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Sample records for achieve mission requirements

  1. Mission requirements: Second Skylab mission SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Complete SL-3 mission objectives and requirements, as revised 1 February 1972 (Rev. 6), are presented. Detailed test objectives are also given on the medical experiments, Apollo Telescope Mount experiments, Earth Resources Experiment Package, and corollary experiments and environmental microbiology experiments.

  2. EVAL mission requirements, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The aspects of NASA's applications mission were enhanced by utilization of shuttle/spacelab, and payload groupings which optimize the cost of achieving the mission goals were defined. Preliminary Earth Viewing Application Laboratory (EVAL) missions, experiments, sensors, and sensor groupings were developed. The major technological EVAL themes and objectives which NASA will be addressing during the 1980 to 2,000 time period were investigated. Missions/experiments which addressed technique development, sensor development, application development, and/or operational data collection were considered as valid roles for EVAL flights.

  3. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; Pellegrino, Joseph F.; McGuire, Jill; Henry, Ross; DeWeese, Keith; Reed, Benjamin; Aranyos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface sample to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In-space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that utilizes the concept of in-space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  4. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; McGuire, Jill; Pellegrino, Joseph; Strube, Matthew; Aranyos, Thomas; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface samples, and equipment to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that relies on the concept of in space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  5. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; Pellegrino, Joseph; McGuire, Jill; Henry, Ross; DeWeese, Keith; Reed, Benjamin; Aranyos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface samples, and equipment to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, re-use and or re-purpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In-space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that relies on the concept of in-space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  6. The Requirements Generation System: A tool for managing mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Sylvia B.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, NASA's cost for developing mission requirements has been a significant part of a mission's budget. Large amounts of time have been allocated in mission schedules for the development and review of requirements by the many groups who are associated with a mission. Additionally, tracing requirements from a current document to a parent document has been time-consuming and costly. The Requirements Generation System (RGS) is a computer-supported cooperative-work tool that assists mission developers in the online creation, review, editing, tracing, and approval of mission requirements as well as in the production of requirements documents. This paper describes the RGS and discusses some lessons learned during its development.

  7. Mission requirements: Skylab rescue mission SL-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab Program includes three low earth orbit missions. These missions are designated SL-1/SL-2,SL-3 and SL-4. In addition to the three nominal Skylab missions, the program includes the Skylab Rescue Mission (SL-R). The SL-R mission is designed to provide a safe return of the Skylab crew in the event the Command Service Module (CSM) becomes disabled while docked to the Saturn Workshop (SWS). Mission requirements for the SL-R mission only are presented. SL-R mission configuration will be a CSM (modified with a field installed kit) manned by two crewmen launched on a Saturn IB Launch Vechicle. The SL-R CSM will rendezvous and dock with the SWS (or Orbital Assembly (OA), consisting of the SWS and disabled CSM, if the disabled CSM has not previously been jettisoned). The SWS configuration includes a Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Airlock Module (AM), and an S-IVB stage (modified as an Orbital Workshop (OWS), previously launched and inserted into orbit on a two-stage Saturn V Launch Vehicle for the SL-1/SL-2 mission.

  8. Space Mission Utility and Requirements for a Heat Melt Compactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Lee, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of waste on long-duration space missions is both a problem and an opportunity. Uncontained or unprocessed waste is a crew health hazard and a habitat storage problem. A Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) such as NASA has been developing is capable of processing space mission trash and converting it to useful products. The HMC is intended to process space mission trash to achieve a number of objectives including: volume reduction, biological safening and stabilization, water recovery, radiation shielding, and planetary protection. This paper explores the utility of the HMC to future space missions and how this translates into HMC system requirements.

  9. Deep space network: Mission support requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to provide NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory management with a concise summary of information concerning the forecasting of the necessary support and requirements for missions described here, including the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini, and the Dynamics Explorer-1. A brief description of various missions along with specific support requirements for each are given.

  10. Remote sensor support requirements for planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddell, J. B.; Wheeler, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    The study approach, methods, results, and conclusions of remote sensor support requirements for planetary missions are summarized. Major efforts were made to (1) establish the scientific and engineering knowledge and observation requirements for planetary exploration in the 1975 to 1985 period; (2) define the state of the art and expected development of instrument systems appropriate for sensing planetary environments; (3) establish scaling laws relating performance and support requirements of candidate remote sensor systems; (4) establish fundamental remote sensor system capabilities, limitations, and support requirements during encounter and other dynamical conditions for specific missions; and (5) construct families of candidate remote sensors compatible with selected missions. It was recommended that these data be integrated with earlier results to enhance utility, and that more restrictions be placed on the system.

  11. Protein requirements for long term missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    1994-01-01

    A key component of the diet for a space mission is protein. This first part of this paper reviews the reasons for emphasizing protein nurtition and then discusses what the requirements are likely to be. The second part discusses potential advantages of modifying these requirements and describes potential potential approaches to effecting these modificatons based on well established ground based models.

  12. Protein requirements for long term missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, T. P.

    1994-11-01

    A key component of the diet for a space mission is protein. This first part of this paper reviews the reasons for emphasizing protein nutrition and then discusses what the requirements are likely to be. The second part discusses potential advantages of modifying these requirements and describes potential approaches to effecting these modifications based on well established ground based models.

  13. Spacecraft radiators for advanced mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Design requirements for spacecraft heat rejection systems are identified, and their impact on the construction of conventional pumped fluid and hybrid heat pipe/pumped fluid radiators is evaluated. Heat rejection systems to improve the performance or reduce the cost of the spacecraft are proposed. Heat rejection requirements which are large compared to those of existing systems and mission durations which are relatively long, are discussed.

  14. Unconventional missile concepts from consideration of varied mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Missile concepts for volumetric efficiency, minimum carriage constraints, and aerodynamic performance to achieve mission requirements. The mission requirements considered include air to surface roles such as defense suppression or antishipping where payload and range may have priority over high maneuver capability, and air to air and surface to air roles paying attention to good maneuvering capability. The concepts are intended to provide for ease of storage or carriage. The concepts include monoplanes with highly swept, thick delta wings, highly swept delta wings mounted either high or low on a semicircular body, some ring wing and semiring wing arrangements, parasol wing, and elliptical lifting bodies. The missile configurations indicate possible approaches toward resolving problems of carriage and storage while retaining good volumetric and aerodynamic efficiency. The configurations can accomplish a variety of possible missions with relatively simple vehicle shapes.

  15. FIREX mission requirements document for nonrenewable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, T.; Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed mission requirements and a proposed experimental program for satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system named FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for nonrenewable resources is described. The recommended spacecraft minimum SAR system is a C-band imager operating in four modes: (1) low look angle HH-polarized; (2) intermediate look angle, HH-polarized; (3) intermediate look angle, IIV-polarized; and (4) high look angle HH-polarized. This SAR system is complementary to other future spaceborne imagers such as the Thematic Mapper on LANDSAT-D. A near term aircraft SAR based research program is outlined which addresses specific mission design issues such as preferred incidence angles or polarizations for geologic targets of interest.

  16. FIREX mission requirements document for renewable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F.; Dixon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The initial experimental program and mission requirements for a satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for renewable resources is described. The spacecraft SAR is a C-band and L-band VV polarized system operating at two angles of incidence which is designated as a research instrument for crop identification, crop canopy condition assessments, soil moisture condition estimation, forestry type and condition assessments, snow water equivalent and snow wetness assessments, wetland and coastal land type identification and mapping, flood extent mapping, and assessment of drainage characteristics of watersheds for water resources applications. Specific mission design issues such as the preferred incidence angles for vegetation canopy measurements and the utility of a dual frequency (L and C-band) or dual polarization system as compared to the baseline system are addressed.

  17. Spacelab mission dependent training parametric resource requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogden, D. H.; Watters, H.; Steadman, J.; Conrad, L.

    1976-01-01

    Training flows were developed for typical missions, resource relationships analyzed, and scheduling optimization algorithms defined. Parametric analyses were performed to study the effect of potential changes in mission model, mission complexity and training time required on the resource quantities required to support training of payload or mission specialists. Typical results of these analyses are presented both in graphic and tabular form.

  18. Mission requirements for a manned earth observatory. Task 2: Reference mission definition and analyiss, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The mission requirements and conceptual design of manned earth observatory payloads for the 1980 time period are discussed. Projections of 1980 sensor technology and user data requirements were used to formulate typical basic criteria pertaining to experiments, sensor complements, and reference missions. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission selection and prioritization, (2) baseline mission analysis, (3) earth observation data handling and contingency plans, and (4) analysis of low cost mission definition and rationale.

  19. Nuclear power supplies: their potential and the practical problems to their achievement for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Colston, B.W.; Brehm, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The anticipated growth of the space station power requirement provides a good example of the problem the space nuclear power supply developers have to contend with: should a reactor power supply be developed that attempts to be all things to all missions, i.e., is highly flexible in its ability to meet a wide variety of missions, or should the development of a reactor system await a specific mission definition and be customized to this mission. This leads, of course, to a chicken-and-egg situation. For power requirements of several hundreds of kilowatts or more, no nuclear power source exists or is even far enough along in the definition stage (much less the development stage) for NASA to reasonably assume probable availability within the next 10 years. The real problem of space nuclear power is this ''chicken-and-egg'' syndrome: DOE will not develop a space reactor system for NASA without a firm mission, and NASA will not specify a firm mission requiring a space reactor because such a system doesn't exist and is perceived not to be developable within the time frame of the mission. The problem is how to break this cycle. The SP-100 program has taken an important first step to breaking this cycle, but this program is much more design-specific than what is required to achieve a broad technology base and latitude in achievable power level. In contrast to the SP-100 approach, a wider perspective is required: the development of the appropriate technologies for power levels can be broken into ranges, say, from 100 kWe to 1000 kWe, and from 1000 kWe to 10,000 kWe.

  20. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 3: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    User missions that are enabled or enhanced by a manned space station are identified. The mission capability requirements imposed on the space station by these users are delineated. The accommodation facilities, equipment, and functional requirements necessary to achieve these capabilities are identified, and the economic, performance, and social benefits which accrue from the space station are defined.

  1. Geostationary Platforms Mission and Payload Requirements study. Volume 2: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of using geostationary platforms to provide communications and other services was examined. Detailed data on the payload and housekeeping requirements of selected communications missions and one typical noncommunications mission are presented.

  2. Scientific and Mission Requirements of Next-generation Space Infrared Space Telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Ichikawa, Takashi; Takami, Michihiro; Sakon, Itsuki

    SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology Astrophysics) is a next-generation space tele-scope for mid-and far-infrared astronomy, based on the heritage of AKARI, Spitzer, and Her-schel, Here we introduce Mission Requirement Document (MRD), where scientific and mission requirement of SPICA are described. The MRD clarifies the objectives of the SPICA mission. These objectives are more concretely expressed by various scientific targets, and based on these targets, the mission requirements, such as required specifications of the mission instrumenta-tions, scientific operations etc. are defined. Also the success criteria, by which the evaluation of the mission achievement will be addressed, are clearly described. The mission requirements described here will give the baseline of the study of the system requirements. In the future, The MRD will also be used to confirm the development status, system performance, and operational results on orbit etc. are well in-line with the mission requirements. To summarize, the most important mission requirement of SPICA is to realize a large, mono-lithic (not segmented) 3-m class or larger mirror cooled down below 6K, in order to perform extremely deep imaging and spectroscopy at 5-210µm.

  3. Shuttle vehicle and mission simulation requirements report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for the space shuttle vehicle and mission simulation are developed to analyze the systems, mission, operations, and interfaces. The requirements are developed according to the following subject areas: (1) mission envelope, (2) orbit flight dynamics, (3) shuttle vehicle systems, (4) external interfaces, (5) crew procedures, (6) crew station, (7) visual cues, and (8) aural cues. Line drawings and diagrams of the space shuttle are included to explain the various systems and components.

  4. Data Requirement (DR) MA-03: Payload missions integration. [Spacelab payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Project management and payload integration requirements definition activities are reported. Mission peculiar equipment; systems integration; ground operations analysis and requirement definition; safety and quality assurance; and support systems development are examined for payloads planned for the following missions: EOM-1; SL-2; Sl-3 Astro-1; MSL-2; EASE/ACCESS; MPESS; and the middeck ADSF flight.

  5. Achieving an Institution's Values, Vision, and Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calder, William B.

    2014-01-01

    The measures of institutional success are more meaningful through the further realization of the institution's vision and mission and how the institution is supporting its declared values through various initiatives and behaviours. Institutions and their leaders rely on these statements as foundational pillars by which to launch new programs,…

  6. Mars rover/sample return mission requirements affecting space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The possible interfaces between the Space Station and the Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission are defined. In order to constrain the scope of the report a series of seven design reference missions divided into three major types were assumed. These missions were defined to span the probable range of Space Station-MRSR interactions. The options were reduced, the MRSR sample handling requirements and baseline assumptions about the MRSR hardware and the key design features and requirements of the Space Station are summarized. Only the aspects of the design reference missions necessary to define the interfaces, hooks and scars, and other provisions on the Space Station are considered. An analysis of each of the three major design reference missions, is reported, presenting conceptual designs of key hardware to be mounted on the Space Station, a definition of weights, interfaces, and required hooks and scars.

  7. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riel, F. D.

    1983-01-01

    Space station missions and their requirements are discussed. Analyses of the following four mission categories are summarized: (1) commercial, (2) technology, (3) operation, and (4) science and applications. The requirements determined by the study dictate a very strong need for a manned space station to satisfy the majority of the missions. The station is best located at a 28.5-deg inclination and initially (1992 era) requires a crew of four (three for mission payloads) and a mission power of 25 kW. A space platform in a polar orbit is needed to augment the station capability; it initially would be a 15-kW system, located in a sun-synchronous orbit.

  8. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission, 6 years in operations: status and achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Maestroni, Elia; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 6th years of operational life in April 2016. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and its main scientific achievements. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  9. Mars Sample Return: Mars Ascent Vehicle Mission and Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Huynh, Loc C.; Hawke, Veronica M.

    2013-01-01

    A Mars Sample Return mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science, the key community input process that guides NASA's science missions. A feasibility study was conducted of a potentially simple and low cost approach to Mars Sample Return mission enabled by the use of new commercial capabilities. Previous studies of MSR have shown that landing an all up sample return mission with a high mass capacity lander is a cost effective approach. The approach proposed is the use of a SpaceX Dragon capsule to land the launch vehicle system that would return samples to Earth. This paper describes the mission and technology requirements impact on the launch vehicle system design, referred to as the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV).

  10. Mars Sample Return: Mars Ascent Vehicle Mission and Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Huynh, Loc C.; Hawke, Veronica M.; Jiang, Xun J.

    2013-01-01

    A Mars Sample Return mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science, the key community input process that guides NASAs science missions. A feasibility study was conducted of a potentially simple and low cost approach to Mars Sample Return mission enabled by the use of developing commercial capabilities. Previous studies of MSR have shown that landing an all up sample return mission with a high mass capacity lander is a cost effective approach. The approach proposed is the use of an emerging commercially available capsule to land the launch vehicle system that would return samples to Earth. This paper describes the mission and technology requirements impact on the launch vehicle system design, referred to as the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV).

  11. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Mars Mission Systems Analysis and Requirements Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Chiroux, Robert C.; Thomas, Dan; Crane, Tracie

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the Mars transportation vehicle design concepts developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office. These vehicle design concepts provide an indication of the most demanding and least demanding potential requirements for nuclear thermal propulsion systems for human Mars exploration missions from years 2025 to 2035. Vehicle concept options vary from large "all-up" vehicle configurations that would transport all of the elements for a Mars mission on one vehicle. to "split" mission vehicle configurations that would consist of separate smaller vehicles that would transport cargo elements and human crew elements to Mars separately. Parametric trades and sensitivity studies show NTP stage and engine design options that provide the best balanced set of metrics based on safety, reliability, performance, cost and mission objectives. Trade studies include the sensitivity of vehicle performance to nuclear engine characteristics such as thrust, specific impulse and nuclear reactor type. Tbe associated system requirements are aligned with the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Reference Mars mission as described in the Explorations Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) report. The focused trade studies include a detailed analysis of nuclear engine radiation shield requirements for human missions and analysis of nuclear thermal engine design options for the ESAS reference mission.

  12. Analysing Global Achievements in Orbital Lifetime Reduction at the End of LEO Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krag, Holger; Lemmens, Stijn; Flohrer, Tim; Klinkard, Heiner

    2013-08-01

    The major driver for future debris proliferation, besides the intentional and unintentional release of objects, is the abundance of objects with large masses and sizes in orbit that could be involved in catastrophic collisions. Mitigation measures thus concentrate on the prevention of object release (explosions, mission-related objects, SRM (Solid Rocket Motor) exhaust products), the disposal of objects and active collision avoidance. As ESA's simulations show, the most effective means of stabilizing the space debris environment is the removal of mass from regions with high spatial densities. A limitation of the residence time of controlled objects in altitudes below 2000km to 25 years followed by either atmospheric re-entry or reboost to higher altitudes allows to limit the growth of object numbers in the densely populated LEO environment. This is the most relevant requirement for operations. In this paper we look into the achievements of all spacefaring nations with respect to this requirement. For this purpose, ESA has developed a method to determine the operational status of running missions, by monitoring their manoeuvre activity with the help of the publicly available orbit data distributed by the US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). Missions that have been found to have terminated their operational life will be processed to determine the remaining orbital lifetime. The results will be presented in a statistical manner.

  13. An Overview of Power Capability Requirements for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jose M.; Cataldo, Robert L.; Soeder, James F.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Hakimzadeh, Roshanak

    2005-01-01

    Advanced power is one of the key capabilities that will be needed to achieve NASA's missions of exploration and scientific advancement. Significant gaps exist in advanced power capabilities that are on the critical path to enabling human exploration beyond Earth orbit and advanced robotic exploration of the solar system. Focused studies and investment are needed to answer key development issues for all candidate technologies before down-selection. The viability of candidate power technology alternatives will be a major factor in determining what exploration mission architectures are possible. Achieving the capabilities needed to enable the CEV, Moon, and Mars missions is dependent on adequate funding. Focused investment in advanced power technologies for human and robotic exploration missions is imperative now to reduce risk and to make informed decisions on potential exploration mission decisions beginning in 2008. This investment would begin the long lead-time needed to develop capabilities for human exploration missions in the 2015 to 2030 timeframe. This paper identifies some of the key technologies that will be needed to fill these power capability gaps. Recommendations are offered to address capability gaps in advanced power for Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) power, surface nuclear power systems, surface mobile power systems, high efficiency power systems, and space transportation power systems. These capabilities fill gaps that are on the critical path to enabling robotic and human exploration missions. The recommendations address the following critical technology areas: Energy Conversion, Energy Storage, and Power Management and Distribution.

  14. Determining Staffing Requirements for Humanitarian Assistance Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    12 Nurse Anesthetist 4 2 Surgical Tech 8483 12 General Nurse 2 1 Orthopedic Cast Tech 8489 1 Medical Services 2300 Histopathology Tech 8503 2...support staff easier to defi ne. For a training objective, the personnel may include physicians, nurses , corpsmen, and preventive medicine (PM) personnel...will require a mix of physicians, nurses , and corpsmen. Medical equipment repair/installation proj- ects will require biomedical equipment repair

  15. The Kaguya Mission: Science Achievements and Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Manabu; Sasaki, Susumu; Takizawa, Yoshisada

    2010-05-01

    Lunar orbiter Kaguya (SELENE) has impacted the Moon on July 10, 2009. The Kaguya mission has completed to observe the whole Moon for total twenty months; checkout term of three months, nominal one of ten months, and the extension of seven months. In the extended mission before the impact the measurements of magnetic field and gamma-ray from lower orbits have been perrformed successfully in addition to low altitude observation by Terraine Camera, Multiband Imager, and HDTV Camera. New data of intense magnetic anomaly and GRS data with higher spacial resolution has been acquired to study elemental distribution and magnetism of the Moon. New information and insights have been brought to lunar sciences in topography, gra-vimetry, geology, mineralogy, lithology, plasma physics. On November 1, 2009 the Kaguya team has released science data to the public as an international promise. The archive data can be accessed through Kaguya homepage of JAXA. Image gallary and 3D GIS system have been also put on view from the same homepage.

  16. Consolidated science requirements for a next generation gravity field mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pail, Roland; Bingham, Rory; Braitenberg, Carla; Eicker, Annette; Floberghagen, Rune; Haagmans, Roger; Horwath, Martin; LaBrecque, John; Longuevergne, Laurent; Panet, Isabelle; Rolstad-Denby, Cecile; Wouters, Bert

    2014-05-01

    As a joint initiative of the IAG (International Association of Geodesy) Sub-Commissions 2.3 and 2.6, the GGOS (Global Geodetic Observing System) Working Group on Satellite Missions, and the IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics), science requirements for a next generation gravity field mission (beyond GRACE-FO) shall be defined and consolidated. A consolidation of the user requirements is required, because several future gravity field studies have resulted in quite different performance numbers as a target for a future gravity mission (2025+). For this purpose, the science requirements shall be accorded by the different user groups, i.e. hydrology, ocean, cryosphere, solid Earth and atmosphere, under the boundary condition of the technical feasibility of the mission concepts and before the background of double- and multi-pair formations. This initiative shall mainly concentrate on the consolidation of the science requirements, and should result in a document that can be used as a solid basis for further programmatic and technological developments. Based on limited number of realistic mission scenarios, a consolidated view on the science requirements within the international user communities shall be derived, research fields that could not be tackled by current gravity missions shall be identified, and the added value (qualitatively and quantitatively) of these scenarios with respect to science return shall be evaluated. The final science requirements shall be agreed upon during a workshop which will be held in September 2014. In this contribution, the mission scenarios will be discussed and first results of the consolidation process will be presented.

  17. Difficult Requirements for a Gravitational Wave Mission using Atom Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Peter L.

    2014-03-01

    A PRL paper by Graham, Hogan, Kasevich, and Rajendran in April, 2013 suggested gravitational wave observations in space using single photon transitions on highly forbidden optical lines for atom interferometry measurements. The main example given was based on use of the 698 nm optical clock transition in Sr-87, a 1000 km baseline, and large momentum transfer laser pulse sequences producing 2400 state transitions for a given atom over a 100 s observation period. A specific scenario for such a mission is needed in order to permit evaluation of the requirements. As a stop-gap, a laser power of 30 W, square laser pulses, 1 m diam. transmitting telescopes, and operation of 4 concurrent pairs of atom interferometers are being assumed. Based on these assumptions, the atom cloud temperature requirement would be below 0.1 pK, and the number of atoms required per cloud would be extremely high. Such a mission would be much more complex than a laser interferometry mission with better overall sensitivity, such as the extensively studied LISA mission or the recently proposed evolved-LISA (eLISA) mission. A LISA Pathfinder mission is scheduled for launch in 2015, funded mainly by ESA . A gravitational wave observation theme is being considered by ESA as part of their Cosmic Vision Programme.

