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Sample records for achieve mission objectives

  1. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  2. Low Cost Multiple Near Earth Object Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. B.; Klaus, K.; Kaplan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Commercial spacecraft are available with efficient high power solar arrays and hybrid propulsion systems (Chemical and Solar Electric) that make possible multiple Near Earth Object Missions within Discovery budget limits. Our analysis is based on the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit Capability (GTOC-3) solution. GTOC-3 assumptions: - Escape from Earth, rendezvous with 3 asteroids, then rendezvous with Earth - Departure velocity below 0.5 km/s - Launch between 2016 and 2025 - Total trip time less than 10 years - Minimum stay time of 60 days at each asteroid - Initial spacecraft mass of 2,000 kg - Thrust of 0.15 N and Isp of 3,000 s - Only Earth GAMs allowed (Rmin = 6,871 km) Preliminary results indicate that for mission objectives we can visit Apophis and any other 2 asteroids on this list or any other 3 asteroids listed. We have considered two spacecraft approaches to accomplish mission objectives: - Case 1: Chemical engine burn to the 1st target, and then solar electric to the 2nd and 3rd targets, or - Case 2: Solar electric propulsion to all 3 targets For both Cases, we assumed an instrument mass of up to 100 kg, power up to 100 W, and s/c bus pointing as good as 12 arc sec.Multi-NEO Mission Candidates

  3. Mission objectives and scientific rationale for the magnetometer mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langel, R. A.

    1991-12-01

    Based on a review of the characteristics of the geomagnetic field, objectives for the magnetic portion of the ARISTOTELES mission are: (1) To derive a description of the main magnetic field and its secular variation. (2) To investigate the correlation between the geomagnetic field and variations in the length of day. (3) To study properties of the fluid core. (4) To study the conductivity of the mantle. (5) To model the state and evolution of the crust and upper lithosphere. (6) To measure and characterize field aligned currents and ionospheric currents and to understand their generation mechanisms and their role in energy coupling in the interplanetary-magnetospheric-ionospheric systems. Procedures for these investigations are outlined.

  4. Solar system object observations with Gaia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, Maria; Tanga, Paolo; Mignard, Francois; CARRY, Benoit; Christophe, Ordenovic; DAVID, Pedro; Hestroffer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    After a commissioning period, the astrometric mission Gaia of the European Space Agency (ESA) started its survey in July 2014. Throughout passed two years the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been treating the data. The current schedule anticipates the first Gaia Data Release (Gaia-DR1) toward the end of summer 2016. Nevertheless, it is not planned to include Solar System Objects (SSO) into the first release. This is due to a special treatment required by solar system objects, as well as by other peculiar sources (multiple and extended ones). In this presentation, we address issues and recent achivements in SSO processing, in particular validation of SSO-short term data processing chain, GAIA-SSO alerts, as well as the first runs of SSO-long term pipeline.

  5. Achieving Operability via the Mission System Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Fred J.; Kahr, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, flight and ground systems have been developed largely-independently, with the flight system taking the lead, and dominating the development process. Operability issues have been addressed poorly in planning, requirements, design, I&T, and system-contracting activities. In many cases, as documented in lessons-learned, this has resulted in significant avoidable increases in cost and risk. With complex missions and systems, operability is being recognized as an important end-to-end design issue. Never-the-less, lessons-learned and operability concepts remain, in many cases, poorly understood and sporadically applied. A key to effective application of operability concepts is adopting a 'mission system' paradigm. In this paradigm, flight and ground systems are treated, from an engineering and management perspective, as inter-related elements of a larger mission system. The mission system consists of flight hardware, flight software, telecom services, ground data system, testbeds, flight teams, science teams, flight operations processes, procedures, and facilities. The system is designed in functional layers, which span flight and ground. It is designed in response to project-level requirements, mission design and an operations concept, and is developed incrementally, with early and frequent integration of flight and ground components.

  6. STRATCOM-8 scientific objectives and mission orginization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, E. I. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    Stratospheric photochemistry was studied, with emphasis on the Ozone-NOx-ultraviolet flux interactions, but also including members of the chlorine, water vapor, and carbon-containing families. Secondary objectives include: (1) study of the balloon environment, (2) comparison of independent measurements of ozone and of NO, (3) development of new sensor systems; and (4) some measurements for exploratory purposes. Most, but not all, systems and instruments performed as planned, and it is believed that data are available to achieve most of the planned scientific and engineering objectives. The emphasis on photochemistry in the 35 to 40 km region is greater than anticipated, and observations are more complete for sunset than for sunrise. The planned instruments and a summary of the flight operations is discussed partly for the mutual information of those participating and partly for the wider scientific community.

  7. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; McGuire, Jill; Pellegrino, Joseph; Strube, Matthew; Aranyos, Thomas; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface samples, and equipment to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that relies on the concept of in space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  8. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; Pellegrino, Joseph F.; McGuire, Jill; Henry, Ross; DeWeese, Keith; Reed, Benjamin; Aranyos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface sample to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In-space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that utilizes the concept of in-space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  9. Objectives and results of the BIRD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Eckehard; Briess, Klaus; Halle, Winfried; Oertel, Dieter; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Zhukov, Boris

    2003-11-01

    The DLR small satellite BIRD (Bi- spectral Infrared Detection) is successfully operating in space since October 2001. The main payload is dedicated to the observation of high temperature events and consists mainly of a Bi-Spectral Infrared Push Broom Scanner (3.4-4.2μm and 8.5-9.3μm), a Push Broom Imager for the Visible and Near Infrared and a neural network classification signal processor. The BIRD mission answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra-red push-broom sensor on board of a micro satellite. A powerful Payload Data Handling System (PDH) is responsible for all payload real time operation, control and on-board science data handling. The IR cameras are equipped with an advanced real time data processing allowing an autonomously adaptation of the dynamic range to different scenarios. The BIRD mission control, the data reception and the data processing is conducted by the DLR ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany; is experimentally performed by a low cost ground station implemented at DLR Berlin-Adlershof. The BIRD on ground data processing chain delivers radiometric and geometric corrected data products, which will be also described in this paper. The BIRD mission is an exemplary demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring.

  10. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; Pellegrino, Joseph; McGuire, Jill; Henry, Ross; DeWeese, Keith; Reed, Benjamin; Aranyos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface samples, and equipment to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, re-use and or re-purpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In-space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that relies on the concept of in-space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  11. MARCO POLO: A Near Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawaguchi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.; Boehnhardt, H.; Coradini, M.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J.-L.; Koschny, D.; Muinonen, M.; Oberst, J.; Marco Polo Scienc

    2008-03-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a near-Earth object. In late 2007 this mission was selected by ESA, in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025, for an assessment scheduled to last until mid 2009.

  12. A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.

  13. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, N.; Manos Team

    2014-07-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of various regions within the Solar System they can provide insight to more distant, less accessible populations. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes such as space weathering, planetary encounters, and non-gravitational dynamics. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. Finally, the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for robotic and human exploration. However, in spite of their scientific importance, only the largest (km-scale) NEOs have been well studied and a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. To address these issues we are conducting the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS), a fully allocated multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including light curves, spectra, and astrometry. From this comprehensive catalog, we will derive global properties of the NEO population, as well as identify individual targets that are of potential interest for exploration. We will accomplish these goals for approximately 500 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescope assets in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded large survey status by NOAO to employ Gemini-N, Gemini-S, SOAR, the Kitt Peak 4 m, and the CTIO 1.3 m. Access to additional facilities at Lowell Observatory (DCT 4.3 m, Perkins 72'', Hall 42'', LONEOS), the University of Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey provide essential complements to this suite of telescopes. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three primary criteria: mission accessibility (i.e. Δ v < 7 km/s), size (H > 20), and observability. Our telescope assets allow

  14. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob; Vavrina, Matthew; Ghosh, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very diserable. This work presents such as an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on a hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt.

  15. Balancing Science Objectives and Operational Constraints: A Mission Planner's Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldy, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The Air Force minute sensor technology integration (MSTI-3) satellite's primary mission is to characterize Earth's atmospheric background clutter. MSTI-3 will use three cameras for data collection, a mid-wave infrared imager, a short wave infrared imager, and a visible imaging spectrometer. Mission science objectives call for the collection of over 2 million images within the one year mission life. In addition, operational constraints limit camera usage to four operations of twenty minutes per day, with no more than 10,000 data and calibrating images collected per day. To balance the operational constraints and science objectives, the mission planning team has designed a planning process to e event schedules and sensor operation timelines. Each set of constraints, including spacecraft performance capabilities, the camera filters, the geographical regions, and the spacecraft-Sun-Earth geometries of interest, and remote tracking station deconflictions has been accounted for in this methodology. To aid in this process, the mission planning team is building a series of tools from commercial off-the-shelf software. These include the mission manifest which builds a daily schedule of events, and the MSTI Scene Simulator which helps build geometrically correct scans. These tools provide an efficient, responsive, and highly flexible architecture that maximizes data collection while minimizing mission planning time.

  16. Mission objectives and comparison of strategies for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Keaton, Paul W.; Weaver, David; Briggs, Geoffrey; Roberts, Barney

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, a number of candidate scenarios for the human exploration of Mars have been advanced. These have had a range of mission objectives, scope, scale, complexity and probable cost. The Exploration Programs Office (ExPO) has developed a reference Mars exploration program and a means of comparing it to other proposed Mars programs. The reference program was initiated in a workshop of Mars exploration advocates which defined two objectives of equal importance for early Mars exploration - understanding Mars and understanding the potential of Mars to support humans. These goals were used to define a set of transportation and surface elements that could carry out a robust exploration program. The approach to comparing alternate architectures has three principal parts: (1) Bringing the architectures into rough commonality in terms of surface mission objectives and hardware capabilities; (2) Providing a common level of human support for flights to and from Mars; and (3) Comparing the complexity of the elements needed to carry out the program and using partial redundancy to approximate the same statistical probability of mission success. This top-level approach has been applied to the ExPO reference program, the 'Mars Directs strategy (Zubrin, 1991) and the Stanford International Mars Mission (Lusignan, 1992).

  17. Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

    2008-09-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  18. NEP for a Kuiper Belt Object Rendezvous Mission

    SciTech Connect

    HOUTS,MICHAEL G.; LENARD,ROGER X.; LIPINSKI,RONALD J.; PATTON,BRUCE; POSTON,DAVID I.; WRIGHT,STEVEN A.

    1999-11-03

    Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) are a recently-discovered set of solar system bodies which lie at about the orbit of Pluto (40 AU) out to about 100 astronomical units (AU). There are estimated to be about 100,000 KBOS with a diameter greater than 100 km. KBOS are postulated to be composed of the pristine material which formed our solar system and may even have organic materials in them. A detailed study of KBO size, orbit distribution, structure, and surface composition could shed light on the origins of the solar system and perhaps even on the origin of life in our solar system. A rendezvous mission including a lander would be needed to perform chemical analysis of the surface and sub-surface composition of KBOS. These requirements set the size of the science probe at around a ton. Mission analyses show that a fission-powered system with an electric thruster could rendezvous at 40 AU in about 13.0 years with a total {Delta}V of 46 krnk. It would deliver a 1000-kg science payload while providing ample onboard power for relaying data back to earth. The launch mass of the entire system (power, thrusters, propellant, navigation, communication, structure, science payload, etc.) would be 7984 kg if it were placed into an earth-escape trajectory (C=O). Alternatively, the system could be placed into a 700-km earth orbit with more propellant,yielding a total mass in LEO of 8618 kg, and then spiral out of earth orbit to arrive at the KBO in 14.3 years. To achieve this performance, a fission power system with 100 kW of electrical power and a total mass (reactor, shield, conversion, and radiator) of about 2350 kg. Three possible configurations are proposed: (1) a UZrH-fueled, NaK-cooled reactor with a steam Rankine conversion system, (2) a UN-fueled gas-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system, and (3) a UN-fueled heatpipe-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system. (Boiling and condensation in the Rankine system is a technical risk at present

  19. Possible LISA follow-on mission scientific objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Peter L.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2013-08-01

    A major objective that has been suggested for a follow-on mission to a Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA)-type mission is to investigate more completely how intermediate mass black holes were formed and grew in the early universe, before they evolved into the much more massive black holes at the centers of many galaxies today. The actual design of such a follow-on mission will of course depend on what is observed by a LISA-type mission, such as the recently modified proposal for an evolved LISA mission, with the interferometer arm lengths between spacecraft reduced from 5 million to 1 million km. However, the sensitivity goals of a follow-on mission are likely to be influenced strongly by the desire to be able to see mergers of 10 M⊙ black holes with roughly 3000 M⊙ or larger intermediate mass black holes out to as large redshifts as possible. Approximate calculations of the expected signal-to-noise have been made for a possible LISA follow-on mission that was suggested about eight years ago (Bender and Begelman 2005 Trends in Space Science and Cosmic Vision 2020 (Noordwijk: ESA Publications Division) pp 33-38), and was called the Advanced Laser Interferometer Antenna. Based on the calculations, it appears that detections out to a redshift of 10 would be possible for 10 M⊙ black holes spiraling into perhaps 5000 M⊙ or larger intermediate mass black holes if the extragalactic gravitational wave background due to close white dwarf binaries is in the currently estimated range.

  20. Objectives and Tasks of Lunar Mission BW1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, R.; Roeser, H.-P.

    2007-08-01

    Lunar Mission BW1 is the forth project of the "Stuttgart Small Satellite Program" initiated in 2002 at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS), Universitaet Stuttgart, Germany. The small Moon orbiter is a 1 m cube spacecraft of approx. 200 kg launch mass currently under development with participation of diploma/masters and Ph.D. students as well as academic and industrial partners. Demonstrating the ability of an academic institution to participate and contribute to space exploration by designing, building and operating a complete space probe Lunar Mission BW1 will be a test bed to perform technology demonstration and other experiments beyond Earth orbit in cis-lunar space and at the Moon. The satellite is planned to be launched end of the decade as a piggyback payload from a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) and will reach lunar orbit using its own electric propulsion systems (thermal arcjet and iMPD thrusters). The paper will present objectives and tasks of Lunar Mission BW1 and the elements of this mission, i.e. spacecraft, ground segment, operations. It will give also an overview about the experience and heritage gained from the three other missions of the Stuttgart Small Satellite Program (Flying Laptop - technology demonstration/Earth observation, Perseus - electric propulsion test/UV astronomy, Cermit - re-entry vehicle/GNC experiment).

  1. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. Because low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with systems design, power and propulsion characteristics must be chosen as well. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often may thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt and to Deimos.

  2. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. Because low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with systems design, power and propulsion characteristics must be chosen as well. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The methods is demonstrated on hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt and to Deimos.

  3. Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR): Science objectives and mission description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. Scott; Wercinski, Paul F.; Sarver, George L.; Hanel, Robert P.; Ramos, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    In-situ observations and measurements of Mars are objectives of a feasibility study beginning at the Ames Research Center for a mission called the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR). The purpose of the MESUR mission is to emplace a pole-to-pole global distribution of landers on the Martian surface to make both short- and long-term observations of the atmosphere and surface. The basic concept is to deploy probes which would directly enter the Mars atmosphere, provide measurements of the upper atmospheric structure, image the local terrain before landing, and survive landing to perform meteorology, seismology, surface imaging, and soil chemistry measurements. MESUR is intended to be a relatively low-cost mission to advance both Mars science and human presence objectives. Mission philosophy is to: (1) 'grow' a network over a period of years using a series of launch opportunities, thereby minimizing the peak annual costs; (2) develop a level-of-effort which is flexible and responsive to a broad set of objectives; (3) focus on science while providing a solid basis for human exploration; and (4) minimize project cost and complexity wherever possible. In order to meet the diverse scientific objectives, each MESUR lander will carry the following strawman instrument payload consisting of: (1) Atmospheric structure experiment, (2) Descent and surface imagers, (3) Meteorology package, (4) Elemental composition instrument, (5) 3-axis seismometer, and (6) Thermal analyzer/evolved gas analyzer. The feasibility study is primarily to show a practical way to design an early capability for characterizing Mars' surface and atmospheric environment on a global scale. The goals are to answer some of the most urgent questions to advance significantly our scientific knowledge about Mars, and for planning eventual exploration of the planet by robots and humans.

  4. Science Objectives and Mission Concepts for Europa Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Senske, D. A.; Johnson, T. V.; Oberto, R.; Zimmerman, W.; JPL's Team-X Team

    2000-10-01

    Since the arrival of the Galileo spacecraft to the Jovian system in 1995, evidence indicating a liquid water ocean beneath the icy Europan crust has become much stronger. This evidence combined with the fact that Europa is greater than 90 wt% water [1] makes it a candidate body to harbor extant or extinct life. The outstanding Europa science questions [2] are to determine whether or not there is or has been a liquid water layer under the ice and whether or not liquid water currently exists on the surface or has in the geologically recent past, what geological processes create the ice rafts and other ice-tectonic processes that affect the surface, the composition of the deep interior , geochemical sources of energy, the nature of the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere, and the nature of the radiation environment, especially with regard to its implications for organic and biotic chemistry. In addition, in situ studies of the surface of Europa would offer the opportunity to characterize the chemistry of the ice including organics, pH, salinity, and redox potential. In order to address these scientific objectives, a Europa program, involving multiple spacecraft, is envisioned. The JPL Outer Planets program has been helping to lay the groundwork for such a program. This effort is being conducted with particular emphasis on compiling and identifying science objectives which will flow down to a Europa mission architecture. This poster will show the tracability of observational methods from the science objectives. Also in support of developing a Europa mission architecture, JPL's Team-X has conducted a variety of Europa mission studies . A comparison of the studies done to date will be presented, highlighting science objectives accomplished, technological challenges, and cost. A more detailed presentation will be given on a Europa Lander concept study. First, the science objectives and instrumentation will be shown, including instrument mass, power usage, volume, and data

  5. The scientific objectives of the ATLAS-1 shuttle mission

    SciTech Connect

    Torr, M.R. )

    1993-03-19

    During the 9-day ATLAS-1 mission (March 24-April 2, 1992), a significant database was acquired on the temperature, pressure, and composition of the atmosphere regions between approximately 15 km and 300 km, together with measurements of the total solar irradiance and the solar spectral irradiance between 1,200 [Angstrom] and 3.2 [mu]m. Six remote sensing atmospheric instruments covered a scope in altitude and species that has not been addressed before from a single mission. The atmospheric composition dataset should serve as an important reference for the determination of future global change in these regions. Both the solar and atmospheric instruments made observations that were coordinated with those made from other spacecraft, such as the UARS, the NOAA, and the ERB satellites. The objective of these correlative measurements was both to complement the measurements made by the other payloads and also to update the calibration of the instruments on the long-duration orbiting vehicles with recent, highly accurate calibrations. Experiments were conducted in space plasma physics. Most important of these was the generation of artificial auroras by firing a beam of energetic electrons into the atmosphere. The induced auroras were observed with a photometric imaging camera. In addition, measurements were made of the precipitation of energetic neutrals from the ring current. ATLAS-1 also carried an UV instrument to gather wide field observations of astronomical sources. A subset of these instruments is planned to fly once a year for the duration of a solar cycle. Both the ATLAS-1 mission and the ongoing series represent an important element of the Mission to Planet Earth and the Global Change Program. The papers in this special issue give a summary of the results obtained in the first 4 months following the mission. 1 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Scientific objectives for a 1996 Mars Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. P.; Gooding, J. L.; Clanton, U. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return Mission, designed to return a variety of surface and subsurface samples as well as atmospheric samples, is described. Primary information about the planet is essential to understanding its place in the evolution of the solar system. The most accurate landing techniques will be used to place the lander near geologically interesting features. A capable rover will be an essential element of the sample collection strategy to maximize the diversity of the samples. The sample collection and return systems will keep the samples at Mars ambient conditions or colder to preserve the abundances and distribution of volatile components. Planetary quarantine is an important consideration for both the Mars lander and the earth return vehicle. Quarantine procedures must be consistent with the primary objectives of the mission and must not compromise the investigations of the returned samples.

  7. Analysing Global Achievements in Orbital Lifetime Reduction at the End of LEO Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krag, Holger; Lemmens, Stijn; Flohrer, Tim; Klinkard, Heiner

    2013-08-01

    The major driver for future debris proliferation, besides the intentional and unintentional release of objects, is the abundance of objects with large masses and sizes in orbit that could be involved in catastrophic collisions. Mitigation measures thus concentrate on the prevention of object release (explosions, mission-related objects, SRM (Solid Rocket Motor) exhaust products), the disposal of objects and active collision avoidance. As ESA's simulations show, the most effective means of stabilizing the space debris environment is the removal of mass from regions with high spatial densities. A limitation of the residence time of controlled objects in altitudes below 2000km to 25 years followed by either atmospheric re-entry or reboost to higher altitudes allows to limit the growth of object numbers in the densely populated LEO environment. This is the most relevant requirement for operations. In this paper we look into the achievements of all spacefaring nations with respect to this requirement. For this purpose, ESA has developed a method to determine the operational status of running missions, by monitoring their manoeuvre activity with the help of the publicly available orbit data distributed by the US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). Missions that have been found to have terminated their operational life will be processed to determine the remaining orbital lifetime. The results will be presented in a statistical manner.

  8. Instructional Objectives, Learner Personality and Prediction of Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Russell Victor, Jr.

    This study investigated three questions: the relationship between the use of stated instructional objectives and achievement in audio-tutorial (A-T) instruction, the relationship of learner personality and achievement under conditions of A-T, as well as determining the power of selected batteries of intellective and personality variables to…

  9. Evaluation Primary School Students' Achievement of Objectives in English Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan, Senem Seda Sahenk

    2015-01-01

    The problem statement of this survey is "How far are the specific objectives of English courses achieved by the primary students (4-5 grades) recently in Istanbul?" "Does the first stage state primary school students' achievement level of the specific English courses differ according to students' personal characteristics? Survey…

  10. Design of Spacecraft Missions to Remove Multiple Orbital Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Alfano, Salvatore; Pinon, Elfego; Gold, Kenn; Gaylor, David

    2012-01-01

    The amount of hazardous debris in Earth orbit has been increasing, posing an evergreater danger to space assets and human missions. In January of 2007, a Chinese ASAT test produced approximately 2600 pieces of orbital debris. In February of 2009, Iridium 33 collided with an inactive Russian satellite, yielding approximately 1300 pieces of debris. These recent disastrous events and the sheer size of the Earth orbiting population make clear the necessity of removing orbital debris. In fact, experts from both NASA and ESA have stated that 10 to 20 pieces of orbital debris need to be removed per year to stabilize the orbital debris environment. However, no spacecraft trajectories have yet been designed for removing multiple debris objects and the size of the debris population makes the design of such trajectories a daunting task. Designing an efficient spacecraft trajectory to rendezvous with each of a large number of orbital debris pieces is akin to the famous Traveling Salesman problem, an NP-complete combinatorial optimization problem in which a number of cities are to be visited in turn. The goal is to choose the order in which the cities are visited so as to minimize the total path distance traveled. In the case of orbital debris, the pieces of debris to be visited must be selected and ordered such that spacecraft propellant consumption is minimized or at least kept low enough to be feasible. Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. has developed specialized algorithms for designing efficient tour missions for near-Earth asteroids that may be applied to the design of efficient spacecraft missions capable of visiting large numbers of orbital debris pieces. The first step is to identify a list of high priority debris targets using the Analytical Graphics, Inc. SOCRATES website and then obtain their state information from Celestrak. The tour trajectory design algorithms will then be used to determine the itinerary of objects and v requirements. These results will shed light

  11. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, Nicholas; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Busch, Michael; Roe, Henry; Trilling, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; Grundy, Will; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David

    2013-01-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of subkm NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA's IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend

  12. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, N.; Trilling, D.; Thomas, C.; Willman, M.; Grundy, W.; Roe, H.; Christensen, E.; Person, M.; Binzel, R.; Polishook, D.; DeMeo, F.; Endicott, T.; Busch, M.

    2013-10-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA’s IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We

  13. MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawagushi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.

    2009-03-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. Current exobiological scenarios for the origin of Life invoke an exogenous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth: it has been proposed that primitive bodies could have brought these complex organic molecules capable of triggering the pre-biotic synthesis of biochemical compounds. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with the Earth pose a finite hazard to life. For all these reasons, the exploration of such objects is particularly interesting and urgent. The scientific objectives of MARCO POLO will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Moreover, MARCO POLO provides important information on the volatile-rich (e.g. water) nature of primitive NEOs, which may be particularly important for future space resource utilization as well as providing critical information for the security of Earth. MARCO POLO is a proposal offering several options, leading to great flexibility in the actual implementation. The baseline mission scenario is based on a launch with a Soyuz-type launcher and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC) carrying a possible Lander named SIFNOS, small hoppers, sampling devices, a re-entry capsule and scientific payloads. The MSC leaves Earth orbit, cruises toward the target with ion engines, rendezvous with the target, conducts a global characterization of the target to select a sampling site, and delivers small

  14. Small Body Landers for Near Earth Object Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, K.; Cook, T. S.; Kaplan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Our studies have concluded that PI-class science small body missions are possible with telecommunications infrastructure solar powered spacecraft. These spacecraft are flight proven with more than 60 yrs of cumulative in-space operation and are equipped with highly efficient solar arrays capable of accessing a wide variety of small bodies. Coupled with this capability, we are developing a “small body lander product line that leverages the significant investments that have been made in the highly successful DARPA Orbital Express program. Orbital Express demonstrated autonomous rendezvous, close proximity and capture with a passive space object, both capabilities that can also support autonomous precision “landings” on small bodies. An OE based NEO exploration lander can provide up to 100kg of science payload and 200 W of power available to the science payload. Our studies indicate that some of these missions can be accomplished within Discovery class budget, and most within a New Frontiers-class budget. OE autonomous robotic technology enables equipment relocation, surface sampling, sample retrieval and stowage, spacecraft and/or science instrument reconfiguration and alternate means of lander recovery. OE’s capture system technology enables repeatable lander and probe deployment and capture including lander refueling, setting in motion the design of missions to multiple small bodies and multiple sites on target bodies. Enhancements have been made to the navigation algorithms to enable precision natural body navigation. For science measurements that only require very small mass and power, we are developing nanosats that offer “full spacecraft-like” capabilities, e.g., 3 axis stability and control and on-board propulsion.

  15. Identifying Accessible Near-Earth Objects For Crewed Missions With Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smet, Stijn De; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Herman, Jonathan F. C.; Aziz, Jonathan; Barbee, Brent W.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the expansion of the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) with Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). The research investigates the existence of new launch seasons that would have been impossible to achieve using only chemical propulsion. Furthermore, this paper shows that SEP can be used to significantly reduce the launch mass and in some cases the flight time of potential missions as compared to the current, purely chemical trajectories identified by the NHATS project.

  16. The Effect of General Objectives Defined by Behavioral Objectives on Achievement in a College Zoology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushin, John W.; Baller, William

    1981-01-01

    Tests the effect of developmental level objectives on student achievement and efficiency in a zoology course. These objectives were found to have no significant effect on achievement, but they did significantly increase student efficiency in learning the content material of the module. (Author)

  17. Objective Academic Achievement and Subjective Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…

  18. Science Objectives of the FOXSI Small Explorer Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Alaoui, Meriem; Allred, Joel C.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Battaglia, Marina; Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; Drake, James; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Glesener, Lindsay; Grefenstette, Brian; Hannah, Iain; Holman, Gordon D.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Ireland, Jack; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Jeffrey, Natasha; Klimchuk, James A.; Kontar, Eduard; Krucker, Sam; Longcope, Dana; Musset, Sophie; Nita, Gelu M.; Ramsey, Brian; Ryan, Daniel; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Vilmer, Nicole; White, Stephen M.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    Impulsive particle acceleration and plasma heating at the Sun, from the largest solar eruptive events to the smallest flares, are related to fundamental processes throughout the Universe. While there have been significant advances in our understanding of impulsive energy release since the advent of RHESSI observations, there is a clear need for new X-ray observations that can capture the full range of emission in flares (e.g., faint coronal sources near bright chromospheric sources), follow the intricate evolution of energy release and changes in morphology, and search for the signatures of impulsive energy release in even the quiescent Sun. The FOXSI Small Explorer (SMEX) mission concept combines state-of-the-art grazing-incidence focusing optics with pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of hard X-rays for the first time on a solar observatory. We present the science objectives of FOXSI and how its capabilities will address and resolve open questions regarding impulsive energy release at the Sun. These questions include: What are the time scales of the processes that accelerate electrons? How do flare-accelerated electrons escape into the heliosphere? What is the energy input of accelerated electrons into the chromosphere, and how is super-heated coronal plasma produced?

  19. Plans and objectives of the remaining Apollo missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The three remaining Apollo missions will have significantly increased scientific capabilities. These result from increased payload, more time on the surface, improved range, and more sophisticated experiments on the surface and in orbit. Landing sites for the last three missions will be carefully selected to maximize the total scientific return.

  20. Low cost missions to explore the diversity of near Earth objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Delamere, Alan

    1992-01-01

    We propose a series of low-cost flyby missions to perform a reconnaissance of near-Earth cometary nuclei and asteroids. The primary scientific goal is to study the physical and chemical diversity in these objects. The mission concept is based on the Pegasus launch vehicle. Mission costs, inclusive of launch, development, mission operations, and analysis are expected to be near $50 M per mission. Launch opportunities occur in all years. The benefits of this reconnaissance to society are stressed.

  1. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise: Future Science Missions, Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1998-01-01

    NASA has been actively involved in studying the planet Earth and its changing environment for well over thirty years. Within the last decade, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has become a major observational and scientific element of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise management has developed a comprehensive observation-based research program addressing all the critical science questions that will take us into the next century. Furthermore, the entire program is being mapped to answer five Science Themes (1) land-cover and land-use change research (2) seasonal-to-interannual climate variability and prediction (3) natural hazards research and applications (4) long-term climate-natural variability and change research and (5) atmospheric ozone research. Now the emergence of newer technologies on the horizon and at the same time continuously declining budget environment has lead to an effort to refocus the Earth Science Enterprise activities. The intent is not to compromise the overall scientific goals, but rather strengthen them by enabling challenging detection, computational and space flight technologies those have not been practically feasible to date. NASA is planning faster, cost effective and relatively smaller missions to continue the science observations from space for the next decade. At the same time, there is a growing interest in the world in the remote sensing area which will allow NASA to take advantage of this by building strong coalitions with a number of international partners. The focus of this presentation is to provide a comprehensive look at the NASA's Earth Science Enterprise in terms of its brief history, scientific objectives, organization, activities and future direction.

  2. Multi-objective optimization to support rapid air operations mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Burge, Janet E.

    2005-05-01

    Within the context of military air operations, Time-sensitive targets (TSTs) are targets where modifiers such, "emerging, perishable, high-payoff, short dwell, or highly mobile" can be used. Time-critical targets (TCTs) further the criticality of TSTs with respect to achievement of mission objectives and a limited window of opportunity for attack. The importance of TST/TCTs within military air operations has been met with a significant investment in advanced technologies and platforms to meet these challenges. Developments in ISR systems, manned and unmanned air platforms, precision guided munitions, and network-centric warfare have made significant strides for ensuring timely prosecution of TSTs/TCTs. However, additional investments are needed to further decrease the targeting decision cycle. Given the operational needs for decision support systems to enable time-sensitive/time-critical targeting, we present a tool for the rapid generation and analysis of mission plan solutions to address TSTs/TCTs. Our system employs a genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization scheme that is well suited to the rapid generation of approximate solutions in a dynamic environment. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) allow for the effective exploration of the search space for potentially novel solutions, while addressing the multiple conflicting objectives that characterize the prosecution of TSTs/TCTs (e.g. probability of target destruction, time to accomplish task, level of disruption to other mission priorities, level of risk to friendly assets, etc.).

  3. Improving International Research with Clinical Specimens: 5 Achievable Objectives

    PubMed Central

    LaBaer, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Our increased interest in translational research has created a large demand for blood, tissue and other clinical samples, which find use in a broad variety of research including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested internationally on the collection, storage and distribution of samples. Nevertheless, many researchers complain in frustration about their inability to obtain relevant and/or useful samples for their research. Lack of access to samples, poor condition of samples, and unavailability of appropriate control samples have slowed our progress in the study of diseases and biomarkers. In this editorial, I focus on five major challenges that thwart clinical sample use for translational research and propose near term objectives to address them. They include: (1) defining our biobanking needs; (2) increasing the use of and access to standard operating procedures; (3) mapping inter-observer differences for use in normalizing diagnoses; (4) identifying natural internal protein controls; and (5) redefining the clinical sample paradigm by building partnerships with the public. In each case, I believe that we have the tools at hand required to achieve the objective within 5 years. Potential paths to achieve these objectives are explored. However we solve these problems, the future of proteomics depends on access to high quality clinical samples, collected under standardized conditions, accurately annotated and shared under conditions that promote the research we need to do. PMID:22998582

  4. Objectives and Model Payload Definition for NEO Human Mission Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Carpenter, J.

    2011-10-01

    ESA has supported studies on NEO threat assessment systems and deflection concepts in the context of the General Studies Programme and in close cooperation with the directorates of Technical and Quality Management and of the Scientific Programme. This work has made it possible to identify a project for Europe to make a significant - yet realistic - contribution to the international efforts in this field: the Don Quijote NEO technology demonstration mission. This paper describes what such a small mission can do to prepare future human exploration and what is the in-situ data that can be obtained through such a project.

  5. Student's objectives and achievement strategies for laborataory work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owings, Taylor M.

    In this study, we look at students' objectives and strategies for completing their objectives for undergraduate labs. Students across two universities and three levels of chemistry were surveyed at the beginning of the semester in the fall of 2012 using an open ended survey to identify the goals students had for the course. The students responses were coded and used to create a survey that went out to the same courses at the end of the fall semester. Using data from the fall of 2012, the survey was modified and data was collected in the fall of 2013 at one university in two different general chemistry classes. Data and analysis indicate that students focus primarily on earning a good grade over other goals and use achievement strategies that align with this goal which aligned with the expectations of the research team as well as Edmondson and Novak (1993).

  6. The geostationary tropospheric pollution explorer (GeoTROPE) mission: objectives, requirements and mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.; Bergametti, G.; Flaud, J. M.; Orphal, J.; Noël, S.; Monks, P. S.; Corlett, G. K.; Goede, A. P.; von Clarmann, T.; Steck, T.; Fischer, H.; Friedl-Vallon, F.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing atmospheric sciences is to assess, understand and quantify the impact of natural and anthropogenic pollution on the quality of life on Earth on a local, regional and continental scale. It has become apparent that pollution originating from local/regional events can have serious effects on the composition of the lower atmosphere on a continental scale. However, to understand the effects of regional pollution on a continental scale there is a requirement to transcend traditional atmospheric spatial and temporal scales and attempt to monitor the entire atmosphere at the same time. In the troposphere the variability of chemical processes, of source strength and the dynamics induce important short term, i.e., sub-hourly, variations and significant horizontal and vertical variability of constituents and geophysical parameters relevant to a range of contemporary issues such as air quality. To study tropospheric composition, it is therefore required to link diurnal with seasonal and annual timescales, as well as local and regional with continental spatial scales, by performing sub-hourly measurements at appropriate horizontal and vertical resolution. Tropospheric observations from low-Earth orbit (LEO) platforms have already demonstrated the potential of detecting constituents relevant for air quality but they are limited, for example by the daily revisit time and local cloud cover statistics. The net result of this is that the troposphere is currently significantly under sampled. Measurements from Geostationary Orbit (GEO) offer the only practical approach to the observation of diurnal variation from space with the pertinent horizontal resolution. The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) is an attempt to determine tropospheric constituents with high temporal and spatial resolution. The paper will summarise the needs for geostationary observations of tropospheric composition and will give the mission objectives and the

  7. Planetary objectives of Odyssey2 Mission: Neptune and Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenoir, Benjamin; Lenoir, B.; Christophe, B.; Foulon, B.; Touboul, P.; Lévy, A.; Léon-Hirtz, S.; Biancale, R.; Sohl, F.; Dittus, H.; van Zoest, T.; Courty, J.-M.; Reynaud, S.; Lamine, B.; Métris, G.; Wolf, P.; Lümmerzahl, C.; Selig, H.

    Odyssey2 Mission will be proposed for the next call of M3 missions for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. It will aim at Neptune and Triton and the interplanetary cruise will be used for testing General Relativity, and in particular its scale dependence. To do so, the satellite will carry on board the following instruments: • a high-precision 3 axis electrostatic accelerometer, with bias calibration system, which will measure the non-gravitational forces acting on the spacecraft; • a radio-science instrument, for a precise range and Doppler measurement, with additional VLBI equipment; • a one-way laser ranging, which will improve the range and Doppler measurement made by radio-science; • an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO), used for laser and radio-science measurement. During the encounters with Neptune and Triton, these instruments will be use in order to increase the scientific return on the gravity field and atmosphere of these two bodies. Indeed, the atmospheric drag for example, which will be measured by the accelerometer, has a non-negligible impact on the trajectory of the spacecraft and therefore on the Doppler signature of the trajectory. If no data are available on the non-gravitational forces, the retrieval of the gravity potential coefficients can be put in jeopardy. Concerning the knowledge of the atmosphere, the direct measurement of atmospheric drag can be used, with the outputs of other instruments, to enhance our knowledge of the atmosphere of these two bodies. Moreover, the radio-link and the USO can be used together to measure the time delay of the radio beam and infer some characteristics of the atmosphere. Several instruments dedicated to planetology are under study. The choice between them will be an output of the Phase 0 study performed by CNES for this mission: • a magnetometer to measure intrinsic fields on Neptune and induced fields on Triton; • an infrared mapping capability, which was not available during the Voyager flyby, to determine

  8. Sample Return Missions from Minor Bodies: Achievements, Future Plan and Observational Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, J. R.; Rotundi, A.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta

    2009-09-01

    We are entering in a new era of space exploration signed by sample return missions. Since the Apollo and Luna Program, the study of extraterrestrial samples in laboratory is gathering an increased interest of the scientific community so that nowadays exploration program of the Solar System is characterized by swelling sample return missions. Beside lunar samples, the NASA Stardust mission was the first successful space mission that on 15 January 2006 brought to Earth solid extraterrestrial samples collected from comet 81P/Wild 2 coma. Grains were collected during cometary fly-by into aerogel and once on Earth have been extracted for laboratory analyses. In the coming two decades many space missions on going or under study will harvest samples from minor bodies. Measurements required for detailed analysis that cannot be performed from a robotic spacecraft, will be carried out on Earth laboratories with the highest analytical accuracy attainable so far. An intriguing objective for the next sample return missions is to understand the nature of organic compounds. Organic compounds found in Stardust grains even if processed to large extend during aerogel capturing are here reported. Major objectives of Marco Polo mission are reported. Various ground-based observational programs within the framework of general characterizations of families and classes, cometary-asteroid transition objects and NEOs with cometary albedo are discussed and linked to sample return mission.

  9. The OCO-3 Mission : Overview of Science Objectives and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, Annmarie; Bennett, Matthew; Basilio, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3) is a space instrument that will investigate important questions about the distribution of carbon dioxide on Earth as it relates to growing urban populations and changing patterns of fossil fuel combustion. OCO-3 will explore, for the first time, daily variations in the release and uptake of carbon dioxide by plants and trees in the major tropical rainforests of South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, the largest stores of aboveground carbon on our planet. NASA will develop and assemble the instrument using spare materials from OCO-2 and host the instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) (earliest launch readiness in early 2018.) The low-inclination ISS orbit lets OCO-3 sample the tropics and sub-tropics across the full range of daylight hours with dense observations at northern and southern mid-latitudes (+/- 52°). At the same time, OCO-3 will also collect measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) over these areas. The combination of these dense CO2 (expected to have a precision of 1 parts per mission) and SIF measurements provides continuity of data for global flux estimates as well as a unique opportunity to address key deficiencies in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The instrument utilizes an agile, 2-axis pointing mechanism (PMA), providing the capability to look towards the bright reflection from the ocean and validation targets. The PMA also allows for a snapshot mapping mode to collect dense datasets over 100km by 100km areas. Measurements over urban centers could aid in making estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. This is critical because the largest urban areas (25 megacities) account for 75% of the global total fossil fuel CO2 emissions, and rapid growth (> 10% per year) is expected in developing regions over the coming 10 years. Similarly, the snapshot mapping mode can be used to sample regions of interest for the terrestrial carbon cycle. For example, snapshot

  10. The OCO-3 Mission : Overview of Science Objectives and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, A.; Basilio, R. R.; Bennett, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3) is a space instrument that will investigate important questions about the distribution of carbon dioxide on Earth as it relates to growing urban populations and changing patterns of fossil fuel combustion. OCO-3 will explore, for the first time, daily variations in the release and uptake of carbon dioxide by plants and trees in the major tropical rainforests of South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, the largest stores of aboveground carbon on our planet. NASA will develop and assemble the instrument using spare materials from OCO-2 and host the instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) (earliest launch readiness in early 2018.) The low-inclination ISS orbit lets OCO-3 sample the tropics and sub-tropics across the full range of daylight hours with dense observations at northern and southern mid-latitudes (+/- 52º). At the same time, OCO-3 will also collect measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) over these areas. The combination of these dense CO2 (expected to have a precision of 1 parts per mission) and SIF measurements provides continuity of data for global flux estimates as well as a unique opportunity to address key deficiencies in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The instrument utilizes an agile, 2-axis pointing mechanism (PMA), providing the capability to look towards the bright reflection from the ocean and validation targets. The PMA also allows for a snapshot mapping mode to collect dense datasets over 100km by 100km areas. Measurements over urban centers could aid in making estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. This is critical because the largest urban areas (25 megacities) account for 75% of the global total fossil fuel CO2 emissions, and rapid growth (> 10% per year) is expected in developing regions over the coming 10 years. Similarly, the snapshot mapping mode can be used to sample regions of interest for the terrestrial carbon cycle. For example, snapshot

  11. Aalto-1 nanosatellite - technical description and mission objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestilä, A.; Tikka, T.; Peitso, P.; Rantanen, J.; Näsilä, A.; Nordling, K.; Saari, H.; Vainio, R.; Janhunen, P.; Praks, J.; Hallikainen, M.

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the outline and so far completed design of the Aalto-1 science mission. Aalto-1 is a multi-payload remote sensing nanosatellite, built almost entirely by students. The satellite aims for a 500-900 km sun-synchronous orbit, and includes an accurate attitude dynamics and control unit, a UHF/VHF housekeeping and S-band data links, and a GPS unit for positioning (radio positioning and NORAD TLE's are planned to be used as backups). It has three specific payloads: a spectral imager based on piezo-actuated Fabry-Perot interferometry, designed and built by The Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT); a miniaturized radiation monitor (RADMON) jointly designed and built by Universities of Helsinki and Turku ; and an electrostatic plasma brake designed and built by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), derived from the concept of the e-sail, also originating from FMI. Two phases are important for the payloads, the technology demonstration and the science phase. Emphasis is placed on technological demonstration of the spectral imager and RADMON, and suitable targets have already been chosen to be completed during that phase, while the plasma brake will start operation in the latter part of the science phase. The technology demonstration will be over in relatively short time, while the science phase is planned to last two years. The science phase is divided into two smaller phases: the science observations phase, during which only the spectral imager and RADMON will be operated for 6-12 months, and the plasma brake demonstration phase, which is dedicated to the plasma brake experiment for at least a year. These smaller phases are necessary due to the drastically different power, communication and attitude requirements of the payloads. The spectral imager will be by far the most demanding instrument on board, as it requires most of the downlink bandwidth, has a high peak power and attitude performance. It will acquire images in a series up to at

  12. Aalto-1 nanosatellite - technical description and mission objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestilä, A.; Tikka, T.; Peitso, P.; Rantanen, J.; Näsilä, A.; Nordling, K.; Saari, H.; Vainio, R.; Janhunen, P.; Praks, J.; Hallikainen, M.

    2013-02-01

    This work presents the outline and so far completed design of the Aalto-1 science mission. Aalto-1 is a multi-payload remote-sensing nanosatellite, built almost entirely by students. The satellite aims for a 500-900 km sun-synchronous orbit and includes an accurate attitude dynamics and control unit, a UHF/VHF housekeeping and S-band data links, and a GPS unit for positioning (radio positioning and NORAD TLE's are planned to be used as backup). It has three specific payloads: a spectral imager based on piezo-actuated Fabry-Perot interferometry, designed and built by The Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT); a miniaturised radiation monitor (RADMON) jointly designed and built by Universities of Helsinki and Turku; and an electrostatic plasma brake designed and built by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), derived from the concept of the e-sail, also originating from FMI. Two phases are important for the payloads, the technology demonstration and the science phase. The emphasis is placed on technological demonstration of the spectral imager and RADMON, and suitable targets have already been chosen to be completed during that phase, while the plasma brake will start operation in the latter part of the science phase. The technology demonstration will be over in a relatively short time, while the science phase is planned to last two years. The science phase is divided into two smaller phases: the science observations phase, during which only the spectral imager and RADMON will be operated for 6-12 months and the plasma brake demonstration phase, which is dedicated to the plasma brake experiment for at least a year. These smaller phases are necessary due to the drastically different power, communication and attitude requirements of the payloads. The spectral imager will be by far the most demanding instrument on board, as it requires most of the downlink bandwidth, has a high peak power and attitude performance. It will acquire images in a series up to at

  13. GRAIL project management: Launching on cost, schedule, and spec and achieving full mission success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. L.; Zuber, M. T.; Lehman, D. H.; Hoffman, T. L.

