of sustainable development: inequalities in gender, education, growth and population, but also to urbanisation, migration, women in employment and climate change.

  10. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  11. Drivers of Inequality in Millennium Development Goal Progress: A Statistical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries are not on track to reach the public health targets set out in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We evaluated whether differential progress towards health MDGs was associated with economic development, public health funding (both overall and as percentage of available domestic funds), or health system infrastructure. We also examined the impact of joint epidemics of HIV/AIDS and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which may limit the ability of households to address child mortality and increase risks of infectious diseases. Methods and Findings We calculated each country's distance from its MDG goals for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and infant and child mortality targets for the year 2005 using the United Nations MDG database for 227 countries from 1990 to the present. We studied the association of economic development (gross domestic product [GDP] per capita in purchasing-power-parity), the relative priority placed on health (health spending as a percentage of GDP), real health spending (health system expenditures in purchasing-power-parity), HIV/AIDS burden (prevalence rates among ages 15–49 y), and NCD burden (age-standardised chronic disease mortality rates), with measures of distance from attainment of health MDGs. To avoid spurious correlations that may exist simply because countries with high disease burdens would be expected to have low MDG progress, and to adjust for potential confounding arising from differences in countries' initial disease burdens, we analysed the variations in rates of change in MDG progress versus expected rates for each country. While economic development, health priority, health spending, and health infrastructure did not explain more than one-fifth of the differences in progress to health MDGs among countries, burdens of HIV and NCDs explained more than half of between-country inequalities in child mortality progress (R2-infant mortality  = 0.57, R2-under 5 mortality  = 0

  12. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  13. Financial wellness awareness: A step closer to achieve Millennium Development Goals for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Rehana; Katpar, Shahjahan; Khan, Rakhshaan; Hussain, Mehwish

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore financial wellness (FW) awareness amongst public and private sector medical college students of Karachi. Methods: A cross sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted on medical students from 3 public and 5 private sector medical colleges of Karachi from February 2011 to December 2011. All ethnic groups having age range of 18-23 years were included. A questionnaire tailored from wellness wheel evaluated the responses of FW on a four point Likert’s scale ranging from 0-3(never, sometimes, mostly, and always). Factor analysis explored common FW factors among both public and private sector medical college (MC) students. Results: Private MC Students were better in terms of making short and long terms financial goals compared to students in public sector. The students of public MC were more focused to make and restricting to given budgets (p=0.05). The FW element of keeping savings in bank account was responded more by private MC candidates (P < 0.0001) but was spent thrift as well (P < 0.0001). Factor analysis revealed two factors; ‘Financial Security Wellness’ which was better in Private MC Students (p=0.001) and ‘Care towards Expenses Wellness” in which results were not significant. Conclusion: Both groups of medical college students lacked FW awareness element in terms of caring towards financial expenses. The awareness of importance of financial security was practiced better by private MC students in terms of making short and long term financial goals and keeping savings in bank accounts. They were however deficient in the knowledge of making and restricting themselves to budgets. PMID:25878613

  14. Recent Trends in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Brazil: Progress Toward Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Giugliani, Elsa; Maranhão, Ana Goretti; Monteiro, Carlos A.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Bustreo, Flavia; Merialdi, Mario; Victora, Cesar G.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed Brazil's efforts in reducing child mortality, improving maternal and child health, and reducing socioeconomic and regional inequalities from 1990 through 2007. We compiled and reanalyzed data from several sources, including vital statistics and population-based surveys. We also explored the roles of broad socioeconomic and demographic changes and the introduction of health sector and other reform measures in explaining the improvements observed. Our findings provide compelling evidence that proactive measures to reduce health disparities accompanied by socioeconomic progress can result in measurable improvements in the health of children and mothers in a relatively short interval. Our analysis of Brazil's successes and remaining challenges to reach and surpass Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 can provide important lessons for other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:20724669

  15. Responding to the Gender and Education Millennium Development Goals in South Africa and Kenya: Reflections on Education Rights, Gender Equality, Capabilities and Global Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine; North, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores understandings of gender equality and education and the nature of global goal and target setting, drawing on empirical data collected in central and local government departments in Kenya and South Africa reflecting on their implementation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1, concerned with poverty, MDG 2, concerned with…

  16. Extent of Implementation of Minimum Standards of Basic Education for the Realisation of the Second Millennium Development Goal in Bayelsa State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogochukwu, Emeka; Gbendu, Olaowei Godiva

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out in Salga Education Zone of Bayelsa State specifically to determine the extent of implementation of the minimum standards for basic education in order to ensure the realization of the second millennium development goal. The study adopted the descriptive research design. The population of the study comprised of all the…

  17. A World Fit for Children: Millennium Development Goals; Special Session on Children Documents; The Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    In May 2002, participants at the United Nations General Assembly's Special Session on Children committed to a set of specific goals for children and youth and a basic framework for meeting these goals. This report compiles the commitments that were part of the Special Session: (1) the Millennium Development Goals, earlier pledged to by all 189…

  18. New Achievements in Technology Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Safeeullah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Since many decades Education Science and Technology has an achieved tremendous recognition and has been applied to variety of disciplines, mainly Curriculum development, methodology to develop e-learning systems and education management. Many efforts have been taken to improve knowledge of students, researchers, educationists in the field of…

  19. Developing a Motivational Model of College Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis

    This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…

  20. The effect of illicit financial flows on time to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal in Sub-Saharan Africa: a quantitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Makuta, Innocent; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Chiwaula, Levison; Cobham, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper sets out to estimate the cost of illicit financial flows (IFF) in terms of the amount of time it could take to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in 34 African countries. Design We have calculated the percentage increase in gross domestic product (GDP) if IFFs were curtailed using IFF/GDP ratios. We applied the income (GDP) elasticity of child mortality to the increase in GDP to estimate the reduction in time to reach the fourth MDG in 34 African countries. Participants children aged under five years. Settings 34 countries in SSA. Main outcome measures Reduction in time to reach the first indicator of the fourth MDG, under-five mortality rate in the absence of IFF. Results We found that in the 34 SSA countries, six countries will achieve their fourth MDG target at the current rates of decline. In the absence of IFF, 16 countries would reach their fourth MDG target by 2015 and there would be large reductions for all other countries. Conclusions This drain on development is facilitated by financial secrecy in other jurisdictions. Rich and poor countries alike must stem the haemorrhage of IFF by taking decisive steps towards improving financial transparency. PMID:24334911

  1. The post-millennium development goals agenda: include 'end to all wars' as a public health goal!

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-09-01

    The process of identifying global post-millennium development goals (post-MDGs) has begun in earnest. Consensus is emerging in certain areas (e.g. eliminating poverty) and conflicts and violence are recognized as key factors that retard human development. However, current discussions focus on tackling intra-state conflicts and individual-based violence and hardly mention eliminating wars as a goal. Wars create public health catastrophes. They kill, maim, displace and affect millions. Inter-state wars fuel intra-state conflicts and violence. The peace agenda should not be the monopoly of the UN Security Council, and the current consensus-building process setting the post-MDG agenda is a rallying point for the global community. The human rights approach will not suffice to eliminate wars, because few are fought to protect human rights. The development agenda should therefore commit to eliminating all wars by 2030. Targets to reduce tensions and discourage wars should be included. We should act now.

  2. The post-millennium development goals agenda: include 'end to all wars' as a public health goal!

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-09-01

    The process of identifying global post-millennium development goals (post-MDGs) has begun in earnest. Consensus is emerging in certain areas (e.g. eliminating poverty) and conflicts and violence are recognized as key factors that retard human development. However, current discussions focus on tackling intra-state conflicts and individual-based violence and hardly mention eliminating wars as a goal. Wars create public health catastrophes. They kill, maim, displace and affect millions. Inter-state wars fuel intra-state conflicts and violence. The peace agenda should not be the monopoly of the UN Security Council, and the current consensus-building process setting the post-MDG agenda is a rallying point for the global community. The human rights approach will not suffice to eliminate wars, because few are fought to protect human rights. The development agenda should therefore commit to eliminating all wars by 2030. Targets to reduce tensions and discourage wars should be included. We should act now. PMID:24642595

  3. Millennium Global Village-Net: bringing together Millennium Villages throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Andrew S; Negin, Joel; Olayo, Bernard; Bukachi, Frederick; Johnson, Edward; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich

    2009-12-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP), based at The Earth Institute at Columbia University, is a bottom-up, community led approach to show how villages in developing countries can get out of the poverty trap that afflicts more than a billion people worldwide. With well-targeted, practical inputs can help the community invest in a path leading to self-sustaining development. There are 80 Millennium Villages clustered in 10 countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa. MVP is an important development process for empowering communities to invest in a package of integrated interventions aiming to increase food production, improve access to safe water, health care, education and infrastructure. The process benefits from synergies of the integrated approach and relies on community leadership as empowered by proven technological inputs. MVP is committed to a science-based approach to assess and monitor the progress of the communities towards clear objectives; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to do so with mechanisms that are scalable and sustainable. This approach offers much more than simply collecting and analyzing data since the mechanism used for recording progress would provide a bridge over the divide which separates the haves and the have-nots (by facilitating the sharing of solutions from one community to another bidirectionally). By so doing, it allows people to enhance their own futures in a sustainable manner. Solutions found in one community are transferable to similar communities in other MVP villages. To achieve this goal, the MVP requires an information and communication system which can provide both necessary infrastructure for monitoring and evaluation, and tools for communicating among the villages, cities and countries. This system is called the Millennium Global Village-Net (MGV-Net). It takes advantage of the latest in open source software (OpenMRS), databases (MySQL), interface terminology, a centralized concept dictionary, and uses appropriate

  4. Behavioral economics: the key to closing the gap on maternal, newborn and child survival for Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5?

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Asch, David A

    2013-05-01

    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 set ambitious targets to reduce maternal, newborn and child mortality by 2015. With 2015 fast approaching, there has been a concerted effort in the global health community to "close the gap" on the MDG targets. Recent consensus initiatives and frameworks have refocused attention on evidence-based, low-cost interventions that can reduce mortality and morbidity, and have argued for additional funding to increase access to and coverage of these life-saving interventions. However, funding alone will not close the gap on MDGs 4 and 5. Even when high-quality, affordable products and services are readily available, uptake is often low. Progress will therefore require not just money, but also advances in health-related behavior change and decision-making. Behavioral economics offers one way to achieve real progress by improving our understanding of how individuals make choices under information and time constraints, and by offering new approaches to make it easier for individuals to do what is in their best interest and harder to do what is not. We introduce five behavioral economic principles and demonstrate how they could boost efforts to improve maternal, newborn, and child health in pursuit of MDGs 4 and 5.

  5. Professionals with Delivery Skills: Backbone of the Health System and Key to Reaching the Maternal Health Millennium Development Goal

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Meg

    2008-01-01

    The attainment of the fifth Millennium Development Goal requires adequate national reserves of skilled birth attendants. Nurses, midwives, and their equivalents form the frontline of the formal health system are a critical element of global efforts to reduce ill-health and poverty in the poorest areas of the world. Planning and policies supporting these cadres of workers must be placed high on the development agenda and championed by key international and national players. This article first sets forth an argument for the equity and efficiency of nurses, midwives, and their equivalents as the cadre largely responsible for maternal health. Second, it traces the root causes of neglect of this critical cadre, including a vacuum in political will in the context of poverty, lack of protections for frontline workers, the historical political position of the field of midwifery, lack of a pipeline of secondary school graduates, and gender inequity. Investment in the largely female cadre that cares for the majority of the world’s poorer women has simply not been a high enough priority. Key policy recommendations include harnessing political will and adequate metrics, protection of frontline workers’ safety and livelihoods, ensuring an adequate pipeline with a focus on girls’ education and donor support for training and professional organizations. The fifth and final policy recommendation is a call for unified international support of rapid scale-up of cadres of delivery care workers. PMID:18581610

  6. Setting the stage for equity-sensitive monitoring of the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Meg E.; Balk, Deborah; Delamonica, Enrique; Storeygard, Adam; Sacks, Emma; Minujin, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This analysis seeks to set the stage for equity-sensitive monitoring of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). METHODS: We use data from international household-level surveys (Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)) to demonstrate that establishing an equity baseline is necessary and feasible, even in low-income and data-poor countries. We assess data from six countries using 11 health indicators and six social stratifiers. Simple bivariate stratification is complemented by simultaneous stratification to expose the compound effect of multiple forms of vulnerability. FINDINGS: The data reveal that inequities are complex and interactive: inferences cannot be drawn about the nature or extent of inequities in health outcomes from a single stratifier or indicator. CONCLUSION: The MDGs and other development initiatives must become more comprehensive and explicit in their analysis and tracking of inequities. The design of policies to narrow health gaps must take into account country-specific inequities. PMID:16878225

  7. Technology Development for Human Exploration Beyond LEO in the New Millennium IAA-13-3 Strategies and Plans for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Trevathan, Joseph R.; Baird, R. Scott; Simon, Tom; Peters, T.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As we look forward into the new millennium, the extension of human presence beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) looms large in the plans of NASA. The Agency's Strategic Plan specifically calls out the need to identify and develop technologies for 100 and 1000-day class missions beyond LEO. To meet the challenge of these extended duration missions, it is important that we learn how to utilize the indigenous resources available to us on extraterrestrial bodies. This concept, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) can greatly reduce the launch mass & cost of human missions while reducing the risk. These technologies may also pave the way for the commercial development of space. While no specific target beyond LEO is identified in NASA's Strategic Plan, mission architecture studies have been on-going for the Moon, Mars, Near-Earth Asteroids and Earth/Moon & Earth/Sun Libration Points. As a result of these studies, the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M) through the Johnson and Kennedy Space Centers, is leading the effort to develop ISRU technologies and systems to meet the current and future needs of human missions beyond LEO and on to Mars. This effort also receives support from the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research (Code U), the Office of Space Science (Code S), and the Office of Aerospace Technology (Code R). This paper will present unique developments in the area of fuel and oxidizer production, breathing air production, water production, C02 collection, separation of atmospheric gases, and gas liquefaction and storage. A technology overview will be provided for each topic along with the results achieved to date, future development plans, and the mission architectures that these technologies support.

  8. Millennium Development Goal 1: poverty, hunger and decent work in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article considers three questions: 1) what progress has been made in achieving MDG1 targets?; 2) what challenges remain?; and 3) what more could and should be done? To examine these questions, the article assesses the progress of Southeast Asia in seeking to achieve MDG1. It argues that the region is 'on track' to achieve MDG 1 targets, although significant challenges such as inequality remain. Economic growth, significant structural change and incorporation into global value chains have contributed to MDG progress. However, this is a double-edged sword as exposure to global economic turbulence can increase. The longer-term reduction of poverty, inequality and social exclusion is a question of empowerment of local producers within value chains-a shift in economic power and control through pro-poor strategies strong enough to effect substantive structural change. The article outlines key concepts; identifies the main characteristics of Southeast Asian poverty; outlines what more needs to be done; and concludes by reprising the article's findings and weighing the prospects for 2010-15 and beyond. PMID:21584988

  9. The TV in your pocket: development of liquid-crystal materials for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Matthias; Kirsch, Peer; Klasen-Memmer, Melanie; Tarumi, Kazuaki

    2013-08-19

    New liquid crystals with very low viscosity, good mesophase behavior, and high reliability are necessary to achieve the breakthrough from flat computer monitors to large displays for television. Fluorine plays a decisive role not only because of the polarity it induces in organic molecules but also because of its low polarizability and weak propensity for ion solvation. In addition, subtle stereoelectronic effects in fluorine-containing liquid crystals influence material properties and allow these to be tuned to some extent to achieve the desired outcome. Some fairly sophisticated chemistry is required that is normally ruled out in the specialty chemicals industry because of cost. The television display market is now entering a phase of saturation. The broad availability of the internet has led to an ever increasing tendency for mobile products. Tablet PCs and smartphones require touch-panel functionality and low power consumption. New LCD modes with high-performance liquid crystals and additional components, such as polymerizable materials, can be used in such products. PMID:23943417

  10. Does Curriculum Matter?: Revisiting Women's Access and Rights to Education in the Context of the UN Millennium Development Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…

  11. The Impact of Religion on Women Empowerment as a Millennium Development Goal in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoh, Ambe J.; Akiwumi, Fenda A.

    2012-01-01

    The study examines the impact of religion on women empowerment. Three religions, indigenous African, Islam and Christianity, comprising Africa's triple heritage, are considered. The hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Christianity correlates with each of the four Development Targets specified for women empowerment under the third of the…

  12. From Manifesto Days to Millennium Days: Canadian Perspectives on Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona M.

    2009-01-01

    It is just about impossible to find an adult education department in Canada that does not have a critical social justice orientation, quite often oriented to community development. Many of the faculty identify themselves with the local and or global activist community, and they see their work as merging learning and justice concerns to build up…

  13. Learning To Manage Change: Developing Regional Communities for a Local-Global Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ian, Ed.

    This book illustrates the benefits of integrating different approaches to community and regional development for rural Australia. The key theme is community capacity building through lifelong learning, seen as integration of formal, nonformal, and informal education and training at all levels. Other foci include the local-global context, issues…

  14. Neglected tropical diseases and the millennium development goals: why the "other diseases" matter: reality versus rhetoric.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H; Malecela, Mwele N

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004 there has been an increased recognition of the importance of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) as impediments to development. These diseases are caused by a variety of infectious agents - viruses, bacteria and parasites - which cause a diversity of clinical conditions throughout the tropics. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has defined seventeen of these conditions as core NTDs. The objectives for the control, elimination or eradication of these conditions have been defined in World Health Assembly resolutions whilst the strategies for the control or elimination of individual diseases have been defined in various WHO documents. Since 2005 there has been a drive for the expanded control of these diseases through an integrated approach of mass drug administration referred to as Preventive Chemotherapy via community-based distribution systems and through schools. This has been made possible by donations from major pharmaceutical companies of quality and efficacious drugs which have a proven track record of safety. As a result of the increased commitment of endemic countries, bilateral donors and non-governmental development organisations, there has been a considerable expansion of mass drug administration. In particular, programmes targeting lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma and soil transmitted helminth infections have expanded to treat 887. 8 million people in 2009. There has been significant progress towards guinea worm eradication, and the control of leprosy and human African trypanosomiasis. This paper responds to what the authors believe are inappropriate criticisms of these programmes and counters accusations of the motives of partners made in recently published papers. We provide a detailed response and update the information on the numbers of global treatments undertaken for NTDs and list the success stories to date.The paper acknowledges that in undertaking any health programme in environments such as post

  15. Organophosphate poisoning in the developed world - a single centre experience from here to the millennium.

    PubMed

    Hrabetz, Heidi; Thiermann, Horst; Felgenhauer, Norbert; Zilker, Thomas; Haller, Bernhard; Nährig, Jörg; Saugel, Bernd; Eyer, Florian

    2013-12-01

    Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is still associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, both in resource-poor settings and in well-developed countries. Despite numerous publications dealing with this particular poison, detailed clinical data on more severe overdoses with these agents are relatively sparsely reported. A retrospective study was consequently conducted on 33 patients with OP poisoning admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) to provide additional data on clinical features. We included moderate to severe poisonings between 2000 and 2012 who required admission to ICU. Patients ingested dimethyl-OPs in 19 cases, diethyl-OPs in 8 cases and otherwise classified OPs in 6 cases. Death (5/33) occurred rather late and only one of these fatalities died during on-going cholinergic crisis. Of the survivors (28/33), 71% recovered fully while 29% showed predominantly neurological disabilities before being transferred to neurologic rehabilitation. Aspiration pneumonia predominated in 27/33 patients and one patient died in refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The intermediate syndrome occurred twice and cardiopulmonary resuscitation had to be performed in 6/33 patients. Fatalities showed a higher Poison-severity-score, APACHE-II-score and SOFA-score on admission compared with survivors and they showed significantly longer QTc-time in the ECG, lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, a lower pH and a lower base excess on admission. Patients with diethyl-OPs required intubation significantly earlier and showed lower and more sustained inhibited activity of the plasma-cholinesterase on admission compared with patients ingesting dimethyl-OPs. Treatment with atropine and obidoxime was comparable between these groups and severity of poisoning, outcome, hemodynamics on admission, duration of mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the ICU did not significantly differ between the involved group of dimethyl- and diethyl-OPs. We conclude that

  16. Searching for the Holy Grail: HIV vaccine development in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, D S

    1999-08-01

    Many reasons for the difficulty in developing an HIV vaccine were discussed at the 5th National Symposium on Basic Aspects of Vaccines. The April 1999 conference was attended by nearly 200 researchers. Speakers included Dr. Neal Nathanson of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), who called HIV "particularly insidious." Topics included envelope glycoproteins; enhancing CTL responses; soluble CD40 ligand trimer and its effect on growth of antigen-specific T cells; responses of immunized monkeys to challenges with SHIV; CD8+ T cell responses in vaccinated chimpanzees; an anti-HIV vaccine regimen using DNA and E1-deleted adenoviral recombinant vaccines; use of plasma alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) for enhanced antigen processing; effects of a tandemly repeated HIV-1 V3 peptide sequence; intragastric immunization with listeria monocytogenes expressing HIV-1 gag protein; and production of antigenic determinants of HIV envelope protein using plant viruses. A reference list is included. PMID:11367310

  17. Imaging in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Henry, D A

    2000-10-01

    The last few decades of the 20th century were marked by tremendous advances in diagnostic imaging and related therapeutic procedures. The new millennium holds great promise for more spectacular advances. Continuing evolution of computer technology coupled with existing and evolving digital imaging platforms will serve as a catalyst for significant developments in virtually all areas of imaging. This report surveys the potential of these advances in areas relevant to critical care. PMID:11070806

  18. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues’ perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries’ health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies. PMID:26673477

  19. Professional Development and Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    A significant challenge to schools is selecting the staff development approach that aligns most clearly with the assumptions and beliefs of staff members and produces the results desired for students. When beliefs are in alignment, change in behavior accelerates; when beliefs underlying a new staff development program contradict long-held beliefs…

  20. Scaling up interventions to achieve global tuberculosis control: progress and new developments.

    PubMed

    Raviglione, Mario; Marais, Ben; Floyd, Katherine; Lönnroth, Knut; Getahun, Haileyesus; Migliori, Giovanni B; Harries, Anthony D; Nunn, Paul; Lienhardt, Christian; Graham, Steve; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Weyer, Karin; Cole, Stewart; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2012-05-19

    Tuberculosis is still one of the most important causes of death worldwide. The 2010 Lancet tuberculosis series provided a comprehensive overview of global control efforts and challenges. In this update we review recent progress. With improved control efforts, the world and most regions are on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of decreasing tuberculosis incidence by 2015, and the Stop TB Partnership target of halving 1990 mortality rates by 2015; the exception is Africa. Despite these advances, full scale-up of tuberculosis and HIV collaborative activities remains challenging and emerging drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major threat. Recognition of the effect that non-communicable diseases--such as smoking-related lung disease, diet-related diabetes mellitus, and alcohol and drug misuse--have on individual vulnerability, as well as the contribution of poor living conditions to community vulnerability, shows the need for multidisciplinary approaches. Several new diagnostic tests are being introduced in endemic countries and for the first time in 40 years a coordinated portfolio of promising new tuberculosis drugs exists. However, none of these advances offer easy solutions. Achievement of international tuberculosis control targets and maintenance of these gains needs optimum national health policies and services, with ongoing investment into new approaches and strategies. Despite growing funding in recent years, a serious shortfall persists. International and national financial uncertainty places gains at serious risk. Perseverance and renewed commitment are needed to achieve global control of tuberculosis, and ultimately, its elimination. PMID:22608339

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Bjelica, Artur; Nikolić, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    History of marital infertility is as long as history of human :ivilization. Becoming aware about the importance of procreation, as well as the problems with which people may confront, has been the subject of interest since the moment of the first human community creation. Historically, each stage of social development, hence the development of science, has carried within itself certain findings more or less acceptable from today's point of view. The development of human awareness and acquisition of findings based on empirical evidence have contributed to understanding and solution of the problem which was considered to be a result of force majeure until that moment and therefore could not be influenced. This paper deals with the previously mentioned issues through the review of historical development of assisted reproductive technology and its importance. The authors' intention was to present the developmental road of assisted reproductive technology through history succinctly with a special emphasis on the moments which have been of the crucial importance and which have marked certain stages of its development.