  18. Management of Operational Support Requirements for Manned Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Instruction establishes responsibilities for managing the system whereby operational support requirements are levied for support of manned flight missions including associated payloads. This management system will ensure that support requirements are properly requested and responses are properly obtained to meet operational objectives.

  19. Shuttle mission simulator requirements report, volume 1, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The tasks are defined required to design, develop produce, and field support a shuttle mission simulator for training crew members and ground support personnel. The requirements for program management, control, systems engineering, design and development are discussed along with the design and construction standards, software design, control and display, communication and tracking, and systems integration.

  20. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The baseline mission model used to develop the space station mission-related requirements is described as well as the 90 civil missions that were evaluated, (including the 62 missions that formed the baseline model). Mission-related requirements for the space station baseline are defined and related to space station architectural development. Mission-related sensitivity analyses are discussed.

  1. A risk-based approach to robotic mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, William C.; Bourke, Roger D.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Risk Team has developed a method for the application of risk management to the definition of robotic mission requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative. These requirements encompass environmental information, infrastructural emplacement in advance, and either technology testing or system/subsystems demonstration. Attention is presently given to a method for step-by-step consideration and analysis of the risk component inherent in mission architecture, followed by a calculation of the subjective risk level. Mitigation strategies are then applied with the same rules, and a comparison is made.

  2. Achieving Maximum Integration Utilizing Requirements Flow Down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archiable, Wes; Askins, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A robust and experienced systems engineering team is essential for a successful program. It is often a challenge to build a core systems engineering team early enough in a program to maximize integration and assure a common path for all supporting teams in a project. Ares I was no exception. During the planning of IVGVT, the team had many challenges including lack of: early identification of stakeholders, team training in NASA s system engineering practices, solid requirements flow down and a top down documentation strategy. The IVGVT team started test planning early in the program before the systems engineering framework had been matured due to an aggressive schedule. Therefore the IVGVT team increased their involvement in the Constellation systems engineering effort. Program level requirements were established that flowed down to IVGVT aligning all stakeholders to a common set of goals. The IVGVT team utilized the APPEL REQ Development Management course providing the team a NASA focused model to follow. The IVGVT team engaged directly with the model verification and validation process to assure that a solid set of requirements drove the need for the test event. The IVGVT team looked at the initial planning state, analyzed the current state and then produced recommendations for the ideal future state of a wide range of systems engineering functions and processes. Based on this analysis, the IVGVT team was able to produce a set of lessons learned and to provide suggestions for future programs or tests to use in their initial planning phase.

  3. The HYDROS Mission: Requirements and Baseline System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; O'Neill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2003-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freezel/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications. HYDROS uses a unique active and passive L-band microwave system that optimizes measurement accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage. It provides measurements in nearly all weather conditions, regardless of solar illumination. The designs of the radar and radiometer electronics, antenna feedhorn and reflector, and science data system, are driven by specific mission and science objectives. These objectives impose requirements on the frequencies, polarizations, sampling, spatial resolution, and accuracy of the system. In this paper we describe the HYDROS mission requirements, baseline design, and measurement capabilities.

  4. Gun requirements to achieve high field spheromaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K

    1999-03-04

    It is shown that a gun similar to that in the SSPX could demonstrate the high fields required for Pulsed Spheromak reactors merely by prolonging the pulse. Important considerations are choosing the voltage to exceed ohmic losses; designing the gun to avoid wasteful short-circuiting of current within the gun; and the injection efficiency factor, f, determined by the ''sag'' in the profile of {lambda} = {mu}{sub o}j/B. Typically f = 0.75 in experiments, giving an overall efficiency > 50 % if short-circuiting is avoided. Theoretical transport models agree qualitatively with the need for a finite gradient in h to pump in helicity by current-driven tearing modes and suggest that pressure-driven resistive modes would not compete with current-driven modes during a buildup to ohmic ignition.

  5. Instrumentation requirements and provisions for Shuttle/Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerin, C. J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the instrument accommodations for Shuttle/Spacelab missions is presented. Spacelab subsystems that interface with experiments are discussed in some detail. Particular emphasis is given to the Command and Data Handling Subsystem. Updated information is provided regarding the acoustic environment and emergency landing requirements.

  6. Effect of power system technology and mission requirements on high altitude long endurance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine how various power system components and mission requirements affect the sizing of a solar powered long endurance aircraft. The aircraft power system consists of photovoltaic cells and a regenerative fuel cell. Various characteristics of these components, such as PV cell type, PV cell mass, PV cell efficiency, fuel cell efficiency, and fuel cell specific mass, were varied to determine what effect they had on the aircraft sizing for a given mission. Mission parameters, such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power, were also altered to determine how mission constraints affect the aircraft sizing. An aircraft analysis method which determines the aircraft configuration, aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass, for maximum endurance or minimum required power based on the stated power system and mission parameters is presented. The results indicate that, for the power system, the greatest benefit can be gained by increasing the fuel cell specific energy. Mission requirements also substantially affect the aircraft size. By limiting the time of year the aircraft is required to fly at high northern or southern latitudes, a significant reduction in aircraft size or increase in payload capacity can be achieved.

  7. User definition and mission requirements for unmanned airborne platforms, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhner, M. B.; Mcdowell, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The airborne measurement requirements of the scientific and applications experiment user community were assessed with respect to the suitability of proposed strawman airborne platforms. These platforms provide a spectrum of measurement capabilities supporting associated mission tradeoffs such as payload weight, operating altitude, range, duration, flight profile control, deployment flexibility, quick response, and recoverability. The results of the survey are used to examine whether the development of platforms is warranted and to determine platform system requirements as well as research and technology needs.

  8. Rendezvous radar requirements analysis for mission 3B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, W. L.; Jones, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented verifying the compatibility of currently proposed rendezvous radar measurement accuracies with Mission 3B rendezvous requirements. In addition, data presented indicate a potential for increasing the acceptable time lag between termination of thrusting and availability of accurate measurement data. Additional investigation is recommended to define any acceptable time lag above the current proposed value. Finally, Mission 3B rendezvous performance is shown to be sensitive to variations in the relative downrange position dispersions at insertion. It is therefore recommended that insertion relative state dispersions used in studies of 3B rendezvous be reviewed when results of 3B ascent dispersion studies are available.

  9. Life sciences flight experiments program mission science requirements document. The first life sciences dedicated Spacelab mission, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Mission Science Requirements Document (MSRD) for the First Dedicated Life Sciences Mission (LS-1) represents the culmination of thousands of hours of experiment selection, and science requirement definition activities. NASA life sciences has never before attempted to integrate, both scientifically and operationally, a single mission dedicated to life sciences research, and the complexity of the planning required for such an endeavor should be apparent. This set of requirements completes the first phase of a continual process which will attempt to optimize (within available programmatic and mission resources) the science accomplished on this mission.

  10. Earth resources requirements Skylab missions SL-1/SL-2, SL-3, and SL-4. Appendix B: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Earth resources requirements to be investigated by Skylab missions 1 through 4 are presented tabularly. Areas to be investigated include: (1) agriculture, range, and forestry; (2) geology; (3) continental water resources; (4) ocean investigations; (5) atmospheric investigations; (6) coastal zones, shoals, and bays; (7) remote sensing techniques; and (8) cartography.

  11. Future planetary missions potentially requiring Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondt, Jack F.; Nesmith, Bill J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the potential Radioisotope Power System, (RPS), technology requirements for future missions being planned for NASA's Solar System Exploration (SSE) theme. Many missions to the outer planets (Jupiter and beyond) require completion of the work on advanced radioisotope power systems (ARPS) now underway in NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program. The power levels for the ARPS can be divided into four classes. Forty to one hundred milliwatt-class provides both thermal and electric power for small in situ science laboratories on the surface of bodies in the solar system. One to two watt class for surface and aerobot science laboratories. Ten to twenty-watt class for micro satellites in orbit, surface science stations and aerobots. One hundred to two hundred watt class for orbiter science spacecraft, for drilling core samples, for powering subsurface hydrobots and cryobots on accessible bodies and for data handling and communicating data from small orbiters, surface laboratories, aerobots and hydrobots back to Earth. Using the most optimistic solar-based power system instead of advanced RPSs pushes the launch masses of these missions beyond the capability of affordable launch vehicles. Advanced RPS is also favored over solar power for obtaining comet samples on extended-duration missions. .

  12. Implementing planetary protection requirements for sample return missions.

    PubMed

    Rummel, J D

    2000-01-01

    NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding the biological contamination of other solar system bodies and protecting the Earth against potential harm from materials returned from space. NASA's planetary protection program evaluates missions (with external advice from the US National Research Council and others) and imposes particular constraints on individual missions to achieve these objectives. In 1997 the National Research Council's Space Studies Board published the report, Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations, which reported advice to NASA on Mars sample return missions, complementing their 1992 report, The Biological Contamination of Mars Issues and Recommendations. Meanwhile, NASA has requested a new Space Studies Board study to address sample returns from bodies other than Mars. This study recognizes the variety of worlds that have been opened up to NASA and its partners by small, relatively inexpensive, missions of the Discovery class, as well as the reshaping of our ideas about life in the solar system that have been occasioned by the Galileo spacecraft's discovery that an ocean under the ice on Jupiter's moon Europa might, indeed, exist. This paper will report on NASA's planned implementation of planetary protection provisions based on these recent National Research Council recommendations, and will suggest measures for incorporation in the planetary protection policy of COSPAR.

  13. Automated Mars surface sample return mission concepts for achievement of essential scientific objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Norton, H. N.; Darnell, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Mission concepts were investigated for automated return to Earth of a Mars surface sample adequate for detailed analyses in scientific laboratories. The minimum sample mass sufficient to meet scientific requirements was determined. Types of materials and supporting measurements for essential analyses are reported. A baseline trajectory profile was selected for its low energy requirements and relatively simple implementation, and trajectory profile design data were developed for 1979 and 1981 launch opportunities. Efficient spacecraft systems were conceived by utilizing existing technology where possible. Systems concepts emphasized the 1979 launch opportunity, and the applicability of results to other opportunities was assessed. It was shown that the baseline missions (return through Mars parking orbit) and some comparison missions (return after sample transfer in Mars orbit) can be accomplished by using a single Titan III E/Centaur as the launch vehicle. All missions investigated can be accomplished by use of Space Shuttle/Centaur vehicles.

  14. New mission requirements methodologies for services provided by the Office of Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Dwight P.; Hall, J. R.; Macoughtry, William; Spearing, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Space Communications, NASA Headquarters, has recently revised its methodology for receiving, accepting and responding to customer requests for use of that office's tracking and communications capabilities. This revision is the result of a process which has become over-burdened by the size of the currently active and proposed missions set, requirements reviews that focus on single missions rather than on mission sets, and negotiations most often not completed early enough to effect needed additions to capacity or capability prior to launch. The requirements-coverage methodology described is more responsive to project/program needs and provides integrated input into the NASA budget process early enough to effect change, and describes the mechanisms and tools in place to insure a value-added process which will benefit both NASA and its customers. Key features of the requirements methodology include the establishment of a mechanism for early identification of and systems trades with new customers, and delegates the review and approval of requirements documents to NASA centers in lieu of Headquarters, thus empowering the system design teams to establish and negotiate the detailed requirements with the user. A Mission Requirements Request (MRR) is introduced to facilitate early customer interaction. The expected result is that the time to achieve an approved set of implementation requirements which meet the customer's needs can be greatly reduced. Finally, by increasing the discipline in requirements management, through the use of base lining procedures, a tighter coupling between customer requirements and the budget is provided. A twice-yearly projection of customer requirements accommodation, designated as the Capacity Projection Plan (CPP), provides customer feedback allowing the entire mission set to be serviced.

  15. Evolution of Requirements and Assumptions for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Sargusingh, Miriam; Perry, Jay

    2017-01-01

    NASA programs are maturing technologies, systems, and architectures to enabling future exploration missions. To increase fidelity as technologies mature, developers must make assumptions that represent the requirements of a future program. Multiple efforts have begun to define these requirements, including team internal assumptions, planning system integration for early demonstrations, and discussions between international partners planning future collaborations. For many detailed life support system requirements, existing NASA documents set limits of acceptable values, but a future vehicle may be constrained in other ways, and select a limited range of conditions. Other requirements are effectively set by interfaces or operations, and may be different for the same technology depending on whether the hard-ware is a demonstration system on the International Space Station, or a critical component of a future vehicle. This paper highlights key assumptions representing potential life support requirements and explanations of the driving scenarios, constraints, or other issues that drive them.

  16. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and systems analysis study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Turnaround requirements for the manned orbital transfer vehicle (MOTV) baseline and alternate concepts with and without a space operations center (SOC) are defined. Manned orbital transfer vehicle maintenance, refurbishment, resupply, and refueling are considered as well as the most effective combination of ground based and space based turnaround activities. Ground and flight operations requirements for abort are identified as well as low cost approaches to space and ground operations through maintenance and missions sensitivity studies. The recommended turnaround mix shows that space basing MOTV at SOC with periodic return to ground for overhaul results in minimum recurring costs. A pressurized hangar at SOC reduces labor costs by approximately 50%.

  17. Reassessment of planetary protection requirements for Venus missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, J.; Riemer, R.; Smith, D.; Rummel, J.

    In 2005 the US Space Studies Board SSB was asked by NASA to reexamine the planetary protection requirements for spacecraft missions to Venus In particular the SSB was tasked to 1 Assess the surface and atmospheric environments of Venus with respect to their ability to support the survival and growth of Earth-origin microbial contamination by future spacecraft missions and 2 Provide recommendations related to planetary protection issues associated with the return to Earth of samples from Venus The task group established by the SSB to address these issues assessed the known aspects of the present-day environment of Venus and the ability of Earth organisms to survive in the physical and chemical conditions found on the planet s surface or in the clouds in the planet s atmosphere As a result of its deliberations the task group found compelling evidence against there being significant dangers of forward or reverse biological contamination as a result of contact between a spacecraft and the surface of Venus or the clouds in the atmosphere of Venus regardless of the current unknowns The task group did however conclude that Venus is a body of interest relative to the process of chemical evolution and the origin of life As a result the task group endorses NASA s current policy of subjecting missions to Venus to the requirements imposed by planetary protection Category II rather than the less restrictive Category I recommended by COSPAR

  18. FLIP II - Concept Designs to Meet Future Scientific Mission Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laible, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    R/P FLIP has successfully operated for 40 years in support of important oceanographic research missions. The simple platform, which has the unique ability to provide a heave-stable operating location in open ocean environments, has over time been modified and upgraded. Its capability has been extended to the physical limits imposed by buoyancy and stability constraints. Nonetheless, there are oceanographic research operations that can use FLIP's unique characteristics, but which exceed its capabilities. Over the years researchers at the Marine Physical Laboratory of Scripps Institution of Oceanography have led investigations into second generation heave-stable ocean platforms with capabilities substantially exceeding those of R/P FLIP. This paper discusses several design concepts that have been developed. The designs are presented in terms of the ability to meet current and future scientific mission requirements.

  19. Radiation shielding requirements for manned deep space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1991-04-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and, particularly, solar flares (SF) constitute the major radiation hazards in deep space. The dose to astronauts from these radiation sources and the shielding required to mitigate its effect during a 480 day Mars mission is estimated here for a simplistic spacecraft geometry. The intent is to ball park'' the magnitude of the doses for the constant GCR background and for SF's that occur randomly during the mission. The spacecraft shielding and dose data are given only for primary GCR and SF radiation, recognizing that secondary particles produced by primary particle reactions in the spacecraft and High Z-High Energy particles will also contribute to the dose suffered by the astronauts. 22 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Large solar flare radiation shielding requirements for manned interplanetary missions.

    PubMed

    Townsend, L W; Nealy, J E; Wilson, J W; Atwell, W

    1989-01-01

    As the 21st century approaches, there is an ever-increasing interest in launching manned missions to Mars. A major concern to mission planners is exposure of the flight crews to highly penetrating and damaging space radiations. Beyond the protective covering of the Earth's magnetosphere, the two main sources of these radiations are galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. Preliminary analyses of potential exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) were presented elsewhere. In this Note, estimates of shielding thicknesses required to protect astronauts on interplanetary missions from the effects of large solar flare events are presented. The calculations use integral proton fluences for the February 1956, November 1960, and August 1972 solar particle events as inputs into the NASA Langley Research Center nucleon transport code BRYNTRN. This deterministic computer code transports primary protons and secondary protons and neutrons through any number of layers of target material of arbitrary thickness and composition. Contributions from target nucleus breakup (fragmentation) and recoil are also included. The results for each flare are presented as estimates of dose equivalent [in units of roentgen equivalent man (rem)] to the skin, eye, and bloodforming organs (BFO) behind various thicknesses of aluminum shielding. These results indicate that the February 1956 event was the most penetrating; however, the August 1972 event, the largest ever recorded, could have been mission- or life-threatening for thinly shielded (< or = 5 g/cm2) spacecraft. Also presented are estimates of the thicknesses of water shielding required to reduce the BFO dose equivalent to currently recommended astronaut exposure limits. These latter results suggest that organic polymers, similar to water, appear to be a much more desirable shielding material than aluminum.

  1. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  2. National facilities study. Volume 3: Mission and requirements model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 by Daniel S. Goldin, Administrator of NASA as an initiative to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future facilities. The resulting, multi-agency NFS consisted of three Task Groups: Aeronautics, Space Operations, and Space Research and Development (R&D) Task Groups. A fourth group, the Engineering and Cost Analysis Task Group, was subsequently added to provide cross-cutting functions, such as assuring consistency in developing an inventory of space facilities. Space facilities decisions require an assessment of current and future needs. Therefore, the two task groups dealing with space developed a consistent model of future space mission programs, operations and R&D. The model is a middle ground baseline constructed for NFS analytical purposes with excursions to cover potential space program strategies. The model includes three major sectors: DOD, civilian government, and commercial space. The model spans the next 30 years because of the long lead times associated with facilities development and usage. This document, Volume 3 of the final NFS report, is organized along the following lines: Executive Summary -- provides a summary view of the 30-year mission forecast and requirements baseline, an overview of excursions from that baseline that were studied, and organization of the report; Introduction -- provides discussions of the methodology used in this analysis; Baseline Model -- provides the mission and requirements model baseline developed for Space Operations and Space R&D analyses; Excursions from the baseline -- reviews the details of variations or 'excursions' that were developed to test the future program projections captured in the baseline; and a Glossary of Acronyms.

  3. Shuttle mission simulator requirements report, volume 1, revision C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The contractor tasks required to produce a shuttle mission simulator for training crew members and ground personnel are discussed. The tasks will consist of the design, development, production, installation, checkout, and field support of a simulator with two separate crew stations. The tasks include the following: (1) review of spacecraft changes and incorporation of appropriate changes in simulator hardware and software design, and (2) the generation of documentation of design, configuration management, and training used by maintenance and instructor personnel after acceptance for each of the crew stations.

  4. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements for Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew; Neubek, Deborah; Whitmire, Alexandria

    2012-01-01

    One possible next leap in human space exploration for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA). In order to achieve such an ambitious goal, a space habitat will need to accommodate a crew of four for the 380-day round trip. The Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) developed a conceptual design for such a habitat. The team identified activities that would be performed inside a long-duration, deep space habitat, and the capabilities needed to support such a mission. A list of seven functional activities/capabilities was developed: individual and group crew care, spacecraft and mission operations, subsystem equipment, logistics and resupply, and contingency operations. The volume for each activity was determined using NASA STD-3001 and the companion Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Although, the sum of these volumes produced an over-sized spacecraft, the team evaluated activity frequency and duration to identify functions that could share a common volume without conflict, reducing the total volume by 24%. After adding 10% for growth, the resulting functional pressurized volume was calculated to be a minimum of 268 m3 (9,464 ft3) distributed over the functions. The work was validated through comparison to Mir, Skylab, the International Space Station (ISS), Bigelow Aerospace s proposed habitat module, and NASA s Trans-Hab concept. Using HIDH guidelines, the team developed an internal layout that (a) minimized the transit time between related crew stations, (b) accommodated expected levels of activity at each station, (c) isolated stations when necessary for health, safety, performance, and privacy, and (d) provided a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

  5. Consolidated science and user requirements for a next generation gravity field mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pail, Roland; Bingham, Rory; Braitenberg, Carla; Eicker, Annette; Horwath, Martin; Longuevergne, Laurent; Panet, Isabelle; Rolstad-Denby, Cecile; Wouters, Bert

    2015-04-01

    In an internationally coordinated initiative among the main user communities of gravity field products the science and user requirements for a future gravity field mission constellation (beyond GRACE-FO) have been reviewed and defined. This activity was realized as a joint initiative of the IAG (International Association of Geodesy) Sub-Commissions 2.3 and 2.6, the GGOS (Global Geodetic Observing System) Working Group on Satellite Missions, and the IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics). After about one year of preparation, in a user workshop that was held in September 2014 consensus among the user communities of hydrology, ocean, cryosphere, solid Earth and atmosphere on consolidated science requirements could be achieved. The consolidation of the user requirements became necessary, because several future gravity field studies have resulted in quite different performance numbers as a target for a future gravity mission (2025+). Based on limited number of mission scenarios which took also technical feasibility into account, a consolidated view on the science requirements among the international user communities was derived, research fields that could not be tackled by current gravity missions have been identified, and the added value (qualitatively and quantitatively) of these scenarios with respect to science return has been evaluated. The resulting document shall form the basis for further programmatic and technological developments. In this contribution, the main results of this initiative will be presented. An overview of the specific requirements of the individual user groups, the consensus on consolidated requirements as well as the new research fields that have been identified during this process will be discussed.

  6. Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are 'in house' spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are 'out of house' spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC 'in house' and 'out of house' spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

  7. An overview of NASA's ASCENDS Mission's Lidar Measurement Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Menzies, R. T.; Lin, B.; Spiers, G. D.; Ismail, S.

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of NASA's ASCENDS mission are to improve the knowledge of global CO2 sources and sinks by precisely measuring the tropospheric column abundance of atmospheric CO2 and O2. The mission will use a continuously operating nadir-pointed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar in a polar orbit. The lidar offers a number of important new capabilities and will measure atmospheric CO2 globally over a wide range of challenging conditions, including at night, at high latitudes, through hazy and thin cloud conditions, and to cloud tops. The laser source enables a measurement of range, so that the absorption path length to the scattering surface will be always accurately known. The lidar approach also measures consistently in a nadir-zenith path and the narrow laser linewidth allows weighting the measurement to the lower troposphere. Using these measurements with atmospheric and flux models will allow improved estimates of CO2 fluxes and hence better understanding of the processes that exchange CO2 between the surface and atmosphere. The ASCENDS formulation team has developed a preliminary set of requirements for the lidar measurements. These were developed based on experience gained from the numerous ASCENDS airborne campaigns that have used different candidate lidar measurement techniques. They also take into account the complexity of making precise measurement of atmospheric gas columns when viewing the Earth from space. Some of the complicating factors are the widely varying reflectance and topographic heights of the Earth's land and ocean surfaces, the variety of cloud types, and the degree of cloud and aerosol absorption and scattering in the atmosphere. The requirements address the precision and bias in the measured column mixing ratio, the dynamic range of the expected surface reflected signal, the along-track sampling resolution, measurements made through thin clouds, measurements to forested and slope surfaces, range precision, measurements

  8. Planetary data system requirements: Multi-mission radio science requirements for the 1978 to 1988 era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, H. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The functional and performance requirements for support of multimission radio science are established. The classes of radio science investigation are described and the needed data is discussed. This document is for a sliding ten year period and will be iterated as the mission set evolves.