    The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) project, a NASA Discovery Program mission with a cost cap, was launched September 10, 2011, on spec, on time and under budget. Led by Principal Investigator (PI) Dr. Maria T. Zuber of MIT and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with Lockheed Martin as spacecraft contractor and the late Sally Ride as Education and Public Outreach Lead, GRAIL completed its Prime Mission in May 2012, successfully meeting its objectives-to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure “ from crust to core,” determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. This paper updates last year's IEEE Aerospace Conference paper [1], summarizing key development challenges and accomplishments through completion of the Primary Mission, and reporting progress in the Extended Mission.

  14. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Low-Thrust Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Ghosh, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen that defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on a hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt.

  15. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design Using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob; Vavrina, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The customer (scientist or project manager) most often does not want just one point solution to the mission design problem Instead, an exploration of a multi-objective trade space is required. For a typical main-belt asteroid mission the customer might wish to see the trade-space of: Launch date vs. Flight time vs. Deliverable mass, while varying the destination asteroid, planetary flybys, launch year, etcetera. To address this question we use a multi-objective discrete outer-loop which defines many single objective real-valued inner-loop problems.

  16. Initial Considerations for Navigation and Flight Dynamics of a Crewed Near-Earth Object Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; Getchius, Joel; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) was recently identified as a NASA Space Policy goal and priority. In support of this goal, a study was conducted to identify the initial considerations for performing the navigation and flight dynamics tasks of this mission class. Although missions to a NEO are not new, the unique factors involved in human spaceflight present challenges that warrant special examination. During the cruise phase of the mission, one of the most challenging factors is the noisy acceleration environment associated with a crewed vehicle. Additionally, the presence of a human crew necessitates a timely return trip, which may need to be expedited in an emergency situation where the mission is aborted. Tracking, navigation, and targeting results are shown for sample human-class trajectories to NEOs. Additionally, the benefit of in-situ navigation beacons on robotic precursor missions is presented. This mission class will require a longer duration flight than Apollo and, unlike previous human missions, there will likely be limited communication and tracking availability. This will necessitate the use of more onboard navigation and targeting capabilities. Finally, the rendezvous and proximity operations near an asteroid will be unlike anything previously attempted in a crewed spaceflight. The unknown gravitational environment and physical surface properties of the NEO may cause the rendezvous to behave differently than expected. Symbiosis of the human pilot and onboard navigation/targeting are presented which give additional robustness to unforeseen perturbations.

  17. Advanced software development workstation: Object-oriented methodologies and applications for flight planning and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The work accomplished during the past nine months in order to help three different organizations involved in Flight Planning and in Mission Operations systems, to transition to Object-Oriented Technology, by adopting one of the currently most widely used Object-Oriented analysis and Design Methodology is summarized.

  18. Busted Butte: Achieving the Objectives and Numerical Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    W.E. Soll; M. Kearney; P. Stauffer; P. Tseng; H.J. Turin; Z. Lu

    2002-10-07

    The Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT) at Busted Butte is a mesoscale field/laboratory/modeling investigation designed to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain. The UZTT test facility is located approximately 8 km southeast of the potential Yucca Mountain repository area. The UZTT was designed in two phases, to address five specific objectives in the UZ: the effect of heterogeneities, flow and transport (F&T) behavior at permeability contrast boundaries, migration of colloids , transport models of sorbing tracers, and scaling issues in moving from laboratory scale to field scale. Phase 1A was designed to assess the influence of permeability contrast boundaries in the hydrologic Calico Hills. Visualization of fluorescein movement , mineback rock analyses, and comparison with numerical models demonstrated that F&T are capillary dominated with permeability contrast boundaries distorting the capillary flow. Phase 1B was designed to assess the influence of fractures on F&T and colloid movement. The injector in Phase 1B was located at a fracture, while the collector, 30 cm below, was placed at what was assumed to be the same fracture. Numerical simulations of nonreactive (Br) and reactive (Li) tracers show the experimental data are best explained by a combination of molecular diffusion and advective flux. For Phase 2, a numerical model with homogeneous unit descriptions was able to qualitatively capture the general characteristics of the system. Numerical simulations and field observations revealed a capillary dominated flow field. Although the tracers showed heterogeneity in the test block, simulation using heterogeneous fields did not significantly improve the data fit over homogeneous field simulations. In terms of scaling, simulations of field tracer data indicate a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude higher than measured in the laboratory. Simulations of Li, a weakly sorbing tracer

  19. Proving Ground Potential Mission and Flight Test Objectives and Near Term Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Marshall; Craig, Douglas A.; Lopez, Pedro Jr.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing a Pioneering Space Strategy to expand human and robotic presence further into the solar system, not just to explore and visit, but to stay. NASA's strategy is designed to meet technical and non-technical challenges, leverage current and near-term activities, and lead to a future where humans can work, learn, operate, and thrive safely in space for an extended, and eventually indefinite, period of time. An important aspect of this strategy is the implementation of proving ground activities needed to ensure confidence in both Mars systems and deep space operations prior to embarking on the journey to the Mars. As part of the proving ground development, NASA is assessing potential mission concepts that could validate the required capabilities needed to expand human presence into the solar system. The first step identified in the proving ground is to establish human presence in the cis-lunar vicinity to enable development and testing of systems and operations required to land humans on Mars and to reach other deep space destinations. These capabilities may also be leveraged to support potential commercial and international objectives for Lunar Surface missions. This paper will discuss a series of potential proving ground mission and flight test objectives that support NASA's journey to Mars and can be leveraged for commercial and international goals. The paper will discuss how early missions will begin to satisfy these objectives, including extensibility and applicability to Mars. The initial capability provided by the launch vehicle will be described as well as planned upgrades required to support longer and more complex missions. Potential architectures and mission concepts will be examined as options to satisfy proving ground objectives. In addition, these architectures will be assessed on commercial and international participation opportunities and on how well they develop capabilities and operations applicable to Mars vicinity missions.

  20. Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B.H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R. L.; Sibek, D. G.; Ukhorskiy, A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission addresses how populationsof high energy charged particles are created, vary, and evolve in space environments,and specifically within Earths magnetically trapped radiation belts. RBSP, with a nominallaunch date of August 2012, comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for atleast 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 5.8 RE, 10).The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal effects over spatial scales rangingfrom 0.1 to 5 RE. The uniquely comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the twospacecraft, measures all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields (E and B),and wave distributions (dE and dB) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions.Here we summarize the high level science objectives for the RBSP mission, providehistorical background on studies of Earth and planetary radiation belts, present examples ofthe most compelling scientific mysteries of the radiation belts, present the mission design ofthe RBSP mission that targets these mysteries and objectives, present the observation andmeasurement requirements for the mission, and introduce the instrumentation that will deliverthese measurements. This paper references and is followed by a number of companionpapers that describe the details of the RBSP mission, spacecraft, and instruments.

  1. Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R. L.; Sibeck, D. G.; Ukhorskiy, A.

    2013-11-01

    The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission addresses how populations of high energy charged particles are created, vary, and evolve in space environments, and specifically within Earth's magnetically trapped radiation belts. RBSP, with a nominal launch date of August 2012, comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1×5.8 RE, 10∘). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal effects over spatial scales ranging from ˜0.1 to 5 RE. The uniquely comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the two spacecraft, measures all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields ( E and B), and wave distributions ( d E and d B) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions. Here we summarize the high level science objectives for the RBSP mission, provide historical background on studies of Earth and planetary radiation belts, present examples of the most compelling scientific mysteries of the radiation belts, present the mission design of the RBSP mission that targets these mysteries and objectives, present the observation and measurement requirements for the mission, and introduce the instrumentation that will deliver these measurements. This paper references and is followed by a number of companion papers that describe the details of the RBSP mission, spacecraft, and instruments.

  2. High Performance Ultra-light Nuclear Rockets for NEO (Near Earth Objects) Interaction Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1996-12-31

    The performance capabilities and technology features of ultra compact nuclear thermal rockets based on very high power density ({approximately} 30 Megawatts per liter) fuel elements are described. Nuclear rockets appear particularly attractive for carrying out missions to investigate or intercept Near Earth Objects (NEOS) that potentially could impact on the Earth. Many of these NEO threats, whether asteroids or comets, have extremely high closing velocities, i.e., tens of kilometers per second relative to the Earth. Nuclear rockets using hydrogen propellant enable flight velocities 2 to 3 times those achievable with chemical rockets, allowing interaction with a potential NEO threat at a much shorter time, and at much greater range. Two versions of an ultra compact nuclear rocket based on very high heat transfer rates are described: the PBR (Particle Bed Reactor), which has undergone substantial hardware development effort, and MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) which is a design derivative of the PBR. Nominal performance capabilities for the PBR are: thermal power - 1000 MW thrust - 45,000 lbsf, and weight - 500 kg. For MITEE, nominal capabilities are: thermal power - 100 MW; thrust {approx} 4500 lbsf, and weight - 50 kg. Development of operational PBR/MITEE systems would enable spacecraft launched from LEO (Low Earth Orbit) to investigate intercept NEO`s at a range of {approximately} 100 million kilometers in times of {approximately} 30 days.

  3. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission, 6 years in operations: status and achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Maestroni, Elia; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 6th years of operational life in April 2016. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and its main scientific achievements. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  4. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS): photometric results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard; Christensen, Eric J.; DeMeo, Francesca; Person, Michael J.; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David E.; Willman, Mark; Hinkle, Mary L.; Burt, Brian; Avner, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is a physical characterization survey of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) to provide physical data for several hundred mission accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using a variety of 1-m to 8-m class telescopes, we observe 5 to 10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month in order to derive their rotational properties and taxonomic class.Rotational data can provide useful information about physical properties, like shape, surface heterogeneity/homogeneity, density, internal structure, and internal cohesion. Here, we present results of the MANOS photometric survey for more than 200 NEOs. We report lightcurves from our first three years of observing and show objects with rotational periods from a couple of hours down to a few seconds. MANOS found the three fastest rotators known to date with rotational periods below 20s. A physical interpretation of these ultra-rapid rotators is that they are bound through a combination of cohesive and/or tensile strength rather than gravity. Therefore, these objects are important to understand the internal structure of NEOs. Rotational properties are used for statistical study to constrain overall properties of the NEO population. We also study rotational properties according to size, and dynamical class. Finally, we report a sample of NEOs that are fully characterized (lightcurve and visible spectra) as the most suitable candidates for a future robotic or human mission. Viable mission targets are objects with a rotational period >1h, and a delta-v lower than 12 km/s. Assuming the MANOS rate of object characterization, and the current NEO population estimates by Tricarico (2016), and by Harris and D'Abramo (2015), 10,000 to 1,000,000 NEOs with diameters between 10m and 1km are expected to be mission accessible. We acknowledge funding support from NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G, and NOAO survey program.

  5. The High Energy Solar Physics mission (HESP): Scientific objectives and technical description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, Carol; Dennis, Brian; Davis, John; Emslie, Gordon; Haerendel, Gerhard; Hudson, High; Hurford, Gordon; Lin, Robert; Ling, James; Pick, Monique

    1991-01-01

    The High Energy Solar Physics mission offers the opportunity for major breakthroughs in the understanding of the fundamental energy release and particle acceleration processes at the core of the solar flare problem. The following subject areas are covered: the scientific objectives of HESP; what we can expect from the HESP observations; the high energy imaging spectrometer (HEISPEC); the HESP spacecraft; and budget and schedule.

  6. Objectives for Mars Orbital Missions in the 2020s: Report from a MEPAG Science Analysis Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, R. W.; Campbell, B. A.; Diniega, S.; Lock, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Headquarters is looking at possible missions to Mars to follow the proposed 2020 Mars rover mission currently in development. One option being considered is a multi-functional orbiter, launched in the early 2020's, whose capabilities could address objectives in the following areas: • Replenishment of the telecommunications and reconnaissance infrastructure presently provided by the aging Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiters; • Scientific and technical progress on the NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey priorities, updated MEPAG Goals, and/or follow-up of new discoveries; • Location and quantification of in situ resources for utilization by future robotic and human surface-based missions; and • Data needed to address Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), again for possible human missions. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) was asked to prepare an analysis of possible science objectives and remote sensing capabilities that could be implemented by such a multi-purpose Mars orbiter launched in the 2022/24 timeframe. MEPAG conducted this analysis through formation of a Next Orbiter Science Analysis Group (NEX-SAG), which was chartered jointly by the NASA Science and Human Exploration Directorates. The SAG was asked to conduct this study within a range of mission capabilities, including the possible first use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) in the Mars system. SEP could provide additional power enabling new payload components and possible changes in orbit (e.g., orbital inclination change) that permit different mission observational campaigns (e.g., polar and non-polar). Special attention was paid towards identifying synergies between science investigations, reconnaissance, and resource/SKG needs. We will present the findings and conclusions of this NEX-SAG regarding possible objectives for the next NASA Orbiter to Mars.

  7. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul B.; Eppler, Dean B.; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Lewis, Ruthan.; Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting research objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support staging of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  8. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  9. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III/International Space Station Mission: Science Objectives and Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckman, R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Cisewski, M. S.; Flittner, D. E.; McCormick, M. P.; Gasbarre, J. F.; Damadeo, R. P.; Hill, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III/International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) is a strategic climate continuity mission which was included in NASA's 2010 plan, "Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space." SAGE III/ISS continues the long-term, global measurements of trace gases and aerosols begun in 1979 by SAGE I and continued by SAGE II and SAGE III on Meteor 3M. Using a well characterized occultation technique, the SAGE III instrument's spectrometer will measure vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gases relevant to ozone chemistry. The mission will launch in 2016 aboard a Falcon 9 spacecraft.The primary objective of SAGE III/ISS is to monitor the vertical distribution of aerosols, ozone, and other trace gases in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere to enhance our understanding of ozone recovery and climate change processes in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. SAGE III/ISS will provide data necessary to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, extend the SAGE III aerosol measurement record that is needed by both climate models and ozone models, and gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense community scrutiny for accuracy and stability. SAGE ozone data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol.The ISS inclined orbit of 51.6 degrees is ideal for SAGE III measurements because the orbit permits solar occultation measurement coverage to approximately +/- 70 degrees of latitude. SAGE III/ISS will make measurements using the solar occultation measurement technique, lunar occultation measurement technique, and the limb scattering measurement technique. In this presentation, we describe the SAGE III/ISS mission, its

  10. How Many Ultra-Low Delta-v Near Earth Objects Remain Undiscovered? Implications for missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; Ranjan, Sukrit; Galache, Jose Luis; Murphy, Max

    2015-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed considerable growth of interest in missions to Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). NEOs are considered prime targets for manned and robotic missions, for both scientific objectives as well as in-situ resource utilization including harvesting of water for propellant and life support and mining of high-value elements for sale on Earth. Appropriate targets are crucial to such missions. Hence, ultra-low delta-v mission targets are strongly favored. Some mission architectures rely on the discovery of more ultra-low delta-v NEOs. In fact the approved and executed NEO missions have all targeted asteroids with ultra-low LEO to asteroid rendezvous delta-v <5.5 km/s.In this paper, we estimate the total NEO population as a function of delta-v, and how many remain to be discovered in various size ranges down to ~100m. We couple the NEOSSat-1 model (Greenstreet et al., 2012) to the NEO size distribution derived from the NEOWISE survey (Mainzer et al., 2011b) to compute an absolute NEO population model. We compare the Minor Planet Center (MPC) catalog of known NEOs to this NEO population model. We compute the delta-v from LEO to asteroid rendezvous orbits using a modified Shoemaker-Helin (S-H) formalism that empirically removes biases found comparing S-H with the results from NHATS. The median delta-v of the known NEOs is 7.3 km/s, the median delta-v predicted by our NEO model is 9.8 km/s, suggesting that undiscovered objects are biased to higher delta-v. The survey of delta-v <10.3 km/s NEOs is essentially complete for objects with diameter D >300 m. However, there are tens of thousands of objects with delta-v <10.3 km/s to be discovered in the D = 50 - 300 m size class (H = 20.4 - 24.3). Our work suggests that there are 100 yet-undiscovered NEOs with delta-v < 5:8 km/s, and 1000 undiscovered NEOs with v < 6.3 km/s. We conclude that, even with complete NEO surveys, the selection of good (i.e. ultra-low delta-v) mission targets is limited given current

  11. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design Using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of high-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys and the bodies at which those flybys are performed. For some missions, such as surveys of small bodies, the mission designer also contributes to target selection. In addition, real-valued decision variables, such as launch epoch, flight times, maneuver and flyby epochs, and flyby altitudes must be chosen. There are often many thousands of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the impulsive mission design problem as a multiobjective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on several real-world problems.

  12. Science objectives and performances of NOMAD, a spectrometer suite for the ExoMars TGO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Neefs, E.; Drummond, R.; Thomas, I. R.; Daerden, F.; Lopez-Moreno, J.-J.; Rodriguez, J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.; Allen, M.; Altieri, F.; Bolsée, D.; Clancy, T.; Delanoye, S.; Depiesse, C.; Cloutis, E.; Fedorova, A.; Formisano, V.; Funke, B.; Fussen, D.; Geminale, A.; Gérard, J.-C.; Giuranna, M.; Ignatiev, N.; Kaminski, J.; Karatekin, O.; Lefèvre, F.; López-Puertas, M.; López-Valverde, M.; Mahieux, A.; McConnell, J.; Mumma, M.; Neary, L.; Renotte, E.; Ristic, B.; Robert, S.; Smith, M.; Trokhimovsky, S.; Vander Auwera, J.; Villanueva, G.; Whiteway, J.; Wilquet, V.; Wolff, M.

    2015-12-01

    The NOMAD spectrometer suite on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter will map the composition and distribution of Mars' atmospheric trace species in unprecedented detail, fulfilling many of the scientific objectives of the joint ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission. The instrument is a combination of three channels, covering a spectral range from the UV to the IR, and can perform solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. In this paper, we present the science objectives of the instrument and how these objectives have influenced the design of the channels. We also discuss the expected performance of the instrument in terms of coverage and detection sensitivity.

  13. Multi-Objective Multi-User Scheduling for Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Giuliano, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an architecture called MUSE (Multi-User Scheduling Environment) to enable the integration of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms with existing domain planning and scheduling tools. Our approach is intended to make it possible to re-use existing software, while obtaining the advantages of multi-objective optimization algorithms. This approach enables multiple participants to actively engage in the optimization process, each representing one or more objectives in the optimization problem. As initial applications, we apply our approach to scheduling the James Webb Space Telescope, where three objectives are modeled: minimizing wasted time, minimizing the number of observations that miss their last planning opportunity in a year, and minimizing the (vector) build up of angular momentum that would necessitate the use of mission critical propellant to dump the momentum. As a second application area, we model aspects of the Cassini science planning process, including the trade-off between collecting data (subject to onboard recorder capacity) and transmitting saved data to Earth. A third mission application is that of scheduling the Cluster 4-spacecraft constellation plasma experiment. In this paper we describe our overall architecture and our adaptations for these different application domains. We also describe our plans for applying this approach to other science mission planning and scheduling problems in the future.

  14. Science objectives and the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    The two Mariner spacecraft to be launched in 1977 to fly by Jupiter and Saturn require a mission design which is heavily dependent on science objectives. These science objectives translate into trajectory requirements imposed by one or more of the eleven instruments aboard Mariner such as distance of closest approach, inclination, occultation, lighting, etc., at the bodies of interest. Also, Jupiter and Saturn cannot be considered as individual targets but as miniature solar systems, where the mission design must apply to the Jovian and Saturnian satellites, and to Saturn's rings. The major objective of this analysis is to translate the science desires into the mission possibilities. Each object, be it a Galilean satellite, Titan, or the ring of Saturn, provides a unique region suitable for scientific investigation for the on-board instruments. Some of these trajectory regions overlap, others do not. Thus, critical choices must be made in selecting the trajectories to be flown by the two Mariner spacecraft. Such a choice, though preliminary, has been made by the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 (MJS'77) science teams, and a brief discussion of the selection process and the pair of trajectories chosen is presented in this paper.

  15. The HYSPIRI Decadal Survey Mission: Update on the Mission Concept and Science Objectives for Global Imaging Spectroscopy and Multi-Spectral Thermal Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Hook, Simon J.; Middleton, Elizabeth; Turner, Woody; Ungar, Stephen; Knox, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The NASA HyspIRI mission is planned to provide global solar reflected energy spectroscopic measurement of the terrestrial and shallow water regions of the Earth every 19 days will all measurements downlinked. In addition, HyspIRI will provide multi-spectral thermal measurements with a single band in the 4 micron region and seven bands in the 8 to 12 micron region with 5 day day/night coverage. A direct broadcast capability for measurement subsets is also planned. This HyspIRI mission is one of those designated in the 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey: Earth Science and Applications from Space. In the Decadal Survey, HyspIRI was recognized as relevant to a range of Earth science and science applications, including climate: "A hyperspectral sensor (e.g., FLORA) combined with a multispectral thermal sensor (e.g., SAVII) in low Earth orbit (LEO) is part of an integrated mission concept [described in Parts I and II] that is relevant to several panels, especially the climate variability panel." The HyspIRI science study group was formed in 2008 to evaluate and refine the mission concept. This group has developed a series of HyspIRI science objectives: (1) Climate: Ecosystem biochemistry, condition & feedback; spectral albedo; carbon/dust on snow/ice; biomass burning; evapotranspiration (2) Ecosystems: Global plant functional types, physiological condition, and biochemistry including agricultural lands (3) Fires: Fuel status, fire frequency, severity, emissions, and patterns of recovery globally (4) Coral reef and coastal habitats: Global composition and status (5) Volcanoes: Eruptions, emissions, regional and global impact (6) Geology and resources: Global distributions of surface mineral resources and improved understanding of geology and related hazards These objectives are achieved with the following measurement capabilities. The HyspIRI imaging spectrometer provides: full spectral coverage from 380 to 2500 at 10 nm sampling; 60 m spatial sampling

  16. The Gamma-Ray Observatory mission objectives and its significance for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is an approved NASA mission, programmed for launch in 1988. Its complement of four detectors has established goals: (1) to study the nature of compact gamma-ray sources such as neutron stars and black holes, or objects whose nature is yet to be understood; (2) to search for evidence of nucleosynthesis especially in the regions of supernovae; (3) to study structural features and dynamical properties of the Galaxy; (4) to explore other galaxies, especially the extraordinary types such as radio, Seyferts, and quasars; and (5) to study cosmological effects by examining the diffuse radiation in detail. This paper discusses the design, objectives, and expected scientific results of each of the GRO instruments in view of the GRO mission goals.

  17. JUICE: complementarity of the payload in adressing the mission science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

    2014-05-01

    radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a powerful particle environment package (PEP), a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The instruments will work together to achieve mission science objectives that otherwise cannot be achieved by a single experiment. For instance, joint J-MAG, 3GM, GALA and JANUS observations would constrain thickness of the ice shell, ocean depth and conductivity. SWI, 3GM and UVS would complement each other in the temperature sounding of the Jupiter atmosphere. The complex coupling between magnetosphere and atmosphere of Jupiter will be jointly studied by combination of aurora imaging (UVS, MAJIS, JANUS) and plasma and fields measurements (J-MAG, RPWI, PEP). The talk will give an overview of the JUICE payload focusing on complementarity and synergy between the experiments.

  18. Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. Robert; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Kawagushi, Jun; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard P.

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the solar system, which are leftover building blocks of the solar system formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve, using a "touch and go" manoeuvre, several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  19. Special issue editorial - Plasma interactions with Solar System Objects: Anticipating Rosetta, Maven and Mars Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Yamauchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Within our solar system, the planets, moons, comets and asteroids all have plasma interactions. The interaction depends on the nature of the object, particularly the presence of an atmosphere and a magnetic field. Even the size of the object matters through the finite gyroradius effect and the scale height of cold ions of exospheric origin. It also depends on the upstream conditions, including position within the solar wind or the presence within a planetary magnetosphere. Soon after ESA's Rosetta reached comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, NASA's Maven and ISRO's Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) reached Mars, and ESA's Venus Express mission was completed, this issue explores our understanding of plasma interactions with comets, Mars, Venus, and moons in the solar system. We explore the processes which characterise the interactions, such as ion pickup and field draping, and their effects such as plasma escape. Papers are based on data from current and recent space missions, modelling and theory, as we explore our local part of the 'plasma universe'.

  20. Lunar polar ice deposits: scientific and utilization objectives of the lunar ice discovery mission proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. Duke, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Clementine mission has revived interest in the possibility that ice exists in shadowed craters near the lunar poles. Theoretically, the problem is complex, with several possible sources of water (meteoroid, asteroid, comet impact), several possible loss mechanisms (impact vaporization, sputtering, photoionization), and burial by meteorite impact. Opinions of modelers have ranged from no ice to several times 10 16 g of ice in the cold traps. Clementine bistatic radar data have been interpreted in favor of the presence of ice, while Arecibo radar data do not confirm its presence. The Lunar Prospector mission, planned to be flown in the fall of 1997, could gather new evidence for the existence of ice. If ice is present, both scientific and utilitarian objectives would be addressed by a lunar polar rover, such as that proposed to the NASA Discovery program, but not selected. The lunar polar rover remains the best way to understand the distribution and characteristics of lunar polar ice.

  1. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS): spectroscopy results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Hinkle, Mary L.; Mommert, Michael; Polishook, David; Thirouin, Audrey; Binzel, Richard; Christensen, Eric J.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Person, Michael J.; Trilling, David E.; Willman, Mark; Burt, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is an ongoing physical characterization survey to build a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including lightcurves and visible wavelength spectroscopy. We will use this catalog to investigate the global properties of the small NEO population and identify individual objects that can be targets of interest for future exploration. To accomplish our goals, MANOS uses a wide variety of telescopes (1-8m) in both the northern and southern hemispheres. We focus on targets that have been recently discovered and operate on a regular cadence of remote and queue observations to enable rapid characterization of small NEOs. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three criteria: mission accessibility, size, and observability. With our resources, we observe 5-10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month. MANOS has been operating for three years and we have observed over 500 near-Earth objects in that time.We will present results from the spectroscopy component of the MANOS program. Visible wavelength spectra are obtained using DeVeny on the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT), Goodman on the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, and GMOS on Gemini North and South. Over 300 NEO spectra have been obtained during our program. We will present preliminary results from our spectral sample. We will discuss the compositional diversity of the small NEO population and how the observed NEOs compare to the meteorite population.MANOS is funded by the NASA Near-Earth Object Observations program.

  2. Six Years Into Its Mission, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory Continues to Achieve Scientific Firsts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    In August 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened for business. Six years later, it continues to achieve scientific firsts. "When Chandra opened its sunshade doors for the first time, it opened the possibility of studying the X-ray emission of the universe with unprecedented clarity," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "Already surpassing its goal of a five-year life, Chandra continues to rewrite textbooks with discoveries about our own solar system and images of celestial objects as far as billions of light years away." Based on the observatory's outstanding results, NASA Headquarters in Washington decided in 2001 to extend Chandra s mission from five years to ten. During the observatory s sixth year of operation, auroras from Jupiter, X-rays from Saturn, and the early days of our solar system were the focus of Chandra discoveries close to home -- discoveries with the potential to better understand the dynamics of life on Earth. Jupiter's auroras are the most spectacular and active auroras in the solar system. Extended Chandra observations revealed that Jupiter s auroral X-rays are caused by highly charged particles crashing into the atmosphere above Jupiter's poles. These results gave scientists information needed to compare Jupiter's auroras with those from Earth, and determine if they are triggered by different cosmic and planetary events. Mysterious X-rays from Saturn also received attention, as Chandra completed the first observation of a solar X-ray flare reflected from Saturn's low-latitudes, the region that correlates to Earth's equator and tropics. This observation led scientists to conclude the ringed planet may act as a mirror, reflecting explosive activity from the sun. Solar-storm watchers on Earth might see a surprising benefit. The results imply scientists could use giant planets like Saturn as remote-sensing tools to help monitor X-ray flaring on portions of the sun

  3. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): Project Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; DeMeo, Francesca; Mommert, Michael; Endicott, Thomas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; Hinkle, Mary; Siu, Hosea; Neugent, Kathryn; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Burt, Brian; Grundy, Will; Roe, Henry; Abell, Paul; Busch, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, for which little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Accessing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy is specifically designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits. MANOS will provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present an overview of the survey, progress to date, and early science highlights including: (1) an estimate of the taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied objects, (3) models for the dynamical evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (4) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data while providing a portal to facilitate coordination efforts within the small body observer community.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO and Lowell Observatory. We acknowledge funding support from an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to N. Moskovitz and NASA NEOO grant

  4. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) — First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Avner, Louis; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Schottland, Robert; Siu, Hosea; Thirouin, Audrey; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Wasserman, Lawrence; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO and has since expanded operations to include facilities at Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, where little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Observing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy enables the characterization of roughly 10% of newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.To date MANOS has obtained data on over 200 sub-km NEOs and will ultimately provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present first results from the survey including: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for small objects with high Earth-encounter probabilities, (3) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will help to facilitate observational planning for the small body observer community, and (4) physical properties derived from rotational light curves.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO, Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. We acknowledge funding support from NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G and an NSF Astronomy and

  5. Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; Bury, Kristen M.; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

  6. Mission feasibility analysis on deflecting Earth-crossing objects using a power limited laser ablating spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joo; Park, Sang-Young; Choi, Kyu-Hong

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes several mission capabilities to deflect Earth-crossing objects (ECOs) using a conceptual future spacecraft with a power limited laser ablating tool. A constrained optimization problem is formulated based on nonlinear programming with a three-dimensional patched conic method. System dynamics are also established, considering the target ECO’s orbit as being continuously perturbed by limited laser power. The required optimal operating duration and operating angle history of the laser ablating tool are computed for various types of ECOs to avoid an Earth impact. The available final warning time is also determined with a given limited laser power. As a result, detailed laser operating behaviors are presented and discussed, which include characteristics of operating duration and angle variation histories in relation to the operation’s start time and target object’s properties. The calculated durations of the optimal laser operation are also compared to those estimated with first-order approximations previous studies. It is discovered that the duration of the laser operation estimated with first-order approximations could result in up to about 50% error if the operation is started at the final warning time. The laser operation should be started as early as possible because an early start requires a short operating duration with a small operating angle variation. The mission feasibility demonstrated in the present study will give various insights into preparing future deflection missions using power limited spacecraft with a laser ablation tool.

  7. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of high-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys and the bodies at which those flybys are performed. For some missions, such as surveys of small bodies, the mission designer also contributes to target selection. In addition, real-valued decision variables, such as launch epoch, flight times, maneuver and flyby epochs, and flyby altitudes must be chosen. There are often many thousands of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the impulsive mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on several real-world problems. Two assumptions are frequently made to simplify the modeling of an interplanetary high-thrust trajectory during the preliminary design phase. The first assumption is that because the available thrust is high, any maneuvers performed by the spacecraft can be modeled as discrete changes in velocity. This assumption removes the need to integrate the equations of motion governing the motion of a spacecraft under thrust and allows the change in velocity to be modeled as an impulse and the expenditure of propellant to be modeled using the time-independent solution to Tsiolkovsky's rocket equation [1]. The second assumption is that the spacecraft moves primarily under the influence of the central body, i.e. the sun, and all other perturbing forces may be neglected in preliminary design. The path of the spacecraft may then be modeled as a series of conic sections. When a spacecraft performs a close

  8. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary L.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard P.; Thomas, Cristina; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Person, Michael J.; Polishook, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Although they are thought to compose the majority of the Near-Earth object (NEO) population, the small (d < 1 km) near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have not yet been studied as thoroughly as their larger cousins. Sub-kilometer objects are amongst the most abundant newly discovered NEOs and are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra).Fifty-seven small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using GMOS at Gemini North & South observatories as well as the DeVeny spectrograph at Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope. Archival data of 43 objects from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance (PI R. Binzel) were also used. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). Small NEAs are the likely progenitors of meteorites; an improved understanding of the abundance of meteorite parent body types in the NEO population improves understanding of how the two populations are related as well as the biases Earth's atmosphere imposes upon the meteorite collection.We present classifications for these objects as well as results for the debiased distribution of taxa(as a proxy for composition) as a function of object size and compare to the observed fractions of ordinary chondritemeteorites and asteroids with d > 1 km. Amongst the smallest NEOs we find an unexpected distribution of

  9. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary Louise; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; DeMeo, Francesca; Thomas, Cristina; Polishook, David; Person, Michael; Willman, Mark; Christensen, Eric

    2015-08-01

    As relics of the inner solar system's formation, asteroids trace the origins of solar system material. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are the intermediaries between material that falls to Earth as meteorites and the source regions of those meteorites in the main belt. A better understanding of the physical parameters of NEAs, in particular their compositions, provides a more complete picture of the processes that shaped the inner solar system and that deliver material from the main belt to near-Earth space.Across the entire NEA population, the smallest (d < 1 km) objects have not been well-studied. These very small objects are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Seventy small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at Gemini North & South observatories. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). The smallest near-Earth asteroids are the likely progenitors of meteorites; we expect the observed fraction of ordinary chondrite meteorites to match that of their parent bodies, S-type asteroids. The distribution of the population of small NEAs should also resemble that of their parent bodies, the larger asteroids (d > 1 km). We present classifications for these objects as well as preliminary results for the debiased distribution of taxa (as a proxy for

  10. Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle Concept Simulation of Operations in Proximity to a Near Earth Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This paper details a project to simulate the dynamics of a proposed Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), and modeling the control of this spacecraft. A potential mission of the MMSEV would be to collect samples from a Near-Earth Object (NEO), a mission which would require the spacecraft to be able to navigate to an orbit keeping it stationary over an area of a spinning asteroid while a robotic arm interacts with the surface.

  11. Science Objectives and Site Selection Criteria for a Human Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, P. B.; Beaty, D. W.; Hays, L. E.; Bass, D.; Bell, M. S.; Bleacher, J. E.; Cabrol, N. A.; Conrad, P. G.; Eppler, D. B.; Hamilton, V. E.; Head, J. W., III; Kahre, M. A.; Levy, J. S.; Lyons, T. W.; Rafkin, S. C.; Rice, M. S.; Rice, J.

    2015-12-01

    NASA recently requested that MEPAG evaluate the scientific objectives and the science-related landing site criteria that could be used to support preliminary landing site evaluation for a human mission to Mars in the late 2030's. These requests were addressed by the Human Science Objectives Science Analysis Group, or HSO-SAG 2015, consisting of members of the Mars science and human exploration communities. A set of candidate scientific objectives was identified by the SAG considering intrinsic scientific merit, magnitude of the benefit of a proximal human, opportunities to make simultaneous observations from different vantage points, and opportunities to deliver scientific payloads of higher mass/complexity. These science objectives were then used to construct a set of landing site criteria that can be used to identify potential human landing sites on Mars with high potential for substantial scientific discovery. A future human landing site will lie in the center of a 100 km radius 'exploration zone' and scientific regions of interest within this exploration zone can be considered candidate sites for human exploration. HSO-SAG determined that potential landing sites on Mars should have access to the following: 1) deposits with a high preservation potential for evidence of past habitability and/or sites that are promising for present habitability; 2) Noachian and/or Hesperian rocks that can be used to understand past atmospheres; 3) exposures of at least two crustal units that are suitable for radiometric dating; 4) access to outcrops with signatures indicative of aqueous processes; 5) identifiable stratigraphic contacts and cross-cutting relationships from which relative ages can be determined. These criteria will be used along with other criteria developed from engineering and exploration objectives to help prioritize candidate landing sites for future human missions to Mars. The first landing site workshop will occur on October 27-30, 2015 in Houston, TX. Please

  12. Aspects of Solar System Objects Dynamics with the Gaia Mission and in the Gaia Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel J. G. J.; David, Pedro; Hees, Aurélien; Kovalenko, Irina; Kudryashova, Maria; Thuillot, William; Berthier, Jerome; Carry, Benoit; Emelynaov, Nikolai; Fouchard, Marc; Lainey, Valery; Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe; Stoica, Radu; Tanga, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    After its successful launch in December 2013, and commissioning period, ESA's astrometric space mission Gaia has now started its scientific operations. In addition to the 3D census of our Milky Way with high precision parallax, proper motion, and other parameters derived for a billion of stars, Gaia will also provide a scientific harvest for Solar System Objects (SSO) science. The high precision astrometry and photometry that will be regularly collected for about 300,000 asteroids - during the 5years nominal mission time - will enable significant improvements on fundamental observational data for a very large number of objects.I will describe the current status of the satellite and observations, the Gaia-FUN-SSO follow-up network, data releases policy, and data validations. We will also present the expected results on the dynamics of asteroids and comets, asteroid masses and binary asteroids, tests of GR, and prospects of SSO science (satellites, stellar occultations, etc.) with the Gaia stellar catalogue.Acknowledgements: Thanks to the Gaia DPAC CU4 consortium, and the Labex ESEP (No 2011-LABX-030) & Initiative d'excellence PSL* (convention No ANR-10-IDEX-0001-02)

  13. Operational space human factors - Methodology for a DSO. [Detailed Supplementary Objective for manned Shuttle Orbiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Thomas F.; Gosbee, John W.; Adam, Susan C.

    1992-01-01

    The Human Factors Assessment of Orbiter Missions (Detailed Supplementary Objective 904) was conducted on STS-40 (Spacelab Life Sciences 1) in order to bring human factors into the operational world of manned space flight. This paper describes some of its methods. Included are explanations of general and space human factors, and a description of DSO 904 study objectives and results. The methods described include ways to collect background information for studies and also different in-flight data collection techniques. Several lessons for the space human factors engineer are reflected in this paper. First, method development is just as important as standards generation. Second, results of investigations should always have applicability to design. Third, cooperation with other NASA groups is essential. Finally, the human is the most important component of the space exploration system, and often the most difficult to study.

  14. Bi-objective optimization of a multiple-target active debris removal mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérend, Nicolas; Olive, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of space debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) raises the question of future Active Debris Removal (ADR) operations. Typical ADR scenarios rely on an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) using one of the two following disposal strategies: the first one consists in attaching a deorbiting kit, such as a solid rocket booster, to the debris after rendezvous; with the second one, the OTV captures the debris and moves it to a low-perigee disposal orbit. For multiple-target ADR scenarios, the design of such a mission is very complex, as it involves two optimization levels: one for the space debris sequence, and a second one for the "elementary" orbit transfer strategy from a released debris to the next one in the sequence. This problem can be seen as a Time-Dependant Traveling Salesman Problem (TDTSP) with two objective functions to minimize: the total mission duration and the total propellant consumption. In order to efficiently solve this problem, ONERA has designed, under CNES contract, TOPAS (Tool for Optimal Planning of ADR Sequence), a tool that implements a Branch & Bound method developed in previous work together with a dedicated algorithm for optimizing the "elementary" orbit transfer. A single run of this tool yields an estimation of the Pareto front of the problem, which exhibits the trade-off between mission duration and propellant consumption. We first detail our solution to cope with the combinatorial explosion of complex ADR scenarios with 10 debris. The key point of this approach is to define the orbit transfer strategy through a small set of parameters, allowing an acceptable compromise between the quality of the optimum solution and the calculation cost. Then we present optimization results obtained for various 10 debris removal scenarios involving a 15-ton OTV, using either the deorbiting kit or the disposal orbit strategy. We show that the advantage of one strategy upon the other depends on the propellant margin, the maximum duration allowed

  15. Potential scientific objectives for a 2018 2-rover mission to Mars and implications for the landing site and landed operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Westall, F.; Beaty, D.; Cady, S. L.; Carr, M. H.; Ciarletti, V.; Coradini, A.; Elfving, A.; Glavin, D.; Goesmann, F.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Ori, G. G.; Phillips, R. J.; Salvo, C.; Sephton, M.; Syvertson, M.; Vago, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    A study sponsored by MEPAG has defined the possibilities for cooperative science using two rovers under consideration for launch to Mars in 2018 (ESA’s ExoMars, and a NASA-sourced rover concept for which we use the working name of MAX-C). The group considered collaborative science opportunities both without change to either proposed rover, as well as with some change allowed. Planning focused on analysis of shared and separate objectives, with concurrence on two high priority shared objectives that could form the basis of highly significant collaborative exploration activity. The first shared objective relates to sending the proposed rovers to a site interpreted to contain evidence of past environments with high habitability potential, and with high preservation potential for physical and chemical biosignatures where they would evaluate paleoenvironmental conditions, assess the potential for preservation of biotic and/or prebiotic signatures, and search for possible evidence of past life and prebiotic chemistry. The second shared objective relates to the collection, documentation, and suitable packaging of a set of samples by the rovers that would be sufficient to achieve the scientific objectives of a possible future sample return mission. Achieving cooperative science with the two proposed rovers implies certain compromises that might include less time available for pursuing each rover’s independent objectives, implementation of some hardware modifications, and the need to share a landing site that may not be optimized for either rover. Sharing a landing site has multiple implications, including accepting a common latitude restriction, accepting the geological attributes of the common landing site, and creation of a potential telecommunications bottleneck. Moreover, ensuring a safe landing with the sky crane and pallet system envisioned for the mission would likely result in landing terrain engineering requirements more constraining than those for MSL

  16. The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite: Mission status and CCD evolution after 18 months on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, B.; Scott, R.; Sale, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a small telescope equipped microsatellite designed to perform both Space Situational Awareness (SSA) experiments and asteroid detection. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013, however, due to time pressures, NEOSSat was launched with only the minimal software required to keep the spacecraft safe. The time pressure also resulted in the spacecraft undergoing reduced system and environmental testing on the ground. The full software suite, required to obtain imagery and maintain stable pointing, has since been uploaded to the spacecraft. NEOSSat has obtained imagery since June 2013, with the shutter both open and closed, but as of March 2014 has not achieved the fine pointing required to obtain scientifically useful data. The collected imagery is being used to characterize the on-board CCD camera. While gain and dark current values agree with pre-launch values, unexpected artefacts have appeared in the images. Methods for mitigating the artefacts through image processing have been developed, and spacecraft-level fixes are currently being investigated. In addition, damage from high energy particles impacting the CCD has produced hot pixels in imagery. We have been able to measure the evolution of these hot pixels over several months, both in terms of numbers and characteristics; these results will be presented. In addition, early results from the mission (image quality issues and evolution, early imagery examples), as well as the mission status (including fine pointing), will be discussed.

  17. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey Public Database Development Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Brian; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Putnam, Lowell

    2014-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded large survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). The MANOS project will provide a resource that not only helps to manage our survey in a fully transparent, publicly accessible forum, but will also help to coordinate minor planet characterization efforts and target prioritization across multiple research groups. Working towards that goal, we are developing a portal for rapid, up to date, public dissemination of our data. Migrating the Lowell Astorb dataset to a SQL framework is a major step towards the modernization of the system and will make capable up-to-date deployment of data. This will further allow us to develop utilities of various complexity, such as a deltaV calculator, minor planet finder charts, and sophisticated ephemeri generation functions. We present the state of this effort and a preliminary timeline for functionality.

  18. An operations concept methodology to achieve low-cost mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledbetter, Kenneth W.; Wall, Stephen D.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, the Mission Operations System (MOS) for a space mission has been designed last because it is needed last. This has usually meant that the ground system must adjust to the flight vehicle design, sometimes at a significant cost. As newer missions have increasingly longer flight operations lifetimes, the MOS becomes proportionally more difficult and more resource-consuming. We can no longer afford to design the MOS last. The MOS concept may well drive the spacecraft, instrument, and mission designs, as well as the ground system. A method to help avoid these difficulties, responding to the changing nature of mission operations is presented. Proper development and use of an Operations Concept document results in a combined flight and ground system design yielding enhanced operability and producing increased flexibility for less cost.

  19. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): first photometric results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Moskovitz, N.; Binzel, R.; Christensen, E.; DeMeo, F.; Person, M.; Polishook, D.; Thomas, C.; Trilling, D.; Willman, M.; Burt, B.; Hinkle, M.; Mommert, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is a physical characterization survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that was originally awarded multi-year survey status by NOAO and recently has employed additional facilities available to Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. Our main goal is to provide physical data, such as rotational properties and composition, for several hundred mission accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths.As of February 2015, 12,287 NEOs have been discovered. Despite this impressive number, physical information for the majority of these objects remains limited. Typical NEOs fade in a matter of days or weeks after their discovery, thus their characterization requires a challenging set of rapid response observations.Using a variety of 1-m to 4-m class telescopes, we aim to observe 5 to 10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month in order to derive their rotational properties. Such rotational data can provide useful information about physical properties, like shape, surface heterogeneity/homogeneity, density, internal structure, and internal cohesion. Here, we present early results of the MANOS photometric survey for more than 50 NEOs. One of the goals of this survey is to increase the number of sub-km NEOs whose short-term variability has been studied and to compile a high quality homogeneous database which may be used to perform statistical analyses.We report light curves from our first two years of observing and show objects with rotational periods from a couple of hours down to few seconds. We consider the spin rate distributions of several sub-samples according to their size and other physical parameters. Our results were merged with rotational parameters of other asteroids in the literature to build a larger sample. This allows us to identify correlations of rotational properties with orbital parameters. In particular, we want to study MOID vs. rotation period/morphology/elongation/amplitude, rotation

  20. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Eppler, D. B.; Kennedy, K. J.; Lewis, R.; Spann, J. F.; Sullivan, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground.

  1. Ice Dragon: A Mission to Address Science and Human Exploration Objectives on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Davila, A.; Sanders, G.; Glass, Brian; Gonzales, A.; Heldmann, Jennifer; Karcz, J.; Lemke, L.; Sanders, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a mission concept where a SpaceX Dragon capsule lands a payload on Mars that samples ground ice to search for evidence of life, assess hazards to future human missions, and demonstrate use of Martian resources.