  2. Can Emphasising Cognitive Development Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K.; Gadzichowski, Marinka K.; Gallington, Deborah A.; Saracina, Robin P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children ordinarily begin their formal education at the age when the great majority of them are capable of understanding the role of addition and subtraction in changing number. In determining critical differences they can apply the oddity principle--the first "pure" abstraction that children ever develop--understanding that when all…

  3. Measuring the Achievement of Professional Development Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Deb; Grigsby, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Universities systematically use assessments to evaluate programs of teacher education. The Professional Development Schools Partnership was a well-established collaboration with more than 11 years of work with area schools. However, two questions became the center of a discussion for evaluating, monitoring, and identifying the accomplishments of…

  4. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  5. Passport to the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Mary Grace

    2001-01-01

    Describes a year-long social studies program called "Passport to the Millennium." Students "travel" around the world learning about the history, geography, culture, and economy of different countries. The program is appropriate for students in elementary to secondary grades. Includes a sample lesson plan. (CMK)

  6. Extending the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework: Development of a Measure of Scientific Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Carter, Alice P.; Lobrano, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The current research sought to extend the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework by developing and testing the Achievement Goals for Research Scale (AGRS). Participants (N = 317) consisted of graduate students in the life, physical, and behavioral sciences. A principal components analysis (PCA) extracted five components accounting for 72.59% of the…

  7. Higher Education Is Key To Achieving MDGs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Imagine trying to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) without higher education. As key institutions of civil society, universities are uniquely positioned between the communities they serve and the governments they advise. Through the CIDA-funded University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program, Canadian universities have…

  8. Teaching Conflict Management Skills in Schools: Prerequisite for Peace and Achievement of Millennium Development Goals in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawo, Jane Irene A.; Wagah, Mical Ongachi

    2011-01-01

    The Kenyan society is experiencing a lot of conflicts, some with devastating effects such as deaths, starvation, disease and destruction. These normally arise out of difference between people. Secondary schools being part of the society have not been left out of this challenge as evidenced by mass media reports on strikes, demonstrations and…

  9. The Millennium Development Goals Agenda: Constraints of Culture, Economy, and Empowerment in Influencing the Social Mobility of Pakistani Girls on Mathematics and Science Related Higher Education Courses in Universities in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The third of the eight Millennium Development Goals is to promote gender equality and empower women. This article discusses the factors that are associated with 31 female higher education students' choices and aspirations to pursue education and careers in mathematics and science-related fields. The analysis is based on semistructured interviews.…

  10. Children Born After Unplanned Pregnancies and Cognitive Development at 3 Years: Social Differentials in the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de La Rochebrochard, Elise; Joshi, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Children born after an unplanned pregnancy have poorer developmental scores. This could arise from less favorable parenting but also could reflect confounding from the socioeconomic circumstances. In a large representative sample in the United Kingdom, the Millennium Cohort Study (2001–2005), cognitive delay at 3 years was explored with the Bracken Assessment. Its association with unplanned pregnancy was studied in logistic models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the family, the child's characteristics, and parenting behavior. Stratification by the mother's educational level (grouped into 3 categories) was explored. Of 12,182 children included in the analysis, 41% were born after a pregnancy reported by the mother to have been a “surprise.” Such unplanned pregnancies were associated in univariate analysis with more cognitive delay. Among mothers with a low or middle level of education, this association vanished when socioeconomic circumstances were controlled. Among mothers with a high level of education, the risk of cognitive delay remained significantly and unexplainedly raised after unplanned pregnancies, despite controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and parental behavior. In conclusion, for socially disadvantaged children, having resulted from an unplanned pregnancy does not seem to increase their already disproportionate risk of cognitive delay. Births after unplanned conceptions are mainly a symptom rather than a source of disadvantage. PMID:23887043

  11. Back to the future: what would the post-2015 global development goals look like if we replicated methods used to construct the Millennium Development Goals?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were ‘top-down’ goals formulated by policy elites drawing from targets within United Nations (UN) summits and conferences in the 1990s. Contemporary processes shaping the new post-2015 development agenda are more collaborative and participatory, markedly different to the pre-MDG era. This study examines what would the outcome be if a methodology similar to that used for the MDGs were applied to the formulation of the post-2015 development goals (Post-2015DGs), identifying those targets arising from UN summits and conferences since the declaration of the MDGs, and aggregating them into goals. Methods The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) list of major UN summits and conferences from 2001 to 2012 was utilised to examine targets. The DESA list was chosen due to the agency’s core mission to promote development for all. Targets meeting MDG criteria of clarity, conciseness and measurability were selected and clustered into broad goals based on processes outlined by Hulme and Vandemoortele. The Post-2015DGs that were identified were formatted into language congruent with the MDGs to assist in the comparative analysis, and then further compared to the 12 illustrative goals offered by the UN High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development (High-Level Panel) Agenda’s May 2013 report. Results Ten Post-2015DGs were identified. Six goals expressly overlapped with the current MDGs and four new goals were identified. Health featured prominently in the MDG agenda, and continues to feature strongly in four of the 10 Post-2015DGs. However the Post-2015DGs reposition health within umbrella agendas relating to women, children and the ageing. Six of the 10 Post-2015DGs incorporate the right to health agenda, emphasising both the standing and interconnection of the health agenda in DESA’s summits and conferences under review. Two Post-2015DGs have been extended into six separate goals by the

  12. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  13. Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian C.; Nayak, P. Pandurang

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of sensor rich, massively distributed, autonomous systems are being developed that have the potential for profound social, environmental, and economic change. These include networked building energy systems, autonomous space probes, chemical plant control systems, satellite constellations for remote ecosystem monitoring, power grids, biosphere-like life support systems, and reconfigurable traffic systems, to highlight but a few. To achieve high performance, these immobile robots (or immobots) will need to develop sophisticated regulatory and immune systems that accurately and robustly control their complex internal functions. To accomplish this, immobots will exploit a vast nervous system of sensors to model themselves and their environment on a grand scale. They will use these models to dramatically reconfigure themselves in order to survive decades of autonomous operations. Achieving these large scale modeling and configuration tasks will require a tight coupling between the higher level coordination function provided by symbolic reasoning, and the lower level autonomic processes of adaptive estimation and control. To be economically viable they will need to be programmable purely through high level compositional models. Self modeling and self configuration, coordinating autonomic functions through symbolic reasoning, and compositional, model-based programming are the three key elements of a model-based autonomous systems architecture that is taking us into the New Millennium.

  14. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A. G.; Sherwood, R. L.; Wyman, W.

    2005-03-01

    The New Millennium ST6 project developed the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE)and the Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC). ASE improves a spacecraft's ability to make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and downlink. ISC determines a spacecraft's attitude and adjusts its pointing.

  15. Medical informatics in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Ball, M J; Douglas, J V

    1998-01-01

    In a period of social transformation, we must reinvent health care. For guidance, we can look to the evolving discipline of medical informatics and to the patterns of investment in the practice arena. A top ranked application need, the computerized patient record (CPR) offers cost savings and supports clinical quality and ambulatory care. In the new millennium, we need to define our values with precision and use technology to achieve quality health care.

  16. Revisiting Public Health Challenges in the New Millennium

    PubMed Central

    Anish, TS; Sreelakshmi, PR

    2013-01-01

    Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour. PMID:24116303

  17. Community College Faculty Development Program and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Aaron M.; McShannon, Judy; Hynes, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Community college administrators look for strategies to help students. GRASP (Gaining Retention and Achievement for Students Program) is a semester-long faculty development program that coaches community college instructors about simple, effective teaching strategies that promote student academic achievement. GRASP is founded on the belief that…

  18. Relationship between Professional Development Expenditures and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was based on convergence of two educational theories: 1) that professional development improves teacher quality and instructional practices and therefore positively affects student achievement and 2) allocation of school resources positively affects student achievement. It is a common educational belief that professional development…

  19. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  20. Sustainable water management in rural and peri-urban areas: what technology do we need to meet the UN millennium development goals?

    PubMed

    Wilderer, P A

    2005-01-01

    Installation of advanced urban water management systems is one of the most important first steps in the attempt to overcome poverty on earth, outbreak of diseases, crime and even terrorism. Because world wide application of traditional water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment technology requires financial resources which are basically not available within a reasonable short time frame novel solutions must be found, developed and implemented. The combination of high-tech on-site treatment of the various waste streams generated in households, enterprises and industrial sites, and reuse of the valuable materials obtained from the treatment plants, including the purified water, is one of the options which is investigated by various groups of researchers and technology developers, nowadays. This concept may help meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals, provided people are ready to accept this new way of dealing with household wastes. Education is necessary to build up the foundation which modern water technology can be based upon. In parallel, tailored modifications are to be considered to satisfy the specific demands of local communities. In this context, female participation appears to be extremely important in the decision making process.

  1. The Millennium Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, R. W.

    1997-08-01

    Derived from Hipparcos and Tycho observations, the Millennium Star Atlas is a set of 1548 charts covering the entire sky to about magnitude 11. It stands apart from all previous printed atlases in completeness to magnitude 10 and in uniformity around the sky. The generous chart scale has made possible a number of innovations never before seen in a star atlas: arrows on high-proper-motion stars, double-star ticks conveying separation and position angle for a specific modern epoch, distance labels for nearby stars, and variable stars coded by amplitude, period, and type. Among the nonstellar objects plotted, more than 8000 galaxies are shown with aspect ratio and orientation.

  2. The Role of Educational Technology in Developing Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.

    1969-01-01

    Essay focusing on how achievement motivation is developed in students and adults, with some discussion of how various dimensions of educational technology may contribute to this development. Paper written pursuant to contract 0-8-071231-1747 with the U.S. Office of Education, under provisions of the Cooperative Research Program. (LS)

  3. Professional Development Schools and Student Learning and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Pia Lindquist; Glass, Ronald David

    2011-01-01

    A central commitment for professional development schools (PDSs) is to link preservice teacher preparation and in-service teacher professional development with improved learning outcomes for pupils. PDSs are expected to improve student achievement in two primary ways: (1) by enriching and intensifying the learning environment through professional…

  4. Achievement Gap. Early Developments. Volume 11, Number 2, Fall 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pam, Ed.; Buysse, Virginia, Ed.; Zimmerman, Tracy, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Research has identified a host of factors that likely contribute to the disparity in achievement, negating the possibility that a one-size-fits-all answer exists. Therefore, the initiatives highlighted in this issue of "Early Developments" address a variety of approaches. This issue of "Early Developments" includes the following articles: (1) The…

  5. Organizational Development and Strategic Planning for the Millennium: A Blueprint toward Effective School Discipline, Safety, and Crisis Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoff, Howard M.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a blueprint from Project ACHIEVE toward effective school discipline, safety, and crisis prevention that provides an example of how school psychologists can expand their role using organizational and strategic planning principles and activities as well as to alert school psychologists as to a field-tested process that addresses the…

  6. A Quest for the Holy Grail in the New Millennium: In Search of a Unified Theory of Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Sophie; Normandeau, Sylvie; Larivee, Serge

    2000-01-01

    Emphasizes the benefits of cooperation between researchers in developing a comprehensive model of cognitive development that considers the constraints of human brain structures and the interplay of general laws of development and individual differences in developmental pathways within the context of social and cultural environments. (Author)

  7. Student Achievement and Education System Performance in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Hok, Ung Ngo; Tinon, Souer; Veasna, Meung; Nissay, Put

    2012-01-01

    The global spread of national assessment testing activities, and the growing pressure to move beyond basic measures of participation in educational monitoring, means that student achievement measures are likely to become increasingly relevant indicators of systemic progress in the developing world. Using data from the CESSP project in Cambodia,…

  8. Cultural aspects related to the health of Andean women in Latin America: a key issue for progress toward the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Camacho, A V; Castro, M D; Kaufman, R

    2006-09-01

    International declarations have affirmed that health is a universal right. In order for people to exercise their right to health, their social and cultural contexts need to be acknowledged. However, due to a number of barriers encountered at different levels of society and geographically this right is not yet fully exercised by a considerable number of women in Latin America. During the last decade progress has been made in the development of public health policies and programs that integrate and recognize the differences in culture that should be considered when addressing indigenous women's health issues. However, a biomedical health model, which discounts cultural influences, prevails globally over a more integrated approach. This leads to a lack of access and use of quality reproductive health services and care among indigenous people and is one of several important factors contributing to high levels of maternal mortality and poor reproductive health among indigenous women. It is important to ensure that an intercultural approach is included in health policies, programs and services. An intercultural strategy fosters dialogue and respect among women, men, and decision-makers and can contribute to the realization of reproductive health rights and improvement of health outcomes. The debate continues on how to accelerate progress in public policies, health programs and health services. An intercultural approach to assure the health of indigenous women should be a key part of this discussion. Specific efforts are critical for obtaining better health outcomes for indigenous women and other vulnerable populations, if not progress will stagnate in the middle of the 21st century, jeopardizing the attainment of the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs). PMID:16860324

  9. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition in infants and young children in Rwanda: implications for attainment of the Millennium Development Goal to end poverty and hunger.

    PubMed

    Binagwaho, Agnès; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Rukundo, Alphonse; Ratnayake, Niloo; Ngabo, Fidel; Kayumba, Josephine; Dowdle, Bridget; Chopyak, Elena; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2011-12-29

    Progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) to end poverty and hunger has lagged behind attainment of other MDGs due to chronic poverty and worldwide inequity in access to adequate health care, food, clean water, and sanitation. Despite ongoing challenges, Rwanda has experienced economic progress and the expansion of the national public health system during the past 20 years. However, protein-energy malnutrition in children under five is still a major concern for physicians and government officials in Rwanda. Approximately 45% of children under the age of five in Rwanda suffer from chronic malnutrition, and one in four is undernourished. For years, health facilities in Rwanda have used incorrect growth references for measuring nutritional status of children despite the adoption of new standards by the World Health Organization in 2006. Under incorrect growth references used in Rwanda, a number of children under five who were severely underweight were not identified, and therefore were not treated for malnutrition, thus potentially contributing to the under five mortality rate. Given that one in ten children suffer from malnutrition worldwide, it is imperative that all countries with a burden of malnutrition adopt the most up-to-date international standards for measuring malnutrition, and that the problem is brought to the forefront of international public health initiatives. For low income countries in the process of improving economic conditions, as Rwanda is, increasing the identification and treatment of malnutrition can promote the advancement of MDG1 as well as physical and cognitive development in children, which is imperative for advancing future economic progress.

  10. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition in infants and young children in Rwanda: implications for attainment of the Millennium Development Goal to end poverty and hunger.

    PubMed

    Binagwaho, Agnès; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Rukundo, Alphonse; Ratnayake, Niloo; Ngabo, Fidel; Kayumba, Josephine; Dowdle, Bridget; Chopyak, Elena; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2011-01-01

    Progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) to end poverty and hunger has lagged behind attainment of other MDGs due to chronic poverty and worldwide inequity in access to adequate health care, food, clean water, and sanitation. Despite ongoing challenges, Rwanda has experienced economic progress and the expansion of the national public health system during the past 20 years. However, protein-energy malnutrition in children under five is still a major concern for physicians and government officials in Rwanda. Approximately 45% of children under the age of five in Rwanda suffer from chronic malnutrition, and one in four is undernourished. For years, health facilities in Rwanda have used incorrect growth references for measuring nutritional status of children despite the adoption of new standards by the World Health Organization in 2006. Under incorrect growth references used in Rwanda, a number of children under five who were severely underweight were not identified, and therefore were not treated for malnutrition, thus potentially contributing to the under five mortality rate. Given that one in ten children suffer from malnutrition worldwide, it is imperative that all countries with a burden of malnutrition adopt the most up-to-date international standards for measuring malnutrition, and that the problem is brought to the forefront of international public health initiatives. For low income countries in the process of improving economic conditions, as Rwanda is, increasing the identification and treatment of malnutrition can promote the advancement of MDG1 as well as physical and cognitive development in children, which is imperative for advancing future economic progress. PMID:22206301

  11. Creating a living document: developing the National Association of School Nurses Mission Statement for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Brandt, C M

    1999-12-01

    The second in a series of three articles devoted to the development, maintenance, and implementation of the National Association of School Nurses 1998-2001 Strategic Plan and how it relates to the practice of school nurses. Information about the development of a mission/vision statement for the organization is given along with strategies for developing a local school district school health program strategic plan. A previous Nursing Practice Management section article discussed the development of the Association's strategic plan considering the changing health care climate, the shifting needs of school children, and the economic climate for school funding. A future Nursing Practice Management section article will discuss the implementation of the seven goal areas in the National Association of School Nurses 1998-2001 Strategic Plan.

  12. Carrot Soup, Magic Bullets, and Scientific Research for Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabbott, Colette

    2007-01-01

    Following the UN Millennium Summit in 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set global sector specific development targets to be achieved by the year 2015. In this article, the author explores the role of health and education research in producing technological innovations and global policy options and goals, such as the MDGs. Here, she…

  13. Design and Development of an Interactive Web-Based Curriculum in Support of the Space Science Education Initiative: Mars Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Leslie; Karl, Rita

    This paper provides an account of the instructional design and development process used by a team of students enrolled in a graduate level course in distance education as the team members conceptualized and created two prototype World Wide Web-based instructional modules, aimed at grades 5 through 12, for the Lunar and Planetary Institute's Mars…

  14. Spinoff 2001: Special Millennium Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    For the past 43 years, NASA has devoted its facilities, labor force, and expertise to sharing the abundance of technology developments used for its missions with the nation's industries. These countless technologies have not only successfully contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy, but also to the quality of life on Earth. For the past 25 years, NASA's Spinoff publication has brought attention to thousands of technologies, products, and services that were developed as a direct result of commercial partnerships between NASA and the private business sector. Many of these exciting technologies included advances in ceramics, computer technology, fiber optics, and remote sensing. New and ongoing research at the NASA field centers covers a full spectrum of technologies that will provide numerous advantages for the future, many of which have made significant strides in the commercial market. The NASA Commercial Technology Network plays a large role in transferring this progress. By applying NASA technologies such as data communication, aircraft de-icing technologies, and innovative materials to everyday functions, American consumers and the national economy benefit. Moving forward into the new millennium, these new technologies will further advance our country's position as the world leader in scientific and technical innovation. These cutting-edge innovations represent the investment of the U.S. citizen in the Space Program. Some of these technologies are highlighted in Spinoff 2001, an example of NASA's commitment to technology transfer and commercialization assistance. This year's issue spotlights the commercial technology efforts of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Kennedy's extensive network of commercial technology opportunities has enabled them to become a leader in technology transfer outreach. This kind of leadership is exemplified through Kennedy's recent partnership with the State of Florida, working toward the development of the Space Experiment

  15. Can Japan Contribute to the Post Millennium Development Goals? Making Human Security Mainstream through the TICAD Process

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Jun; Nomura-Baba, Marika; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yasuhide

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, the fifth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD V) will be hosted by the Japanese government. TICAD, which has been held every five years, has played a catalytic role in African policy dialogue and a leading role in promoting the human security approach (HSA). We review the development of the HSA in the TICAD dialogue on health agendas and recommend TICAD’s role in the integration of the HSA beyond the 2015 agenda. While health was not the main agenda in TICAD I and II, the importance of primary health care, and the development of regional health systems was noted in TICAD III. In 2008, when Japan hosted both the G8 summit and TICAD IV, the Takemi Working Group developed strong momentum for health in Africa. Their policy dialogues on global health in Sub-Saharan Africa incubated several recommendations highlighting HSA and health system strengthening (HSS). HSA is relevant to HSS because it focuses on individuals and communities. It has two mutually reinforcing strategies, a top-down approach by central or local governments (protection) and a bottom-up approach by individuals and communities (empowerment). The “Yokohama Action Plan,” which promotes HSA was welcomed by the TICAD IV member countries. Universal health coverage (UHC) is a major candidate for the post-2015 agenda recommended by the World Health Organization. We expect UHC to provide a more balanced approach between specific disease focus and system-based solutions. Japan’s global health policy is coherent with HSA because human security can be the basis of UHC-compatible HSS. PMID:24155655

  16. Neglected Tropical Diseases and the Millennium Development Goals-why the "other diseases" matter: reality versus rhetoric

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004 there has been an increased recognition of the importance of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) as impediments to development. These diseases are caused by a variety of infectious agents - viruses, bacteria and parasites - which cause a diversity of clinical conditions throughout the tropics. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has defined seventeen of these conditions as core NTDs. The objectives for the control, elimination or eradication of these conditions have been defined in World Health Assembly resolutions whilst the strategies for the control or elimination of individual diseases have been defined in various WHO documents. Since 2005 there has been a drive for the expanded control of these diseases through an integrated approach of mass drug administration referred to as Preventive Chemotherapy via community-based distribution systems and through schools. This has been made possible by donations from major pharmaceutical companies of quality and efficacious drugs which have a proven track record of safety. As a result of the increased commitment of endemic countries, bilateral donors and non-governmental development organisations, there has been a considerable expansion of mass drug administration. In particular, programmes targeting lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma and soil transmitted helminth infections have expanded to treat 887. 8 million people in 2009. There has been significant progress towards guinea worm eradication, and the control of leprosy and human African trypanosomiasis. This paper responds to what the authors believe are inappropriate criticisms of these programmes and counters accusations of the motives of partners made in recently published papers. We provide a detailed response and update the information on the numbers of global treatments undertaken for NTDs and list the success stories to date. The paper acknowledges that in undertaking any health programme in environments such as post

  17. The development, past achievements, and future directions of brain PET

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Terry; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2012-01-01

    The early developments of brain positron emission tomography (PET), including the methodological advances that have driven progress, are outlined. The considerable past achievements of brain PET have been summarized in collaboration with contributing experts in specific clinical applications including cerebrovascular disease, movement disorders, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, addiction, depression and anxiety, brain tumors, drug development, and the normal healthy brain. Despite a history of improving methodology and considerable achievements, brain PET research activity is not growing and appears to have diminished. Assessments of the reasons for decline are presented and strategies proposed for reinvigorating brain PET research. Central to this is widening the access to advanced PET procedures through the introduction of lower cost cyclotron and radiochemistry technologies. The support and expertize of the existing major PET centers, and the recruitment of new biologists, bio-mathematicians and chemists to the field would be important for such a revival. New future applications need to be identified, the scope of targets imaged broadened, and the developed expertize exploited in other areas of medical research. Such reinvigoration of the field would enable PET to continue making significant contributions to advance the understanding of the normal and diseased brain and support the development of advanced treatments. PMID:22434067

  18. Recovery after disaster: achieving sustainable development, mitigation and equity.

    PubMed

    Berke, P R; Kartez, J; Wenger, D

    1993-06-01

    This paper reviews key findings and raises issues that are not fully addressed by the predominant disaster recovery literature. Achievement of equity, mitigation and sustainable development, particularly through local participation in redevelopment planning and institutional cooperation, is the central issue of the review. Previous research and past assumptions about the process by which communities rebuild after a disaster are reviewed. A conceptual model for understanding local disaster recovery efforts is then presented. The conceptual and practical significance of this model is then demonstrated by presenting case studies of local recovery experiences. Finally, conclusions on the current understanding of disaster redevelopment planning, as well as implications for public policy and future research are offered.

  19. Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Nicole L.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Children living in poverty generally perform poorly in school, with markedly lower standardized test scores and lower educational attainment. The longer children live in poverty, the greater their academic deficits. These patterns persist to adulthood, contributing to lifetime-reduced occupational attainment. OBJECTIVE To determine whether atypical patterns of structural brain development mediate the relationship between household poverty and impaired academic performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal cohort study analyzing 823 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 389 typically developing children and adolescents aged 4 to 22 years from the National Institutes of Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development with complete sociodemographic and neuroimaging data. Data collection began in November 2001 and ended in August 2007. Participants were screened for a variety of factors suspected to adversely affect brain development, recruited at 6 data collection sites across the United States, assessed at baseline, and followed up at 24-month intervals for a total of 3 periods. Each study center used community-based sampling to reflect regional and overall US demographics of income, race, and ethnicity based on the US Department of Housing and Urban Development definitions of area income. One-quarter of sample households reported the total family income below 200% of the federal poverty level. Repeated observations were available for 301 participants. EXPOSURE Household poverty measured by family income and adjusted for family size as a percentage of the federal poverty level. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Children’s scores on cognitive and academic achievement assessments and brain tissue, including gray matter of the total brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus. RESULTS Poverty is tied to structural differences in several areas of the brain associated with school readiness skills, with the largest influence

  20. Quality Science Teacher Professional Development and Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2007-12-01

    Studies show that socio-economic background and parental education accounts for 50-60 percent of a child's achievement in school. School, and other influences, account for the remaining 40-50 percent. In contrast to most other professions, schools require no real apprenticeship training of science teachers. Overall, only 38 percent of United States teachers have had any on-the-job training in their first teaching position, and in some cases this consisted of a few meetings over the course of a year between the beginning teacher and the assigned mentor or master teacher. Since individual teachers determine the bulk of a student's school experiences, interventions focused on teachers have the greatest likelihood of affecting students. To address this deficiency, partnerships between scientists and K-12 teachers are increasingly recognized as an excellent method for improving teacher preparedness and the quality of science education. Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers' (founded in 1990) basic premise is simple: teachers cannot effectively teach science if they have no firsthand experience doing science, hence the Program's motto, "Practice what you teach." Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers provides strong evidence that a teacher research program is a very effective form of professional development for secondary school science teachers and has a direct correlation to increased student achievement in science. The author will present the methodology of the program's evaluation citing statistically significant data. The author will also show the economic benefits of teacher participation in this form of professional development.

  1. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience Comment on "Improving the World's Health Through the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Perspectives from Rwanda".

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues' perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries' health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies. PMID:26673477

  2. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience Comment on "Improving the World's Health Through the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Perspectives from Rwanda".

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues' perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries' health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies.

  3. New Millennium EO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) is a NASA technology program that focuses on the validation of advanced spacecraft and instrumentation technologies in space. This program specifically seeks technologies that could significantly benefit future space and Earth science missions by enabling new science capabilities and reducing life cycle costs. These technologies must also require a validation in space to mitigate risks to the first science users, and provide cross-cutting benefits to both NASA's Earth and Space Science enterprises. The NASA Office of Earth Science (OES) directed the NMP to focus the third Earth Observing mission, E03, on innovative measurement concepts that would facilitate remote sensing observations from orbits beyond conventional low-Earth orbit (LEO). These orbits include geosynchronous orbits, highly elliptical orbits, mid-Earth and high-Earth orbits, and other unique vantage points such as L1 and L2. To maximize the input from the Earth science community, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released to solicit innovative measurement concepts for this NMP flight. Because the NMP is a technology validation program, rather than a conventional science program, the NRA required that these measurement concepts employ revolutionary technologies and/or measurement strategies that will enable future science missions from orbits beyond LEO. Another requirement was that a validation in space was needed to reduce real or perceived risks of this concept to future science users. The proposals submitted in response to this NRA were peer reviewed by the NASA OES. The measurement concepts selected through this process will be summarized in this presentation. The E03 measurement concept NRA did not solicit complete mission concepts or flight hardware. Instead, the selected investigators will join integrated project formulation teams to define the mission for the demonstration of the measurement technique and participate in mission design trades and

  4. A Millennium Learning Goal for Education Post-2015: A Question of Outcomes or Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Angeline M.