  9. Characterizing 3D Vegetation Structure from Space: Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Bergen, Kathleen; Blair, James B.; Dubayah, Ralph; Houghton, Richard; Hurtt, George; Kellndorfer, Josef; Lefsky, Michael; Ranson, Jon; Saatchi, Sasan; Shugart, H. H.; Wickland, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Human and natural forces are rapidly modifying the global distribution and structure of terrestrial ecosystems on which all of life depends, altering the global carbon cycle, affecting our climate now and for the foreseeable future, causing steep reductions in species diversity, and endangering Earth s sustainability. To understand changes and trends in terrestrial ecosystems and their functioning as carbon sources and sinks, and to characterize the impact of their changes on climate, habitat and biodiversity, new space assets are urgently needed to produce high spatial resolution global maps of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of vegetation, its biomass above ground, the carbon stored within and the implications for atmospheric green house gas concentrations and climate. These needs were articulated in a 2007 National Research Council (NRC) report (NRC, 2007) recommending a new satellite mission, DESDynI, carrying an L-band Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-SAR) and a multi-beam lidar (Light RAnging And Detection) operating at 1064 nm. The objectives of this paper are to articulate the importance of these new, multi-year, 3D vegetation structure and biomass measurements, to briefly review the feasibility of radar and lidar remote sensing technology to meet these requirements, to define the data products and measurement requirements, and to consider implications of mission durations. The paper addresses these objectives by synthesizing research results and other input from a broad community of terrestrial ecology, carbon cycle, and remote sensing scientists and working groups. We conclude that: (1) current global biomass and 3-D vegetation structure information is unsuitable for both science and management and policy. The only existing global datasets of biomass are approximations based on combining land cover type and representative carbon values, instead of measurements of actual biomass. Current measurement attempts based on radar and multispectral

  10. Electronic collection system for spacelab mission timeline requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, James P.; Piner, John R.; Huang, Allen K. H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Functional Objective Requirements Collection System (FORCS) software tool that has been developed for use by Principal Investigators (PI's) and Payload Element Developers (PED's) on their own personal computers to develop on-orbit timelining requirements for their payloads. The FORCS tool can be used either in a totally stand-alone mode, storing the information in a local file on the user's personal computer hard disk or in a remote mode where the user's computer is linked to a host computer containing the integrated database of the timeline requirements for all of the payloads on a mission. There are a number of features incorporated in the FORCS software to assist the user. The user may move freely back and forth between the various forms for inputting the data. Several methods are used to input the information, depending on the type of the information. These methods range from filling in text boxes, using check boxes and radio buttons, to inputting information into a spreadsheet format. There are automated features provided to assist in developing the proper format for the data, ranging from limit checking on some of the parameters to automatic conversion of different formats of time data inputs to the one standard format used for the timeline scheduling software.

  11. Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

  12. Development of a Thrust Stand to Meet LISA Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, William D., III; Zakrzwski, Charles M.; Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    A thrust stand has been built to measure the force-noise produced by electrostatic micro-Newton (muN) thrusters. The LISA mission's Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) requires thrusters that are capable of producing continuous thrust levels between 1-100 muN with a resolution of 0.1 muN. The stationary force-noise produced by these thrusters must not exceed 0.1 muN/dHz in the measurement bandwidth 10(exp -4) to 1 Hz. The LISA Thrust Stand (LTS) is a torsion-balance type thrust stand designed to meet the following requirements: stationary force-noise measurements from l0( -4) to 1 Hz with 0.1 muN/dHz sensitivity, absolute thrust measurements from 1-100 muN with better than 0.1 muN resolution, and dynamic thruster response from to 10 Hz. The LTS employs a unique vertical configuration, autocollimator for angular position measurements, and electrostatic actuators that are used for dynamic pendulum control and null-mode measurements. Force-noise levels are measured indirectly by characterizing the thrust stand as a spring-mass system. The LTS was initially designed to test the indium FEEP thruster developed by the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf (ARCS), but can be modified for testing other thrusters of this type.

  13. 14 CFR 431.79 - Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle mission reporting requirements. (a) Not less than 60 days before each RLV mission conducted under... safety. (b) Not later than 15 days before each licensed RLV mission, a licensee must notify the FAA, in writing, of the time and date of the intended launch and reentry or other landing on Earth of the RLV...

  14. Manned orbital systems concepts study. Book 2: Requirements for extended-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    In order to provide essential data needed in long-range program planning, the Manned Orbital Systems Concepts (MOSC) study attempted to define, evaluate, and compare concepts for manned orbital systems that provide extended experiment mission capabilities in space, flexibility of operation, and growth potential. Specific areas discussed include roles and requirements for man in future space missions, requirements for extended capability, mission/payload concepts, and preliminary design and operational requirements.

  15. A Modernized Approach to Meet Diversified Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft; Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.

    1998-01-01

    From a flight dynamics perspective, the EOS AM-1 mission design and maneuver operations present a number of interesting challenges. The mission design itself is relatively complex for a low Earth mission, requiring a frozen, Sun-synchronous, polar orbit with a repeating ground track. Beyond the need to design an orbit that meets these requirements, the recent focus on low-cost, "lights out" operations has encouraged a shift to more automated ground support. Flight dynamics activities previously performed in special facilities created solely for that purpose and staffed by personnel with years of design experience are now being shifted to the mission operations centers (MOCs) staffed by flight operations team (FOT) operators. These operators' responsibilities include flight dynamics as a small subset of their work; therefore, FOT personnel often do not have the experience to make critical maneuver design decisions. Thus, streamlining the analysis and planning work required for such a complicated orbit design and preparing FOT personnel to take on the routine operation of such a spacecraft both necessitated increasing the automation level of the flight dynamics functionality. The FreeFlyer(trademark) software developed by AI Solutions provides a means to achieve both of these goals. The graphic interface enables users to interactively perform analyses that previously required many parametric studies and much data reduction to achieve the same result. In addition, the fuzzy logic engine .enables the simultaneous evaluation of multiple conflicting constraints, removing the analyst from the loop and allowing the FOT to perform more of the operations without much background in orbit design. Modernized techniques were implemented for EOS AM-1 flight dynamics support in several areas, including launch window determination, orbit maintenance maneuver control strategies, and maneuver design and calibration automation. The benefits of implementing these techniques include

  16. A modernized approach to meet diversified earth observing system (EOS) AM-1 mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft; Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.

    1998-01-01

    From a flight dynamics perspective, the EOS AM-1 mission design and maneuver operations present a number of interesting challenges. The mission design itself is relatively complex for a low Earth mission, requiring a frozen, Sun-synchronous, polar orbit with a repeating ground track. Beyond the need to design an orbit that meets these requirements, the recent focus on low-cost, 'lights out' operations has encouraged a shift to more automated ground support. Flight dynamics activities previously performed in special facilities created solely for that purpose and staffed by personnel with years of design experience are now being shifted to the mission operations centers (MOCs) staffed by flight operations team (FOT) operators. These operators' responsibilities include flight dynamics as a small subset of their work; therefore, FOT personnel often do not have the experience to make critical maneuver design decisions. Thus, streamlining the analysis and planning work required for such a complicated orbit design and preparing FOT personnel to take on the routine operation of such a spacecraft both necessitated increasing the automation level of the flight dynamics functionality. The FreeFlyer(TM) software developed by AI Solutions provides a means to achieve both of these goals. The graphic interface enables users to interactively perform analyses that previously required many parametric studies and much data reduction to achieve the same result In addition, the fuzzy logic engine enables the simultaneous evaluation of multiple conflicting constraints, removing the analyst from the loop and allowing the FOT to perform more of the operations without much background in orbit design. Modernized techniques were implemented for EOS AM-1 flight dynamics support in several areas, including launch window determination, orbit maintenance maneuver control strategies, and maneuver design and calibration automation. The benefits of implementing these techniques include increased

  17. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options study. Volume 1: Missions and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Science and applications, NOAA environmental observation, commercial resource observations, commercial space processing, commercial communications, national security, technology development, and GEO servicing are addressed. Approach to time phasing of mission requirements, system sizing summary, time-phased user mission payload support, space station facility requirements, and integrated time-phased system requirements are also addressed.

  18. Anti-Exposure Technology Identification for Mission Specific Operational Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-08

    A-2. Anatomical and Anthropometric Landmarks A-3 NADC-81081-60 SCAPULA BUTTOCK PROTRUSION GLUTEALFURROW WRIST LANDMARK MEDIAL SIDE OF THE...C-1 NADC-81081-60 LIST OF TABLES Tables Page I Fighter/Attack Mission Analysis 5 II Rotary Wing and Fixed Wing Mission Analysis 8 III...Crewmen In Rotary Wing And Fixed Wing Aircraft Photographs Of Configurations Studied Heat Stress Test Sequence Change In TRE (°C) For Actual And

  19. HL-20 operations and support requirements for the Personnel Launch System mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; White, Nancy H.; Caldwell, Ronald G.

    1993-01-01

    The processing, mission planning, and support requirements were defined for the HL-20 lifting-body configuration that can serve as a Personnel Launch System. These requirements were based on the assumption of an operating environment that incorporates aircraft and airline support methods and techniques that are applicable to operations. The study covered the complete turnaround process for the HL-20, including landing through launch, and mission operations, but did not address the support requirements of the launch vehicle except for the integrated activities. Support is defined in terms of manpower, staffing levels, facilities, ground support equipment, maintenance/sparing requirements, and turnaround processing time. Support results were drawn from two contracted studies, plus an in-house analysis used to define the maintenance manpower. The results of the contracted studies were used as the basis for a stochastic simulation of the support environment to determine the sufficiency of support and the effect of variance on vehicle processing. Results indicate the levels of support defined for the HL-20 through this process to be sufficient to achieve the desired flight rate of eight flights per year.

  20. HL-20 operations and support requirements for the Personnel Launch System mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, W. D.; White, Nancy H.; Caldwell, Ronald G.

    1993-10-01

    The processing, mission planning, and support requirements were defined for the HL-20 lifting-body configuration that can serve as a Personnel Launch System. These requirements were based on the assumption of an operating environment that incorporates aircraft and airline support methods and techniques that are applicable to operations. The study covered the complete turnaround process for the HL-20, including landing through launch, and mission operations, but did not address the support requirements of the launch vehicle except for the integrated activities. Support is defined in terms of manpower, staffing levels, facilities, ground support equipment, maintenance/sparing requirements, and turnaround processing time. Support results were drawn from two contracted studies, plus an in-house analysis used to define the maintenance manpower. The results of the contracted studies were used as the basis for a stochastic simulation of the support environment to determine the sufficiency of support and the effect of variance on vehicle processing. Results indicate the levels of support defined for the HL-20 through this process to be sufficient to achieve the desired flight rate of eight flights per year.

  1. Sea-Ice Mission Requirements for the US FIREX and Canada RADARSAT programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Ramseier, R. O.; Weeks, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    A bilateral synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite program is defined. The studies include addressing the requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by a number of disciplines including science and operations in sea ice covered waters. Sea ice research problems such as ice information and total mission requirements, the mission components, the radar engineering parameters, and an approach to the transition of spacecraft SAR from a research to an operational tool were investigated.

  2. Apollo 14 mission: Failure to achieve docking probe capture latch engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Six docking attempts were required in order to successfully achieve capture latch engagement during the transposition and docking phase following translunar injection. After docking, the probe and drogue were examined by the crew. Probe operation appeared normal and radial marks were noted on the drogue. During all subsequent operations, the probe operated properly.

  3. Bathymetry from space: Rationale and requirements for a new, high-resolution altimetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Smith, Walter H. F.; Gille, Sarah; Kappel, Ellen; Jayne, Steven; Soofi, Khalid; Coakley, Bernard; Géli, Louis

    2006-11-01

    of continental margins; providing bathymetric maps for numerous other practical applications, including reconnaissance for submarine cable and pipeline routes, improving tide models, and assessing potential territorial claims to the seabed under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Because ocean bathymetry is a fundamental measurement of our planet, there is a broad spectrum of interest from government, the research community, industry, and the general public. Mission requirements. The resolution of the altimetry technique is limited by physical law, not instrument capability. Everything that can be mapped from space can be achieved now, and there is no gain in waiting for technological advances. Mission requirements for Bathymetry from Space are much less stringent and less costly than typical physical oceanography missions. Long-term sea-surface height accuracy is not needed; the fundamental measurement is the slope of the ocean surface to an accuracy of ˜1 μrad (1 mm km -1). The main mission requirements are: improved range precision (a factor of two or more improvement in altimeter range precision with respect to current altimeters is needed to reduce the noise due to ocean waves); fine cross-track spacing and long mission duration (a ground track spacing of 6 km or less is required. A six-year mission would reduce the error by another factor of two); moderate inclination (existing satellite altimeters have relatively high orbital inclinations, thus their resolution of east-west components of ocean slope is poor at low latitudes. The new mission should have an orbital inclination close to 60° or 120° so as to resolve north-south and east-west components almost equally while still covering nearly all the world's ocean area); near-shore tracking (for applications near coastlines, the ability of the instrument to track the ocean surface close to shore, and acquire the surface soon after leaving land, is desirable). To cite this article: D

  4. Electric Propulsion Requirements and Mission Analysis Under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, Leonard a.; Pencil, Eric J.; Dankanich, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology Project (ISPT) is currently NASA's sole investment in electric propulsion technologies. This project is managed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the NASA Headquarters Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The objective of the electric propulsion project area is to develop near-term and midterm electric propulsion technologies to enhance or enable future NASA science missions while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Systems analysis activities sponsored by ISPT seek to identify future mission applications in order to quantify mission requirements, as well as develop analytical capability in order to facilitate greater understanding and application of electric propulsion and other propulsion technologies in the ISPT portfolio. These analyses guide technology investments by informing decisions and defining metrics for technology development to meet identified mission requirements. This paper discusses the missions currently being studied for electric propulsion by the ISPT project, and presents the results of recent electric propulsion (EP) mission trades. Recent ISPT systems analysis activities include: an initiative to standardize life qualification methods for various electric propulsion systems in order to retire perceived risk to proposed EP missions; mission analysis to identify EP requirements from Discovery, New Frontiers, and Flagship classes of missions; and an evaluation of system requirements for radioisotope-powered electric propulsion. Progress and early results of these activities is discussed where available.

  5. The HYDROS mission: requirements and baseline system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; ONeill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2004-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications.

  6. Long Duration Space Missions: Human Subsystem Risks and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Criag E.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the human health and performance risks associated with long duration space flight beyond low earth orbit. The contents include: 1) Human Research Program; 2) Human Subsystem Risks; 3) Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) Architecture Elements; 4) Potentially Unacceptable Risks -1; 5) Potentially Unacceptable Risks-2; and 6) Major Mission Drivers of Risk.

  7. Earth Observing System. Science and Mission Requirements, Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a planned NASA program, which will carry the multidisciplinary Earth science studies employing a variety of remote sensing techniques in the 1990's, as a prime mission, using the Space Station polar platform. The scientific rationale, recommended observational needs, the broad system configuration and a recommended implementation strategy to achieve the stated mission goals are provided.

  8. Six Years Into Its Mission, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory Continues to Achieve Scientific Firsts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    In August 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened for business. Six years later, it continues to achieve scientific firsts. "When Chandra opened its sunshade doors for the first time, it opened the possibility of studying the X-ray emission of the universe with unprecedented clarity," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "Already surpassing its goal of a five-year life, Chandra continues to rewrite textbooks with discoveries about our own solar system and images of celestial objects as far as billions of light years away." Based on the observatory's outstanding results, NASA Headquarters in Washington decided in 2001 to extend Chandra s mission from five years to ten. During the observatory s sixth year of operation, auroras from Jupiter, X-rays from Saturn, and the early days of our solar system were the focus of Chandra discoveries close to home -- discoveries with the potential to better understand the dynamics of life on Earth. Jupiter's auroras are the most spectacular and active auroras in the solar system. Extended Chandra observations revealed that Jupiter s auroral X-rays are caused by highly charged particles crashing into the atmosphere above Jupiter's poles. These results gave scientists information needed to compare Jupiter's auroras with those from Earth, and determine if they are triggered by different cosmic and planetary events. Mysterious X-rays from Saturn also received attention, as Chandra completed the first observation of a solar X-ray flare reflected from Saturn's low-latitudes, the region that correlates to Earth's equator and tropics. This observation led scientists to conclude the ringed planet may act as a mirror, reflecting explosive activity from the sun. Solar-storm watchers on Earth might see a surprising benefit. The results imply scientists could use giant planets like Saturn as remote-sensing tools to help monitor X-ray flaring on portions of the sun

  9. Goals of biomedical support of a mission to Mars and possible approaches to achieving them.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, A I; Kozlovskaya, I B; Potapov, A N

    2002-04-01

    The main medical and biological problems associated with a piloted mission to Mars are discussed. Prerequisites for the mission are described, based on our experience with biomedical support of prolonged piloted missions. The most important factors are developing countermeasures against the prolonged effects of microgravity and hypogravity; solving a complex of psychological problems; developing methods to protect against cosmic radiation; and creating effective and reliable life support systems. Some aspects of the likely risks involved in such a mission are also reviewed.

  10. Using Modeling to Predict Medical Requirements for Special Operations Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-30

    military force. Information operations involve adversely affecting the information systems of an adversary.1 Many of these missions are joint...Medical System . In 2007, the Air Force asked NHRC to conduct another proof-of-concept study to demonstrate the benefits of modeling medical supply...are used for this purpose. (NHRC is currently in the process of matching these patient conditions to International Classification of Diseases codes

  11. Systems Engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford Cleanup mission: First issue

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the top-level SE mission analysis, functions analysis, and requirements analysis for the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Because SE is an iterative process, this document will be continuously updated as the mission evolves. This first issue will be subject to change as lower-level work is conducted or primary system architecture is changed as a result of public involvement, NEPA processes, or changes in DOE/HQ direction.

  12. Round Table Part 1: Review of future manned missions and Identification key ECLSS requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Wheeler, Raymond; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Joshi, Jitendra; Dussap, Gilles; Godia, Francesc

    2016-07-01

    All forecast an end of ISS in 2024. What so ever will be the exact date date the main part of the space agencies are currently elaborating plans for future manned missions. So far mainly 3 destination are considered :" Moon, Mars and Lagrange point L2. Depending of the missions duration, crew size, safety .. the ECLSS will have major difference . In this first part of the round table it is proposed to review the main missions scenario and elaborate top level requirements.

  13. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation. Level C requirements for the shuttle mission control center orbital guidance software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The formulation of Level C requirements for guidance software was reported. Requirements for a PEG supervisor which controls all input/output interfaces with other processors and determines which PEG mode is to be utilized were studied in detail. A description of the two guidance modes for which Level C requirements have been formulated was presented. Functions required for proper execution of the guidance software were defined. The requirements for a navigation function that is used in the prediction logic of PEG mode 4 were discussed. It is concluded that this function is extracted from the current navigation FSSR.

  14. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Mission Resource Requirements (MRR), FY 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Resource Requirement (MRR) represents the level of funding necessary for an institution given its mission, size, and complexity of programs, based on regional and national norms, and the amount of the previous year's appropriation. This document is the MRR for the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education for Fiscal Year 2007-2008.…

  15. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 3, task 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The mission requirements of the space station program are investigated. Mission parameters are divided into user support from private industry, scientific experimentation, U.S. national security, and space operations away from the space station. These categories define the design and use of the space station. An analysis of cost estimates is included.

  16. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Mission Resource Requirement, FY 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Mission Resource Requirement (MRR) represents the level of funding necessary for an institution given its mission, size, and complexity of programs, based on regional and national norms, and the amount of the previous year's appropriation. This document is the MRR for the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education for Fiscal Year 2005-2006.…

  17. 14 CFR 431.79 - Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Post-Licensing Requirements-Reusable Launch Vehicle Mission License Terms and Conditions § 431.79 Reusable...

  18. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 1, book 1: Flight article requirements. Appendix A: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The requirements for several configurations of flight articles are presented. These requirements provide the basis to design manned remote work station development test articles and establish tests and simulation objectives for the resolution of development issues. Mission system and subsystem requirements for four MRWS configurations included: open cherry picker; closed cherry picker; crane turret; and free flyer.

  19. Planetary protection and Mars: requirements and constraints on the 2016 and 2018 missions, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J.; Kminek, G.; Conley, C.

    2011-10-01

    The suite of missions being planned currently by NASA and ESA as a partnership under the name "ExoMars" include an orbiter and an entry, descent, and landing demonstrator module (EDM) for the 2016 "ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter" mission (ExoMars TGO), as well as a highly capable rover to be launched in 2018 to address the original ExoMars objectives (including the Pasteur payload). This 2018 ExoMars rover is expected to begin a series of missions leading to the first sample return mission from Mars, also conducted jointly between NASA, ESA, and their partners (JMSR). Each of these missions and mission components has a role in enabling future Mars exploration, including the search for life or life-related compounds on Mars, and each of them has the potential to carry confounding biological and organic materials into sensitive environments on Mars. Accordingly, this suite of missions will be subjected to joint planetary protection requirements applied by both ESA and NASA to their respective components, according to the COSPAR-delineated planetary protection policy to protect Mars from contamination, and eventually to provide for the protection of the Earth from potential life returned in a martian sample. This paper will discuss the challenges ahead for mission designers and the mission science teams, and will outline some of the potential pitfalls involved with different mission options.

  20. Towards consolidated science requirements for a next generation gravity field mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pail, R.; Braitenberg, C. F.; Eicker, A.; Floberghagen, R.; Forsberg, R.; Haagmans, R.; Horwath, M.; Kusche, J.; Labrecque, J. L.; Panet, I.; Rolstad Denby, C.; Schröter, J.; Wouters, B.