  2. Ice Dragon: A Mission to Address Science and Human Exploration Objectives on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C.; Davilla, A.; Davis, S.; Glass, B.; Gonzales, A.; Heldmann, J.; Karcz, J.; Lemke, L.; Sanders, G.

    2012-06-01

    We present a mission concept where a SpaceX Dragon capsule lands a payload on Mars that samples ground ice to search for evidence of life, assess hazards to future human missions, and demonstrate use of Martian resources.

  3. Functional Requirements: 2014 No Child Left Behind--Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the Minnesota No Child Left Behind (NCLB) calculation as it relates to measuring Title III districts for Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAO). In 2012, a new assessment was used to measure language proficiency skills for English Learners. New AMAO targets were created, and new values for determining individual…

  4. Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International

  5. Achieving recognition that mental health is part of the mission of CDC.

    PubMed

    Safran, Marc A

    2009-11-01

    For much of its history the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considered mental health to be outside of its mission. That assumption persisted even after CDC became a leading public health agency and began to face important mental health issues. This narrative describes how the organizational paradigm indicating that mental health was not mission related was challenged and superseded by a new paradigm recognizing mental health as part of CDC's public health mission. Even after the CDC Mental Health Work Group's establishment in 2000, CDC took eight more years to overcome powerful remnants of the old paradigm that had for so long excluded, minimized, or discouraged attention to mental health. The CDC Mental Health Work Group led the agency's mental health efforts without funding or dedicated staffing but with more than 100 CDC professionals from multiple disciplines and centers serving as voluntary members, in addition to their other CDC responsibilities.

  6. Orbit Options for an Orion-Class Spacecraft Mission to a Near-Earth Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, Nathan C.

    Based on the recommendations of the Augustine Commission, President Obama has proposed a vision for U.S. human spaceflight in the post-Shuttle era which includes a manned mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). A 2006-2007 study commissioned by the Constellation Program Advanced Projects Office investigated the feasibility of sending a crewed Orion spacecraft to a NEO using different combinations of elements from the latest launch system architecture at that time. The study found a number of suitable mission targets in the database of known NEOs, and predicted that the number of candidate NEOs will continue to increase as more advanced observatories come online and execute more detailed surveys of the NEO population. The objective of this thesis is to pick up where the previous Constellation study left off by considering what orbit options are available for an Orion-class spacecraft upon arrival at a NEO. A model including multiple perturbations (solar radiation pressure, solar gravity, non-spherical mass distribution of the central body) to two-body dynamics is constructed to numerically integrate the motion of a satellite in close proximity to a small body in an elliptical orbit about the Sun. Analytical limits derived elsewhere in the literature for the thresholds on the size of the satellite orbit required to maintain stability in the presence of these perturbing forces are verified by the numerical model. Simulations about NEOs possessing various physical parameters (size, shape, rotation period) are then used to empirically develop general guidelines for establishing orbits of an Orion-class spacecraft about a NEO. It is found that an Orion-class spacecraft can orbit NEOs at any distance greater than the NEO surface height and less than the maximum semi-major axis allowed by the solar radiation pressure perturbation, provided that the ellipticity perturbation is sufficiently weak (this condition is met if the NEO is relatively round and/or has a long rotation

  7. The instrument on NASA's GRACE Mission: Augmentation of GPS to achieve unprecedented gravity field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C.; Bertiger, W.; Franklin, G.; Harris, I.; Kruizinga, G.; Meehan, T.; Nandi, S.; Nguyen, D.; Rogstad, T.; Thomas, J. B.; Tien, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will describe the design and on-orbit performance of the GRACE Instrument Processing Unit (IPU) that integrates most of the critical science functions required by the GRACE mission to perform its gravity science and atmospheric radio occultation tasks.

  8. Spectral studies of asteroids 21 lutetia and 4 vesta as objects of space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busarev, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    Asteroid 21 Lutetia is one of the objects of the Rosetta mission carried out by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Rosetta spacecraft launched in 2004 is to approach Lutetia in July 2010, and then it will be directed to the comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Asteroid 4 Vesta is planned to be investigated in 2011 from the Dawn spacecraft launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 2007 (its second object is the largest asteroid, 1 Ceres). The observed characteristics of Lutetia and Vesta are different and even contradictory. In spite of the intense and versatile ground-based studies, the origin and evolution of these minor planets remain obscure or not completely clear. The types of Lutetia and Vesta (M and V, respectively) determined from their spectra correspond to the high-temperature mineralogy, which agrees with their albedo estimated from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) observations. However, according to the opinion of some researchers, Lutetia is of the C type, and, therefore, its mineralogy is of the lowtemperature type. In turn, hydrosilicate formations have been found in some places on the surface of Vesta. Our observations also testify that at some relative phases of rotation (RP), the reflectance spectra of Lutetia and Vesta demonstrate features confirming the presence of hydrosilicates in the surface material. However, this fact can be reconciled with the magmatic nature of Lutetia and Vesta if the hydrated material was delivered to their surfaces by falling primitive bodies. Such small bodies are probably present everywhere in the main asteroid belt and can be the relicts of silicate-icy planetesimals from Jupiter's formation zone or the fragments of primitive-type asteroids. When interpreting the reflectance spectra of Lutetia and Vesta, we discuss the spectral classification by Tholen (1984) from the standpoint of its general importance for the estimation of the mineralogical type of the asteroids and the study of

  9. The NEOTωIST mission (Near-Earth Object Transfer of angular momentum spin test)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drube, Line; Harris, Alan W.; Engel, Kilian; Falke, Albert; Johann, Ulrich; Eggl, Siegfried; Cano, Juan L.; Ávila, Javier Martín; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Michel, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    We present a concept for a kinetic impactor demonstration mission, which intends to change the spin rate of a previously-visited asteroid, in this case 25143 Itokawa. The mission would determine the efficiency of momentum transfer during an impact, and help mature the technology required for a kinetic impactor mission, both of which are important precursors for a future space mission to deflect an asteroid by collisional means in an emergency situation. Most demonstration mission concepts to date are based on changing an asteroid's heliocentric orbit and require a reconnaissance spacecraft to measure the very small orbital perturbation due to the impact. Our concept is a low-cost alternative, requiring only a single launch. Taking Itokawa as an example, an estimate of the order of magnitude of the change in the spin period, δP, with such a mission results in δP of ~4 min (0.5%), which could be detectable by Earth-based observatories. Our preliminary study found that a mission concept in which an impactor produces a change in an asteroid's spin rate could provide valuable information for the assessment of the viability of the kinetic-impactor asteroid deflection concept. Furthermore, the data gained from the mission would be of great benefit for our understanding of the collisional evolution of asteroids and the physics behind crater and ejecta-cloud development.

  10. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) -- Science Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Thirouin, Audrey; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Siu, Hosea; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of other parts of the Solar System they provide insight to more distant populations. Their small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them ideal laboratories for studying ongoing processes of planetary evolution. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. And the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for a variety of planetary mission scenarios. However, in spite of their importance, only the largest NEOs are well studied and a representative sample of physical properties for sub-km NEOs does not exist.MANOS is a multi-year physical characterization survey, originally awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS is targeting several hundred mission-accessible, sub-km NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths to provide a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Accessing these targets is enabled through classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in the northern and southern hemispheres. Our observing strategy is designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.Early progress from MANOS includes: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied NEOs, (3) detection of the fastest known rotation period of any minor planet in the Solar System, (4) an investigation of the influence of planetary encounters on the rotational properties of NEOs, (5) dynamical models for the evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (6) development of a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data products while

  11. ESA's Spaceborne Lidar Mission ADM-Aeolus; Recent Achievements and Preparations for Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grete Straume, Anne; Elfving, Anders; Wernham, Denny; Culoma, Alain; Mondin, Linda; de Bruin, Frank; Kanitz, Thomas; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Buscaglione, Fabio; Dehn, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Within ESA's Living Planet Programme, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus) was chosen as the second Earth Explorer Core mission in 1999. It shall demonstrate the potential of high spectral resolution Doppler Wind lidars for operational measurements of wind profiles and their use in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Spin-off products are profiles of cloud and aerosol optical properties. ADM-Aeolus carries the novel Doppler Wind lidar instrument ALADIN. Recently the two ALADIN laser transmitters were successfully qualified and delivered for further instrument integration. The instrument delivery will follow later this year and the satellite qualification and launch readiness is scheduled for 2016. In February 2015, an Aeolus Science and Calibration and Validation (CAL/VAL) Workshop was held in ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, bringing industry, the user community and ESA together to prepare for the Aeolus Commissioning and Operational Phases. During the Workshop the science, instrument and product status, commissioning phase planning and the extensive number of proposals submitted in response to the Aeolus CAL/VAL call in 2014 were presented and discussed. A special session was dedicated to the Aeolus CAL/VAL Implementation Plan. In this paper, the Aeolus mission, status and launch preparation activities are described.

  12. The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) mission: Objectives and Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, J.; Bergametti, G.; Bovensmann, H.; Flaud, J.; Orphal, J.; Noel, S.; Monks, P.; Corlett, G.; Goede, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Steck, T.; Fischer, H.; Friedl-Vallon, F.

    One of the major challenges facing atmospheric sciences is to assess, understand and quantify the impact of natural and anthropogenic pollution on the quality of life on Earth on a local, regional and continental scale. It has become apparent that pollution originating from local/regional events can have serious effects on the composition of the lower atmosphere on a continental scale. However, to understand the effects of regional pollution on a continental scale there is a requirement to transcend traditional atmospheric spatial and temporal scales and attempt to monitor the entire atmosphere at the same time. In the troposphere the variability of chemical processes, of source strength and the dynamics induce important short term, i.e. sub-hourly, variations and significant horizontal and vertical variability of constituents and geophysical parameters relevant to a range of contemporary issues such as air quality. To study tropospheric composition, it is therefore required to link diurnal with seasonal and annual timescales, as well as local and regional with continental spatial scales, by performing sub-hourly measurements at appropriate horizontal and vertical resolution. Tropospheric observations from low-Earth orbit (LEO) platforms have already demonstrated the potential of detecting constituents relevant for air quality but they are limited, for example by the daily revisit time and local cloud cover statistics. The net result of this is is that the troposphere is currently significantly under sampled. Measurements from Geostationary Orbit (GEO) offer the only practical approach to the observation of diurnal variation from space with the pertinent horizontal resolution. The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) is an attempt to determine tropospheric constituents with high temporal and spatial resolution. The talk will summarise the needs for geostationary observations of tropospheric composition and will give the mission objectives and

  13. Magnetometer Data for the Ages: Achieving complete FGM instrument coverage of the multi-spacecraft Cluster mission (2000 to 2015+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alconcel, Leah-Nani; Fox, Peter; Colgan, Cary; Oddy, Tim; Brown, Patrick; Carr, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The calibrated dataset from the Cluster magnetometer instruments (FGMs) aboard the four Cluster spacecraft comprises an invaluable contribution to magnetospheric physics. It is also essential for the derivation of some datasets from other instruments, all of which have been made available through ESA's Cluster Science Archive (CSA). The FGM team at Imperial College - the PI institute that built and supports operation of the magnetometers - has regularly provided validated data to the CSA since its inception. Now that other multi-spacecraft missions such as the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have come online, it will be possible to make inter-mission as well as inter-spacecraft comparisons. The FGM team hopes to enable those comparisons by delivering magnetic field data from periods when the Cluster spacecraft are not otherwise taking science telemetry. These periods are becoming more common as the spacecraft age. Accomplishing this would also achieve near-complete magnetic field coverage throughout the Cluster mission. Preparation of these data to archival standards raises unusual challenges to be discussed in this presentation.

  14. Combustion Module-2 Achieved Scientific Success on Shuttle Mission STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    The familiar teardrop shape of a candle is caused by hot, spent air rising and cool fresh air flowing behind it. This type of airflow obscures many of the fundamental processes of combustion and is an impediment to our understanding and modeling of key combustion controls used for manufacturing, transportation, fire safety, and pollution. Conducting experiments in the microgravity environment onboard the space shuttles eliminates these impediments. NASA Glenn Research Center's Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) and its three experiments successfully flew on STS-107/Columbia in the SPACEHAB module and provided the answers for many research questions. However, this research also opened up new questions. The CM-2 facility was the largest and most complex pressurized system ever flown by NASA and was a precursor to the Glenn Fluids and Combustion Facility planned to fly on the International Space Station. CM-2 operated three combustion experiments: Laminar Soot Processes (LSP), Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number (SOFBALL), and Water Mist Fire Suppression Experiment (Mist). Although Columbia's mission ended in tragedy with the loss of her crew and much data, most of the CM-2 results were sent to the ground team during the mission.

  15. Exploring Europa's Habitability: Science achieved from the Europa Orbiter and Clipper Mission Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senske, D. A.; Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Patterson, G. W.; Vance, S.

    2012-12-01

    Europa is a prime candidate in the search for present-day habitable environments in our solar system. Europa is unique among the large icy satellites because it probably has a saltwater ocean today beneath an ice shell that is geodynamically active. The combination of irradiation of its surface and tidal heating of its interior could make Europa a rich source of chemical energy for life. Perhaps most importantly, Europa's ocean is believed to be in direct contact with its rocky mantle, where conditions could be similar to those on Earth's biologically rich sea floor. Hydrothermal zones on Earth's seafloor are known to be rich with life, powered by energy and nutrients that result from reactions between the seawater and the warm rocky ocean floor. Life as we know it depends on three principal "ingredients": 1) a sustained liquid water environment; 2) essential chemical elements that are critical for building life; and 3) a source of energy that could be utilized by life. Europa's habitability requires understanding whether it possesses these three ingredients. NASA has enlisted a study team to consider Europa mission options feasible over the next decade, compatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget and addressing Planetary Decadal Survey priorities. Two Europa mission concepts (Orbiter and multiple flyby—call the "Clipper") are undergoing continued study with the goal to "Explore Europa to investigate its habitability." Each mission would address this goal in complementary ways, with high science value of its own. The Orbiter and Clipper architectures lend themselves to specific types of scientific measurements. The Orbiter concept is tailored to the unique geophysical science that requires being in orbit at Europa. This includes confirming the existence of an ocean and characterizing that ocean through geophysical measurements of Europa's gravitational tides and magnetic induction response. It also includes mapping of the global morphology and

  16. Harnessing collaborative technology to accelerate achievement of chronic disease management objectives for Canada.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Leslee J; Healey, Lindsay; Falk, Will

    2007-01-01

    Morgan and colleagues put forth a call to action for the transformation of the Canadian healthcare system through the adoption of a national chronic disease prevention and management (CDPM) strategy. They offer examples of best practices and national solutions including investment in clinical information technologies to help support improved care and outcomes. Although we acknowledge that the authors propose CDPM solutions that are headed in the right direction, more rapid deployment of solutions that harness the potential of advanced collaborative technologies is required. We provide examples of how technologies that exist today can help to accelerate the achievement of some key CDPM objectives.

  17. Gravitational experiments on a solar probe mission: Scientific objectives and technology considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of a solar impact probe (either solar plunger or sun grazer) led to the initiation of a NASA study at JPL in 1978 on the engineering and scientific feasibility of a Solar Probe Mission, named Starprobe, in which a spacecraft is placed in a high eccentricity orbit with a perihelion near 4 solar radii. The Starprobe study showed that the concept was feasible and in fact preliminary mission and spacecraft designs were developed. In the early stages of the Solar Probe studies the emphasis was placed on gravitational science, but by the time of a workshop at Caltech in May 1978 (Neugebauer and Davies, 1978) there was about an equal division of interest between heliospheric physics and gravitation. The last of the gravitational studies for Solar Probe was conducted at JPL in 1983. Since that time, the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) of the National Academy of Sciences has recommended the pursuit of a focused mission, featuring fields and particles instrumentation and emphasizing studies of the solar wind source region. Such a solar probe mission is currently listed as the 1994 Major New Star candidate. In the remainder of this review, the unique gravitational science that can be accomplished with a solar probe mission is reviewed. In addition the technology issues that were identified in 1980 by the ad hoc working group for Gravity and Relativity Science are addressed.

  18. Low delta-V Near Earth Objects: a survey of suitable targets for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ieva, S.; Dotto, E.; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; De Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Rossi, A.; Brucato, J. R.

    2013-09-01

    Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are attracting nowadays more and more attention from the scientific community, because of their constant threat to human civilization, their increasing feasibility for future space missions and the opportunity to investigate pristine material. Unfortunately only 10% of discovered NEAs have been physically characterized. So, to help design future rendez-vous space missions we perform spectroscopic observations of 13 NEAs without a taxonomic classification and high accessibility from Earth, based upon their minimal change in the spacecraft's speed to shuttle to the asteroid's orbit. The obtained data are also important to settle the ground truth for all those asteroids who will never be visited by a spacecraft.

  19. Solar-Terrestrial Physics in the 1990s: Key Science Objectives for the IACG Mission Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program is an internationally coordinated multi-spacecraft mission that will study the production of the supersonic magnetized solar wind, its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere, and the resulting transport of plasma, momentum and energy through the magnetosphere and into the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. The mission will involve l4spacecraft to be launched between 1992 and 1996, along with complementary ground-based observations and theoretical programs. A list of the spacecraft, their nominal orbits, and responsible agencies is shown.

  20. Apollo 14 mission: Failure to achieve docking probe capture latch engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Six docking attempts were required in order to successfully achieve capture latch engagement during the transposition and docking phase following translunar injection. After docking, the probe and drogue were examined by the crew. Probe operation appeared normal and radial marks were noted on the drogue. During all subsequent operations, the probe operated properly.

  1. Latina/o Student Achievement: A Collaborative Mission of Professional Associations of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Patricia; Castillo, Linda G.

    2011-01-01

    Latina/o student achievement is a priority for the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE). To date, AAHHE has worked deliberately on this agenda. However, well-established higher education associations such as the Association of American Universities (AAU) and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) are…

  2. Use of Virtual Mission Operations Center Technology to Achieve JPDO's Virtual Tower Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Program Development Office has proposed that the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) consolidate control centers. NGATS would be managed from a few strategically located facilities with virtual towers and TRACONS. This consolidation is about combining the delivery locations for these services not about decreasing service. By consolidating these locations, cost savings in the order of $500 million have been projected. Evolving to spaced-based communication, navigation, and surveillance offers the opportunity to reduce or eliminate much of the ground-based infrastructure cost. Dynamically adjusted airspace offers the opportunity to reduce the number of sectors and boundary inconsistencies; eliminate or reduce "handoffs;" and eliminate the distinction between Towers, TRACONS, and Enroute Centers. To realize a consolidation vision for air traffic management there must be investment in networking. One technology that holds great potential is the use of Virtual Mission Operations Centers to provide secure, automated, intelligent management of the NGATS. This paper provides a conceptual framework for incorporating VMOC into the NGATS.

  3. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  4. Fault Management in an Objectives-Based/Risk-Informed View of Safety and Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Theme of this talk: (1) Net-benefit of activities and decisions derives from objectives (and their priority) -- similarly: need for integration, value of technology/capability. (2) Risk is a lack of confidence that objectives will be met. (2a) Risk-informed decision making requires objectives. (3) Consideration of objectives is central to recent guidance.

  5. Mission Objectives Of The Atmospheric Composition Related Sentinels S5p, S4, And S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingmann, Paul; Veihelmann, Ben; Langen, Jorg; Meijer, Yasjka

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry observations from space have been made for over 30 years, in the beginning mainly by US missions. These missions have always been motivated by the concern about a number of environmental issues. At present European instruments like GOME-2 on MetOp/EPS-A and -B and OMI on NASA's Aura are in space and, despite being designed for research purposes, perform routine observations. The space instruments have helped improving our understanding of processes that govern stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change and the transport of pollutants. However, long-term continuous time series of atmospheric trace gas data have been limited to stratospheric ozone and a few related species. According to current planning, meteorological satellites will maintain these observations over the next decade. They will also add some measurements of tropospheric trace gases critical for climate forcing. However, as their measurements have been motivated by meteorology, vertical sensitivities and accuracies are marginal for atmospheric chemistry applications. With the exception of stratospheric ozone, reliable long-term space-based monitoring of atmospheric constituents with quality attributes sufficient to serve atmospheric chemistry applications still need to be established. The need for a GMES atmospheric service (GAS), its scope and high level requirements were laid down in an orientation papers organised by the European Commission and then updated by an Implementation Group (IG) [1], backed by four working groups, advising the Commission on scope, architecture, in situ and space requirements. The goal of GAS is to provide coherent information on atmospheric variables in support of European policies and for the benefit of European citizens. Services cover air quality, climate change/forcing, stratospheric ozone and solar radiation. To meet the needs of the user community atmospheric composition mission concepts for GEO and LEO have been defined usually referred to

  6. Habitability constraints/objectives for a mars manned mission: Internal architecture considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winisdoerffer, F.; Soulez-Larivière, C.

    1992-08-01

    It is generally accepted that high quality internal environment shall strongly support crew's adaptation and acceptance to situation of long isolation and confinement. Thus, this paper is an attempt to determine to which extent the resulting stress corresponding to the anticipated duration of a trip to Mars (1 and a half years to 2 and a half years) could be decreased when internal architecture of the spacecraft is properly designed. It is assumed that artificial gravity shall be available on board the Mars spacecraft. This will of course have a strong impact on internal architecture as far as a 1-g oriented design will become mandatory, at least in certain inhabited parts of the spacecraft. The review of usual Habitability functions is performed according to the peculiarities of such an extremely long mission. A particular attention is paid to communications issues and the need for privacy. The second step of the paper addresses internal architecture issues through zoning analyses. Common, Service and Personal zones need to be adapted to the constraints associated with the extremely long duration of the mission. Furthermore, due to the nature of the mission itself (relative autonomy, communication problems, monotony) and the type of selected crew (personalities, group structure) the implementation of a ``fourth zone'', so-called ``recreational'' zone, seems to be needed. This zoning analysis is then translated into some internal architecture proposals, which are discussed and illustrated. This paper is concluded by a reflection on habitability and recommendations on volumetric requirements. Some ideas to validate proposed habitability items through simulation are also discussed.

  7. Habitability constraints/objectives for a Mars manned mission: internal architecture considerations.

    PubMed

    Winisdoerffer, F; Soulez-Larivière, C

    1992-01-01

    It is generally accepted that high quality internal environment shall strongly support crew's adaptation and acceptance to situation of long isolation and confinement. Thus, this paper is an attempt to determine to which extent the resulting stress corresponding to the anticipated duration of a trip to Mars (1 and a half years to 2 and a half years) could be decreased when internal architecture of the spacecraft is properly designed. It is assumed that artificial gravity shall be available on board the Mars spacecraft. This will of course have a strong impact on internal architecture as far as a 1-g oriented design will become mandatory, at least in certain inhabited parts of the spacecraft. The review of usual Habitability functions is performed according to the peculiarities of such an extremely long mission. A particular attention is paid to communications issues and the need for privacy. The second step of the paper addresses internal architecture issues through zoning analyses. Common, Service and Personal zones need to be adapted to the constraints associated with the extremely long duration of the mission. Furthermore, due to the nature of the mission itself (relative autonomy, communication problems, monotony) and the type of selected crew (personalities, group structure) the implementation of a "fourth zone", so-called "recreational" zone, seems to be needed. This zoning analysis is then translated into some internal architecture proposals, which are discussed and illustrated. This paper is concluded by a reflection on habitability and recommendations on volumetric requirements. Some ideas to validate proposed habitability items through simulation are also discussed.

  8. Next space solar observatory SOLAR-C: mission instruments and science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Hara, H.; Ichimoto, K.; Kubo, M.; Kusano, K.; Sakao, T.; Shimizu, T.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.

    2012-12-01

    SOLAR-C, the fourth space solar mission in Japan, is under study with a launch target of fiscal year 2018. A key concept of the mission is to view the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona as one system coupled by magnetic fields along with resolving the size scale of fundamental physical processes connecting these atmospheric layers. It is especially important to study magnetic structure in the chromosphere as an interface layer between the photosphere and the corona. The SOLAR-C satellite is equipped with three telescopes, the Solar UV-Visible-IR Telescope (SUVIT), the EUV/FUV High Throughput Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVS/LEMUR), and the X-ray Imaging Telescope (XIT). Observations with SUVIT of photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields make it possible to infer three dimensional magnetic structure extending from the photosphere to the chromosphere and corona.This helps to identify magnetic structures causing magnetic reconnection, and clarify how waves are propagated, reflected, and dissipated. Phenomena indicative of or byproducts of magnetic reconnection, such as flows and shocks, are to be captured by SUVIT and by spectroscopic observations using EUVS/LEMUR, while XIT observes rapid changes in temperature distribution of plasma heated by shock waves.

  9. Investigation of dust particles with future Russian lunar missions: achievements of further development of PmL instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Ilya; Zakharov, Alexander; Afonin, Valeri; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Lyash, Andrey; Dolnikov, Gennady; Popel, Sergey; Lisin, Evgeny

    2016-07-01

    , solar emission. Dust analyzer instrument PmL for future Russian lander missions intends for investigation the dynamics of dusty plasma near lunar surface. PmL consists of three parts in the case of Luna-Glob: Impact Sensor and two Electric Field Sensors (EFC). There are 9 parts of PmL instrument for Luna-Resource mission: two Impact Sensors, 5 EFC (three on the Boom and two on the lander) and 2 Solar Wind and Dust Analyzers. These days the engineering model of PmL for LG-mission is finished. We obtained first practical results from the simulating chambers with dust particles injectors and plasma inside. All the important achievements are presented in this report as well as the roadmap for further development of PmL instruments in both of Russian lunar missions.

  10. Leveraging Improvements in Precipitation Measuring from GPM Mission to Achieve Prediction Improvements in Climate, Weather and Hydrometeorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the GPM mission, currently planned for start in the 2007 time frame, is to investigate important scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing Operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US and the National Space Development Agency in Japan. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international partners and domestic scientific agencies and institutions, as well as participation by individual scientists from academia, government, and the private sector to fulfill mission goals and to pave

  11. Investigation of Archean microfossil preservation for defining science objectives for Mars sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorber, K.; Czaja, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that Mars contains more potentially life-supporting habitats (either in the present or past), than once thought. The key to finding life on Mars, whether extinct or extant, is to first understand which biomarkers and biosignatures are strictly biogenic in origin. Studying ancient habitats and fossil organisms of the early Earth can help to characterize potential Martian habitats and preserved life. This study, which focuses on the preservation of fossil microorganisms from the Archean Eon, aims to help define in part the science methods needed for a Mars sample return mission, of which, the Mars 2020 rover mission is the first step.Here is reported variations in the geochemical and morphological preservation of filamentous fossil microorganisms (microfossils) collected from the 2.5-billion-year-old Gamohaan Formation of the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa. Samples of carbonaceous chert were collected from outcrop and drill core within ~1 km of each other. Specimens from each location were located within thin sections and their biologic morphologies were confirmed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Raman spectroscopic analyses documented the carbonaceous nature of the specimens and also revealed variations in the level of geochemical preservation of the kerogen that comprises the fossils. The geochemical preservation of kerogen is principally thought to be a function of thermal alteration, but the regional geology indicates all of the specimens experienced the same thermal history. It is hypothesized that the fossils contained within the outcrop samples were altered by surface weathering, whereas the drill core samples, buried to a depth of ~250 m, were not. This differential weathering is unusual for cherts that have extremely low porosities. Through morphological and geochemical characterization of the earliest known forms of fossilized life on the earth, a greater understanding of the origin of evolution of life on Earth is gained

  12. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, Wayne; Rogers, John; Moore, Arlene

    1992-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  13. The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission: Objectives, Approach, and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livermore, Thomas R.; Crisp, David

    2008-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) mission that is currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). OCO will make global, space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize regional-scale sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. The observatory consists of a dedicated spacecraft bus that carries a single instrument. The bus employs single-string version of Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) LEOStar-2 architecture. This 3-axis stabilized bus includes a propulsion system for orbit insertion and maintenance, provides power, points the instrument, receives and processes commands from the ground, and records, stores, and downlinks science and engineering data. The OCO instrument incorporates 3 oboresighted, high resolution grating spectrometers that will make coincident measurements of reflected sunlight in near-infrared CO2 and molecular oxygen (O2) bands. The instrument was designed and manufactured by Hamilton Sundstrand (Pomona, CA), and then integrated, flight qualified, and calibrated by JPL. It is scheduled for delivery to OSC (Dulles, VA) for integration with the spacecraft bus in the spring of 2008. OCO will be launched from the Vandenberg Air Force Base on a dedicated OSC Taurus XL launch vehicle in December 2008. It will fly in formation with the Earth Observing System Afternoon Constellation, a group of satellites that files in a 98.8 minute, 705 km altitude, sun-synchronous orbit. This orbit provides coverage of the sunlit hemisphere with a 16-day ground track repeat cycle. OCO will fly approx.4 minutes ahead of the EOS Aqua platform, with an ascending nodal crossing time of approx.1:26 PM. The OCO science data will be transmitted to the NASA Ground Network Stations in Alaska and Virginia, and then transferred to the OCO Ground Data System at JPL. There, the CO2 and O2 spectra will be analyzed by the

  14. Hayabusa2 mission target asteroid (162173) 1999 JU_3: Searching for the object's spin-axis orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T.; Durech, J.; Mueller, M.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Ishiguro, M.

    2014-07-01

    The JAXA Hayabusa2 mission was approved in 2011 with launch planned for late 2014. Arriving at the asteroid (162173) 1999 JU_3 in 2018, it will survey it, land, and obtain surface material, then depart in late 2019, and return to the Earth in December 2020. We observed the near-Earth asteroid 1999 JU_3 with the Herschel Space Observatory in April 2012 at thermal far-infrared wavelengths, supported by several ground-based observations to obtain optical lightcurves. We re-analyzed previously published Subaru-COMICS observations and merged them with existing data sets from Akari-IRC and Spitzer-IRS. In addition, we used the object's near-IR flux increase from February to May 2013 as observed by Spitzer. The almost spherical shape and the insufficient quality of lightcurve observations forced us to combine radiometric techniques and lightcurve inversion in a new way to find the object's spin-axis orientation, its shape, and to improve the quality of the key physical and thermal parameters of 1999 JU_3. We will present our best pre-launch solution for this C-class asteroid, including the sense of rotation, the spin-axis orientation, the effective diameter, the geometric albedo, and thermal inertia. The finely constrained values for this asteroid serve as an important input for the preparation of this exciting mission.

  15. 45 CFR 261.20 - How will we hold a State accountable for achieving the work objectives of TANF?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the work objectives of TANF? 261.20 Section 261.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK What Are the Provisions Addressing State Accountability? § 261.20 How will we hold a State accountable for achieving the work objectives...

  16. Science Objectives of the JEM EUSO Mission on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    JEM-EUSO space observatory is planned with a very large exposure factor which will exceed the critical exposure factor required for observing the most of the sources within the propagational horizon of about one hundred Mpc. The main science objective of JEM-EUSO is the source-identifying astronomy in particle channel with extremey-high-energy particles. Quasi-linear tracking of the source objects through galactic magnetic field should become feasible at energy > 10(exp 20) eV for all-sky. The individual GZK profile in high statistics experiments should differ from source to source due to different distance unless Lorentz invariance is somehow limited. hi addition, JEM-EUSO has three exploratory test observations: (i), extremely high energy neutrinos beginning at E > 10(exp 19) eV: neutrinos as being expected to have a slowly increasing cross section in the Standard Model, and in particular, hundreds of times more in the extra-dimension models. (ii). fundamental physics at extreme Super LHC (Large Hadronic Collider) energies with the hierarchical unified energy much below the GUT scale, and (iii). global atmospheric observation, including large-scale and local plasma discharges, night-glow, meteorites, and others..

  17. Achieving Course Objectives and Student Learning Outcomes: Seeking Student Feedback on Their Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Danni; Loyle-Langholz, Anne; Higbee, Jeanne L.; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Most postsecondary faculty in the United States include course goals or objectives as key components of their syllabi. In addition to individual course objectives, many institutions have identified institution-wide student learning outcomes (SLOs). This paper describes one faculty member's attempts to elicit feedback from students regarding their…

  18. Another Objective to Achieve: A Study of Educationally Disadvantaged Veterans Enrolled in a College Preparatory Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Gordon L.; Vivell, Susan

    The Veterans Special Educational Program (VSEP) at the University of California, Los Angeles is a program for recently discharged servicemen and women whose educational achievement would not normally be acceptable for admission into an institution of higher education and economic background has not encouraged them to seek higher education. The…

  19. Planned flight test of a mercury ion auxiliary propulsion system. 1: Objectives, systems descriptions, and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A planned flight test of an 8 cm diameter, electron-bombardment mercury ion thruster system is described. The primary objective of the test is to flight qualify the 5 mN (1 mlb.) thruster system for auxiliary propulsion applications. A seven year north-south stationkeeping mission was selected as the basis for the flight test operating profile. The flight test, which will employ two thruster systems, will also generate thruster system space performance data, measure thruster-spacecraft interactions, and demonstrate thruster operation in a number of operating modes. The flight test is designated as SAMSO-601 and will be flown aboard the shuttle-launched Air Force space test program P80-1 satellite in 1981. The spacecraft will be 3- axis stabilized in its final 740 km circular orbit, which will have an inclination of approximately greater than 73 degrees. The spacecraft design lifetime is three years.

  20. Will international emissions trading help achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Kubota, Izumi; Dai, Hancheng; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-10-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, parties set and implement their own emissions targets as nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to tackle climate change. International carbon emissions trading is expected to reduce global mitigation costs. Here, we show the benefit of emissions trading under both NDCs and a more ambitious reduction scenario consistent with the 2 °C goal. The results show that the global welfare loss, which was measured based on estimated household consumption change in 2030, decreased by 75% (from 0.47% to 0.16%), as a consequence of achieving NDCs through emissions trading. Furthermore, achieving the 2 °C targets without emissions trading led to a global welfare loss of 1.4%–3.4%, depending on the burden-sharing scheme used, whereas emissions trading reduced the loss to around 1.5% (from 1.4% to 1.7%). These results indicate that emissions trading is a valuable option for the international system, enabling NDCs and more ambitious targets to be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

  1. An Achievement Degree Analysis Approach to Identifying Learning Problems in Object-Oriented Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allinjawi, Arwa A.; Al-Nuaim, Hana A.; Krause, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Students often face difficulties while learning object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. Many papers have presented various assessment methods for diagnosing learning problems to improve the teaching of programming in computer science (CS) higher education. The research presented in this article illustrates that although max-min composition is…

  2. Aero-gravity Assisted Manoeuvers within Preliminary Interplanetary Mission Design: a Multi-objective Evolutive Algorithm Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povoleri, A.; Lavagna, M.; Finzi, A. E.

    The paper presents a new approach to deal with the preliminary space mission analysis design of particularly complex trajectories focused on interplanetary targets. According to an optimisation approach, a multi-objective strategy is selected on a mixed continuous and discrete state variables domain in order to deal with possible multi-gravity assist manoeuvres (GAM) as further degrees of freedom of the problem, in terms of both number and planets sequence selection to minimize both the ?v expense and the time trip time span. A further added value to the proposed algorithm stays in that, according to planets having an atmosphere, aero-gravity assist manoeuvres (AGAM) are considered too within the overall mission design optimisation, and the consequent optimal control problem related to the aerodynamic angles history, is solved. According to the target planet different capture strategies are managed by the algorithm, the aerocapture manoeuvre too, whenever possible (e.g. Venus, Mars target planets). In order not to be trapped in local solution the Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) have been selected to solve such a complex problem. Simulations and comparison with already designed space missions showed the ability of the proposed architecture in correctly selecting both the sequences and the planets type of either GAMs or AGAMs to optimise the selected criteria vector, in a multidisciplinary environment, switching on the optimal control problem whenever the atmospheric interaction is involved in the optimisation by the search process. Symbols δ = semi-angular deviation for GAM between the v∞ -, v∞ + inoutcoming vectors [rad] φ = Angular deviation for AGAM between the v∞ -, v∞ + inoutcoming vectors [rad] ρ = Atmospheric density [kgm-3 ] γ = Flight path angle [rad] µ = Bank angle [rad] δ?ttransf j = j-th heliocentric transfer time variation with respect to the linked conics solution ?|v∞| = Relative velocity losses because of drag [ms-1 ] ωI = i

  3. The First Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of the mission manager in coordinating the payload with the space transportation system is studied. The establishment of the investigators working group to assist in achieving the mission objectives is examined. Analysis of the scientific requirements to assure compatibility with available resources, and analysis of the payload in order to define orbital flight requirements are described. The training of payload specialists, launch site integration, and defining the requirements for the operation of the integrated payload and the payload operations control center are functions of the mission manager. The experiences gained from the management of the Spacelab One Mission, which can be implemented in future missions, are discussed. Examples of material processing, earth observations, and life sciences advances from the First Spacelab Mission are presented.

  4. Geothermal Field Development in the European Community Objectives, Achievements and Problem Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ungemach, Pierre

    1983-12-15

    Achievements and problem areas are reviewed with respect to various engineering implications of geothermal field development in the European Community (EC). Current and furture development goals address three resource settings. (a) low enthalpy sources (30-150{degrees}C), an outlook common to all Member states as a result of hot water aquifers flowing in large sedimentary units with normal heat flow, widespread thoughout the EC; (b) high enthalpy sources (<150{degrees}C) in areas of high heat flow which, as a consequence of the geodynamics of the Eurasian plate, are limited to Central and South-West Italy and to Eastern Greece; (c) hot dry rocks (HDR), whose potential for Europe, and also the difficulties in implementing the heat mining concept, are enormous. A large scale experiment conducted at medium depth in Cornwall (UK) proves encouraging though. It has provided the right sort of scientific inputs to the understanding of the mechanics of anisotropic brittle basement rocks.

  5. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  6. Robot soccer anywhere: achieving persistent autonomous navigation, mapping, and object vision tracking in dynamic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragone, Mauro; O'Donoghue, Ruadhan; Leonard, John J.; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Patrikalakis, Andrew; Leederkerken, Jacques

    2005-06-01

    The paper describes an ongoing effort to enable autonomous mobile robots to play soccer in unstructured, everyday environments. Unlike conventional robot soccer competitions that are usually held on purpose-built robot soccer "fields", in our work we seek to develop the capability for robots to demonstrate aspects of soccer-playing in more diverse environments, such as schools, hospitals, or shopping malls, with static obstacles (furniture) and dynamic natural obstacles (people). This problem of "Soccer Anywhere" presents numerous research challenges including: (1) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic, unstructured environments, (2) software control architectures for decentralized, distributed control of mobile agents, (3) integration of vision-based object tracking with dynamic control, and (4) social interaction with human participants. In addition to the intrinsic research merit of these topics, we believe that this capability would prove useful for outreach activities, in demonstrating robotics technology to primary and secondary school students, to motivate them to pursue careers in science and engineering.

  7. Achieving diverse and monoallelic olfactory receptor selection through dual-objective optimization design.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Hang; Sannerud, Jens; Xing, Jianhua

    2016-05-24

    Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at the organism level, the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation, and cannot explain recent observations in mutants, especially the reduced global diversity of expressed ORs in G9a/GLP knockouts. In this work we integrated existing information on OR expression, and constructed a comprehensive model that has all its components based on physical interactions. Analyzing the model reveals an evolutionarily optimized three-layer regulation mechanism, which includes zonal segregation, epigenetic barrier crossing coupled to a negative feedback loop that mechanistically differs from previous theoretical proposals, and a previously unidentified enhancer competition step. This model not only recapitulates monoallelic OR expression, but also elucidates how the olfactory system maximizes and maintains the diversity of OR expression, and has multiple predictions validated by existing experimental results. Through making an analogy to a physical system with thermally activated barrier crossing and comparative reverse engineering analyses, the study reveals that the olfactory receptor selection system is optimally designed, and particularly underscores cooperativity and synergy as a general design principle for multiobjective optimization in biology.

  8. Achieving diverse and monoallelic olfactory receptor selection through dual-objective optimization design.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Hang; Sannerud, Jens; Xing, Jianhua

    2016-05-24

    Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at the organism level, the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation, and cannot explain recent observations in mutants, especially the reduced global diversity of expressed ORs in G9a/GLP knockouts. In this work we integrated existing information on OR expression, and constructed a comprehensive model that has all its components based on physical interactions. Analyzing the model reveals an evolutionarily optimized three-layer regulation mechanism, which includes zonal segregation, epigenetic barrier crossing coupled to a negative feedback loop that mechanistically differs from previous theoretical proposals, and a previously unidentified enhancer competition step. This model not only recapitulates monoallelic OR expression, but also elucidates how the olfactory system maximizes and maintains the diversity of OR expression, and has multiple predictions validated by existing experimental results. Through making an analogy to a physical system with thermally activated barrier crossing and comparative reverse engineering analyses, the study reveals that the olfactory receptor selection system is optimally designed, and particularly underscores cooperativity and synergy as a general design principle for multiobjective optimization in biology. PMID:27162367

  9. Sizing of "Mother Ship and Catcher" Missions for LEO Small Debris and for GEO Large Object Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Most LEO debris lies in a limited number of inclination "bands" associated with specific useful orbits. Objects in such narrow inclination bands have all possible Right Ascensions of Ascending Node (RAANs), creating a different orbit plane for nearly every piece of debris. However, a low-orbiting satellite will always phase in RAAN faster than debris objects in higher orbits at the same inclination, potentially solving the problem. Such a low-orbiting base can serve as a "mother ship" that can tend and then send small, disposable common individual catcher/deboost devices--one for each debris object--as the facility drifts into the same RAAN as each higher object. The dV necessary to catch highly-eccentric orbit debris in the center of the band alternatively allows the capture of less-eccentric debris in a wider inclination range around the center. It is demonstrated that most LEO hazardous debris can be removed from orbit in three years, using a single LEO launch of one mother ship--with its onboard magazine of freeflying low-tech catchers--into each of ten identified bands, with second or potentially third launches into only the three highest-inclination bands. The nearly 1000 objects near the geostationary orbit present special challenges in mass, maneuverability, and ultimate disposal options, leading to a dramatically different architecture and technology suite than the LEO solution. It is shown that the entire population of near-GEO derelict objects can be gathered and tethered together within a 3 year period for future scrap-yard operations using achievable technologies and only two earth launches.

  10. [The relationship between the contents and the level of achievement of objectives in an occupational health nursing practicum].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Junko; Hara, Yoshiko; Ikeda, Tomoko; Ishihara, Itsuko

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the program and teaching methods of the occupational health nursing practicum in order to enforce students' learning experience in the clinical practice. Self-evaluation sheets graded from levels 1 to 4 were from 63 students, and statistical analysis was performed in relation to their performance levels. The results of the analysis of 63 students' performance sheets indicated that the students achieved 3 points above average in all 14 course objectives. Scales analysis of the students' evaluation sheets also revealed that students' achievement levels were lower at the Industrial Health Organization in comparison with those at the industrial enterprises. To make students' practice more valuable, students' assessment skills of the workers and working environment should be emphasized in the classroom teaching and experience of learning at the laboratory. Moreover, the course objectives should be sufficiently linked to the practice areas in order to differentiate between the features of the Health organizations and enterprises.

  11. LEGOS: Object-based software components for mission-critical systems. Final report, June 1, 1995--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    An estimated 85% of the installed base of software is a custom application with a production quantity of one. In practice, almost 100% of military software systems are custom software. Paradoxically, the marginal costs of producing additional units are near zero. So why hasn`t the software market, a market with high design costs and low productions costs evolved like other similar custom widget industries, such as automobiles and hardware chips? The military software industry seems immune to market pressures that have motivated a multilevel supply chain structure in other widget industries: design cost recovery, improve quality through specialization, and enable rapid assembly from purchased components. The primary goal of the ComponentWare Consortium (CWC) technology plan was to overcome barriers to building and deploying mission-critical information systems by using verified, reusable software components (Component Ware). The adoption of the ComponentWare infrastructure is predicated upon a critical mass of the leading platform vendors` inevitable adoption of adopting emerging, object-based, distributed computing frameworks--initially CORBA and COM/OLE. The long-range goal of this work is to build and deploy military systems from verified reusable architectures. The promise of component-based applications is to enable developers to snap together new applications by mixing and matching prefabricated software components. A key result of this effort is the concept of reusable software architectures. A second important contribution is the notion that a software architecture is something that can be captured in a formal language and reused across multiple applications. The formalization and reuse of software architectures provide major cost and schedule improvements. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is fast becoming the industry standard for object-oriented analysis and design notation for object-based systems. However, the lack of a standard real-time distributed

  12. Investigations of the First Objects to Light Up the Universe: The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd; Bradley, Richard; Datta, Abhirup; Furlanetto, Steven; Jones, Dayton; Kasper, Justin; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-08-01

    The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) is designed to probe the epoch of formation of the first stars, black holes, and galaxies, never before observed, using the redshifted hyperfine 21-cm transition from neutral hydrogen. These first objects to illuminate the Universe (redshifts 35 to 11) will be studied via their heating and ionization of the intergalactic medium. Over its lifetime of 2 years, DARE observes at low radio astronomy frequencies (VHF), 40 - 120 MHz, in a 125 km altitude lunar orbit. The Moon occults both Earth and the Sun as DARE makes observations on the lunar farside, shielding it from the corrupting effects of radio interference, Earth’s ionosphere, and solar emissions. Bi-conical dipole antennas, pseudo-correlation receivers used in differential mode to stabilize the radiometer, and a digital spectrometer achieve the sensitivity required to observe the cosmic signal. The unique frequency structure of the 21-cm signal and its uniformity over large angular scales are unlike the spectrally featureless, spatially varying characteristics of the Galactic foreground, allowing the signal to be cleanly separated from the foreground. In the talk, the DARE science objectives, the science instrument, foreground removal strategy, and design of an engineering prototype will be described.