    2011-01-01

    As the target year for the current Millennium Development Goal of universal completion of primary education approaches, three World Bank economists have proposed its replacement with a Millennium Learning Goal. This is part of a trend of increased privileging of learning outcomes. The proposal is assessed from the perspective of human rights-based…

  5. Closing the Gap between Professional Development and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Michelle K.

    2009-01-01

    Whenever there is a discussion on closing or bridging the achievement gap in education, one accurately reasons that the "gap" in question is among groups of students from various cultural and/or socioeconomic backgrounds. Stakeholders throughout academia, then, frantically search for solution(s)" to poor student achievement in America's ailing,…

  6. Skills for the New Millennium. Paper Presentations: Session G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains 14 papers from the skills for the new millennium section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Research on Vocational Education and Training as a Field for Knowledge Development--Starting Points for the…

  7. Global sediment fluxes during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, Victoria; Reick, Christian; Van Oost, Kristof; Hoffmann, Thomas; Pongratz, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Soil redistribution plays an important role in the transport of carbon and nutrients between terrestrial ecosystems. However, quantification of soil redistribution and its effects on the global biogeochemical cycles is currently unknown. This study aims at developing new tools and methods to represent soil redistribution on a global scale, and contribute to the quantification of anthropogenic disturbances to the biogeochemical cycles. We present a new large-scale coarse resolution sediment budget model that can simulate spatial patterns and long-term trends in soil redistribution in floodplains and on hillslope, resulting from external forces such as climate and land use change. First, we validated the model for the Rhine catchment using observed Holocene sediment storage data and observed scaling behavior between sediment storage and catchment area. Then, we applied the model on 20 large river catchments globally, using climate and land cover data from the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for the last millennium (850 - 2005AD). We show that the model can reproduce current observed sediment yields if uncertainty in the observations is taken into account. Furthermore, we find that the change in erosion rates during the last millennium resulted in a significant increase in sediment storage for different global catchments. We identify land use change as the main driver behind this change in sediment storage. Finally, catchments characteristics, such as area and slope, play an important role in buffering or amplifying the effect of land use and other external forces on the change in erosion and sediment storage.

  8. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  9. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  10. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-08-05

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  11. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  12. Academic Achievement Programs and Youth Development: A Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Zakia; Cochran, Stephanie; Hair, Elizabeth; Moore, Kristin

    Based on the view that programs with a strong academic component may reduce the substantial educational disparities for American students from disadvantaged backgrounds or in chronically underperforming schools and school districts, this synthesis of research on academic achievement programs describes how such programs may help children and…

  13. Finding the Time: Restructuring Professional Development, Revitalizing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerringer, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    Research has made it clear, the effectiveness of teachers vary greatly (Nye, Konstantopoulos, & Hedges, 2004), and teacher differences account for some of the variation in student achievement (Rowan, Correnti, & Miller, 2002). The federal act of mandating teachers to be "Highly Qualified" will not single-handedly improve student…

  14. Student Achievement through the Development of Complete High School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamphere, Michael Frederick, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation undertook an investigation of school culture and achievement in the high school setting. The national data set ELS:2002 was used as the pool of variables because it allows for a complete picture of school culture comprising students, parents, administrators, and teachers. The data were selected based on current literature and…

  15. The Development of Sex-Related Differences in Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.

    Although sex differences in research have received considerable attention, few researchers have examined the bias, social context, and process of that research. In analyzing sex differences in academic achievement over the past 10 years, three areas (mathematics, spatial ability, and verbal ability) would appear to establish consistent sex…

  16. Achievement Place: development of the elected manager system.

    PubMed

    Phillips, E L; Phillips, E A; Wolf, M M; Fixsen, D L

    1973-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to compare several administrative systems at Achievement Place, a family style behavior modification program for pre-delinquent boys. One aspect of the motivation system at Achievement Place was the token economy in which the youths could earn or lose points that could be exchanged for privileges. Several arrangements for assigning routine tasks and for providing token consequences for task performance were compared for their effectiveness in accomplishing the tasks and for their preference by the boys. The independent variables studied included: (1) individually assigned tasks versus group assigned tasks; (2) consequences for individual performance versus consequences for group performance; (3) a peer managership that could be earned by the highest bidder versus a peer managership that could be determined democratically by the peers. The results suggested that among those systems studied the system that best met the criteria of effectiveness and preference involved a democratically elected peer manager who had the authority both to give and to take away points for his peers' performances.

  17. Achieving Quality Education in Ghana: The Spotlight on Primary Education within the Kumasi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Anin, Emmanuel Kwabena; Vanderpuye, Patience

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ghana being a member of the United Nations, committed to the Universal Primary Education initiative in 2000 and has since implemented series of educational reforms to meet the target for the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2. Despite the numerous government interventions to achieve the MDG 2, many children in Ghana have been denied…

  18. Refugee Children in South Africa: Access and Challenges to Achieving Universal Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meda, L.; Sookrajh, R.; Maharaj, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper questions whether the second Millennium Development Goal of achieving universal primary education targets by 2015 for all children to complete a full course of primary schooling, can be realised. A key contention of this paper is that this forecast is far-fetched when we take into cognizance refugee children's accessibility to…

  19. Bioengineering in the millennium.

    PubMed

    Ranu, H S

    1998-10-01

    This symposium identified the major challenges in biomedical research that will benefit from bioengineering applications. Attention was focused on the important role that bioengineers will play in future advances in biomedical research. There was considerable discussion about how to integrate bioengineering with biological research in meeting the challenges of the twenty-first century. Symposium presenters showcased the accomplishments of NIH-funded bioengineering researches and increased the visibility of bioengineering to NIH leaders, staff, and members of the intramural and extramural research community. Recommendations were also made for future NIH-funded research projects. Attention was also placed on how basic bioengineering research can lead to commercialization of new health care technology and therefore maintain the nation's leadership in this important area. New products, from biotechnology and novel devices for diagnosis and treatment, are marketed through interactions between universities, medical centers, small start-up firms, and larger, more established companies. In the United States the gross revenue of the bioengineering private sector industry involved in the manufacture of health care products already exceeds $40 billion. More then 750 persons attended this bioengineering symposium. Over 110 scientific posters and exhibits relating to biology and medicine were presented. They provided a forum for showcasing NIH-funded bioengineering projects and fostered future collaboration among academic investigators, industry, and members of the small business community. The contributions of Pugwash bioengineer, Maciej Natecz, a member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, was recognized by the Conference Planning Committee. He was honored for his work in nuclear disarmament. Indian medical scientists should note that this symposium provided a framework for the development of technology in biomedical sciences during the Twenty-First Century. Major

  20. Using Collaborative Course Development to Achieve Online Course Quality Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ining Tracy; Saj, Tami; Hamilton, Doug

    2010-01-01

    The issue of quality is becoming front and centre as online distance education moves into the mainstream of higher education. Many believe collaborative course development is the best way to design quality online courses. This research uses a case study approach to probe into the collaborative course development process and the implementation of…

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PLANNING PROCESS TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concepts of sustainability are numerous, widely discussed, and necessary, but sustainability needs to be applied to development projects to succeed. However, few applications are made and their measures are unclear. Sustainability indicators are typically used as measures, but ...

  2. Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot I

    2015-02-01

    For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects.

  3. Healthy latrine development model to achieve MDGs target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soedjono, Eddy S.; Arumsari, Nurvita

    2014-03-01

    A case happened in Pungging sub-district was one example of low level healthy habits of East Java inhabitants. According to the data of Mojokerto district Health Service until the end of 2010, there are 219 families (or about 8% of total families in Pungging sub-district) which do not have their own latrine. Moreover, if we observe closely to their prosperity level, the percentage of disadvantaged families and prosperous level I is still adequately high about 29,54% of the total number of families in Pungging sub-district. Accordingly, comprehensive studies related to basic sanitation requirement need to be done, not only in the matter of quantity but also in the matter of quality. Furthermore, further studies on people's knowledge and understanding on healthy sanitation also needed in the effort to understand people's demand to own latrine (willingness to pay) and ability to pay. Consequently, the design of healthy latrine which agrees with people's demand and ability is needed in order to achieve the target of Open Defecation Free (ODF) in 2015. The research methodology includes literary study, data collection, data analysis, and healthy latrine design. Out of 75 respondents, only 32% of them who attended counselling program on healthy latrine and only 48% of them who have knowledge on healthy latrine, but in reality 96% of respondents stated that healthy latrine is important. Healthy latrine, according to the respondents, is a place of defecation (BAB) which has components like latrine bowl or septic tank. Estimation on WTP distribution which is divided in two categories; low category with range of willingness to pay from IDR 0 to IDR 200,000 is IDR 90,048,000. On the other hand, high category with range of willingness to pay more than IDR 1,000,000 is IDR 749,964,768. Estimation on respondents' ATP in the area of study on the sanitation maintenance service is from IDR 7,000 to IDR 30,000.

  4. Professional Development: Sorting through the Jumble to Achieve Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Few in the education field discount the eminently logical idea that teachers should be supported in the continuous improvement of their craft. But as a term for describing ongoing training investments in the teaching force, "professional development" has become both ubiquitous and all but meaningless. Though frequently invoked by lawmakers and…

  5. Systems and Cascades in Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    A large-scale ("N" = 552) controlled multivariate prospective 14-year longitudinal study of a developmental cascade embedded in a developmental system showed that information-processing efficiency in infancy (4 months), general mental development in toddlerhood (18 months), behavior difficulties in early childhood (36 months), psychometric…

  6. Achieving the Goals. Goal 4: Teacher Education and Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Goal 4 of the National Education Goals envisions that teachers will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills. This book examines what federal agencies are doing to enhance teacher preparation, presents information on career-long development, and offers program descriptions and contact names. The first…

  7. Project Coach: Youth Development and Academic Achievement through Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intrator, Sam M.; Siegel, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and educators have long tried to find the connection between participation in sport-related activities and academic and social development among youths. This article traces the conceptual ideas that led to the design of an after-school sports program (Project Coach). This program promotes positive youth and community development…

  8. Achieving Digital Literacy through Game Development: An Authentic Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to argue that the process of making an original game develops digital literacy skills and provides an authentic learning experience as students create, publish and deploy interactive games. Teaching students to create computer games has become common in both K-12 and tertiary education to introducing programming concepts,…

  9. An international waste convention: measures for achieving sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Gary D; McLeod, Glen; Anbarci, Melanie A

    2006-12-01

    Waste is a by-product of economic growth. Consequently, economic growth presents challenges for sustainable resource management and development because continued economic growth implies continued growth in waste outputs. Poor management of waste results in the inappropriate depletion of natural resources and potentially adverse effects on the environment, health and the economy. It is unsustainable. This paper begins by outlining the magnitude of and the current response to the growth in the quantity of waste outputs. This is followed by a consideration of why the international response to date, including the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21, fails to address the issue adequately. The paper concludes with a discussion on why and how an international treaty or other measure could advance sustainable development by providing an appropriate framework within which to address the problem.

  10. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  11. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  12. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Chmielewski, A.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program is intended to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  13. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S. A.; Davies, A.; Sherwood, R. L.; Wyman, W.

    2004-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program validates advanced technologies in space and thus lowers the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on future missions. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing re-deployment of resources to other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  14. Sex-Role Attitudes and the Development of Achievement Need in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Phylis M.

    1974-01-01

    Is the development of achievement motivation in women influenced by the social role females are reared to play? The conclusion here is that self-concept and attitudes toward femininity are related and interact in inhibiting achievement need. (Author)

  15. A Comparison of Students' Achievement in Private and Conventional Public Secondary Schools in Malawi from a Gender Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwendo, Martha

    2010-01-01

    This article explores differences in achievement between private and conventional public schools with reference to gender in the face of Education for All targets and Millennium Development Goals. It shows that on average the gender gap is narrower in public schools than in private schools and that the pass rate for public school girls is higher…

  16. Enhanced Formation Flying for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) New Millennium Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Quinn, David

    1997-01-01

    With scientific objectives for Earth observation programs becoming more ambitious and spacecraft becoming more autonomous, the need for new technical approaches on the feasibility of achieving and maintaining formations of spacecraft has come to the forefront. The trend to develop small low cost spacecraft has led many scientists to recognize the advantage of flying several spacecraft in formation, an example of which is shown in the figure below, to achieve the correlated instrument measurements formerly possible only by flying many instruments on a single large platform. Yet, formation flying imposes additional complications on orbit maintenance, especially when each spacecraft has its own orbit requirements. However, advances in automation proposed by GSFC Codes 550 and 712 allow more of the burden in maneuver planning and execution to be placed onboard the spacecraft, mitigating some of the associated operational concerns. The purpose of this analysis is to develop the fundamentals of formation flying mechanics, concepts for understanding the relative motion of free flying spacecraft, and an operational control theory for formation maintenance of the Earth Observing-1 (EO-l) spacecraft that is part of the New Millennium. Results of this development can be used to determine the appropriateness of formation flying for a particular case as well as the operational impacts. Applications to the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Earth Observing System (EOS) and New Millennium (NM) were highly considered in analysis and applications. This paper presents the proposed methods for the guidance and control of the EO-1 spacecraft to formation fly with the Landsat-7 spacecraft using an autonomous closed loop three axis navigation control, GPS, and Cross link navigation support. Simulation results using various fidelity levels of modeling, algorithms developed and implemented in MATLAB, and autonomous 'fuzzy logic' control using AutoCon will be presented. The results of these

  17. The Forms of Capital and the Developed Achievement of Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the association of the various forms of capital on the developed achievement of Black males. As one of the richest longitudinal family economic data sets, the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics is used to estimate multilevel growth models of the math and reading achievement of Black…

  18. New Space Industries for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

  19. The importance of using open source technologies and common standards for interoperability within eHealth: Perspectives from the Millennium Villages Project

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Rob; Barasa, Mourice; Iiams-Hauser, Casey; Velez, Olivia; Kaonga, Nadi Nina; Berg, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the importance of using open source technologies and common standards for interoperability when implementing eHealth systems and illustrate this through case studies, where possible. The sources used to inform this paper draw from the implementation and evaluation of the eHealth Program in the context of the Millennium Villages Project (MVP). As the eHealth Team was tasked to deploy an eHealth architecture, the Millennium Villages Global-Network (MVG-Net), across all fourteen of the MVP sites in Sub-Saharan Africa, the team recognized the need for standards and uniformity but also realized that context would be an important factor. Therefore, the team decided to utilize open source solutions. The MVP implementation of MVG-Net provides a model for those looking to implement informatics solutions across disciplines and countries. Furthermore, there are valuable lessons learned that the eHealth community can benefit from. By sharing lessons learned and developing an accessible, open-source eHealth platform, we believe that we can more efficiently and rapidly achieve the health-related and collaborative Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). PMID:22894051

  20. 78 FR 52984 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... achieve lasting economic growth and poverty reduction. The Act requires the Millennium Challenge... poverty and generate economic growth in the country. These steps include the submission of reports to the... Candidate Countries: Lower Middle Income Category Armenia Cape Verde El Salvador Guyana Kosovo...

  1. 75 FR 52990 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... countries to achieve lasting economic growth and poverty reduction. The Act requires the Millennium... to reduce poverty and generate economic growth in the country. These steps include the submission of... Republic 8. El Salvador ] 9. Georgia 10. Guatemala 11. Indonesia 12. Jordan 13. Kosovo 14. Maldives...

  2. 76 FR 55419 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... countries to achieve lasting economic growth and poverty ] reduction. The Act requires the Millennium... to reduce poverty and generate economic growth in the country. These steps include the submission of..., Belize, Bhutan, Cape Verde, Congo, Republic of the; Egypt, Arab Republic; El Salvador, Fiji,...

  3. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  4. Lifelong Learning and the Attainment of the Education-Related Millennium Development Goals 2 and 3 in Ghana. Is There a Critical Nexus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In an environment of rapid technological change, countries in the developed and developing worlds need to improve the population's skills and competences. Since 1992, education reforms and various education sector documents and policy frameworks have been implemented to improve quality of education by getting more children into school through the…

  5. Addressing barriers to achieving nursing certification: development of a certification achievement program on a medical-surgical unit.

    PubMed

    Perlstein, Lori; Hoffmann, Rosemary L; Lindberg, Judy; Petras, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Nursing certification is recognized as advanced competency and knowledge beyond basic preparation, thus empowering nurses to contribute to improved outcomes by demonstrating expertise in their specialties. It has been recognized that nurses do not seek certification because of identified barriers. Through a structured Certification Achievement Program that reduced barriers, a cohort of nurses was able to achieve certification in medical-surgical nursing.

  6. Development of Independence: Locus of Control, Achievement Motivation and Self vs. Adult Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, Jane R.; Mast, Vicki A.

    The development and interrelationship of various measures of independence in children ages 3-12 are examined. Subjects were scored on measures of locus of control and achievement motivation and were rated by teachers on independence and achievement. Subjects were also scored on reliance on adult evaluation and self-evaluation. The results showed…

  7. An Application Model of Reality Therapy to Develop Effective Achievement Goals in Tier Three Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunawan; Xiong, Junmei

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an application of reality therapy to developing effective achievement goals for students in tier three of a tiered response to intervention approach. The roles of teachers and school counselors, to improve effective achievement goals, are briefly discussed as a frame for applying reality therapy. The application model…

  8. The Prevalence, Development and Domain Specificity of Elementary School Students' Achievement Goal Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen in de Wal, Joost; Hornstra, Lisette; Prins, Frans J.; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2016-01-01

    This study's aim was to examine the prevalence, development and domain specificity of fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school students' achievement goal profiles. Achievement goals were measured for language and mathematics among 722 pupils at three points in time. These data were analysed through latent profile analysis and latent transition…

  9. Reading Development and Achievement of 4th-Grade Hmong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…

  10. Developing and Improving Modified Achievement Level Descriptors: Rationale, Procedures, and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Albus, Debra; Rogers, Chris; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    Some states are developing alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) to measure the academic achievement of some students with disabilities (Albus, Lazarus, Thurlow, & Cormier, 2009; Lazarus, Thurlow, Christensen, & Cormier, 2007). These assessments measure the same content as the general assessment for a given…

  11. Achievement Motivation as a Case of Re-Socialization in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna

    The question of achievement motivation in relation to developing countries is explored. A foundation for the study is achieved through discussion of the socialization processes as they are affected by education and economic growth. It is suggested that the societal system determines motivation and values which in turn cause and determine the…

  12. TEND 2000: Proceedings of the Technological Education and National Development Conference, "Crossroads of the New Millennium" (2nd, April 8-10, 2000, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Colleges of Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates).

    This document contains a total of 57 welcoming speeches, theme addresses, seminar and workshop papers, and poster sessions that were presented at a conference on technological education and national development. The papers explore the ways technology and technological advances have both necessitated and enabled changes in the way education is…

  13. The Recommended Dietary Allowances: Can They Inform the Development of Standards of Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Jeanne P.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the development of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), the most widely used standard in the field of nutrition, provides guidelines for the development of standards of academic achievement that will be accepted by a wide range of users. Five decades of experience developing RDAs have many lessons for educators. (SLD)

  14. Pro: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by selective out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Gathuya, Zipporah N

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships rather than structured outreach visits by teams of specialists from the developed world. Although this may seem an expensive option with slow return, it is the only sustainable way to train future generations of specialized pediatric anesthetists in developing countries.

  15. Relationship between Professional Development, Teachers' Instructional Practices, and the Achievement of Students in Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Thomas, Kelli; Lawrenz, Frances

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between different types of professional development, teachers' instructional practices, and the achievement of students in science and mathematics. The types of professional development studied included immersion, examining practice, curriculum implementation, curriculum development, and…

  16. What will it take to maintain the maternal and child health gains made in Haiti prior to the 2010 earthquake?: an analysis of past progress, trends, and the prospects for the realization of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    Amibor, Paulson

    2013-10-01

    This report assesses the commendable progress made in maternal and child mortality reductions in Haiti prior to the January 2010 earthquake. Suggested measures that the Haitian government and international donor community can take to maintain these gains are also made. With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) deadline of 2015 drawing nearer, the likelihood that Haiti will achieve MDG's 4 and 5 of reducing child and maternal mortality by two-thirds and three-quarters, respectively, by the end of this target year, remain questionable. In particular, the destruction inflicted on the country's health care system and health infrastructure by the 2010 earthquake have already resulted in a slowing of these gains and could potentially threaten an actual reversal of these trends. The country's Soins Obstétricaux Gratuits and Soins Infantiles Gratuits schemes established in 2008 and 2010, which provide free health care to women, newborns and children under 5, represent examples of measures that will need to be sustained and scaled up if the country is to meet its MDG 4 and 5 targets. The Haitian government's endorsement of an increased continuum of care approach to maternal and newborn health will also be vital for future initiatives. Post-quake public health and social service reconstruction efforts will need to incorporate maternal and child health-friendly services into their designs. It also remains critical that international donors continue to meet their pledges to Haiti. The Haitian government should also take more strides to clearly delineate the maternal and child health interventions it implements, both in order to facilitate greater national learning, as well as to improve the likelihood of future replication.

  17. A multi-proxy, high-resolution record of peatland development and its drivers during the last millennium from the subalpine Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Knaap, W. O.; Lamentowicz, M.; van Leeuwen, J. F. N.; Hangartner, S.; Leuenberger, M.; Mauquoy, D.; Goslar, T.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Lamentowicz, Ł.; Kamenik, C.

    2011-11-01

    We present a record of peatland development during the last 1000 years from Mauntschas mire in the eastern Swiss Alps (Upper Engadine valley; 1818 m a.s.l.) inferred from testate amoebae (pH and depth to the water table (DWT) reconstructions), stable oxygen isotopes in Sphagnum (δ 18O; proxy for water vapour pressure) and carbon isotopes in Sphagnum (δ 13C; proxy for mire surface wetness), peat accumulation rates, charcoal (indicating local burning), pollen and spores (proxies for human impact), and plant macrofossils (reflecting local vegetation and trophic state). Past human impact on the local mire conditions was strong but fluctuating during AD 1000-1570 (±50 yr; depth-age model based on 29 14C AMS dates) with local irrigation of nutrient-enriched water and grazing. Human impact was minor AD 1570-1830 (±30 yr) with partial recovery of the local mire vegetation, and it was absent AD 1830 (±30 yr)-present when hummock formation took place. Correlations among DWT, pH, δ 13C, and δ 18O, carried out both with the raw data and with linear trends removed, suggest that the factors driving peatland development changed over time, since only testate amoeba-based pH and DWT co-varied during all the three aforementioned periods. δ 18O correlates with δ 13C only in the period AD 1830-present and with DWT only during AD 1570-1830, δ 13C correlates with DWT only during AD 1000-1570. Part of this apparent instability among the four time series might be attributed to shifts in the local mire conditions which potentially formed very different (non-analogue) habitats. Lack of analogues, caused, for example, by pre-industrial human impact, might have introduced artefacts in the reconstructions, since those habitats are not well represented in some proxy transfer functions. Human impact was probably the main factor for peatland development, distorting most of the climate signals.

  18. Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and…

  19. A humanistic psychology for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, C

    2000-11-01

    In this article, it is contended that for the past century psychology has not lived up to its mandate as a trusted guide for the establishment of a well-functioning society. Ten responsibilities of an enlightened psychology for the new millennium that are based on humanistic values are discussed.

  20. Evaluating Ecological and Economic Benefits of a Low-Carbon Industrial Park Based on Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Framework

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; He, Guoxuan; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Jieru; Su, Meirong; Qi, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework was modified with a special focus on ecosystem service values. A case study of a typical low-carbon industrial park in Beijing was conducted to assess the ecological and economic benefits. The total economic value of this industrial park per year is estimated to be 1.37 × 108 RMB yuan, where the accommodating and social cultural services are the largest two contributors. Due to the construction of small grasslands or green roofs, considerable environmental regulation services are also provided by the park. However, compared with an ecoindustrial park, carbon mitigation is the most prominent service for the low-carbon industrial park. It can be concluded that low-carbon industrial park construction is an efficacious way to achieve coordinated development of society, economy, and environment, and a promising approach to achieving energy saving and carbon reduction. PMID:23365537

  1. PARADE Replication Manual: Projects Advancing Reading Achievement and Developing Ego-Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Springs Public Schools, CO.

    Provided is the replication manual for the PARADE (Projects Advancing Reading Achievement and Developing Ego-Strength) project, a program designed to identify and diagnose reading problems in elementary and secondary level students entering a new school, provide an intensive program of prescriptive training, and aid the child in development of…

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACHIEVEMENT MEASURES FOR TRADE AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION. PROGRESS REPORT NUMBER THREE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALDWIN, THOMAS S.

    DURING THIS PERIOD FROM SEPTEMBER 1 THROUGH NOVEMBER 30, 1966, 35 FIELD CONSULTANTS COMPLETED ANALYSIS OF THEIR INDIVIDUAL TRADE AND TECHNICAL CURRICULUMS. THESE ANALYSES WERE DEVELOPED INTO AN OUTLINE TO SERVE AS A GUIDE FOR DEVELOPING ACHIEVEMENT TESTS. THE FINAL OUTLINE WAS DIVIDED INTO AS MANY DIFFERENT AREAS AS THE CONSULTANTS FELT NECESSARY…

  3. Elementary School Principals' Knowledge of Literacy Development and Instruction and Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to determine if the knowledge of literacy development and reading instruction practices an elementary school principal possesses impacts the level of reading achievement of his/her students. Principals' scores on an assessment of knowledge of literacy development and instruction were compared to students'…

  4. Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

  5. Making Sense of the Links: Professional Development, Teacher Practices, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Marjorie R.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Although there is substantial evidence that high-quality professional development can improve teacher practices, less evidence exists for the effects of teacher professional development on intermediate outcomes, such as teacher practices, and their ultimate effects on K-12 student achievement. This work links professional…

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARDIZED ACHIEVEMENT TEST FOR SMALL GASOLINE ENGINE INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EBBERT, J. MARVIN

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP A STANDARDIZED, MULTIPLE-CHOICE ACHIEVEMENT TEST ON THE OPERATION, CARE, AND MAINTENANCE OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. OBJECTIVES AND A UNIT OUTLINE WERE DEVELOPED WITH THE COOPERATION OF 75 INDIANA VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS. A PANEL SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS, AND THE REFINED OBJECTIVES AND OUTLINE WERE…

  7. Developing an Achievement Test for the Subject of Sound in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözen, Merve; Bolat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an achievement test which includes the basic concepts about the subject of sound and its properties in middle school science lessons and which at the same time aims to reveal the alternative concepts that the students already have. During the process of the development of the test, studies in the field and…

  8. Linking Faculty Development to Community College Student Achievement: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Robert W.; Oliver, Diane E.