    2013-12-01

    As a joint initiative of the IAG (International Association of Geodesy) Sub-Commissions 2.3 and 2.6, the GGOS (Global Geodetic Observing System) Working Group on Satellite Missions, and the IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics), we target on the consolidation of science requirements for a next generation gravity field mission (beyond GRACE-FO). Several future gravity field studies have resulted in quite different performance numbers as a target for a future gravity mission (2025+), and a consolidation within the different user groups is required, under the boundary condition of the technical feasibility of the mission concepts and before the background of double- and multi-pair formations. Therefore, this initiative shall concentrate on the consolidation of the science requirements, and should result in a document that can be used as a solid basis for further programmatic and technological developments. Based on limited number of realistic mission scenarios, a consolidated view on the science requirements within the international user communities shall be derived, research fields that could not be tackled by current gravity missions shall be identified, and the added value (qualitatively and quantitatively) of these scenarios with respect to science return shall be evaluated. The final science requirements shall be agreed upon during a workshop which is planned for the second half of 2014. In this contribution, the mission scenarios will be discussed and first results of the consolidation process will be presented.

  1. Civilian and military missions SP-100 preliminary user requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-29

    This document defines the top level requirements of potential users of a space based nuclear electric power supply. This provides the SP-100 Project and information required to design the modular (10-1000 KWe) space power systems to meet the needs of most potential users.

  2. Earth resources mission performance studies. Volume 1: Requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The need for a realistic set of earth resources collection requirements to test and maximize the data gathering capabilities of the EOS remote sensor systems is considered. The collection requirements will be derived from established user requirements. In order to confine and bound the requirements study, some baseline assumptions were established. These are: (1) image acquisition is confined to the contiguous United States, (2) the fundamental data users are select participating federal agencies, (3) the acquired data will be applied to generating information necessary or in support of existing federal agency charters, and (4) the most pressing or desired federal agency earth resources data requirements have been defined, suggested, or implied in current available literature.

  3. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study. Volume 2: Mission support requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The science objectives, the experiment and instrument requirements, and the total ground and mission related requirements to be implemented by GSFC and other NASA centers for each AMPS/Labcraft mission are defined.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission scientific instrument protective enclosure design requirements and contamination controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.; Hedgeland, Randy J.; Chivatero, Craig J.; Studer, Robert J.; Kostos, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    The Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosures were designed for the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Missions to provide a beginning environment to a Scientific Instrument during ground and on orbit activities. The Scientific Instruments required very stringent surface cleanliness and molecular outgassing levels to maintain ultraviolet performance. Data from the First Servicing Mission verified that both the Scientific Instruments and Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosures met surface cleanliness level requirements during ground and on-orbit activities.

  5. Science, Measurement, and Technology Requirements for Infrared Climate Benchmark Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David G.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying climate change in the presence of natural variability requires highly accurate global measurements covering more than a decade. Instrument design considerations for trending terrestrial emitted radiance are described.

  6. Admission Requirements for Teacher Education as a Factor of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous researches have demonstrated the enormous role of teachers in achievements of students. Educated and motivated teacher that cares about the success of students devotes more effort to preparing the lesson and thus provides the students better conditions for achieving results. The problem occurs when teachers are not equally qualified,…

  7. GRAIL project management: Launching on cost, schedule, and spec and achieving full mission success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. L.; Zuber, M. T.; Lehman, D. H.; Hoffman, T. L.

    The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) project, a NASA Discovery Program mission with a cost cap, was launched September 10, 2011, on spec, on time and under budget. Led by Principal Investigator (PI) Dr. Maria T. Zuber of MIT and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with Lockheed Martin as spacecraft contractor and the late Sally Ride as Education and Public Outreach Lead, GRAIL completed its Prime Mission in May 2012, successfully meeting its objectives-to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure “ from crust to core,” determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. This paper updates last year's IEEE Aerospace Conference paper [1], summarizing key development challenges and accomplishments through completion of the Primary Mission, and reporting progress in the Extended Mission.

  8. Post LANDSAT D Advanced Concept Evaluation (PLACE). [with emphasis on mission planning, technological forecasting, and user requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An outline is given of the mission objectives and requirements, system elements, system concepts, technology requirements and forecasting, and priority analysis for LANDSAT D. User requirements and mission analysis and technological forecasting are emphasized. Mission areas considered include agriculture, range management, forestry, geology, land use, water resources, environmental quality, and disaster assessment.

  9. Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International

  10. Determining Medical Staffing Requirements for Humanitarian Assistance Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Anesthetist General Nurse Medical Services Pharmacist POMl Patient Admin Entomologist Environmental Health Designator/NEC 2100 2200 2900 2300 Total Quantity...may include physicians, nurses , corpsmen. and preventive medicine (PM) personnel. For a capacity-building construction project, a construction...detachment may be requested. Direct patient care (surgical or primary acute care) will require a mix of physicians, nurses . and corpsmen. Medical equipment

  11. Report on the COSPAR Workshop on Refining Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spry, James Andrew; Rummel, John; Conley, Catharine; Race, Margaret; Kminek, Gerhard; Siegel, Bette

    2016-07-01

    A human mission to Mars has been the driving long-term goal for the development of the Global Exploration Roadmap by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group. Additionally, multiple national space agencies and commercial organizations have published similar plans and aspirations for human missions beyond LEO. The current COSPAR planetary protection "Guidelines for Human Missions to Mars" were developed in a series of workshops in the early 2000s and adopted into COSPAR policy at the Montreal Assembly in 2008. With changes and maturation in mission architecture concepts and hardware capabilities, the holding of a workshop provided an opportunity for timely review of these guidelines and their interpretation within current frameworks provided by ISECG and others. The COSPAR Workshop on Refining Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Missions was held in the US in spring 2016 to evaluate recent efforts and activities in the context of current COSPAR policy, as well as collect inputs from the various organizations considering crewed exploration missions to Mars and precursor robotic missions focused on surface material properties and environmental challenges. The workshop also considered potential updates to the COSPAR policy for human missions across a range of planetary destinations. This paper will report on those deliberations.

  12. Lunar mission safety and rescue: Hazards analysis and safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of the hazards analysis which was concerned only with hazards to personnel and not with loss of equipment or property. Hazards characterization includes the definition of a hazard, the hazard levels, and the hazard groups. The analysis methodology is described in detail. The methodology was used to prepare the top level functional flow diagrams, to perform the first level hazards assessment, and to develop a list of conditions and situations requiring individual hazard studies. The 39 individual hazard study results are presented in total.

  13. Achieving recognition that mental health is part of the mission of CDC.

    PubMed

    Safran, Marc A

    2009-11-01

    For much of its history the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considered mental health to be outside of its mission. That assumption persisted even after CDC became a leading public health agency and began to face important mental health issues. This narrative describes how the organizational paradigm indicating that mental health was not mission related was challenged and superseded by a new paradigm recognizing mental health as part of CDC's public health mission. Even after the CDC Mental Health Work Group's establishment in 2000, CDC took eight more years to overcome powerful remnants of the old paradigm that had for so long excluded, minimized, or discouraged attention to mental health. The CDC Mental Health Work Group led the agency's mental health efforts without funding or dedicated staffing but with more than 100 CDC professionals from multiple disciplines and centers serving as voluntary members, in addition to their other CDC responsibilities.

  14. Mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Barta, D. J.; Dragg, J.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation and robotics for Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS). The focus is on requirements and applications for command and control, control and monitoring, situation assessment and response, diagnosis and recovery, adaptive planning and scheduling, and other automation applications in addition to mechanized equipment and robotics applications to reduce the excessive human labor requirements to operate and maintain an ALSS. Based on principles of systems engineering, an approach is proposed to assess requirements for automation and robotics using mission simulation tools. First, the story of a simulated mission is defined in terms of processes with attendant types of resources needed, including options for use of automation and robotic systems. Next, systems dynamics models are used in simulation to reveal the implications for selected resource allocation schemes in terms of resources required to complete operational tasks. The simulations not only help establish ALSS design criteria, but also may offer guidance to ALSS research efforts by identifying gaps in knowledge about procedures and/or biophysical processes. Simulations of a planned one-year mission with 4 crewmembers in a Human Rated Test Facility are presented as an approach to evaluation of mission feasibility and definition of automation and robotics requirements.

  15. Work Package 5: Contingency Management. Mission Planning Requirements Document: Preliminary Version. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify the general flight/mission planning requirements for same-day file-and-fly access to the NAS for both civil and military High-Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Currently the scope of this document is limited to Step 1, operations above flight level 43,000 feet (FL430). This document describes the current applicable mission planning requirements and procedures for both manned and unmanned aircraft and addresses HALE UAS flight planning considerations in the future National Airspace System (NAS). It also discusses the unique performance and operational capabilities of HALE UAS associated with the Access 5 Project, presents some of the projected performance characteristics and conceptual missions for future systems, and provides detailed analysis of the recommended mission planning elements for operating HALE UAS in the NAS.

  16. Planetary mission requirements, technology and design considerations for a solar electric propulsion stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Hastrup, R. C.; Menard, W. A.; Olson, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    High energy planetary missions such as comet rendezvous, Saturn orbiter and asteroid rendezvous require development of a Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) for augmentation of the Shuttle-IUS. Performance and functional requirements placed on the SEPS are presented. These requirements will be used in evolution of the SEPS design, which must be highly interactive with both the spacecraft and the mission design. Previous design studies have identified critical SEPS technology areas and some specific design solutions which are also presented in the paper.

  17. Orbiter data reduction complex data processing requirements for the OFT mission evaluation team (level C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This document addresses requirements for post-test data reduction in support of the Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) mission evaluation team, specifically those which are planned to be implemented in the ODRC (Orbiter Data Reduction Complex). Only those requirements which have been previously baselined by the Data Systems and Analysis Directorate configuration control board are included. This document serves as the control document between Institutional Data Systems Division and the Integration Division for OFT mission evaluation data processing requirements, and shall be the basis for detailed design of ODRC data processing systems.

  18. System-level Analysis of Food Moisture Content Requirements for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Perchonok, Michele H.

    2004-01-01

    In order to ensure that adequate water resources are available during a mission, any net water loss from the habitat must be balanced with an equivalent amount of required makeup water. Makeup water may come from a variety of sources, including water in shipped tanks, water stored in prepackaged food, product water from fuel cells, and in-situ water resources. This paper specifically addresses the issue of storing required makeup water in prepackaged food versus storing the water in shipped tanks for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission, one of the Advanced Life Support Reference Missions. In this paper, water mass balances have been performed for the Dual Lander Transit Mission, to determine the necessary requirement of makeup water under nominal operation (i.e. no consideration of contingency needs), on a daily basis. Contingency issues are briefly discussed with respect to impacts on makeup water storage (shipped tanks versus storage in prepackaged food). The Dual Lander Transit Mission was selected for study because it has been considered by the Johnson Space Center Exploration Office in enough detail to define a reasonable set of scenario options for nominal system operation and contingencies. This study also illustrates the concept that there are multiple, reasonable life support system scenarios for any one particular mission. Thus, the need for a particular commodity can depend upon many variables in the system. In this study, we examine the need for makeup water as it depends upon the configuration of the rest of the life support system.

  19. Improved Traceability of a Small Satellite Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based System Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reil, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the "traditional" document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This paper presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magic's MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the mission's original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to demonstrate the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Anecdotal information and process-duration metrics are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  20. Improved Traceability of Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reil, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the traditional document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This thesis presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magics MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the missions original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to analyze the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Overall experience and methodology are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  1. Space Station Workshop: Commercial Missions and User Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The topics of discussion addressed during a three day workshop on commercial application in space are presented. Approximately half of the program was directed towards an overview and orientation to the Space Station Project; the technical attributes of space; and present and future potential commercial opportunities. The remaining time was spent addressing technological issues presented by previously-formed industry working groups, who attempted to identify the technology needs, problems or issues faced and/or anticipated by the following industries: extraction (mining, agriculture, petroleum, fishing, etc.); fabrication (manufacturing, automotive, aircraft, chemical, pharmaceutical and electronics); and services (communications, transportation and retail robotics). After the industry groups presented their technology issues, the workshop divided into smaller discussion groups composed of: space experts from NASA; academia; industry experts in the appropriate disciplines; and other workshop participants. The needs identified by the industry working groups, space station technical requirements, proposed commercial ventures and other issues related to space commercialization were discussed. The material summarized and reported are the consensus from the discussion groups.

  2. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2: Technical. Book 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbronn, O.

    1983-01-01

    The following types of space missions were evaluated to determine those that require, or will be benefited materially, by a manned space station: (1) science and applications, (2) commercial, (3) technology development, (4) space operations, and (5) national security. Integrated mission requirements for man-operated and man-tended free-flying missions were addressed. A manned space station will provide major performance and economic benefits to a wide range of missions planned for the 1990s.

  3. ESA's Spaceborne Lidar Mission ADM-Aeolus; Recent Achievements and Preparations for Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grete Straume, Anne; Elfving, Anders; Wernham, Denny; Culoma, Alain; Mondin, Linda; de Bruin, Frank; Kanitz, Thomas; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Buscaglione, Fabio; Dehn, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Within ESA's Living Planet Programme, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus) was chosen as the second Earth Explorer Core mission in 1999. It shall demonstrate the potential of high spectral resolution Doppler Wind lidars for operational measurements of wind profiles and their use in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Spin-off products are profiles of cloud and aerosol optical properties. ADM-Aeolus carries the novel Doppler Wind lidar instrument ALADIN. Recently the two ALADIN laser transmitters were successfully qualified and delivered for further instrument integration. The instrument delivery will follow later this year and the satellite qualification and launch readiness is scheduled for 2016. In February 2015, an Aeolus Science and Calibration and Validation (CAL/VAL) Workshop was held in ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, bringing industry, the user community and ESA together to prepare for the Aeolus Commissioning and Operational Phases. During the Workshop the science, instrument and product status, commissioning phase planning and the extensive number of proposals submitted in response to the Aeolus CAL/VAL call in 2014 were presented and discussed. A special session was dedicated to the Aeolus CAL/VAL Implementation Plan. In this paper, the Aeolus mission, status and launch preparation activities are described.

  4. Technology development, demonstration, and orbital support requirements for manned lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llewellyn, Charles P.; Brender, Karen D.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the critical technology needs and the Space Station Freedom (SSF) focused support requirements for the Office of Exploration's (OEXP) manned lunar and Mars missions is presented. Major emphasis is directed at the technology needs associated with the low earth orbit (LEO) transportation node assembly and vehicle processing functions required by the lunar and Mars mission flight elements. The key technology areas identified as crucial to support the LEO node function include in-space assembly and construction, in-space vehicle processing and refurbishment, space storable cryogenics, and autonomous rendezvous and docking.

  5. Magnetometer Data for the Ages: Achieving complete FGM instrument coverage of the multi-spacecraft Cluster mission (2000 to 2015+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alconcel, Leah-Nani; Fox, Peter; Colgan, Cary; Oddy, Tim; Brown, Patrick; Carr, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The calibrated dataset from the Cluster magnetometer instruments (FGMs) aboard the four Cluster spacecraft comprises an invaluable contribution to magnetospheric physics. It is also essential for the derivation of some datasets from other instruments, all of which have been made available through ESA's Cluster Science Archive (CSA). The FGM team at Imperial College - the PI institute that built and supports operation of the magnetometers - has regularly provided validated data to the CSA since its inception. Now that other multi-spacecraft missions such as the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have come online, it will be possible to make inter-mission as well as inter-spacecraft comparisons. The FGM team hopes to enable those comparisons by delivering magnetic field data from periods when the Cluster spacecraft are not otherwise taking science telemetry. These periods are becoming more common as the spacecraft age. Accomplishing this would also achieve near-complete magnetic field coverage throughout the Cluster mission. Preparation of these data to archival standards raises unusual challenges to be discussed in this presentation.

  6. Technology Requirements For a Square-Meter, Arcsecond-Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William; Freeman, Mark; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; O'Dell, Steve; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first supermassive black holes. We have envisioned a mission based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, in order to achieve the required reduction of mass to collecting area for the mirrors. We are pursuing technology which effects this adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMARTX will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no more stringent requirements than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  7. Round-trip mission requirements for Asteroids 1976 AA and 1973 EC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niehoff, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of manned or unmanned missions to two recently discovered asteroids is assessed. Characteristics of a likely target for a round-trip exploratory excursion include: a period close to one year; and an orbit that is nearly circular and nearly coplanar with the ecliptic. Mass requirements and optimal times of launch are investigated for unmanned and manned missions to Asteroids 1976 AA and 1973 EC (recently numbered 1943); 365-day round-trip trajectories in the first half of the 1990s are proposed. However, since neither of the two targets considered entirely fulfills all the necessary orbital characteristics, neither can offer the opportunity for a fast low-energy round-trip mission; nevertheless, other minor planets crossing earth's orbit may be found to meet the requirements.

  8. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  9. Guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planets. Volume 4: High thrust mission, part 2, phase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The guidance and navigation requirements for a set of impulsive thrust missions involving one or more outer planets or comets. Specific missions considered include two Jupiter entry missions of 800 and 1200 day duration, two multiple swingby missions with the sequences Jupiter-Uranus-Neptune and Jupiter-Saturn-Pluto, and two comets rendezvous missions involving the short period comets P/Tempel 2 and P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak. Results show the relative utility of onboard and Earth-based DSN navigation. The effects of parametric variations in navigation accuracy, measurement rate, and miscellaneous constraints are determined. The utility of a TV type onboard navigation sensor - sighting on planetary satellites and comets - is examined. Velocity corrections required for the nominal and parametrically varied cases are tabulated.

  10. Guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planets. Volume 2: impulsive high thrust missions, phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The impulsive, high thrust missions portion of a study on guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planet is presented. The proper balance between groundbased navigational capability, using the deep space network (DSN) alone, and an onboard navigational capability with and without supplemental use of DSN tracking, for unmanned missions to the outer planets of the solar system is defined. A general guidance and navigation requirements program is used to survey parametrically the characteristics associated with three types of navigation systems: (1) totally onboard, (2) totally Earth-based, and (3) a combination of these two.

  11. Latina/o Student Achievement: A Collaborative Mission of Professional Associations of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Patricia; Castillo, Linda G.

    2011-01-01

    Latina/o student achievement is a priority for the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE). To date, AAHHE has worked deliberately on this agenda. However, well-established higher education associations such as the Association of American Universities (AAU) and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) are…

  12. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  13. Optimization of Crew Shielding Requirement in Reactor-Powered Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2007-01-01

    On the surface of the moon and not only during heightened solar activities the radiation environment is such that crew protection will be required for missions lasting in excess of six months. This study focuses on estimating the optimized crew shielding requirement for lunar surface missions with a nuclear option. Simple, transport-simulation based dose-depth relations of the three radiation sources (galactic, solar, and fission) are employed in a one-dimensional optimization scheme. The scheme is developed to estimate the total required mass of lunar regolith separating reactor from crew. The scheme was applied to both solar maximum and minimum conditions. It is shown that savings of up to 30% in regolith mass can be realized. It is argued, however, that inherent variation and uncertainty mainly in lunar regolith attenuation properties in addition to the radiation quality factor can easily defeat this and similar optimization schemes.

  14. Optimization of Crew Shielding Requirement in Reactor-Powered Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.

    2007-01-01

    On the surface of the moon -and not only during heightened solar activities- the radiation environment As such that crew protection will be required for missions lasting in excess of six months. This study focuses on estimating the optimized crew shielding requirement for lunar surface missions with a nuclear option. Simple, transport-simulation based dose-depth relations of the three (galactic, solar, and fission) radiation sources am employed in a 1-dimensional optimization scheme. The scheme is developed to estimate the total required mass of lunar-regolith separating reactor from crew. The scheme was applied to both solar maximum and minimum conditions. It is shown that savings of up to 30% in regolith mass can be realized. It is argued, however, that inherent variation and uncertainty -mainly in lunar regolith attenuation properties in addition to the radiation quality factor- can easily defeat this and similar optimization schemes.

  15. Use of Virtual Mission Operations Center Technology to Achieve JPDO's Virtual Tower Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Program Development Office has proposed that the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) consolidate control centers. NGATS would be managed from a few strategically located facilities with virtual towers and TRACONS. This consolidation is about combining the delivery locations for these services not about decreasing service. By consolidating these locations, cost savings in the order of $500 million have been projected. Evolving to spaced-based communication, navigation, and surveillance offers the opportunity to reduce or eliminate much of the ground-based infrastructure cost. Dynamically adjusted airspace offers the opportunity to reduce the number of sectors and boundary inconsistencies; eliminate or reduce "handoffs;" and eliminate the distinction between Towers, TRACONS, and Enroute Centers. To realize a consolidation vision for air traffic management there must be investment in networking. One technology that holds great potential is the use of Virtual Mission Operations Centers to provide secure, automated, intelligent management of the NGATS. This paper provides a conceptual framework for incorporating VMOC into the NGATS.

  16. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, Stephan R.; Baker, David Frank; Schuh, Andrew E.; Abshire, James Brice; Browell, Edward V.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument.

  17. Marco Polo - A Mission to Return a Sample from a Near-Earth Object - Science Requirements and Operational Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, Detlef; Barucci, Antonella; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Böhnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian; F. Green, Simon; Josset, Jean-Luc; Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Jürgen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard; Agnolon, David; Romstedt, Jens

    Marco Polo is a mission to return a sample from a near-Earth object of primitive type (class C or D). It is foreseen as a collaborative effort between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Marco Polo is currently in a Phase-A study (status as of summer 2009). This paper focuses on the scientific requirements provided to the industrial study consortia in Europe as well as the possible mission scenario at the target object in order to achieve the overall mission science objectives. The main scientific reasons for going to a near-Earth object are to understand the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula, to understand how major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating) influence the history of planetesimals, whether primitive class objects contain presolar material, what the organics were in primitive materials, how organics could shed light on the origin of molecules necessary for life, and what the role of impacts by NEOs would be in the origin and evolution of life on Earth.

  18. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2008-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmet design, and in particular space suit design, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a slightly different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view is required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited FOV, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was able to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables without sacrificing fidelity. The specific field of view angles were defined by considering mission segment activities, historical performance of other suits, comparison between similar requirements (pressure visor up versus down, etc.), estimated requirements from other teams for field of view (Orion, Altair, EVA), previous field of view tests, medical data for shirtsleeve field of view performance, and mapping of visual field data to generate 45degree off-axis field of view requirements. Full resolution of several specific field of view angle requirements warranted further work, which consisted of low and medium fidelity field of view testing in the rear entry ISuit and DO27 helmet prototype. This paper serves to document this reduction progress and followup testing employed to write the Constellation requirements for helmet field of view.

  19. Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 1: Executive Summary. Volume 1: Mission trade studies and requirements. Volume 2: Subsystem trade studies and selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Michael; Denecke, Johan; Garber, Suzanne; Kader, Beth; Liu, Celia; Weintraub, Ben; Cazeau, Patrick; Goetz, John; Haughwout, James; Larson, Erik

    1992-01-01

    In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew to the lunar surface at any latitude and back to Earth with a 14-28 day stay on the lunar surface. Safety followed by cost of the Columbiad Mission were the top level priorities of HAC. The resulting design has a precursor mission that emplaces the required surface payloads before the piloted mission arrives. Both the precursor and piloted missions require two National Launch System (NLS) launches. Both the precursor and piloted mission have an Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) with a direct transit to the Moon post-EOR. The piloted mission returns to Earth via a direct transit. Included among the surface payloads preemplaced are a habitat, solar power plant (including fuel cells for the lunar night), lunar rover, and mechanisms used to cover the habitat with regolith (lunar soil) in order to protect the crew members from severe solar flare radiation.