  13. EVAL mission requirements, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The aspects of NASA's applications mission were enhanced by utilization of shuttle/spacelab, and payload groupings which optimize the cost of achieving the mission goals were defined. Preliminary Earth Viewing Application Laboratory (EVAL) missions, experiments, sensors, and sensor groupings were developed. The major technological EVAL themes and objectives which NASA will be addressing during the 1980 to 2,000 time period were investigated. Missions/experiments which addressed technique development, sensor development, application development, and/or operational data collection were considered as valid roles for EVAL flights.

  14. Hitchhiker mission operations: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kathryn

    1995-01-01

    What is mission operations? Mission operations is an iterative process aimed at achieving the greatest possible mission success with the resources available. The process involves understanding of the science objectives, investigation of which system capabilities can best meet these objectives, integration of the objectives and resources into a cohesive mission operations plan, evaluation of the plan through simulations, and implementation of the plan in real-time. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive description of what the Hitchhiker mission operations approach is and why it is crucial to mission success. The authors describe the significance of operational considerations from the beginning and throughout the experiment ground and flight systems development. The authors also address the necessity of training and simulations. Finally, the authors cite several examples illustrating the benefits of understanding and utilizing the mission operations process.

  15. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  16. Development of the coastal zone color scanner for NIMBUS 7. Volume 1: Mission objectives and instrument description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An Earth scanning six channel (detector) radiometer using a classical Cassegrain telescope and a Wadsworth type grating spectrometer was launched aboard Nimbus 7 in order to determine the abundance or density of chlorophyll at or near the sea surface in coastal waters. The instrument also measures the sediment or gelbstroffe (yellow stuff) in coastal waters, detects surface vegetation, and measures sea surface temperature. Block diagrams and schematics are presented, design features are discussed and each subsystem of the instrument is described. A mission overview is included.

  17. The Euromir missions.

    PubMed

    Andresen, R D; Domesle, R

    1996-11-01

    The 179-day flight of ESA Astronaut Thomas Reiter onboard the Russian Space Station Mir drew to a successful conclusion on 29 February 1996 with the safe landing of the Soyuz TM-22 capsule near Arkalyk in Kazakhstan. This mission, known as Euromir 95, was part of ESA's precursor flight programme for the International Space Station, and followed the equally successful Euromir 94 mission by ESA Astronaut Ulf Merbold (3 October-4 November 1994). This article discusses the objectives of the two flights and presents an overview of the experiment programme, a preliminary assessment of its results and achievements, and reviews some of the lessons learnt for future Space Station operations.

  18. Achieving a consensus on educational objectives and assessments for extended specialty training programmes for licensing in general practice.

    PubMed

    Mamelok, Jane

    2013-07-01

    This research aimed to define and agree a consensus on the overall aims, educational objectives and assessments for extended GP training. It used a modified Delphi technique to achieve a consensus of opinions from a representative group of stakeholders and assessment content experts. Existing curriculum gaps that could be developed further in a period of extended training were defined. The study showed a very strong consensus for a 'gateway' assessment-to-a-standard at the current ST3 endpoint before progression to extended GP training with those years of extended training giving 'added value'. The current MRCGP summative components of the applied knowledge test (AKT) and clinical skills assessment (CSA) are considered fit for purpose as an appropriate 'gateway' standard; with more robust workplace-based assessments to demonstrate continued progression during extended training. The results informed and provided the evidence base for the development of a proposed programmatic assessment model, which has been critically appraised. This paper reports in detail on the Delphi study and comments on the importance of further work developing assessments.

  19. Achievement of Climate Planning Objectives among U.S. Member Cities of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI)

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, Kelsey W.; Lam, Nina S. N.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to address climate change, many cities have joined the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) whose members commit to work toward five specific program objectives designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study examines the extent to which 257 member cities in the US have been successful in achieving these program milestones and identifies factors that may explain variation in the performance of member cities. Potential influences on milestone attainment include socioeconomic, political and ideological characteristics of residents, length of ICLEI membership, existence of other climate programs within the state, and local environmental pressures. Multiple regression results indicate that length of membership is the strongest predictor of milestone attainment, regardless of local socioeconomic conditions, ideological and political orientations of residents, or other climate-related initiatives within the state. This finding supports the general effectiveness of ICLEI’s network organizational model and its outreach and education efforts. However, member cities facing more “climate stress”, including higher levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAP’s) and greater automobile use among residents are making slower progress. The findings yield insight into the conditions under which cities engaged in climate planning are more likely to succeed in reducing local greenhouse gas emissions-relevant information for planners, community stakeholders and administrators of organizations like ICLEI. PMID:27478682

  20. Minor Body Surveyor: A Multi-Object, High Speed, Spectro-Photometer Space Mission System Employing Wide-Area Intelligent Change Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; van Cleve, J. E.; Alcock, C.

    2003-12-01

    Detection and characterization of the small bodies of the outer solar system presents unique challenges to terrestrial based sensing systems, principally the inverse 4th power decrease of reflected and thermal signals with target distance from the Sun. These limits are surpassed by new techniques [1,2,3] employing star-object occultation event sensing, which are capable of detecting sub-kilometer objects in the Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud. This poster will present an instrument and space mission concept based on adaptations of the NASA Discovery Kepler program currently in development at Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. Instrument technologies to enable this space science mission are being pursued and will be described. In particular, key attributes of an optimized payload include the ability to provide: 1) Coarse spectral resolution (using an objective spectrometer approach) 2) Wide FOV, simultaneous object monitoring (up to 150,000 stars employing select data regions within a large focal plane mosaic) 3) Fast temporal frame integration and readout architectures (10 to 50 msec for each monitored object) 4) Real-time, intelligent change detection processing (to limit raw data volumes) The Minor Body Surveyor combines the focal plane and processing technology elements into a densely packaged format to support general space mission issues of mass and power consumption, as well as telemetry resources. Mode flexibility is incorporated into the real-time processing elements to allow for either temporal (Occultations) or spatial (Moving targets) change detection. In addition, a basic image capture mode is provided for general pointing and field reference measurements. The overall space mission architecture is described as well. [1] M. E. Bailey. Can 'Invisible' Bodies be Observed in the Solar System. Nature, 259:290-+, January 1976. [2] T. S. Axelrod, C. Alcock, K. H. Cook, and H.-S. Park. A Direct Census of the Oort Cloud with a Robotic Telescope. In ASP Conf. Ser

  1. Capture of cosmic dusts and exposure of organics on the International Space Station: Objectives of the Tanpopo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei

    Finding of a wide variety of organic compounds contained in extraterrestrial bodies such as carbonaceous chondrites and comets suggested that they were important materials for the first life on the Earth. Cosmic dusts (interplanetary dust particles; IDPs) were believed to have been important carriers of extraterrestrial organics, since IDPs could deliver organics to the primitive Earth more safely than asteroids and comets. Since most IDPs have been collected in such terrestrial environments as ocean sediments, Antarctic ices, and air in stratosphere, it is difficult to judge whether biooranics found in IDPs were extraterrestrial origins or not. Thus it would be of importance to collect IDPs out of the terrestrial biosphere. We are planning the Tanpopo Mission by utilizing the Exposed Facility of Japan Experimental Module (JEM/EF) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two types of experiments will be done in the Tanpopo Mission: Capture experiments and exposure experiments. In order to collect cosmic dusts (including IDPs) on the ISS, we are going to use extra-low density aerogel, since both cosmic dusts and ISS are moving at 8 km s-1 or over. We have developed novel aerogel whose density is 0.01 g cm-3. After the return of the aerogel blocks after 1 to a few years’ stay on JEM/EF, organic compounds in the captured dusts will be characterized by a wide variety of analytical techniques including FT-IR, XANES, and MS. Amino acid enantiomers will be determined after HF digestion and acid hydrolysis. A number of amino acids were detected in water extract of carbonaceous chondrites. It is controversial whether meteorites contain free amino acids or amino acid precursors. When dusts are formed from meteorites or comets in interplanetary space, they are exposed to high-energy particles and photons. In order to evaluate stability and possible alteration of amino acid-related compounds, we chose amino acids (glycine and isovaline) and hydantoins (precursors of amino

  2. Abundance of unusual objects on the planet venus according to the data of missions of 1975-1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2014-11-01

    The results of processing the archival data of the television experiment performed on the surface of the planet by the VENERA spacecraft in 1975 and 1982 are presented. In previously published papers, the author tried to show all diverse objects found by that time and their properties. In 2012-2014, new groups of objects have been found. This paper focuses on only one type of new finding (the conventional name is "hesperos") and their morphological features. It is shown that similar objects with dimensions from 13 to 25 cm, having the forms of a large fallen leaf or a spindle, are met in the regions of the planet Venus separated by distances of 900 and 4400 km.

  3. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  4. Effects of Prior Knowledge of Topics and the Instructional Objectives on Students' Achievement in Literature-in-English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of prior knowledge of topics with their instructional objectives on senior secondary school class two (SS II) students. The study was carried out in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The design of the study is quasi experimental of pretest-posttest of non-equivalent control group. Two research…

  5. Progress on the Cluster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, Margaret; Khurana, Krishan; Acuna, Mario (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Prof M. G. Kivelson and Dr. K. K. Khurana (UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)) are co-investigators on the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium (CMC) that provided the fluxgate magnetometers and associated mission support for the Cluster Mission. The CMC designated UCLA as the site with primary responsibility for the inter-calibration of data from the four spacecraft and the production of fully corrected data critical to achieving the mission objectives. UCLA will also participate in the analysis and interpretation of the data. The UCLA group here reports its excellent progress in developing fully intra-calibrated data for large portions of the mission and an excellent start in developing inter-calibrated data for selected time intervals, especially extended intervals in August, 2001 on which a workshop held at ESTEC in March, 2002 focused. In addition, some scientific investigations were initiated and results were reported at meetings.

  6. Achieving NHAS 90/90/80 Objectives by 2020: An Interactive Tool Modeling Local HIV Prevalence Projections

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Scott D.; Wortley, Pascale M.; Drenzek, Cherie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tools using local HIV data to help jurisdictions estimate future demand for medical and support services are needed. We present an interactive prevalence projection model using data obtainable from jurisdictional HIV surveillance and publically available data. Methods Using viral load data from Georgia’s enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System, state level death rates for people living with HIV and the general population, and published estimates for HIV transmission rates, we developed a model for projecting future HIV prevalence. Keeping death rates and HIV transmission rates for undiagnosed, in care/viral load >200, in care/viral load<200, and out of care (no viral load for 12 months) constant, we describe results from simulations with varying inputs projecting HIV incidence and prevalence from 2014 to 2024. Results In this model, maintaining Georgia’s 2014 rates for diagnosis, transitions in care, viral suppression (VS), and mortality by sub-group through 2020, resulted in 85% diagnosed, 59% in care, and 44% VS among diagnosed (85%/58%/44%) with a total of 67 815 PLWH, 33 953 in care, and more than 1000 new cases per year by 2020. Neither doubling the diagnosis rate nor tripling rates of re-engaging out of care PLWH into care alone were adequate to reach 90/90/80 by 2020. We demonstrate a multicomponent scenario that achieved NHAS goals and resulted in 63 989 PLWH, 57 546 in care, and continued annual prevalence increase through 2024. Conclusions Jurisdictions can use this HIV prevalence prediction tool, accessible at https://dph.georgia.gov/hiv-prevalence-projections to assess local capacity to meet future HIV care and social services needs. In this model, achieving 90/90/80 by 2020 in Georgia slowed but did not reverse increases in HIV prevalence, and the number of HIV-infected persons needing care and support services more than doubled. Improving the HIV care infrastructure is imperative. PMID:27459717

  7. Social and Musical Objectives or Experiences School Music Teachers Anticipate Their Students Will Achieve as a Result of Attending a Summer Music Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Eric W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate specific social and musical objectives or experiences school music teachers anticipate their students will achieve as a result of attending a summer music camp. A survey instrument was developed to collect demographic data and responses to questions regarding 14 specific musical and social variables.…

  8. Integrating Service Learning into the Classroom: Examining the Extent to Which Students Achieve Course Objectives and a Sense of Civic Responsibility by Engaging in Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    The growing interest in service learning in higher education is connected to the idea that it helps students achieve course objectives and develop a sense of civic responsibility. Thus, it ties into broader goals within the institution of engagement of students and outreach to communities. This research examines students' perceptions of service…

  9. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  10. A Comparison of the Effects of an Advanced Organizer and/or Behavioral Objectives on the Achievement of Disadvantaged Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahle, Jane Butler

    The use of an advanced organizer (a generalizable, encompassing concept) prior to an individualized instructional sequence in a self-paced, audiotutorial learning format was accompanied by gains in individual unit achievement and in retention by disadvantaged biology students. Although behavioral objectives generally were shown to make no…

  11. Sustainable energy for all. Technical report of task force 1 in support of the objective to achieve universal access to modern energy services by 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Birol, Fatih

    2012-04-15

    The UN Secretary General established the Sustainable Energy for All initiative in order to guide and support efforts to achieve universal access to modern energy, rapidly increase energy efficiency, and expand the use of renewable energies. Task forces were formed involving prominent energy leaders and experts from business, government, academia and civil society worldwide. The goal of the Task Forces is to inform the implementation of the initiative by identifying challenges and opportunities for achieving its objectives. This report contains the findings of Task Force One which is dedicated to the objective of achieving universal access to modern energy services by 2030. The report shows that universal energy access can be realized by 2030 with strong, focused actions set within a coordinated framework.

  12. Re-Engineering the Mission Operations System (MOS) for the Prime and Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Joseph C., Jr.; Cheng, Leo Y.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in a space science mission is designing the Mission Operations System (MOS). Whereas the focus of the project is getting the spacecraft built and tested for launch, the mission operations engineers must build a system to carry out the science objectives. The completed MOS design is then formally assessed in the many reviews. Once a mission has completed the reviews, the Mission Operation System (MOS) design has been validated to the Functional Requirements and is ready for operations. The design was built based on heritage processes, new technology, and lessons learned from past experience. Furthermore, our operational concepts must be properly mapped to the mission design and science objectives. However, during the course of implementing the science objective in the operations phase after launch, the MOS experiences an evolutional change to adapt for actual performance characteristics. This drives the re-engineering of the MOS, because the MOS includes the flight and ground segments. Using the Spitzer mission as an example we demonstrate how the MOS design evolved for both the prime and extended mission to enhance the overall efficiency for science return. In our re-engineering process, we ensured that no requirements were violated or mission objectives compromised. In most cases, optimized performance across the MOS, including gains in science return as well as savings in the budget profile was achieved. Finally, we suggest a need to better categorize the Operations Phase (Phase E) in the NASA Life-Cycle Phases of Formulation and Implementation

  13. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  14. Chandrayaan-1: India's first planetary science mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath Goswami, Jitendra

    A new initiative of the Indian Space Research Organization to have dedicated Space Science Missions led to two major missions that are currently in progress: Astrosat and Chandrayaan-1, the latter being the first planetary science mission of the country. The spadework for this mission started about ten years back and culminated in late 2003 with the official endorsement for the mission. This remote sensing mission, to be launched in early next year, is expected to further our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon based on a chemical, mineralogical and topographic study of the lunar surface at spatial and spectral resolutions much better than those for previous and other currently planned lunar missions. The Chandrayaan-1 mission is also international in character and will have an array of Indian instruments as well as several instruments from abroad some of which will have very strong Indian collaboration. This talk will provide a brief overview of our present understanding of the Moon, the science objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission and how we hope to achieve these from the data to be obtained by the various instruments on board the mission. A possible road map for Indian planetary exploration programme in the context of the International scenario will be presented at the end.

  15. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  16. Solar System dynamics with the Gaia mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, D.; Berthier, J.; Carry, B.; David, P.; Lainey, V.; Rambaux, N.; Thuillot, W.; Arlot, J.-E.; Bancelin, D.; Colas, F.; Desmars, J.; Devillepoix, H.; Fouchard, M.; Ivantsov, A.; Kovalenko, I.; Robert, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Gaia mission is to be launched on December 19th, 2013 by the European Space Agency (ESA). Solar System science is well covered by the mission and has been included since the early stages of its concept and development. We present here some aspects on the astrometry and dynamics of Solar System Objects (SSO) - in particular asteroids, comets and satellites - as well as ground-based support. We also touch upon the future of SSO astrometry that will be achieved indirectly, after mission completion, from the Gaia astrometric catalogue.

  17. Shared mission operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradlin, Gary L.; Rudd, Richard P.; Linick, Susan H.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, new JPL flight projects have developed a Mission Operations System (MOS) as unique as their spacecraft, and have utilized a mission-dedicated staff to monitor and control the spacecraft through the MOS. NASA budgetary pressures to reduce mission operations costs have led to the development and reliance on multimission ground system capabilities. The use of these multimission capabilities has not eliminated an ongoing requirement for a nucleus of personnel familiar with a given spacecraft and its mission to perform mission-dedicated operations. The high cost of skilled personnel required to support projects with diverse mission objectives has the potential for significant reduction through shared mission operations among mission-compatible projects. Shared mission operations are feasible if: (1) the missions do not conflict with one another in terms of peak activity periods, (2) a unique MOS is not required, and (3) there is sufficient similarity in the mission profiles so that greatly different skills would not be required to support each mission. This paper will further develop this shared mission operations concept. We will illustrate how a Discovery-class mission would enter a 'partner' relationship with the Voyager Project, and can minimize MOS development and operations costs by early and careful consideration of mission operations requirements.

  18. Postrefurbishment mission Hubble Space Telescope images of the core of the Orion Nebula: Proplyds, Herbig-Haro objects, and measurements of a circumstellar disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Wen, Zheng

    1994-01-01

    We report on observations of M42 made with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) immediately after the successful repair and refurbishment mission. Images were made in the strongest optical emission lines of H I, (N II), and (O III) and in a bandpass close to V. In a previous paper, the term proplyd was introduced to describe young stars surrounded by circumstellar material rendered visible by being in an H II region. We confirm the proplyd nature of 17 of 18 objects found earlier with the HST, incorporate 13 previously known sources into the class on the basis of their emission-line appearance, and find 26 additional members not seen previously in other wavelengths. Half of the 110 stars brighter than V = 21 show proplyd structure, which implies that more than half of the stars have circumstellar material since nebular structures are more difficult to detect than stars. The highly variable forms of the proplyds can be explained on the basis of balance of ambient stellar gas pressure and radial pressure arising from the stellar wind and radiation pressure of the dominant stars in the region. Arguments are presented explaining the proplyds as disks or flattened envelopes surrounding young stars, hence they are possible planetary disks. The characteristic mass of ionized material is 2 x 10(exp 28) g, which becomes a lower limit to the total mass of the proplyds. A new, coordinate-based, designation scheme for compact sources and stars in the vicinity of M42 is proposed and applied. Evidence is presented that one of the previously known bright Herbig-Haro objects (HH 203) may be the result of a stream of material coming from a proplyd shocking against the neutral lid that covers M42. One object, 183-405, is a proplyd seen only in silhouette against the bright nebular background. It is elliptical, with dimensions 0.9 sec by 1.2 sec and surrounds a pre-main-sequence star of at least 0.2 solar mass. The outer parts of this stellar disk are optically thin and allow column mass

  19. Mission Design Overview for the Phoenix Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Mark D.; Fujii, Kenneth K.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix mission "follows the water" by landing in a region where NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter has discovered evidence of ice-rich soil very near the Martian surface. For three months after landing, the fixed Lander will perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, sub-surface, and atmosphere, and will identify potential provenance of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics and any accessible water ice. The Lander will employ a robotic arm to dig to the ice layer, and will analyze the acquired samples using a suite of deck-mounted, science instruments. The development of the baseline strategy to achieve the objectives of this mission involves the integration of a variety of elements into a coherent mission plan.

  20. GLXP BMT: Lunar Lander Mission Definition & Opportunistic Science during Nominal Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenarejo, P.; Mammarella, M.; Zaballa, M.; Claramunt, X.; García, C.; Martínez, A.

    2012-09-01

    The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is the Barcelona Moon Team Lunar Lander and Lunar exploration mission within the GLXP initiative. GMV is the mission technical leader and is in charge of the primary mission analysis that will later derive into the different mission subsystems and elements requirements and specifications for design and manufacturing. The classical scientific missions pivot around the scientific requirement and most of the mission elements design have the final purpose of fulfilling with the scientific requirements. This has the advantage of producing a dedicated mission to cope with all the scientific objectives (design-toperformance). The main drawback being the usually high mission complexity and cost. The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is a low cost mission and, thus, design-to-cost approach is used instead. Even if the "MoonRaise" mission will have some dedicated scientific objectives and dedicated resources, the maximization of the scientific content of the mission is a challenge in itself, and emphasis has to be placed in the imagination and achievement of opportunistic science while in nominal (nonscientific) operational phases. This paper presents the GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission architecture and mission approach and will identify potential opportunistic science targets with minimum impact on the Lunar Lander module and Rover module systems and at quasi-zero cost. The first section/s will be devoted to analyse the mission aspects, while the later section/s will be devoted to identification of interesting opportunistic science.

  1. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  2. An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  3. Planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific and engineering aspects of near-term missions for planetary exploration are outlined. The missions include the Voyager Neptune flyby, the Magellan survey of Venus, the Ocean Topography Experiment, the Mars Observer mission, the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter and Probe, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Cassini mission to Saturn and Titan, and the Daedalus probe to Barnard's star. The spacecraft, scientific goals, and instruments for these missions are noted.

  4. Space Mission Utility and Requirements for a Heat Melt Compactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Lee, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of waste on long-duration space missions is both a problem and an opportunity. Uncontained or unprocessed waste is a crew health hazard and a habitat storage problem. A Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) such as NASA has been developing is capable of processing space mission trash and converting it to useful products. The HMC is intended to process space mission trash to achieve a number of objectives including: volume reduction, biological safening and stabilization, water recovery, radiation shielding, and planetary protection. This paper explores the utility of the HMC to future space missions and how this translates into HMC system requirements.

  5. Instituto para la Promocion de la Cultura Civica, A.C.: Mission; Philosophy; Goals and Objectives; Challenge and Commitment; Activities; Publications and Essays; Presence in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto para la Promocion de la Cultura Civica. Mexico City (Mexico).

    The report discusses the activities of the Instituto para la Promocion de la Culture Civica (ICC), a non-partisan, not-for-profit Mexican nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has as its mission: to promote the advancement of a civic culture understood as a system of values, ideas, traits of character, dispositions, inclinations, attitudes,…

  6. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The duration of a mission--and subsequently, the minimum spacecraft lifetime--is a key component in designing the capabilities of a spacecraft during mission formulation. However, determining the duration is not simply a function of how long it will take the spacecraft to execute the activities needed to achieve mission objectives. Instead, the effects of the interaction between the spacecraft and ground operators must also be taken into account. This paper describes a method, using "operations efficiency factors", to account for these effects for Mars surface missions. Typically, this level of analysis has not been performed until much later in the mission development cycle, and has not been able to influence mission or spacecraft design. Further, the notion of moving to sustainable operations during Prime Mission--and the effect that change would have on operations productivity and mission objective choices--has not been encountered until the most recent rover missions (MSL, the (now-cancelled) joint NASA-ESA 2018 Mars rover, and the proposed rover for Mars 2020). Since MSL had a single control center and sun-synchronous relay assets (like MER), estimates of productivity derived from MER prime and extended missions were used. However, Mars 2018's anticipated complexity (there would have been control centers in California and Italy, and a non-sun-synchronous relay asset) required the development of an explicit model of operations efficiency that could handle these complexities. In the case of the proposed Mars 2018 mission, the model was employed to assess the mission return of competing operations concepts, and as an input to component lifetime requirements. In this paper we provide examples of how to calculate the operations efficiency factor for a given operational configuration, and how to apply the factors to surface mission scenarios. This model can be applied to future missions to enable early effective trades between operations design, science mission

  7. Fulfilling an Ambitious Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James; Mero, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Given its success as a high achieving, award-winning magnet school for academically oriented students in grades 9-12, Columbus Alternative High School has more than successfully fulfilled its ambitious mission in the 30 years since it was named. According to the school's mission statement, Columbus Alternative aims "to create a truly alternative…

  8. Advanced solar space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The space missions in solar physics planned for the next decade are similar in that they will have, for the most part, distinct, unifying science objectives in contrast to the more general 'exploratory' nature of the Orbiting Solar Observatory and Skylab/ATM missions of the 1960's and 70's. In particular, the strategy for advanced solar physics space missions will focus on the quantitative understanding of the physical processes that create and control the flow of electromagnetic and particulate energy from the sun and through interplanetary space at all phases of the current sunspot cycle No. 21. Attention is given to the Solar Maximum Mission, the International Solar Polar Mission, solar physics on an early Shuttle mission, principal investigator class experiments for future spacelabs, the Solar Optical Telescope, the Space Science Platform, the Solar Cycle and Dynamics Mission, and an attempt to send a spacecraft to within 4 solar radii of the sun's surface.

  9. Lessons Learned from the Clementine Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    According to BMDO, the Clementine mission achieved many of its technology objectives during its flight to the Moon in early 1994 but, because of a software error, was unable to test the autonomous tracking of a cold target. The preliminary analyses of the returned lunar data suggest that valuable scientific measurements were made on several important topics but that COMPLEX's highest-priority objectives for lunar science were not achieved. This is not surprising given that the rationale for Clementine was technological rather than scientific. COMPLEX lists below a few of the lessons that may be learned from Clementine. Although the Clementine mission was not conceived as a NASA science mission exactly like those planned for the Discovery program, many operational aspects of the two are similar. It is therefore worthwhile to understand the strengths and faults of the Clementine approach. Some elements of the Clementine operation that led to the mission's success include the following: (1) The mission's achievements were the responsibility of a single organization and its manager, which made that organization and that individual accountable for the final outcome; (2) The sponsor adopted a hands-off approach and set a minimum number of reviews (three); (3) The sponsor accepted a reasonable amount of risk and allowed the project team to make the trade-offs necessary to minimize the mission's risks while still accomplishing all its primary objectives; and (4) The development schedule was brief and the agreed-on funding (and funding profile) was adhered to. Among the operational shortcomings of Clementine were the following: (1) An overly ambitious schedule and a slightly lean budget (meaning insufficient time for software development and testing, and leading ultimately to human exhaustion); and (2) No support for data calibration, reduction, and analysis. The principal lesson to be learned in this category is that any benefits from the constructive application of higher

  10. Flight Software for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Howard N.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft was launched on September 6, 2013, and completed its mission on April 17, 2014 with a directed impact to the Lunar Surface. Its primary goals were to examine the lunar atmosphere, measure lunar dust, and to demonstrate high rate laser communications. The LADEE mission was a resounding success, achieving all mission objectives, much of which can be attributed to careful planning and preparation. This paper discusses some of the highlights from the mission, and then discusses the techniques used for developing the onboard Flight Software. A large emphasis for the Flight Software was to develop it within tight schedule and cost constraints. To accomplish this, the Flight Software team leveraged heritage software, used model based development techniques, and utilized an automated test infrastructure. This resulted in the software being delivered on time and within budget. The resulting software was able to meet all system requirements, and had very problems in flight.

  11. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  12. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  13. Manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Terrapin Technologies proposes a Manned Mars Mission design study. The purpose of the Manned Mars Mission is to transport ten people and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an expedition of three months to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. These priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a waverider transfer module. Information is given on how the plan meets the mission requirements.

  14. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D R; Joosten, B J; Lo, M W; Ford, K M; Hansen, R J

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration.

  15. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D R; Joosten, B J; Lo, M W; Ford, K M; Hansen, R J

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration. PMID:14649260

  16. Mission requirements: Second Skylab mission SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Complete SL-3 mission objectives and requirements, as revised 1 February 1972 (Rev. 6), are presented. Detailed test objectives are also given on the medical experiments, Apollo Telescope Mount experiments, Earth Resources Experiment Package, and corollary experiments and environmental microbiology experiments.

  17. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: Objectives, Approach, and Results of a Simulated Mission to Search for Life in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Cannon, Howard N.; Dunagan, Stephen E.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Glass, Brian J.; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  18. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  19. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding. PMID:19032053

  20. Participation in the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium for the Cluster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Prof. M. G. Kivelson (UCLA) and Dr. R. C. Elphic (LANL) are Co-investigators on the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium (CMC) that provided the fluxgate magnetometers and associated mission support for the Cluster Mission. The CMC designated UCLA as the site with primary responsibility for the inter-calibration of data from the four spacecraft and the production of fully corrected data critical to achieving the mission objectives. UCLA was also charged with distributing magnetometer data to the U.S. Co-investigators. UCLA also supported the Technical Management Team, which was responsible for the detailed design of the instrument and its interface. In this final progress report we detail the progress made by the UCLA team in achieving the mission objectives.

  1. Titan and Enceladus mission (TANDEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.

    2007-08-01

    Our understanding of Titan's atmosphere and surface has recently been enhanced by the data returned by the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini orbiter will continue to be operational for about 3 more years during its extended mission. After this mission, any unanswered questions will forever remain unknown, unless we go back with an optimized orbital tour and advanced instrumentation. Considering the complementary nature of the geological, chemical and evolutionary history of Titan and Enceladus, we propose to carry out studies for a mission to perform an in situ exploration of these two objects in tandem. In our proposal we determine key science measurements, the types of samples that would be needed and the instrument suites for achieving the science goals. In particular, we develop conceptual designs for delivering the science payload, including orbiters, aerial platforms and probes, and define a launch/delivery/communication management architecture. This mission will require new technologies and capabilities so that the science goals can be achieved within the cost cap and acceptable risks. International participation will play a key role in achieving all the science goals of this mission. We will build this mission concept around a central core of single orbiter, a single Titan aerial probe and a core group of category 1 instruments. Aerobraking with Titan's atmosphere will be given serious consideration to minimize resource requirements and risk. This approach will allow a single orbiter to be used for both Enceladus science and Titan science with final orbit around Titan and later release of aerial probe(s) into Titan's atmosphere. The Titan aerial probe may be a Montgolfière balloon concept that will use the waster heat ~ 1000 watts from a single RTG power system. There will be a release of penetrator(s) on Enceladus also. This proposal addresses directly several of the scientific questions highlighted in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 call, particularly

  2. The APIES microsatellite mission to explore the asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    2004-11-01

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation &Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to a European Space Agency (ESA) Call for Ideas for "swarm" missions, based on the utilisation of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. The APIES baseline concept is centred on a "swarm" of 19 BElt Explorer (BEE) identical microsatellites, weighting less than 45 kg each, including their scientific payload, visiting over 100 Main Belt asteroids in multiple flybys. The BEEs are carried to the asteroid belt by a Hub and Interplanetary VEhicle (HIVE), a conventional spacecraft launched with a Soyuz-Fregat rocket, using solar electric propulsion for the transfer to the asteroid belt and acting as communication hub and control centre for the mission after the swarm deployment. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve its ambitious goal within the framework of a standard ESA mission, representing a novel mission concept example, whose feasibility is essentially linked to the use of microsatellite technology, enabling the achievement of science objectives unattainable with conventional spacecraft.

  3. Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R.; Textor, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) are summarized. The general objectives of the VIM are to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar media and to continue the Voyager program of ultraviolet astronomy. The VIM will utilize both Voyager spacecraft for the period from January 1990 through December 2019. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, control and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  4. The Current Status and Future Prospects for the GRACE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapley, Byron; Flechtner, Frank; Watkins, Michael; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Boening, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The twin satellites of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were launched on March 17, 2002 and have operated for over 13 years. The mission objectives are to sense the spatial and temporal variations of the Earth's mass through its effects on the gravity field at the GRACE satellite altitude. The major cause of the time varying mass is water motion and the GRACE mission has provided a continuous decade long measurement sequences which characterizes the seasonal cycle of mass transport between the oceans, land, cryosphere and atmosphere; its inter-annual variability; and the climate driven secular, or long period, mass transport signals. In 2012, the RLO5 solution, based on a complete reanalysis of the mission data, data release, was initiated. The monthly solutions from this effort were released in mid-2013 with the mean fields following in 2014 and 2015. The mission is entering the final phases of operations. The current mission operations strategy emphasizes extending the mission lifetime to achieve mission overlap with the GRACE Follow On Mission. This presentation will review the mission status and the projections for mission lifetime, summarize plans for the RL 06 data re-analysis, describe the issues that influence the operations philosophy and discuss the impact the operations may have on the scientific data products.

  5. The Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter 1990 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, G. D.; Stuart, J. R.; Palluconi, F. D.; Blume, W. H.; Erickson, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental objectives of the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter (MGCO) 1990 mission are related to the determination of the surface composition and topography of the planet Mars, its gravitational and intrinsic magnetic fields, and the seasonal behavior of volatiles, dust, and the atmosphere of Mars. These objectives would be achieved through a global mapping of the planet over a Martian year. For the baseline mission, a single spacecraft would be launched in August 1990, arrive at Mars in August 1991, and map the planet from a Sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit for one Martian year. Attention is given to a science rationale and objectives, a mission description, the flight system, and mission operations.

  6. Reliability and Levels of Difficulty of Objective Test Items in a Mathematics Achievement Test: A Study of Ten Senior Secondary Schools in Five Local Government Areas of Akure, Ondo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebule, S. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and difficult indices of Multiple Choice (MC) and True or False (TF) types of objective test items in a Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). The instruments used were two variants- 50-items Mathematics achievement test based on the multiple choice and true or false test formats. A total of five hundred (500)…

  7. Formation, Alteration and Delivery of Exogenous High Molecular Weight Organic Compounds: Objectives of the Tanpopo Mission from the Point of View of Chemical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; K. Sarker, Palash; Ono, Keisuke; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mita, Hajime; Yabuta, Hikaru; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    A wide variety of organic compounds have been detected in such extraterrestrial bodies as carbonaceous chondrites and comets. Amino acids have been confirmed in extracts from carbonaceous chondrites and cometary dusts. It was suggested that these organics were formed in quite cold environments. We irradiated possible interstellar media, such as a frozen mixture of methanol, ammonia and water, with high-energy particles. Amino acid precursors with high molecular weights were detected in the irradiated products. Such complex amino acid precursors are much more stable than free amino acids against radiation, and heat. It is suggested that interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) brought much more organics than meteorites and comets. However, characteristics of organic compounds in IDPs are little known, since they have been collected only in terrestrial biosphere. We are planning the Tanpopo Mission, where IDPs would be collected in aerogel equipped on the Exposure Facility of the International Space Station. In addition, amino acids and their relating compounds would be exposed to space environments to see their possible alteration processes.

  8. Manned NEO Mission EVA Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The President has proposed to land astronauts on an asteroid by 2025. However, Manned NEO (Near Earth Objects) Missions will present a host of new and exciting problems that will need to be better defined and solved before such a mission is launched. Here I will focus on the challenges for conducting asteroidal EVAs. Specfically, crew locomotion, sampling, drilling, documentation, and instrument deployment issues arising from the micro gravity environments associated with NEOs. Therefore, novel methods and techniques will need to be developed and tested in order to achieve specific mission science objectives. Walking or driving on the surface will not be a realistic option due to the small sizes (10 s to 100 s of meters in diameter) and hence extremely low gravity of the present day known candidate NEOs. EVAs will have to be carried out with crew members either using a self propelled device (akin to the MMU and SAFER units used on Shuttle/ISS) and or tethers. When using tethers a grid system could be deployed which is anchored to the asteroid. These anchor points could be inserted by firing penetrators into the surface from the spacecraft while it is still at a safe standoff distance. These penetrators would pull double duty by being laden with scientific instrumentation to probe the subsurface. Dust and debris generated by sample collection and locomotion in a microgravity environment could also pose some problems that will require forethought.

  9. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L. D.; Weissman, P.

    1980-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, launched about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low-energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and the mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. The mission should extend to 400-1000 AU from the sun. A heliocentric hyperbolic escape velocity of 50-100 km/sec or more is needed to attain this distance within a reasonable mission duration (20-50 years). The trajectory should be toward the incoming interstellar gas. For a year 2000 launch, a Pluto encounter and orbiter can be included. A second mission targeted parallel to the solar axis would also be worthwhile. The mission duration is 20 years, with an extended mission to a total of 50 years. A system using one or two stages of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) was selected as a possible baseline. The most promising alternatives are ultralight solar sails or laser sailing, with the lasers in earth orbit, for example. The NEP baseline design allows the option of carrying a Pluto orbiter as a daughter spacecraft.

  10. Apollo 17 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 17 mission are outlined. The vehicle configuration was similar to those of Apollo 15 and 16. There were significant differences in the science payload for Apollo 17 and spacecraft hardware differences and experiment equipment are described. The mission achieved a landing in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon and returned samples of the pre-Imbrium highlands and young craters.

  11. The Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  12. The CHEOPS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, Christopher; benz, willy; fortier, andrea; Ehrenreich, David; beck, Thomas; cessa, Virginie; Alibert, Yann; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017.CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based radial velocity surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. To achieve this performance, the CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. CHEOPS will be inserted in a low Earth orbit and the total duration of the CHEOPS mission is 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).The presentation will describe the current payload and mission design of CHEOPS, give the development status, and show the expected performances.

  13. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  14. STS-69 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Designed by the mission crew members, the patch for STS-69 symbolizes the multifaceted nature of the flight's mission. The primary payload, the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), is represented in the center by the astronaut emblem against a flat disk. The astronaut emblem also signifies the importance of human beings in space exploration, reflected by the planned space walk to practice for International Space Station (ISS) activities and to evaluate space suit design modifications. The two stylized Space Shuttles highlight the ascent and entry phases of the mission. Along with the two spiral plumes, the stylized Space Shuttles symbolize a NASA first, the deployment and recovery on the same mission of two spacecraft (both the Wake Shield Facility and the Spartan). The constellations Canis Major and Canis Minor represent the astronomy objectives of the Spartan and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payload. The two constellations also symbolize the talents and dedication of the support personnel who make Space Shuttle missions possible.

  15. NEOCAM: Near Earth Object Chemical Analysis Mission: Bridging the Gulf between Telescopic Observations and the Chemical and Mineralogical Compositions of Asteroids or Diogenes A: Diagnostic Observation of the Geology of Near Earth Spectrally-Classified Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of meteorites have yielded a wealth of scientific information based on highly detailed chemical and isotopic studies possible only in sophisticated terrestrial laboratories. Telescopic studies have revealed an enormous (greater than 10(exp 5)) number of physical objects ranging in size from a few tens of meters to several hundred kilometers, orbiting not only in the traditional asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter but also throughout the inner solar system. Many of the largest asteroids are classed into taxonomic groups based on their observed spectral properties and are designated as C, D. X, S or V types (as well as a wide range in sub-types). These objects are certainly the sources far the meteorites in our laboratories, but which asteroids are the sources for which meteorites? Spectral classes are nominally correlated to the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the asteroid itself based on studies of the spectral changes induced in meteorites due to exposure to a simulated space environment. While laboratory studies have produced some notable successes (e.g. the identification of the asteroid Vesta as the source of the H, E and D meteorite classes), it is unlikely that we have samples of each asteroidal spectral type in our meteorite collection. The correlation of spectral type and composition for many objects will therefore remain uncertain until we can return samples of specific asteroid types to Earth for analyses. The best candidates for sample return are asteroids that already come close to the Earth. Asteroids in orbit near 1 A.U. have been classified into three groups (Aten, Apollo & Amor) based on their orbital characteristics. These Near Earth Objects (NEOs) contain representatives of virtually all spectral types and sub-types of the asteroid population identified to date. Because of their close proximity to Earth, NEOs are prime targets for asteroid missions such as the NEAR-Shoemaker NASA Discovery Mission to Eros and the

  16. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  17. [Achievements in the objectives of a practicum as seen through changes in awareness of nursing and care techniques in a basic nursing practice].

    PubMed

    Takai, Kiyako; Yuge, Nagisa; Nakamura, Emi; Yanahara, Hiroe; Kodama, Hiromi; Yamada, Miyuki; Yanai, Keiko; Ino, Kyouko

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to elucidate the level of achievement and the challenges in a basic nursing practicum for second-year nursing students through the association method. Analysis revealed various descriptions of learning through the practicum training experiences in terms of understanding the healthcare environment, planning and implementing daily life assistance, and involvement in building a supportive relationship with a care recipient. In this sense, we can assume that the goal of the practicum was achieved. The students' attitude toward learning showed an emphasis on knowledge, basics, reasoning, and acquisition of knowledge through experience. At the same time, however, we did not observe descriptions of developing the healthcare environment, understanding the methods of developing healthcare plans, or respect for privacy, thus not indicating whether the goal was achieved. In the future, it is necessary to additionally examine specific details of students' learning through analyzing their reports.

  18. Modeling and Simulation for Multi-Missions Space Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Max

    2011-01-01

    Asteroids and Near-Earth Objects [NEOs] are of great interest for future space missions. The Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle [MMSEV] is being considered for future Near Earth Object missions and requires detailed planning and study of its Guidance, Navigation, and Control [GNC]. A possible mission of the MMSEV to a NEO would be to navigate the spacecraft to a stationary orbit with respect to the rotating asteroid and proceed to anchor into the surface of the asteroid with robotic arms. The Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation [DARTS] laboratory develops reusable models and simulations for the design and analysis of missions. In this paper, the development of guidance and anchoring models are presented together with their role in achieving mission objectives and relationships to other parts of the simulation. One important aspect of guidance is in developing methods to represent the evolution of kinematic frames related to the tasks to be achieved by the spacecraft and its robot arms. In this paper, we compare various types of mathematical interpolation methods for position and quaternion frames. Subsequent work will be on analyzing the spacecraft guidance system with different movements of the arms. With the analyzed data, the guidance system can be adjusted to minimize the errors in performing precision maneuvers.

  19. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  20. Astronaut Anders Adjusts Helmet During Suit Up For Apollo 8 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 8 Astronaut William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) pilot, adjusts his helmet as he suits up for the Apollo 8 mission. The first manned Apollo mission launched aboard the Saturn V and first manned Apollo craft to enter lunar orbit, the SA-503, Apollo 8 mission lift off occurred on December 21, 1968 and returned safely to Earth on December 27, 1968. Aboard were Anders and fellow astronauts James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Frank Borman, commander. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  1. MSFC Flight Mission Directive Apollo-Saturn 205 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The purpose of this directive is to provide, under one cover, coordinated direction for the AS-205 Space Vehicle Flight. Within this document, mission objectives are specified, vehicle configuration is described and referenced, flight trajectories, data acquisition requirements, instrumentation requirements, and detailed documentation requirements necessary to meet launch vehicle mission objectives are defined and/or referenced.

  2. The Effect of Mission Location on Mission Costs and Equivalent System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie

    2002-01-01

    It is the goal of developers of advanced life support researcher to develop technology that reduces the cost of life support for future space missions and thereby enables missions that are currently infeasible or too expensive. Because the cost of propulsion dominates the cost of hardware emplacement in space and because the mass of a deliverable object controls its propulsive requirements, equivalent system mass (ESM) is used as a means for accounting for mission costs. ESM is typically calculated by adding to the actual mass the equivalent amount of mass that must be added to a mission due to other characteristics of a piece of hardware such as the item s volume or energy requirements. This approach works well for comparing different pieces of hardware when they go to the same location in space. However, different locations in mission space such low Earth orbit, Mars surface, or full trip to Mars and return to low Earth orbit require vastly different amounts of propulsion. Moving an object from Earth surface to the Martian surface and returning it to Earth will require as much as 100 times the propulsion that is required to move the object to low Earth orbit only. This paper presents the case for including the effect that location can have on cost as a part of ESM and suggests a method for achieving this improvement of ESM.

  3. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  4. Defining departmental mission.

    PubMed

    Hartman, M D; Barrow, J A; Sawyer, W R

    1990-02-01

    Mission statements have long been recognized by corporate America as a way to define an enterprise. The necessary business orientation of the health care industry requires that hospitals and hospital departments define their scope of services and reason for existence. The accelerating reprofessionalization affecting departments of pharmacy requires the same. "Improving the quality of patient care" can no longer represent a euphemism for simply reacting to external factors or acting on a whim without clear meaningful intent. Professional departments and hospitals must demonstrate a sense of direction and purpose and be able to justify costs to a budget-conscious management and skeptical public. Mission statements are not substitutes for a clearly defined sense of professional mission. However, well-constructed mission statements contribute to clarity of departmental and professional purpose and effective achievement of goals. PMID:10128549

  5. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  6. ACHIEVE LEARNING OBJECTIVES, PAPERS PREPARED ESPECIALLY FOR A SUMMER INSTITUTE ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING FOR YOUNG ENGINEERING TEACHERS (PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY, AUGUST 28 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 3, 1960).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANCASTER, OTIS E.

    PAPERS PREPARED FOR A SUMMER INSTITUTE ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING FOR TEACHERS OF ENGINEERING SUBJECTS ARE CONTAINED IN THIS CONFERENCE REPORT. GENERAL SUBJECT AREAS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION, (2) LEARNING THEORY AND ITS APPLICATION TO CLASSROOM TEACHING, (3) LECTURE, DISCUSSION, AND LECTURE-DISCUSSION METHODS…

  7. 25 CFR 30.116 - If a school fails to achieve its annual measurable objectives, what other methods may it use to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... objectives, what other methods may it use to determine whether it made AYP? 30.116 Section 30.116 Indians... methods may it use to determine whether it made AYP? A school makes AYP if each group of students... any group identified in § 30.107(b)(6), there are two other methods it may use to determine whether...

  8. 25 CFR 30.116 - If a school fails to achieve its annual measurable objectives, what other methods may it use to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... objectives, what other methods may it use to determine whether it made AYP? 30.116 Section 30.116 Indians... methods may it use to determine whether it made AYP? A school makes AYP if each group of students... any group identified in § 30.107(b)(6), there are two other methods it may use to determine whether...