    2016-01-01

    Using a mixed methods, multilevel research design, this pilot inquiry explored the relationship between college faculty professional development and the academic achievement of diverse students by coupling two separate links: (a) the effects that professional development activities have on improving teaching strategies, and (b) the effects these…

  9. Theoretical mechanics: Crowd synchrony on the Millennium Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan; Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward

    2005-11-01

    Soon after the crowd streamed on to London's Millennium Bridge on the day it opened, the bridge started to sway from side to side: many pedestrians fell spontaneously into step with the bridge's vibrations, inadvertently amplifying them. Here we model this unexpected and now notorious phenomenon - which was not due to the bridge's innovative design as was first thought - by adapting ideas originally developed to describe the collective synchronization of biological oscillators such as neurons and fireflies. Our approach should help engineers to estimate the damping needed to stabilize other exceptionally crowded footbridges against synchronous lateral excitation by pedestrians.

  10. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  11. Development of brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity and the relationship to formal math academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha

    2015-02-01

    A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting nonlinguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or "formal" math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6-12 years old), 14 adolescents (13-17 years old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development.

  12. "COMPARE" Forum: The Post-2015 Education and Development Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf; Sprague, Terra; Turner, David; Smith, Alan; Paulson, Julia; Shields, Robin; Shrestha, Purna Kumar; Unterhalter, Elaine; Vaughan, Rosie Peppin; Smail, Amy; Tungaraza, Frida; Sutherland, Margaret; Stack, Niamah; Barrett, Angeline M.; Bunwaree, Vasant K.; Alhawsawi, Sajjad; Hanna, Helen; Soudien, Crain; Motivans, Albert

    2013-01-01

    As the 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approaches, there are a growing number of processes, preparations and debates on what a post-2015 agenda and framework will look like. The United Nations Development Group (UNDG) (as chaired by the United Nations Development Programme) is leading the planning of efforts…

  13. Roe v. Wade. Into the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Sanger, A C

    1998-01-01

    In order to take the fight for reproductive rights into the next millennium, women in the US must be reminded of what life was like for women when contraception and abortion were illegal, and the silent majority of women who accept that abortion is a private decision must be marshalled to express their views politically. In the US, abortion was allowed until the mid- to late-1800s when Protestant leaders feared that Protestant births were being outnumbered by births to Irish Roman Catholic immigrants. There was only minimal organized opposition to abortion during the period when it was illegal and millions of women were dying as a result. An estimated 30,000 women died each year of illegal abortion in the US, and by the 1960s, illegal abortion was the greatest killer of women of reproductive age. Organized medicine, which witnessed these tragedies, never rallied to assure women quality reproductive health care. In fact, one of the first projects of the American Medical Association (AMA) was an anti-abortion campaign designed to put competitors out of business. The AMA waited until 1937 to endorse contraception and until the late 1960s to make efforts to legalize abortion. In 1997, the AMA again abandoned women by supporting the ban on late-term abortions. Pro-choice forces should prioritize the promotion of technological advances that will allow women to control conception and abortion. The means of achieving medical abortion and emergency contraception should be available in every physician's office and should be covered by every health insurance scheme. Reproductive health advocates must also work to inspire honesty about sex and sexuality in our sexually-obsessed, sexually-repressed society. Sex education in Denmark has nearly obliterated adolescent pregnancy and led to an 80% decline in the abortion rate over 30 years. In the US, nearly half of women have an abortion, and anti-abortion advocates should face the reality that their wives, daughters, mothers, and

  14. Roe v. Wade. Into the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Sanger, A C

    1998-01-01

    In order to take the fight for reproductive rights into the next millennium, women in the US must be reminded of what life was like for women when contraception and abortion were illegal, and the silent majority of women who accept that abortion is a private decision must be marshalled to express their views politically. In the US, abortion was allowed until the mid- to late-1800s when Protestant leaders feared that Protestant births were being outnumbered by births to Irish Roman Catholic immigrants. There was only minimal organized opposition to abortion during the period when it was illegal and millions of women were dying as a result. An estimated 30,000 women died each year of illegal abortion in the US, and by the 1960s, illegal abortion was the greatest killer of women of reproductive age. Organized medicine, which witnessed these tragedies, never rallied to assure women quality reproductive health care. In fact, one of the first projects of the American Medical Association (AMA) was an anti-abortion campaign designed to put competitors out of business. The AMA waited until 1937 to endorse contraception and until the late 1960s to make efforts to legalize abortion. In 1997, the AMA again abandoned women by supporting the ban on late-term abortions. Pro-choice forces should prioritize the promotion of technological advances that will allow women to control conception and abortion. The means of achieving medical abortion and emergency contraception should be available in every physician's office and should be covered by every health insurance scheme. Reproductive health advocates must also work to inspire honesty about sex and sexuality in our sexually-obsessed, sexually-repressed society. Sex education in Denmark has nearly obliterated adolescent pregnancy and led to an 80% decline in the abortion rate over 30 years. In the US, nearly half of women have an abortion, and anti-abortion advocates should face the reality that their wives, daughters, mothers, and

  15. Historical achievements of self-monitoring of blood glucose technology development in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shigeki

    2011-09-01

    Japanese companies were the first in the world to achieve a colorimetric glucose measurement meter back in 1973. Over the following 40 or so years, they succeeded in achieving a much greater level of user-friendliness and performance and in so doing, have contributed to the spread of self-monitoring of blood glucose. This article aims to unravel the history of blood glucose measurement's technological developments; to look at the direction and features of the development path Japan is taking; as well as to introduce some Japanese products that are on the market.

  16. Forging partnerships to solve the global health workforce crisis and achieve the health MDGs.

    PubMed

    Cometto, Giorgio; Sheikh, Mubashar

    2010-01-01

    The health workforce is in many countries the weakest link in the effective and equitable delivery of quality health services, and the largest impediment to the achievement of health Millennium Development Goals. The Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action, championed by the Global Health Workforce Alliance, provide an effective overarching framework for the bold, concerted and sustained action which is required at the international, national and local level.

  17. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral.

  18. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  19. Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-01-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  20. A Mixed-Method Analysis of the Alignment of Title I Achieving Schools' Professional Development to NCLB Professional Development Provisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of schools has been a central discussion among educators, legislators, and stakeholders, with professional development being acknowledged as a fundamental topic for the success of the education system. Studying the alignment of professional development programs provided at Title I Achieving schools to NCLB research based…

  1. The Effect of the Developed Differentiation Approach on the Achievements of the Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: The present study is of importance for designing a differentiation approach, which enables gifted students to use their present potential in mathematics effectively and enables them to develop their achievement, while looking at the effect of the approach on both gifted and non-gifted students. Within the scope of the developed…

  2. The Impact of Professional Development on Literacy Achievement of Kindergarten Hispanic English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fizer, Selena E.

    2009-01-01

    The number of English language learners (ELL) across public schools in the United States continues to rise (Brice & Roseberry-McKibbin, 2006). However, teacher preparation for these students is not growing (McKeon, 2005). This quantitative study explored the relationship between teacher professional development and literacy achievement of…

  3. Accreditation of Prior Learning Achievements: Developments in Britain and Lessons from the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorringe, Richard

    1989-01-01

    This report describes developments in Britain and the United States which enable people to use, in an education or training context, components of their achievements drawn directly from their prior experience. The report is divided into three sections. The first section consists of an account of the present situation in Britain concerning further…

  4. Saving for Success: Financial Education and Savings Goal Achievement in Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Mary L.; Mauldin, Teresa; Sabia, Joseph J.; Koonce, Joan; Palmer, Lance

    2011-01-01

    Using microdata from the American Dream Demonstration, the current study examines factors associated with savings and savings goal achievement (indicated by a matched withdrawal) among participants of individual development account (IDA) programs. Multinomial logit results show that hours of participation in financial education programs, higher…

  5. Heuristic Literacy Development and Its Relation to Mathematical Achievements of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koichu, Boris; Berman, Abraham; Moore, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The relationships between heuristic literacy development and mathematical achievements of middle school students were explored during a 5-month classroom experiment in two 8th grade classes (N = 37). By heuristic literacy we refer to an individual's capacity to use heuristic vocabulary in problem-solving discourse and to approach scholastic…

  6. Effects of Developed Electronic Instructional Medium on Students' Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinna, Nsofor Caroline; Dada, Momoh Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of developed electronic instructional medium (video DVD instructional package) on students' achievement in Biology. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-postest control group design. The sample comprised of 180 senior secondary, year two students from six…

  7. The Interaction of Selective Attention and Cognitive Development on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Namdi N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study tried to examine the interaction between two independent variables of selective attention and cognitive development on Achievement in Genetics at the Secondary School level. In looking at the problem of this study three null hypotheses were generated for testing at 0.05 level of significance. Factorial Analysis of Variance design with…

  8. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  9. Influence of School Climate on Students' Achievement and Teachers' Productivity for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeogun, A. A.; Olisaemeka, Blessing U.

    2011-01-01

    The study covers ten secondary schools in Lagos State of Nigeria. The purpose is to ascertain the relationship between school climate and student achievements and teachers' productivity for sustainable development. A total sample of 150 respondents was taken. Ten principals, seven teachers and seven students were randomly picked per school. This…

  10. Differential Effects of Three Professional Development Models on Teacher Knowledge and Student Achievement in Elementary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Joan I.; Daehler, Kirsten R.; Wong, Nicole; Shinohara, Mayumi; Miratrix, Luke W.

    2012-01-01

    To identify links among professional development, teacher knowledge, practice, and student achievement, researchers have called for study designs that allow causal inferences and that examine relationships among features of interventions and multiple outcomes. In a randomized experiment implemented in six states with over 270 elementary teachers…

  11. Developing a Latino Mentoring Program: Project MALES (Mentoring to Achieve Latino Educational Success)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sáenz, Victor B.; Ponjuan, Luis; Segovia, Jorge, Jr.; Del Real Viramontes, José

    2015-01-01

    This chapter highlights the development of Project MALES (Mentoring to Achieve Latino Educational Success). At the center of Project MALES is a mentoring program that aims to cultivate an engaged support network for males of color at the University of Texas at Austin and across surrounding communities. Specifically, there is a discussion of the…

  12. Urban Professional Development Working to Create Successful Teachers and Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Deborah S.; Vogel, Robert

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools are being held accountable for measurable increases in student academic achievement as evidenced by performance on standardized tests. This movement has significant implications for the professional development of teachers who are ultimately responsible for ensuring that their…

  13. The Development of Product Parity Sensitivity in Children with Mathematics Learning Disability and in Typical Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Parity helps us determine whether an arithmetic equation is true or false. The current research examines the development of sensitivity to parity cues in multiplication in typically achieving (TA) children (grades 2, 3, 4 and 6) and in children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD, grades 6 and 8), via a verification task. In TA children…

  14. The Impact of the Shifting Knowledge Base, from Development to Achievement, on Early Childhood Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kathleen P.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in child development as a knowledge base for early childhood education programs flourished in the 1970s as a result of the theories and philosophies of Jean Piaget and other cognitive developmentalists. During subsequent decades in America, reform movements emphasizing accountability and achievement became a political and social…

  15. Goals, Data Use, and Instruction: The Effect of a Teacher Professional Development Program on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design. Applying propensity score…

  16. Space Transportation in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of Space Transportation in the New Millennium. Pictures are shown of the space shuttle lift Off, rocket motion, the space shuttle main engine, the space shuttle external tank, the space shuttle solid rocket booster, the X-33, X-34, X-37, X-38, magnetic levitation, the rbcc, nuclear thermal propulsion, anti-matter propulsion system, the NTP or anti-matter concept vehicles, and the Space Elevator.

  17. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to

  18. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to

  19. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  20. Biotech crops: imperative for achieving the millenium development goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era.

    PubMed

    Husaini, Amjad M; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological intervention in the development of crops has opened new vistas in agriculture. Central to the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), biotech-agriculture is essential in meeting these targets. Biotech crops have already made modest contributions toward ensuring food and nutrition security by reducing losses and increasing productivity, with less pesticide input. These crops could help address some of the major challenges in agriculture-based economies created by climate change. Projections of global climate change expect the concentration of greenhouse gases to increase, aridization of the environment to increase, temperature fluctuations to occur sharply and frequently, and spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall to be disturbed-all of which will increase abiotic stress-related challenges to crops. Countering these challenges and to meet the food requirement of the ever-increasing world population (expected to reach 9 billion by 2030) we need to (1) develop and use biotech crops for mitigating adverse climatic changes; (2) develop biotech crops resilient to adverse environmental conditions; and (3) address the issues/non-issues raised by NGO's and educate the masses about the benefits of biotech crops.

  1. How Many Pathways Underlie Socioeconomic Differences in the Development of Cognition and Achievement?

    PubMed

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2013-06-01

    Children whose parents have higher education enjoy greater age-linked gains in cognitive abilities and academic achievement. Different researchers have typically focused on different outcomes, and the extent to which parental education relates to multiple child outcomes via a single developmental pathway has received little empirical attention. This issue was examined by applying common factor structural equation models to a large (N = 4,810) nationally representative sample of kindergarten through 12(th) grade children, who were measured on 6 distinct cognitive abilities and 5 distinct forms of knowledge and academic achievement. Results indicated that a single pathway accounted for the relations between parental education and age differences in children's cognitive abilities. However, additional unique pathways were necessary to account for the relations between parental education and age differences in academic knowledge and mathematics. These results suggest that while socioeconomic differences are largely manifest in global aspects of cognitive development, they have incremental relations with some forms of academic achievement. PMID:23710118

  2. Academic achievement among undergraduate nursing students: the development and test of a causal model.

    PubMed

    Chacko, S B; Huba, M E

    1991-06-01

    This article tested relationships among variables depicted in a causal learning model of academic achievement developed by the authors. The Learning and Study Skills (LASSI), Life Experience Survey (LES), and ASSET test were administered to 134 first-semester nursing students at a 2-year community college. The path analysis supported 11 of the 14 pathways tested. Language ability, reading ability, and self-efficacy were found to be direct effects on academic achievement. When self-efficacy was the criterion, students' language ability, math ability, motivation, and concentration and preparation for class were direct effects. Life stress, motivation, and self-monitoring/use of study strategies were found to be direct effects on students' concentration and preparation for class. In turn, when the ability to self-monitor and use study strategies was the criterion, motivation was the only direct effect. Overall, the model explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement.

  3. Development of brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity and the relationship to formal math academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H.; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha

    2015-01-01

    A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting non-linguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or “formal” math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional MRI study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6–12 years-old), 14 adolescents (13–17 years-old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development. PMID:25327879

  4. Is the Millennium Goal on Education Tackling the Ethical Requirements of a Diverse and Multicultural World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosquera, Katia Ximena Mosquera; Mosquera, Maura Nasly Mosquera

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an invitation to reflect on the ethical foundations underlying the Millennium Declaration of September 2000, approved by the 189 member states of the United Nations, in which they committed themselves to improve the living conditions of humanity, with special focus on developing countries. It is noteworthy that this proposal, which…

  5. Vaccinology in the third millennium: scientific and social challenges.

    PubMed

    Poland, Gregory A; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Poland, Caroline M; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    The epidemiology of deaths due to vaccine-preventable diseases has been significantly and positively altered through the use of vaccines. Despite this, significant challenges remain in vaccine development and use in the third millennium. Both new (Ebola, Chikungunya, Zika, and West Nile) and re-emerging diseases (measles, mumps, and influenza) require the development of new or next-generation vaccines. The global aging of the population, and accumulating numbers of immunocompromised persons, will require new vaccine and adjuvant development to protect large segments of the population. After vaccine development, significant challenges remain globally in the cost and efficient use and acceptance of vaccines by the public. This article raises issues in these two areas and suggests a way forward that will benefit current and future generations. PMID:27039875

  6. Energy for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Goldemberg, J; Johansson, T B; Reddy, A K; Williams, R H

    2001-09-01

    The evolution of thinking about energy is discussed. When the authors began collaborating 20 years ago, energy was typically considered from a growth-oriented, supply-side perspective, with a focus on consumption trends and how to expand supplies to meet rising demand. They were deeply troubled by the environmental, security and equity implications of that approach. For instance, about two billion people lack access to affordable modern energy, seriously limiting their opportunities for a better life. And energy is a significant contributor to environmental problems, including indoor air pollution, urban air pollution, acidification, and global warming. The authors saw the need to evolve a different perspective in which energy is provided in ways that help solve such serious problems. They argued that energy must become an instrument for advancing sustainable development--economically viable, need-oriented, self-reliant and environmentally sound development--and that the focus should be on the end uses of energy and the services that energy provides. Energy technological options that can help meet sustainable development goals are discussed. The necessity of developing and employing innovative technological solutions is stressed. The possibilities of technological leap-frogging that could enable developing countries to avoid repeating the mistakes of the industrialized countries is illustrated with a discussion of ethanol in Brazil. The role foreign direct investment might play in bringing advanced technologies to developing countries is highlighted. Near- and long-term strategies for rural energy are discussed. Finally, policy issues are considered for evolving the energy system so that it will be consistent with and supportive of sustainable development.

  7. Energy for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Goldemberg, J; Johansson, T B; Reddy, A K; Williams, R H

    2001-09-01

    The evolution of thinking about energy is discussed. When the authors began collaborating 20 years ago, energy was typically considered from a growth-oriented, supply-side perspective, with a focus on consumption trends and how to expand supplies to meet rising demand. They were deeply troubled by the environmental, security and equity implications of that approach. For instance, about two billion people lack access to affordable modern energy, seriously limiting their opportunities for a better life. And energy is a significant contributor to environmental problems, including indoor air pollution, urban air pollution, acidification, and global warming. The authors saw the need to evolve a different perspective in which energy is provided in ways that help solve such serious problems. They argued that energy must become an instrument for advancing sustainable development--economically viable, need-oriented, self-reliant and environmentally sound development--and that the focus should be on the end uses of energy and the services that energy provides. Energy technological options that can help meet sustainable development goals are discussed. The necessity of developing and employing innovative technological solutions is stressed. The possibilities of technological leap-frogging that could enable developing countries to avoid repeating the mistakes of the industrialized countries is illustrated with a discussion of ethanol in Brazil. The role foreign direct investment might play in bringing advanced technologies to developing countries is highlighted. Near- and long-term strategies for rural energy are discussed. Finally, policy issues are considered for evolving the energy system so that it will be consistent with and supportive of sustainable development. PMID:11757280

  8. Linking Youth Development, Community Development and Social Change: Experiences from a Rural Eastern Cape Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotuku, N.; Duku, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2, which is "Achieve Universal Education", puts emphasis on increasing enrolments and keeping children at school until they complete primary education. But the question continues to arise of the kind of education to which children are being given access: Is access commensurate with quality? This…

  9. Mathematics for the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2004-01-01

    Courses below calculus need to be refocused to emphasise conceptual understanding and realistic applications via mathematical modelling rather than an overarching focus on developing algebraic skills that may be needed for calculus. Without understanding the concepts, students will not be able to transfer the mathematics to new situations or to…

  10. Achievement Motivation and the Vocational Development of Adolescent Women: A Review and Application of Achievement Motivation Research to Vocational Development Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celkis, Ruta

    Achievement motivation research provides a basis for understanding the processes by which socialization into stereotypical feminine roles shapes the educational and vocational aspirations of adolescent women. Young women are socialized to be interested in pleasing others, motivated to achieve in traditionally feminine areas, and fearful of success…

  11. Design and integration of small RTPV generators with new millennium spacecraft for outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    improvement can actually be achieved. OSC requested that first priority be given to filter improvements, because our system studies indicated that improved filters would have a much greater effect on system performance than cell improvements. By July 1995 EDTEK had achieved about 90% of the filter performance improvement projected in 1993. Work on further filter and cell improvements is continuing at EDTEK, as part of a joint effort with OSC and with DOE's Mound Laboratory to develop and test a prototypic RTPV generator, with both an electrical heater and a radioisotope heat source. The improved filter performance data have been applied to the design of low-power (10-30 W) RTPV power systems, for possible application to new millennium spacecraft for missions to the outer solar system, where solar power generation is impractical. The results reported in this paper indicate that such systems can yield very attractive performance with the RTPV generator integrated with the miniaturized new millennium spacecraft.

  12. Preparing for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Tranter

    1999-01-01

    Since being introduced to the field of drug discovery at Zeneca Pharmaceuticals in 1991, it has become apparent to me that a blizzard of revolutionary novel approaches has swept through the pharmaceutical industry. Now, the discovery process has become completely transformed and the race to develop commercially successful drugs is now taking place in a very different realm. Rapid advances in automation, combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS), genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics appear to be principally responsible for driving such a rapidly evolving discovery process. In these exciting times for pharmaceutical R&D, it is a delight for me to take over the Editor's reins of Drug Discovery Today.

  13. Water resources in the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren

    As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.

  14. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark A.; Rogers, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  15. From Domination to Partnership: Meeting the UN Millennium Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisler, Riane; Corral, Thais

    2005-01-01

    The UN Millennium goals envision a more just and sustainable future. This article explains why there is a need to shift from domination model to a partnership model in meeting the UN Millennium goals. The domination model is a configuration based on top-down rankings of control, while the partnership model is a configuration that can support a…

  16. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement Among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between EF and science achievement among normally developing 10 year olds. A sample of fifth grade students from a Northeastern suburban community participated in tests of EF, science, and intelligence. Consistent with adult models of EF, principal components analysis identified a three-factor model of EF organization in middle childhood, including cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function processes of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition were all predictive of science performance. Post hoc analyses revealed that high-performing science students differed significantly from low-performing students in both cognitive flexibility and working memory. These findings suggest that complex academic demands specific to science achievement rely on the emergence and maturation of EF components.

  17. Technology readiness levels for the new millennium program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Minning, C. P.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) seeks to advance space exploration by providing an in-space validating mechanism to verify the maturity of promising advanced technologies that cannot be adequately validated with Earth-based testing alone. In meeting this objective, NMP uses NASA Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) as key indicators of technology advancement and assesses development progress against this generalized metric. By providing an opportunity for in-space validation, NMP can mature a suitable advanced technology from TRL 4 (component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment) to a TRL 7 (system prototype demonstrated in an Earth-based space environment). Spaceflight technology comprises a myriad of categories, types, and functions, and as each individual technology emerges, a consistent interpretation of its specific state of technological advancement relative to other technologies is problematic.

  18. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  19. Nuclear energy for the third millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1997-10-01

    The major energy sources of today are expected to last for only a small fraction of the millennium starting three years hence. In the plans of most people, nuclear energy has been ruled out for four separate reasons: 1. The danger of radioactivity from a reactor accident or from reactor products during a long period after reactor shutdown; 2. The proposed fuels, U-235 and also Pu-239, as obtained by presently available procedures will serve only for a limited duration; 3. Energy from nuclear reactors will be more expensive than costs of present alternatives; 4. The possibility of misusing the products for military purposes is an unacceptable danger. The development described below 1 attempts to meet all four objections. Specifically, we propose a structure as an example of future reactors that is deployed two hundred meters underground in loose and dry earth. The reactor is designed to function for thirty years, delivering electrical power on demand up to a level of thousand electrical megawatts. From the time that the reactor is started to the time of its shutdown thirty years later, the functioning is to be completely automatic. This is an obviously difficult condition to fulfill. The most important factor in making it possible is to design and operate the reactor without moving mechanical parts. At the start, the reactor functions on thermal neutrons within a structure containing uranium enriched in U-235 or having an addition of plutonium. That part of the reactor is to deliver energy for approximately one year after which a neighboring portion of the reactor containing thorium has been converted into Th-233 which rather rapidly decays into fissile U-233. This part of the assembly works on fission by fast neutrons. It will heat-up if insufficient thermal energy is withdrawn from the reactor`s core, under the negative feedback action of engineered-in thermostats. Indeed, these specifically designed thermostatic units absorb neutrons if excessive reactor core

  20. Friction drag reduction achievable by near-wall turbulence manipulation in spatially developing boundary-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannier, Amaury; Garnier, Eric; Sagaut, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Various control strategies, such as active feedback control or riblets, end up restraining near-wall turbulence. An analytical study is conducted to estimate the drag-reduction achievable by such control in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary-layers. Based on an idealized control which damps all fluctuations within a near-wall layer, a composite flow profile is established. It leads to explicit models for both the drag-reduction and the boundary-layer development rate. A skin-friction decomposition is applied and gives physical insights on the underlying phenomena. The control is found to alter the spatial development of the boundary-layer, resulting in detrimental impact on the skin-friction. However, the drag-reducing mechanism, attributed to the turbulence weakening, is found predominant and massive drag reductions remain achievable at high Reynolds number, although a minute part of the boundary-layer is manipulated. The model is finally assessed against Large Eddy Simulations of riblet-controlled flow.