  20. Investigation of dust particles with future Russian lunar missions: achievements of further development of PmL instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Ilya; Zakharov, Alexander; Afonin, Valeri; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Lyash, Andrey; Dolnikov, Gennady; Popel, Sergey; Lisin, Evgeny

    2016-07-01

    , solar emission. Dust analyzer instrument PmL for future Russian lander missions intends for investigation the dynamics of dusty plasma near lunar surface. PmL consists of three parts in the case of Luna-Glob: Impact Sensor and two Electric Field Sensors (EFC). There are 9 parts of PmL instrument for Luna-Resource mission: two Impact Sensors, 5 EFC (three on the Boom and two on the lander) and 2 Solar Wind and Dust Analyzers. These days the engineering model of PmL for LG-mission is finished. We obtained first practical results from the simulating chambers with dust particles injectors and plasma inside. All the important achievements are presented in this report as well as the roadmap for further development of PmL instruments in both of Russian lunar missions.

  1. Leveraging Improvements in Precipitation Measuring from GPM Mission to Achieve Prediction Improvements in Climate, Weather and Hydrometeorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the GPM mission, currently planned for start in the 2007 time frame, is to investigate important scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing Operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US and the National Space Development Agency in Japan. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international partners and domestic scientific agencies and institutions, as well as participation by individual scientists from academia, government, and the private sector to fulfill mission goals and to pave

  2. A Scenario-Based Process for Requirements Development: Application to Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Duane L.; Boyles, Carole A.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of using operational scenarios as part of requirements development during mission formulation (Phases A & B) is widely accepted as good system engineering practice. In the context of developing a Mission Operations System (MOS), there are numerous practical challenges to translating that notion into the cost-effective development of a useful set of requirements. These challenges can include such issues as a lack of Project-level focus on operations issues, insufficient or improper flowdown of requirements, flowdown of immature or poor-quality requirements from Project level, and MOS resource constraints (personnel expertise and/or dollars). System engineering theory must be translated into a practice that provides enough structure and standards to serve as guidance, but that retains sufficient flexibility to be tailored to the needs and constraints of a particular MOS or Project. We describe a detailed, scenario-based process for requirements development. Identifying a set of attributes for high quality requirements, we show how the portions of the process address many of those attributes. We also find that the basic process steps are robust, and can be effective even in challenging Project environments.

  3. Requirements assessment and operational demands for a resource mapping rover mission to the lunar polar regions

    SciTech Connect

    KLARER,PAUL R.; BINDER,ALAN B.; LENARD,ROGER X.

    2000-01-26

    A preliminary set of requirements for a robotic rover mission to the lunar polar region are described and assessed. Tasks to be performed by the rover include core drill sample acquisition, mineral and volatile soil content assay, and significant wide area traversals. Assessment of the postulated requirements is performed using first order estimates of energy, power, and communications throughput issues. Two potential rover system configurations are considered, a smaller rover envisioned as part of a group of multiple rovers, and a larger single rover envisioned along more traditional planetary surface rover concept lines.

  4. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and systems analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyland, R. E.; Sherman, S. W.; Morfin, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The crew capsule of the MOTV was studied with emphasis on crew accommodations, crew capsule functional requirements, subsystem interface definition between crew module and propulsion module, and man rating requirements. Competing mission modes were studied covering a wide range of propulsion concepts. These included one stage, one and one half stage, and two stage concepts using either the standard STS or an augmented STS. Several deorbit concepts were considered, including all propulsive modes, direct re-entry, and aeromaneuvering skip in skip out in the upper reaches of Earth's atmosphere. A five year plan covering costs, schedules, and critical technology issues is discussed.

  5. Advanced space power requirements and techniques. Task 1: Mission projections and requirements. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop projections of the NASA, DoD, and civil space power requirements for the 1980-1995 time period; (2) identify specific areas of application and space power subsystem type needs for each prospective user; (3) document the supporting and historical base, including relevant cost related measures of performance; and (4) quantify the benefits of specific technology projection advancements. The initial scope of the study included: (1) construction of likely models for NASA, DoD, and civil space systems; (2) generation of a number of future scenarios; (3) extraction of time phased technology requirements based on the scenarios; and (4) cost/benefit analyses of some of the technologies identified.

  6. People First Mission Always: A Historical Examination of the Need to Find the Balance Between Protecting the Force and Achieving the Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    protection policy must balance the competing interests of the state in order to allow for mission success, while still maintaining the combat effectiveness...people, can be equated to the possible effects of force protection on the success of the mission. Political and military resolve encapsulates two parts

  7. Guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planets. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Unmanned spacecraft missions to the outer planets are of current interest to planetary scientists, and are being studied for the post 1970 time period. Flyby, entry and orbiter missions are all being considered using both direct and planetary swingby trajectory modes. The navigation and guidance requirements for a variety of missions to the outer planets and comets including both the three and four planet Grand Tours, are summarized.

  8. Analysis of Data in Accordance with Space Flight Mission Environmental Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shei, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Assurance Program sets forth standards to ensure that all flight hardware is compatible with the environments that will be encountered during a spacecraft mission. It outlines the design, test and analysis, and risk control standards for the mission and certifies that it will survive in any external or self-induced environments that the spacecraft may experience. The Environmental Requirements Document (ERD) is the most important document in the Environmental Assurance Program, providing the design and test requirements for the project's flight system, subsystems, assemblies, and instruments. This summer's project was to assist Environmental Requirements Engineers (ERE's) in completing the Environmental Assurance Program Summary Report for both the Juno Project and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project. The Summary Report is a document summarizing the environmental tests and analyses of each spacecraft at both the assembly and system level. It compiles a source of all relevant information such as waivers and Problem/Failure Reports (PFRs) into a single report for easy reference of how well the spacecraft met the requirements of the project.

  9. Mission-oriented requirements for updating MIL-H-8501: Calspan proposed structure and rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalk, C. R.; Radford, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the effort by Arvin/Calspan Corporation to formulate a revision of MIL-H-8501A in terms of Mission-Oriented Flying Qualities Requirements for Military Rotorcraft. Emphasis is placed on development of a specification structure which will permit addressing Operational Missions and Flight Phases, Flight Regions, Classification of Required Operational Capability, Categorization of Flight Phases, and Levels of Flying Qualities. A number of definitions is established to permit addressing the rotorcraft state, flight envelopes, environments, and the conditions under which degraded flying qualities are permitted. Tentative requirements are drafted for Required Operational Capability Class 1. Also included is a Background Information and Users Guide for the draft specification structure proposed for the MIL-H-8501A revision. The report also contains a discussion of critical data gaps and attempts to prioritize these data gaps and to suggest experiments that should be performed to generate data needed to support formulation of quantitative design criteria for the additional Operational Capability Classes 2, 3, and 4.

  10. Assessment of Soil Moisture Data Requirements by the Potential SMAP Data User Community: Review of SMAP Mission User Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is planned for launch in October 2014 and will provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze thaw state. The project is driven by both basic research and applied science goals. Understanding how application driven end-users will apply SMAP data, prior to the satellite's launch, is an important goal of NASA's applied science program and SMAP mission success. Because SMAP data are unique, there are no direct proxy data sets that can be used in research and operational studies to determine how the data will interact with existing processes. The objective of this study is to solicit data requirements, accuracy needs, and current understanding of the SMAP mission from the potential user community. This study showed that the data to be provided by the SMAP mission did substantially meet the user community needs. Although there was a broad distribution of requirements stated, the SMAP mission fit within these requirements.

  11. SEPS mission and system integration/interface requirements for the space transportation system. [Solar Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Barnett, P. M.; Shaffer, J., Jr.; Doran, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Earth escape mission requirements on Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), and the interface definition and planned integration between SEPS, user spacecraft, and other elements of the STS. Emphasis is placed on the Comet rendezvous mission, scheduled to be the first SEPS user. Interactive SEPS interface characteristics with spacecraft and mission, as well as the multiple organizations and inter-related development schedules required to integrate the SEPS with spacecraft and STS, require early attention to definition of interfaces in order to assure a successful path to the first SEPS launch in July 1985

  12. Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David; Perry,Jay; Sargusingh, Miriam; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development on areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-situ maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  13. Evaluation of the NASA Arc Jet Capabilities to Support Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony; Bruce, Walt; Gage, Peter; Horn, Dennis; Mastaler, Mike; Rigali, Don; Robey, Judee; Voss, Linda; Wahlberg, Jerry; Williams, Calvin

    2010-01-01

    NASA accomplishes its strategic goals through human and robotic exploration missions. Many of these missions require launching and landing or returning spacecraft with human or return samples through Earth's and other planetary atmospheres. Spacecraft entering an atmosphere are subjected to extreme aerothermal loads. Protecting against these extreme loads is a critical element of spacecraft design. The safety and success of the planned mission is a prime concern for the Agency, and risk mitigation requires the knowledgeable use of thermal protection systems to successfully withstand the high-energy states imposed on the vehicle. Arc jets provide ground-based testing for development and flight validation of re-entry vehicle thermal protection materials and are a critical capability and core competency of NASA. The Agency's primary hypersonic thermal testing capability resides at the Ames Research Center and the Johnson Space Center and was developed and built in the 1960s and 1970s. This capability was critical to the success of Apollo, Shuttle, Pioneer, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder, and Orion. But the capability and the infrastructure are beyond their design lives. The complexes urgently need strategic attention and investment to meet the future needs of the Agency. The Office of Chief Engineer (OCE) chartered the Arc Jet Evaluation Working Group (AJEWG), a team of experienced individuals from across the Nation, to capture perspectives and requirements from the arc jet user community and from the community that operates and maintains this capability and capacity. This report offers the AJEWG's findings and conclusions that are intended to inform the discussion surrounding potential strategic technical and investment strategies. The AJEWG was directed to employ a 30-year Agency-level view so that near-term issues did not cloud the findings and conclusions and did not dominate or limit any of the strategic options.

  14. Surface infrastructure functions, requirements and subsystems for a manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairchild, Kyle

    1986-01-01

    Planning and development for a permanently manned scientific outpost on Mars requires an in-depth understanding and analysis of the functions the outpost is expected to perform. The optimum configuration that accomplishes these functions then arises during the trade studies process. In a project this complex, it becomes necessary to use a formal methodology to document the design and planning process. The method chosen for this study is called top-down functional decomposition. This method is used to determine the functions that are needed to accomplish the overall mission, then determine what requirements and systems are needed to do each of the functions. This method facilitates automation of the trades and options process. In the example, this was done with an off-the shelf software package called TK! olver. The basic functions that a permanently manned outpost on Mars must accomplish are: (1) Establish the Life Critical Systems; (2) Support Planetary Sciences and Exploration; and (3) Develop and Maintain Long-term Support Functions, including those systems needed towards self-sufficiency. The top-down functional decomposition methology, combined with standard spread sheet software, offers a powerful tool to quickly assess various design trades and analyze options. As the specific subsystems, and the relational rule algorithms are further refined, it will be possible to very accurately determine the implications of continually evolving mission requirements.

  15. Requirements and design reference mission for the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Charley; Neville, Timothy; Pham, Hung; Rud, Mike; Tang, Hong; Villalvazo, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument takes advantage of AFTAs 2.4-meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes: Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, Lyot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architectures. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predicts the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  16. Cryogenic Curation: Isolated Technology and Mission Operational Requirements for Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allen, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Future lunar, Mars, asteroid, and comet sample return missions may collect samples that have been preserved at sub-freezing or even cryogenic temperatures. For such samples, the study of volatiles and temperature-sensitive minerals will have high priority. Valuable geochemical and mineralogical information will be lost if such samples are allowed to reach ambient temperatures on Earth. The ability to store, document, subdivide, and transport extraterrestrial geologic samples while maintaining sub-freezing or cryogenic temperatures, possibly as low as 40 K, is required for the complete scientific study of samples from cold environments.

  17. The Effects of Requiring Study Group Participation Associated with Students' Attitudes and Achievements in Developmental Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Clayton D.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely publicized that student attitudes and achievement in math in the United States require improvement. U.S. students have shown lackluster mathematics achievement scores compared to their international peers in other developed countries. As a former high school math instructor, this author observed that the attitude of many high school…

  18. Minimum Achievement Requirements as a Fostering Device for Learners from Disadvantaged Social Strata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Arieh

    To assist low achieving students in the mastery of instructional objectives in major subject areas, the Ministry of Education of Israel published definitions of Minimum Achievement Requirements (MAR) for specific subjects at all grade levels. To examine the feasibility of the MAR approach and to determine whether it contributed to the attainment…

  19. Technology Requirements for a Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Ramirez, J. Israel; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  20. External store effects on the stability of fighter and interceptor airplanes. [application to military aircraft mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Sawyer, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    Some criteria for external carriage of missiles for fighter aircraft intended for aerial combat missions and for fighter-interceptor missions are considered. The mission requirements discussed include the short-range fighter-interceptor, the short-range interceptor, the medium-range interceptor, and the long-range interceptor. Missiles types considered to be compatible with the various point mission designs include the short-range missile, the medium-range missile, and the long-range missile. From the study, it appears that point mission design aircraft can be arranged in such a way that the required external-store arrangement will not impair the stability of the aircraft. An extensive reference list of NASA external store research is included.

  1. Critical path plan for food and nutrition research required for planetary exploration missions.

    PubMed

    Vodovotz, Y; Bourland, C; Kloeris, V; Lane, H; Smith, S M

    1999-10-01

    In preparation for future planetary exploration, NASA-Johnson Space Center has developed a critical path plan for food and nutrition research needs. The plan highlights the risk factors pertaining to food and nutrition associated with exposure to the space flight environment as well as the possible consequences if no corrective measures are implemented. Included in the plan are the initiating events such as microgravity, remote environment and mission duration, which obviously impact the risk factors. The plan includes points of intervention where mitigating factors can be implemented to avoid outcomes such as malnutrition and unsafe foods. Physiological changes induced by lack of gravity, as well as increased exposure to radiation, may alter nutrient bio-availability, and/or nutrient requirements. An inadequate food system, whether due to technical limitations or nutritional shortcomings, can result in serious consequences. Additionally, microbial and chemical food contamination or psychological factors such as depression may lead to insufficient food intake. Critical questions define areas where further research is required to eliminate or ameliorate the risk from each of those factors. These questions delineate priorities for NASA food and nutrition research for planetary exploration missions.

  2. A SLAM II simulation model for analyzing space station mission processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Space station mission processing is modeled via the SLAM 2 simulation language on an IBM 4381 mainframe and an IBM PC microcomputer with 620K RAM, two double-sided disk drives and an 8087 coprocessor chip. Using a time phased mission (payload) schedule and parameters associated with the mission, orbiter (space shuttle) and ground facility databases, estimates for ground facility utilization are computed. Simulation output associated with the science and applications database is used to assess alternative mission schedules.

  3. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and systems analysis study add-on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, S. W.; Johnson, W. T.; Schoen, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    An MOTV mission model was constructed in order to establish the baseline condition for SOC basing. A mission model to reflect satellite servicing was extended. Yearly traffic was projected. Driver missions were categorized. Cost trades and sensitivity to traffic rates were performed and service equipment needs were identified.

  4. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 3: Mission and System Requirements for the Total Earth Resources System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Resource management missions to be performed by TERSSE are described. Mission and user requirements are defined along with information flows developed for each major resource management mission. Other topics discussed include: remote sensing platforms, remote sensor requirements, ground system architecture, and such related issues as cloud cover, resolution, orbit mechanics, and aircraft versus satellite.

  5. Flight path control strategies and preliminary deltaV requirements for the 2007 Mars Phoenix (PHX) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raofi, Behzad

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to estimate the statistical deltaV requirements for the propulsive maneuvers that will deliver the spacecraft to its target landing site while satisfying planetary protection requirements. the paper presents flight path control analysis results for three different trajectories, open, middle, and close of launch period for the mission.

  6. Advanced space power requirements and techniques. Task 1: Mission projections and requirements. Volume 3: Appendices. [cost estimates and computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Contents: (1) general study guidelines and assumptions; (2) launch vehicle performance and cost assumptions; (3) satellite programs 1959 to 1979; (4) initiative mission and design characteristics; (5) satellite listing; (6) spacecraft design model; (7) spacecraft cost model; (8) mission cost model; and (9) nominal and optimistic budget program cost summaries.

  7. EUMETSAT Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) Lightning Imager: From mission requirements to product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandell, J.; Stuhlmann, R.; Dobber, M.; Bennett, A.; Biron, D.; Defer, E.; Finke, U.; Hoeller, H.; Lopez, P.; Mach, D. M.; Mäkelä, A.; Soula, S.; Mtg Lightning Imager Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) system has become the primary European source of geostationary observations over Europe and Africa with the start of nominal operations in January 2004, and delivering observations and services at least until 2018 through MSG-3 and to 2022 through MSG-4. However, considering the typical development cycle for a new complex space system, it was already for a longer time necessary to plan for and define the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) system. As two Meteosat satellites need to be in orbit to fulfil the complete user needs, the first MTG satellite needs to be available for launch in 2017, before the end of the nominal lifetime of MSG-3. One of the new missions selected for MTG is the lightning Imagery (LI) mission, detecting continuously over almost the full disc the lightning discharges taking place in clouds or between cloud and ground with a resolution around 10 km over Europe. The LI mission is intended to provide a real time lightning detection (cloud-to-cloud and cloud-to-ground strokes) and location capability in support to Nowcasting (NWC) and Very Short Range Forecasting (VSRF) of severe storm hazards and lightning strike warning. As lightning is strongly correlated with storm related phenomena like precipitation, hail and gust, a further objective of the LI mission is to serve as proxy for intensive convection related to ice flux, updraft strength and convective rainfall. Lightning can also serve as proxy for adiabatic and latent heating to be assimilated in global/mesoscale NWP models. Finally, for atmospheric chemistry, lightning plays a significant role in generating nitrogen oxides. The natural nitrogen oxide budget is a matter of great uncertainty at this time, and long-term observations of one of its sources will prove valuable as the subject develops. The main objective of the mission is to detect flashes with a goal Detection Efficiency (DE) of better than 90%. This is in line with detecting risk areas for

  8. Determining Exercise Strength Requirements for Astronaut Critical Mission Tasks: Reaching Under G-Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The critical mission tasks assessments effort seeks to determine the physical performance requirements that astronauts must meet in order to safely and successfully accomplish lunar exploration missions. These assessments will determine astronaut preflight strength, fitness, and flexibility requirements, and the extent to which exercise and other countermeasures must prevent the physical deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The purpose is to determine the flexibility and strength that crewmembers must possess in order to reach Crew Exploration Vehicle controls during maneuvers that result in sustained acceleration levels ranging from 3.7G to 7.8G. An industry standard multibody dynamics application was used to create human models representing a 5th percentile female, a 50th percentile male, and a 95th percentile male. The additional mass of a space suit sleeve was added to the reaching arm to account for the influence of the suit mass on the reaching effort. The human model was merged with computer models of a pilot seat and control panel for the Crew Exploration Vehicle. Three dimensional paths were created that guided the human models hand from a starting position alongside its thigh to three control targets: a joystick, a keyboard, and an overhead switch panel. The reaching motion to each target was repeated under four vehicle acceleration conditions: nominal ascent (3.7G), two ascent aborts (5.5G and 7.8G) and lunar reentry (4.6G). Elbow and shoulder joint angular excursions were analyzed to assess range of motion requirements. Mean and peak elbow and shoulder joint torques were determined and converted to equivalent resistive exercise loads to assess strength requirements. Angular excursions for the 50th and 95th percentile male models remained within joint range of motion limits. For the 5th percentile female, both the elbow and the shoulder exceeded range of motion limits during the overhead reach. Elbow joint torques ranged from 10 N

  9. Systems engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford cleanup mission. First issue, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This addendum provides the technical detail of a systems engineering functional analysis for the Hanford cleanup mission. Details of the mission analysis including mission statement, scope, problem statement, initial state definition, and final state definition are provided in the parent document. The functional analysis consists of Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams an definitions, which will be understood by systems engineers, but which may be difficult for others to comprehend. For a more complete explanation of this work, refer to the parent document. The analysis covers the total Hanford cleanup mission including the decomposition levels at which the various Hanford programs or integrated activities are encountered.

  10. An approach to estimating human resource requirements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dreesch, Norbert; Dolea, Carmen; Dal Poz, Mario R; Goubarev, Alexandre; Adams, Orvill; Aregawi, Maru; Bergstrom, Karin; Fogstad, Helga; Sheratt, Della; Linkins, Jennifer; Scherpbier, Robert; Youssef-Fox, Mayada

    2005-09-01

    In the context of the Millennium Development Goals, human resources represent the most critical constraint in achieving the targets. Therefore, it is important for health planners and decision-makers to identify what are the human resources required to meet those targets. Planning the human resources for health is a complex process. It needs to consider both the technical aspects related to estimating the number, skills and distribution of health personnel for meeting population health needs, and the political implications, values and choices that health policy- and decision-makers need to make within given resources limitations. After presenting an overview of the various methods for planning human resources for health, with their advantages and limitations, this paper proposes a methodological approach to estimating the requirements of human resources to achieve the goals set forth by the Millennium Declaration. The method builds on the service-target approach and functional job analysis.

  11. The Habitable Exoplanet (HabEx) Imaging Mission: preliminary science drivers and technical requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennesson, Bertrand; Gaudi, Scott; Seager, Sara; Cahoy, Kerri; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Feinberg, Lee; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, Jeremy; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Tamura, Motohide; Mouillet, David; Prusti, Timo; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Robinson, Tyler; Rogers, Leslie; Scowen, Paul; Somerville, Rachel; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stern, Daniel; Still, Martin; Turnbull, Margaret; Booth, Jeffrey; Kiessling, Alina; Kuan, Gary; Warfield, Keith

    2016-07-01

    HabEx is one of four candidate flagship missions being studied in detail by NASA, to be submitted for consideration to the 2020 Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics for possible launch in the 2030s. It will be optimized for direct imaging and spectroscopy of potentially habitable exoplanets, and will also enable a wide range of general astrophysics science. HabEx aims to fully characterize planetary systems around nearby solar-type stars for the first time, including rocky planets, possible water worlds, gas giants, ice giants, and faint circumstellar debris disks. In particular, it will explore our nearest neighbors and search for signs of habitability and biosignatures in the atmospheres of rocky planets in the habitable zones of their parent stars. Such high spatial resolution, high contrast observations require a large (roughly greater than 3.5m), stable, and diffraction-limited optical space telescope. Such a telescope also opens up unique capabilities for studying the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies. We present some preliminary science objectives identified for HabEx by our Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT), together with a first look at the key challenges and design trades ahead.