  9. Coordinated science with the Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe Plus, Interhelioprobe and SPORT missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, Milan; Vourlidas, Angelos; Zimovets, Ivan; Velli, Marco; Zhukov, Andrei; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Liu, Ying; Bale, Stuart; Ming, Xiong

    The concurrent science operations of the ESA Solar Orbiter (SO), NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP), Russian Interhelioprobe (IHP) and Chinese SPORT missions will offer a truly unique epoch in heliospheric science. While each mission will achieve its own important science objectives, taken together the four missions will be capable of doing the multi-point measurements required to address many problems in Heliophysics such as the coronal origin of the solar wind plasma and magnetic field or the way the Solar transients drive the heliospheric variability. In this presentation, we discuss the capabilities of the four missions and the Science synergy that will be realized by concurrent operations

  10. The Role of Technology for Achieving Climate Policy Objectives: Overview of the EMF 27 Study on Technology Strategies and Climate Policy Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegler, Elmar; Weyant, John; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Krey, Volker; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Luderer, Gunnar; Riahi, Keywan; Richels, Richard G.; Rose, Steven; Tavoni, Massimo; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-01

    This article presents the synthesis of results from the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum Study 27, an inter-comparison of 19 energy-economy and integrated assessment models. The study investigated the value of individual mitigation technologies such as energy intensity improvements, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), nuclear power, solar and wind power and bioenergy for climate mitigation. Achieving atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration targets at 450 and 550 ppm CO2 equivalent requires massive greenhouse gas emissions reductions. A fragmented policy approach at the level of current ambition is inconsistent with these targets. The availability of a negative emissions technology, in most models biofuels with CCS, proved to be a key element for achieving the climate targets. Robust characteristics of the transformation of the energy system are increased energy intensity improvements and the electrification of energy end use coupled with a fast decarbonization of the electricity sector. Non-electric energy end use is hardest to decarbonize, particularly in the transport sector. Technology is a key element of climate mitigation. Versatile technologies such as CCS and bioenergy have largest value, due in part to their combined ability to produce negative emissions. The individual value of low-carbon power technologies is more limited due to the many alternatives in the sector. The scale of the energy transformation is larger for the 450 ppm than for the 550 ppm CO2e target. As a result, the achievability and the costs of the 450 ppm target are more sensitive to variations in technology variability. Mitigation costs roughly double when moving from 550 ppm to 450 ppm CO2e, but remain below 3% of GDP for most models.

  11. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  12. The Voyager Interstellar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R. P.; Hall, J. C.; Spradlin, G. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  13. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed. PMID:11540770

  14. EDL Pathfinder Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing a long-term strategy for achieving extended human missions to Mars in support of the policies outlined in the 2010 NASA Authorization Act and National Space Policy. The Authorization Act states that "A long term objective for human exploration of space should be the eventual international exploration of Mars." Echoing this is the National Space Policy, which directs that NASA should, "By 2025, begin crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid. By the mid-2030s, send humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to Earth." Further defining this goal, NASA's 2014 Strategic Plan identifies that "Our long-term goal is to send humans to Mars. Over the next two decades, we will develop and demonstrate the technologies and capabilities needed to send humans to explore the red planet and safely return them to Earth." Over the past several decades numerous assessments regarding human exploration of Mars have indicated that landing humans on the surface of Mars remains one of the key critical challenges. In 2015 NASA initiated an Agency-wide assessment of the challenges associated with Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of large payloads necessary for supporting human exploration of Mars. Due to the criticality and long-lead nature of advancing EDL techniques, it is necessary to determine an appropriate strategy to improve the capability to land large payloads. This paper provides an overview of NASA's 2015 EDL assessment on understanding the key EDL risks with a focus on determining what "must" be tested at Mars. This process identified the various risks and potential risk mitigation strategies, that is, benefits of flight demonstration at Mars relative to terrestrial test, modeling, and analysis. The goal of the activity was to determine if a subscale demonstrator is necessary, or if NASA should take a direct path to a human-scale lander. This assessment also provided insight into how EDL advancements align with other Agency

  15. Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 1; General Technology Capabilities for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

    2010-01-01

    The changes in the scope of NASA s mission in the coming decade are profound and demand nimble, yet insightful, responses. On-board clinical and environmental diagnostics must be available for both mid-term lunar and long-term Mars exploration missions in an environment marked by scarce resources. Miniaturization has become an obvious focus. Despite solid achievements in lab-based devices, broad-based, robust tools for application in the field are not yet on the market. The confluence of rapid, wide-ranging technology evolution and internal planning needs are the impetus behind this work. This report presents an analytical tool for the ongoing evaluation of promising technology platforms based on mission- and application-specific attributes. It is not meant to assess specific devices, but rather to provide objective guidelines for a rational down-select of general categories of technology platforms. In this study, we have employed our expertise in the microgravity operation of fluidic devices, laboratory diagnostics for space applications, and terrestrial research in biochip development. A rating of the current state of technology development is presented using the present tool. Two mission scenarios are also investigated: a 30-day lunar mission using proven, tested technology in 5 years; and a 2- to 3-year mission to Mars in 10 to 15 years.

  16. The Mars Observer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Mars Observer Mission is to be the first in a series of modest-cost inner-planet missions. Launch is planned for the August/September 1990 Mars opportunity with arrival at Mars one year later. The geoscience/climatology objectives are to be met during a mapping mission over the course of one Mars year (687 days). The mapping orbit will be near-polar (93 degree orbital inclination), sun-synchronous (2 PM sunward equator crossing), and near-circular (350 km orbit altitude, 116 minute period). The spacecraft, to be selected in late 1985, will be a modified version of an existing commercial design which, in the mapping orbit, will maintain a nadir orientation. Experiments and instruments will be selected through an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) process with release of the AO in April 1985, and selection in early 1986. A description of current planning for this mission, with emphasis on climatology, is presented here.

  17. STS-111 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pictured here is the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission insignia. The International Space Station (ISS) recieved a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after a record-setting 196 days in space, when STS-111 visited in June 2002. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish additional mission objectives: the delivery and installation of a new platform for the ISS robotic arm, the Mobile Base System (MBS) which is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm; and unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  18. The Spacelab J mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremin, J. W.; Leslie, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes Spacelab J (SL-J), its mission characteristics, features, parameters and configuration, the unique nature of the shared reimbursable cooperative effort with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan and the evolution, content and objectives of the mission scientific experiment complement. The mission is planned for launch in 1991. This long module mission has 35 experiments from Japan as well as 9 investigations from the United States. The SL-J payload consists of two broad scientific disciplines which require the extended microgravity or cosmic ray environment: (1) materials science such as crystal growth, solidification processes, drop dynamics, free surface flows, gas dynamics, metallurgy and semiconductor technology; and (2) life science including cell development, human physiology, radiation-induced mutations, vestibular studies, embryo development, and medical technology. Through an international agreement with NASDA, NASA is preparing to fly the first Japanese manned, scientific, cooperative endeavor with the United States.

  19. Apollo 15 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of the Apollo 15 mission, which conducted exploration of the moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments of scientific data acquisition than previous missions. The topics include trajectory, lunar surface science, inflight science and photography, command and service module performance, lunar module performance, lunar surface operational equipment, pilot's report, biomedical evaluation, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch phase summary, anomaly summary, and vehicle and equipment descriptions. The capability of transporting larger payloads and extending time on the moon were demonstrated. The ground-controlled TV camera allowed greater real-time participation by earth-bound personnel. The crew operated more as scientists and relied more on ground support team for systems monitoring. The modified pressure garment and portable life support system provided better mobility and extended EVA time. The lunar roving vehicle and the lunar communications relay unit were also demonstrated.

  20. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  1. Teamwork Reasoning and Multi-Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  2. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  3. The role of small missions in planetary and lunar exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council charged its Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) to (1) examine the degree to which small missions, such as those fitting within the constraints of the Discovery program, can achieve priority objectives in the lunar and planetary sciences; (2) determine those characteristics, such as level of risk, flight rate, target mix, university involvement, technology development, management structure and procedures, and so on, that could allow a successful program; (3) assess issues, such as instrument selection, mission operations, data analysis, and data archiving, to ensure the greatest scientific return from a particular mission, given a rapid deployment schedule and a tightly constrained budget; and (4) review past programmatic attempts to establish small planetary science mission lines, including the Planetary Observers and Planetary Explorers, and consider the impact management practices have had on such programs. A series of small missions presents the planetary science community with the opportunity to expand the scope of its activities and to develop the potential and inventiveness of its members in ways not possible within the confines of large, traditional programs. COMPLEX also realized that a program of small planetary missions was, in and of itself, incapable of meeting all of the prime objectives contained in its report 'An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010.' Recommendations are provided for the small planetary missions to fulfill their promise.

  4. China's strategy towards environmental governance: An examination of the interaction between pedagogy and practice of environmental education in creating and achieving objectives for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darkhor, Patrick

    This thesis involves a case-study methodology that explores programs and initiatives undertaken in the fields of environmental education focusing on the elementary and middle school curriculum and teacher education programs in China. The major objectives of this research are (1) to study the status of environmental education in Chinese elementary and middle schools; (2) to study the commonalities in approaches to environmental education and education for sustainable development in the existing curriculum; and (3) to study the lived challenges of implementing environmental education in today's schools in China. The study will address the following question: How can elementary and middle schools integrate environmental education objectives into their existing school programs without radical curricula changes? The thesis suggests that environmental education programs can be combined naturally with a school curriculum by identifying points of overlap between existing curricula and environmental education goals to facilitate natural, unforced integration of these programs. I have investigated these programs and initiatives concomitantly with the proposals for curriculum reform developed in China. This investigation includes an in-depth examination of the impact of such programs on students, teacher education programs, school systems and local communities. Qualitative data was collected and used to describe the evolution of environmental education programs within schools in the country scrutinized in this study. Research was also conducted on the etiology, nature and potential of any program developed by Chinese school systems for the purpose of integrating environmental education within the teacher education programs and consequently within the regular classroom curriculum.

  5. Recce mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  6. Objective methods for achieving an early prediction of the effectiveness of regional block anesthesia using thermography and hyper-spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Landman, Mattijs; de Roode, Rowland; Noordmans, Herke J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2011-03-01

    An objective method to measure the effectiveness of regional anesthesia can reduce time and unintended pain inflicted to the patient. A prospective observational study was performed on 22 patients during a local anesthesia before undergoing hand surgery. Two non-invasive techniques thermal and oxygenation imaging were applied to observe the region affected by the peripheral block and the results were compared to the standard cold sensation test. The supraclavicular block was placed under ultrasound guidance around the brachial plexus by injecting 20 cc Ropivacaine. The sedation causes a relaxation of the muscles around the blood vessels resulting in dilatation and hence an increase of blood perfusion, skin temperature and skin oxygenation in the lower arm and hand. Temperatures were acquired with an IR thermal camera (FLIR ThermoCam SC640). The data were recorded and analyzed with the ThermaCamTMResearcher and Matlab software. Narrow band spectral images were acquired at selected wavelengths with a CCD camera either combined with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (420-730 nm) or a tunable hyper-wavelength LED light source (450-880nm). Concentration changes of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the dermis of the skin were calculated using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Both imaging methods showed distinct oxygenation and temperature differences at the surface of the skin of the hand with a good correlation to the anesthetized areas. A temperature response was visible within 5 minutes compared to the standard of 30 minutes. Both non-contact methods show to be more objective and can have an earlier prediction for the effectiveness of the anesthetic block.

  7. Astrobiology explorer mission concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; ABE/ASPIRE Science Teams

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) "Where do we come from?" and (2) "Are we alone?" as outlined in NASA's Origins Program. Both concepts use infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission's observational program is focused on investigating the evolution of ice and organics in all phases of the lifecycle of carbon in the universe, from stellar birth through stellar death and exogenous delivery of these compounds to planetary systems. The ASPIRE mission's observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and also addresses the role of silicates and gas-phase materials in interstellar organic chemistry. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20 (40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution ( R > 2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution ( R > 25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions' target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outlined above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA's Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

  8. A Vision for Spaceflight Reliability: NASA's Objectives Based Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Evans, John; Hall, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In defining the direction for a new Reliability and Maintainability standard, OSMA has extracted the essential objectives that our programs need, to undertake a reliable mission. These objectives have been structured to lead mission planning through construction of an objective hierarchy, which defines the critical approaches for achieving high reliability and maintainability (R M). Creating a hierarchy, as a basis for assurance implementation, is a proven approach; yet, it holds the opportunity to enable new directions, as NASA moves forward in tackling the challenges of space exploration.

  9. Magellan: mission summary.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R S; Pettengill, G H

    1991-04-12

    The Magellan radar mapping mission is in the process of producing a global, high-resolution image and altimetry data set of Venus. Despite initial communications problems, few data gaps have occurred. Analysis of Magellan data is in the initial stages. The radar system data are of high quality, and the planned performance is being achieved in terms of spatial resolution and geometric and radiometric accuracy. Image performance exceeds expectations, and the image quality and mosaickability are extremely good. Future plans for the mission include obtaining gravity data, filling gaps in the initial map, and conducting special studies with the radar.

  10. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The nation's efforts to expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system was given renewed emphasis in January of 1988 when the Presidential Directive on National Space Policy was signed into effect. The expansion of human presence into the solar system has particular significance, in that it defines long-range goals for NASA's future missions. To embark and achieve such ambitious ventures is a significant undertaking, particularly compared to past space activities. Missions to Mars, the Moon, and Phobos, as well as an observatory based on the dark side of the Moon are discussed.

  11. A space-based mission to characterize the IEO population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, Ross; Eßmann, Olaf; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hoffmann, Harald; Kührt, Ekkehard; Messina, Gabriele; Michaelis, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Müller, Hartmut; Pedersen, Jakob Fromm

    2013-09-01

    In 2007 the German Space Agency (DLR) initiated the Kompaktsatellit series of small satellites. With growing scientific interest in the threat of future asteroid impacts on Earth, the first mission selected for the Kompaktsatellit programme was AsteroidFinder, a mission to characterise the unknown Inner Earth Object (IEO) population. The mission is based around the AsteroidFinder Instrument (AFI), a high-performance optical telescope, with asteroids identified on-ground via their apparent motion against the fixed star background. Such a challenging mission implies significant demands on the Kompaktsatellit bus platform required to support the AFI. The tight constraints of small satellite design, namely time, finance and available mass, require innovative solutions to problems. With a launch scheduled for 2014 and the project due to enter Phase C in 2011, the challenges of achieving high science with a small satellite are already apparent.

  12. SEPAC: Spacelab Mission 1 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The SEPAC Spacelab Mission 1 activities relevant to software operations are reported. Spacelab events and problems that did not directly affect SEPAC but are of interest to experimenters are included. Spacelab Mission 1 was launched from KSC on 28 November 1983 at 10:10 Huntsville time. The Spacelab Mission met its objectives. There were two major problems associated with SEPAC: the loss of the EBA gun and the RAU 21.

  13. Spacelab Mission 3 experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission is the first operational flight of Spacelab aboard the shuttle transportation system. The primary objectives of this mission are to conduct application, science, and technology experimentation that requires the low gravity environment of Earth orbit and an extended duration, stable vehicle attitude with emphasis on materials processing. This document provides descriptions of the experiments to be performed during the Spacelab 3 mission.

  14. Mission planning for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  15. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  16. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael (Editor); Shaw, Tianna

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood/urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions. SUMMARY The NASA Exploration Laboratory Analysis project seeks to develop capability to diagnose anticipated space exploration medical conditions on future manned missions. To achieve

  17. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  18. Mission analyses for manned flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The investigations to develop a high altitude aircraft program plan are reported along with an analysis of manned comet and asteroid missions, the development of shuttle sortie mission objectives, and an analysis of major management issues facing the shuttle sortie.

  19. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Centers for Water Research on National Priorities Related to a Systems View of Nutrient Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes the missions and objectives of four newly-awarded Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Centers. There is also a description of how the projects fit together to meet solicitation research questions.

  20. Mission Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    As teachers, our most important mission is to turn our students into readers. It sounds so simple, but it's hard work, and we're all on a deadline. Kittle describes a class in which her own expectations that students would become readers combined with a few impassioned strategies succeeded ... at least with a young man named Alan.

  1. Aquarius Mission Technical Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Yueh, S.; Dinnat, E.; Pellerano, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band microwave instrument being developed to map the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It is part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for early in 2009. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis.

  2. Mars Mission Concepts: SAR and Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, Michael; Clifford, S.; Lawrence, S.; Klaus, K.; Smith, D.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: The time has come to leverage technology advances to reduce the cost and increase the flight rate of planetary missions, while actively developing a scientific and engineering workforce to achieve national space objectives. Mission Science at Mars: A SAR imaging radar offers an ability to conduct high resolution investigations of the shallow subsurface of Mars, enabling identification of fine-scale layering within the Martian polar layered deposits (PLD), as well as the identification of pingos, investigations of polygonal terrain, and measurements of the thickness of mantling layers at non-polar latitudes. It would allow systematic near-surface prospecting, which is tremendously useful for human exploration purposes. Limited color capabilities in a notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would enable the generation of false color images, resulting in useful science results, and the stereo data could be reduced into high-resolution Digital Elevation Models uniquely useful for exploration planning and science purposes. Mission Concept: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Our concept involves using a Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Summary/Conclusions: A robust and compelling Mars mission can be designed to meet the 2018 Mars launch window opportunity. Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute the baseline science mission and conduct necessary Mars Sample Return Technology Demonstrations in Mars orbit on the same mission. An observation spacecraft platform like the high power 5Kw) 702SP at Mars also enables the use of a SAR instrument to reveal new insights and understanding of the Mars regolith for both

  3. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is an ESA mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for space-borne gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system LISA Pathfinder is scheduled to be launched in the first half of 2010 to a Lissajous orbit around the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point, L1. In addition to a complete European technology package (the LISA Technology Package, or LTP), LISA Pathfinder will also carry thrusters and software, known as ST-7, a part of NASA's New Millennium Program. Here I will give an introduction to, and status of, the mission, followed by a discussion on the technologies to be tested. Finally I will discuss the ways in which the LISA Pathfinder mission will be used for preparation of LISA (e.g. ground segment development as well as technology development) and for other future missions (formation flying, Fundamental Physics Explorer, etc.).

  4. Earth Science Missions Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marius, Julio L.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation gives a general overlook of the engineering efforts that are necessary to meet science mission requirement especially for Earth Science missions. It provides brief overlook of NASA's current missions and future Earth Science missions and the engineering challenges to meet some of the specific science objectives. It also provides, if time permits, a brief summary of two significant weather and climate phenomena in the Southern Hemisphere: El Nino and La Nina, as well as the Ozone depletion over Antarctica that will be of interest to IEEE intercom 2009 conference audience.

  5. APIES: A mission for the exploration of the main asteroid belt using a swarm of microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    2006-10-01

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation and Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to a European Space Agency (ESA) Call for Ideas for "swarm" missions, based on the utilization of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. The APIES baseline concept is centred on a "swarm" of 19 BElt Explorer (BEE) identical microsatellites, weighing less than 45 kg each, including their scientific payload, visiting over 100 Main Belt asteroids in multiple flybys. The BEEs are carried to the asteroid belt by a Hub and Interplanetary VEhicle (HIVE), a conventional spacecraft launched with a Soyuz-Fregat rocket, using solar electric propulsion for the transfer to the asteroid belt and acting as communication hub and control centre for the mission after the swarm deployment. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve its ambitious goal within the framework of a standard ESA mission, representing a novel mission concept example, whose feasibility is essentially linked to the use of microsatellite technology, enabling the achievement of science objectives unattainable with conventional spacecraft.

  6. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  7. The PROBA-3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  8. STS-95 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-95 patch, designed by the crew, is intended to reflect the scientific, engineering, and historic elements of the mission. The Space Shuttle Discovery is shown rising over the sunlit Earth limb, representing the global benefits of the mission science and the solar science objectives of the Spartan Satellite. The bold number '7' signifies the seven members of Discovery's crew and also represents a historical link to the original seven Mercury astronauts. The STS-95 crew member John Glenn's first orbital flight is represented by the Friendship 7 capsule. The rocket plumes symbolize the three major fields of science represented by the mission payloads: microgravity material science, medical research for humans on Earth and in space, and astronomy.

  9. TAU - A mission to a thousand astronomical units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nock, K. T.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is investigated as the enabling technology for achieving a mission to a thousand astronomical units within 50 years duration. By means of a 1000 AU baseline, the primary objective is to make measurements of distances to the stars in the Galaxy and beyond. In addition, several deep space unique studies in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and space plasma physics can be carried out. NEP technology requirements for a mission to 1000 AU are addressed. These technology requirements are compared with current plans for both nuclear space power and ion propulsion research. And finally an example TAU spacecraft system is described.

  10. Asteroid Rescue Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izon, S.; Kokan, T.; Lee, S.; Miller, J.; Morrell, R.; Richie, D.; Rohrschneider, R.; Rostan, S.; Staton, E.; Olds, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is in response to a request for papers from the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas as part of a National University Competition. A human rescue mission to the asteroid 16 Psyche was designed based around a failed Mars mission scenario. The scenario assumed the second human Mars mission, based on the Mars Design Reference Mission 3.0, failed to propulsively capture into Mars orbit, resulting in a higher energy trajectory headed towards the asteroid belt on an intercept trajectory with 16 Psyche. The task was to design a mission that could rescue the astronauts using existing Mars mission hardware prior to the failure of their life support system. Analysis tools were created in the following six disciplines for the design of the mission: trajectory, propulsion, habitat and life support, space rescue vehicle and earth reentry vehicle, space transfer vehicle, and operations. The disciplinary analysis tools were integrated into a computational framework in order to aid the design process. The problem was solved using a traditional fixed-point iteration method with user controlled design variables. Additionally, two other methods of optimization were implemented: design of experiments and collaborative optimization. These were looked at in order to evaluate their ease of implementation and use at solving a complex, multidisciplinary problem. The design of experiments methodology was used to create a central composite design array and a non-linear response surface equation. The response surface equation allows rapid system level optimization. Collaborative optimization is a true multidisciplinary optimization technique which benefits from disciplinary level optimization in conjunction with system level optimization. By reformatting the objective functions of the disciplinary optimizers, collaborative optimization guides the discipline optimizers toward the system optimum.

  11. The Stellar Imager (SI)"Vision Mission"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Ken; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Karovska, M.; Allen, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a "Vision" mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar magnetic activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, at ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and thus baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (less than 20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. SI's resolution will make it an invaluable resource for many other areas of astrophysics, including studies of AGN s, supernovae, cataclysmic variables, young stellar objects, QSO's, and stellar black holes. ongoing mission concept and technology development studies for SI. These studies are designed to refine the mission requirements for the science goals, define a Design Reference Mission, perform trade studies of selected major technical and architectural issues, improve the existing technology roadmap, and explore the details of deployment and operations, as well as the possible roles of astronauts and/or robots in construction and servicing of the facility.

  12. Developing a taxonomy for mission architecture definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubek, Deborah J.

    1990-01-01

    The Lunar and Mars Exploration Program Office (LMEPO) was tasked to define candidate architectures for the Space Exploration Initiative to submit to NASA senior management and an externally constituted Outreach Synthesis Group. A systematic, structured process for developing, characterizing, and describing the alternate mission architectures, and applying this process to future studies was developed. The work was done in two phases: (1) national needs were identified and categorized into objectives achievable by the Space Exploration Initiative; and (2) a program development process was created which both hierarchically and iteratively describes the program planning process.

  13. On the Astron UV space mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpio, E. Yu.; Mironov, A. V.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    The Soviet UV space mission Astron, launched in 1983, had been operational for eight years as the largest ultraviolet space telescope during its lifetime. Astron provided a lot of observational material for various types of astrophysical objects, but unfortunately these data were not widely available and, as a result, unduly forgotten. Here we present some results of our comparison of the Astron data to the modern UV stellar data, such as the NGSL spectral library, discuss the precision and accuracy achieved with Astron, and make some conclusions on potential application areas of these data.

  14. Scientific and Mission Requirements of Next-generation Space Infrared Space Telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Ichikawa, Takashi; Takami, Michihiro; Sakon, Itsuki

    SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology Astrophysics) is a next-generation space tele-scope for mid-and far-infrared astronomy, based on the heritage of AKARI, Spitzer, and Her-schel, Here we introduce Mission Requirement Document (MRD), where scientific and mission requirement of SPICA are described. The MRD clarifies the objectives of the SPICA mission. These objectives are more concretely expressed by various scientific targets, and based on these targets, the mission requirements, such as required specifications of the mission instrumenta-tions, scientific operations etc. are defined. Also the success criteria, by which the evaluation of the mission achievement will be addressed, are clearly described. The mission requirements described here will give the baseline of the study of the system requirements. In the future, The MRD will also be used to confirm the development status, system performance, and operational results on orbit etc. are well in-line with the mission requirements. To summarize, the most important mission requirement of SPICA is to realize a large, mono-lithic (not segmented) 3-m class or larger mirror cooled down below 6K, in order to perform extremely deep imaging and spectroscopy at 5-210µm.

  15. MNSM - A Future Mars Network Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    2012-04-01

    Following ESA' s successful Mars Express mission, European efforts in Mars Exploration are now taking place within the joint ESA-NASA Mars Exploration Programme, starting in 2016 with the Trace Gases Orbiter (TGO) focusing on atmospheric trace gases and in particular methane, and with the Entry and Descent Module (EDM). In 2018, a joint NASA-ESA rover will perform sample caching as well as geological, geochemical and exobiological measurements of the surface and the subsurface of Mars. A number of missions for 2020 and beyond are currently under study. Among those, a possible candidate is a Mars Network Science Mission (MNSM) of 3-6 surface stations, to investigate the interior of the planet, its rotational parameters and its atmospheric dynamics. These important science goals have not been fully addressed by Mars exploration so far and can only be achieved with simultaneous measurements from a number of landers located on the surface of the planet such as a Mars Network mission. In addition, the geology, mineralogy and astrobiological significance of each landing site would be addressed, as three new locations on Mars would be reached. Such Mars Network Science Mission has been considered a significant priority by the planetary science community worldwide for the past two decades. In fact, a Mars Network mission concept has a long heritage, as it was studied a number of times by ESA, NASA and CNES (e.g., Marsnet, Intermarsnet, Netlander and MarsNEXT mission studies) since 1990. Study work has been renewed in ESA recently with MNSM Science and Engineering Teams being set up to update the scientific objectives of the mission and to evaluate its technical feasibility, respectively. The current mission baseline includes three ESA-led small landers with a robotic arm to be launched with a Soyuz rocket and direct communications to Earth (no need of a dedicated orbiter). However, a larger network could be put in place through international collaboration, as several

  16. Assessing the Benefits of NASA Category 3, Low Cost Class C/D Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bitten, Robert E.; Shinn, Steven A.; Mahr, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Category 3, Class C/D missions have the benefit of delivering worthwhile science at minimal cost which is increasingly important in NASA's constrained budget environment. Although higher cost Category 1 and 2 missions are necessary to achieve NASA's science objectives, Category 3 missions are shown to be an effective way to provide significant science return at a low cost. Category 3 missions, however, are often reviewed the same as the more risk averse Category 1 and 2 missions. Acknowledging that reviews are not the only aspect of a total engineering effort, reviews are still a significant concern for NASA programs. This can unnecessarily increase the cost and schedule of Category 3 missions. This paper quantifies the benefit and performance of Category 3 missions by looking at the cost vs. capability relative to Category 1 and 2 missions. Lessons learned from successful organizations that develop low cost Category 3, Class C/D missions are also investigated to help provide the basis for suggestions to streamline the review of NASA Category 3 missions.

  17. Autonomous and Autonomic Systems: A Paradigm for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Automomy enables not only reduced operations costs, But also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will be unable to achieve the full range of advanced mission objectives, given that human control under dynamic environmental conditions will not be feasible due, in part, to the unavoidably high signal propagation latency and constrained data rates of mission communications links. While autonomy cost-effectively supports accomplishment of mission goals, autonomicity supports survivability of remote mission assets, especially when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic system properties (which ensure self-configuring, self-optimizing self-healing, and self-protecting behavior) conceptually may enable space missions of a higher order into any previously flown. Analysis of two NASA agent-based systems previously prototyped, and of a proposed future mission involving numerous cooperating spacecraft, illustrates how autonomous and autonomic system concepts may be brought to bear on future space missions.

  18. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth- Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time.

  19. Science with the Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küppers, Michael; Michel, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) will monitor the binary asteroid Didymos before, during, and after the impact of the projectile sent by the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART)spacecraft. The primary goal of the mission is to demonstrate asteroid deflection with a kinetic impactor. However, important asteroid science will be achieved as a secondary objective. AIM is the first space mission to study a binary asteroid. There are several hypotheses about how binaries form, and the comparison of the global properties (density, and surface amd interior structure) may allow to distinguish between those scenarios. For example, if the binary was formed by rotational fission of the primary, an oblate shape of the primary and a low density and tensile strength of the secondary are expected. Furthermore, observation of the DART impact will provide unique data on the reaction to small asteroids, with significant implications on the collisional evolution of the solar system and planetary rings. Landing of MASCOT-2 on the secondary will provide information about the physical surface properties of a very small asteroid, providing additional information about the evolution of those objects. We will present an overview of the scientific studies foreseen with the AIM payload and their implications on the physics of small bodies in the solar system.

  20. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  1. A Mars 1984 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  2. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  3. Payload missions integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the Payload Missions Integration Contract (PMIC) are summarized. Spacelab Missions no. 1 to 3, OSTA partial payloads, Astro-1 Mission, premission definition, and mission peculiar equipment support structure are addressed.

  4. ESA CHEOPS mission: development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, N.; Asquier, J.; Corral Van Damme, C.; Isaak, K.; Ratti, F.; Safa, F.; Southworth, R.; Broeg, C.; Benz, W.

    2016-07-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Science Programme Committee (SPC) selected CHEOPS (Characterizing Exoplanets Satellite) in October 2012 as the first S-class mission (S1) within the Agency's Scientific Programme, targeting launch readiness by the end of 2017. The CHEOPS mission is devoted to the first-step characterization of known exoplanets orbiting bright stars, to be achieved through the precise measurement of exo-planet radii using the technique of transit photometry. It is implemented as a partnership between ESA and a consortium of Member States led by Switzerland. CHEOPS is considered as a pilot case for implementing "small science missions" in ESA with the following requirements: science driven missions selected through an open Call for missions (bottom-up process); spacecraft development schedule much shorter than for M and L missions, in the range of 4 years; and cost-capped missions to ESA with possibly higher Member States involvement than for M or L missions. The paper describes the CHEOPS development status, focusing on the performed hardware manufacturing and test activities.

  5. Feasibility and Definition of a Lunar Polar Volatiles Prospecting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Elphic, Richard; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry; Pedersen, Liam; Beyer, Ross; Cockrell, James

    2012-01-01

    The recent Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission has provided evidence for significant amounts of cold trapped volatiles in Cabeus crater near the Moon's south pole. Moreover, LRO/Diviner measurements of extremely cold lunar polar surface temperatures imply that volatiles can be stable outside or areas of strict permanent shadows. These discoveries suggest that orbital neutron spectrometer data point to extensive deposits at both lunar poles. The physical state, composition and distribution of these volatiles are key scientific issues that relate to source and emplacement mechanisms. These issues are also important for enabling lunar in situ resource utilization (ISRU). An assessment of the feasibility of cold-trapped volatile ISRU requires a priori information regarding the location, form, quantity, and potential for extraction of available resources. A robotic mission to a mostly shadowed but briefly .unlit location with suitable environmental conditions (e.g. short periods of oblique sunlight and subsurface cryogenic temperatures which permit volatile trapping) can help answer these scientific and exploration questions. Key parameters must be defined in order to identify suitable landing sites, plan surface operations, and achieve mission success. To address this need, we have conducted an initial study for a lunar polar volatile prospecting mission, assuming the use of a solar-powered robotic lander and rover. Here we present the mission concept, goals and objectives, and landing site selection analysis for a short-duration, landed, solar-powered mission to a potential hydrogen volatile-rich site.

  6. Pioneer Mars 1979 mission options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Hartmann, W. K.; Niehoff, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of lower cost Mars missions which perform useful exploration objectives after the Viking/75 mission was conducted. As a study guideline, it was assumed that significant cost savings would be realized by utilizing Pioneer hardware currently being developed for a pair of 1978 Venus missions. This in turn led to the additional constraint of a 1979 launch with the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle which has been designated for the Pioneer Venus missions. Two concepts, using an orbiter bus platform, were identified which have both good science potential and mission simplicity indicative of lower cost. These are: (1) an aeronomy/geology orbiter, and (2) a remote sensing orbiter with a number of deployable surface penetrometers.

  7. Mission Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisaich, Gregory; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Neukom, Christian; Wagner, Mike; Buchanan, Eric; Plice, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Simulation Toolkit (MST) is a flexible software system for autonomy research. It was developed as part of the Mission Simulation Facility (MSF) project that was started in 2001 to facilitate the development of autonomous planetary robotic missions. Autonomy is a key enabling factor for robotic exploration. There has been a large gap between autonomy software (at the research level), and software that is ready for insertion into near-term space missions. The MST bridges this gap by providing a simulation framework and a suite of tools for supporting research and maturation of autonomy. MST uses a distributed framework based on the High Level Architecture (HLA) standard. A key feature of the MST framework is the ability to plug in new models to replace existing ones with the same services. This enables significant simulation flexibility, particularly the mixing and control of fidelity level. In addition, the MST provides automatic code generation from robot interfaces defined with the Unified Modeling Language (UML), methods for maintaining synchronization across distributed simulation systems, XML-based robot description, and an environment server. Finally, the MSF supports a number of third-party products including dynamic models and terrain databases. Although the communication objects and some of the simulation components that are provided with this toolkit are specifically designed for terrestrial surface rovers, the MST can be applied to any other domain, such as aerial, aquatic, or space.

  8. The OASIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Binns, W. robert; Christl, Mark; Cosse, Charles B.; Guzik, T. Gregory; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Hams,Thomas; Isbert, Joachim; Israel, Martin H.; Krizmanic, John F.; Labrador, Allan W.; Link, Jason T.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Mitchell, Martin H.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Sasaki, Makoto; Stochaj, Steven J.; Stone, Edward C.; Steitmatter, Robert E.; Waddington, C. Jake; Watts, John W.; Wefel, John P.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The Orbiting Astrophysical Observatory in Space (OASIS) is a mission to investigate Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), a major feature of our galaxy. OASIS will use measurements of GCRs to determine the cosmic ray source, where they are accelerated, to investigate local accelerators and to learn what they can tell us about the interstellar medium and the processes that occur in it. OASIS will determine the astrophysical sources of both the material and acceleration of GCRs by measuring the abundances of the rare actinide nuclei and make direct measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of electrons at energies up to approx.10 TeV, well beyond the range of the Fermi and AMS missions. OASIS has two instruments. The Energetic Trans-Iron Composition Experiment (ENTICE) instrument measures elemental composition. It resolves individual elements with atomic number (Z) from 10 to 130 and has a collecting power of 60m2.str.yrs, >20 times larger than previous instruments, and with improved resolution. The sample of 10(exp 10) GCRs collected by ENTICE will include .100 well-resolved actinides. The High Energy Particle Calorimeter Telescope (HEPCaT) is an ionization calorimeter that will extend the electron spectrum into the TeV region for the first time. It has 7.5 sq m.str.yrs of collecting power. This talk will describe the scientific objectives of the OASIS mission and its discovery potential. The mission and its two instruments which have been designed to accomplish this investigation will also be described.

  9. Visual Navigation - SARE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Kuba, Jose; Caruso, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The SARE Earth Observing and Technological Mission is part of the Argentinean Space Agency (CONAE - Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) Small and Technological Payloads Program. The Argentinean National Space Program requires from the SARE program mission to test in a real environment of several units, assemblies and components to reduce the risk of using these equipments in more expensive Space Missions. The objective is to make use those components with an acceptable maturity in design or development, but without any heritage at space. From the application point of view, this mission offers new products in the Earth Observation data market which are listed in the present paper. One of the technological payload on board of the SARE satellite is the sensor Ground Tracker. It computes the satellite attitude and orbit in real time (goal) and/or by ground processing. For the first operating mode a dedicated computer and mass memory are necessary to be part of the mentioned sensor. For the second operational mode the hardware and software are much simpler.

  10. STS-51 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Designed by the crewmembers, the STS-51 crew patch honors all who have contributed to mission success. It symbolizes NASA's continuing quest to increase mankind's knowledge and use of space through this multi-faceted mission. The gold star represents the U.S. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) boosted by the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS). The rays below the ACTTOS represent the innovative communication technologies to be tested by this experiment. The stylized Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) represents the German-sponsored ASTROSPAS mission. The constellation Orion below SPAS is representative of the types of stellar objects to be studied by its experimenters. The stars in Orion also commemorate the astronauts who have sacrificed their lives for the space program. The ascending spiral, symbolizing America's continuing commitment to leadership in space exploration and development, originates with the thousands of persons who ensure the success of each Shuttle flight. The five large white stars, representing the five crewmembers, along with the single gold star, fomm the mission's numerical designation.

  11. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. R.; Joosten, B. J.; Lo, M. W.; Ford, K. M.; Hansen, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Software Construction and Analysis Tools for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA and its international partners will increasingly depend on software-based systems to implement advanced functions for future space missions, such as Martian rovers that autonomously navigate long distances exploring geographic features formed by surface water early in the planet's history. The software-based functions for these missions will need to be robust and highly reliable, raising significant challenges in the context of recent Mars mission failures attributed to software faults. After reviewing these challenges, this paper describes tools that have been developed at NASA Ames that could contribute to meeting these challenges; 1) Program synthesis tools based on automated inference that generate documentation for manual review and annotations for automated certification. 2) Model-checking tools for concurrent object-oriented software that achieve memorability through synergy with program abstraction and static analysis tools.

  13. Self-Aware Vehicles: Mission and Performance Adaptation to System Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Leonard, Charles; Scotti, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in sensing (miniaturization, distributed sensor networks) combined with improvements in computational power leading to significant gains in perception, real-time decision making/reasoning and dynamic planning under uncertainty as well as big data predictive analysis have set the stage for realization of autonomous system capability. These advances open the design and operating space for self-aware vehicles that are able to assess their own capabilities and adjust their behavior to either complete the assigned mission or to modify the mission to reflect their current capabilities. This paper discusses the self-aware vehicle concept and associated technologies necessary for full exploitation of the concept. A self-aware aircraft, spacecraft or system is one that is aware of its internal state, has situational awareness of its environment, can assess its capabilities currently and project them into the future, understands its mission objectives, and can make decisions under uncertainty regarding its ability to achieve its mission objectives.

  14. STS-103 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Designed by the crew members, the STS-103 emblem depicts the Space Shuttle Discovery approaching the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) prior to its capture and berthing. The purpose of the mission was to remove and replace some of the Telescope's older and out-of-date systems with newer, more reliable and more capable ones, and to make repairs to HST's exterior thermal insulation that had been damaged by more than nine years of exposure to the space environment. The horizontal and vertical lines centered on the Telescope symbolize the ability to reach and maintain a desired attitude in space, essential to the instrument's scientific operation. The preservation of this ability was one of the primary objectives of the mission. After the flight, the Telescope resumed its successful exploration of deep space and will continue to be used to study solar system objects, stars in the making, late phases of stellar evolution, galaxies and the early history of the universe. HST, as represented on this emblem was inspired by views from previous servicing missions, with its solar arrays illuminated by the Sun, providing a striking contrast with the blackness of space and the night side of Earth.

  15. Vision for Micro Technology Space Missions. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Neil

    2005-01-01

    It is exciting to contemplate the various space mission applications that Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology could enable in the next 10-20 years. The primary objective of this chapter is to both stimulate ideas for MEMS technology infusion on future NASA space missions and to spur adoption of the MEMS technology in the minds of mission designers. This chapter is also intended to inform non-space oriented MEMS technologists, researchers and decision makers about the rich potential application set that future NASA Science and Exploration missions will provide. The motivation for this chapter is therefore to lead the reader down a path to identify and it is exciting to contemplate the various space mission applications that Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology could enable in the next 10-20 years. The primary objective of this chapter is to both stimulate ideas for MEMS technology infusion on future NASA space missions and to spur adoption of the MEMS technology in the minds of mission designers. This chapter is also intended to inform non-space oriented MEMS technologists, researchers and decision makers about the rich potential application set that future NASA Science and Exploration missions will provide. The motivation for this chapter is therefore to lead the reader down a path to identify and consider potential long-term, perhaps disruptive or revolutionary, impacts that MEMS technology may have for future civilian space applications. A general discussion of the potential for MEMS in space applications is followed by a brief showcasing of a few selected examples of recent MEMS technology developments for future space missions. Using these recent developments as a point of departure, a vision is then presented of several areas where MEMS technology might eventually be exploited in future Science and Exploration mission applications. Lastly, as a stimulus for future research and development, this chapter summarizes a set of barriers

  16. Mission Planning and Scheduling System for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Gonzalo; Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa; Saylor, Rick; Cosgrove, Sager; Ritter, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of NASA's return to the Moon efforts, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step. It is an unmanned mission to create a comprehensive atlas of the Moon's features and resources necessary to design and build a lunar outpost. LRO is scheduled for launch in April, 2009. LRO carries a payload comprised of six instruments and one technology demonstration. In addition to its scientific mission LRO will use new technologies, systems and flight operations concepts to reduce risk and increase productivity of future missions. As part of the effort to achieve robust and efficient operations, the LRO Mission Operations Team (MOT) will use its Mission Planning System (MPS) to manage the operational activities of the mission during the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) and operational phases of the mission. The MPS, based on GMV's flexplan tool and developed for NASA with Honeywell Technology Solutions (prime contractor), will receive activity and slew maneuver requests from multiple science operations centers (SOC), as well as from the spacecraft engineers. flexplan will apply scheduling rules to all the requests received and will generate conflict free command schedules in the form of daily stored command loads for the orbiter and a set of daily pass scripts that help automate nominal real-time operations.

  17. ExoMars Mission 2016, Orbiter Module Power System Architecture (Based On An Unregulated Bus & MPPT Controlled Step-Down Voltage Regulators)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digoin, JJ.; Boutelet, E.

    2011-10-01

    The main objective of the ExoMars program is to demonstrate key flight in situ enabling technologies in support of the European ambitions for future exploration missions and to pursue fundamental scientific investigations. Two missions are foreseen within the ExoMars program for the 2016 and 2018 launch opportunities to Mars. The 2016 mission is an ESA led mission that will supply a Mars Orbiter Module (OM) carrying an Entry Descent module (EDM) and NASA/ESA scientific instruments. The 2018 mission is a NASA led mission bringing one ESA rover and one NASA rover onto the Mars surface. This paper presents the OM Electrical Power Sub- system (EPS) design achieved at the end of pre- development phase. The main aspects addressed are: - EPS major constraints due to mission and environment, a succinct description of the power units, - Trade-off analyses results leading to the selected EPS architecture, - Preliminary results of electrical and energy simulations, - EPS units development plan.

  18. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  19. The effect of post-discharge educational intervention on patients in achieving objectives in modifiable risk factors six months after discharge following an episode of acute coronary syndrome, (CAM-2 Project): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether an intervention mainly consisting of a signed agreement between patient and physician on the objectives to be reached, improves reaching these secondary prevention objectives in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors six-months after discharge following an acute coronary syndrome. Background There is room to improve mid-term adherence to clinical guidelines' recommendations in coronary heart disease secondary prevention, specially non-pharmacological ones, often neglected. Methods In CAM-2, patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to the intervention or the usual care group. The primary outcome was reaching therapeutic objectives in various secondary prevention variables: smoking, obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure control, exercise and taking of medication. Results 1757 patients were recruited in 64 hospitals and 1510 (762 in the intervention and 748 in the control group) attended the six-months follow-up visit. After adjustment for potentially important variables, there were, between the intervention and control group, differences in the mean reduction of body mass index (0.5 vs. 0.2; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (1.6 cm vs. 0.6 cm; p = 0.05), proportion of patients who exercise regularly and those with total cholesterol below 175 mg/dl (64.7% vs. 56.5%; p = 0.001). The reported intake of medications was high in both groups for all the drugs considered with no differences except for statins (98.1% vs. 95.9%; p = 0.029). Conclusions At least in the short term, lifestyle changes among coronary heart disease patients are achievable by intensifying the responsibility of the patient himself by means of a simple and feasible intervention. PMID:21092191

  20. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B. ); Pieters, C. ); Ulmer, M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Henrikson, C. )

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth's Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low [Delta]V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  1. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.; Pieters, C.; Ulmer, M.; Henrikson, C.

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth`s Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low {Delta}V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  2. Phoenix--the first Mars Scout mission.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    NASA has initiated the first of a new series of missions to augment the current Mars Program. In addition to the systematic series of planned, directed missions currently comprising the Mars Program plan, NASA has started a series of Mars Scout missions that are low cost, price fixed, Principal [correction of Principle] Investigator-led projects. These missions are intended to provide an avenue for rapid response to discoveries made as a result of the primary Mars missions, as well as allow more risky technologies and approaches to be applied in the investigation of Mars. The first in this new series is the Phoenix mission which was selected as part of a highly competitive process. Phoenix will use the Mars 2001 Lander that was discontinued in 2000 and apply a new set of science objectives and mission objectives and will validate this soft lander architecture for future applications. This paper will provide an overview of both the Program and the Project.