  1. Achieving a Prioritized Research and Technology Development Portfolio for the Dust Management Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Abel, Phillip; Delaune, Paul; Fishman, Julianna; Kohli, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    Mission architectures for human exploration of the lunar surface continue to advance as well as the definitions of capability needs, best practices and engineering design to mitigate the impact of lunar dust on exposed systems. The NASA DMP has been established as the agency focal point for dust characterization, technology, and simulant development. As described in this paper, the DMP has defined a process for selecting and justifying its R&T portfolio. The technology prioritization process, which is based on a ranking system according to weighted criteria, has been successfully applied to the current DMP dust mitigation technology portfolio. Several key findings emerged from this assessment. Within the dust removal and cleaning technologies group, there are critical technical challenges that must be overcome for these technologies to be implemented for lunar applications. For example, an in-situ source of CO2 on the moon is essential to the CO2 shower technology. Also, significant development effort is required to achieve technology readiness level TRL 6 for the electrostatic cleaning system for removal of particles smaller than 50 pm. The baseline materials related technologies require considerable development just to achieve TRL 6. It is also a nontrivial effort to integrate the materials in hardware for lunar application. At present, there are no terrestrial applications that are readily adaptable to lunar surface applications nor are there any obvious leading candidates. The unique requirements of dust sealing systems for lunar applications suggest an extensive development effort will be necessary to mature dust sealing systems to TRL 6 and beyond. As discussed here, several alternate materials and technologies have achieved high levels of maturity for terrestrial applications and warrant due diligence in ongoing assessment of the technology portfolio. The present assessment is the initial step in an ongoing effort to continually evaluate the DMP technology

  2. Finding a Fit or Developing It: Implicit Theories About Achieving Passion for Work.

    PubMed

    Chen, Patricia; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Schwarz, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    "Passion for work" has become a widespread phrase in popular discourse. Two contradictory lay perspectives have emerged on how passion for work is attained, which we distill into the fit and develop implicit theories. Fit theorists believe that passion for work is achieved through finding the right fit with a line of work; develop theorists believe that passion is cultivated over time. Four studies examined the expectations, priorities, and outcomes that characterize these implicit theories. Our results show that these beliefs elicit different motivational patterns, but both can facilitate vocational well-being and success. This research extends implicit theory scholarship to the work domain and provides a framework that can fruitfully inform career advising, life coaching, mentorship, and employment policies. PMID:26231591

  3. Geothermal Field Development in the European Community Objectives, Achievements and Problem Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ungemach, Pierre

    1983-12-15

    Achievements and problem areas are reviewed with respect to various engineering implications of geothermal field development in the European Community (EC). Current and furture development goals address three resource settings. (a) low enthalpy sources (30-150{degrees}C), an outlook common to all Member states as a result of hot water aquifers flowing in large sedimentary units with normal heat flow, widespread thoughout the EC; (b) high enthalpy sources (<150{degrees}C) in areas of high heat flow which, as a consequence of the geodynamics of the Eurasian plate, are limited to Central and South-West Italy and to Eastern Greece; (c) hot dry rocks (HDR), whose potential for Europe, and also the difficulties in implementing the heat mining concept, are enormous. A large scale experiment conducted at medium depth in Cornwall (UK) proves encouraging though. It has provided the right sort of scientific inputs to the understanding of the mechanics of anisotropic brittle basement rocks.

  4. Finding a Fit or Developing It: Implicit Theories About Achieving Passion for Work.

    PubMed

    Chen, Patricia; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Schwarz, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    "Passion for work" has become a widespread phrase in popular discourse. Two contradictory lay perspectives have emerged on how passion for work is attained, which we distill into the fit and develop implicit theories. Fit theorists believe that passion for work is achieved through finding the right fit with a line of work; develop theorists believe that passion is cultivated over time. Four studies examined the expectations, priorities, and outcomes that characterize these implicit theories. Our results show that these beliefs elicit different motivational patterns, but both can facilitate vocational well-being and success. This research extends implicit theory scholarship to the work domain and provides a framework that can fruitfully inform career advising, life coaching, mentorship, and employment policies.

  5. Developing a breath-stacking system to achieve lung volume recruitment.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Alison

    Patients with neuromuscular disease often experience respiratory problems. It is recognized that lung volume recruitment is an effective way of managing and often avoiding respiratory problems associated with muscle weakness. There are a number of methods that may be employed to provide this client group with lung volume recruitment, but some can be quite costly or difficult to manage. This article describes the local development of a breath-stacking system based on an existing respiratory therapy product designed to achieve lung volume recruitment. The system was developed through consultation with The National Home Ventilation Benchmarking Group and adapted as a procedure; practice guidelines were also drawn up. Initial local informal feedback provides an insight into the success of its use for patients with neuromuscular diseases.

  6. Can Lifelong Learning Be the Post-2015 Agenda for the Least Developed Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses what approaches to "lifelong learning" should guide the post-2015 education agenda for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) which refers to a group of 49 countries that are off-track in achieving most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Education for All goals. Reports prepared by major consultation…

  7. Private Schooling in Less Economically Developed Countries: Asian and African Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Prachi, Ed.; Walford, Geoffrey, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The increased marketisation and privatisation of schooling in economically developing countries struggling to achieve Education for All and Millennium Development Goals warrants a focused examination of the phenomenon. However, there is little work on the nature and extent of private provision in countries that, on the one hand, are striving to…

  8. Beliefs about Teaching Science: The relationship between elementary teachers' participation in professional development and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpe, Andrew; Czerniak, Charlene; Haney, Jodi; Beltyukova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Because of increasing calls for school accountability, an increased emphasis placed on the role of the teacher, and theoretical connections between teacher beliefs and classroom action, a critical need exists to examine teacher professional development programs to determine their impact on teacher belief systems, teaching practices, and student learning. The primary goal of this study was to assess elementary teachers' science teaching efficacy as they participated in a large-scale professional development program and to determine the relationship of these beliefs with student learning. It was found that elementary teachers who participated in a long-term, intense (over 100 contact hours annually) science professional development program displayed significant gains in their science teaching self-efficacy. Several background variables were found to be predictive of teacher beliefs including how often teachers spend teaching science. Males tended to display more positive beliefs than their female counterparts. Although a small portion of the variance was explained, teacher beliefs and the number of hours participating in the research-based professional development program were significantly predictive of students' science achievement. Other factors may be involved in teachers' beliefs and their connection with student learning, including classroom practices, curriculum materials, support systems, and student background variables. These factors should be the target of future investigations.

  9. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler

    2016-01-01

    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported

  10. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark; Rogers, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These risk assessments typically cover the concept phase of a DRM, i.e. when little more than a general idea of the mission is known and are used to help establish "best estimates" for proposed program and agency level risk requirements. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  11. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark; Rogers, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These risk assessments typically cover the concept phase of a DRM, i.e. when little more than a general idea of the mission is known and are used to help establish "best estimates" for proposed program and agency level risk requirements. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  12. Basic mechanisms for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1998-09-01

    This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

  13. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  14. Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them

  15. Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

  16. Longitudinal Mediators of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading in Typical and Atypical Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and which are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n = 30) and typically developing children (n = 35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations; phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency; and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

  17. Achievement of group cohesion through the development of a psychiatric nursing seminar.

    PubMed

    Singhaus, M S; Brennan, I; Mackay, C K

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the process by which group cohesion emerged around the task of developing a psychiatric nursing seminar at the Palo Alto (California) V.A. Medical Center. This paper will discuss how group cohesion evolved, describe the seminar, and offer suggestions to other nurses wanting to work together more collaboratively. As clinical nurse specialists (CNS) assigned to the inpatient psychiatric units of a Veterans Administration Medical Center, we were asked by nursing administration to develop an educational course. The purpose of the course was to provide registered nurses with a common knowledge base that would facilitate communication related to patient care. While we were aware that teaching discreet areas of content commensurate with our individual interests and expertise would get the job done rapidly, our combined experience taught us that this approach to learning did little to bring about a change in clinical practice. We viewed the selection of a conceptual framework to which we could all be committed as an essential step prior to the content development. What is significant about this experience was that the group process of achieving cohesiveness was so closely related to the conceptual framework that finally evolved. We chose a framework that reflected our own perspectives towards working with others and about psychiatric nursing. In turn, the major concepts of the chosen framework guided many of our interactions with each other. PMID:2207976

  18. Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading.

  19. Patrick Moore's millennium yearbook : the view from AD 1001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick, Chapman, Allan

    In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.

  20. Librarians’ Role in Development and Achievement of Central Library Users’ Information Literacy (a Case Study: Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Siamian, Hasan; Shahrabi, Afsaneh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the development of technologies, communications, databases and information resource varieties in today’s information age, our various social, economic, cultural and political needs cannot be fulfilled by relying merely on past knowledge and skills as done previously. Information literacy (IL) as a set of necessary skills for all of us is an effective way of treating new technologies and their effective application in our lives. The study aimed to survey the library users’ views in the Central Library of Babol University of Medical Sciences (The Library), Iran, on the role and influences of librarians on their IL development and improvement. Methods: This analytical survey used a researcher-made questionnaire for data collection. Research population consisted of all users referring Information Unit of The Library during 22 September - 20 December 2010. Of them, 150 users participating in at least 5 workshops held by The Library were selected as the study sample. Results: Based on the findings, 52.7 percent of the subjects rated the influence of the librarians on their IL development much and very much. 44.7 percent claimed that they more acquired IL skills from librarians rather than others. 100 (63.3%) subjects preferred workshops held by the librarian to other workshops. Conclusion: The users of Information Unit of The Library perceived the training IL skills by librarians as a main influencing factor in their IL development and achievement. This emphasized the necessity of teaching IL to users and training the librarians in better teaching IL skills to library user. PMID:24511265

  1. Mars Mania: Internet Resources for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Bob; Davis, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Mars Millennium Project that challenges elementary and secondary school students across the nation to design communities on Mars. Lists the sponsoring organizations, explains how to participate in the project, and suggests appropriate books and Web sites. (LRW)

  2. 76 FR 46786 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    .... Box 1565, Pearl River, New York 10965, filed in the above referenced docket an application pursuant to... & Secretary, Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC, One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh Floor, P.O. Box 1565, Pearl...

  3. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development on African American Female Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study will be to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness (RIC) on the academic achievement of African American female college freshmen. This causal-comparative study is intended to provide research based info ration concerning the impact of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of…

  4. Evaluation of Science Achievement and Science Test Development in an International Context: The IEA Study in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the development of cognitive tests and their administration to four student populations in a cross-nation study on science achievement by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Included are illustrative items, a table of behavior-subject area grid, and test scores by countries. (CC)

  5. Crises in EFL Proficiency and Teacher Development in the Context of International Donation and Transformation Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbirso, Dereje Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Since 2000, Ethiopia has been working to come out of social crises, modernise itself and achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Although provided with billions of dollars by the West and their international agents, little has been changed and the crises seem never to abate, especially in the educational system. This study, thus, critically…

  6. Developing the next-generation climate system models: challenges and achievements.

    PubMed

    Slingo, Julia; Bates, Kevin; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Piggott, Matthew; Roberts, Malcolm; Shaffrey, Len; Stevens, Ian; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Weller, Hilary

    2009-03-13

    Although climate models have been improving in accuracy and efficiency over the past few decades, it now seems that these incremental improvements may be slowing. As tera/petascale computing becomes massively parallel, our legacy codes are less suitable, and even with the increased resolution that we are now beginning to use, these models cannot represent the multiscale nature of the climate system. This paper argues that it may be time to reconsider the use of adaptive mesh refinement for weather and climate forecasting in order to achieve good scaling and representation of the wide range of spatial scales in the atmosphere and ocean. Furthermore, the challenge of introducing living organisms and human responses into climate system models is only just beginning to be tackled. We do not yet have a clear framework in which to approach the problem, but it is likely to cover such a huge number of different scales and processes that radically different methods may have to be considered. The challenges of multiscale modelling and petascale computing provide an opportunity to consider a fresh approach to numerical modelling of the climate (or Earth) system, which takes advantage of the computational fluid dynamics developments in other fields and brings new perspectives on how to incorporate Earth system processes. This paper reviews some of the current issues in climate (and, by implication, Earth) system modelling, and asks the question whether a new generation of models is needed to tackle these problems.

  7. OUTLINING THE WINDOWS OF ACHIEVEMENT OF INTERSUBJECTIVE MILESTONES IN TYPICALLY DEVELOPING TODDLERS.

    PubMed

    Sadurní Brugué, Marta; Pérez Burriel, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Babies are born with an innate drive or intrinsic motive formation with which to communicate and share meanings with others and that some authors have called intersubjectivity (S. Bråten & C. Trevarthen, 2007; C. Trevarthen, 1974, 2001). Around the ninth month of life, this motivation changes and passes from a person-to-person dyadic (primary intersubjectivity) to a person-person-object relationship (secondary intersubjectivity). S. Bråten and C. Trevarthen (2007) also proposed a third form or layer of intersubjectivity known as tertiary intersubjectivity. One hundred fifteen free-play sessions of 27 mother-child dyads (13 girls and 14 boys ages 9-37 months) were filmed and categorized using the Level of Intersubjective Attunement Scale (LISA-T; M. Pérez Burriel & M. Sadurní Brugué, 2014; M. Sadurní Brugué & M. Pérez Burriel, 2012). Results from these nine hierarchical levels are presented, following a developmental sequence or population trajectory around an interindividual variability. In this article, we propose viewing these age-related levels as windows of achievement of intersubjective milestones. The statistical analysis suggested a redesign of the LISA-T levels of intersubjectivity; thus, results from this redesign and the debate on the implications of these transitions in infant mental health development are presented.

  8. OUTLINING THE WINDOWS OF ACHIEVEMENT OF INTERSUBJECTIVE MILESTONES IN TYPICALLY DEVELOPING TODDLERS.

    PubMed

    Sadurní Brugué, Marta; Pérez Burriel, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Babies are born with an innate drive or intrinsic motive formation with which to communicate and share meanings with others and that some authors have called intersubjectivity (S. Bråten & C. Trevarthen, 2007; C. Trevarthen, 1974, 2001). Around the ninth month of life, this motivation changes and passes from a person-to-person dyadic (primary intersubjectivity) to a person-person-object relationship (secondary intersubjectivity). S. Bråten and C. Trevarthen (2007) also proposed a third form or layer of intersubjectivity known as tertiary intersubjectivity. One hundred fifteen free-play sessions of 27 mother-child dyads (13 girls and 14 boys ages 9-37 months) were filmed and categorized using the Level of Intersubjective Attunement Scale (LISA-T; M. Pérez Burriel & M. Sadurní Brugué, 2014; M. Sadurní Brugué & M. Pérez Burriel, 2012). Results from these nine hierarchical levels are presented, following a developmental sequence or population trajectory around an interindividual variability. In this article, we propose viewing these age-related levels as windows of achievement of intersubjective milestones. The statistical analysis suggested a redesign of the LISA-T levels of intersubjectivity; thus, results from this redesign and the debate on the implications of these transitions in infant mental health development are presented. PMID:27348723

  9. Evaluating an Adolescent Behavioral Program: Leadership, Education, Achievement, and Development for Adolescent Female Offenders in Corrections.

    PubMed

    Panosky, Denise M; Shelton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a pilot study designed to: test the feasibility of implementation, assess implementation barriers, and determine the effectiveness of a modified evidence-based program designed for adolescent female offenders in a women's correctional facility in the United States. A therapeutic expressive arts behavioral program, Leadership, Education, Achievement and Development (LEAD), has been used in community settings as a health promotion program. This behavioral program was adapted to LEAD-Corrections (LEAD-C) and serves incarcerated adolescent female offenders. Results of this pilot study show that it is feasible to offer LEAD-C in a correctional setting. Positive effects were noted on session satisfaction surveys as well as formative and summative evaluations. Implementation of LEAD-C, using therapeutic expressive arts interventions, included coping strategies to help adolescents become confident and self-assured and review better choices. Adolescents were taught to utilize these learned coping strategies in their life, which may help to overcome adversity, enhance resilience, and support youth transition at the time of reentry to the community. PMID:26186153

  10. Achievement First: Developing a Teacher Performance Management System That Recognizes Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are the single most important school-related factor in students' learning, and improving student learning is the single most important goal at Achievement First (AF), a fast-growing public charter school network in the Northeast. To achieve this goal, the AF team has worked to establish a common understanding of effective instructional…

  11. Principal Readiness and Professional Development to Conduct Effective Teacher Evaluations That Lead to Improved Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunziker, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    Education reform is the focus of many of the political agendas today. The research is clear that the best way to increase student achievement is by having highly effective teachers in the classroom. As a result of prior research, both the state and federal governments have created mandates and legislation aimed at achieving that goal. One of the…

  12. Achieving a Doctorate: Metalearning and Research Development Programmes Supporting Success for International Distance Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisker, Gina; Robinson, Gillian; Trafford, Vernon; Lilly, Jaki; Warnes, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on metalearning and metacognition have focused on undergraduates where reflective and active awareness of learning practices and achievements, or metalearning, has been seen to be useful, indeed essential for the learning achievement of undergraduates (Biggs et al., 2001; Veenman & Verheig, 2003). This paper reports on the latest…

  13. Developing a Perspective on the Global Achievement Gap: School Leaders as International Collaborators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanning, Michael C. P.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years American schools and the scholars who study these schools have become focused on bridging the achievement gap. The scholarly literature is most often focused on the discrepancy in achievement in one school, a region, or perhaps one nation. The literature examining the best practices of schools that have bridged this gap…

  14. Effects of the peer group on the development of social functioning and academic achievement: a longitudinal study in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; He, Yunfeng

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial mean ages = 9.5 and 12.7 years, N = 505), how the peer group contributed to social functioning and academic achievement and their associations. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and academic achievement were collected from multiple sources. Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that group academic performance made direct contributions to children's social development. Group academic performance also moderated the individual-level relations between academic performance and later social functioning. Whereas high-achieving groups strengthened the positive relations between academic achievement and social competence, low-achieving groups facilitated the negative relations between academic achievement and social problems. The results indicate the significance of the peer group for social functioning from a developmental perspective.

  15. Meteors and showers a millennium ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2003-08-01

    Meteors can be classified into either sporadic meteors or showery meteors. We compile the meteor records in the astronomical archives in the chronicle of the Koryo dynasty (918-1392), and investigate the spatial distribution of meteor streams along the orbit of the Earth from the 10th to the 14th century. We see that meteors from meteor streams signalize themselves over noisy sporadic meteors, and that the seasonal activity of sporadic meteors is apparently regular. We discover the presence of a few meteor streams by analysing about 700 meteors in the Koryo period. We also compile the records of meteor showers and storms in the chronicles of Korea, Japan, China, Arabia and Europe, and compare their appearance dates with those of showers obtained in our analysis, as well as with the modern observations. We confirm that the three sets of data are in agreement with each other. The representative meteor showers are the Perseids, the Leonids, and the η Aquarids/Orionids pair formed by Halley's comet. The other weak or relic meteor streams are also observable but uncertain. Hence we witness the regularity of meteor activity, which is seen to persist for a millennium.

  16. Squashing the Millennium Bug: A Year 2000 Compliance Guide for Elementary/Secondary Schools and School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Mark; Carlson, Robert; Dexter, David; Karinch, Samantha; Kaplan, Heather

    This guide was developed to assist the nation's elementary and secondary schools and school districts address their Year 2000 (Y2K) problem. The guide is divided into three sections: Squashing the Millennium Bug Step-by-Step; Remediating Specific Types of Systems; and Appendix. The first chapter presents the following steps for tackling the Year…

  17. Healthy youth development: getting our priorities right.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Michael D

    2005-10-17

    Promotion of healthy youth development is a worldwide priority that cannot be achieved by parents and families alone. Health professionals must use and advocate for evidence-based strategies that enhance key protective factors in the lives of young people. The United Nations' Millennium Development Goals create an unprecedented opportunity to partner with professional and youth-led organisations to ensure young people in the most vulnerable settings benefit from this initiative to reduce extreme poverty and threats to health and wellbeing.

  18. Children who were very low birth weight: development and academic achievement at nine years of age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N K; Hack, M; Breslau, N

    1989-02-01

    Children born at very low birth weights (VLBW) (less than or equal to 1500 g) who were beneficiaries of modern neonatal intensive care are reaching middle childhood, and their school achievement can be evaluated. We compared 65 9-year-old children born in 1976, who were very low birth weight and who were free of neurological impairment, with 65 children of normal birth weight who had been matched for race, sex, age, and social class on measures of IQ, cognitive, visuo-motor, and fine motor abilities, and academic achievement. VLBW children scored significantly lower than controls on the WISC-R, Bender-Gestalt, Purdue Pegboard, subtests from the Woodcock Johnson Cognitive Abilities Battery, and reading and mathematics (math) achievement. Exploratory analysis of a subset of 43 VLBW and matched controls with IQ scores greater than or equal to 85 yielded a similar trend, except that, on achievement tests, differences were significant only in math. Further analyses revealed that the differential in math achievement between VLBW and control children is not fully attributable to differences in IQ.

  19. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C.; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.

  20. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.

  1. Physically Developed and Exploratory Young Infants Contribute to Their Own Long-Term Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2014-01-01

    A developmental cascade defines a longitudinal relation in which one psychological characteristic uniquely affects another psychological characteristic later in time, separately from other intrapersonal and extrapersonal factors. Here, we report results of a large-scale (N = 374), normative, prospective, 14-year longitudinal, multivariate, multisource, controlled study of a developmental cascade from infant motor-exploratory competence at 5 months to adolescent academic achievement at 14 years, through conceptually related and age-appropriate measures of psychometric intelligence at 4 and 10 years and academic achievement at 10 years. This developmental cascade applied equally to girls and boys and was independent of children’s behavioral adjustment and social competence; mothers’ supportive caregiving, verbal intelligence, education, and parenting knowledge; and the material home environment. Infants who were more motorically mature and who explored more actively at 5 months of age achieved higher academic levels as 14-year-olds. PMID:23964000

  2. Physically developed and exploratory young infants contribute to their own long-term academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2013-10-01

    A developmental cascade defines a longitudinal relation in which one psychological characteristic uniquely affects another psychological characteristic later in time, separately from other intrapersonal and extrapersonal factors. Here, we report results of a large-scale (N = 374), normative, prospective, 14-year longitudinal, multivariate, multisource, controlled study of a developmental cascade from infant motor-exploratory competence at 5 months to adolescent academic achievement at 14 years, through conceptually related and age-appropriate measures of psychometric intelligence at 4 and 10 years and academic achievement at 10 years. This developmental cascade applied equally to girls and boys and was independent of children's behavioral adjustment and social competence; mothers' supportive caregiving, verbal intelligence, education, and parenting knowledge; and the material home environment. Infants who were more motorically mature and who explored more actively at 5 months of age achieved higher academic levels as 14-year-olds. PMID:23964000

  3. The Role of Mediators in the Development of Longitudinal Mathematics Achievement Associations.

    PubMed

    Watts, Tyler W; Duncan, Greg J; Chen, Meichu; Claessens, Amy; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Engel, Mimi; Siegler, Robert; Susperreguy, Maria I

    2015-01-01

    Despite research demonstrating a strong association between early and later mathematics achievement, few studies have investigated mediators of this association. Using longitudinal data (n = 1,362), this study tested the extent to which mathematics self-concepts, school placement, executive functioning, and proficiency in fractions and division account for the association between mathematics achievement in first grade and at age 15. As hypothesized, a strong longitudinal association between first-grade and adolescent mathematics achievement was present (β = .36) even after controlling for a host of background characteristics, including cognitive skills and reading ability. The mediators accounted for 39% of this association, with mathematics self-concept, gifted and talented placement, and knowledge of fractions and division serving as significant mediators.

  4. Child health in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    2000-10-01

    In today's modern, industrialized and affluent countries, like Japan and Australia, better living conditions and hygiene, plentiful nutritious food and rapid advances in biology and medical technologies have helped to bring about dramatic improvements in child health. The previous heavy burdens of infections and undernutrition have been eliminated or can now be controlled or effectively treated. In these countries, child health standards are higher than ever and expectation of life at birth is much higher than in the past. Some of the technological advances that have helped bring about this transformation are immunization, antimicrobial therapy, successful treatment of childhood leukemias, transplantation of vital organs and implementation of genetic diagnosis and gene therapy. The use of genetically modified foods and the prospects for cloning of humans are areas of intense interest and controversy. However, these advances have their disadvantages (e.g. antibiotic-induced drug resistance). Urbanization has encouraged the 'westernization' of dietary patterns and the long-term 'lifestyle diseases' that can follow in adults. Accidents, violence and drug abuse are major problems in many parts of the world. Changes in attitudes to sexuality and the spread of HIV/AIDS is another major problem, especially in Africa and Asia. Environmental pollution and the degradation of agricultural lands, rivers and seas are also important. Ironically, standards of child health and the prospects for long life in countries like Japan are better than ever before, but social and environmental changes are presenting children and their carers with new and unanswered challenges as we enter the 21 st century and the new millennium.

  5. Child health in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    2000-10-01

    In today's modern, industrialized and affluent countries, like Japan and Australia, better living conditions and hygiene, plentiful nutritious food and rapid advances in biology and medical technologies have helped to bring about dramatic improvements in child health. The previous heavy burdens of infections and undernutrition have been eliminated or can now be controlled or effectively treated. In these countries, child health standards are higher than ever and expectation of life at birth is much higher than in the past. Some of the technological advances that have helped bring about this transformation are immunization, antimicrobial therapy, successful treatment of childhood leukemias, transplantation of vital organs and implementation of genetic diagnosis and gene therapy. The use of genetically modified foods and the prospects for cloning of humans are areas of intense interest and controversy. However, these advances have their disadvantages (e.g. antibiotic-induced drug resistance). Urbanization has encouraged the 'westernization' of dietary patterns and the long-term 'lifestyle diseases' that can follow in adults. Accidents, violence and drug abuse are major problems in many parts of the world. Changes in attitudes to sexuality and the spread of HIV/AIDS is another major problem, especially in Africa and Asia. Environmental pollution and the degradation of agricultural lands, rivers and seas are also important. Ironically, standards of child health and the prospects for long life in countries like Japan are better than ever before, but social and environmental changes are presenting children and their carers with new and unanswered challenges as we enter the 21 st century and the new millennium. PMID:11059531

  6. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this…

  7. Connection between Organizational Culture and Development of Achievement Motive of Students of the Faculty of Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubulj, Milan; Arsenijevi, Olja; Simic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this paper are engaged in studying the organizational culture and achievement motive, by carrying out their studies among the students of the Faculty of Management in Novi Sad, AP Vojvodina, Serbia. The problem of this paper's research was set by the question: is there a connection of a dominantly present organizational culture and…

  8. Effects of Full-Day Kindergarten on Academic Achievement and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Harris; Batts Allen, Ashley; Patall, Erika A.; Dent, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis found that attending full-day (or all-day) kindergarten had a positive association with academic achievement (compared to half-day kindergarten) equal to about one quarter standard deviation at the end of the kindergarten year. But the association disappeared by third grade. Reasons for this fade-out are discussed. Social…

  9. The Board of Trustees' Professional Development and Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korelich, Kathryn; Maxwell, Gerri

    2015-01-01

    With the pressure for school districts to perform well on state assessments (Brown, Jones & Scheunermann, 2012) and the school boards blamed for the problems within a school district (Fridley, 2006), the inquiry of how to increase student achievement continues to be a forerunner in the circles of educators, parents, business and community…

  10. Testing for All: The Emergence and Development of International Assessment of Student Achievement, 1958-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizmony-Levy, Oren

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines a vital catalyst in the globalization of education: international assessments--that involve testing and rankings--of student achievement in academic subjects. Nearly all high-income countries participate in international assessments such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Progress in…

  11. The Development of Emotions in Preschool Children during Achievement-Oriented Striving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Klaus

    An attempt was made to document the beginning of children's ability to make cognitive-emotional discriminations between skill-dependent outcomes and chance-dependent outcomes of performance on tasks. Children between the ages of 2 and 5 years were administered structurally similar achievement games and effect games. It was thought that as soon as…

  12. Preferences of High Achieving High School Students in Their Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this study was to identify the needs and preference of high-achieving high school students. In terms of career related programs in high school, students listed AP courses and mentoring as their preferred career-related programs. Also, students stated that career guidance by counselors, workshops or sessions, and tech prep were the…

  13. Developing Intrinsic Motivation: Student Perceived Autonomy, Relatedness and Competence and the Relationship to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, DeAnn M.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods action study examines the relationship of students' three psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence as presented in the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to the level of achievement of high school seniors at Litchfield High School. In the quantitative phase of the study, the quantitative…

  14. Strategic Development in Exact Calculation: Group and Individual Differences in Four Achievement Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Judith; Jordan, Julie-Ann; Mulhern, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study sought to identify developmental changes in strategy use between 5 and 7 years of age when solving exact calculation problems. Four mathematics and reading achievement subtypes were examined at four time points. Five strategies were considered: finger counting, verbal counting, delayed retrieval, automatic retrieval, and…

  15. Bridging English Language Learner Achievement Gaps through Effective Vocabulary Development Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Despite a well-documented history of immigration in the United States of America and rise in population of students that speak a language other than English, academic achievement gaps between English Language Learners and their native English language speaking counterparts from Grades Pre-Kindergarten through the college/university level still…

  16. Teacher Professional Development to Improve Science and Literacy Achievement of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Buxton, Cory A.