  12. The Habitable Exoplanet (HabEx) Imaging Mission: Preliminary Science Drivers and Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, B. Scott; Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission Science and Technology Definition Team

    2017-01-01

    HabEx is one of four candidate flagship missions being studied in detail by NASA, to be submitted for consideration to the 2020 Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics for possible launch in the 2030s. It will be optimized for direct imaging and spectroscopy of potentially habitable exoplanets, and will also enable a wide range of general astrophysics science. HabEx aims to fully characterize planetary systems around nearby solar-type stars for the first time, including rocky planets, possible water worlds, gas giants, ice giants, and faint circumstellar debris disks. In particular, it will explore our nearest neighbors and search for signs of habitability and biosignatures in the atmospheres of rocky planets in the habitable zones of their parent stars. Such high spatial resolution, high contrast observations require a large (roughly greater than 3.5m), stable, and diffraction-limited optical space telescope. Such a telescope also opens up unique capabilities for studying the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies. We present some preliminary science objectives identified for HabEx by our Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT), together with a first look at the key challenges and design trades ahead.

  13. Guidance and Navigation Requirements for Unmanned Flyby and Swingby Missions to the Outer Planets. Volume 3; Low Thrust Missions, Phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned missions to the outer planets, assuming constant, low thrust, ion propulsion are discussed. The navigational capability of the ground based Deep Space Network is compared to the improvements in navigational capability brought about by the addition of guidance and navigation related onboard sensors. Relevant onboard sensors include: (1) the optical onboard navigation sensor, (2) the attitude reference sensors, and (3) highly sensitive accelerometers. The totally ground based, and the combination ground based and onboard sensor systems are compared by means of the estimated errors in target planet ephemeris, and the spacecraft position with respect to the planet.

  14. A Venus Atmosphere Sample Return Mission Concept: Feasibility and Technology Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, E.; Lu, Y.; Pradeepkumar, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Saikia, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    Although Venus is similar in size to Earth, their atmospheres are completely different. This study will look at past Venus sample return missions, and revisit them with modern technology, as well as propose an additional sample return strategy.

  15. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB’s) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  16. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    ​While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  17. Applications Explorer Missions (AEM): Mission planners handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The Applications Explorer Missions (AEM) Program is a planned series of space applications missions whose purpose is to perform various tasks that require a low cost, quick reaction, small spacecraft in a dedicated orbit. The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) is the first mission of this series. The spacecraft described in this document was conceived to support a variety of applications instruments and the HCMM instrument in particular. The maximum use of commonality has been achieved. That is, all of the subsystems employed are taken directly or modified from other programs such as IUE, IMP, RAE, and Nimbus. The result is a small versatile spacecraft. The purpose of this document, the AEM Mission Planners Handbook (AEM/MPH) is to describe the spacecraft and its capabilities in general and the HCMM in particular. This document will also serve as a guide for potential users as to the capabilities of the AEM spacecraft and its achievable orbits. It should enable each potential user to determine the suitability of the AEM concept to his mission.

  18. Getting Out of Orbit: Water Recycling Requirements and Technology Needs for Long Duration Missions Away from Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Deep-space crewed missions will not have regular access to the Earth's resources or the ability to rapidly return to Earth if a system fails. As crewed missions extend farther from Earth for longer periods, habitation systems must become more self-sufficient and reliable for safe, healthy, and sustainable human exploration. For human missions to Mars, Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) must be able operate for up to 1,100 days with minimal spares and consumables. These missions will require capabilities to more fully recycle atmospheric gases and wastewater to substantially reduce mission costs. Even with relatively austere requirements for use, water represents one of the largest consumables by mass. Systems must be available to extract and recycle water from all sources of waste. And given that there will be no opportunity to send samples back to Earth for analysis, analytical measurements will be limited to monitoring hardware brought on board the spacecraft. The Earth Reliant phase of NASA's exploration strategy includes leveraging the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate advanced capabilities for a robust and reliable ECLSS. The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) includes a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) for distillation and recovery of water from urine and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA) to process humidity condensate and urine distillate into potable water. Possible enhancements to more fully "close the water loop" include recovery of water from waste brines and solid wastes. A possible game changer is the recovery of water from local planetary resources through use of In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technologies. As part of the development and demonstration sequence, NASA intends to utilize cis-Lunar space as a Proving Ground to verify systems for deep space habitation by conducting extended duration missions to validate our readiness for Mars.

  19. The instrument control unit of the EChO space mission: electrical architecture and processing requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Farina, M.; Pancrazzi, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Lim, T. L.; Ottensamer, R.; Pezzuto, S.; Pace, E.; Micela, G.

    2014-08-01

    requirements as driven by the EChO science case [1, 2]. This paper is conceived as a memory for an EChO-like payload electrical architecture with processing capabilities mainly driven by the scientific requirements as defined and frozen at the end of both the Payload Assessment Phase and the M3 mission selection process, held by ESA at the beginning of February 2014.

  20. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  1. Propulsion requirements for the supply of lunar-derived oxygen for a manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrobel, J. Richard; Butterfield, Ansel J.; Garrett, L. Bernard

    1989-01-01

    The use of lunar-derived liquid oxygen with hydrogen for robust manned explorations beyond earth is discussed. The propellant mixture ratio for optimal performance is near the current design point of r = 6. The results of NASA-sponsored studies of missions using cryogenic bipropellant H2-O2 for most functions reveal the potential benefits from a propellant terminal in cis-lunar space. The main propulsion technologies associated with Mars mission case studies include: in-space fluid transfer, zero-g ignition, oxygen-enriched propellant mixtures, throttling of main engines, and H2-O2 based auxiliary propulsion.

  2. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  3. Science and Measurement Requirements for a Plant Physiology and Functional Types Mission: Measuring the Composition, Function and Health of Global Land and Coastal Ocean Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Rogez, Francois; Green, Rob; Ungar, Steve; Knox, Robert; Asner, Greg; Muller-Karger, Frank; Bissett, Paul; Chekalyuk, Alex; Dierssen, Heidi; Gamon, John; Hook, Simon; Meister, Gerhard; Middleton, Betsy; Ollinger, Scott; Roberts, Dar; Siegel, Dave; Townsend, Phil; Saatchi, Sassan; Unstin, Susan; Turner, Woody; Wickland, Diane; Bontempi, Paula; Emanuel, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed Plant Physiology and Functional Types (PPFT) Mission. The National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, placed a critical priority on a Mission to observe distribution and changes in ecosystem functions. The PPFT satellite mission provides the essential measurements needed to assess drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystem services that affect human welfare. The presentation reviews the science questions that the mission will be designed to answer, the science rationale, the science measurements, the mission concept, the planned instrumentation, the calibration method, and key signal to noise ratios and uniformity requirements.

  4. Science and Measurement Requirements for a Plant Physiology and Functional Types Mission: Measuring the Composition, Function and Health of Global Land and Coastal Ocean Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Rogez, Francois; Green, Rob; Ungar, Steve; Knox, Robert; Asner, Greg; Muller-Karger, Frank; Bissett, Paul; Chekalyuk, Alex; Dierssen, Heidi; Gamon, John; Hook, Simon; Meister, Gerhard; Middleton, Betsy; Ollinger, Scott; Roberts, Dar; Siegel, Dave; Townsend, Phil; Saatchi, Sassan; Unstin, Susan; Turner, Woody; Wickland, Diane; Bontempi, Paula; Emanuel, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed Plant Physiology and Functional Types (PPFT) Mission. The National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, placed a critical priority on a Mission to observe distribution and changes in ecosystem functions. The PPFT satellite mission provides the essential measurements needed to assess drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystem services that affect human welfare. The presentation reviews the science questions that the mission will be designed to answer, the science rationale, the science measurements, the mission concept, the planned instrumentation, the calibration method, and key signal to noise ratios and uniformity requirements.

  5. The Effects of Reducing the Structural Mass of the Transit Habitat on the Cryogenic Propellant Required for a Human Phobos Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John Joseph

    2016-01-01

    A technique for rapidly determining the relationship between the pressurized volume, structural mass and the cryogenic propellant required to be delivered to Earth orbit for a Mars Transit Habitat is provided. This technique is based on assumptions for the required delta-V's, the Exploration Upper Stage performance and the historical structural masses for human spacecraft from Mercury Program through the International Space Station. If the Mars Transit Habitat is constructed from aluminum, structural mass estimates based on the habitat pressurized volume are accurate to within 15%. Other structural material options for the Mars Transit Habitat are also evaluated. The results show that small, achievable reductions in the structural mass of the Transit Habitat can save tens of thousands of pounds of cryogenic propellant that need to be delivered to Earth orbit for a human Phobos Mission.

  6. The Effects of Reducing the Structural Mass of the Transit Habitat on the Cryogenic Propellant Required for a Human Phobos Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A technique for rapidly determining the relationship between the pressurized volume, structural mass and the cryogenic propellant required to be delivered to Earth orbit for a Mars Transit Habitat is provided. This technique is based on assumptions for the required delta-V's, the Exploration Upper Stage performance and the historical structural masses for human spacecraft from Mercury Program through the International Space Station. If the Mars Transit Habitat is constructed from aluminum, structural mass estimates based on the habitat pressurized volume are accurate to within 15 percent. Other structural material options for the Mars Transit Habitat are also evaluated. The results show that small, achievable reductions in the structural mass of the Transit Habitat can save tens of thousands of pounds of cryogenic propellant that need to be delivered to Earth orbit for a human Phobos Mission.

  7. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  8. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and system analysis study extension. Manned Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV) capabilities handbook and user guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The primary change in crew capsule definition is a smaller MOTV crew capsule, switching from a 3-man capsule to a 2-man capsule. A second change permitted crew accommodations for sleeping and privacy to be combined with the flight station. The current baseline DRM, ER1, requires 2 men for 3 to 4 days to repair a multi-disciplined GOE Platform and a modest amount of mission dedicated hardware. A 2-man MOTV crew capsule to be used as a design reference point for the OTV, and its interfaces between the STS and other associated equipment or facilities are described in detail. The functional capabilities of the 2-man capsule, as well as its application to a wide range of generic missions, is also presented. The MOTV turnaround is addressed and significant requirements for both space based and ground based scenarios are summarized.

  9. Mission control communications interface requirements study, space transportation system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Communications traffic models required by the STS Operator to satisfy the operational requirements and concepts were developed. Detailed requirements for the ground system required for flight control of the STS and interface with Payload Operations Control Centers were constructed.

  10. Mission requirements for a manned earth observatory. Volume 1, task 1: Experiment selection, definition, and documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Information related to proposed earth observation experiments for shuttle sortie missions (SSM) in the 1980's is presented. The step-wise progression of study activities and the development of the rationale that led to the identification, selection, and description of earth observation experiments for SSM are listed. The selected experiments are described, defined, and documented by individual disciplines. These disciplines include: oceanography; meteorology; agriculture, forestry, and rangeland; geology; hydrology; and environmental impact.

  11. Lunar scout missions: Galileo encounter results and application to scientific problems and exploration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Belton, M.; Greeley, R.; Pieters, C.; Mcewen, A.; Neukum, G.; Mccord, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Lunar Scout Missions (payload: x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, high-resolution stereocamera, neutron spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, imaging spectrometer, gravity experiment) will provide a global data set for the chemistry, mineralogy, geology, topography, and gravity of the Moon. These data will in turn provide an important baseline for the further scientific exploration of the Moon by all-purpose landers and micro-rovers, and sample return missions from sites shown to be of primary interest from the global orbital data. These data would clearly provide the basis for intelligent selection of sites for the establishment of lunar base sites for long-term scientific and resource exploration and engineering studies. The two recent Galileo encounters with the Moon (December, 1990 and December, 1992) illustrate how modern technology can be applied to significant lunar problems. We emphasize the regional results of the Galileo SSI to show the promise of geologic unit definition and characterization as an example of what can be done with the global coverage to be obtained by the Lunar Scout Missions.

  12. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  13. Implementation of a complex of measures to fulfill the planetary protection requirements of the ExoMars-2016 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamidullina, Natalia; Novikova, Nataliya; Deshevaya, Elena; Orlov, Oleg; Guridov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Dmitry; Zaytseva, Olga

    2016-07-01

    The major purpose of the planetary protection program in the ExoMars-2016 mission is to forestall Mars contamination by terrestrial microorganisms. Since Martian descent module is not intended for biological experiments, ExoMars-2016 mission falls under COSPAR category IVa. Within the joint project co-sponsored by ESA and Roscosmos the European side holds full responsibility for ensuring a prescribed level of SC microbiological purity, while the Russian side is charged with compliance of the launch services provided on Baikonur technical complex with the planetary protection requirements that is, specifically, prevention of SC recontamination. To this end, a complex of measures was executed to control microbial contamination of cosmodrome facilities on the prescribed level which included: - regular decontamination of clean rooms using an effective disinfectant and impulse ultraviolet radiation that created favorable conditions for reliable functioning of the ESA clean tent, - replacement of airline filters in the Thermal Conditioning Unit (TCU) air duct for SC conditioning with pure air. The results of microbiological tests performed in the period of 2015 - 2016 lead to the conclusion that the Baikonur clean rooms (ISO class 8), TCU air ducts and Air Thermal Control System (ATCS) at launch site are ready for the launch campaign and that the Russian side fulfilled the planetary protection requirements of the ExoMars-2016 mission.

  14. Optimization of Instrument Requirements for NASAs GEO-CAPE Coastal Mission Concept Based On Sensor Capability And Cost Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    NASA's GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEOCAPE) mission concept recommended by the U.S. National Research Council (2007) focuses on measurements of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and aquatic coastal ecology and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit (35,786 km altitude). GEO-CAPE is currently in pre-formulation (pre- Phase) A with no established launch date. NASA continues to support science and engineering studies to reduce mission risk. Instrument design lab (IDL) studies were commissioned in 2014 to design and cost two implementations for geostationary ocean color instruments (1) Wide-Angle Spectrometer (WAS) and (2) Filter Radiometer (FR) and (3) a cost scaling study to compare the costs for implementing different science performance requirements.

  15. Requirements and Capabilities for Planetary Missions: Mariner Encke Ballistic Flyby 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, G. G.; Bird, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    This mission will provide a broad-based fast reconnaissance of comet Encke, building a data base for subsequent more detailed comet investigations, including rendezvous. After a 3 month flight, the spacecraft will encounter the comet at a nominal range of about 500 km. Flyby velocity will be 7 to 28 km/sec depending on choice of arrival data (0 to 35 days before Encke perihelion) and launch vehicle. The spacecraft will be similar to the MVM 73 spacecraft, with scan platform and 117 kbps encounter data rate, and designed to survive the thermal environment of 0.34 to 0.8 AU.

  16. Requirements and capabilities for planetary missions. Venus orbiter imaging radar 1983, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindt, D. H.; Ball, G. G.; Bird, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    Two spacecraft will be launched in mid-1983 and inserted into a circular polar orbit around Venus about 6 months later. Elliptical orbits are also under consideration. The objective of the mission is imagery of the planet, at about the 200-m resolution level, with continuous altimetry and topographical studies. Science investigations will determine surface characteristics of the planet, study the surface/atmosphere interactions, and determine Venus' mass distribution. A plausible vehicle is based on a Mariner Jupiter/Saturn derivative; others being considered include a Lunar Polar Orbiter derivative and a Pioneer Venus Orbiter derivative.

  17. A Launch Requirements Trade Study for Active Space Radiation Shielding for Long Duration Human Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Bollweg, Ken; Martin, Trent; Westover, Shayne; Battiston, Roberto; Burger, William J.; Meinke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A trade study for an active shielding concept based on magnetic fields in a solenoid configuration versus mass based shielding was developed. Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the radiation exposure for two values of the magnetic field strength and the mass of the magnetic shield configuration. For each field strength, results were reported for the magnetic region shielding (end caps ignored) and total region shielding (end caps included but no magnetic field protection) configurations. A value of 15 cSv was chosen to be the maximum exposure for an astronaut. The radiation dose estimate over the total shield region configuration cannot be used at this time without a better understanding of the material and mass present in the end cap regions through a detailed vehicle design. The magnetic shield region configuration, assuming the end cap regions contribute zero exposure, can be launched on a single Space Launch System rocket and up to a two year mission can be supported. The magnetic shield region configuration results in two versus nine launches for a comparable mass based shielding configuration. The active shielding approach is clearly more mass efficient because of the reduced number of launches than the mass based shielding for long duration missions.

  18. Measurement requirements for a Near-Earth Asteroid impact mitigation demonstration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolters, Stephen D.; Ball, Andrew J.; Wells, Nigel; Saunders, Christopher; McBride, Neil

    2011-10-01

    A concept for an Impact Mitigation Preparation Mission, called Don Quijote, is to send two spacecrafts to a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA): an Orbiter and an Impactor. The Impactor collides with the asteroid while the Orbiter measures the resulting change in the asteroid's orbit, by means of a Radio Science Experiment (RSE) carried out before and after the impact. Three parallel Phase A studies on Don Quijote were carried out for the European Space Agency: the research presented here reflects the outcomes of the study by QinetiQ. We discuss the mission objectives with regard to the prioritisation of payload instruments, with emphasis on the interpretation of the impact. The Radio Science Experiment is described and it is examined how solar radiation pressure may increase the uncertainty in measuring the orbit of the target asteroid. It is determined that to measure the change in orbit accurately a thermal IR spectrometer is mandatory, to measure the Yarkovsky effect. The advantages of having a laser altimeter are discussed. The advantages of a dedicated wide-angle impact camera are discussed and the field-of-view is initially sized through a simple model of the impact.

  19. Guiding Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development in areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-flight maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  20. Mission requirements CSM-111/DM-2 Apollo/Soyuz test project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmer, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Test systems are developed for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft and stations that are suitable for use as a standard international system. This includes the rendezvous and docking of Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft, and crew transfer. The conduct of the mission will include: (1) testing of compatible rendezvous systems in orbit; (2) testing of universal docking assemblies; (3) verifying the techniques for transfer of cosmonauts and astronauts; (4) performing certain activities by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. crews in joint flight; and (5) gaining of experience in conducting joint flights by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. spacecraft, including, in case of necessity, rendering aid in emergency situations.

  1. Physical Property Requirements of a Target Asteroid for a Mitigation Demonstration Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drube, Line; Harris, Alan; Barucci, A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Perna, D.

    2012-10-01

    As part of the NEOShield project we are carrying out a statistical investigation of the properties of the known NEO population, using the latest published data, with the aim of estimating the most likely mitigation-relevant physical properties of the first threatening NEO to trigger a space-borne mitigation campaign. A major aim of NEOShield is to pave the way for a mitigation demonstration mission, including an appropriate and realistic choice of target NEO. Our investigation focuses on the physical properties of the most frequent serious impactors. We define a serious impactor to be one with the potential to lead to major loss of life and damage to infrastructure. At the low end of the size range our definition includes atmospheric events such as the 1908 Tunguska explosion, caused by a body with a diameter of around 50 m. We consider the upper limit of our diameter range of interest to be around 200 m: for objects above this size the impact frequency drops below 1 per 10 000 years. The small sizes of the NEOs in question present technical difficulties for mitigation planning. The complexity and chances of failure of a mitigation mission increase with decreasing diameter below a few hundred meters due to, e.g., the difficulties of targeting and maneuvering around an optically faint, low-gravity object. Further complications arise due to the fact that rotation rates and shapes tend to be more extreme in the case of such small NEOs. Very little is known about the mitigation-relevant properties of small NEOs. An important aspect of our study is to determine to what extent common assumptions about NEO physical properties are justified for mitigation planning, and identify the most critical areas of ignorance. We present and briefly discuss results obtained to date. Funded under EU FP7 program agreement no. 282703.

  2. National space transportation and support study/mission requirements and architecture studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durocher, C. L.; Darwin, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The government approach to fulfilling the requirements of the National Space Transportation and Support Study is described. DOD and NASA were required to determine the architecture and technology that would be needed for civil and defense space transportation during the 1995-2010 time range. NASA collected data from the National Commission on Space and the DOD research focused on SDI requirements. The objectives and recommendations of the space transportation architecture, transportation and support systems, and technology assessment and planning tasks are discussed.

  3. Shuttle mission simulator. Volume 2: Requirement report, volume 2, revision C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The requirements for space shuttle simulation which are discussed include: general requirements, program management, system engineering, design and development, crew stations, on-board computers, and systems integration. For Vol. 1, revision A see N73-22203, for Vol 2, revision A see N73-22204.

  4. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 3, attachment 1, task 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and systems architectural requirements of the space station program are described. The system design is determined by user requirements. Investigated topics include physical and life science experiments, commercial utilization, U.S. national security, and remote space operations. The economic impact of the space station program is analyzed.

  5. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 2, task 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Mission areas analyzed for input to the baseline mission model include: (1) commercial materials processing, including representative missions for producing metallurgical, chemical and biological products; (2) commercial Earth observation, represented by a typical carry-on mission amenable to commercialization; (3) solar terrestrial and resource observations including missions in geoscience and scientific land observation; (4) global environment, including representative missions in meteorology, climatology, ocean science, and atmospheric science; (5) materials science, including missions for measuring material properties, studying chemical reactions and utilizing the high vacuum-pumping capacity of space; and (6) life sciences with experiments in biomedicine and animal and plant biology.

  6. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies required to... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies...

  7. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth- Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time.

  8. Determining Hospital Ship (T-AH) Staffing Requirements for Humanitarian Assistance Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-16

    DR to those affected .1 Mercy provided assistance to international relief organizations and HN medical teams ashore. As the only Level 3 trauma...23 Table 15. Nongovernmental organization personnel specialties...conditions not necessarily seen during combat casualty care, thus affecting the manning requirements. Objective To better plan the medical

  9. Power for Microsystems Strategic Technology Initiative Report on MAST Mission Power Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    V leads to an anticipated power requirement of only 37 mW during basic locomotion. Using the chosen lithium polymer battery by Kokam (650 mg, 20...easily provided by commercial batteries like the Kokam lithium polymer battery discussed in section 2 (7). However, miniaturization and power reduction

  10. Lunar base mission technology issues and orbital demonstration requirements on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space Station has been the object of considerable design, redesign, and alteration since it was originally proposed in early 1984. In the intervening years the station has slowly evolved to a specific design that was thoroughly reviewed by a large agency-wide Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF). As space station designs continue to evolve, studies must be conducted to determine the suitability of the current design for some of the primary purposes for which the station will be used. This paper concentrates on the technology requirements and issues, the on-orbit demonstration and verification program, and the space station focused support required prior to the establishment of a permanently manned lunar base as identified in the National Commission on Space report. Technology issues associated with the on-orbit assembly and processing of the lunar vehicle flight elements are also discussed.