  3. Phoenix--the first Mars Scout mission.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    NASA has initiated the first of a new series of missions to augment the current Mars Program. In addition to the systematic series of planned, directed missions currently comprising the Mars Program plan, NASA has started a series of Mars Scout missions that are low cost, price fixed, Principal [correction of Principle] Investigator-led projects. These missions are intended to provide an avenue for rapid response to discoveries made as a result of the primary Mars missions, as well as allow more risky technologies and approaches to be applied in the investigation of Mars. The first in this new series is the Phoenix mission which was selected as part of a highly competitive process. Phoenix will use the Mars 2001 Lander that was discontinued in 2000 and apply a new set of science objectives and mission objectives and will validate this soft lander architecture for future applications. This paper will provide an overview of both the Program and the Project. PMID:16010756

  4. Mission-Based Reporting in Academic Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Thomas F.; Hales, Robert E.; Shahrokh, Narriman C.; Howell, Lydia P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article describes a data entry and analysis system called Mission-Based Reporting (MBR) that is used to measure faculty and department activities related to specific academic missions and objectives. The purpose of MBR is to provide a reporting tool useful in evaluating faculty effort and in helping chairs 1) to better assess their…

  5. Enabling interferometry technologies for the GAIA astrometric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M.; Bonino, L.; Cecconi, Massimo; Cesare, Stefano; Bertinetto, Fabrizio; Mana, Giovanni; Carollo, D.; Gai, Mario; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Canuto, Enrico; Donati, F.

    1999-08-01

    Within a Technology Research Program funded by the European Space Agency, a team led by Alenia Aerospazio has investigated and started the development of some technologies which are considered fundamental for the achievement of the scientific objectives of the future astrometric mission GAIA. The activities have been focused on the design of a two-aperture optical interferometer and of a system for the active stabilization of its configuration within few picometers. A laboratory prototype of the active stabilization system has been implemented and tested. The results achieved in the laboratory tests proved that the very challenging requirements imposed by the GAIA astrometric goal of 10 micro-arcsec accuracy can be fulfilled.

  6. Advanced automatic target recognition for police helicopter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Christoph; Schoppmann, Paul

    2000-08-01

    The results of a case study about the application of an advanced method for automatic target recognition to infrared imagery taken from police helicopter missions are presented. The method consists of the following steps: preprocessing, classification, fusion, postprocessing and tracking, and combines the three paradigms image pyramids, neural networks and bayesian nets. The technology has been developed using a variety of different scenes typical for military aircraft missions. Infrared cameras have been in use for several years at the Bavarian police helicopter forces and are highly valuable for night missions. Several object classes like 'persons' or 'vehicles' are tested and the possible discrimination between persons and animals is shown. The analysis of complex scenes with hidden objects and clutter shows the potentials and limitations of automatic target recognition for real-world tasks. Several display concepts illustrate the achievable improvement of the situation awareness. The similarities and differences between various mission types concerning object variability, time constraints, consequences of false alarms, etc. are discussed. Typical police actions like searching for missing persons or runaway criminals illustrate the advantages of automatic target recognition. The results demonstrate the possible operational benefits for the helicopter crew. Future work will include performance evaluation issues and a system integration concept for the target platform.

  7. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  8. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  9. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  10. Equity for Maori and Pasifika Students: The Objectives and Characteristics of Equity Committees in a New Zealand University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakhid, Camille

    2011-01-01

    Approaches to achieving and managing equity for Maori and Pasifika tertiary students differ among the eight universities in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Achieving equity in educational attainment for Maori and Pasifika tertiary students is stated as a key objective in nearly all of the universities' mission statements or charters, and equity committees…

  11. Significant Science from a Saturn Atmospheric Entry Probe Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atkinson, D. H.; Atreya, S. K.; Colaprete, A.; Spilker, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    A single planet cannot be understood in isolation. Comparative studies of gas and ice giant planets' atmospheres are needed to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and the giant planets, formation of giant planet atmospheres, and to provide a valuable link to extrasolar planets. Giant planets' tropospheres and interiors contain material from the epoch of solar system formation. Some of these materials are expected to be unprocessed and thus would reflect the protosolar nebula's composition at the time and location of each planet's formation. Other materials will have been extensively processed, reflecting a planet's evolutionary processes. Beginning with the Pioneer and Voyager flybys, space flight missions began assembling data sets needed for these comparisons. The Galileo orbiter and probe mission provided both remote sensing and the first in situ studies of Jupiter's atmosphere. Comparable understanding of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune would provide an important comparative planetology context for the Galileo Jupiter results. The Cassini orbiter continues to yield a wealth of discoveries about Saturn's atmosphere from its remote sensing measurements, and its "Proximal Orbits" (2016 and 2017) will provide knowledge of Saturn's internal structure to complement the Juno mission's measurements at Jupiter. A Saturn entry probe mission, to complement the Galileo Probe investigations at Jupiter, would complete a solid basis for improved understanding of both Jupiter and Saturn, and an important stepping stone to understanding Uranus and Neptune, and the formation and evolution of the solar system. The draft "2012 Planetary Science Decadal Survey" (PSDS), released in March 2011, supports the high priority of a Saturn entry probe mission, recommending its addition to NASA's New Frontiers Program. It lists two levels of science objectives: Tier 1, highest-priority objectives that any New Frontiers implementation must achieve; and Tier 2, high priorities

  12. Playing Around in the Solar System: Mini-games for Many Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D. K.; Leon, N.; Fitzpatrick, A. J.; Wessen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Several NASA solar system missions will have major milestones during 2011, the Year of the Solar System. These events include launches, encounters, and orbit insertions. Other missions will continue the explorations already underway. The “Year of the Solar System Game” on The Space Place website (http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/solar-system) brings all these efforts together in the context of the whole solar system. The game helps to build awareness of the characteristics of our solar system and some of the missions that are continuing to advance our knowledge and understanding. It is one of many educational tools being developed and deployed for the Year of the Solar System. The game is a “super-game” that encompasses a number of mission-related “mini-games.” The mini-games can be played individually, and they all contribute toward achievements in the super-game. The enveloping interface for all the games is an animated solar system. The player clicks on a planet or a moon, sees a close-up image, and reads a short paragraph about the object. If the object has been endowed with a mission mini-game, player can click on the tiny spacecraft, read about the mission, then play the game—or, if impatient, just immediately play the game (and read about the mission later, we hope). A score “page” keeps track of the player’s achievements and scores. Players earn achievements by reading about the planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and missions and by playing the mission mini-games. The game targets upper elementary age children, as does the entire Space Place website. Each mini-game, although simple, incorporates elements of the spacecrafts’ missions and their target objects. For example, in Cassini Commander, the player must navigate the Cassini spacecraft through gaps in Saturn’s rings and around Saturn’s moons. The super-game is designed to accommodate any number of mission mini-games, so we are hoping to continue to add missions and increase

  13. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  14. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  15. CAPACITY: Operational Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelder, H.; Goede, A.; van Weele, M.

    The ESA project CAPACITY refers to future Operational Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring Missions. Here operational is meant in the sense that a reliable service of specified information products can be established that satisfies user needs. Monitoring is meant in the sense that long-term continuity and consistency in the quality of the information products can be achieved. The objectives of the project are: To consult with user communities to develop high level information requirements and the form of the information products. To identify and prioritise mission objectives. To derive mission data requirements from the high level user information requirements and iterate these with the users. To set these requirements against observation systems available or approved for the future. To identify missing information products or information products of insufficient quality. To define a global observation system that would satisfy user requirements. The time frame of this operational system is projected to cover the period 2010 to 2020 concurrent with the operational satellites MetOp and NPOESS. In order to address these objectives a large European consortium has been formed consisting of approximately 30 partners from 9 ESA countries (F, D, UK, I, SW, N, DK, B, NL). The project is led by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the core team includes the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Univ Leicester, Univ Bremen and industry. Four application areas are identified: Protocol Monitoring (Montreal and Kyoto) and Policy Support Air Quality Monitoring and Policy Support (CLRTAP) Long Term Science Issues and Climate Monitoring Forecast Capacity In the derivation of data level 2/3 requirements from high level user requirements the consortium relies on a large group of modellers using satellite data, and of space research institutes with expertise in retrieval and calibration/validation of satellite data as well as Industry with experience in building space

  16. Science Planning for the TROPIX Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the study grant was to undertake the planning needed to execute meaningful solar electric propulsion missions in the magnetosphere and beyond. The first mission examined was the Transfer Orbit Plasma Investigation Experiment (TROPIX) mission to spiral outward through the magnetosphere. The next mission examined was to the moon and an asteroid. Entitled Diana, it was proposed to NASA in October 1994. Two similar missions were conceived in 1996 entitled CNR for Comet Nucleus Rendezvous and MBAR for Main Belt Asteroid Rendezvous. The latter mission was again proposed in 1998. All four of these missions were unsuccessfully proposed to the NASA Discovery program. Nevertheless we were partially successful in that the Deep Space 1 (DS1) mission was eventually carried out nearly duplicating our CNR mission. Returning to the magnetosphere we studied and proposed to the Medium Class Explorer (MIDEX) program a MidEx mission called TEMPEST, in 1995. This mission included two solar electric spacecraft that spiraled outward in the magnetosphere: one at near 900 inclination and one in the equatorial plane. This mission was not selected for flight. Next we proposed a single SEP vehicle to carry Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imagers and inside observations to complement the IMAGE mission providing needed data to properly interpret the IMAGE data. This mission called SESAME was submitted unsuccessfully in 1997. One proposal was successful. A study grant was awarded to examine a four spacecraft solar electric mission, named Global Magnetospheric Dynamics. This study was completed and a report on this mission is attached but events overtook this design and a separate study team was selected to design a classical chemical mission as a Solar Terrestrial Probe. Competing proposals such as through the MIDEX opportunity were expressly forbidden. A bibliography is attached.

  17. STS-99 / Endeavour Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This radar system will produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. This videotape presents a mission overview press briefing. The panel members are Dr. Ghassem Asrar, NASA Associate Administrator Earth Sciences; General James C. King, Director National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA); Professor Achim Bachem, Member of the Executive Board, Deutschen Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German National Aerospace Research Center; and Professor Sergio Deiulio, President of the Italian Space Agency. Dr. Asrar opened with a summary of the history of Earth Observations from space, relating the SRTM to this history. This mission, due to cost and complexity, required partnership with other agencies and nations, and the active participation of the astronauts. General King spoke to the expectations of NIMA, and the use of the Synthetic Aperture Radar to produce the high resolution topographic images. Dr. Achim Bachem spoke about the international cooperation that this mission required, and some of the commercial applications and companies that will use this data. Dr Deiulio spoke of future plans to improve knowledge of the Earth using satellites. Questions from the press concerned use of the information for military actions, the reason for the restriction on access to the higher resolution data, the mechanism to acquire that data for scientific research, and the cost sharing from the mission's partners. There was also discussion about the mission's length.

  18. NEO Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Neo-Sr Team

    The NEOs are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets thought to be the remnants of the ancient planetesimals that accreted to form the planets. The chemical investigation of NEOs having primitive characteristics is thus essential in the understanding the planet formation and evolution. They carry records of the solar system's birth/early phases and the geological evolution of small bodies in the interplanetary regions. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with Earth represent a serious hazard to life. For all these reasons the exploration and characterization of these objects are particularly interesting and urgent. NEOs are interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and robotic exploration. Within this framework, the mission LEONARD including an orbiter and a lander to the primitive double object (1996 FG3) has been studied by CNES, in collaboration with a number of European planetologists (France, Italy, Germany and United Kingdom) and related Space Agencies. A new Sample Return mission is under study within a large European community and possible collaboration with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA to reply to the ESA Cosmic Vision AO. The principal objectives are to investigate on 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... . . ) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the primitive asteroids which could contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) how they can shed light on the origin of molecules necessary for life. This type of mission appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials.

  19. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit by late 2012. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 45-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archival, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (circa 30-m spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions, in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of land-cover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at a price no greater than the incremental cost of fulfilling a user request. Distribution of LDCM data over the Internet at no cost to the user is currently planned.

  20. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  1. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, S.; Ennico, K.; Abe/Aspire Science Team

    The AstroBiology Explorer ABE and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer ASPIRE Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions 1 Where do we come from and 2 Are we alone as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity abundance and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to 1 Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions and the young stellar planetary systems that form in them 2 Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows 3 Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids comets and the planets and their satellites 4 Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution abundance and change with environment 5 Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type and 6 Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE s core mission and adds tasks that 7 Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry and 8 Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials ABE ASPIRE achieves these goals using a highly sensitive cryogenically-cooled telescope in an

  2. Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

  3. A Distributed Simulation Software System for Multi-Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Richard; Davis, George; Cary, Everett

    2003-01-01

    The paper will provide an overview of the web-based distributed simulation software system developed for end-to-end, multi-spacecraft mission design, analysis, and test at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This software system was developed for an internal research and development (IR&D) activity at GSFC called the Distributed Space Systems (DSS) Distributed Synthesis Environment (DSE). The long-term goal of the DSS-DSE is to integrate existing GSFC stand-alone test beds, models, and simulation systems to create a "hands on", end-to-end simulation environment for mission design, trade studies and simulations. The short-term goal of the DSE was therefore to develop the system architecture, and then to prototype the core software simulation capability based on a distributed computing approach, with demonstrations of some key capabilities by the end of Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). To achieve the DSS-DSE IR&D objective, the team adopted a reference model and mission upon which FY02 capabilities were developed. The software was prototyped according to the reference model, and demonstrations were conducted for the reference mission to validate interfaces, concepts, etc. The reference model, illustrated in Fig. 1, included both space and ground elements, with functional capabilities such as spacecraft dynamics and control, science data collection, space-to-space and space-to-ground communications, mission operations, science operations, and data processing, archival and distribution addressed.

  4. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  5. Ice & Fire: Missions to the most difficult solar system destinations… on a budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Brewster, Stephen C.; Carraway, John B.; Chatterjee, Alok K.; Clark, Karla B.; Doyle, Richard J.; Henry, Paul K.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Jorgensen, Edward J.; Kemski, Richard P.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Maddock, Robert W.; Mondt, Jack F.; Randolph, James E.; Terrile, Richard J.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1999-11-01

    Three radii from the surface of the Sun… more natural radiation around Jupiter than would be encountered immediately following a nuclear war… to the farthest planet and beyond… these challenges are faced by the three "Ice & Fire" missions: Solar Probe, Europa Orbiter, and PlutoKuiper Express. These three missions will be beneficiaries of the X2000 and related advanced technology development programs. Technology developments now in progress make these missions achievable at costs recently thought adequate only for missions of relatively short durations to "nearby" destinations. The next mission to Europa after Galileo will determine whether a global subsurface liquid water ocean is currently present, and will identify locations where the ocean, if it exists, may be most accessible to future missions. Pluto-Kuiper Express will complete the reconnaissance of the known planets in our Solar System with geological, compositional, and atmospheric mapping of Pluto and Charon while Pluto remains relatively near the Sun during its 248 year orbit. An extended mission to a Kuiper Disk object may be possible, depending on remaining sciencecraft resources. Using a unique combination of Sun shield/high gain antenna and quadrature encounter geometry, Solar Probe will deeply penetrate our nearest star's atmosphere to make local measurements of the birth of solar wind, and to remotely image features as small as 60 kilometers across on the Sun's surface. Avionics technology, leading to integration of functions among a set of multichip modules with standard interfaces, will enable lower production costs, lower power and mass, and the ability to package with modest shielding to enable survival in orbit around Europa inside Jupiter's intense radiation belts. The same avionics and software can be utilized on the other Ice & Fire missions. Each mission is characterized by a long cruise to its destination, facilitated by planetary flybys. The flight systems will represent a unique

  6. Mission impossible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2008-05-01

    Achieving the impossible might turn out to actually be impossible, but in the process of trying we can redefine the possible. It is the difference between ambition and complacency. Again and again - especially towards the end of the 19th century - complacent scientists have made future fools of themselves by proclaiming the impossibility of things such as determining the composition of stars or discovering the ultimate structure of matter. Ambitious authors, on the other hand, write books about "impossible" science. John Horgan tried with The End of Science, and John Barrow with Impossibility: The Limits of Science and the Science of Limits. Now the physicist and science communicator Michio Kaku offers us Physics of the Impossible.

  7. How mission requirements affect observations: case of the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbah, A.; Meftah, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Damé, L.; Djafer, D.

    2016-07-01

    The scientific objectives of a space mission result into instrumental developments and specific satellite operations to observe astronomical objects of interest. The payload in its space environment is however subject to important thermal variations that affect observations. This is well observed when images of the Sun are recorded with the constraint of keeping the solar rotational axis in a constant direction relatively to the camera reference frame. Consequences are clearly observed on image positions that follow the thermal variations induced by the satellite orbit. This is, in particular, the case for the space mission PICARD. This phenomenon is similar to defocus and motions of images recorded with ground-based telescopes. We first present some simulations showing these effects. We then compare our results with real data obtained from the space mission PICARD.

  8. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail

    2014-05-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center. It was shipped to Japan in November 2012 for launch on a Japanese H-IIA rocket from Tanegashima Island, Japan. The launch has been officially scheduled for 1:07 p.m. to 3:07 p.m. EST Thursday, February 27, 2014 (3:07 a.m. to 5:07 a.m. JST Friday, February 28). The day that the GPM Core was shipped to Japan was the day that GPM's Project Scientist, Dr. Arthur Hou passed away after a year-long battle with cancer. Dr. Hou truly made GPM a global effort with a global team. He excelled in providing scientific oversight for achieving GPM's many science objectives and application goals, including delivering high-resolution precipitation data in near real time for better understanding, monitoring and prediction of global precipitation systems and high-impact weather events such as hurricanes. Dr. Hou successfully forged international partnerships to collect and validate space-borne measurements of precipitation around the globe. He served as a professional mentor to numerous junior and mid-level scientists. His presence, leadership, generous personality, and the example he set for all of us as a true "team-player" will be greatly missed. The GPM mission will be described, Arthur's role as Project Scientist for GPM, and early imagery of GPM's retrievals of precipitation will be presented if available at the end of April 2014 (2 months after launch).

  9. Autonomous collaborative mission systems (ACMS) for multi-UAV missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-L.; Peot, M.; Lee, J.; Sundareswaran, V.; Altshuler, T.

    2005-05-01

    UAVs are a key element of the Army"s vision for Force Transformation, and are expected to be employed in large numbers per FCS Unit of Action (UoA). This necessitates a multi-UAV level of autonomous collaboration behavior capability that meets RSTA and other mission needs of FCS UoAs. Autonomous Collaborative Mission Systems (ACMS) is a scalable architecture and behavior planning / collaborative approach to achieve this level of capability. The architecture is modular and the modules may be run in different locations/platforms to accommodate the constraints of available hardware, processing resources and mission needs. The Mission Management Module determines the role of member autonomous entities by employing collaboration mechanisms (e.g., market-based, etc.), the individual Entity Management Modules work with the Mission Manager in determining the role and task of the entity, the individual Entity Execution Modules monitor task execution and platform navigation and sensor control, and the World Model Module hosts local and global versions of the environment and the Common Operating Picture (COP). The modules and uniform interfaces provide a consistent and platform-independent baseline mission collaboration mechanism and signaling protocol across different platforms. Further, the modular design allows flexible and convenient addition of new autonomous collaborative behaviors to the ACMS through: adding new behavioral templates in the Mission Planner component, adding new components in appropriate ACMS modules to provide new mission specific functionality, adding or modifying constraints or parameters to the existing components, or any combination of these. We describe the ACMS architecture, its main features, current development status and future plans for simulations in this report.

  10. Strategic Map for Achieving Enceladus Ocean Exploration in Our Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, B.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, the author presented a decomposition and sequencing of science questions and technical capabilities that define viable programmatic pathways to enable sample return and advanced in situ exploration of the Enceladan ocean, consistent with NASA mission-opportunity constraints. Elaborated and refined in 2015 via JpGU, AbSciCon, IAC, and COSPAR Water, this plan is now specific: discrete and integrated analyses and coordination actions that, if acted on by the community over the next 45 months, could result in Enceladus ocean exploration appearing in the next Planetary Decadal Survey's mission priorities, issued in 2021. At AGU 2015, a product-based, outcome-measurable, stepwise milestone plan is presented to catalyze the next level of community discussion. Topics covered by the action plan include: hypothesis-driven science questions; mission cost as a function of mission capability; mission selectability as a function of programmatic constraints and evaluation process; exploration technologies as a function of funding and schedule; international consensus on forward and backward planetary protection requirements and solutions for exploring worlds with astrobiologically significant liquid water; and strategic balance among major NASA planetary science initiatives. Key Decadal-runup milestones are analyzed with respect to stakeholders, success criteria, and - critically - calendar and precedence. These results then inform a multi-year action plan to generate, vet, and socialize throughout the community a set of technically and fiscally viable mission concepts, respectively enabled by an achievable technology development roadmap also detailed in the presentation. This can begin to align advocate actions toward a broad community goal of exploring the Enceladan ocean. Without such coordination, which must reach fruition by Sep 2019, the probability that the next Decadal could explicitly prioritize mission objectives for Enceladus ocean exploration - as one of

  11. A GNM mission and system design proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Here, the author takes an advocacy position for the proposed Mars Global Network Mission (GNM); it is not intended to be an objective review, although both pros and cons are presented in summary. The mission consists of launches from earth in the '96, '98, and '01 opportunities on Delta-class launch vehicles (approx. 1000 kg injected to Mars in 8 to 10 ft diameter shroud). The trans Mars boost stage injects a stack of small independent, aeroshelled spacecraft. The stack separates from the boost stage and each rigid (as opposed to deployable) aeroshell flies to Mars on its own, performing midcourse maneuvers as necessary. Each spacecraft flies a unique trajectory which is targeted to achieve approach atmospheric interface at the desired latitude and lighting conditions; arrival times may vary by a month or more. A direct entry is performed, there is no propulsive orbit capture. The aeroshelled rough-landers are targeted to achieve a desired attitude and entry flight path angle, and then follow a passive ballistic trajectory until terminal descent. Based on sensed acceleration (integrated to deduce altitude), the aft aeroshell skirt is jettisoned; a short later a supersonic parachute is deployed. The ballistic coefficient of the parachute is sized to achieve terminal velocity at about 8 km. However the parachute is not deployed until a few Km above the surface to minimize wind-induced drift. The nose cap descent imaging begins, a laser altimeter also measures true altitude. Based on range and range rate to the surface, the parachute is jettisoned and the lander uses descent engines to achieve touchdown velocity. A contact sensor shuts down the motors to avoid cratering, and the lander rough-lands at less than 5 m/sec. The remaining aeroshell and a deployable bladder attenuate landing loads and minimize the possibility of tip over. Science instruments are deployed and activated, and the network is established.

  12. Mission design of a Pioneer Jupiter Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L. D.; Nunamaker, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Mission analysis and design work performed in order to define a Pioneer mission to orbit Jupiter is described. This work arose from the interaction with a science advisory 'Mission Definition' team and led to the present mission concept. Building on the previous Jupiter Orbiter-Satellite Tour development at JPL a magnetospheric survey mission concept is developed. The geometric control of orbits which then provide extensive local time coverage of the Jovian system is analyzed and merged with the various science and program objectives. The result is a 'flower-orbit' mission design, yielding three large apoapse excursions at various local times and many interior orbits whose shape and orientation is under continual modification. This orbit design, together with a first orbit defined by delivery of an atmospheric probe, yields a mission of high scientific interest.

  13. Study of multiple asteroid flyby missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility, scientific objectives, mission profile characteristics, and implementation of an asteroid belt exploration mission by a spacecraft guided to intercept three or more asteroids at close range are discussed. A principal consideration in planning a multiasteroid mission is to cut cost by adapting an available and flight-proven spacecraft design such as Pioneer F and G, augmenting its propulsion and guidance capabilities and revising the scientific payload complement in accordance with required mission characteristics. Spacecraft modification necessary to meet the objectives and requirements of the mission were studied. A ground rule of the study was to hold design changes to a minimum and to utilize available technology as much as possible. However, with mission dates not projected before the end of this decade, a reasonable technology growth in payload instrument design and some subsystem components is anticipated that can be incorporated in the spacecraft adaptation.

  14. Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy (LAXS) mission concept study continues to evolve strongly following the merging of the LAXS mission with the Next Generation X-ray Observatory (NGXO, PI: Nick White) into the re-named High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission. HTXS retains key elements of the LAXS proposal, including the use of multiple satellites for risk-reduction and cost savings. A key achievement of the program has been the recommendation by the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEUS) (April 1997) for a new start for the HTXS mission in the 2000-2004 timeframe.

  15. Bepi-Colombo Mission to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Hajime; Maejima, Hironori

    2012-07-01

    BepiColombo has been defined as the ESA-JAXA joint mission to Mercury with the aim to understand the process of planetary formation and evolution in the hottest part of the proto-planetary nebula as well as to understand similarities and differences between the magnetospheres of the Mercury and the Earth. The baseline mission consists of two spacecraft: the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The two orbiters will be launched together on one Ariane5. JAXA is responsible for development and operation of MMO while ESA is responsible for development and operation of MPO and Mercury Transfer Module (MTM), launch, cruise phase operation, and Mercury orbit insertion. The main objectives of MPO are to study planet Mercury and planetary formation in the inner solar system. For this purpose, MPO is desgined as a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft and will be placed in a 400 km x 1500 km polar orbit. While the main objectives of MMO are to study Mercury's magnetic field and plasma environment around Mercury. For this purpose, MMO is designed as a spin-stabilized spacecraft and will be placed in a same orbital plane as MPO but has a 400 km x 12000 km. The orbital period of MMO and MPO is designed as 4:1 to achieve cross calibration and cooperative observations. System Critical Design Review (CDR) of MMO has been completed in November 2011 and System CDR for whole BepiColombo mission is scheduled in July 2012. Electrical Interface Check (EIC)/ Mechanical Interface Check (MIC) of MMO FM has been completed in January 2012. MMO Mechanical Test Model is transported to ESA/ESTEC to join Mercury Cruise System (MCS) level Mechianical Test which will be held in this year.

  16. The MARS pathfinder end-to-end information system: A pathfinder for the development of future NASA planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Richard A.; Kazz, Greg J.; Tai, Wallace S.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the Mars pathfinder is considered with emphasis on the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) development approach. The primary mission objective is to successfully develop and deliver a single flight system to the Martian surface, demonstrating entry, descent and landing. The EEIS is a set of functions distributed throughout the flight, ground and Mission Operation Systems (MOS) that inter-operate in order to control, collect, transport, process, store and analyze the uplink and downlink information flows of the mission. Coherence between the mission systems is achieved though the EEIS architecture. The key characteristics of the system are: a concurrent engineering approach for the development of flight, ground and mission operation systems; the fundamental EEIS architectural heuristics; a phased incremental EEIS development and test approach, and an EEIS design deploying flight, ground and MOS operability features, including integrated ground and flight based toolsets.

  17. A Look Inside the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammier, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Juno, the second mission within the New Frontiers Program, is a Jupiter polar orbiter mission designed to return high-priority science data that spans across multiple divisions within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Juno's science objectives, coupled with the natural constraints of a cost-capped, PI-led mission and the harsh environment of Jupiter, have led to a very unique mission and spacecraft design.

  18. Introductory remarks to the mission and system aspects session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefoy, Rene; Schuyer, M.

    1991-12-01

    A brief history of the measurement of Earth potential fields is presented. The scientific objectives of the Aristoteles mission are summarized. Cooperation between NASA and ESA in developing the Aristoteles mission constraints are presented in tabular form. Correspondence between major mission and technical constraints is discussed. Program status of the Aristoteles mission and the mission baseline are described. The planned configuration of the Aristoteles satellite is shown in diagrammatic form.

  19. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  20. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  1. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Amy Turner

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  2. Accessing Information on the Mars Exploration Rovers Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, J. D.; Schreiner, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    In January 2004, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission successfully deployed two robotic geologists - Spirit and Opportunity - to opposite sides of the red planet. Onboard each rover is an array of cameras and scientific instruments that send data back to Earth, where ground-based systems process and store the information. During the height of the mission, a team of about 250 scientists and engineers worked around the clock to analyze the collected data, determine a strategy and activities for the next day and then carefully compose the command sequences that would instruct the rovers in how to perform their tasks. The scientists and engineers had to work closely together to balance the science objectives with the engineering constraints so that the mission achieved its goals safely and quickly. To accomplish this coordinated effort, they adhered to a tightly orchestrated schedule of meetings and processes. To keep on time, it was critical that all team members were aware of what was happening, knew how much time they had to complete their tasks, and could easily access the information they need to do their jobs. Computer scientists and software engineers at NASA Ames Research Center worked closely with the mission managers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to create applications that support the mission. One such application, the Collaborative Information Portal (CIP), helps mission personnel perform their daily tasks, whether they work inside mission control or the science areas at JPL, or in their homes, schools, or offices. With a three-tiered, service-oriented architecture (SOA) - client, middleware, and data repository - built using Java and commercial software, CIP provides secure access to mission schedules and to data and images transmitted from the Mars rovers. This services-based approach proved highly effective for building distributed, flexible applications, and is forming the basis for the design of future mission software systems. Almost two

  3. Spacecraft attitude determination accuracy from mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasoveanu, D.; Hashmall, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes a compilation of attitude determination accuracies attained by a number of satellites supported by the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility. The compilation is designed to assist future mission planners in choosing and placing attitude hardware and selecting the attitude determination algorithms needed to achieve given accuracy requirements. The major goal of the compilation is to indicate realistic accuracies achievable using a given sensor complement based on mission experience. It is expected that the use of actual spacecraft experience will make the study especially useful for mission design. A general description of factors influencing spacecraft attitude accuracy is presented. These factors include determination algorithms, inertial reference unit characteristics, and error sources that can affect measurement accuracy. Possible techniques for mitigating errors are also included. Brief mission descriptions are presented with the attitude accuracies attained, grouped by the sensor pairs used in attitude determination. The accuracies for inactive missions represent a compendium of missions report results, and those for active missions represent measurements of attitude residuals. Both three-axis and spin stabilized missions are included. Special emphasis is given to high-accuracy sensor pairs, such as two fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and fine Sun sensor plus FHST. Brief descriptions of sensor design and mode of operation are included. Also included are brief mission descriptions and plots summarizing the attitude accuracy attained using various sensor complements.

  4. Human Mars Missions: Cost Driven Architecture Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates various methods of reducing the cost in space transportation systems for human Mars missions. The reference mission for this task is a mission currently under study at NASA. called the Mars Design Reference Mission, characterized by In-Situ propellant production at Mars. This study mainly consists of comparative evaluations to the reference mission with a view to selecting strategies that would reduce the cost of the Mars program as a whole. One of the objectives is to understand the implications of certain Mars architectures, mission modes, vehicle configurations, and potentials for vehicle reusability. The evaluations start with year 2011-2014 conjunction missions which were characterized by their abort-to-the-surface mission abort philosophy. Variations within this mission architecture, as well as outside the set to other architectures (not predicated on an abort to surface philosophy) were evaluated. Specific emphasis has been placed on identifying and assessing overall mission risk. Impacts that Mars mission vehicles might place upon the Space Station, if it were to be used as an assembly or operations base, were also discussed. Because of the short duration of this study only on a few propulsion elements were addressed (nuclear thermal, cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen, cryogenic oxygen-methane, and aerocapture). Primary ground rules and assumptions were taken from NASA material used in Marshall Space Flight Center's own assessment done in 1997.

  5. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  6. Planetary protection issues for sample return missions.

    PubMed

    DeVincenzi, D L; Klein, H P

    1989-01-01

    Sample return missions from a comet nucleus and the Mars surface are currently under study in the US, USSR, and by ESA. Guidance on Planetary Protection (PP) issues is needed by mission scientists and engineers for incorporation into various elements of mission design studies. Although COSPAR has promulgated international policy on PP for various classes of solar system exploration missions, the applicability of this policy to sample return missions, in particular, remains vague. In this paper, we propose a set of implementing procedures to maintain the scientific integrity of these samples. We also propose that these same procedures will automatically assure that COSPAR-derived PP guidelines are achieved. The recommendations discussed here are the first step toward development of official COSPAR implementation requirements for sample return missions. PMID:11537373

  7. (abstract) A Low-Cost Mission to 2060 Chiron Based on the Pluto Fast Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. A.; Salvo, C. G.; Wallace, R. A.; Weinstein, S. S.; Weissman, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Pluto Fast Flyby-based mission to Chiron described in this paper is a low cost, scientifically rewarding, focused mission in the outer solar system. The proposed mission will make a flyby of 2060 Chiron, an active 'comet' with over 10(sup 4) times the mass of Halley, and an eccentric, Saturn-crossing orbit which ranges from 8.5 to 19 AU. This mission concept achieves the flyby 4.2 years after launch on a direct trajectory from Earth, is independent of Jupiter launch windows, and fits within Discovery cost guidelines. This mission offers the scientific opportunity to examine a class of object left unsampled by the trail-blazing Mariners, Pioneers, Voyagers, and missions to Halley. Spacecraft reconnaissance of Chiron addresses unique objectives relating to cometary science, other small bodies, the structure of quasi-bound atmospheres on modest-sized bodies, and the origin of primitive bodies and the giant planets. Owing to Chiron's large size (180mission is likely to draw significant public interest. As described by COMPLEX, the SSEC, and later the SSES, flybys are the appropriate scale missions for initial reconnaissance missions. Carrying three sophisticated instruments, the proposed flyby will return critical data about Chiron's size, shape, polar obliquity, atmosphere, surface morphology, surface composition, internal structure, surface activity (including the nature of Chiron's outbursts), and origin. Engineering analysis indicates that the spacecraft is capable of navigating to and encountering Chiron at close approach distances of less than 5 000 km, well inside the 50 000 to 150 000 km coma, and perhaps within the collisional chemistry zone of the coma. The low cost of the proposed Chiron mission is based on the opportunity to use the planned Pluto Flyby spare spacecraft and a Proton Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) (the pluto spacecraft is being designed to be compatible with a Proton launch). Backup

  8. Integrated approach for contamination control and verification for the Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgeland, Randy J.; Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.

    1994-10-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope is the first spacecraft designed from its conception to allow for Scientific Instrument upgrading and subsystem maintenance by using the Shuttle. Regular and contingency servicing missions preserve and broaden the scientific objectives of the HST through on-orbit maintenance. To achieve mission success for the Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission, a contamination control methodology was developed and instituted by ensure that scientific instrument performance was not degraded or compromised during fabrication, build-up, ground integration and test activities, on-orbit servicing including Extravehicular Activities, or through on-orbit operational activities. The cleanliness methodology considered the effects of outgassing and surface contaminants on the degradation of the sensitive components. Through plans and procedures for handling sensitive components and the development of a detailed contamination budget extending from Goddard Space Flight Center processing through launch, the preservation of the science capabilities (as affected by contamination) was achieved.

  9. The HSCT mission analysis of waverider designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The grant provided partial support for an investigation of wave rider design and analysis with application to High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) vehicles. Proposed was the development of the necessary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools for the direct simulation of the waverider vehicles, the development of two new wave rider design methods that would provide computational speeds and design flexibilities never before achieved in wave rider design studies, and finally the selection of a candidate waverider-based vehicle and the evaluation of the chosen vehicle for a canonical HSCT mission scenario. This, the final report, reiterates the proposed project objectives in moderate detail, and it outlines the state of completion of each portion of the study, providing references to current and forthcoming publications that resulted from this work.

  10. 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission Design Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abilleira, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in the fall of 2011 with arrival at Mars occurring in the summer of 2012, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory will explore and assess whether Mars ever had conditions capable of supporting microbial life. In order to achieve its science objectives, the Mars Science Laboratory will be equipped with the most advanced suite of instruments ever sent to the surface of the Red Planet. Delivering the next mobile science laboratory safely to the surface of Mars has various key challenges derived from a strict set of requirements which include launch vehicle performance, spacecraft mass, communications coverage during Entry, Descent, and Landing, atmosphere-relative entry speeds, latitude accessibility, and dust storm season avoidance among others. The Mars Science Laboratory launch/arrival strategy selected after careful review satisfies all these mission requirements.

  11. NEOCam: The Near-Earth Object Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amy K.; NEOCam Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is a Discovery mission in Phase A study designed to carry out a large-scale survey of the inner solar system's minor planets. Its primary science objectives are to understand the origins of the solar system's small bodies and the processes that evolved them into their present state. The mission will also characterize the impact hazard from near-Earth objects as well as rare populations such as Earth Trojans and interior-to-Earth objects. In the process, NEOCam can identify targets for future robotic or human exploration. Using a 50 cm telescope operating in two infrared wavelengths (4-5.2 and 6-10 um), the mission is expected to detect and characterize close to 100,000 NEOs and thousands of comets. By achieving high survey completeness in the main belt down to kilometer-scale objects, NEOCam-derived size and albedo distributions can be directly compared to those of the NEOs. The hypotheses that small, dark NEOs and comets are preferentially disrupted at low perihelia can be tested by searching for correlations between size, orbital elements, and albedos. NEOCam's Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point halo orbit enables a large instantaneous field of regard with a view of low solar elongations, high data rates, and a cold thermal environment. Like its predecessor, WISE/NEOWISE, candidate minor planet detections will be rapidly disseminated to the community via the Minor Planet Center. NEOCam images, source databases, and tables of derived physical properties will be delivered to the community via NASA's Infrared Science Archive and PDS.

  12. Technology for Future Exoplanet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter; Devirian, Michael; van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A central theme in NASA's and ESA's vision for future missions is the search for habitable worlds and life beyond our Solar System. This presentation will review the current state of the art in planet-finding technology, with an emphasis on methods of starlight suppression. At optical wavelengths, Earth-like planets are about 10 billion times fainter than their host stars. Starlight suppression is therefore necessary to enable measurements of biosignatures in the atmospheres of faint Earth-like planets. Mission concepts based on coronagraph, starshade, and interferometers will be described along with their science objectives and technology requirements.

  13. Comet nucleus sample return mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A comet nucleus sample return mission in terms of its relevant science objectives, candidate mission concepts, key design/technology requirements, and programmatic issues is discussed. The primary objective was to collect a sample of undisturbed comet material from beneath the surface of an active comet and to preserve its chemical and, if possible, its physical integrity and return it to Earth in a minimally altered state. The secondary objectives are to: (1) characterize the comet to a level consistent with a rendezvous mission; (2) monitor the comet dynamics through perihelion and aphelion with a long lived lander; and (3) determine the subsurface properties of the nucleus in an area local to the sampled core. A set of candidate comets is discussed. The hazards which the spacecraft would encounter in the vicinity of the comet are also discussed. The encounter strategy, the sampling hardware, the thermal control of the pristine comet material during the return to Earth, and the flight performance of various spacecraft systems and the cost estimates of such a mission are presented.

  14. Space Interferometry Mission: Measuring the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, James; Dallas, Saterios; Laskin, Robert; Unwin, Stephen; Yu, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be the NASA Origins Program's first space based long baseline interferometric observatory. SIM will use a 10 m Michelson stellar interferometer to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute position measurements of stars down to 20th magnitude over its 5 yr. mission lifetime. SIM will also provide technology demonstrations of synthesis imaging and interferometric nulling. This paper describes the what, why and how of the SIM mission, including an overall mission and system description, science objectives, general description of how SIM makes its measurements, description of the design concepts now under consideration, operations concept, and supporting technology program.

  15. Achieving Results in MBA Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Rice University's Jones Graduate School of Management achieves their mission for the communication program. Discusses three keys to the success of the program: individual coaching, integrated team instruction, and constant assessment of the students and the program. Presents an overview of the program. (SG)

  16. Potential Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiments and Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction and use of resources on the Moon, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can potentially reduce the cost and risk of human lunar exploration while also increasing science achieved. By not having to bring all of the shielding and mission consumables from Earth and being able to make products on the Moon, missions may require less mass to accomplish the same objectives, carry more science equipment, go to more sites of exploration, and/or provide options to recover from failures not possible with delivery of spares and consumables from Earth alone. While lunar ISRU has significant potential for mass, cost, and risk reduction for human lunar missions, it has never been demonstrated before in space. To demonstrate that ISRU can meet mission needs and to increase confidence in incorporating ISRU capabilities into mission architectures, terrestrial laboratory and analog field testing along with robotic precursor missions are required. A stepwise approach with international collaboration is recommended. This paper will outline the role of ISRU in future lunar missions, and define the approach and possible experiments to increase confidence in ISRU applications for future human lunar exploration

  17. The Euclid mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe D.; Laureijs, René; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Lorenzo Alvarez, José; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Gaspar Venancio, Luis; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Bönke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jérôme; Berthé, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the scientific objectives. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. All sensor data are downlinked using K-band transmission and processed by a dedicated ground segment for science data processing. The Euclid data and catalogues will be made available to the public at the ESA Science Data Centre.

  18. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  19. The OHMIC Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R.; Burch, J. L.; Lotko, W.; Frey, H. U.; Chaston, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Observatory for Heteroscale Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (OHMIC) investigates the coupling of Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) focusing on the conversion of electromagnetic energy into particle energy in auroral acceleration regions. Energy conversion and acceleration are universal processes that are a critical part of MI coupling and govern the energy deposition into Earth's upper atmosphere. These same processes are known to occur in planetary magnetospheres and in the magnetized plasmas of stars. Energy conversion and acceleration in the auroral regions are known to occur on small spatial scales through dispersive Alfvén waves and nonlinear plasma structures such as double layers. OHMIC advances our understanding of MI coupling over previous missions using two spacecraft equipped with high-time resolution measurements of electron distributions, ion distributions, and vector electric and magnetic fields. One of the spacecraft will carry two high-time and high-spatial resolution imagers and a wide-angle imager in the far ultraviolet. The mission has two phases. The first phase investigates meridional phenomena by using the combination of two-point measurements and high-resolution to distinguishing spatial and temporal phenomena. The second phase investigates field-aligned phenomena with spacecraft separations between 10 and 1100 km. Primary science objectives include (1) determining how energy conversion and transport vary along the magnetic field, (2) determining how ionospheric outflow is mediated by ion heating, convection and field-aligned transport, and (3) determining how charged-particle acceleration and injection vary in time and space.

  20. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  1. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  2. OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, M. J.; Lauretta, D. S.; Team, O.

    2011-12-01

    OSIRIS-REx is an asteroid sample return mission to organic-rich asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36. The mission seeks to address deep questions: where did we come from; what is our destiny? Earth sterilized itself during its formation, yet here we are today. Where did the organics come from? To do so, we will return at least 60g of pristine, uncontaminated, organic-rich regolith for study on Earth by advanced analytical equipment. Because it is relatively easy for us to get the RQ36, it is relatively easy for it to get to us, making I the most potentially hazardous asteroid know to humanity with a 1:1800 probability of impacting the Earth in 2180. We will study the Yarkovsky effect, thermal forces that cause small objects to deviate from keplerian orbits, with the goal of understanding how to mitigate against a civilization-ending or species-ending impact catastrophe. The mission launches in September, 2016, arrives at RQ36 in November of 2019, and spends about a year conducting detailed studies of RQ36 in order to select the best sampling site. Sampling is achieved by approaching the surface ay 10 cm/sec and agitating the regolith with nitrogen gas on contact. The agitated regolith is collected in a sample head, which is stowed in the Sample return capsule for return to Earth at the UTTR Test range in Utah in September 2023. Two years of funded studies are carried out by the U.S. and world community before end of mission in 2025, after which samples will still be available through the NASA-JSC Curation Facility. OSIRIS-REx will return samples never before available for study on Earth, probably using some instruments yet to be invented. In addition, OSIRIS-REx will provide "ground truth" for telescope observations of airless bodies by returning a pristine sample of the surface of RQ36. OSIRIS-REx will evaluate resources available to future human missions, both materials and technologies such as proximity operations. And we will learn how to mitigate against impact

  3. First Results of the SMOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Yann; Font, Jordi; Neira, Manuel Martin; Delwart, Steven; Hahne, Achim; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Bermudo, François

    2010-05-01

    It is now well understood that soil moisture and sea surface salinity are required to improve meteorological and climatic predictions. These two quantities were not available globally and with an adequate temporal sampling. So as to cover this data gap, it has been recognized that, provided it is possible to accommodate a suitable antenna on board a satellite, L Band radiometry was most probably the most promising way to fulfill this gap. It is within this framework that the European Space Agency (ESA)'s selected the second Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission, namely the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. SMOS, launched successfully in November 2009. The SMOS mission is ESA's second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission it is a joint program lead by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent. Consequently, the instrument probes the Earth surface emissivity. Surface emissivity can then be related to the moisture content in the first few centimeters of soil over land, and, after some surface roughness and temperature corrections, spatio temporal aggregation, to the sea surface salinity over oceans. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) seeking to meet soil moisture science objectives. Such innovative concept has required a significant effort in the development of calibration techniques. It provides multiangular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days to retrieve soil moisture and ocean salinity, but with a somewhat reduced sensitivity when compared to conventional radiometers. SMOS as been now

  4. Spacelab 3 Mission Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, George H. (Editor); Theon, John S. (Editor); Hill, Charles K. (Editor); Vaughan, Otha H. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Papers and abstracts of the presentations made at the symposium are given as the scientific report for the Spacelab 3 mission. Spacelab 3, the second flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) orbital laboratory, signified a new era of research in space. The primary objective of the mission was to conduct applications, science, and technology experiments requiring the low-gravity environment of Earth orbit and stable vehicle attitude over an extended period (e.g., 6 days) with emphasis on materials processing. The mission was launched on April 29, 1985, aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger which landed a week later on May 6. The multidisciplinary payload included 15 investigations in five scientific fields: material science, fluid dynamics, life sciences, astrophysics, and atmospheric science.