    2013-01-01

    The school-aged population in the United States is becoming more culturally and linguistically diverse, while achievement gaps across content areas persist. At the same time, more rigorous academic demands are being placed on all students, including English language learners (ELLs). Teachers of ELLs face the double challenge of promoting English…

  17. Developing Item Bank Based Achievement Tests and Curriculum-Based Measures: Lessons Learned Enroute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengel, Bill E.; Schorr, Larry L.

    The experience of the Colorado Springs (Colorado) Public Schools (CSPS) in using different assessment forms for different purposes is detailed. A small niche is reserved for national norm-referenced testing to fill the state achievement testing mandate and for Chapter 1 accountability. A second, and larger, part of the assessment program will be…

  18. The Role of Utility Value in the Development of Interest and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, I evaluate whether helping students see the value in their coursework contributes to interest and achievement. Part 1 describes two studies that test the effectiveness of an instructional intervention to promote perceptions of utility value and interest--particularly for students with lower competence beliefs--compared to a…

  19. Cognitive Correlates of Mathematical Achievement in Children with Cerebral Palsy and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Moor, Jan M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Remarkably few studies have investigated the nature and origin of learning difficulties in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Aims: To investigate math achievement in terms of word-problem solving ability in children with CP and controls. Because of the potential importance of reading for word-problem solving, we investigated reading…

  20. The Role of Mediators in the Development of Longitudinal Mathematics Achievement Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Chen, Meichu; Claessens, Amy; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Duckworth, Kathryn; Engel, Mimi; Siegler, Robert; Susperreguy, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    Despite research demonstrating a strong association between early and later mathematics achievement, few studies have investigated mediators of this association. Using longitudinal data (n = 1,362), this study tested the extent to which mathematics self-concepts, school placement, executive functioning, and proficiency in fractions and division…

  1. Grading Practice as Valid Measures of Academic Achievement of Secondary Schools Students for National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiekem, Enwefa

    2015-01-01

    Assigning grades is probably the most important measurement decision that classroom teachers makes. When teachers are provided with some measurement instruction, they still use subjective value judgments when assigning grades to students. This paper therefore, examines the grading practice as valid measures of academic achievement in secondary…

  2. The Impact of Racial Identity and Consciousness Development of African American Male Academic Achievement: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Dora

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of racial identity/consciousness development on the academic achievement of African American male college freshmen. In the late 1900s Black identity models were developed to help African Americans grasp hold of who they were, as they lived in the residues of the peculiar institution of slavery.…

  3. What Is an Education for Sustainable Development Supposed to Achieve--A Question of What, How and Why

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This is a theoretical article to open the discussion of what an education for sustainable development is supposed to achieve and how teachers can help students to develop skills that might be needed in order to support a sustainable future. The focus in the article will be on education. As it is an article aiming to open this kind of discussion…

  4. Asian monsoon extremes and humanity's response over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. M.; Lieberman, V. B.; Zottoli, B.

    2012-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen significant development in the production of paleo proxies for the Asian monsoon, exemplified by the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas that was comprised of more than 300 tree ring chronologies. Noteworthy among them is the Vietnamese cypress tree-ring record which reveals that the two worst droughts of the past 7 centuries, each more than a decade in length, coincided with the demise of the Khmer civilization at Angkor in the early 15th century CE. The 18th century was nearly as tumultuous a period across Southeast Asia, where several polities fell against a backdrop of epic decadal-scale droughts. At this time all of the region's charter states saw rapid realignment in the face of drought, famine, disease and a raft of related and unrelated social issues. Several other droughts, some more extreme but of lesser duration, punctuate the past millennium, but appear to have had little societal impact. Historical documentation is being used not only to provide corroborative evidence of tree-ring reconstructed climate extremes, but to attempt to understand the dynamics of the coupled human-natural systems involved, and to define what kinds of thresholds need to be reached before societies respond. This paleo perspective can assist our analyses of the role of climate extremes in the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate across the highly populated areas of Asia.

  5. Internal medicine, art and science in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Muñoz C, Félix

    2013-02-01

    Internal medicine, art and science in the third millennium is a statement that Medicine is not only science. It acts on the sick individual to reestablish a natural state as a curative art. Medical art, commissioned by an individual or a society, is service. It requires vocation to obtain satisfaction. However due to the incidence of value changes, market globalization, technological and industrial development, the patient/physician relationship is becoming a user/provider relationship. Physician-related factors such as a higher health care demand, resource shortage and a progressive specialization have also influenced this change of paradigm. This is causing dissatisfaction, loss of self-esteem and a lower ethical commitment among professionals. We need to recover a professional repertoire of ideas in the context of a global ethics. Responsibility and co-responsibility are ethical principles addressed to technological civilizations and their collateral effects on people and environment that lead to a "responsible globalization". We also need a scientific futurology to define risks and avoid errors. In this era of progressive specialization, Internal Medicine, with its holistic vision of mankind, may play a fundamental role in the field of bioethics.

  6. Internal medicine, art and science in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Muñoz C, Félix

    2013-02-01

    Internal medicine, art and science in the third millennium is a statement that Medicine is not only science. It acts on the sick individual to reestablish a natural state as a curative art. Medical art, commissioned by an individual or a society, is service. It requires vocation to obtain satisfaction. However due to the incidence of value changes, market globalization, technological and industrial development, the patient/physician relationship is becoming a user/provider relationship. Physician-related factors such as a higher health care demand, resource shortage and a progressive specialization have also influenced this change of paradigm. This is causing dissatisfaction, loss of self-esteem and a lower ethical commitment among professionals. We need to recover a professional repertoire of ideas in the context of a global ethics. Responsibility and co-responsibility are ethical principles addressed to technological civilizations and their collateral effects on people and environment that lead to a "responsible globalization". We also need a scientific futurology to define risks and avoid errors. In this era of progressive specialization, Internal Medicine, with its holistic vision of mankind, may play a fundamental role in the field of bioethics. PMID:23732495

  7. The development of self-perceptions of ability and achievement goals and their relations in physical education.

    PubMed

    Xiang, P; Lee, A

    1998-09-01

    This study examined the development of self-perceptions of ability and achievement goals and their relationships in physical education. Three hundred and eight students in 4th, 8th, and 11th grades completed questionnaires assessing their goal orientations, conceptions of ability, and perceived competence in physical education. Analyses assessing grade-related changes in conceptions of ability and achievement goals showed that as the students progressed from grades 4 through 11, they were more likely to: (a) interpret ability as a stable capacity that may limit or increase the effect of effort on performance and (b) become ego-oriented. Analyses assessing relationships between variables of interest across grade level revealed that achievement goals were related to different conceptions of ability, students' self-ratings were significantly positively correlated to their teachers' ratings of their competence, and no consistent relationships emerged between achievement goals and perceived competence.

  8. Girls' Access to Education in China: Actors, Cultures and the Windmill of Development Management. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaojun Grace

    2010-01-01

    The world has a mixed record towards achieving EFA [Education for All] and the MDGs [Millennium Development Goals] in relation to the targets on gender equity in basic education. For researchers and practitioners, this raises the question of which factors influence the processes leading to the improvement of access and quality of girls' education…

  9. Chemistry of 1-aza-1,3-enynes: achievements and key trends of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, M. V.; Garabadzhiu, A. V.; Belyaev, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    The data on the chemistry of 1-aza-1,3-enynes published in the past 15 years have been summarized and systematized. Achievements in the synthesis of these compounds, as well as their transformations into various acyclic and heterocyclic nitrogenous products, have been surveyed. Particular attention has focused on the addition reactions at the azomethine and/or carbon-carbon triple bonds. Practical applications of the products of these transformations, first of all, in synthesis of complex natural and biologically active compounds, are discussed. The bibliography includes 161 references.

  10. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer of the Millennium Challenge Corporation Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 21, 2012 Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as...

  11. 77 FR 68115 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 1, 2012, Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Millennium), One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh... Gas Transmission, L.L.C. in Ramapo, New York and points further east. In addition, depending...

  12. Early Literacy Instruction for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, W. Dorsey, Ed.; Raphael, Taffy E., Ed.

    Noting that early reading achievement is increasingly being named as a top priority in venues ranging from national policy arenas to local schools and school districts, this book consolidates and summarizes research on early reading achievement, making it accessible to parents, teachers, administrators, and others concerned with children's reading…

  13. Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a…

  14. Effects of the Digital Game-Development Approach on Elementary School Students' Learning Motivation, Problem Solving, and Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Hung, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the game-based development approach is proposed for improving the learning motivation, problem solving skills, and learning achievement of students. An experiment was conducted on a learning activity of an elementary school science course to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. A total of 59 sixth graders from two…

  15. Improving Learning Achievements, Motivations and Problem-Solving Skills through a Peer Assessment-Based Game Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hung, Chun-Ming; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a peer assessment-based game development approach is proposed for improving students' learning achievements, motivations and problem-solving skills. An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in a science course at an elementary school. A total of 167 sixth graders participated in…

  16. The Effect of Curriculum for Developing Efficient Studying Skills on Academic Achievements and Studying Skills of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Semra; Kilinc, Mehmet; Dogan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to examine the effect of "Development of Efficient Studying Skills Curriculum" on academic achievements and studying skills of 7th grade primary school students. In this study, pre-test post-test from experiment models and semi-experimental model with control group were preferred. The reason for the preference is…

  17. Challenge and Success: A Qualitative Study of the Career Development of Highly Achieving Women With Physical and Sensory Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Brigid M.; Gallor, Susanna M.; Hensler-McGinnis, Nancy F.; Fassinger, Ruth E.; Wang, Shihwe; Goodman, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the career development experiences of 17 highly achieving women with physical and sensory disabilities. Interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using modified grounded theory strategies (A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1998). The emergent theoretical model was conceptualized as a system of influences organized…

  18. Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Kwang Suk; Duncan, Teresa; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Scarloss, Beth; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2007-01-01

    The Regional Educational Laboratory - Southwest (REL Southwest) conducted a systematic and comprehensive review of the research-based evidence on the effects of professional development (PD) on growth in student achievement in three core academic subjects (reading/ELA, mathematics, and science). The primary goal of this study was to address the…

  19. Relations between the Development of Future Time Perspective in Three Life Domains, Investment in Learning, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2011-01-01

    Relations between the development of future time perspectives in three life domains (i.e., school and professional career, social relations, and leisure time) and changes in students' investment in learning and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the first and 584 in the second year of the lower…

  20. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing the Sixth Grade Students Decision-Making Skill and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…

  1. WWC Quick Review of the Report "The Impact of Two Professional Development Interventions on Early Reading Instruction and Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the "Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling" ("LETRS)" professional development curriculum on the reading achievement of second graders. The authors examined data on more than 5,000 second graders from ninety elementary schools in four states during the 2005-06 school year. Study schools were…

  2. Differential Validity and Utility of Successive and Simultaneous Approaches to the Development of Equivalent Achievement Tests in French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Gierl, Mark J.; Tardif, Claudette; Lin, Jie; Rinaldi, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Described in this paper are the first three activities of a research program designed to assess the differential validity and utility of successive and simultaneous approaches to the development of equivalent achievement tests in the French and English languages. Two teams of multilingual/multicultural French-English teachers used the simultaneous…

  3. Mercer's Adaptive Behavior Inventory, the McCarthy Scales, and Dental Development as Predictors of First-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patti L.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between four characteristics of children entering first grade (cognitive, dental and motor development, and adaptive behavior) and achievement at the end of the first grade year were determined. Interrelationships among the independent variables were also determined. (Author/GK)

  4. Teaching Aids a Special Pedagogy Tool of Brain Development in School Children, Interest and Academic Achievement to Enhance Future Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohwojero, Chamberlain Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The school system is an institution where teachers adopt different teaching methods to impact knowledge and skills. The teaching method adopted by a class teacher has a great effect on children interest, academic achievement and brain development of a child. To support this fact the researcher used two groups of children from ten schools to carry…

  5. Courseware Development Model (CDM): The Effects of CDM on Primary School Pre-Service Teachers' Achievements and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efendioglu, Akin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to design a "Courseware Development Model" (CDM) and investigate its effects on pre-service teachers' academic achievements in the field of geography and attitudes toward computer-based education (ATCBE). The CDM consisted of three components: content (C), learning theory, namely, meaningful learning (ML), and…

  6. Achieving Business Success by Developing Clients and Community: Lessons from Leading Companies, Emerging Economies and a Nine Year Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardez, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Empirical evidence and recent revisions of conventional business doctrine indicate that companies that actively promote social performance and develop their clients' markets and skills as part of business strategy have a better chance of achieving sustainable profitability and growth than those that do not. This article discusses how landmark…

  7. Ability Grouping: 1970 -- II. The Impact of Ability Grouping on School Achievement, Affective Development, Ethnic Separation and Socioeconomic Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Warren G.; Bryan, Miriam M.

    In this comprehensive review, important studies from the literature relevant to the impact of ability grouping on students are summarized. The following are considered: the effect of heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping practices on academic achievement and affective development; the tendency of ability grouping to produce separation of students…

  8. Development and Confirmatory Factory Analysis of the Achievement Task Value Scale for University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Yu-Chiung; Lin, Hsiao-Fang; Lin, Chin-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to develop a scale to measure university students' task value and (b) to use confirmatory factor analytic techniques to investigate the construct validity of the scale. The questionnaire items were developed based on theoretical considerations and the final version contained 38 items divided into 4 subscales.…

  9. Environmental Factors Associated with Early Reading Achievement in the Developing World: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Educational research from the developed world is often used as the basis for policies and programs in the developing world. However, local contextual factors should be taken into consideration in any transfer of research findings. This study examines associations that socioeconomic status (SES) and the home literacy environment (HLE) have with…

  10. Validity of the Simultaneous Approach to the Development of Equivalent Achievement Tests in English and French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Lin, Jie; Rinaldi, Christia M.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence gathered in the present study supports the use of the simultaneous development of test items for different languages. The simultaneous approach used in the present study involved writing an item in one language (e.g., French) and, before moving to the development of a second item, translating the item into the second language (e.g.,…

  11. Using Impact Bonds to Achieve Early Childhood Development Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Gardiner, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, or Global Goals) and their associated targets set out by the United Nations in 2015 explicitly seek to address some of the largest challenges facing children around the world. Early Childhood Development (ECD) interventions have been found to improve adult health and education levels, reduce crime, and…

  12. Racial Identity Development and Academic Achievement of Academically Gifted African American Students: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2014-01-01

    Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…

  13. LAND-USE, ECONOMICS AND HYDROLOGIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A SECOND STEP TOWARDS ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past and present development and land-use patterns have drastically altered the hydrologic function of our nation's watersheds. What is only now widely recognized is that the increased storm water volume and peak flows resulting from development in watersheds, not just the pollu...

  14. So What's Different? Student Achievement and Attitude Results from Instructional Development Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, J. Nicholls; Van Horn, Kathleen L.

    Reported are the results of instructional development projects at Utah State University, funded under mini grants, faculty development grants, or developmental grants to departments. These projects involve redesign of courses in media production, library resources, pattern design and fitting, counselling psychology, quantitative methods,…

  15. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Other Egregious Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2002-01-01

    Argues that 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, providing increased protection against unauthorized access to copyrighted electronic media, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, extending the term of most copyrighted books, unduly burden users of electronic media and books. Discusses the negative impact of recent federal laws to…

  16. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and partnership; (2)…

  17. Critical Thinking for the New Millennium: A Pedagogical Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Andrew Ann Dinkins

    The pedagogical imperative to prepare students to become critical thinkers, critical readers, and critical writers for the coming millennium necessitates a comprehensive college discourse on critical thinking. The paper cites seminars and workshops that incorporate theoretical and practical dimensions of teaching critical-analytical thinking…

  18. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 1: Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  19. Literacy: The First Decade of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack; Ortlieb, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of literacy instruction has remained constant since the beginning of the new millennium, literacy trends have shifted, often alongside acts of legislation. Areas of literacy education that were once overlooked in the past like adolescent literacy and RTI are now receiving increased attention, whereas areas of literacy like…

  20. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  1. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance.

    PubMed

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  2. Achieving and Sustaining New Knowledge Development in High-Expectation Start-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2010-01-01

    In markets characterized by strong competition, new knowledge and new knowledge development are generally recognized as the key means for an enterprise to gain competitive advantage. This knowledge-based competitive advantage is critical for all commercial ventures, but is especially so for high-expectation start-ups (technology-based ventures…

  3. Impact of Online Professional Development on Teacher Quality and Student Achievement in Fifth Grade Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Sheralyn; de Kramer, Raquel Magidin; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Masters, Jessica; Russell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of online professional development (OPD) programs, relatively few studies have been conducted to examine the efficacy of such programs for teachers and students. This manuscript presents findings from an impact study of OPD courses in fractions, algebraic thinking, and measurement on 79 fifth grade teachers'…

  4. A Randomized Trial of Teacher Development in Elementary Science: First-Year Achievement Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Gamoran, Adam; Bowdon, Jill

    2008-01-01

    This article describes 1st-year experimental effects of a large-scale reform providing professional development to elementary school teachers to implement an extended, inquiry-oriented science curriculum. Known as "immersion teaching" because it "immerses" teachers and students in the full cycle of scientific inquiry, this approach developed…

  5. Computer Assisted Instruction in Schools: Achievements, Present Developments, and Projections for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    This overview of computer assisted instruction (CAI) traces the development and use of computers in learning and instruction and describes some current CAI projects including PLATO, CDC PLATO, TICCIT, and others at Stanford University and the Computer Curriculum Corporation, and in Chicago, Los Nietos (California), Minnesota, Europe, and Canada.…

  6. Beliefs about Teaching Science: The Relationship between Elementary Teachers' Participation in Professional Development and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpe, Andrew; Czerniak, Charlene; Haney, Jodi; Beltyukova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Because of increasing calls for school accountability, an increased emphasis placed on the role of the teacher, and theoretical connections between teacher beliefs and classroom action, a critical need exists to examine teacher professional development programs to determine their impact on teacher belief systems, teaching practices, and student…

  7. Teacher Social Capital and Student Achievement: Impact of a Cyber-Enabled Teacher Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This is an evaluative research study of a NSF-funded, DRK-12 cyber-enabled teacher professional development program in elementary engineering education. The finding shows the significant impact of the program on students' science and engineering knowledge in the second year of the program's implementation. However, student learning gain…

  8. Improving Elementary Science Instruction and Student Achievement: The Impact of a Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M.; Cotner, Bridget A.; Lee, Reginald S.; Boydston, Theodore L.; Lanehart, Rheta

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish the efficacy of Teaching SMART (Teaching Science, Mathematics and Relevant Technologies); a science professional development program for teachers with students in grades 3 through 5. Teaching SMART promotes scientific inquiry and emphasizes the importance of equity, empowerment, exploration, and fun in the…

  9. Innovative Learning and Developments in Motivation and Achievement in Upper Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea; Volman, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has shown the potential of innovative learning for enhancing motivation and learning outcomes, further understanding is needed on which aspects of IL are most effective and whether these are equally motivating for different types of students. The present study investigated how developments in students' motivation and…

  10. Lessons Scooped from the Melting Pot: California District Increases Achievement through English Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Nelson, John

    2010-01-01

    Consider the challenges facing one district: 27,000 students in 44 elementary schools in a southern California border district. Most students--72%--are classified as English language learners (ELL) as measured by the California English Language Development Test (CELDT). Although 65% of the students are Hispanic/Latino and speak Spanish as a first…

  11. The Essential Role of Curricular Analyses in Comparative Studies of Mathematics Achievement: Developing "Fair" Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Oscar; Papick, Ira; Ross, Dan J.; Grouws, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the process of development of assessment instruments for the Comparing Options in Secondary Mathematics: Investigating Curriculum (COSMIC) project. The COSMIC project was a three-year longitudinal comparative study focusing on evaluating high school students' mathematics learning from two distinct…

  12. DIMENSIONS OF CHILDREN'S SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT RELATED TO SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KETCHAM, WARREN A.; MORSE, WILLIAM C.

    THE FIRST TASK OF THIS RESEARCH WAS TO CONSTRUCT A SET OF INSTRUMENTS FOR THE COLLECTION OF DATA ON CHILDREN'S SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT. THE PURPOSE WAS TO PRODUCE INSTRUMENTS WITH A CLOSER RELATIONSHIP TO THE CLASSROOM SETTING AND THE INTERESTS AND CONCERNS OF TEACHERS THAN MOST OF THE AVAILABLE ONES SEEMED TO PROVIDE. A LARGE POOL OF…

  13. Challenges and Achievements of American Education. 1993 Yearbook of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon, Ed.

    This yearbook, a retrospective and prospective exploration of educational change, focuses on the challenges of curriculum, instructional supervision, and leadership for education in the United States. The yearbook opens with a foreword by Stephanie Pace Marshall, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) President, 1992-93, and…

  14. The development and achievement of a healthy cities network in Taiwan: sharing leadership and partnership building.

    PubMed

    Hu, Susan C; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Healthy Cities (HC) projects are the best known of the settings-based approaches to health promotion. They engage local governments in health development through a process of political commitment, institutional change, capacity-building, partnership-based planning and innovative projects. Many cities have promoted HC projects in Taiwan since 2002. In 2008, the Taiwan Alliance for Healthy Cities (TAHC) was launched to assist local governments in effectively establishing, operating and promoting HC projects. In this article, we share our experiences of establishing a platform and network to promote the HC program in Taiwan. Based on individual city profiles and governance in Taiwan, the TAHC developed a well-organized framework and model to encourage strong leadership in local governments and to promote participation and engagement in their communities. In the last 6 years, leaders from Taiwan's local governments in HC networks have integrated the HC concepts into their governance models, actively engaging and combining various resources with practical expertise and private sectors. The network of health in Taiwan allows each city to develop its unique perspective on the HC projects. Using this method, not only local government meets its needs, but also increases governance efficiency and effectiveness, resulting in the promotion of its citizens' overall sustainable urban health development. This HC network in Taiwan has partnerships with government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), with academic support and citizen involvement, a dynamic data collection system and demonstrated leadership in the sharing of information in the Asian region. PMID:27199013

  15. Adult Education: Evolution and Achievements in a Developing Field of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, John M.; And Others

    This volume is a companion to "Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging Field of University Study" (more commonly known as "the black book"), a classic work published in 1964. It explores the developments, accomplishments, and changes in the field since 1964 and charts new directions for research, theory, and practice in the study of adult…

  16. Entrepreneurship Education in Delta State Tertiary Institution as a Means of Achieving National Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osakwe, Regina N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined entrepreneurship education in Delta Sate tertiary institutions as a means of national growth and development. Two research questions were asked to guide the study. The population comprised all the 1,898 academic staff in eight tertiary institutions in the state. A sample of 800 lecturers was drawn through the multi stage and…

  17. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidi Nnorom, Innocent; Osibanjo, Oladele; Onyedikachi Nnorom, Stanley

    Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

  18. The developments and achievements of endoscopic surgery, robotic surgery and function-preserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masashi; Furukawa, Toshiharu; Morikawa, Yasuhide; Kitagawa, Yuko; Kitajima, Masaki

    2010-09-01

    The breakthrough in laparoscopic surgery has been the development of a charge-coupled device camera system and Mouret performing cholecystectomy in 1987. The short-term benefits of laparoscopic surgery are widely accepted and the long-term benefit of less incidence of bowel obstruction can be expected. The important developments have been the articulating instrumentation via new laparoscopic access ports. Since 2007, single-incision laparoscopic surgery has spread all over the world. Not only single-scar but also no-scar operation is a current topic. In 2004, Kalloo reported the flexible transgastric peritoneoscopy as a novel approach to therapeutic interventions. In 2007, Marescaux reported transvaginal cholecystectomy in a patient. The breakthrough in robotic surgery was the development of the da Vinci Surgical System. It was introduced to Keio University Hospital in March 2000. Precision in the surgery will reach a higher level with the use of robotics. In collaboration with the faculty of technology and science, Keio University, the combined master-slave manipulator has been developed. The haptic forceps, which measure the elasticity of organs, have also been developed. The first possible sites of lymphatic metastasis are known as sentinel nodes. Otani reported vagus-sparing segmental gastrectomy under sentinel node navigation. This kind of function-preserving surgery will be performed frequently if the results of the multicenter prospective trial of the dual tracer method are favorable. Indocyanine green fluorescence-guided method using the HyperEye charge-coupled device camera system can be a highly sensitive method without using the radioactive colloid. 'Minimally invasive, function-preserving and precise surgery under sentinel node navigation in community hospital' may be a goal for us. PMID:20736221

  19. Out of the wilderness? Achieving sustainable development within Scottish national parks.

    PubMed

    Barker, Adam; Stockdale, Aileen

    2008-07-01

    The introduction of national parks to Scotland represents a significant shift in the evolution of protected area management within the UK. Although the National Parks (Scotland) Act 2000 adopts the established national park aims of conservation and recreation, provisions are also made for advancing notions of sustainable development. This paper provides an assessment of the degree to which the Scottish national park model is likely to enable the realisation of multiple national park objectives. Five key areas are considered for analysis. These relate to management aims, institutional arrangements, implementation, democratic accountability and funding. The evaluation reveals that whilst management provisions have been established in accordance with international sustainable development guidelines, a number of concerns relating to operational processes remain.