  11. Earth Entry Requirements for Mars, Europa and Enceladus Sample Return Missions: A Thermal Protection System Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gage, Peter; Ellerby, Don; Mahzari, Milad; Peterson, Keith; Stackpoole, Mairead; Young, Zion

    2016-01-01

    This oral presentation will be given at the 13th International Planetary Probe Workshop on June 14th, 2016 and will cover the drivers for reliability and the challenges faced in selecting and designing the thermal protection system (TPS). In addition, an assessment is made on new emerging TPS related technologies that could help with designs to meet the planetary protection requirements to prevent backward (Earth) contamination by biohazardous samples.

  12. Integrative Physical and Cognitive Training Development to Better Meet Airman Mission Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-26

    that exercise that requires focus on mind - body interactions and/or the juggling of multiple performance goals (e.g., maintaining balance while building...training with contemporary PT exercises (e.g., performing body squats while concurrently tracking incoming information to improve lower body strength...exercises (e.g., performing body squats while concurrently tracking incoming information to improve lower body strength and working memory capacity). This

  13. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is a European Space Agency mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA LISA mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for space borne gravitational wave detection; it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder (LPF) essentially mimics one arm of space-borne gravitational wave detectors by shrinking the million kilometer scale armlengths down to a few tens of centimeters, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology. The scientific objective of the LPF mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology.

  14. Solid rocket motor certification to meet space shuttle requirements from challenge to achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. Q.; Kilminster, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three solid rocket motor (SRM) design requirements for the Space Shuttle were discussed. No existing solid rocket motor experience was available for the requirement for a thrust-time trace, twenty uses for the principle hardware, and a moveable nozzle with an 8 deg. omnivaxial vectoring capability. The solutions to these problems are presented.

  15. Functional Requirements: 2014 No Child Left Behind--Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the Minnesota No Child Left Behind (NCLB) calculation as it relates to measuring Title III districts for Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAO). In 2012, a new assessment was used to measure language proficiency skills for English Learners. New AMAO targets were created, and new values for determining individual…

  16. A new methodology to integrate planetary quarantine requirements into mission planning, with application to a Jupiter orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R. A.; North, D. W.; Pezier, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed for integrating planetary quarantine objectives into space exploration planning. This methodology is designed to remedy the major weaknesses inherent in the current formulation of planetary quarantine requirements. Application of the methodology is illustrated by a tutorial analysis of a proposed Jupiter Orbiter mission. The proposed methodology reformulates planetary quarantine planning as a sequential decision problem. Rather than concentrating on a nominal plan, all decision alternatives and possible consequences are laid out in a decision tree. Probabilities and values are associated with the outcomes, including the outcome of contamination. The process of allocating probabilities, which could not be made perfectly unambiguous and systematic, is replaced by decomposition and optimization techniques based on principles of dynamic programming. Thus, the new methodology provides logical integration of all available information and allows selection of the best strategy consistent with quarantine and other space exploration goals.

  17. An analysis of approach navigation accuracy and guidance requirements for the grand tour mission to the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. W.

    1971-01-01

    The navigation and guidance process for the Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus planetary encounter phases of the 1977 Grand Tour interior mission was simulated. Reference approach navigation accuracies were defined and the relative information content of the various observation types were evaluated. Reference encounter guidance requirements were defined, sensitivities to assumed simulation model parameters were determined and the adequacy of the linear estimation theory was assessed. A linear sequential estimator was used to provide an estimate of the augmented state vector, consisting of the six state variables of position and velocity plus the three components of a planet position bias. The guidance process was simulated using a nonspherical model of the execution errors. Computation algorithms which simulate the navigation and guidance process were derived from theory and implemented into two research-oriented computer programs, written in FORTRAN.

  18. Threads of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  19. Formation Control for the Maxim Mission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the spacebased scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today's technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. The Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the same order of those for MAXIM. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; (2) the formation control architecture devised for such missions; (3) the design of the formation control laws to maintain very high precision relative positions; and (4) the levels of fuel usage required in the duration of these missions. Specific preliminary results are presented for two spacecraft within the MAXIM mission.

  20. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in California

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.

  1. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Solar Photovoltaic Energy Penetration in California

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.

  2. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 8: User's Mission and System Requirements Data (appendix A of Volume 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A computer printout is presented of the mission requirement for the TERSSE missions and their associated user tasks. The data included in the data base represents a broad-based attempt to define the amount, extent, and type of information needed for an earth resources management program in the era of the space shuttle. An effort was made to consider all aspects of remote sensing and resource management; because of its broad scope, it is not intended that the data be used without verification for in-depth studies of particular missions and/or users. The data base represents the quantitative structure necessary to define the TERSSE architecture and requirements, and to an overall integrated view of the earth resources technology requirements of the 1980's.

  3. Integrating MRP (materiel requirements planning) II and JIT to achieve world-class status.

    PubMed

    Titone, R C

    1994-05-01

    The concepts and principles of using manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) for planning are not new. Their success has been proven in numerous manufacturing companies in America. The concepts and principles of using just-in-time (JIT) inventory for execution, while more recent, have also been available for some time, and their success in Japan well documented. However, it is the effective integration of these two powerful tools that open the way to achieving world-class manufacturing status. This article will utilize a newly developed world-class manufacturing model, which will review the aspects of planning, beginning with a business plan through the production planning process and culminating with a master schedule that drives a materiel/capacity plan. The importance and interrelationship of these functions are reviewed. The model then illustrates the important aspects of executing these plans beginning with people issues, through total quality control (TQC) and pull systems. We will then utilize this new functional model to demonstrate the relationship between these various functions and the importance of integrating them with a total comprehensive manufacturing strategy that will lead to world-class manufacturing and profits.

  4. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 1: Mission and system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofal, Allen E.

    1987-01-01

    The mission and system requirements for the concept definition and system analysis of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) are established. The requirements set forth constitute the single authority for the selection, evaluation, and optimization of the technical performance and design of the OTV. This requirements document forms the basis for the Ground and Space Based OTV concept definition analyses and establishes the physical, functional, performance and design relationships to STS, Space Station, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), and payloads.

  5. Measure for measure: curriculum requirements and children's achievement in music education.

    PubMed

    Bond, Trevor; Bond, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Children in all public primary schools in Queensland, Australia have weekly music lessons designed to develop key musical concepts such as reading, writing, singing and playing simple music notation. Their understanding of basic musical concepts is developed through a blend of kinaesthetic, visual and auditory experiences. In keeping with the pedagogical principles outlined by the Hungarian composer, Zoltan Kodaly, early musical experiences are based in singing well-known children's chants - usually restricted to notes of the pentatonic scale. In order to determine the extent to which primary school children's musical understandings developed in response to these carefully structured developmental learning experiences, the Queensland Primary Music Curriculum was examined to yield a set of over 70 indicators of musical understanding in the areas of rhythm, melody and part-work,the essential skills for choral singing. Data were collected from more than 400 children's attempts at elicited musical performances. Quantitative data analysis procedures derived from the Rasch model for measurement were used to establish the sequence of children's mastery of key musical concepts. Results suggested that while the music curriculum did reflect the general development of musical concepts, the grade allocation for a few concepts needed to be revised. Subsequently, children's performances over several years were also analysed to track the musical achievements of students over time. The empirical evidence confirmed that children's musical development was enhanced by school learning and that indicators can be used to identify both outstanding and atypical development of musical understanding. It was concluded that modest adjustments to the music curriculum might enhance children's learning opportunities in music.

  6. Building America Case Study: Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings, Upstate New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  7. Requirements on Atmospheric Entry of Small Probes for Several Planets: Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus in Preparation for the Future ESA Cosmic Vision Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomuta, D.; Rebuffat, D.; Larranaga, J.; Erd, C.; Bavdaz, M.; Falkner, P.

    2011-02-01

    In preparation for the ESA Cosmic Vision new call for medium class missions, a set of entry probes for inner and outer planets have been preliminary investigated by ESA using its Concurrent Design Facility. These Entry Probe missions are hypothetically assumed for launching time 2020-2035. A preliminary design of the probes arrived at a mass of about 300kg. In the following, the study is focused on the entry conditions for each of the planets Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus with the aim to define the conditions for the Entry and Descent System (EDS) and its required technologies. For Venus case, two scenarios where considered: one where the entry probe is released during a typical gravity assist by a large interplanetary mission and another scenario featuring a stand alone mission targeted to Venus. During the entry in Venus atmosphere (mainly composed of CO2 (96.5%) and N2 (3.5%)), the probes are subjected to maximum heat fluxes of 60MW/m2, which is highly demanding in both scenarios. For the outer planet missions, only flyby scenarios with a targeted release of the probe were considered. The entry probes for the outer planets are subjected to heat fluxes above 100MW/m2, which is even more challenging the Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and therefore requiring the use of special high temperature protection technology to prevent the destruction during the entry. ESA efforts for future missions are directed towards the development of an European Light Ablative Material (ELAM), though used in PEP study only for the Back Cover of the Entry Module. The TPS as well as both radiative and convective heat fluxes need simulations and verification by means of ground facility experiments. Based on the lessons learned from previous mission studies (mission to a near-Earth objects c.f. Marco Polo, Deimos Sample return), an Atmospheric Mars Sample Return is now under study. For sample return missions on return to Earth, a passive re-entry capsule delivering the sample

  8. Pre-Mission Input Requirements to Enable Successful Sample Collection by A Remote Field/EVA Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Lim, D. S. S.; Young, K. E.; Brunner, A.; Elphic, R. E.; Horne, A.; Kerrigan, M. C.; Osinski, G. R.; Skok, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Saint-Jacques, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team, part of the Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute (SSERVI), is a field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, Phobos and Deimos, and beyond. In contract to other technology-driven NASA analog studies, The FINESSE WCIS activity is science-focused and, moreover, is sampling-focused with the explicit intent to return the best samples for geochronology studies in the laboratory. We used the FINESSE field excursion to the West Clearwater Lake Impact structure (WCIS) as an opportunity to test factors related to sampling decisions. We examined the in situ sample characterization and real-time decision-making process of the astronauts, with a guiding hypothesis that pre-mission training that included detailed background information on the analytical fate of a sample would better enable future astronauts to select samples that would best meet science requirements. We conducted three tests of this hypothesis over several days in the field. Our investigation was designed to document processes, tools and procedures for crew sampling of planetary targets. This was not meant to be a blind, controlled test of crew efficacy, but rather an effort to explicitly recognize the relevant variables that enter into sampling protocol and to be able to develop recommendations for crew and backroom training in future endeavors.

  9. Achieving Accuracy Requirements for Forest Biomass Mapping: A Data Fusion Method for Estimating Forest Biomass and LiDAR Sampling Error with Spaceborne Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montesano, P. M.; Cook, B. D.; Sun, G.; Simard, M.; Zhang, Z.; Nelson, R. F.; Ranson, K. J.; Lutchke, S.; Blair, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    The synergistic use of active and passive remote sensing (i.e., data fusion) demonstrates the ability of spaceborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multispectral imagery for achieving the accuracy requirements of a global forest biomass mapping mission. This data fusion approach also provides a means to extend 3D information from discrete spaceborne LiDAR measurements of forest structure across scales much larger than that of the LiDAR footprint. For estimating biomass, these measurements mix a number of errors including those associated with LiDAR footprint sampling over regional - global extents. A general framework for mapping above ground live forest biomass (AGB) with a data fusion approach is presented and verified using data from NASA field campaigns near Howland, ME, USA, to assess AGB and LiDAR sampling errors across a regionally representative landscape. We combined SAR and Landsat-derived optical (passive optical) image data to identify forest patches, and used image and simulated spaceborne LiDAR data to compute AGB and estimate LiDAR sampling error for forest patches and 100m, 250m, 500m, and 1km grid cells. Forest patches were delineated with Landsat-derived data and airborne SAR imagery, and simulated spaceborne LiDAR (SSL) data were derived from orbit and cloud cover simulations and airborne data from NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (L VIS). At both the patch and grid scales, we evaluated differences in AGB estimation and sampling error from the combined use of LiDAR with both SAR and passive optical and with either SAR or passive optical alone. This data fusion approach demonstrates that incorporating forest patches into the AGB mapping framework can provide sub-grid forest information for coarser grid-level AGB reporting, and that combining simulated spaceborne LiDAR with SAR and passive optical data are most useful for estimating AGB when measurements from LiDAR are limited because they minimized

  10. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, P.; Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Congedo, G.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixton, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dumbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martin, V.; Mateos, I.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Schleicher, A.; Shaul, D.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2013-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is an European Space Agency mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for space-borne gravitational wave detection; it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control, and an ultra precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder (LPF) essentially mimics one arm of spaceborne gravitational wave detectors by shrinking the million kilometre scale armlengths down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. In this paper I will give a brief overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals.

  11. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  12. An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  13. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  14. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2: Technical. Book 1: Mission requirements. Appendixes 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The space station mission requirements data base consists of 149 attached and free-flying missions each of which is documented by a set of three interrelated documents: (1) NASA LaRC Data Sheets - with three sheets comprising a set for each payload element described. These sheets contain user payload element data necessary to drive Space Station architectural options. (2) GDC-derived operations descriptions that supplement the LaRC payload element data in the operations areas such as further descriptions of crew involvement, EVA, etc. (3) Payload elements synthesis sheets used by GDC to provide requirements traceability to data sources and to provide a narrative describing the basis for formulating the payload element requirements.

  15. A comparison of energy conversion systems for meeting the power requirements of manned rover for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Morley, Nicholas; Cataldo, Robert; Bloomfield, Harvey

    1990-01-01

    Several types of conversion systems of interest for a nuclear Mars manned application are examined, including: free-piston Stirling engines (FPSE), He/Xe closed Brayton cycle (CBC), CO2 open Brayton, and SiGe/GaP thermoelectric systems. Optimization studies were conducted to determine the impact of the conversion system on the overall mass of the nuclear power system and the mobility power requirement of the rover vehicle. The results of an analysis of a manned Mars rover equipped with a nuclear reactor power system show that the free-piston Stirling engine and the He/Xe closed Brayton cycle are the best available options for minimizing the overall mass and electric power requirements of the rover vehicle. While the current development of Brayton technology is further advanced than that of FPSE, the FPSE could provide approximately 13.5 percent lower mass than the He/Xe closed Brayton system. Results show that a specific mass of 160 is achievable with FPSE, for which the mass of the radiation shield (2.8 tons) is about half that for He/Xe CBC (5 tons).

  16. Achieving National Security Strategy: An Effective Process?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Smith , a career foreign service officer and former Deputy Chief ofMission, the strength ofDOS is its ability to operate with minimal guidance.28 The...DOS’s five-year strategic plan may offer the minimal guidance Mr. Smith suggests. This five- year plan, which is provided by the Secretary of State...outlines the departments overall strategy, which ~ves the latitude required to achieve its mission goals. Mr. Smith also recognizes that, "Most State

  17. Asteroid Redirect Mission: EVA and Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Stich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Overview (1) Notional Development Schedule, (2) ARV Crewed Mission Accommodations; Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) Mission Summary; ARCM Accomplishments; Sample collection/curation plan (1) CAPTEM Requirements; SBAG Engagement Plan

  18. Early Engagement of Safety and Mission Assurance Expertise Using Systems Engineering Tools: A Risk-Based Approach to Early Identification of Safety and Assurance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darpel, Scott; Beckman, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Decades of systems engineering practice have demonstrated that the earlier the identification of requirements occurs, the lower the chance that costly redesigns will needed later in the project life cycle. A better understanding of all requirements can also improve the likelihood of a design's success. Significant effort has been put into developing tools and practices that facilitate requirements determination, including those that are part of the model-based systems engineering (MBSE) paradigm. These efforts have yielded improvements in requirements definition, but have thus far focused on a design's performance needs. The identification of safety & mission assurance (S&MA) related requirements, in comparison, can occur after preliminary designs are already established, yielding forced redesigns. Engaging S&MA expertise at an earlier stage, facilitated by the use of MBSE tools, and focused on actual project risk, can yield the same type of design life cycle improvements that have been realized in technical and performance requirements.

  19. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, Wayne; Rogers, John; Moore, Arlene

    1992-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  20. The Generation-X Vision Mission Study and Advanced Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Roger J. V.; Generation-X Team

    2008-03-01

    The Generation-X (Gen-X) mission was selected as one of NASA's Vision Missions as a concept for a next generation X-ray telescope designed to study the very early universe with 1000-times greater sensitivity than current X-ray telescopes. The mission has also been proposed as an Advanced Mission Concept Study (AMCS) to further define the technology development plan and mission design. The scientific goals for Gen-X include studying the first generations of stars and black holes in the epoch z=10-20, the evolution of black holes and galaxies from high z to the present, the chemical evolution of the universe and the properties of matter under extreme conditions. The key parameters required to meet these goals define a challenging mission and include an effective area of 50 m2 at 1 keV, and an angular resolution (HPD) of 0.1 arcsec over an energy band of 0.1-10 keV. The required effective area implies that extremely lightweight grazing incidence X-ray optics must be developed. To achieve the required areal density of at least 100 times lower than in Chandra, thin ( 0.1 mm) mirrors that have active on-orbit figure control are required. We present the major findings from the Gen-X Vision Mission Study and a streamlined mission concept enabled by the Ares V launch capability, as proposed in response to the AMSC call.

  1. Re-Engineering the Mission Operations System (MOS) for the Prime and Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Joseph C., Jr.; Cheng, Leo Y.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in a space science mission is designing the Mission Operations System (MOS). Whereas the focus of the project is getting the spacecraft built and tested for launch, the mission operations engineers must build a system to carry out the science objectives. The completed MOS design is then formally assessed in the many reviews. Once a mission has completed the reviews, the Mission Operation System (MOS) design has been validated to the Functional Requirements and is ready for operations. The design was built based on heritage processes, new technology, and lessons learned from past experience. Furthermore, our operational concepts must be properly mapped to the mission design and science objectives. However, during the course of implementing the science objective in the operations phase after launch, the MOS experiences an evolutional change to adapt for actual performance characteristics. This drives the re-engineering of the MOS, because the MOS includes the flight and ground segments. Using the Spitzer mission as an example we demonstrate how the MOS design evolved for both the prime and extended mission to enhance the overall efficiency for science return. In our re-engineering process, we ensured that no requirements were violated or mission objectives compromised. In most cases, optimized performance across the MOS, including gains in science return as well as savings in the budget profile was achieved. Finally, we suggest a need to better categorize the Operations Phase (Phase E) in the NASA Life-Cycle Phases of Formulation and Implementation

  2. The Requirements Process for the Army Multi-Mission Radar and the Marine Corps Multi-Role Radar System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-14

    battery mission identify and track enemy rockets, artillery, and mortars for unit use in determining firing positions 2 and impact areas. The...Control System, including: air strikes, guided missiles and rockets, artillery and mortars , mines, chemical and biological weapons, electronic...strikes, guided missiles and rockets, and artillery and mortars . The G/ATOR program, with MRRS, will assist in countering and eliminating the threat from

  3. Mission planning with ROSAT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    The mission planning activities for the satellite bourne X-ray observatory ROSAT are discussed. Responsibility is shared between the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), which provides the sientific and calibration program input, and the German Space Operations Center (GSOC), whose responsibility it is to generate a mission timeline satisfying all operational constraints. An optimum solution for the mission timeline is achieved using an efficient networking procedure.

  4. B plant mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-05-24

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ``System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.`` The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline.

  5. Mission-oriented requirements for updating MIL-H-8501. Volume 1: STI proposed structure. [military rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, W. F.; Hoh, R. H.; Ferguson, S. W., III; Mitchell, D. G.; Ashkenas, I. L.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of a new flying and ground handling qualities specification for military rotorcraft is presented. This preliminary specification structure is intended to evolve into a replacement for specification MIL-H-8501A. The new structure is designed to accommodate a variety of rotorcraft types, mission flight phases, flight envelopes, and flight environmental characteristics and to provide criteria for three levels of flying qualities, a systematic treatment of failures and reliability, both conventional and multiaxis controllers, and external vision aids which may also incorporate synthetic display content. Existing and new criteria were incorporated into the new structure wherever they could be substantiated.

  6. Operating the EOSDIS at the Land Processes DAAC Managing Expectations, Requirements, and Performance Across Agencies, Missions, Instruments, Systems, and User Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    2002-09-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990's. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990's changed as each community had its say -- first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC -- particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) -- are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  7. Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalvelage, T.A.; ,

    2002-01-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  8. Study of a Simulation Tool to Determine Achievable Control Dynamics and Control Power Requirements with Perfect Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.

  9. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  10. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The duration of a mission--and subsequently, the minimum spacecraft lifetime--is a key component in designing the capabilities of a spacecraft during mission formulation. However, determining the duration is not simply a function of how long it will take the spacecraft to execute the activities needed to achieve mission objectives. Instead, the effects of the interaction between the spacecraft and ground operators must also be taken into account. This paper describes a method, using "operations efficiency factors", to account for these effects for Mars surface missions. Typically, this level of analysis has not been performed until much later in the mission development cycle, and has not been able to influence mission or spacecraft design. Further, the notion of moving to sustainable operations during Prime Mission--and the effect that change would have on operations productivity and mission objective choices--has not been encountered until the most recent rover missions (MSL, the (now-cancelled) joint NASA-ESA 2018 Mars rover, and the proposed rover for Mars 2020). Since MSL had a single control center and sun-synchronous relay assets (like MER), estimates of productivity derived from MER prime and extended missions were used. However, Mars 2018's anticipated complexity (there would have been control centers in California and Italy, and a non-sun-synchronous relay asset) required the development of an explicit model of operations efficiency that could handle these complexities. In the case of the proposed Mars 2018 mission, the model was employed to assess the mission return of competing operations concepts, and as an input to component lifetime requirements. In this paper we provide examples of how to calculate the operations efficiency factor for a given operational configuration, and how to apply the factors to surface mission scenarios. This model can be applied to future missions to enable early effective trades between operations design, science mission

  11. Atmosphere, Magnetosphere and Plasmas in Space (AMPS). Space payload definition study. Volume 2: Mission support requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The flight payload, its operation, and the support required from the Space Transporatation System (STS) is defined including the flight objectives and requirements, the experiment operations, and the payload configurations. The support required from the STS includes the accommodation of the payload by the orbiter/Spacelab, use of the flight operations network and ground facilities, and the use of the launch site facilities.

  12. Mission applications of electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the mission applications of electric propulsion. The energy requirements of candidate high-energy missions gaining in NASA priority are used to highlight the potential of electric propulsion. Mission-propulsion interfaces are examined to point out differences between chemical and electric applications. Brief comparisons between ballistic requirements and capabilities and those of electric propulsion show that electric propulsion is presently the most practical and perhaps the only technology which can accomplish missions with these energy requirements.