  5. Deep Space 1 Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, D. H.

    1999-09-01

    Deep Space 1 (DS1), launched on October 24, 1998, is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium program. This program is chartered to flight validate high-risk, advanced technologies important for future space and Earth science programs. Twelve advanced technologies were chosen for validation on DS1. These include solar electric propulsion, high-power solar concentrator arrays, autonomous on-board optical navigation, two low-mass science instrument packages, and several telecommunications and microelectronics devices. The encounter of the DS1 spacecraft with the asteroid Braille on July 29,1999 represented the conclusion of the technology validation phase of the mission and the first encounter of the spacecraft with a deep space target. The validation of technologies has been completed. The presentation will describe the mission, science and technology objectives and results to date, and future plans for the project.

  6. The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.

  7. Agile: From Software to Mission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Shirley, Mark H.; Hobart, Sarah Groves

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission, designed to search for volatiles at the Lunar South Pole. This is NASA's first near real time tele-operated rover on the Moon. The primary objective is to search for volatiles at one of the Lunar Poles. The combination of short mission duration, a solar powered rover, and the requirement to explore shadowed regions makes for an operationally challenging mission. To maximize efficiency and flexibility in Mission System design and thus to improve the performance and reliability of the resulting Mission System, we are tailoring Agile principles that we have used effectively in ground data system software development and applying those principles to the design of elements of the mission operations system.

  8. Overview of the Cassini Extended Mission Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, Brent; Strange, Nathan; Smith, John

    2008-01-01

    Due to the highly successful execution of the Cassini-Huygens prime mission and the estimated propellant remaining at the conclusion of the prime mission, NASA Headquarters allocated funding for the development of a 2-year long Cassini extended mission. The resultant extended mission, stemming from 1.5 years of development, includes an additional 26 targeted Titan flybys, 9 close flybys of icy satellites, and 60 orbits about Saturn. This paper describes, in detail, the different phases of the Cassini extended mission and the associated design methodology, which attempted to maximize the number and quality of high-priority scientific objectives while minimizing the total delta v expenditure and adhering to mission-imposed constraints.

  9. Architecting a mission plan for Lunar Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridenoure, Rex W.

    1991-01-01

    The present status of NASA's Lunar Observer study effort at JPL is discussed in the context of an ongoing 20-year series of studies focused on defining a robotic, low-altitude, polar-orbiting mission to the moon. The primary emphasis of the discussion is a review of the various systems-level factors that drive the overall architecture of the mission plan. Selected top-level project and science requirements are summarized and the current mission and science objectives are presented. A brief description of the candidate science instrument complement is included. Several significant orbital effects caused by the lunar gravity field are explained and the variety of trajectory and maneuver options considered for both getting to the moon and orbiting there are described. Several candidate mission architectures are outlined and the mission plans chosen for future study are described. Two mission options result: a single-spacecraft, single-launch scenario, and a multiple-spacecraft, multiple-launch concept.

  10. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  11. Interplanetary Laser Ranging. Analysis for Implementation in Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkx, Dominic

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of the motion of natural (and artificial) bodies in the solar system provide key input on their interior structre and properties. Currently, the most accurate measurements of solar system dynamics are performed using radiometric tracking systems on planetary missions, providing range measurement with an accuracy in the order of 1 m. Laser ranging to Earth-orbiting satellites equipped with laser retroreflectors provides range data with (sub-)cm accuracy. Extending this technology to planetary missions, however, requires the use of an active space segment equipped with a laser detector and transmitter (for a two-way system). The feasibility of such measurements have been demonstrated at planetary distances, and used operationally (with a one-way system) for the Lunar Reconaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. The topic of this dissertation is the analysis of the application of interplanetary laser ranging (ILR) to improve the science return from next-generation space missions, with a focus on planetary science objectives. We have simulated laser ranging data for a variety of mission and system architectures, analyzing the influence of both model and measurement uncertainties. Our simulations show that the single-shot measurement precision is relatively inconsequential compared to the systematic range errors, providing a strong rationale for the consistent use of single-photon signal-intensity operation. We find that great advances in planetary geodesy (tidal, rotational characteristics, etc.) could be achieved by ILR. However, the laser data should be accompanied by commensurate improvements in other measurements and data analysis models to maximize the system's science return. The science return from laser ranging data will be especially strong for planetary landers, with a radio system remaining the preferred choice for many orbiter missions. Furthermore, we conclude that the science case for a one-way laser ranging is relatively weak compared to next

  12. Present and future Solar System missions in the framework of the ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The Science Directorate is in charge of developing the "Science Mandatory Programme". Through the science programme, ESA implements scientific projects to achieve ambitious objectives. On this ground, science challenges and advancement in technologies work together in a synergistic endeavour. Both long-term science planning and mission calls are bottom-up processes, relying on broad community input and peer review. The Cosmic Vision program is since 2005 the implementation tool for the science mandatory programme. I will present an overview of the space missions in operation, under development and for study with particular emphasis on those visiting the Solar System.

  13. Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office Status and Support Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest; Webb, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office (CxP MOP) at Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas is preparing to support the CxP mission operations objectives for the CEV/Orion flights, the Lunar Lander, and and Lunar surface operations. Initially the CEV will provide access to the International Space Station, then progress to the Lunar missions. Initial CEV mission operations support will be conceptually similar to the Apollo missions, and we have set a challenge to support the CEV mission with 50% of the mission operations support currently required for Shuttle missions. Therefore, we are assessing more efficient way to organize the support and new technologies which will enhance our operations support. This paper will address the status of our preparation for these CxP missions, our philosophical approach to CxP operations support, and some of the technologies we are assessing to streamline our mission operations infrastructure.

  14. Toward a new satellite gravimetric mission: opportunities and scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancale, Richard; Seoane, Lucia; Gegout, Pascal; Ramillien, Guillaume; Bruinsma, Sean

    Based on the CNES concept of "MIni-Constellation of Research Orbiters for Mapping the Earth Gravity Anomalies" (MICROMEGA) we have refined simulation scenarios in order to meet the requirements of the E.motion project, a proposal for ESA's Earth Explorer-8 mission. Mainly in view of hydrological applications, the foremost objective of next GRACE-like missions is to provide higher spatial resolution but without loss of precision. That is why we aspire a precision of 1 cm at 200 km resolution (spherical harmonic degree 100). This requires the development of a satellite-to-satellite laser link with sub micrometric precision -which should be technologically mature -coupled with optimal orbit and measurement scenarios. This presentation aims to describe the different numerical simulations achieved in this context and to give an optimal realistic configuration.

  15. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Ennico, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology Space InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) Where do we come from? and (2) Are we alone? as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to: (1) Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions, and the young stellar/planetary systems that form in them; (2) Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows; (3) Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids, comets, and the planets and their satellites; (4) Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution , abundance, and change with environment; (5) Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type; and (6) Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes. The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and adds tasks that (7) Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry; and (8) Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20(40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution (R>2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution (R>25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in

  16. STS-73 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The crew patch of STS-73, the second flight of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2), depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia in the vastness of space. In the foreground are the classic regular polyhedrons that were investigated by Plato and later Euclid. The Pythagoreans were also fascinated by the symmetrical three-dimensional objects whose sides are the same regular polygon. The tetrahedron, the cube, the octahedron, and the icosahedron were each associated with the Natural Elements of that time: fire (on this mission represented as combustion science); Earth (crystallography), air and water (fluid physics). An additional icon shown as the infinity symbol was added to further convey the discipline of fluid mechanics. The shape of the emblem represents a fifth polyhedron, a dodecahedron, which the Pythagoreans thought corresponded to a fifth element that represented the cosmos.

  17. Objectives and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain a

  18. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  19. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Menard, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently approaching the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products to the Swarm user community. The setup of Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on the Swarm mission can be found at the mission web site (see URL below).

  20. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Mission of Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendreau, Keith

    2014-08-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is an X-ray astrophysics mission of opportunity (MoO) that will reveal the inner workings of neutron stars, cosmic lighthouses that embody unique gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments. NICER achieves this objective by deploying a high-heritage instrument as an attached payload on a zenith-side ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). NICER offers order-of-magnitude improvements in time-coherent sensitivity and timing resolution beyond the capabilities of any X-ray observatory flown to date.Through a cost-sharing opportunity between the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) NICER will also demonstrate how neutron stars can serve as deep-space navigation beacons to guide humankind out of Earth orbit, to destinations throughout the Solar System and beyond.I will overview the NICER mission, discuss our experience working with the ISS, and describe the process of forging a partnership between SMD and STMD.

  1. Sensor assignment to mission in AI-TECD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganger, Robert; de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien; Rudnicki, Ronald; Schreiber, Yonatan

    2016-05-01

    Sensor-mission assignment involves the allocation of sensors and other information-providing resources to missions in order to cover the information needs of the individual tasks within each mission. The importance of efficient and effective means to find appropriate resources for tasks is exacerbated in the coalition context where the operational environment is dynamic and a multitude of critically important tasks need to achieve their collective goals to meet the objectives of the coalition. The Sensor Assignment to Mission (SAM) framework—a research product of the International Technology Alliance in Network and Information Sciences (NIS-ITA) program—provided the first knowledge intensive resource selection approach for the sensor network domain so that contextual information could be used to effectively select resources for tasks in coalition environments. Recently, CUBRC, Inc. was tasked with operationalizing the SAM framework through the use of the I2WD Common Core Ontologies for the Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) sponsored Actionable Intelligence Technology Enabled Capabilities Demonstration (AI-TECD). The demonstration event took place at Fort Dix, New Jersey during July 2015, and this paper discusses the integration and the successful demonstration of the SAM framework within the AI-TECD, lessons learned, and its potential impact in future operations.

  2. Kepler Mission to Detect Earth-like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji

    2003-01-01

    Kepler Mission to detect Earth-like planets in our Milky Way galaxy was approved by NASA in December 2001 for a 4-5 year mission. The launch is planned in about 5 years. The Kepler observatory will be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit. The unique feature of the Kepler Mission is its ability to detect Earth-like planets orbiting around solar-type stars at a distance similar to that of Earth (from our Sun); such an orbit could provide an environment suitable for supporting life as we know it. The Kepler observatory accomplishes this feat by looking for the transits of planetary object in front of their suns; Kepler has a photometric precision of 10E-5 (0.00001) to achieve such detections. Other ongoing planetary detection programs (based mostly on a technique that looks for the shifting of spectral lines of the primary star due to its planetary companions' motions around it) have detected massive planets (with masses in the range of Jupiter); such massive planets are not considered suitable for supporting life. If our current theories for the formation of planetary systems are valid, we expect to detect about 50 Earth-like planets during Kepler's 4-year mission (assuming a random distribution of the planetary orbital inclinations with respect to the line of sight from Kepler). The number of detection will increase about 640 planets if the planets to be detected are Jupiter-sized.

  3. Kepler Mission to Detect Earth-like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji

    2002-01-01

    Kepler Mission to detect Earth-like planets in our Milky Way galaxy was approved by NASA in December 2001 for a 4-5 year mission. The launch is planned in about 5 years. The Kepler observatory will be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit. The unique feature of the Kepler Mission is its ability to detect Earth-like planets orbiting around solar-type stars at a distance similar to that of Earth (from our Sun); such an orbit could provide an environment suitable for supporting life as we know it. The Kepler observatory accomplishes this feat by looking for the transits of planetary object in front of their suns; Kepler has a photometric precision of 10E-5 (0.00001) to achieve such detections. Other ongoing planetary detection programs (based mostly on a technique that looks for the shifting of spectral lines of the primary star due to its planetary companions' motions around it) have detected massive planets (with masses in the range of Jupiter); such massive planets are not considered suitable for supporting life. If our current theories for the formation of planetary systems are valid, we expect to detect about 50 Earth-like planets during Kepler's 4-year mission (assuming a random distribution of the planetary orbital inclinations with respect to the line of sight from Kepler). The number of detection will increase about 640 planets if the planets to be detected are Jupiter-sized.

  4. The Living With a Star (LWS) Sentinels Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Sentinels Mission, the heliospheric element of the NASA Living With a Star (LWS) program, is still rapidly evolving, especially as the Sentinels Science and Technology Definition Team is progressing with its work. With the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the solar component, and the Geospace elements taking a more finalized form, it becomes clearer what scientific and measurement objectives will be necessary to establish the solar-geospace connection in order to achieve the goals of the LWS program. Possible, early formulation designs of the Sentinels mission will be presented that includes the Inner Heliospheric Mappers, a four spacecraft mission to observe the inner heliosphere between 0.25 and 1.0 AUs along with a Far Side Sentinel that will perform remote solar observations from nearly the opposite side of the Sun. Moreover, the complementarity of the various planned international missions (e.g., ESA Solar Orbiter, and Beppi Colombo) along with NASA planetary projects (e.g., Mars program and MESSENGER) will be discussed and how they can form a coherent system. Finally, the importance of already available heliospheric data will be emphasized.

  5. The Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging

  6. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  7. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  8. Editing the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Fogg, Piper

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the decision by Columbia University's new president to reevaluate the mission of its journalism school before naming a new dean, in order to explore how the journalism school fits into the mission of a research university. (EV)

  9. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  10. Ultra Stable Microwave Radiometers for Future Sea Surface Salinity Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science System Pathfinder (ESSP) mission Aquarius will measure global sea surface salinity with 100-km spatial resolution every 8 days with an average monthly salinity accuracy of 0.2 psu (parts per thousand). This requires an L-band low-noise radiometer with the long-term calibration stability of less than 0.1 K over 8 days. This three-year research program on ultra stable radiometers has addressed the radiometer requirements and configuration necessary to achieve this objective for Aquarius and future ocean salinity missions. The system configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer testbeds at both JPL and GSFC. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature, a procedure for the measurement and correction for radiometer system non-linearity, noise diode calibration versus temperature, low noise amplifier performance over voltage, and temperature control requirements to achieve the required stability. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability. This report also presents the results of the radiometer test program, a detailed radiometer noise model, and details of the operational switching sequence optimization that can be used to achieve the low noise and stability requirements. Many of the results of this research have been incorporated into the Aquarius radiometer design and will allow this instrument to achieve its goals.

  11. Threads of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  12. Flora: A Proposed Hyperspectral Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Stephen; Asner, Gregory; Green, Robert; Knox, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ) designed to effectively reduce the volume of data required to be transmitted down to the ground. This paper discusses mission science objectives, describes the mission concept and presents the current status of possible funding opportunities leading to realization of the mission.

  13. Overview of EXIST mission science and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, J.; Gehrels, N.; Bloom, J.; Coppi, P.; Soderberg, Al.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Moseley, H.; Kutyrev, A.; Fabbiano, G.; Fishman, G.; Ramsey, B.; Della Ceca, R.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P., III

    2010-07-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is designed to i) use the birth of stellar mass black holes, as revealed by cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), as probes of the very first stars and galaxies to exist in the Universe. Both their extreme luminosity (~104 times larger than the most luminous quasars) and their hard X-ray detectability over the full sky with wide-field imaging make them ideal "back-lights" to measure cosmic structure with X-ray, optical and near-IR (nIR) spectra over many sight lines to high redshift. The full-sky imaging detection and rapid followup narrowfield imaging and spectroscopy allow two additional primary science objectives: ii) novel surveys of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) accreting as very luminous but rare quasars, which can trace the birth and growth of the first SMBHs as well as quiescent SMBHs (non-accreting) which reveal their presence by X-ray flares from the tidal disruption of passing field stars; and iii) a multiwavelength Time Domain Astrophysics (TDA) survey to measure the temporal variability and physics of a wide range of objects, from birth to death of stars and from the thermal to non-thermal Universe. These science objectives are achieved with the telescopes and mission as proposed for EXIST described here.

  14. ORION: A Supersynchronous Transfer Orbit mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, I. M.; Baker, J. F.; Shurmer, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    ORION F1 was launched on 29th November 1994 on an Atlas IIA launch vehicle. It was designed, built and delivered in-orbit by Matra Marconi Space Systems Plc and was handed over to ORION Satellite Corporation on 20th January 1995 at its on-station longitude of 37.5 deg W. The mission differed significantly from that of any other geostationary communications satellite in that the Transfer Orbit apogee altitude of 123,507 km was over three times geosynchronous (GEO) altitude and one third of the way to the moon. The SuperSynchronous Transfer Orbit (SSTO) mission is significantly different from the standard Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO)mission in a number of ways. This paper discusses the essential features of the mission design through its evolution since 1987 and the details of the highly successful mission itself including a detailed account of the attitude determination achieved using the Galileo Earth and Sun Sensor (ESS).

  15. The Keys to Successful Extended Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, David A.; Manor-Chapman, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Many of NASA's successful missions of robotic exploration have gone on to highly productive mission extensions, from Voyager, Magellan, Ulysses, and Galileo, to the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, a variety of Mars orbiters, Spitzer, Deep Impact / EPOXI, and Cassini. These missions delivered not only a high science return during their prime science phase, but a wealth of opportunities during their extensions at a low incremental cost to the program. The success of such mission extensions can be traced to demonstration of new and unique science achievable during the extension; reduction in cost without significant increase in risk to spacecraft health; close inclusion of the science community and approval authorities in planning; intelligent design during the development and prime operations phase; and well crafted and conveyed extension proposals. This paper discusses lessons learned collected from a variety of project leaders which can be applied by current and future missions to maximize their chances of approval and success.

  16. Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, John W.; Vondrak, Richard; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Gavin, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, this phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009, completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission is scheduled for 2 years and will be completed in 2012 with an opportunity for an extended mission beyond 2012. Under SMD, the mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having marked the two year anniversary will review here the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including a proposed 2-year extended mission. These objectives include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5) measuring the Lunar atmosphere and radiation environment.

  17. The Discovery of Transient Phenomena by NASA's K2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón, Knicole D.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA K2 space mission is photometrically monitoring fields along the ecliptic to achieve a variety of science goals. These goals involve time variable observations of Solar System objects, extrasolar planets, star clusters, supernovae, and more. Because K2 observes each of its fields for just ~80 days, it has a finite baseline over which to acquire observations of photometrically varying astrophysical objects. Thanks to their extended baseline of observations, wide-field ground-based photometric and spectroscopic surveys that have been monitoring the sky for years can provide robust constraints on transiting planets, supernova events, or other transient phenomena that have been newly identified in K2 data. I will discuss the opportunities for synergistic activities between the K2 space mission and such long-running ground-based surveys as HATNet, KELT, SuperWASP, and APOGEE that will maximize the scientific output from these surveys. In particular, I will present results from a search for transient phenomena in K2 data and will use ground-based survey data to aid the characterization of these phenomena. Examples of these phenomena include single planetary transit events and stars with long-duration dimmings caused by an eclipse of a protoplanetary disk. I will also discuss the benefits that upcoming surveys like the NASA Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will gain from long-term ground-based surveys.

  18. STARS MDT-II targets mission

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.; White, J.E.

    1997-08-01

    The Strategic Target System (STARS) was launched successfully on August 31, 1996 from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF) at the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF). The STARS II booster delivered a payload complement of 26 vehicles atop a post boost vehicle. These targets were designed and the mission planning was achieved to provide for a dedicated mission for view by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Satellite Sensor Suite. Along with the MSX Satellite, other corollary sensors were involved. Included in these were the Airborne Surveillance Test Bed (AST) aircraft, the Cobra Judy sea based radar platform, Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR), and the Kiernan Reentry Measurements Site (KREMS). The launch was a huge success from all aspects. The STARS Booster flew a perfect mission from hardware, software and mission planning respects. The payload complement achieved its desired goals. All sensors (space, air, ship, and ground) attained excellent coverage and data recording.

  19. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate

    2014-05-01

    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  20. An Empirical Model for Formulating Operational Missions for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.; Doucette, Donald S.

    A research project was conducted to develop and implement a model for community college missions. The new model would depart from existing models, which utilize a hierarchy of decreasing levels of generality beginning with institutional missions and culminating in objectives. In contrast, this research defined institutional mission in terms of…

  1. Deep space 1 mission and observation of comet Borrellly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.; Weidner, R.J.; Soderblom, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA's new millennium program (NMP) focuses on testing high-risk, advanced technologies in space with low-cost flights. The objective of the NMP technology validation missions is to enable future science missions. The NMP missions are technology-driven, with the principal requirements coming from the needs of the advanced technologies that form the 'payload'.

  2. Mars landing exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Megumi

    1991-07-01

    The overall concept for Mars observation missions and the systems to implement the missions are reviewed. Reviews are conducted on the following items: (1) profiles of the candidate missions; (2) aerodynamic capture deceleration estimates; (3) prospective Mars orbit decisions; (4) landing methods as the prerequisites for mission accomplishment; and (5) explorer systems to accomplish the missions. The major processes involved in the mission, from the launch to the beginning of observation of the surface, are outlined. Reviews of possible orbits taken by the explorer from Mars transfer orbit (Hohmann orbit) to Mars revolving orbit are presented. Additionally, the possible orbits for the landing vehicle from departing from the revolving orbit through landing are presented. Transportation and landing module design concepts concerning the structure, weight, and electric power balances of the explorer system are presented. Critical Mars mission technologies are cited as follows: (1) inter-planet navigation; (2) aerodynamic capture; (3) automatic and autonomous operation; and (4) landing technology.

  3. The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Mission Applications Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, David M.; Winski, Richard; Shidner, Jeremy; Zumwalt, Carlie; Johnston, Christopher O.; Komar, D. R.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the HIAD Mission Applications Study is to quantify the benefits of HIAD infusion to the concept of operations of high priority exploration missions. Results of the study will identify the range of mission concepts ideally suited to HIADs and provide mission-pull to associated technology development programs while further advancing operational concepts associated with HIAD technology. A summary of Year 1 modeling and analysis results is presented covering missions focusing on Earth and Mars-based applications. Recommended HIAD scales are presented for near term and future mission opportunities and the associated environments (heating and structural loads) are described.

  4. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  5. Simulation of Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  6. Analogue Missions on Earth, a New Approach to Prepare Future Missions on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    well as using analogue missions to meet agency programmatic needs, the Canadian Space Agency encourages scientists and engineers to make use of opportunities presented by analogue missions to further their own research objectives. Specific objectives of Analogue Missions are to (1) foster a multidisciplinary approach to planning, data acquisition, processing and interpretation, calibration of instruments, and telemetry during mission operations; (2) integrate new science with emerging technologies; and (3) develop an expertise on exploration architecture design from projects carried out at terrestrial analogue sites. Within Analogue Missions, teams develop planning tools, use mission-specific software and technology, and communicate results as well as lessons learned during tactical operations. The expertise gained through Analogue Missions will contribute to inform on all aspects of exploration architectures, including planetary mobility requirements and astronaut training.

  7. Potential Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiments and Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction and use of resources on the Moon, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can potentially reduce the cost and risk of human lunar exploration while also increasing science achieved. By not having to bring all of the shielding and mission consumables from Earth and being able to make products on the Moon, missions may require less mass to accomplish the same objectives, carry more science equipment, go to more sites of exploration, and/or provide options to recover from failures not possible with delivery of spares and consumables from Earth alone. The concept of lunar ISRU has been considered and studied for decades, and scientists and engineers were theorizing and even testing concepts for how to extract oxygen from lunar soil even before the Apollo 11 mission to the Moon. There are four main areas where ISRU can significantly impact how human missions to the Moon will be performed: mission consumable production, civil engineering and construction, energy production, storage, and transfer, and manufacturing and repair. The area that has the greatest impact on mission mass, hardware design and selection, and mission architecture is mission consumable production, in particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, and fuel cell reagents. Mission consumable production allows for refueling and reuse of spacecraft, increasing power production and storage, and increased capabilities and failure tolerance for crew life support. The other three areas allow for decreased mission risk due to radiation and plume damage, alternative power systems, and failure recover capabilities while also enabling infrastructure growth over Earth delivered assets. However, while lunar ISRU has significant potential for mass, cost, and risk reduction for human lunar missions, it has never been demonstrated before in space. To demonstrate that ISRU can meet mission needs and to increase confidence in incorporating ISRU capabilities into mission

  8. STS-34: Mission Overview Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Live footage shows Milt Heflin, the Lead Flight Director participating in the STS-34 Mission Briefing. He addresses the primary objective, and answered questions from the audience and other NASA Centers. Heflin also mentions the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet secondary payload, and several experiments. These experiments include Growth Hormone Crystal Distribution (Plants), Polymer Morphology, Sensor Technology Experiment, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment, Shuttle Student Involvement Program "Ice Crystals", and the Air Force Maui Optical Site.

  9. Phobos Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  10. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew P.

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, one of the first Discovery-class missions (quick, low-cost projects with focused science objectives), will land a single spacecraft with a microrover and several instruments on the surface of Mars in 1997. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, carrying a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. In addition to the rover, which also performs a number of technology experiments, Pathfinder carries three science instruments: a stereoscopic imager with spectral filters on an extendable mast, an alpha proton X ray spectrometer, and an atmospheric structure instrument/meteorology package. The instruments, the rover technology experiments, and the telemetry system will allow investigations of the surface morphology and geology at submeter to a hundred meters scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations, and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis at 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products, and tile early environments and conditions on Mars.

  11. A magnetic shield/dual purpose mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Seth; Albertelli, Jamil; Copeland, R. Braden; Correll, Eric; Dales, Chris; Davis, Dana; Davis, Nechole; Duck, Rob; Feaster, Sandi; Grant, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to design, build, and fly a dual-purpose payload whose function is to produce a large volume, low intensity magnetic field and to test the concept of using such a magnetic field to protect manned spacecraft against particle radiation. An additional mission objective is to study the effect of this moving field on upper atmosphere plasmas. Both mission objectives appear to be capable of being tested using the same superconducting coil. The potential benefits of this magnetic shield concept apply directly to both earth-orbital and interplanetary missions. This payload would be a first step in assessing the true potential of large volume magnetic fields in the U.S. space program. Either converted launch systems or piggyback payload opportunities may be appropriate for this mission. The use of superconducting coils for magnetic shielding against solar flare radiation during manned interplanetary missions has long been contemplated and was considered in detail in the years preceding the Apollo mission. With the advent of new superconductors, it has now become realistic to reconsider this concept for a Mars mission. Even in near-earth orbits, large volume magnetic fields produced using conventional metallic superconductors allow novel plasma physics experiments to be contemplated. Both deployed field-coil and non-deployed field-coil shielding arrangements have been investigated, with the latter being most suitable for an initial test payload in a polar orbit.

  12. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.

    2013-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

  13. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.

    2012-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given.

  14. Castalia - A Mission to a Main Belt Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Main Belt Comets (MBCs), or Active Asteroids, constitute a newly identified class of solar system objects. They have stable, asteroid-like orbits and some exhibit a recurrent comet-like appearance. It is believed that they survived the age of the solar system in a dormant state and that their current ice sublimation driven activity only began recently. Buried water ice is the only volatile expected to survive under an insulating surface. Excavation by an impact can expose the ice and trigger the start of MBC activity. We present the case for a mission to one of these objects, to be submitted to the European Space Agency's current call for an M-class mission. The specific science goals of the Castalia mission are: 1. Characterize a new Solar System family, the MBCs, by in-situ investigation 2. Understand the physics of activity on MBCs 3. Directly sample water in the asteroid belt and test if MBCs are a viable source for Earth's water 4. Use the observed structure of an MBC as a tracer of planetary system formation and evolution. These goals can be achieved by a spacecraft designed to rendezvous with and orbit an MBC for a time interval of some months, arriving before the active period for mapping and then sampling the gas and dust released during the active phase. Given the low level of activity of MBCs, and the expectation that their activity comes from only a localized patch on the surface, the orbiting spacecraft will have to be able to maintain a very close orbit over extended periods - the Castalia plan envisages an orbiter capable of 'hovering' autonomously at distances of only a few km from the surface of the MBC. The strawman payload comprises a Visible and near-infrared spectral imager, Thermal infrared imager, Radio science, Subsurface radar, Dust impact detector, Dust composition analyser, Neutral/ion mass spectrometer, Magnetometer, and Plasma package. In addition to this, a surface science package is being considered. At the moment, MBC 133P

  15. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  16. Piloted Mars mission planning: NEP technology and power levels

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.A.; Hack, K.J.; Dudzinski, L.A.; Gefert, L.P. ); Gilland, J.H. )

    1993-01-10

    This paper examines the strong interrelationship between assumed technology and mission performance requirements for NEP. Recent systems analysis efforts by NASA, DOE, and various contractors are used to project achievable system performance as a function of technological sophistication for two piloted Mars mission applications. Specific mass regimes for each collection of technologies are presented as a function of power level for piloted applications. Low thrust mission analyses are presented which relate these system performance projections to achievable mission performance. Mission performance maps'' are constructed which link prime mission figures-of-merit of time and initial mass with system requirements on power level and specific mass, and hence technology. Both opposition and conjunction class piloted Mars missions are presented for the 2016 opportunity, analogous to those proposed in the 90-Day Study'' and Synthesis'' architecture studies. Mass and time breakdowns are presented for 10 MWe piloted and 5 MWe cargo point designs.

  17. Class D Management Implementation Approach of the First Orbital Mission of the Earth Venture Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, James E.; Scherrer, John; Law, Richard; Bonniksen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A key element of the National Research Council's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey called for the creation of the Venture Class line of low-cost research and application missions within NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). One key component of the architecture chosen by NASA within the Earth Venture line is a series of self-contained stand-alone spaceflight science missions called "EV-Mission". The first mission chosen for this competitively selected, cost and schedule capped, Principal Investigator-led opportunity is the CYclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS). As specified in the defining Announcement of Opportunity, the Principal Investigator is held responsible for successfully achieving the science objectives of the selected mission and the management approach that he/she chooses to obtain those results has a significant amount of freedom as long as it meets the intent of key NASA guidance like NPR 7120.5 and 7123. CYGNSS is classified under NPR 7120.5E guidance as a Category 3 (low priority, low cost) mission and carries a Class D risk classification (low priority, high risk) per NPR 8705.4. As defined in the NPR guidance, Class D risk classification allows for a relatively broad range of implementation strategies. The management approach that will be utilized on CYGNSS is a streamlined implementation that starts with a higher risk tolerance posture at NASA and that philosophy flows all the way down to the individual part level.

  18. Feasibility and Definition of a Limited-Scale Lunar Polar Volatiles Prospecting Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Beyer, R. A.; Fong, T.; Cockrell, J.; Pedersen, L.

    2011-12-01

    The recent Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission has provided evidence for significant amounts of cold-trapped volatiles in Cabeus crater near the Moon's south pole. Moreover, LRO/Diviner measurements of extremely cold lunar polar surface temperatures imply that volatiles can be stable outside of areas of strict permanent shadow. These discoveries hint at potentially extensive near-surface deposits at both lunar poles. The physical state, composition and distribution of these volatiles are key scientific issues that relate to source and emplacement mechanisms. These issues are also important for enabling lunar in situ resource utilization (ISRU). An assessment of the feasibility of cold-trapped volatile ISRU requires a priori information regarding the location, form, quantity, and potential for extraction of available resources. A small robotic mission to a persistently shadowed but briefly sunlit location with suitable environmental conditions (e.g., short periods of oblique sunlight and subsurface cryogenic temperatures which permit volatile trapping) can help answer these scientific and exploration questions. Key parameters must be defined in order to identify suitable landing sites, plan surface operations, and achieve mission success. To address this need, we have conducted an initial study for a lunar polar volatile prospecting mission, assuming the use of a solar-powered robotic lander and rover. Here we present the mission concept, goals and objectives, and landing site selection analysis for a short-duration, landed, solar-powered mission to a volatile-rich site.

  19. Class D management implementation approach of the first orbital mission of the Earth Venture series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, James E.; Scherrer, John; Law, Richard; Bonniksen, Chris

    2013-09-01

    A key element of the National Research Council's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey called for the creation of the Venture Class line of low-cost research and application missions within NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). One key component of the architecture chosen by NASA within the Earth Venture line is a series of self-contained stand-alone spaceflight science missions called "EV-Mission". The first mission chosen for this competitively selected, cost and schedule capped, Principal Investigator-led opportunity is the CYclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS). As specified in the defining Announcement of Opportunity, the Principal Investigator is held responsible for successfully achieving the science objectives of the selected mission and the management approach that he/she chooses to obtain those results has a significant amount of freedom as long as it meets the intent of key NASA guidance like NPR 7120.5 and 7123. CYGNSS is classified under NPR 7120.5E guidance as a Category 3 (low priority, low cost) mission and carries a Class D risk classification (low priority, high risk) per NPR 8705.4. As defined in the NPR guidance, Class D risk classification allows for a relatively broad range of implementation strategies. The management approach that will be utilized on CYGNSS is a streamlined implementation that starts with a higher risk tolerance posture at NASA and that philosophy flows all the way down to the individual part level.

  20. Love Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of "security" or "transition" objects, such as a blanket or stuffed toy, in children's development of self-comfort and autonomy. Notes the influence of parents in the child-object relationship, and discusses children's responses to losing a security object, and the developmental point at which a child will give up such an…

  1. Object crowding.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  2. Citizenship Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Assessing the Progress of Education, Ann Arbor, MI.

    The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop citizenship objectives. Ten general objectives are stated: "show concern for the welfare and dignity of others"; "support rights and freedoms of all individuals"; "help maintain law…

  3. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  4. Approach to Spacelab Payload mission management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H. G.; Lester, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleus of the approach to Spacelab Payload mission management is the establishment of a single point of authority for the entire payload on a given mission. This single point mission manager will serve as a 'broker' between the individual experiments and the STS, negotiating agreements by two-part interaction. The payload mission manager, along with a small support team, will represent the users in negotiating use of STS accommodations. He will provide the support needed by each individual experimenter to meet the scientific, technological, and applications objectives of the mission with minimum cost and maximum efficiency. The investigator will assume complete responsibility for his experiment hardware definition and development and will take an active role in the integration and operation of his experiment.

  5. Cooperative mission execution and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flann, Nicholas S.; Saunders, Kevin S.; Pells, Larry

    1998-08-01

    Utilizing multiple cooperating autonomous vehicles to perform tasks enhances robustness and efficiency over the use of a single vehicle. Furthermore, because autonomous vehicles can be controlled precisely and their status known accurately in real time, new types of cooperative behaviors are possible. This paper presents a working system called MEPS that plans and executes missions for multiple autonomous vehicles in large structured environments. Two generic spatial tasks are supported, to sweep an area and to visit a location while activating on-board equipment. Tasks can be entered both initially by the user and dynamically during mission execution by both users and vehicles. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle and tasks conditions. The system has been successfully applied to control ATV and micro-robotic vehicles in precision agriculture and waste-site characterization environments.

  6. Reconfigurable Software for Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We developed software that provides flexibility to mission organizations through modularity and composability. Modularity enables removal and addition of functionality through the installation of plug-ins. Composability enables users to assemble software from pre-built reusable objects, thus reducing or eliminating the walls associated with traditional application architectures and enabling unique combinations of functionality. We have used composable objects to reduce display build time, create workflows, and build scenarios to test concepts for lunar roving operations. The software is open source, and may be downloaded from https:github.comnasamct.

  7. The EOS-Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    The EOS-Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is scheduled for launch in June 2004. Aura is the third of the large EOS observatories. The spacecraft carries an international instrument payload that has a planned six year lifetime. The Aura mission will collect data to help answer stratospheric and tropospheric atmospheric chemistry questions. The mission has the following four major objectives: 1) Track the ozone layer to determine if it is recovering as predicted. The four Aura instruments, HIRDLS, OMI, MLS, and TES will measure ozone, key source, radical, reservoir, tracer gases, and aerosols. Aura's unique design allows for major ozone controlling gases to be measured within the same air mass within a few minutes. The OMI instrument will continue the trends fiom NASA's TOMS series. 2) Track tropospheric pollutant sources and measure tropospheric ozone precursors. Major pollution sources include urban, industrial and biomass burning regions. Tropospheric trace gases will be measured, using TES and OMI, at an average spatial resolution of about approximately 15 km with near global coverage. 3) Measure key upper tropospheric atmospheric constituents that influence climate. The Aura instruments will monitor O3, H2O, CO, cirrus ice, and aerosols. EOS-Aura will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit about 15 minutes behind Aqua and make near coincident and synergistic measurements with the EOS- Aqua, Cloudsat, OCO, PARASOL and Calipso missions. Aura launched July 15,2004.

  8. The EOS-Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The EOS-Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is scheduled for launch in June 2004. Aura is the third of the large EOS observatories. The spacecraft carries an international instrument payload that has a planned six year lifetime. The Aura mission will collect data to help answer stratospheric and tropospheric atmospheric chemistry questions. The mission has the following four major objectives: 1) Track the ozone layer to determine if it is recovering as predicted. The four Aura instruments, HIRDLS, OMI, MLS, and TES will measure ozone, key source, radical, reservoir, tracer gases, and aerosols. Aura's unique design allows for major ozone controlling gases to be measured within the same air mass within a few minutes. The OMI instrument will continue the trends from NASA's TOMS series. 2) Track tropospheric pollutant sources and measure tropospheric ozone precursors. Major pollution sources include urban, industrial and biomass burning regions. Tropospheric trace gases will be measured, using TES and OMI, at an average spatial resolution of about approx. 15 km with near global coverage. 3) Measure key upper tropospheric atmospheric constituents that influence climate. The Aura instruments will monitor O3, H2O, CO, cirrus ice, and aerosols. EOS-Aura will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit about 15 minutes behind Aqua and make near coincident and synergistic measurements with the EOS-Aqua, Cloudsat, OCO, PARASOL and Calipso missions. Aura launched July 15,2004.

  9. History of the Spitzer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George

    2006-12-01

    The Spitzer Telescope was launched more than 20 years after the original announcement of opportunity was released. During this long gestation period, the mission took a wide variety of forms and had to survive many political and managerial environments within NASA and in the US Government generally. Finally, approval to build the telescope was won at the height of the faster-better-cheaper era, but completing it extended beyond this phase. This poster shows the key steps in preserving the mission and why decision makers viewed it positively at critical points when it might have been killed. In the end, the scope of the mission was reduced by a factor of about five while still preserving much of its science capabilities. This reduction required a new way to streamline the science objectives by adopting a limited number of key programs and requiring that all features be justified in terms of those programs. This philosophy provided decision rules to carry out necessary descopes while preserving a coherent set of capabilities. In addition, the faster-better-cheaper guidelines requires use of a small launch vehicle, which was only possible by the invention of a new “warm launch” telescope concept, in which the telescope would cool primarily by radiation into space after launch. Both of these concepts are critical to the approach to future missions such as JWST. This work is partially supported by contract 1255094 from JPL/Caltech to the University of Arizona.

  10. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.

    2011-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  11. Risk Balance: A Key Tool for Mission Operations Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Larry W.; Faris, Grant B.

    2011-01-01

    The Mission Operations Assurance (MOA) discipline actively participates as a project member to achieve their common objective of full mission success while also providing an independent risk assessment to the Project Manager and Office of Safety and Mission Success staff. The cornerstone element of MOA is the independent assessment of the risks the project faces in executing its mission. Especially as the project approaches critical mission events, it becomes imperative to clearly identify and assess the risks the project faces. Quite often there are competing options for the project to select from in deciding how to execute the event. An example includes choices between proven but aging hardware components and unused but unproven components. Timing of the event with respect to visual or telecommunications visibility can be a consideration in the case of Earth reentry or hazardous maneuver events. It is in such situations that MOA is called upon for a risk balance assessment or risk trade study to support their recommendation to the Project Manager for a specific option to select. In the following paragraphs we consider two such assessments, one for the Stardust capsule Earth return and the other for the choice of telecommunications system configuration for the EPOXI flyby of the comet Hartley 2. We discuss the development of the trade space for each project's scenario and characterize the risks of each possible option. The risk characterization we consider includes a determination of the severity or consequence of each risk if realized and the likelihood of its occurrence. We then examine the assessment process to arrive at a MOA recommendation. Finally we review each flight project's decision process and the outcome of their decisions.

  12. Matrix evaluation of science objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.

    1994-01-01

    The most fundamental objective of all robotic planetary spacecraft is to return science data. To accomplish this, a spacecraft is fabricated and built, software is planned and coded, and a ground system is designed and implemented. However, the quantitative analysis required to determine how the collection of science data drives ground system capabilities has received very little attention. This paper defines a process by which science objectives can be quantitatively evaluated. By applying it to the Cassini Mission to Saturn, this paper further illustrates the power of this technique. The results show which science objectives drive specific ground system capabilities. In addition, this process can assist system engineers and scientists in the selection of the science payload during pre-project mission planning; ground system designers during ground system development and implementation; and operations personnel during mission operations.

  13. End of Mission Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    While a great deal of effort goes into planning and executing successful mission operations, it is also important to consider the End of the Mission during the planning, design, and operations phases of any mission. Spacecraft and launch vehicles must be disposed of properly in order to limit the generation of orbital debris, and better preserve the orbital environment for all future missions. Figure 30-1 shows a 1990's projected growth of debris with and without the use of responsible disposal techniques. This requires early selection of a responsible disposal scenario, so that the necessary capabilities can be incorporated into the hardware designs. The mission operations must then be conducted in such a way as to preserve, and then actually perform, the planned, appropriate end of mission disposal.

  14. Concepts For An EO Land Convoy Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, M. A.; Eves, S.; Remedios, J.; Humpage, N.; Hall, D.; Regan, A.

    2013-12-01

    ESA are undertaking three studies investigating possible synergistic satellite missions flying in formation with the operational Copernicus Sentinel missions and/or the METOP satellites. These three studies are focussed on:- a) ocean and ice b) land c) atmosphere Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), the University of Leicester and Astrium Ltd are undertaking the second of these studies into the synergetic observation by missions flying in formation with European operational missions, focusing on the land theme. The aim of the study is to identify and develop, (through systematic analysis), potential innovative Earth science objectives and novel applications and services that could be made possible by flying additional satellites, (possibly of small-class type), in constellation or formation with one or more already deployed or firmly planned European operational missions, with an emphasis on the Sentinel missions, but without excluding other possibilities. In the long-term, the project aims at stimulating the development of novel, (smaller), mission concepts in Europe that may exploit new and existing European operational capacity in order to address in a cost effective manner new scientific objectives and applications. One possible route of exploitation would be via the proposed Small Mission Initiative (SMI) that may be initiated under the ESA Earth Explorer Observation Programme (EOEP). The following ESA science priority areas have been highlighted during the study [1]:- - The water cycle - The carbon cycle - Terrestrial ecosystems - Biodiversity - Land use and land use cover - Human population dynamics The study team have identified the science gaps that might be addressed by a "convoy" mission flying with the Copernicus Sentinel satellites, identified the candidate mission concepts and provided recommendations regarding the most promising concepts from a list of candidates. These recommendations provided the basis of a selection process performed by ESA

  15. Apollo experience report: The role of flight mission rules in mission preparation and conduct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development of flight mission rules from the mission development phase through the detailed mission-planning phase and through the testing and training phase is analyzed. The procedure for review of the rules and the coordination requirements for mission-rule development are presented. The application of the rules to real-time decision making is outlined, and consideration is given to the benefit of training ground controllers and flightcrews in the methods of determining the best response to a nonnominal in-flight situation for which no action has been preplanned. The Flight Mission Rules document is discussed in terms of the purpose and objective thereof and in terms of the definition, the development, and the use of mission rules.

  16. Nisar Spacecraft Concept Overview: Design Challenges for a Proposed Flagship Dual-Frequency SAR Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xaypraseuth, Peter; Chatterjee, Alok; Satish, R.

    2015-01-01

    NISAR would be the inaugural collaboration between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) on an Earth Science mission, which would feature an L-Band SAR instrument and an S-Band SAR instrument. As partners, NASA and ISRO would each contribute different engineering elements to help achieve the proposed scientific objectives of the mission. ISRO-Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre would provide the GSLV-Mark II launch vehicle, which would deliver the spacecraft into the desired orbit. ISRO-Satellite Centre would provide the spacecraft based on its I3K structural bus, a commonly used platform for ISRO's communication satellite missions, which would provide the resources necessary to operate the science payload. NASA would augment the spacecraft capabilities with engineering payload systems to help store, and transmit the large volume of science data.

  17. The virtual mission approach: Empowering earth and space science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Elaine

    1993-08-01

    Future Earth and Space Science missions will address increasingly broad and complex scientific issues. To accomplish this task, we will need to acquire and coordinate data sets from a number of different instrumetns, to make coordinated observations of a given phenomenon, and to coordinate the operation of the many individual instruments making these observations. These instruments will need to be used together as a single ``Virtual Mission.'' This coordinated approach is complicated in that these scientific instruments will generally be on different platforms, in different orbits, from different control centers, at different institutions, and report to different user groups. Before this Virtual Mission approach can be implemented, techniques need to be developed to enable separate instruments to work together harmoniously, to execute observing sequences in a synchronized manner, and to be managed by the Virtual Mission authority during times of these coordinated activities. Enabling technologies include object-oriented designed approaches, extended operations management concepts and distributed computing techniques. Once these technologies are developed and the Virtual Mission concept is available, we believe the concept will provide NASA's Science Program with a new, ``go-as-you-pay,'' flexible, and resilient way of accomplishing its science observing program. The concept will foster the use of smaller and lower cost satellites. It will enable the fleet of scientific satellites to evolve in directions that best meet prevailing science needs. It will empower scientists by enabling them to mix and match various combinations of in-space, ground, and suborbital instruments - combinations which can be called up quickly in response to new events or discoveries. And, it will enable small groups such as universities, Space Grant colleges, and small businesses to participate significantly in the program by developing small components of this evolving scientific fleet.