  20. Biosensors in Health Care: The Milestones Achieved in Their Development towards Lab-on-Chip-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Suprava; Nanda, Rachita; Sahoo, Sibasish; Mohapatra, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Immense potentiality of biosensors in medical diagnostics has driven scientists in evolution of biosensor technologies and innovating newer tools in time. The cornerstone of the popularity of biosensors in sensing wide range of biomolecules in medical diagnostics is due to their simplicity in operation, higher sensitivity, ability to perform multiplex analysis, and capability to be integrated with different function by the same chip. There remains a huge challenge to meet the demands of performance and yield to its simplicity and affordability. Ultimate goal stands for providing point-of-care testing facility to the remote areas worldwide, particularly the developing countries. It entails continuous development in technology towards multiplexing ability, fabrication, and miniaturization of biosensor devices so that they can provide lab-on-chip-analysis systems to the community. PMID:27042353

  1. The Development of Computational Biology in South Africa: Successes Achieved and Lessons Learnt

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Christoffels, Alan; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gamieldien, Junaid; Hazelhurst, Scott; Joubert, Fourie; Kumuthini, Judit; Pillay, Ché S.; Snoep, Jacky L.; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatics is now a critical skill in many research and commercial environments as biological data are increasing in both size and complexity. South African researchers recognized this need in the mid-1990s and responded by working with the government as well as international bodies to develop initiatives to build bioinformatics capacity in the country. Significant injections of support from these bodies provided a springboard for the establishment of computational biology units at multiple universities throughout the country, which took on teaching, basic research and support roles. Several challenges were encountered, for example with unreliability of funding, lack of skills, and lack of infrastructure. However, the bioinformatics community worked together to overcome these, and South Africa is now arguably the leading country in bioinformatics on the African continent. Here we discuss how the discipline developed in the country, highlighting the challenges, successes, and lessons learnt. PMID:26845152

  2. The Development of Computational Biology in South Africa: Successes Achieved and Lessons Learnt.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Christoffels, Alan; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gamieldien, Junaid; Hazelhurst, Scott; Joubert, Fourie; Kumuthini, Judit; Pillay, Ché S; Snoep, Jacky L; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki

    2016-02-01

    Bioinformatics is now a critical skill in many research and commercial environments as biological data are increasing in both size and complexity. South African researchers recognized this need in the mid-1990s and responded by working with the government as well as international bodies to develop initiatives to build bioinformatics capacity in the country. Significant injections of support from these bodies provided a springboard for the establishment of computational biology units at multiple universities throughout the country, which took on teaching, basic research and support roles. Several challenges were encountered, for example with unreliability of funding, lack of skills, and lack of infrastructure. However, the bioinformatics community worked together to overcome these, and South Africa is now arguably the leading country in bioinformatics on the African continent. Here we discuss how the discipline developed in the country, highlighting the challenges, successes, and lessons learnt.

  3. The Development, Validation and Application of an External Criterion Measure of Achievement Test Item Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Robert A.

    Based on John Rawls' theory of justice as fairness, a nine-item rating scale was developed to serve as a criterion in studies of test item bias. Two principles underlie the scale: (1) Within a defined usage, test items should not affect students so that they are unable to do as well as their abilities would indicate; and (2) within the domain of a…

  4. Con: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Walker, Isabeau A

    2009-01-01

    Medical migration is damaging health systems in developing countries and anesthesia delivery is critically affected, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. 'Within country' postgraduate anesthesia training needs to be supported to encourage more doctors into the specialty. Open-ended training programs to countries that do not share the same spectrum of disease should be discouraged. Donor agencies have an important role to play in supporting sustainable postgraduate training programs.

  5. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Margaret

    2010-12-31

    Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  6. Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International

  7. Ten years of RELEA: achievements and challenges for astronomy education development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Jafelice, Luiz Carlos; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    When an area of education, and more particularly the research within this area, is aimed to development, a basic requirement is the existence of a regular publication that accounts for the scientific production in that area. This study aims to analyze 10 years of Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA). Publishing policies of the RELEA and their context are discussed in relation to submission, refereeing and publication. The 75 articles published in 18 editions are analyzed and classified by: year of publication, edition, the authors' institutions, school level, study focus and content. The results present trends and shortcomings of the production. A comparison with the number of articles published in other Brazilian journals of education and an analysis of the international scene in relation to other type publications along these ten years is made. Given that this journal is now consolidated, its future prospects in the international landscape are further considered. The challenges related to article submission are discussed: how to increase their number, the submission of Latin American countries, and how to bring in the issues and subjects not addressed until now. It is also considered the possibility of encouraging graduate studies, new lines of research in astronomy education, and dissemination of material in schools and universities for teachers and students. Finally, future possibilities are discussed given the IAU development programs. For example, more article submission from Portuguese-speaking countries with the support of Regional Nodes and Language Expertise Centers, and opportunities for volunteer IAU members and global projects for the development of astronomy education.

  8. The importance of morphemic awareness to reading achievement and the potential of signing morphemes to supporting reading development.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke, Barbara; Stryker, Deborah S

    2011-01-01

    The ability to access and understand the meaning of multi-morphemic words is essential for age-appropriate literacy growth as well as for achievement in other participants, such as science and social studies, which are so print-dependent. This paper provides a theoretical basis for focusing on the morphology of English when teaching students who are deaf or hard of hearing to read through a review of the literature on the role of morphology in reading for both hearing students and those with a hearing loss. In addition, the authors review the empirical literature on Signing Exact English (SEE), a system of signing English constructed in which the morphology of words is made visible to children who might not be able to hear them. The authors propose that students' use of SEE can provide a bridge to developing the morphemic awareness so necessary for age-appropriate reading development and achievement.

  9. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities.

  10. Cajal's achievements in the field of the development of dendritic arbors.

    PubMed

    García-López, Pablo; García-Marín, Virginia; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Freire, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    In 1909, Cajal published an up-dated version in French (Cajal, 1909-1911) of his main work Texture of the Nervous System of Man and Vertebrates (Cajal, 1899-1904), considered the most important book devoted to the nervous system. Owing that last year was the centenary of this publication, we decided to produce an article focused on Cajals description of the morphological changes that dendritic trees undergo during development. We will emphasize his brilliant hypotheses explaining the modelling of dendritic trees (the neurotropic hypothesis and the role of neuronal activity in the patterning of the dendritic trees), and the status of this topic in present day Neuroscience. Here, we will show original photographs taken from a selected collection of Cajals slides housed in the Cajal Museum (Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, Spain) illustrating the principal changes in neuronal morphology at different stages of development of the spinal cord, cerebellum and cerebral cortex. We will also discuss Cajals initial proposals regarding the influence of neurotropic substances (chemotactic hypothesis) and neural activity in the modelling of the dendritic tree, as well as the evidence that later confirmed these theories.

  11. Can developing countries achieve adequate improvements in child health outcomes without engaging the private sector?

    PubMed Central

    Bustreo, Flavia; Harding, April; Axelsson, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The private sector exerts a significant and critical influence on child health outcomes in developing countries, including the health of poor children. This article reviews the available evidence on private sector utilization and quality of care. It provides a framework for analysing the private sector's influence on child health outcomes. This influence goes beyond service provision by private providers and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Pharmacies, drug sellers, private suppliers, and food producers also have an impact on the health of children. Many governments are experimenting with strategies to engage the private sector to improve child health. The article analyses some of the most promising strategies, and suggests that a number of constraints make it hard for policy-makers to emulate these approaches. Few experiences are clearly described, monitored, and evaluated. The article suggests that improving the impact of child health programmes in developing countries requires a more systematic analysis of how to engage the private sector most effectively. The starting point should include the evaluation of the presence and potential of the private sector, including actors such as professional associations, producer organizations, community groups, and patients' organizations. PMID:14997241

  12. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities. PMID:24786765

  13. Crumbs is required to achieve proper organ size control during Drosophila head development

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Emily C. N.; Pichaud, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Crumbs (Crb) is a conserved apical polarity determinant required for zonula adherens specification and remodelling during Drosophila development. Interestingly, crb function in maintaining apicobasal polarity appears largely dispensable in primary epithelia such as the imaginal discs. Here, we show that crb function is not required for maintaining epithelial integrity during the morphogenesis of the Drosophila head and eye. However, although crb mutant heads are properly developed, they are also significantly larger than their wild-type counterparts. We demonstrate that in the eye, this is caused by an increase in cell proliferation that can be attributed to an increase in ligand-dependent Notch (N) signalling. Moreover, we show that in crb mutant cells, ectopic N activity correlates with an increase in N and Delta endocytosis. These data indicate a role for Crb in modulating endocytosis at the apical epithelial plasma membrane, which we demonstrate is independent of Crb function in apicobasal polarity. Overall, our work reveals a novel function for Crb in limiting ligand-dependent transactivation of the N receptor at the epithelial cell membrane. PMID:20110329

  14. Achieving Innovation and Affordability Through Standardization of Materials Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, M. H.; Zook, L. M.; Raley, R. E.; Chapman, C.

    2011-01-01

    The successful expansion of development, innovation, and production within the aeronautics industry during the 20th century was facilitated by collaboration of government agencies with the commercial aviation companies. One of the initial products conceived from the collaboration was the ANC-5 Bulletin, first published in 1937. The ANC-5 Bulletin had intended to standardize the requirements of various government agencies in the design of aircraft structure. The national space policy shift in priority for NASA with an emphasis on transferring the travel to low earth orbit to commercial space providers highlights an opportunity and a need for the national and global space industries. The same collaboration and standardization that is documented and maintained by the industry within MIL-HDBK-5 (MMPDS-01) and MIL-HBDK-17 (nonmetallic mechanical properties) can also be exploited to standardize the thermal performance properties, processing methods, test methods, and analytical methods for use in aircraft and spacecraft design and associated propulsion systems. In addition to the definition of thermal performance description and standardization, the standardization for test methods and analysis for extreme environments (high temperature, cryogenics, deep space radiation, etc) would also be highly valuable to the industry. Its subsequent revisions and conversion to MIL-HDBK-5 and then MMPDS-01 established and then expanded to contain standardized mechanical property design values and other related design information for metallic materials used in aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It also includes guidance on standardization of composition, processing, and analytical methods for presentation and inclusion into the handbook. This standardization enabled an expansion of the technologies to provide efficiency and reliability to the consumers. It can be established that many individual programs within the government agencies have been overcome with development costs

  15. Geochemical constraints on sustainable development: Can an advanced global economy achieve long-term stability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, William F.

    2008-04-01

    The eighty-one stable chemical elements are examined individually with respect to (i) recent annual demand and (ii) worst case long-term availability in a distant future in which they must be extracted from the background sources of air, seawater, and ordinary rock. It is shown that, if a conventional use scenario is envisioned, the supplies of ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, tellurium, rhenium, osmium, iridium, platinum, gold, and especially phosphorus will be questionable while the supplies of copper, zinc, molybdenum, silver, cadmium, tin, antimony, tungsten, mercury, lead, and bismuth will be inadequate. It is therefore concluded that, in the long run, only the promotion of massive recycling and substitution technologies will suffice to maintain the global industrial society now developing.

  16. Development of seriation and its relation to the achievement of inferential transitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Julia V.

    Sixty kindergarten and first grade children took part in an intervention program during which they were confronted with problems requiring concrete operational thought. The study was designed to ascertain the influence of an intervention in the development of operational seriation and transitivity in kindergarten and first grade children who initially failed to demonstrate the ability to do seriation and transitivity problems. Seriation of size, presumably a prerequisite operation for transitive size relations, was also studied. The subjects showed significant advancement toward concrete operation on the seriation problems but failed to show significant improvement on the transitivity problems. In addition, subjects who showed understanding of transitive inference also demonstrated success on seriation, but subjects who showed clear understanding of seriation did not demonstrate success on making transitive inference. Results were interpreted in the context of Piaget's equilibration theory (Genetic epistemology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970).

  17. Magnitude of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Indonesia at Postmillennium Development Goals Era.

    PubMed

    Wibawa, Tri; Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul

    2016-01-01

    The world will enter the postmillennium development goals 2015 era. The achievements of the millennium development goals (MDGs) as a global development target need to be evaluated. A sustainable new reasonable target is important for neglected tropical diseases (NTD) elimination in Indonesia. This review describes the NTD situation in Indonesia and highlights problems beneath the NTD transmission. Multidisciplinary approach is a promising strategy to help the marginalized people.

  18. Magnitude of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Indonesia at Postmillennium Development Goals Era

    PubMed Central

    Wibawa, Tri; Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul

    2016-01-01

    The world will enter the postmillennium development goals 2015 era. The achievements of the millennium development goals (MDGs) as a global development target need to be evaluated. A sustainable new reasonable target is important for neglected tropical diseases (NTD) elimination in Indonesia. This review describes the NTD situation in Indonesia and highlights problems beneath the NTD transmission. Multidisciplinary approach is a promising strategy to help the marginalized people. PMID:27190525

  19. What Makes Siblings Different? The Development of Sibling Differences in Academic Achievement and Interests

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Alexander C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    To illuminate processes that contribute to the development of sibling differences, this study examined cross lagged links between parents’ beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability and differences between siblings’ grade point averages (GPAs), and cross lagged links between differences in siblings’ GPAs and sibling differences in academic interests. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, firstborn (M age at Time 1 = 15.71, SD = 1.07) and secondborn (M age at Time 1 = 13.18, SD = 1.29) youth from 388 European American Families on three annual occasions. Findings revealed that, after controlling for siblings’ average grades and prior differences in performance, parents’ beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability predicted differences in performance such that youth rated by parents as relatively more competent than their sibling earned relatively higher grades the following year. Siblings’ relative school performance, however, did not predict parents’ beliefs about differences between siblings’ competencies. Further, after controlling for average interests and grades, sibling differences in GPA predicted differences in siblings’ interests such that youth who had better grades than their siblings reported relatively stronger academic interests the following year. Differences in interest, however, did not predict sibling differences in GPA. Findings are discussed in terms the role of sibling dynamics in family socialization. PMID:26053351

  20. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  1. Faculty development in geriatrics for clinician educators: a unique model for skills acquisition and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Levine, Sharon A; Caruso, Lisa B; Vanderschmidt, Hannelore; Silliman, Rebecca A; Barry, Patricia P

    2005-03-01

    As the size of the aged American population increases, so too does the shortage of trained providers in geriatrics. Educational strategies to train physicians at all levels of experience within adult medical and surgical disciplines are needed to complement fellowship training, given the small size of most academic faculties in geriatrics. This article describes a unique faculty development program that creates geriatrically oriented faculty in multiple disciplines. The Boston University Center of Excellence in Geriatrics (COE), funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, has trained 25 faculty members. Four to six scholars enter the program each year and participate in the COE 1 day per week. Nine months are spent in four content modules-Geriatrics Content, Clinical Teaching, Evidence-based Medicine, and Health Care Systems; 3 months are spent in supervised scholarly activities and clinical settings. A self-report questionnaire and a structured interview were used to evaluate the outcomes of participation in the COE. The results from the first 4 years of the program are reported. The response rate was 83% for the self-report questionnaire and 75% for the structured interview. The results indicate that the COE is effective in improving scholars' assessment and management of older patients. The structured interview revealed that the COE program promotes the integration of geriatrics into clinical teaching at the medical student and resident level. Participants also completed scholarly projects in geriatrics. This program effectively trains faculty scholars to better care for older adults and to teach others to do likewise.

  2. Recent achievements in developing the biocatalytic toolbox for chiral amine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Hannes; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Höhne, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Novel enzyme activities and chemoenzymatic reaction concepts have considerably expanded the biocatalytic toolbox for chiral amine synthesis. Creating new activities or extending the scope of existing enzymes by protein engineering is a common trend in biocatalysis and in chiral amine synthesis specifically. For instance, an amine dehydrogenase that allows for the direct asymmetric amination of ketones with ammonia was created by mutagenesis of an l-amino acid dehydrogenase. Another trend in chiral amine chemistry is the development of strategies allowing for the synthesis of secondary amines. For example the smart choice of substrates for amine transaminases provided access to secondary amines by chemoenzymatic reactions. Furthermore novel biocatalysts for the synthesis of secondary amines such as imine reductases and Pictet-Spenglerases have been identified and applied. Recent examples showed that the biocatalytic amine synthesis is emerging from simple model reactions towards industrial scale preparation of pharmaceutical relevant substances, for instance, as shown in the synthesis of a Janus kinase 2 inhibitor using an amine transaminase. A comparison of important process parameters such as turnover number and space-time yield demonstrates that biocatalytic strategies for asymmetric reductive amination are maturing and can already compete with established chemical methods. PMID:24721252

  3. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-05-27

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  4. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  5. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method.

    PubMed

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed "MDVM", which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30-90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850-2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950-1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450-1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data.

  6. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed “MDVM”, which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30–90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850–2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950–1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450–1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data. PMID:26751947

  7. Achieving greenhouse gas emission reductions in developing countries through energy efficient lighting projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    SciTech Connect

    Figueres, C.; Bosi, M.

    2006-11-15

    Energy efficiency can help address the challenge of increasing access to modern energy services, reduce the need for capital-intensive supply investments as well as mitigating climate change. Efficient lighting is a promising sector for improving the adequacy and reliability of power systems and reducing emissions in developing countries. However, these measures are hardly represented in the CDM portfolio. The COP/MOP decision to include programs of activities in the CDM could open the door to the implementation of a large number of energy efficiency projects in developing countries. Since GHG reductions are essentially the emission equivalent of energy savings, the CDM can benefit from long established energy efficiency methodologies for quantifying energy savings and fulfilling CDM methodological requirements. The integration of the CDM into energy efficiency programs could help spur a necessary transformation in the lighting market.

  8. Achieving Motor Development Milestones at the Age of Three Months May Determine, but Does Not Guarantee, Proper Further Development

    PubMed Central

    Gajewska, Ewa; Sobieska, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Steinborn, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Proper motor performance at 3rd month is necessary for further motor development. The paper aims to demonstrate the reliability, sensitivity, and predictive value of an original motor performance assessment tool in comparison with the neurological assessment at 3, 6, and 9 months. Children (n = 123), born at term without pre- or perinatal complications, born at term with pre- or perinatal complications, or born preterm, were assessed at the age of 3, 6, and 9 months, by a neurologist and a physiotherapist. The physiotherapist evaluated 15 qualitative features typical for the age of 3 months in the prone and supine positions. The final neurological assessment determined the degree of developmental disorder. Neurological and global physiotherapeutic assessments showed a statistically significant correlation. Qualitative assessment results were very good in healthy children and decreased with worsening neurological diagnoses. Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy did not show proper qualitative features of 3 months when analyzed at 3, 6, and 9 months. Children with delayed motor development revealed minor qualitative performance impairments as early as 3 months but improved with age. Qualitative assessment at 3 months not only facilitates diagnosis of major developmental disorders but is also a good predictor of delayed motor development in children. PMID:24385875

  9. Sports medicine in the new millennium: a vision for 2020.

    PubMed

    Miller, T W; Kraus, R F; Adams, J; Bilyeu, J; Ogilvie, B

    1999-09-01

    Globalisation, empowerment and technological change will determine the emerging directions in sports medicine in the new millennium. Networks and alliances of scientist and clinician services, as well as electronic profiling of athletes' learning styles, genetic predisposition and other variables, will enhance the spectrum of sports medicine services. Visionary direction will require changes in the organisational paradigms employed, the communication of information to athletes and coaches and the methodologies of assessment. An emphasis on prevention science and clinical and educational interventions will require a clearer focus. The sports medicine scientist and clinician of today must utilise the endowments suggested by Covey and the multiple intelligence models advanced by Gardner in capturing the clarity of focus for sports medicine in the new millennium.

  10. Challenges for physician executives in the millennium marketplace.

    PubMed

    Coile, R C

    1999-01-01

    There will be fundamental change in the Millennium, but not enacted in Washington, D.C. American health care is entering the "post-Managed Care" era in which payers, providers, plans, and patients reconstruct a new, more efficient, and, ultimately, more satisfying health care delivery system. The Millennium landscape of this evolving marketplace will be characterized by the following trends: (1) The "Age Wave" will boost demand: (2) There will be a push from technology; (3) Public/private health reform will be enacted; (4) Employers will use clout; (5) Direct provider contracting will prevail; (6) Government will regulate managed care organizations; (7) Managed Medicare/Medicaid will be restructured; (8) There will be a health plan shakeout; (9) Providers will "push back"; (10) Doctors will get organized; (11) Providers will assume risk; (12) "Report cards" will be widespread; (13) Managing clinical performance will be the core business of providers; and (14) Health consumers will be informed and Internet savvy. PMID:10387279

  11. Peatlands and the C cycle during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, Angela; Charman, Dan; Brewer, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The last millennium (850-1850 AD) has seen significant changes in climate and in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. This relatively recent time period can be used to assess the peatland contribution to the global carbon cycle, as; 1) the peat accumulation record can be readily assembled from a representative range of peatlands worldwide; 2) climate and greenhouse variability over this time period is reasonably well-known for many regions and; 3) the spatial variability in modern climate space can be used to assess the relationship between peat accumulation and climate variables. Here we present the results of a global compilation of peat accumulation rates over the last 1000 years based on existing published and unpublished data and acquisition of new data in critical regions, especially in the tropics. The new global dataset comprises: a) a set of high temporal resolution sites for which variations of the rate of carbon accumulation during the last millennium in relation to past climate fluctuations can be analysed (e.g. the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to Little Ice Age (LIA) transition in northern high latitudes). b) a set of low temporal resolution sites for which an overall carbon accumulation rate for the whole of the millennium period is calculated. This low-resolution but more sizeable dataset allows for the analysis of potential regional differences and overall contribution of peatlands to the C cycle in the last thousand years. Furthermore, we use the natural range of climate variation across sites to explore the relationship between total carbon accumulation over the last millennium and bioclimatic variables characteristic of each site. We conclude by discussing the implications of the relationships between past climate and peat accumulation for the global carbon cycle.

  12. SCARLET Photovoltaic Concentrator Array Selected for Flight Under NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center continues to demonstrate its expertise in the development and implementation of advanced space power systems. For example, during the past year, the NASA New Millennium Program selected the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) photovoltaic array as the power system for its Deep Space-1 (DS-1) mission. This Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) managed DS-1 mission, which represents the first operational flight of a photovoltaic concentrator array, will provide a baseline for the use of this technology in a variety of future government and commercial applications. SCARLET is a joint NASA Lewis/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization program to develop advanced photovoltaic array technology that uses a unique refractive concentrator design to focus sunlight onto a line of photovoltaic cells located below the optical element. The general concept is based on previous work conducted at Lewis under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with AEC-Able Engineering, Inc., for the Multiple Experiments to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. The SCARLET II design selected by the New Millennium Program is a direct adaptation of the smaller SCARLET I array built for METEOR. Even though SCARLET I was lost during a launch failure in October 1995, the hardware (designed, built, and flight qualified within 6 months) provided invaluable information and experience that led to the selection of this technology as the primary power source for DS-1.

  13. Teacher Research Programs: An Effective Form of Professional Development to Increase Student Achievement and Benefit the Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2008-12-01

    U.S. high school students perform markedly less well in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) than students in other economically advanced countries. This low level of STEM performance endangers our democracy and economy. The President's Council of Advisors in Science and Technology's 2004 report attributed the shortfall of students attracted to the sciences is a result of the dearth of teachers sufficiently conversant with science and scientists to enable them to communicate to their students the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery, and the opportunities science provides for highly rewarding and remunerative careers. Nonetheless, the United States has made little progress in correcting these deficiencies. Studies have shown that high-quality teaching matters more to student achievement than anything else schools do. This belief is buttressed by evidence from Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP) that highly motivated, in-service science teachers require professional development to enable them and their students to perform up to their potential. Columbia's Summer Research Program is based on the premise that to teach science effectively requires experience in using the tools of contemporary science to answer unsolved questions. From its inception, SRP's goal has been to enhance interest and improve performance in science of students. It seeks to achieve this goal by increasing the professional competence of teachers. The reports of Elmore, Sanders and Rivers, and our own studies, show that professional development is a "key lever for improving student outcomes." While most middle and high school science teachers have taken college science courses that include cookbook laboratory exercises, the vast majority of them have never attempted to answer an unsolved question. Just as student learning depends on the expertise of teachers, the expertise of teachers depends on the quality of their professional

  14. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  15. "Health law, ethics and policy: challenges and new avenues for the 21st century and new millennium".

    PubMed

    Bates, P W

    1999-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the World Health Organization on 7th April 1998 stands at the dawn of a new century and millennium. These symbolic markers encourage reflection on past achievements, scrutiny of current problems, and contemplation of the possibilities and practicalities of coordinated action to promote the global vision of 'Health For All'. Will that global vision remain inspirational, important and inclusive enough to sustain policy commitment, and unite diverse regional, national and local customs and traditions in ethics, human rights and laws so as to overcome inequities in health status, and improve health systems and health services?"