  18. Juno Mission Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft is planned to launch in August of 2012 and would arrive at Jupiter four years later. The spacecraft would spend more than one year orbiting the planet and investigating the existence of an ice-rock core; determining the amount of global water and ammonia present in the atmosphere, studying convection and deep- wind profiles in the atmosphere; investigating the origin of the Jovian magnetic field, and exploring the polar magnetosphere. Juno mission management is responsible for mission and navigation design, mission operation planning, and ground-data-system development. In order to ensure successful mission management from initial checkout to final de-orbit, it is critical to share a common vision of the entire mission operation phases with the rest of the project teams. Two major challenges are 1) how to develop a shared vision that can be appreciated by all of the project teams of diverse disciplines and expertise, and 2) how to continuously evolve a shared vision as the project lifecycle progresses from formulation phase to operation phase. The Juno mission simulation team addresses these challenges by developing agile and progressive mission models, operation simulations, and real-time visualization products. This paper presents mission simulation visualization network (MSVN) technology that has enabled a comprehensive mission simulation suite (MSVN-Juno) for the Juno project.

  19. Cassini Solstice Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Pappalardo, R.; Scientists, Cassini

    2009-09-01

    Our understanding of the Saturn system has been greatly enhanced by the Cassini-Huygens mission. Fundamental new discoveries have altered our views of Saturn, Titan, the rings, moons, and magnetosphere of the system. The proposed 7-year Cassini Solstice Mission will address new questions that have arisen during the Prime and Equinox Missions, and observe seasonal and temporal change in the Saturn system to prepare for future missions. The proposed Solstice Mission will provide new science in three ways: first, by observing seasonally and temporally dependent processes on Titan, Saturn, and other icy satellites, and within the rings and magnetosphere, in a hitherto unobserved seasonal phase from equinox to solstice; second, by addressing new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far, for example providing qualitatively new measurements of Enceladus which could not be accommodated in the earlier mission phases, and third, by conducting a close-in mission at Saturn that will provide a unique comparison to the Juno observations at Jupiter. These types of observations, absent Cassini, will not be fulfilled for decades to come. This poster summarizes a white paper that has been prepared for the Space Studies Board 2013-2022 Planetary Science Decadal Survey on the Cassini Solstice mission. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2009 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  20. STEREO Mission Design Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Dunham, David W.; Sharer, Peter J.; Hunt, Jack W.; Ray, J. Courtney; Shapiro, Hongxing S.; Ossing, Daniel A.; Eichstedt, John E.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate Sun-Earth Connection theme. This paper describes the successful implementation (lunar swingby targeting) of the mission following the first phasing orbit to deployment into the heliocentric mission orbits following the two lunar swingbys. The STEREO Project had to make some interesting trajectory decisions in order to exploit opportunities to image a bright comet and an unusual lunar transit across the Sun.

  1. Spacelab mission 4 - The first dedicated life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, T. W.; Reid, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for the first Spacelab-4 mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, are reviewed. The thrust of the scientific mission scheduled for late 1985 will be to study the acute effects of weightlessness on living systems, particularly humans. The payload of the Spacelab compartment will contain 24 experiments of which approximately half will involve humans. Among the major areas of interest are cardiovascular and pulmonary function, vestibular function, renal and endocrine physiology, hematology, nitrogen balance, immunological function, the gravitational biology of plants, inflight fertilization of frogs' eggs and the effects of zero gravity on monkeys and rats. In selecting the array of experiments an effort was made to combine investigations with complementary scientific objectives to develop animal models of human biological problems.

  2. Mathematics. High School Curriculum Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Public Schools, MA.

    This document lists mathematics objectives for Boston high school students. All objectives are presented in two columns. The left-hand column states each objective in general terms and gives an idea of its scope. The right-hand column gives a specific example of what students should be able to do when the objective is achieved. Objectives are…

  3. Demonstration That Calibration of the Instrument Response to Polarizations Parallel and Perpendicular to the Object Space Projected Slit of an Imaging Spectrometer Enable Measurement of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum in Region of the Weak CO2 Band for the Case of Arbitrary Polarization: Implication for the Geocarb Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Polonsky, I. N.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS) unit rebuilt to operate in a narrow spectral region, approximately 1603 to 1615 nm, of the weak CO2 band as described by Kumer et al. (2013, Proc. SPIE 8867, doi:10.1117/12.2022668) was used to conduct the demonstration. An integrating sphere (IS), linear polarizers and quarter wave plate were used to confirm that the instrument's spectral response to unpolarized light, to 45° linearly polarized light and to circular polarized light are identical. In all these cases the intensity components Ip = Is where Ip is the component parallel to the object space projected slit and Is is perpendicular to the slit. In the circular polarized case Ip = Is in the time averaged sense. The polarizer and IS were used to characterize the ratio Rθ of the instrument response to linearly polarized light at the angle θ relative to parallel from the slit, for increments of θ from 0 to 90°, to that of the unpolarized case. Spectra of diffusely reflected sunlight passed through the polarizer in increments of θ, and divided by the respective Rθ showed identical results, within the noise limit, for solar spectrum multiplied by the atmospheric transmission and convolved by the Instrument Line Shape (ILS). These measurements demonstrate that unknown polarization in the diffusely reflected sunlight on this small spectral range affect only the slow change across the narrow band in spectral response relative to that of unpolarized light and NOT the finely structured / high contrast spectral structure of the CO2 atmospheric absorption that is used to retrieve the atmospheric content of CO2. The latter is one of the geoCARB mission objectives (Kumer et al, 2013). The situation is similar for the other three narrow geoCARB bands; O2 A band 757.9 to 768.6 nm; strong CO2 band 2045.0 to 2085.0 nm; CH4 and CO region 2300.6 to 2345.6 nm. Polonsky et al have repeated the mission simulation study doi:10.5194/amt-7-959-2014 assuming no use of a geo

  4. An Overview of the Solar-C Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemen, J. R.; Tarbell, T. D.; Cirtain, J. W.; DeLuca, E. E.; Doschek, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Solar-C is a new mission in solar and heliospheric physics that is being proposed to JAXA for launch in 2020. It will be led by Japan with major contributions from the US and Europe. The main scientific objectives of the mission are to: * Determine the properties and evolution of the three dimensional magnetic field, especially on small spatial scales, using direct spectro-polarimetric measurements in the photosphere and chromosphere, and accurate model extrapolations and dynamic simulations into the corona that are based, for the first time, on boundary fields observed in a low plasma beta region; * Observe and understand fundamental physical processes such as magnetic reconnection, magneto-hydrodynamic waves, shocks, turbulence, and plasma instabilities * Reveal the mechanisms responsible for the heating and dynamics of the chromosphere and corona and the acceleration of the solar wind, and understand how plasma and energy are transferred between different parts of the solar atmosphere; * Determine the physical origin of the large-scale explosions and eruptions (flares, jets, and CMEs) that drive short-term solar, heliospheric, and geospace variability. To achieve the science objectives, Solar-C will deploy a carefully coordinated suite of three complementary instruments: the Solar Ultra-violet Visible and IR Telescope (SUVIT), the high-throughput EUV Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVST), and an X-ray Imaging Telescope/Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope (XIT). For the first time, it will simultaneously observe the entire atmosphere---photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona---and do so with essentially the same spatial and temporal resolution at all locations. As is the case for other solar observatories, the Solar-C mission will have an open data policy. We provide an overview of the mission and its contributions to the future of solar physics and space weather research.

  5. Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, D. S.; Team, Genesis Science

    2011-01-01

    Science results from the Genesis Mission illustrate the major advantages of sample return missions. (i) Important results not otherwise obtainable except by analysis in terrestrial laboratories: the isotopic compositions of O, N, and noble gases differ in the Sun from other inner solar system objects. The N isotopic composition is the same as that of Jupiter. Genesis has resolved discrepancies in the noble gas data from solar wind implanted in lunar soils. (ii) The most advanced analytical instruments have been applied to Genesis samples, including some developed specifically for the mission. (iii) The N isotope result has been replicated with four different instruments. PMID:21555545

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir Art

    2011-01-01

    Mission Objective: (1) Improve scientific understanding of the global water cycle and fresh water availability (2) Improve the accuracy of precipitation forecasts (3) Provide frequent and complete sampling of the Earth s precipitation Mission Description (Class B, Category I): (1) Constellation of spacecraft provide global precipitation measurement coverage (2) NASA/JAXA Core spacecraft: Provides a microwave radiometer (GMI) and dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) to cross-calibrate entire constellation (3) 65 deg inclination, 400 km altitude (4) Launch July 2013 on HII-A (5) 3 year mission (5 year propellant) (6) Partner constellation spacecraft.

  7. Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission.

    PubMed

    Burnett, D S; Team, Genesis Science

    2011-11-29

    Science results from the Genesis Mission illustrate the major advantages of sample return missions. (i) Important results not otherwise obtainable except by analysis in terrestrial laboratories: the isotopic compositions of O, N, and noble gases differ in the Sun from other inner solar system objects. The N isotopic composition is the same as that of Jupiter. Genesis has resolved discrepancies in the noble gas data from solar wind implanted in lunar soils. (ii) The most advanced analytical instruments have been applied to Genesis samples, including some developed specifically for the mission. (iii) The N isotope result has been replicated with four different instruments. PMID:21555545

  8. Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission.

    PubMed

    Burnett, D S; Team, Genesis Science

    2011-11-29

    Science results from the Genesis Mission illustrate the major advantages of sample return missions. (i) Important results not otherwise obtainable except by analysis in terrestrial laboratories: the isotopic compositions of O, N, and noble gases differ in the Sun from other inner solar system objects. The N isotopic composition is the same as that of Jupiter. Genesis has resolved discrepancies in the noble gas data from solar wind implanted in lunar soils. (ii) The most advanced analytical instruments have been applied to Genesis samples, including some developed specifically for the mission. (iii) The N isotope result has been replicated with four different instruments.

  9. A CubeSat Asteroid Mission: Design Study and Trade-Offs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa; Hepp, Aloysius; Stegeman, James; Bur, Mike; Burke, Laura; Martini, Michael; Fittje, James E.; Kohout, Lisa; Fincannon, James; Packard, Tom

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in expanding the applicability of cubesat spacecraft into lightweight, low cost missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. A conceptual design was done for a 6-U cubesat for a technology demonstration to demonstrate use of electric propulsion systems on a small satellite platform. The candidate objective was a mission to be launched on the SLS test launch EM-1 to visit a Near-Earth asteroid. Both asteroid fly-by and asteroid rendezvous missions were analyzed. Propulsion systems analyzed included cold-gas thruster systems, Hall and ion thrusters, incorporating either Xenon or Iodine propellant, and an electrospray thruster. The mission takes advantage of the ability of the SLS launch to place it into an initial trajectory of C3=0. Targeting asteroids that fly close to earth minimizes the propulsion required for fly-by/rendezvous. Due to mass constraints, high specific impulse is required, and volume constraints mean the propellant density was also of great importance to the ability to achieve the required deltaV. This improves the relative usefulness of the electrospray salt, with higher propellant density. In order to minimize high pressure tanks and volatiles, the salt electrospray and iodine ion propulsion systems were the optimum designs for the fly-by and rendezvous missions respectively combined with a thruster gimbal and wheel system For the candidate fly-by mission, with a mission deltaV of about 400 m/s, the mission objectives could be accomplished with a 800s electrospray propulsion system, incorporating a propellant-less cathode and a bellows salt tank. This propulsion system is planned for demonstration on 2015 LEO and 2016 GEO DARPA flights. For the rendezvous mission, at a ?V of 2000 m/s, the mission could be accomplished with a 50W miniature ion propulsion system running iodine propellant. This propulsion system is not yet demonstrated in space. The conceptual design shows that an asteroid mission is possible using a cubesat

  10. Analysis of selected deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. S.; Holman, M. L.; Bilsky, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Task 1 of the NEW MOONS (NASA Evaluation With Models of Optimized Nuclear Spacecraft) study is discussed. Included is an introduction to considerations of launch vehicles, spacecraft, spacecraft subsystems, and scientific objectives associated with precursory unmanned missions to Jupiter and thence out of the ecliptic plane, as well as other missions to Jupiter and other outer planets. Necessity for nuclear power systems is indicated. Trajectories are developed using patched conic and n-body computer techniques.

  11. Aquarius/SAC-D Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Amit; Kim, Yunjin; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Colomb, Raul; Yueh, Simon; LeVine, David

    2006-01-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission developed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of United States of America (USA) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) of Argentina. The overall mission objective is to contribute to the understanding of the total Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. Major themes are: ocean surface salinity, water cycle, climate, natural hazards and cryosphere.

  12. Neptune aerocapture mission and spacecraft design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Hall, Jeff L.; Spliker, Tom R.; O'Kongo, Nora

    2004-01-01

    A detailed Neptune aerocapture systems analysis and spacecraft design study was performed as part of NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program. The primary objectives were to assess the feasibility of a spacecraft point design for a Neptune/Triton science mission. That uses aerocapture as the Neptune orbit insertion mechanism. This paper provides an overview of the science, mission and spacecraft design resulting from that study.

  13. Assessment of Alternative Europa Mission Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langmaier, Jerry; Elliott, John; Clark, Karla; Pappalardo, Robert; Reh, Kim; Spilker, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the science merit, technical risk and qualitative assessment of relative cost of alternative architectural implementations as applied to a first dedicated mission to Europa. The objective was accomplished through an examination of mission concepts resulting from previous and ongoing studies. Key architectural elements that were considered include moon orbiters, flybys (single flybys like New Horizons and multiple flybys similar to the ongoing Jupiter System Observer study), sample return and in situ landers and penetrators.

  14. Towards a class library for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujo, Oliver; Smith, Simon T.; Starkey, Paul; Wolff, Thilo

    1994-01-01

    The PASTEL Mission Planning System (MPS) has been developed in C++ using an object-oriented (OO) methodology. While the scope and complexity of this system cannot compare to that of an MPS for a complex mission one of the main considerations of the development was to ensure that we could reuse some of the classes in future MPS. We present here PASTEL MPS classes which could be used in the foundations of a class library for MPS.

  15. Giotto Extended Mission (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, D. E. B.; Grensemann, M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Giotto Extended Mission (GEM), are to determine the composition and physical state of the Grigg Skjellerup Comet's nucleus; to determine the processes that govern the composition and distribution of neutral and ionized species in the cometary atmosphere. Giotto consists of a single European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft that was launched in 1985 from Center Spatial Guyanis in French Guiana on an Ariane launch vehicle. After a successful launch into geostationary orbit and a heliocentric transfer trajectory, the spacecraft successfully encountered Halley's Comet in 1986. One month after encountering Halley's Comet, Mar. 1986, the spacecraft was placed in hibernation in a heliocentric orbit slightly less than 1 AU. Between Feb. and Jul. 1990 the spacecraft was successfully reactivated, checked out, and placed on a trajectory course to intercept comet Grigg Skjellerup. The spacecraft has been in hibernation since Jul. 1990. Information is presented in tabular form in the following areas: coverage goals, Deep Space Network Support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  16. The Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP): A New Tool for Performance Evaluation of Human Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jacob; Stewart, Shaun M.; Lee, David E.; Davis, Elizabeth C.; Condon, Gerald L.; Senent, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Constellation Program paves the way for a series of lunar missions leading to a sustained human presence on the Moon. The proposed mission design includes an Earth Departure Stage (EDS), a Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and a lunar lander (Altair) which support the transfer to and from the lunar surface. This report addresses the design, development and implementation of a new mission scan tool called the Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP) and its use to provide insight into the integrated (i.e., EDS, Orion, and Altair based) mission cost as a function of various mission parameters and constraints. The Constellation architecture calls for semiannual launches to the Moon and will support a number of missions, beginning with 7-day sortie missions, culminating in a lunar outpost at a specified location. The operational lifetime of the Constellation Program can cover a period of decades over which the Earth-Moon geometry (particularly, the lunar inclination) will go through a complete cycle (i.e., the lunar nodal cycle lasting 18.6 years). This geometry variation, along with other parameters such as flight time, landing site location, and mission related constraints, affect the outbound (Earth to Moon) and inbound (Moon to Earth) translational performance cost. The mission designer must determine the ability of the vehicles to perform lunar missions as a function of this complex set of interdependent parameters. Trade-offs among these parameters provide essential insights for properly assessing the ability of a mission architecture to meet desired goals and objectives. These trades also aid in determining the overall usable propellant required for supporting nominal and off-nominal missions over the entire operational lifetime of the program, thus they support vehicle sizing.

  17. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  18. Skylab mission report, third visit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the operational and engineering aspects of the third Skylab visit, including information on the performance of the command and service module and the experiment hardware, the crew's evaluation of the visit, and other visit-related areas of interest such as biomedical observations. The specific areas discussed are contained in the following: (1) solar physics and astrophysics investigations; (2) Comet Kohoutek experiments; (3) medical experiments; (4) earth observations, including data for the multispectral photographic facility, the earth terrain camera, and the microwave radiometer/scattermometer and altimeter; (5) engineering and technology experiments; (6) food and medical operational equipment; (7) hardware and experiment anomalies; and (8) mission support, mission objectives, flight planning, and launch phase summary. Conclusions discussed as a result of the third visit to Skylab involve the advancement of the sciences, practical applications, the durability of man and systems in space, and spaceflight effectiveness and economy.

  19. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  20. NuSTAR and IXO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) and IXO (International X-ray Observatory) missions are two of NASA X-ray missions for the coming decade. NuSTAR is a small explorer class mission that will for the first time use a multilayer-coated X-ray mirror assemblies to focus X-rays up to 80 keV. Among other objectives, its major science objective will be to conduct surveys to identify hard X-ray sources and to resolve the diffuse X-ray background. IXO, a collaborative mission of NASA, ESA, and JAXA, will be an observatory class mission. It will have a 3m in diameter X-ray mirror assembly with unprecedented photon collection area with a suite of focal plane detectors: a grating system, a large format CCD imaging system, a calorimeter, a polarimeter, and a high resolution and fast timing detector. It will significantly advance the spectroscopic studies of black holes, neutron stars, AGN, IGM, and nearly every other aspect of the X-ray universe. In this talk I will describe the instruments and scientific objectives of these two missions.

  1. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  2. NASA Mission: The Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

  3. Mission Medical Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  4. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  5. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Gernot; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Menard, Yvon

    2013-04-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

  6. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) User's Guide (Draft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    4The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system. This document is a draft of the users guide for the tool. Included in the guide is information about Configuring Objects/Resources, Object Fields: Quick Look-up Tables, and Commands and Events.

  7. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a mission of the European Space Mission aimed at demonstrating the space-time metrology required for space-borne gravitational wave observatories like eLISA. In particular the mission aims at experimentally test the detailed physical model of the eLISA instrument using the hardware to be flown on eLISA. This model predicts that no true forces on test-bodies will compete with gravitational signals in excess to fN/Hz^(-1/2). The mission is in phase C/D and is due to launch in two years. The talk will describe the mission, its development status, and the metrology under test.

  8. Mars Surface Mission Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A workshop was held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute on September 4-5, 1997, to address the surface elements of the Mars Reference Mission now being reviewed by NASA. The workshop considered the current reference mission and addressed the types of activities that would be expected for science and resource exploration and facilities operations. A set of activities was defined that can be used to construct "vignettes" of the surface mission. These vignettes can form the basis for describing the importance of the surface mission, for illustrating aspects of the surface mission, and for allowing others to extend and revise these initial ideas. The topic is rich with opportunities for additional conceptualization. It is recommended that NASA consider supporting university design teams to conduct further analysis of the possibilities.

  9. Kepler Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Mayer, David; Voss, Janice; Basri, Gibor; Gould, Alan; Brown, Timothy; Cockran, William; Caldwell, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is in the development phase with launch planned for 2007. The mission goal first off is to reliably detect a significant number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The mission design allows for exploring the diversity of planetary sizes, orbital periods, stellar spectral types, etc. In this paper we describe the technical approach taken for the mission design; describing the flight and ground system, the detection methodology, the photometer design and capabilities, and the way the data are taken and processed. (For Stellar Classification program. Finally the detection capability in terms of planet size and orbit are presented as a function of mission duration and stellar type.

  10. Pointing Control System Architecture for the Eclipse Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kia, Tooraj; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Alexander, James W.; Li, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the high performance pointing control system used to point the Eclipse telescope. Eclipse is a new mission under study at Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a proposal as a discovery mission. Eclipse is a space telescope for high-contrast optical astronomy. It will be used to investigate the planetary bodies and environments. The main objective of the Eclipse mission is to study planets around nearby stars. Eclipse is designed to reveal planets or dust structures by reducing the scattered and diffracted light within a few arcseconds of a star to a level three orders of magnitude lower than any instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Eclipse achieves this high contrast using a 1.8 meter diameter telescope, a coronagraphic system for control of diffracted light, and active wavefront correction using a Precision Deformable Mirror (DM) for the suppression of scattered light. The observatory will be launched into a Sun-synchronous 690 Km, 98.2(deg) Earth Orbit in 2012.

  11. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, Scott; Cox, Sylvia; Ellis, Benton; Gallagher, Dennis; Gautier, Nick; Greene, Thomas; McCreight, Craig; Mills, Gary; Purcell, William; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Corp. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Cassegrain telescope and two moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrographs covering the 2.5-16 micron spectral region. Large format (1024x 1024 pixel or larger) IR detector arrays and bandpass filters will allow each spectrograph to cover an entire octave of spectral range or more per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to approximately 8K. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the approximate 1-2 year mission lifetime.

  12. BAM: A metrology device for a high precision astrometric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, A.; Gai, M.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Russo, F.; Buzzi, R.

    2014-12-01

    Gaia is ESA next-generation astrometric space mission, that will be launched in December 2013. The main objective of Gaia is to produce an astrometric census of one billion objects down to the 20th magnitude. The level of astrometric precision will be around the 10 microarcseconds. In order to achieve such demanding performances, the complexity of the satellite is huge, and a proper fully automated operation must be adopted. One of the essential parts of the satellite is the BAM instrument, an interferometric device with the task of monitoring the variation of the Basic Angle between the two telescope that compose the payload. In this paper we describe the main features of this sub-instrument and its performances.

  13. Global gravity field recovery from the ARISTOTELES satellite mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, P. N. A. M.; Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.

    1994-02-01

    One of the primary objectives of the future ARISTOTELES satellite mission is to map Earth's gravity field with high resolution and accuracy. In order to achieve this objective, the ARISTOTELES satellite will be equipped with a gravity gradiometer and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Global gravity field error analyses have been performed for several combinations of gradiometer and GPS observations. These analyses indicated that the bandwidth limitation of the gradiometer prevents a stable high-accuracy, high-resolution gravity solution if no additional information is available. However, with the addition of high-accuracy GPS observations, a stable gravity field solution can be obtained. A combination of the measurements acquired by the high-quality GPS receiver and the bandwidth-limited gradiometer on board ARISTOTELES will yield a global gravity field model with a resolution of less than 100 km and with an accuracy of better than 5 mGal for gravity anomalies and 10 cm for geoid undulations.

  14. Castalia - A Mission to a Main Belt Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. H.; Snodgrass, C.

    2015-10-01

    Main Belt Comets (MBCs), or Active Asteroids, constitute a newly identified class of solar system objects. They have stable, asteroid-like orbits and some exhibit a recurrent comet-like appearance. It is believed that they survived the age of the solarsystem in a dormant state and that their current ice sublimation driven activity only began recently. Buried water ice is the only volatile expected to survive under an insulating surface. Excavation by an impact can expose the ice and trigger the start of MBC activity. We present the case for a mission to one of these objects. The specific science goals of the Castalia mission are: 1. Characterize a new Solar System family, the MBCs, by in-situ investigation 2. Understand the physics of activity on MBCs 3. Directly sample water in the asteroid belt and test if MBCs are a viable source for Earth's water 4. Use the observed structure of an MBC as a tracer of planetary system formation and evolution. These goals can be achieved by a spacecraft designed to rendezvous with and orbit an MBC for a time interval of some months, arriving before the active period for mapping and then sampling the gas and dust released during the active phase. Given the low level of activity of MBCs, and the expectation that their activity comes from only a localized patch on the surface, the orbiting spacecraft will have to be able to maintain a very close orbit over extended periods - the Castalia plan envisages an orbiter capable of 'hovering' autonomously at distances of only a few km from the surface of the MBC. The strawman payload comprises a Visible and near-infrared spectral imager, Thermal infrared imager, Radio science,Subsurface radar, Dust impact detector, Dust composition analyser, Neutral/ion mass spectrometer, Magnetometer, and Plasma package. In addition to this, a surface science package is being considered. At the moment, MBC 133P/Elst Pizarro is the bestknown target for such a mission. A design study for the Castalia mission

  15. Software Innovation in a Mission Critical Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Operating in mission-critical environments requires trusted solutions, and the preference for "tried and true" approaches presents a potential barrier to infusing innovation into mission-critical systems. This presentation explores opportunities to overcome this barrier in the software domain. It outlines specific areas of innovation in software development achieved by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate in support of NASA's major human spaceflight programs, including International Space Station, Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), and Commercial Crew Programs. Software engineering teams at JSC work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements for genuinely mission critical applications. The innovations described, including the use of NASA Core Flight Software and its associated software tool chain, can lead to software that is more affordable, more reliable, better modelled, more flexible, more easily maintained, better tested, and enabling of automation.

  16. Hanford Tanks Initiative mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaus, P.S.

    1997-09-22

    This mission analysis report for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) supports the Hanford Site`s Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from the SSTs for treatment and final closure of the tanks. The results of the HTI will support the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) privatization of retrieval efforts. This report addresses the HTI problem statement: Alternative technologies to past practice sluicing (PPS) have not yet been demonstrated to remove the hard heel from a sluiced tank or to remove waste from a leaking SST. Nor have performance-based criteria for cleanout and closure been demonstrated to the degree necessary to validate them as technically and economically achievable. This report also defines the mission statement and mission boundaries; the known interfaces, both programmatic and project; the mission level requirements; the test and evaluation methodology; and measures of success.

  17. Spectral Astrometry Mission for Planets Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2002-08-09

    The Spectral Astrometry Mission is a space-mission concept that uses simultaneous, multiple-star differential astrometry to measure exo-solar planet masses. The goal of SAM is to measure the reflex motions of hundreds of nearby ({approx}50 pc) F, G and K stars, relative to adjacent stars, with a resolution of 2.5 {micro}-arcsec. SAM is a new application of Spectral Interferometry (SI), also called Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI), that can simultaneously measure the angular difference between the target and multiple reference stars. SI has demonstrated the ability to measure a {lambda}/20,000 white-light fringe shift with only {lambda}/3 baseline control. SAM's structural stability and compensation requirements are therefore dramatically reduced compared to existing long-arm balanced-arm interferometric astrometry methods. We describe the SAM's mission concept, long-baseline SI astrometry method, and technical challenges to achieving the mission.

  18. Terrapin technologies manned Mars mission proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amato, Michael; Bryant, Heather; Coleman, Rodney; Compy, Chris; Crouse, Patrick; Crunkleton, Joe; Hurtado, Edgar; Iverson, Eirik; Kamosa, Mike; Kraft, Lauri (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A Manned Mars Mission (M3) design study is proposed. The purpose of M3 is to transport 10 personnel and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an eight-man surface expedition of 3 months, to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience, but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. Those priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a Waverider transfer module.

  19. PERCIVAL mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, David W.; Lilley, Stewart; Sirman, Melinda; Bolton, Paul; Elliott, Susan; Hamilton, Doug; Nickelson, James; Shelton, Artemus

    1992-01-01

    With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at any cost' spacecraft. The Percival Mission to Mars was proposed by Ares Industries as one of the new 'Discovery-class' of exploration missions. The spacecraft will be christened Percival in honor of American astronomer Percival Lowell who proposed the existence of life on Mars in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the Percival mission to Mars is to collect and relay scientific data to Earth suitable for designing future manned and unmanned missions to Mars. The measurements and observations made by Percival will help future mission designers to choose among landing sites based on the feasibility and scientific interest of the sites. The primary measurements conducted by the Percival mission include gravity field determination, surface and atmospheric composition, sub-surface soil composition, sub-surface seismic activity, surface weather patterns, and surface imaging. These measurements will be taken from the orbiting Percival spacecraft and from surface penetrators deployed from Mars orbit. The design work for the Percival Mission to Mars was divided among four technical areas: Orbits and Propulsion System, Surface Penetrators, Gravity and Science Instruments, and Spacecraft Structure and Systems. The results for each of the technical areas is summarized and followed by a design cost analysis and recommendations for future analyses.

  20. Mars Mission Concepts: SAR and Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, M.; Klaus, K.; Smith, D. B.; Clifford, S. M.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: The time has come to leverage technology advances (including advances in autonomous operation and propulsion technology) to reduce the cost and increase the flight rate of planetary missions, while actively developing a scientific and engineering workforce to achieve national space objectives. Mission Science at Mars: A SAR imaging radar offers an ability to conduct high resolution investigations of the shallow (<10 m depth) subsurface of Mars, enabling identification of fine-scale layering within the Martian polar layered deposits (PLD), as well as the identification of pingos, investigations of polygonal terrain, and measurements of the thickness of mantling layers at non-polar latitudes. It would allow systematic near-surface prospecting, which is tremendously useful for human exploration purposes (in particular, the identification of accessible ice deposits and quantification of Martian regolith properties). Limited color capabilities in a notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would enable the generation of false color images, resulting in useful science results, and the stereo data could be reduced into high-resolution Digital Elevation Models uniquely useful for exploration planning and science purposes. Since the SAR and the notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would be huge data volume producers - to maximize the science return we are currently considering the usage of laser communications systems; this notional spacecraft represents one pathway to evaluate the utility of laser communications in planetary exploration while providing useful science return.. Mission Concept: Using a common space craft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. SEP provides the greatest payload advantage albeit at the sacrifice of mission time. Our concept involves using a SEP enabled space craft (Boeing 702SP) with a highly capable SAR imager that also

  1. Supportability Technologies for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Kevin; Thompson, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Future long-duration human exploration missions will be challenged by resupply limitations and mass and volume constraints. Consequently, it will be essential that the logistics footprint required to support these missions be minimized and that capabilities be provided to make them highly autonomous from a logistics perspective. Strategies to achieve these objectives include broad implementation of commonality and standardization at all hardware levels and across all systems, repair of failed hardware at the lowest possible hardware level, and manufacture of structural and mechanical replacement components as needed. Repair at the lowest hardware levels will require the availability of compact, portable systems for diagnosis of failures in electronic systems and verification of system functionality following repair. Rework systems will be required that enable the removal and replacement of microelectronic components with minimal human intervention to minimize skill requirements and training demand for crews. Materials used in the assembly of electronic systems (e.g. solders, fluxes, conformal coatings) must be compatible with the available repair methods and the spacecraft environment. Manufacturing of replacement parts for structural and mechanical applications will require additive manufacturing systems that can generate near-net-shape parts from the range of engineering alloys employed in the spacecraft structure and in the parts utilized in other surface systems. These additive manufacturing processes will need to be supported by real-time non-destructive evaluation during layer-additive processing for on-the-fly quality control. This will provide capabilities for quality control and may serve as an input for closed-loop process control. Additionally, non-destructive methods should be available for material property determination. These nondestructive evaluation processes should be incorporated with the additive manufacturing process - providing an in

  2. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  3. The bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning; Jørgensen, John L; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter S

    2004-05-01

    The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target. Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus is on main belt objects, but the mission profile will enable mapping of objects inside the Earth orbit as well.

  4. Airborne Lidar Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global surface height mapping within a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission in 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  5. The Effect of Mission Location on Mission Costs and Equivalent System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Jones, Harry W.

    2003-01-01

    Equivalent System Mass (ESM) is used by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) community to quantify mission costs of technologies for space applications (Drysdale et al, 1999, Levri et al, 2000). Mass is used as a cost measure because the mass of an object determines propulsion (acceleration) cost (i.e. amount of fuel needed), and costs relating to propulsion dominate mission cost. Mission location drives mission cost because acceleration is typically required to initiate and complete a change in location. Total mission costs may be reduced by minimizing the mass of materials that must be propelled to each distinct location. In order to minimize fuel requirements for missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), the hardware and astronauts may not all go to the same location. For example, on a Lunar or Mars mission, some of the hardware or astronauts may stay in orbit while the rest of the hardware and astronauts descend to the planetary surface. In addition, there may be disposal of waste or used hardware at various mission locations to avoid propulsion of mass that is no longer needed in the mission. This paper demonstrates how using location factors in the calculation of ESM can account for the effects of various acceleration events and can improve the accuracy and value of the ESM metric to mission planners. Even a mission with one location can benefit from location factor analysis if the alternative technologies under consideration consume resources at different rates. For example, a mission that regenerates resources will have a relatively constant mass compared to one that uses consumables and vents/discards mass along the way. This paper shows examples of how location factors can affect ESM calculations and how the inclusion of location factors can change the relative value of technologies being considered for development.

  6. Lofty missions, down-to-earth plans.

    PubMed

    Rangan, V Kasturi

    2004-03-01

    Most nonprofits make program decisions based on a mission rather than a strategy. They rally under the banner of a particular cause, be it "fight homelessness" or "end hunger." And since their causes are so worthwhile, they support any programs that are related--even tangentially--to their core missions. It's hard to fault people for trying to improve the state of the world, but that approach to making decisions is misguided. Acting without a clear long-term strategy can stretch an agency's core capabilities and push it in unintended directions. The fundamental problem is that many nonprofits don't have a strategy; instead, they have a mission and a portfolio of programs. But they hardly make deliberate decisions about which programs to run, which to drop, and which to turn down for funding. What most nonprofits call "strategy" is really just an intensive exercise in resource allocation and program management. This article outlines for nonprofits a four-step process for developing strategy. The first step is to create a broad, inspiring mission statement. The second step is to translate that core mission into a smaller, quantifiable operational mission. For instance, an agency whose core mission is to fight homelessness must decide if its focus is rural or urban and if it should concentrate on low-income housing loans or on establishing more shelters. The third step is to create a strategy platform; that is, the nonprofit decides how it will achieve its operational mission. Decisions about funding and about client, program, and organizational development are all made here. Once that platform is established, the nonprofit is ready to move to step four--making reasoned, strategic decisions about which programs to run and how to run them. The agency that follows these steps will improve its focus and its effectiveness at fulfilling its mission.

  7. The Aquarius Mission: Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koblinsky, Chester; Chao, Y.; deCharon, A.; Edelstein, W.; Hildebrand, P.; Lagerloef, G.; LeVine, D.; Pellerano, F.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Ruf, C.

    2001-01-01

    Aquarius is a new satellite mission concept to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective of Aquarius is sea surface salinity, which reflects the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity affects the dielectric constant of sea water and, consequently, the radiometric emission of the sea surface to space. Rudimentary space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s and numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted since then. Technology is now available to carry out a global mission, which includes both an accurate L band (1.413 Ghz) radiometer and radar system in space and a global array of in situ observations for calibration and validation, in order to address key NASA Earth Science Enterprise questions about the global cycling of water and the response of the ocean circulation to climate change. The key scientific objectives of Aquarius examine the cycling of water at the ocean's surface, the response of the ocean circulation to buoyancy forcing, and the impact of buoyancy forcing on the ocean's thermal feedback to the climate. Global surface salinity will also improve our ability to model the surface solubility chemistry needed to estimate the air-sea exchange of CO2. In order to meet these science objectives, the NASA Salinity Sea Ice Working Group over the past three years has concluded that the mission measurement goals should be better than 0.2 practical salinity units (psu) accuracy, 100 km resolution, and weekly to revisits. The Aquarius mission proposes to meet these measurement requirements through a real aperture dual-polarized L band radiometer and radar system. This system can achieve the less than 0.1 K radiometric temperature measurement accuracy that is required. A 3 m antenna at approx. 600km

  8. Mars Orbiter Study. Volume 2: Mission Design, Science Instrument Accommodation, Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drean, R.; Macpherson, D.; Steffy, D.; Vargas, T.; Shuman, B.; Anderson, K.; Richards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Spacecraft system and subsystem designs were developed at the conceptual level to perform either of two Mars Orbiter Missions, a Climatology Mission and an Aeronomy Mission. The objectives of these missions are to obtain and return data to increase knowledge of Mars.

  9. Planning for the V&V of infused software technologies for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Fesq, Lorraine M.; Ingham, Michel D.; Klein, Suzanne L.; Nelson, Stacy D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission is planning to make use of advanced software technologies in order to support fulfillment of its ambitious science objectives. The mission plans to adopt the Mission Data System (MDS) as the mission software architecture, and plans to make significant use of on-board autonomous capabilities for the rover software.

  10. Future Human Precursor Mission Missions and Architectures to Achieve Humans to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegle, L. W.; Kinnett, R.; Klien, E.

    2012-06-01

    We have studied a series of payload options that are in response to measurements identified by MEPAG as vital to human precursor activity. These payloads have the ability to make a significant dent in the needed measurements to send humans to Mars.

  11. The Pascal Discovery Mission: A Mars Climate Network Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Catling, D. C.; Chassefiere, E.; Forget, F.; Hourdin, F.; Leovy, C. B.; Magalhaes, J.; Mihalov, J.; Pommereau, J. P.; Murphy, J. R.

    2000-07-01

    The climate of Mars is a major focus of Mars exploration. With the loss of MCO, however, it remains uncertain how it will be achieved. We argue that a truly dedicated climate mission to Mars should have both orbital and landed components, and that these should operate simultaneously for at least 1 Mars year if not longer. Pascal is a Discovery mission that emphasizes the landed component. Its principal goal is to establish a network of 24 small weather stations on the surface of Mars that will operate for 2 Mars years, with an extended mission option for an additional 8 Mars years bringing the total mission lifetime up to 10 Mars years. The stations will collect hourly measurements of pressure, temperature, and optical depth. After delivering the probes to Mars, Pascal's carrier spacecraft will go into an elliptical orbit which will serve as a relay for the landers, and a platform for synoptic imaging. These simultaneous measurements from the surface and from orbit will allow us to characterize the planet's general circulation and its interaction with the dust, water, and CO2 cycles. During entry, descent, and landing, each of Pascal's 24 probes will also measure the temperature structure of the atmosphere and acquire images of the surface. These data will allow us to determine the global structure of the atmosphere between 15 and 130 km, and characterize the local terrain to help interpret the landed data. The descent images are part of Pascal's outreach program, as the probe camera system will be developed by faculty-supervised student project. The intent is to generate enthusiasm for the Pascal mission by directly involving students. Pascal will be launched on a Delta II-7925 in August of 2005. A type I trajectory will deliver Pascal to Mars in January of 2006. On approach, the three-axis stabilized carrier spacecraft will spring deploy the Pascal probes in 4 separate salvo's of 6 each. Global coverage is achieved with small time-of-arrival adjustments in

  12. The Pascal Discovery Mission: A Mars Climate Network Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Catling, D. C.; Chassefiere, E.; Forget, F.; Hourdin, F.; Leovy, C. B.; Magalhaes, J.; Mihalov, J.; Pommereau, J. P.; Murphy, J. R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The climate of Mars is a major focus of Mars exploration. With the loss of MCO, however, it remains uncertain how it will be achieved. We argue that a truly dedicated climate mission to Mars should have both orbital and landed components, and that these should operate simultaneously for at least I Mars year if not longer. Pascal is Discovery mission that emphasizes the landed component. Its principal goal is to establish a network of 24 small weather stations on the surface of Mars that will operate for 2 Mars years, with an extended mission option for an additional 8 Mars years bringing the total mission lifetime up to 10 Mars years. The stations will collect hourly measurements of pressure, temperature, and optical depth. After delivering the probes to Mars, Pascal's carrier spacecraft will go into an elliptical orbit which will serve as a relay for the landers, and a platform for synoptic imaging. These simultaneous measurements from the surface and from orbit will allow us to characterize the planet's general circulation and its interaction with the dust, water, and CO2 cycles. During entry, descent, and landing, each of Pascal's 24 probes will also measure the temperature structure of the atmosphere and acquire images of the surface. These data will allow us to determine the global structure of the atmosphere between 15 and 130 km, and characterize the local terrain to help interpret the landed data. The descent images are part of Pascal's outreach program, as the probe camera system will be developed by faculty-supervised student project. The intent is to generate enthusiasm for the Pascal mission by directly involving students. Pascal will be launched on a Delta 11-7925 in August of 2005. A type I trajectory will deliver Pascal to Mars in January of 2006. On approach, the three-axis stabilized carrier spacecraft will spring deploy the Pascal probes in 4 separate salvo's of 6 each. Global coverage is achieved with small time-of-arrival adjustments in between

  13. The Pascal Discovery Mission: A Mars Climate Network Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Catling, D. C.; Chassefiere, E.; Forget, F.; Hourdin, F.; Leovy, C. B.; Magalhaes, J.; Mihalov, J.; Pommereau, J. P.; Murphy, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    The climate of Mars is a major focus of Mars exploration. With the loss of MCO, however, it remains uncertain how it will be achieved. We argue that a truly dedicated climate mission to Mars should have both orbital and landed components, and that these should operate simultaneously for at least 1 Mars year if not longer. Pascal is a Discovery mission that emphasizes the landed component. Its principal goal is to establish a network of 24 small weather stations on the surface of Mars that will operate for 2 Mars years, with an extended mission option for an additional 8 Mars years bringing the total mission lifetime up to 10 Mars years. The stations will collect hourly measurements of pressure, temperature, and optical depth. After delivering the probes to Mars, Pascal's carrier spacecraft will go into an elliptical orbit which will serve as a relay for the landers, and a platform for synoptic imaging. These simultaneous measurements from the surface and from orbit will allow us to characterize the planet's general circulation and its interaction with the dust, water, and CO2 cycles. During entry, descent, and landing, each of Pascal's 24 probes will also measure the temperature structure of the atmosphere and acquire images of the surface. These data will allow us to determine the global structure of the atmosphere between 15 and 130 km, and characterize the local terrain to help interpret the landed data. The descent images are part of Pascal's outreach program, as the probe camera system will be developed by faculty-supervised student project. The intent is to generate enthusiasm for the Pascal mission by directly involving students. Pascal will be launched on a Delta II-7925 in August of 2005. A type I trajectory will deliver Pascal to Mars in January of 2006. On approach, the three-axis stabilized carrier spacecraft will spring deploy the Pascal probes in 4 separate salvo's of 6 each. Global coverage is achieved with small time-of-arrival adjustments in

  14. Moon manned mission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, G.; Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Badavi, F. F.

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found around and on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The scenarios are evaluated from the point of view of radiation safety with the radiation protection quantities recommended for LEO scenarios.

  15. Systems Engineering Technical Authority: A Path to Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, James F.; So, Maria M.; Breindel, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The systems engineering of space missions to study planet Earth has been an important focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) since its inception. But all space missions are becoming increasingly complex and this fact, reinforced by some major mishaps, has caused NASA to reevaluate their approach to achieving safety and mission success. A new approach ensures that there are adequate checks and balances in place to maximize the probability of safety and mission success. To this end the agency created the concept of Technical Authority which identifies a key individual accountable and responsible for the technical integrity of a flight mission as well as a project-independent reporting path. At the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) this responsibility ultimately begins with the Mission Systems Engineer (MSE) for each satellite mission. This paper discusses the Technical Authority process and then describes some unique steps that are being taken at the GSFC to support these MSEs in meeting their responsibilities.

  16. Mars global surveyor mission: overview and status.

    PubMed

    Albee, A L; Palluconi, F D; Arvidson, R E

    1998-03-13

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft achieved a 45-hour elliptical orbit at Mars on 11 September 1997 after an 11-month cruise from Earth. The mission is acquiring high-quality global observations of the martian surface and atmosphere and of its magnetic and gravitational fields. These observations will continue for one martian year.

  17. Assessment of control measures to achieve a food safety objective of less than 100 CFU of Listeria monocytogenes per gram at the point of consumption for fresh precut iceberg lettuce.

    PubMed

    Szabo, E A; Simons, L; Coventry, M J; Cole, M B

    2003-02-01

    The important new concept of the food safety objective (FSO) offers a strategy to translate public health risk into a definable goal such as a specified maximum frequency or concentration of a hazardous agent in a food at the time of consumption that is deemed to provide an appropriate level of health protection. For the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, there is a proposed FSO of < 100 CFU/g in ready-to-eat (RTE) products at the time of consumption. Fresh precut iceberg lettuce is one of these RTE products. In this study, we worked with a commercial manufacturer to evaluate the effectiveness of two antimicrobial washing agents (sodium hypochlorite and a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid) against L. monocytogenes under simulated fresh precut washing conditions and evaluated the growth potential of this pathogen on lettuce packaged in a gas-permeable film and stored at 4 or 8 degrees C for 14 days. We used the results of this experiment to demonstrate how the commercial manufacturer could meet the FSO for L. monocytogenes in fresh precut lettuce through the application of performance, process, and microbiological criteria.

  18. Global astrometry with the space interferometry mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boden, A.; Unwin, S.; Shao, M.

    1997-01-01

    The prospects for global astrometric measurements with the space interferometry mission (SIM) are discussed. The SIM mission will perform four microarcsec astrometric measurements on objects as faint as 20 mag using the optical interferometry technique with a 10 m baseline. The SIM satellite will perform narrow angle astrometry and global astrometry by means of an astrometric grid. The sensitivities of the SIM global astrometric performance and the grid accuracy versus instrumental parameters and sky coverage schemes are reported on. The problems in finding suitable astrometric grid objects to support microarcsec astrometry, and related ground-based observation programs are discussed.

  19. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  20. Mars Sample Return Using Commercial Capabilities: Mission Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Andrew A.; Stoker, Carol R.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Faber, Nicholas T.; Race, Margaret S.

    2013-01-01

    as verifiable means of compliance will have a large impact on any MSR mission design. We identify areas within our architecture where such impacts occur. This work shows that emerging commercial capabilities can be used to effectively integrated into a mission to achieve an important planetary science objective.