  16. DMCA Section 104 Report: A Report of the Register of Copyrights Pursuant to [Section] 104 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    As required under section 104 of Public Law No. 105-304, this Report evaluates the effects of title I of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998 and the development of electronic commerce and associated technology on the operation of sections 109 and 117 of title 17, U.S.C. It also evaluates the relationship between existing and…

  17. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1–3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

  18. Comet and Asteroid Missions in NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Chainpollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered

  19. Role of Teacher Education in the Achievement of MDGs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Amardeep; Singh, Kulwinder

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which include eight goals have been framed to address the world's major development challenges by 2015. In India, considerable progress has been reported to be made in the field of basic universal education, gender equality in education, economic growth and other human development related aspects. Even…

  20. An Education Millennium Development Goal for Quality: Complexity and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Angeline M.

    2011-01-01

    A good quality education is inclusive, relevant and democratic. Of these three characteristics, the author contends that democratic is the most fundamental and underpins the other two. Education can only truly be inclusive and relevant if its goals are continuously the subject of open democratic debate, since education is a value-based,…

  1. Cooperative Education in the New Millennium: Implications for Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Cal

    1997-01-01

    Colleges and universities are being challenged to examine their mission, structure, and delivery of services for two reasons with far-reaching implications for cooperative education. The first is the move from an industrial to a postindustrial economy. The second deals with incorrect assumptions about learning based on outmoded information and…

  2. Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…

  3. Curriculum Directions for the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashway, Robert M.; And Others

    This paper reviews and uses current research to present guidelines for curriculum development and delivery. The presenters demonstrate why manipulatives, laboratories and other "hands on" approaches are not appropriate introductory learning tools for adults. They argue that laboratory and similar strategies are the tools of an…

  4. Elementary School Counseling in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daya Singh, Ed.

    Counselors must consider social change as they design programs to maximize student potential, personal growth, self-determination, and self-responsibility. There is also a need for counselors to develop, implement, and evaluate counseling programs for culturally diverse students. The book is intended as a textbook for courses in elementary school…

  5. The Great Work of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Berry explores the meaning of work from the standpoint of human civilization responding to the call of the universe, replacing use and exploitation of nature with the wonder, rapport, and intimacy so important to the psychic balance of the developing human and natural harmony of life on Earth. The Great Work is defined as the work of…

  6. Unofficial Technology Marvel of the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricart, Glenn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the Internet, particularly on higher education. Highlights include a history of the development of the Internet; a leadership plan for higher education; authentication of personal identity; security; information quality; the concept of Internet time; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  7. Talented football players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Philip; Höner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is regarded as a key developmental phase in the course of talented football players' careers. The present study focuses on early adolescent players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions. Based on the multidimensional and dynamic nature of talent, the development of multifaceted personality characteristics is an important issue in the context of sports talent research. According to previous findings in psychology, personality characteristics' development is defined by both stability and change, and the current study analyses four different types: differential stability (I), mean-level change (II), individual-level change (III), and structural stability (IV). The sample consists of 151 male players in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. Psychological diagnostics of the personality characteristics are implemented across longitudinal sections over a time period of three seasons, from the U12 to U14 age classes. The results reveal that the personality characteristics show (I) moderate test-retest correlations over one-year intervals (.43 ≤ rtt ≤ .62), and lower coefficients for a two-year period (.26 ≤ rtt ≤ .53). (II) Most of the personality characteristics' mean values differ significantly across the age classes with small effect sizes (.01 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ .03). (III) Only minor individual-level changes in the football players' development are found. (IV) The personality characteristics' associations within a two-factor structure do not stay invariant over time. From the results of the present study, conclusions are drawn regarding the talent identification and development process.

  8. Talented football players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Philip; Höner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is regarded as a key developmental phase in the course of talented football players' careers. The present study focuses on early adolescent players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions. Based on the multidimensional and dynamic nature of talent, the development of multifaceted personality characteristics is an important issue in the context of sports talent research. According to previous findings in psychology, personality characteristics' development is defined by both stability and change, and the current study analyses four different types: differential stability (I), mean-level change (II), individual-level change (III), and structural stability (IV). The sample consists of 151 male players in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. Psychological diagnostics of the personality characteristics are implemented across longitudinal sections over a time period of three seasons, from the U12 to U14 age classes. The results reveal that the personality characteristics show (I) moderate test-retest correlations over one-year intervals (.43 ≤ rtt ≤ .62), and lower coefficients for a two-year period (.26 ≤ rtt ≤ .53). (II) Most of the personality characteristics' mean values differ significantly across the age classes with small effect sizes (.01 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ .03). (III) Only minor individual-level changes in the football players' development are found. (IV) The personality characteristics' associations within a two-factor structure do not stay invariant over time. From the results of the present study, conclusions are drawn regarding the talent identification and development process. PMID:26313875

  9. Predicting Levels of Reading and Writing Achievement in Typically Developing, English-Speaking 2nd and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jasmin Niedo; Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2014-01-01

    Human traits tend to fall along normal distributions. The aim of this research was to evaluate an evidence-based conceptual framework for predicting expected individual differences in reading and writing achievement outcomes for typically developing readers and writers in early and middle childhood from Verbal Reasoning with or without Working Memory Components (phonological, orthographic, and morphological word storage and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and rapid switching attention for cross-code integration). Verbal Reasoning (reconceptualized as Bidirectional Cognitive-Linguistic Translation) plus the Working Memory Components (reconceptualized as a language learning system) accounted for more variance than Verbal Reasoning alone, except for handwriting for which Working Memory Components alone were better predictors. Which predictors explained unique variance varied within and across reading (oral real word and pseudoword accuracy and rate, reading comprehension) and writing (handwriting, spelling, composing) skills and grade levels (second and fifth) in this longitudinal study. Educational applications are illustrated and theoretical and practical significance discussed. PMID:24948868

  10. Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): achievements, open questions and strategies for the way forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy

    2010-06-01

    This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of humankind. It suggests that, while there has been progress, much remains to be achieved. Several key challenges are identified. With regard to overcoming these obstacles, it focuses on macro-level strategies that would allow the development of environments in which actions can take root and grow so that the work of the DESD endures beyond the decade itself. Finally, it suggests that there are some opportunities that can be seized to make the task ahead easier to accomplish.

  11. International Conference on Population and Development at 15 Years: Achieving Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All?

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Mindy Jane

    2010-01-01

    Sexual and reproductive health remains the contentious concept it was at the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, Egypt. In light of the recent 15-year review of ICPD, we suggest several areas where advocates, practitioners, and researchers can inform future progress for sexual and reproductive health. These include the following: improving measurement and accountability related to the evidence base for sexual and reproductive health, indicators of program success, and the tracking of resource flows; creating and renewing alliances to strengthen advocacy; and employing new resource mobilization strategies. Given the 20-year goals established at ICPD, now is the time to move toward finally achieving the sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. PMID:20075310

  12. Predicting Levels of Reading and Writing Achievement in Typically Developing, English-Speaking 2(nd) and 5(th) Graders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jasmin Niedo; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W

    2014-05-01

    Human traits tend to fall along normal distributions. The aim of this research was to evaluate an evidence-based conceptual framework for predicting expected individual differences in reading and writing achievement outcomes for typically developing readers and writers in early and middle childhood from Verbal Reasoning with or without Working Memory Components (phonological, orthographic, and morphological word storage and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and rapid switching attention for cross-code integration). Verbal Reasoning (reconceptualized as Bidirectional Cognitive-Linguistic Translation) plus the Working Memory Components (reconceptualized as a language learning system) accounted for more variance than Verbal Reasoning alone, except for handwriting for which Working Memory Components alone were better predictors. Which predictors explained unique variance varied within and across reading (oral real word and pseudoword accuracy and rate, reading comprehension) and writing (handwriting, spelling, composing) skills and grade levels (second and fifth) in this longitudinal study. Educational applications are illustrated and theoretical and practical significance discussed.

  13. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire among Nigerian Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Fatade, Alfred O.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The stability of the achievement goal orientation across different contexts has been a source of further research since the new millennium. Through theoretically-driven and empirically-based analyses, this study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elliot and McGregor 2x2 framework for achievement goal questionnaire within…

  14. Inter-hemispheric temperature variability over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukom, Raphael; Gergis, Joëlle; Karoly, David J.; Wanner, Heinz; Curran, Mark; Elbert, Julie; González-Rouco, Fidel; Linsley, Braddock K.; Moy, Andrew D.; Mundo, Ignacio; Raible, Christoph C.; Steig, Eric J.; van Ommen, Tas; Vance, Tessa; Villalba, Ricardo; Zinke, Jens; Frank, David

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's climate system is driven by a complex interplay of internal chaotic dynamics and natural and anthropogenic external forcing. Recent instrumental data have shown a remarkable degree of asynchronicity between Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere temperature fluctuations, thereby questioning the relative importance of internal versus external drivers of past as well as future climate variability. However, large-scale temperature reconstructions for the past millennium have focused on the Northern Hemisphere, limiting empirical assessments of inter-hemispheric variability on multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Here, we introduce a new millennial ensemble reconstruction of annually resolved temperature variations for the Southern Hemisphere based on an unprecedented network of terrestrial and oceanic palaeoclimate proxy records. In conjunction with an independent Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction ensemble, this record reveals an extended cold period (1594-1677) in both hemispheres but no globally coherent warm phase during the pre-industrial (1000-1850) era. The current (post-1974) warm phase is the only period of the past millennium where both hemispheres are likely to have experienced contemporaneous warm extremes. Our analysis of inter-hemispheric temperature variability in an ensemble of climate model simulations for the past millennium suggests that models tend to overemphasize Northern Hemisphere-Southern Hemisphere synchronicity by underestimating the role of internal ocean-atmosphere dynamics, particularly in the ocean-dominated Southern Hemisphere. Our results imply that climate system predictability on decadal to century timescales may be lower than expected based on assessments of external climate forcing and Northern Hemisphere temperature variations alone.

  15. Major Mesoamerican droughts of the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Diaz, J. Villanueva; Burnette, D. J.; Paredes, J. Cerano; Heim, R. R., Jr.; Fye, F. K.; Acuna Soto, R.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Stahle, D. K.

    2011-03-01

    Ancient Montezuma baldcypress (Taxodium mucronatum) trees found in Barranca de Amealco, Queretaro, have been used to develop a 1,238-year tree-ring chronology that is correlated with precipitation, temperature, drought indices, and crop yields in central Mexico. This chronology has been used to reconstruct the spring-early summer soil moisture balance over the heartland of the Mesoamerican cultural province, and is the first exactly dated, annually resolved paleoclimatic record for Mesoamerica spanning the Late Classic, Post Classic, Colonial, and modern eras. The reconstruction indicates that the Terminal Classic drought extended into central Mexico, supporting other sedimentary and speleothem evidence for this early 10th century drought in Mesoamerica. The reconstruction also documents severe and sustained drought during the decline of the Toltec state (1149-1167) and during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec state (1514-1539), providing a new precisely dated climate framework for Mesoamerican cultural change.

  16. Development and validation of an achievement test in introductory quantum mechanics: The Quantum Mechanics Visualization Instrument (QMVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataloglu, Erdat

    The purpose of this study was to construct a valid and reliable multiple-choice achievement test to assess students' understanding of core concepts of introductory quantum mechanics. Development of the Quantum Mechanics Visualization Instrument (QMVI) occurred across four successive semesters in 1999--2001. During this time 213 undergraduate and graduate students attending the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) at University Park and Arizona State University (ASU) participated in this development and validation study. Participating students were enrolled in four distinct groups of courses: Modern Physics, Undergraduate Quantum Mechanics, Graduate Quantum Mechanics, and Chemistry Quantum Mechanics. Expert panels of professors of physics experienced in teaching quantum mechanics courses and graduate students in physics and science education established the core content and assisted in the validating of successive versions of the 24-question QMVI. Instrument development was guided by procedures outlined in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA-APA-NCME, 1999). Data gathered in this study provided information used in the development of successive versions of the QMVI. Data gathered in the final phase of administration of the QMVI also provided evidence that the intended score interpretation of the QMVI achievement test is valid and reliable. A moderate positive correlation coefficient of 0.49 was observed between the students' QMVI scores and their confidence levels. Analyses of variance indicated that students' scores in Graduate Quantum Mechanics and Undergraduate Quantum Mechanics courses were significantly higher than the mean scores of students in Modern Physics and Chemistry Quantum Mechanics courses (p < 0.05). That finding is consistent with the additional understanding and experience that should be anticipated in graduate students and junior-senior level students over sophomore physics majors and majors in another field. The moderate

  17. Pharmacoeconomics in the new millennium. A pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Thwaites, R; Townsend, R J

    1998-02-01

    The primary purpose of pharmacoeconomic research is to assist in making healthcare decisions. Rapid growth in the supply of pharmacoeconomic data over the past few years suggests that pharmacoeconomics can be of help in delivering good, cost-effective healthcare. Greater challenges in decision-making coupled with improvements in the techniques of pharmacoeconomic research point to a greater role for pharmacoeconomics into the new millennium. This in turn will have consequences for companies in the pharmaceutical industry. More successful access to markets and better commercialisation of products will be the rewards for those companies committing to pharmacoeconomics and to the broader goal of delivering value for money in healthcare.

  18. Northern high latitude climate variability of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Heather J.

    This work explores the causes of northern high-latitude climate variations over the last millennium, and industrial and future periods. Attribution studies are performed on a suite of global climate simulations, and four historical reconstructions of Greenland surface temperatures and precipitation (two of which are new to this work). The simulations followed the protocols of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 3 and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. At least half of the multi-decadal variability in simulated Greenland climate variations over the last millennium is reproduced by a linear, empirically-generated model including terms for volcanic emissions, solar insolation changes (including total solar irradiance and orbital components) and an index associated with latitudinal shifts in the North Atlantic jet. Empirical model parameters are obtained by regressing simulated Greenland temperatures and precipitation against time series for each of the response variables. Greenhouse gas radiative forcing changes are unimportant to simulated Greenland conditions over the last millennium, although they dominate after the mid-20th century. Most of the historical Greenland climate reconstructions are restricted to the industrial period, due to a lack of spatially-comprehensive climate records. They exhibit substantial differences in the timing, phasing and amplitudes of past climate variations, due to regional sensitivities in the source data and the reconstruction methodologies. Reconstructions indicate that Greenland temperatures did not begin to follow hemispheric greenhouse gas warming patterns until the mid-1990s. This discrepancy indicates either that the warming hiatus was associated with internal climate variability, or that the simulations are missing processes important to Greenland climate. For example, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols are not captured in the climate model employed here. All of the external climate forcings

  19. Halo Pairs in the Millennium Simulation: Love and Deception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J.

    2013-10-01

    In this work I investigate the statistical properties of a huge catalog of closely interacting pairs of dark matter haloes, extracted from the Millennium Simulation database. Only haloes that reach a minimum mass ≥ 8.6 × 1010 M⊙ h-1 (corresponding to 100 particles) are considered. Close pairs are selected if they come within a critical distance dcrit. I explore the effects of replacing dcrit = 1 Mpc h-1 → 200 kpc h-1 on the evolution of separations, lifetimes, total masses and mass ratios of these pairs.

  20. Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.

  1. Hemophilia A in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2013-07-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked hereditary bleeding disorder due to the deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). According to the degree of FVIII deficiency, mild, moderate or severe forms are recognized. Although patients with mild hemophilia A usually bleed excessively only after trauma or surgery, those with severe hemophilia experience frequent episodes of spontaneous or excessive bleeding after minor trauma, particularly into joints and muscles. The modern management of hemophilia began in the 1970s and is actually based upon several plasma-derived or recombinant FVIII products. In addition, the synthetic drug desmopressin can be used to prevent or treat bleeding episodes in patients with mild hemophilia A. Long-term and continuous substitution therapy (prophylaxis), the recommended treatment in severe hemophilia, prevents bleeding and the resultant joint damage. In the last twenty years the high standard of hemophilia care has greatly improved the quality of life of patients and their life expectancy has reached that of the non-hemophilic male population, at least in high-income countries. The most serious and challenging complication of treatment of hemophilia A is the development of inhibitors, which renders FVIII concentrate infusion ineffective and exposes patients to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In this narrative review, the actual knowledge on the clinical features and management of patients with hemophilia A is summarized.

  2. A curricular frame for physics education: Development, comparison with students' interests, and impact on students' achievement and self-concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häussler, Peter; Hoffmann, Lore

    2000-11-01

    This article presents three interlinked studies aimed at: (1) developing a curricular frame for physics education; (2) assessing the students' interest in the contents, contexts, and activities that are suggested by that curricular frame; and (3) developing a curriculum that is in line with that frame and measuring its cognitive and emotional effects on students. The curricular frame was developed by adopting the Delphi technique and drawing on the expertise of 73 persons selected according to specified selection criteria. Interest data of some 8000 students and information of the presently taught physics curriculum were sampled longitudinally as well as cross-sectionally in various German Länder (states) by questionnaire. The third study comprised 23 experimental and 7 control classes. As a result of the comparison between the features of the curricular frame, the interest structure of students, and the current physics curriculum, there is a remarkable congruency between students' interest in physics and the kind of physics education identified in the Delphi study as being relevant. However, there is a considerable discrepancy between students' interest and the kind of physics instruction practiced in the physics classroom. Regression analysis revealed that students' interest in physics as a school subject is hardly related to their interest in physics, but mainly to the students' self-esteem of being good achievers. The data strongly suggest physics be taught so that students have a chance to develop a positive physics-related self-concept and to link physics with situations they encounter outside the classroom. A curriculum based on these principles proved superior compared to a traditional curriculum.

  3. Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children With Mathematics Learning Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were related to one of the operands via a shared multiplication row (e.g., 3 × 4 = 16). Distance was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were close in magnitude to the true result (e.g., 6 × 8 = 49). The presence of these effects indicates that participants are sensitive to numerical features of products. TA children demonstrated sensitivity to relatedness and distance from second grade onward. With age their sensitivity expanded from easy problems (e.g., 2 × 3) to difficult ones (e.g., 8 × 9). Children with MLD were sensitive to relatedness on easy problems. Their sensitivity to distance differed from the pattern seen in sixth grade and was partial in eighth grade. The presence of numerical sensitivity in children with MLD calls for instructional methods that would further develop their number sense.

  4. Towards a 'Good Life' for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Joanne L; Mullan, Siobhan M; Pritchard, Joy C; McFarlane, Una J C; Main, David C J

    2013-07-05

    The concept of a 'good life' recognises the distinction that an animal's quality of life is beyond that of a 'life worth living', representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a 'good life' could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a 'good life' in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation, alongside outcome parameters, that can help define and promote a future 'good life' for farm animals.

  5. 76 FR 22094 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... (NGA) as amended, to construct, own, and operate the Corning Flow Reversal Project at Millennium's... two existing valves and adding six new valves and piping at Millennium's Corning compressor station in... the increased MAOP is necessary to permit it to occasionally reverse the flow of natural gas on...

  6. 77 FR 14835 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012 AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., Wednesday, March 22, 2012. PLACE... the public. Dated: March 7, 2012. Melvin F. Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and Corporate...

  7. 78 FR 13904 - Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY...: Meeting will be closed to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Board of Directors (the ``Board'')...

  8. The Society of Nuclear Medicine in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Carretta, R F

    2000-07-01

    The Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM), which was first organized in January 1954 by 12 men at the Davenport Hotel in Spokane, WA, has evolved into an international educational organization. It has more than 15,000 members, including physicians, scientists, technologists, and industrialists. The SNM has embarked on a new strategic plan that will make it the premier educational and scientific organization representing the specialty of nuclear medicine. The role of the Society in the new millennium and its relationship with other international nuclear medicine societies continue to evolve. The opportunity for joint educational programs, interchange of ideas, research, an international journal, educational activities, and the sharing of professional experiences awaits the SNM and its members in the new millennium. The Society has also reached out to other organizations and physicians who are involved in the clinical practice of nuclear medicine to forge new alliances that will strengthen the specialty of nuclear medicine. These alliances will allow nuclear medicine physicians to speak with a unified voice when faced with regulatory and reimbursement issues and will help in advancing the research, education, and clinical mission of the SNM. PMID:10928386

  9. A Comparison of Career Technical Education--16 Career Pathway High School Participants with Non-Participants on Academic Achievement, School Engagement, and Development of Technical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, Edith Aimee

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare Career Technical Education--16 Career Pathway high school participants with non-participants on academic achievement, development of technical skills and school engagement. Academic achievement was measured by Exit Level Math and English Language Arts Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)…

  10. Solar forcing and climate variability in the North Atlantic during the last millennium: comparison between models and reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servonnat, J.; Khodri, M.; Yiou, P.; Guiot, J.; Denvil, S.

    2009-04-01

    Studying the climate of the last millennium allows replacing the present climate change in a long term context. Since it is a relatively well-documented period, it provides an interesting base to assess the secular variability of the climate, free of anthropogenic greenhouse gas influence. Considering this, the climate of the last millennium is likely to have been driven by natural forcings, such as major volcanic eruptions or solar variability. We present here the results of the simulations performed with the IPSLCM4v2 climate model for the French ANR ESCARSEL project (reconstruction of the climate of the last millennium). In order to understand the role of the solar variability during this period, we have forced the model with a reconstruction of the Total Solar Irradiance since 1000AD (Crowley et al., 2000). The results are compared with various reconstructions based on proxy data, from the hemispheric to the continental scale. A new reconstruction of the temperature in Europe since 600AD (annual April to September mean, based on tree rings data) has been achieved within the ESCARSEL project. This dataset provides the possibility to compare the spatial response of the model to the solar forcing with the corresponding temperature patterns recorded in the proxys. As a first step we present the results on the long term variability, before focusing on selected periods to assess the spatial behaviour of the model to different value of the total solar irradiance. Crowley et al. 2000, Causes of climate change over the past 1000yrs, Science 289, 270

  11. Cancer nursing into the millennium: the Robert Tiffany Annual Lecture, Royal Marsden Hospital.

    PubMed

    Yarbro, C H

    1998-06-01

    The nursing profession has shown tremendous adaptability throughout the ages. Cancer nurses have encountered many challenges and changes during this past century that have marked our increasingly rapid progress on the long road of development of cancer nursing. The movement from an illness-focused, hospital-based, physician-dominated health care model to preventive, community-defined and collaborative health care is providing exciting new opportunities for nurses. Advances in science and technology and a more informed consumer present unique challenges as well. Based on the trends and the tremendous breakthroughs occurring during this decade, this article explores visions and dreams of the preferred future of cancer nursing as we march into the next millennium.

  12. Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva dos

    2015-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature.

  13. Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium*

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2015-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature. PMID:25672302

  14. The Halo Merger Rate in the Millennium Simulation and Implications for Observed Galaxy Merger Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Bouché, Nicolas; Naab, Thorsten; Sternberg, Amiel

    2009-08-01

    We have developed a new method to extract halo merger rates from the Millennium Simulation. First, by removing superfluous mergers that are artifacts of the standard friends-of-friends (FOF) halo identification algorithm, we find a lower merger rate compared to previous work. The reductions are more significant at lower redshifts and lower halo masses, and especially for minor mergers. Our new approach results in a better agreement with predictions from the extended Press-Schechter model. Second, we find that the FOF halo finder overestimates the halo mass by up to 50% for halos that are about to merge, which leads to an additional ≈20% overestimate of the merger rate. Therefore, we define halo masses by including only particles that are gravitationally bound to their FOF groups. We provide new best-fitting parameters for a global formula to account for these improvements. In addition, we extract the merger rate per progenitor halo, as well as per descendant halo. The merger rate per progenitor halo is the quantity that should be related to observed galaxy merger fractions when they are measured via pair counting. At low-mass/redshift, the merger rate increases moderately with mass and steeply with redshift. At high enough mass/redshift (for the rarest halos with masses a few times the "knee" of the mass function), these trends break down, and the merger rate per progenitor halo decreases with mass and increases only moderately with redshift. Defining the merger rate per progenitor halo also allows us to quantify the rate at which halos are being accreted onto larger halos, in addition to the minor and major merger rates. We provide an analytic formula that converts any given merger rate per descendant halo into a merger rate per progenitor halo. Finally, we perform a direct comparison between observed merger fractions and the fraction of halos in the Millennium Simulation that have undergone a major merger during the recent dynamical friction time, and find a

  15. A Comparison of Strategic Development for Multiplication Problem Solving in Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Barrett, Dave E.; Xin, Yan Ping; Liu, Ru-de

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the differences of strategy use between low-, average-, and high-achieving students when solving different multiplication problems. Nineteen high-, 48 average-, and 17 low-achieving students participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete three different multiplication tests and to explain how…

  16. Longitudinal Impacts of the Children's Literacy Initiative Professional Development, Coaching, and Model Classroom Intervention on Early Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Julia; Meakin, John; Salinger, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement in literacy has been a focal concern in the United States for many years. Improving teachers' knowledge and skill that leads to improved student achievement, particularly in the early grades, can place children on an improved trajectory that can have long-term impacts on life outcomes. Over the past decade, a large body of…

  17. Teaching Low-Achieving Children Reading, Spelling and Handwriting: Developing Perceptual Skills with the Graphic Symbols of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markoff, Annabelle Most

    Two objectives of this book are to provide a rationale for using basic language forms (sounds, letters, and words) in the perceptual-skill training of low-achieving children and to present techniques for teaching reading, spelling, and handwriting to low-achieving children. The first chapter, on the reading/spelling inversion, explains the…

  18. Development and Validation of a Physics Achievement Test to Identify Instructor Variables Associated with Students' Physics Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacambra, Wilfredo T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common ways of detecting whether an improvement is achieved by an education institution is through measuring the students' achievement in a test. Testing is generally thought of as a means of assessing the knowledge and skills students have acquired through learning (Du-chastel and Nungester, 1998). Test results, besides assisting…

  19. Developing a Structural Model on the Relationship among Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadlelmula, Fatma Kayan; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Sungur, Semra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among students' motivational beliefs (i.e. achievement goal orientations, perception of classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy), use of self-regulated learning strategies (i.e. elaboration, organization, and metacognitive self-regulation strategies), and achievement in mathematics, by proposing and…

  20. Effects of the Peer Group on the Development of Social Functioning and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; He, Yunfeng

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial mean ages = 9.5 and 12.7 years, N = 505), how the peer group contributed to social functioning and academic achievement and their associations. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and academic achievement were collected from multiple sources. Multilevel…