  13. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 1: Command Lineage Scientific Achievement and Major Tenant Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    atomic bombs, code-named through 1950 as Pincher, Broiler , Grabber, and Sizzle. During 1945-1946, the United States and Britain withdraw their occupation... Digest 53. 5 (May 1970): 163, 171. 250 Termena, Peiffer, and Carlin, Logistics, ca.1981, 212-213. 251 Closeout History Air Force Systems Command 1...Section of the Logistics Planning Division, Plans (T-5) at Wright Field digested German World War II achievements, including German submarine pens, and

  14. Atmosphere, Magnetosphere and Plasmas in Space (AMPS). Spacelab payload definition study. Volume 2: Mission support requirements document. Addendum: Flight 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The AMPS Flight 2 payload, its operation, and the support required from the Space Transportation System (STS) are described. The definition of the payload includes the flight objectives and requirements, the experiment operations, and the payload configuration. The support required from the STS includes the accommodation of the payload by the orbiter/Spacelab, use of the flight operations network and ground facilities, and the use of the launch site facilities.

  15. Terrapin technologies manned Mars mission proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amato, Michael; Bryant, Heather; Coleman, Rodney; Compy, Chris; Crouse, Patrick; Crunkleton, Joe; Hurtado, Edgar; Iverson, Eirik; Kamosa, Mike; Kraft, Lauri (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A Manned Mars Mission (M3) design study is proposed. The purpose of M3 is to transport 10 personnel and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an eight-man surface expedition of 3 months, to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience, but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. Those priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a Waverider transfer module.

  16. Software Innovation in a Mission Critical Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Operating in mission-critical environments requires trusted solutions, and the preference for "tried and true" approaches presents a potential barrier to infusing innovation into mission-critical systems. This presentation explores opportunities to overcome this barrier in the software domain. It outlines specific areas of innovation in software development achieved by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate in support of NASA's major human spaceflight programs, including International Space Station, Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), and Commercial Crew Programs. Software engineering teams at JSC work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements for genuinely mission critical applications. The innovations described, including the use of NASA Core Flight Software and its associated software tool chain, can lead to software that is more affordable, more reliable, better modelled, more flexible, more easily maintained, better tested, and enabling of automation.

  17. Flight Software for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Howard N.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft was launched on September 6, 2013, and completed its mission on April 17, 2014 with a directed impact to the Lunar Surface. Its primary goals were to examine the lunar atmosphere, measure lunar dust, and to demonstrate high rate laser communications. The LADEE mission was a resounding success, achieving all mission objectives, much of which can be attributed to careful planning and preparation. This paper discusses some of the highlights from the mission, and then discusses the techniques used for developing the onboard Flight Software. A large emphasis for the Flight Software was to develop it within tight schedule and cost constraints. To accomplish this, the Flight Software team leveraged heritage software, used model based development techniques, and utilized an automated test infrastructure. This resulted in the software being delivered on time and within budget. The resulting software was able to meet all system requirements, and had very problems in flight.

  18. Spectral Astrometry Mission for Planets Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2002-08-09

    The Spectral Astrometry Mission is a space-mission concept that uses simultaneous, multiple-star differential astrometry to measure exo-solar planet masses. The goal of SAM is to measure the reflex motions of hundreds of nearby ({approx}50 pc) F, G and K stars, relative to adjacent stars, with a resolution of 2.5 {micro}-arcsec. SAM is a new application of Spectral Interferometry (SI), also called Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI), that can simultaneously measure the angular difference between the target and multiple reference stars. SI has demonstrated the ability to measure a {lambda}/20,000 white-light fringe shift with only {lambda}/3 baseline control. SAM's structural stability and compensation requirements are therefore dramatically reduced compared to existing long-arm balanced-arm interferometric astrometry methods. We describe the SAM's mission concept, long-baseline SI astrometry method, and technical challenges to achieving the mission.

  19. Mission engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrus, Paul; Fatig, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's projects are facing new challenges with respect to the cost effective development and operation of spaceflight missions. Challenges, such as cost limits, compression of schedules, rapidly changing technology, and increasing mission complexity are making the mission development process more dynamic. A concept of 'Mission Engineering' as a means of addressing these challenges is proposed. It is an end-to-end, multimission development methodology that seeks to integrate the development processes between the space, ground, science, and operations segments of a mission. It thereby promotes more mission-oriented system solutions, within and across missions.

  20. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  1. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  2. Supportability Issues and Approaches for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. K.; Ivins, M. S.; Cunningham, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Maintaining and repairing spacecraft systems hardware to achieve required levels of operational availability during long-duration exploration missions will be challenged by limited resupply opportunities, constraints on the mass and volume available for spares and other maintenance-related provisions, and extended communications times. These factors will force the adoption of new approaches to the integrated logistics support of spacecraft systems hardware. For missions beyond the Moon, all spares, equipment, and supplies must either be prepositioned prior to departure from Earth of human crews or carried with the crews. The mass and volume of spares must be minimized by enabling repair at the lowest hardware levels, imposing commonality and standardization across all mission elements at all hardware levels, and providing the capability to fabricate structural and mechanical spares as required. Long round-trip communications times will require increasing levels of autonomy by the crews for most operations including spacecraft maintenance. Effective implementation of these approaches will only be possible when their need is recognized at the earliest stages of the program, when they are incorporated in operational concepts and programmatic requirements, and when diligence is applied in enforcing these requirements throughout system design in an integrated way across all contractors and suppliers. These approaches will be essential for the success of missions to Mars. Although limited duration lunar missions may be successfully accomplished with more traditional approaches to supportability, those missions will offer an opportunity to refine these concepts, associated technologies, and programmatic implementation methodologies so that they can be most effectively applied to later missions.

  3. A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.

  4. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  5. End of Mission Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    While a great deal of effort goes into planning and executing successful mission operations, it is also important to consider the End of the Mission during the planning, design, and operations phases of any mission. Spacecraft and launch vehicles must be disposed of properly in order to limit the generation of orbital debris, and better preserve the orbital environment for all future missions. Figure 30-1 shows a 1990's projected growth of debris with and without the use of responsible disposal techniques. This requires early selection of a responsible disposal scenario, so that the necessary capabilities can be incorporated into the hardware designs. The mission operations must then be conducted in such a way as to preserve, and then actually perform, the planned, appropriate end of mission disposal.

  6. Mission-oriented requirements for updating MIL-H-8501. Volume 2: STI background and rationale. [military rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, W. F.; Hoh, R. H.; Mitchell, D. G.; Ferguson, S. W., III

    1985-01-01

    A supplement to the structure of a new flying and ground handling qualities specification for military rotorcraft structure is presented in order to explain the background and rationale for the specification structure, the proposed forms of criteria, and the status of the existing data base. Critical gaps in the data base for the new structure are defined, and recommendations are provided for the research required to address the most important of these gaps.

  7. Assessment, Intervention, and Program Needs of Lower Achieving and Multiply Disabled Deaf People Requiring Extended Transition Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiman, John; And Others

    This paper begins with an overview of the population of adolescents and young adults with deafness. More detailed information is then provided on the characteristics of lower achieving deaf persons and those with multiple disabling conditions. School-to-community transition experiences of these groups are then discussed, with special focus on the…

  8. Mariner Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

  9. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  10. Adapting the SpaceCube v2.0 Data Processing System for Mission-Unique Application Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David

    2015-01-01

    The SpaceCubeTM v2.0 system is a superior high performance, reconfigurable, hybrid data processing system that can be used in a multitude of applications including those that require a radiation hardened and reliable solution. This paper provides an overview of the design architecture, flexibility, and the advantages of the modular SpaceCube v2.0 high performance data processing system for space applications. The current state of the proven SpaceCube technology is based on nine years of engineering and operations. Five systems have been successfully operated in space starting in 2008 with four more to be delivered for launch vehicle integration in 2015. The SpaceCube v2.0 system is also baselined as the avionics solution for five additional flight projects and is always a top consideration as the core avionics for new instruments or spacecraft control. This paper will highlight how this multipurpose system is currently being used to solve design challenges of three independent applications. The SpaceCube hardware adapts to new system requirements by allowing for application-unique interface cards that are utilized by reconfiguring the underlying programmable elements on the core processor card. We will show how this system is being used to improve on a heritage NASA GPS technology, enable a cutting-edge LiDAR instrument, and serve as a typical command and data handling (CDH) computer for a space robotics technology demonstration.

  11. Adapting the SpaceCube v2.0 Data Processing System for Mission-Unique Application Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Gill, Nat; Hasouneh, Munther; Stone, Robert; Winternitz, Luke; Thomas, Luke; Davis, Milton; Sparacino, Pietro; Flatley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The SpaceCube (sup TM) v2.0 system is a superior high performance, reconfigurable, hybrid data processing system that can be used in a multitude of applications including those that require a radiation hardened and reliable solution. This paper provides an overview of the design architecture, flexibility, and the advantages of the modular SpaceCube v2.0 high performance data processing system for space applications. The current state of the proven SpaceCube technology is based on nine years of engineering and operations. Five systems have been successfully operated in space starting in 2008 with four more to be delivered for launch vehicle integration in 2015. The SpaceCube v2.0 system is also baselined as the avionics solution for five additional flight projects and is always a top consideration as the core avionics for new instruments or spacecraft control. This paper will highlight how this multipurpose system is currently being used to solve design challenges of three independent applications. The SpaceCube hardware adapts to new system requirements by allowing for application-unique interface cards that are utilized by reconfiguring the underlying programmable elements on the core processor card. We will show how this system is being used to improve on a heritage NASA GPS technology, enable a cutting-edge LiDAR instrument, and serve as a typical command and data handling (C&DH) computer for a space robotics technology demonstration.

  12. Simulation Framework to Estimate the Performance of CO2 and O2 Sensing from Space and Airborne Platforms for the ASCENDS Mission Requirements Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plitau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    The Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission recommended by the NRC Decadal Survey has a desired accuracy of 0.3% in carbon dioxide mixing ratio (XCO2) retrievals requiring careful selection and optimization of the instrument parameters. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating 1.57 micron carbon dioxide as well as the 1.26-1.27 micron oxygen bands for our proposed ASCENDS mission requirements investigation. Simulation studies are underway for these bands to select optimum instrument parameters. The simulations are based on a multi-wavelength lidar modeling framework being developed at NASA LaRC to predict the performance of CO2 and O2 sensing from space and airborne platforms. The modeling framework consists of a lidar simulation module and a line-by-line calculation component with interchangeable lineshape routines to test the performance of alternative lineshape models in the simulations. As an option the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) program may also be used for line-by-line calculations. The modeling framework is being used to perform error analysis, establish optimum measurement wavelengths as well as to identify the best lineshape models to be used in CO2 and O2 retrievals. Several additional programs for HITRAN database management and related simulations are planned to be included in the framework. The description of the modeling framework with selected results of the simulation studies for CO2 and O2 sensing is presented in this paper.

  13. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cañizares, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferrone, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hernández, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H.-B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission, a precursor mission aimed at demonstrating key technologies for future space-based gravitational wave detectors, like LISA. Since much of the flight hardware has already been constructed and tested, we will show that performance measurements and analysis of these flight components lead to an expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder which is a significant improvement over the mission requirements, and which actually reaches the LISA requirements over the entire LISA Pathfinder measurement band.

  14. Euclid mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laureijs, R.; Racca, G.; Stagnaro, L.; Salvignol, J.-C.; Lorenzo Alvarez, J.; Saavedra Criado, G.; Gaspar Venancio, L.; Short, A.; Strada, P.; Colombo, C.; Buenadicha, G.; Hoar, J.; Kohley, R.; Vavrek, R.; Mellier, Y.; Berthe, M.; Amiaux, J.; Cropper, M.; Niemi, S.; Pottinger, S.; Ealet, A.; Jahnke, K.; Maciaszek, T.; Pasian, F.; Sauvage, M.; Wachter, S.; Israelsson, U.; Holmes, W.; Seiffert, M.; Cazaubiel, V.; Anselmi, A.; Musi, P.

    2014-08-01

    In June 2012, Euclid, ESA's Cosmology mission was approved for implementation. Afterwards the industrial contracts were signed for the payload module and the spacecraft prime, and the mission requirements consolidated. We present the status of the mission in the light of the design solutions adopted by the contractors. The performances of the spacecraft in its operation, the telescope assembly, the scientific instruments as well as the data-processing have been carefully budgeted to meet the demanding scientific requirements. We give an overview of the system and where necessary the key items for the interfaces between the subsystems.

  15. Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R.; Textor, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) are summarized. The general objectives of the VIM are to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar media and to continue the Voyager program of ultraviolet astronomy. The VIM will utilize both Voyager spacecraft for the period from January 1990 through December 2019. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, control and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  16. Apollo 17 Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 17 mission are outlined. The vehicle configuration was similar to those of Apollo 15 and 16. There were significant differences in the science payload for Apollo 17 and spacecraft hardware differences and experiment equipment are described. The mission achieved a landing in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon and returned samples of the pre-Imbrium highlands and young craters.

  17. A spacecraft-borne gradiometer mission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P.; Garza-Robles, R.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical simulations were performed to obtain the orbit- and attitude-determination requirements of a spacecraft-borne gradiometer mission. Results demonstrated that position determination of 300 meters in the along-track and cross-track directions and 50 meters in the radial direction are mission requirements. The optimal orientation of the gradiometer sensing plane is achieved when the spin vector elevation is 0 degrees. The attitude-determination requirements are 5 degrees resolution for spin-vector azimuth and 0.2 degree resolution for spin-vector elevation. When these requirements are met, 3-degree gravity anomalies can be recovered globally with an accuracy of 0.025/mm/sq s (2.5 mgals). The Appendix documents the mathematical procedures for estimating detailed gravity fields from gradiometer data.

  18. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  19. The Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  20. MSFC Flight Mission Directive Apollo-Saturn 205 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The purpose of this directive is to provide, under one cover, coordinated direction for the AS-205 Space Vehicle Flight. Within this document, mission objectives are specified, vehicle configuration is described and referenced, flight trajectories, data acquisition requirements, instrumentation requirements, and detailed documentation requirements necessary to meet launch vehicle mission objectives are defined and/or referenced.

  1. Schooling by Design: Mission, Action, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Grant; McTighe, Jay

    2007-01-01

    An essential part of moving forward with the Understanding by Design[R] framework is to make sure its principles and strategies are reflected in all aspects of your school improvement efforts, including curriculum planning, leadership, teacher professional development, and action research. Here's a book designed to help you. From creating your…

  2. Ballistic mode Mercury orbiter mission opportunity handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbeck, G. R.; Roos, D. G.; Lewis, P. S.

    1973-01-01

    Significant payloads in Mercury orbit can be achieved through use of high-thrust, chemical propulsion systems on ballistic trajectories. Interplanetary trajectory characteristics are presented, for Venus swingbys to Mercury, were multiple revolutions about the sun are allowed on each leg to provide low energy mission in 1977, 1980, 1985 and 1988. Guidance and navigation results are shown for each opportunity. Additionally, the use of midcourse maneuvers and multiple Venus swingbys are explored as means of further reducing the energy requirements.

  3. The Europa Jupiter system mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, K.; Stankov, A.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Greeley, R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.-P.; van Houten, T.

    2009-04-01

    better known. Most important, EJSM would shed new light on the potential for the emergence of life in the celestial neighborhood and beyond. The EJSM mission architecture provides opportu-nities for coordinated synergistic observations by JEO and JGO of the Jupiter and Ganymede magnetospheres, the volcanoes and torus of Io, the atmosphere of Jupi-ter, and comparative planetology of icy satellites. Each spacecraft could and would conduct "stand-alone" measurements, including the detailed investigation of Europa and Ganymede, providing significant pro-grammatic flexibility. Although engineering advances are needed for JEO (radiation designs) and JGO, no new technologies would be required to execute either EJSM mission element. The development schedule for the mission is such that a technology developed by 2012 - 2013 could easily be incorporated if it enhances the mission capability. Risk mitigation activities are under way to ensure that the radiation designs are implemented in the lowest-risk approach. The baseline mission con-cepts include robust mass and power margins. The EJSM mission architecture provides the opti-mal balance between science, risk, and cost using three guiding principles: achieve Decadal science; builds on lessons learned; and leverages international collabora-tions.

  4. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D R; Joosten, B J; Lo, M W; Ford, K M; Hansen, R J

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration.

  5. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael (Editor); Shaw, Tianna

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood/urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions. SUMMARY The NASA Exploration Laboratory Analysis project seeks to develop capability to diagnose anticipated space exploration medical conditions on future manned missions. To achieve

  6. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  7. Solar Probe Plus: Mission design challenges and trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yanping

    2010-11-01

    NASA plans to launch the first mission to the Sun, named Solar Probe Plus, as early as 2015, after a comprehensive feasibility study that significantly changed the original Solar Probe mission concept. The original Solar Probe mission concept, based on a Jupiter gravity assist trajectory, was no longer feasible under the new guidelines given to the mission. A complete redesign of the mission was required, which called for developing alternative trajectories that excluded a flyby of Jupiter. Without the very powerful gravity assist from Jupiter it was extremely difficult to get to the Sun, so designing a trajectory to reach the Sun that is technically feasible under the new mission guidelines became a key enabler to this highly challenging mission. Mission design requirements and challenges unique to this mission are reviewed and discussed, including various mission scenarios and six different trajectory designs utilizing various planetary gravity assists that were considered. The V 5GA trajectory design using five Venus gravity assists achieves a perihelion of 11.8 solar radii ( RS) in 3.3 years without any deep space maneuver (DSM). The V 7GA trajectory design reaches a perihelion of 9.5 RS using seven Venus gravity assists in 6.39 years without any DSM. With nine Venus gravity assists, the V 9GA trajectory design shows a solar orbit at inclination as high as 37.9° from the ecliptic plane can be achieved with the time of flight of 5.8 years. Using combined Earth and Venus gravity assists, as close as 9 RS from the Sun can be achieved in less than 10 years of flight time at moderate launch C3. Ultimately the V 7GA trajectory was chosen as the new baseline mission trajectory. Its design allowing for science investigation right after launch and continuing for nearly 7 years is unprecedented for interplanetary missions. The redesigned Solar Probe Plus mission is not only feasible under the new guidelines but also significantly outperforms the original mission concept

  8. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  9. Some Suggested Techniques for Achieving Required Main Ring Low Level RF Performance for the Tevatron I Program

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.E.; MacLachlan, J.

    1984-05-01

    These techniques are derived from experience with the existing low level rf system and from the results of accelerator experiments directed at the Tev I requirements which were performed using a specially modified low level rf system. The techniques suggested here are not necessarily unique and other techniques may be acceptable. It is important to realize that certain performance requirements on the Booster and Main Ring are substantially different in the Tev I program from those which have been acceptable in the fixed target program. For example, the longitudinal emittance of the bunches has been routinely and intentionally blown up by the 'bunch spreader' during acceleration to improve the smoothness of the spill. In the Tev I case, the 'bunch narrowing' procedure preceding {bar p} production and in bunch coalescing is facilitated by maintaining the smallest possible longitudinal emittance (i.e. the largest possible longitudinal phase space density). Also, during fixed target physics the Main Ring is essentially full (i.e. approx. 1090 of 1113 buckets occupied) so transient beam loading of the rf system is negligible except during injection, whereas for {bar p} production a single high intensity Booster batch (approx. 83 bunches) is to be accelerated causing substantial transient beam induced phase shift of the rf voltage during each passage. The low level phase and position error signals are normally derived from an essentially full ring during fixed target operation whereas in the Tev I program the systems must perform adequately with as few as ten adjacent buckets occupied. Because of the differences in emphasis between fixed target operation and Tevatron I operation is seems sensible to use separate low level rf systems for these two modes of operation. If a single low level system were to be used for both modes of operation some compromises may be necessary which might cause performance in either mode to be less than adequate. Because of the severe demands

  10. The Europa Jupiter System Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Clark, K.; Erd, C.; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R. R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.; van Houten, T.

    2009-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will be an international mission that will achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission has been selected by NASA as the next Flagship mission to the out solar system. JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM will fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision for exploration of the outer solar system. The Decadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission target. EJSM would uniquely address several of the central themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM will investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geological and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the

  11. How to become a mentalist: reading decisions from a competitor's pupil can be achieved without training but requires instruction.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Stoll, Josef; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Carter, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Pupil dilation is implicated as a marker of decision-making as well as of cognitive and emotional processes. Here we tested whether individuals can exploit another's pupil to their advantage. We first recorded the eyes of 3 "opponents", while they were playing a modified version of the "rock-paper-scissors" childhood game. The recorded videos served as stimuli to a second set of participants. These "players" played rock-paper-scissors against the pre-recorded opponents in a variety of conditions. When players just observed the opponents' eyes without specific instruction their probability of winning was at chance. When informed that the time of maximum pupil dilation was indicative of the opponents' choice, however, players raised their winning probability significantly above chance. When just watching the reconstructed area of the pupil against a gray background, players achieved similar performance, showing that players indeed exploited the pupil, rather than other facial cues. Since maximum pupil dilation was correct about the opponents' decision only in 60% of trials (chance 33%), we finally tested whether increasing this validity to 100% would allow spontaneous learning. Indeed, when players were given no information, but the pupil was informative about the opponent's response in all trials, players performed significantly above chance on average and half (5/10) reached significance at an individual level. Together these results suggest that people can in principle use the pupil to detect cognitive decisions in another individual, but that most people have neither explicit knowledge of the pupil's utility nor have they learnt to use it despite a lifetime of exposure.

  12. Euclid mission: building of a reference survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiaux, J.; Scaramella, R.; Mellier, Y.; Altieri, B.; Burigana, C.; Da Silva, Antonio; Gomez, P.; Hoar, J.; Laureijs, R.; Maiorano, E.; Magalhães Oliveira, D.; Renk, F.; Saavedra Criado, G.; Tereno, I.; Auguères, J. L.; Brinchmann, J.; Cropper, M.; Duvet, L.; Ealet, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gondoin, P.; Guzzo, L.; Hoekstra, H.; Holmes, R.; Jahnke, K.; Kitching, T.; Meneghetti, M.; Percival, W.; Warren, S.

    2012-09-01

    Euclid is an ESA Cosmic-Vision wide-field-space mission which is designed to explain the origin of the acceleration of Universe expansion. The mission will investigate at the same time two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing (WL) and Galaxy Clustering (in particular Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, BAO). The extreme precision requested on primary science objectives can only be achieved by observing a large number of galaxies distributed over the whole sky in order to probe the distribution of dark matter and galaxies at all scales. The extreme accuracy needed requires observation from space to limit all observational biases in the measurements. The definition of the Euclid survey, aiming at detecting billions of galaxies over 15 000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky, is a key parameter of the mission. It drives its scientific potential, its duration and the mass of the spacecraft. The construction of a Reference Survey derives from the high level science requirements for a Wide and a Deep survey. The definition of a main sequence of observations and the associated calibrations were indeed a major achievement of the Definition Phase. Implementation of this sequence demonstrated the feasibility of covering the requested area in less than 6 years while taking into account the overheads of space segment observing and maneuvering sequence. This reference mission will be used for sizing the spacecraft consumables needed for primary science. It will also set the framework for optimizing the time on the sky to fulfill the primary science and maximize the Euclid legacy.

  13. Recce mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  14. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-04-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hanger, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  15. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hangar, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  16. Venus 2000 Mission Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David; Marr, Greg; Vaughn, Frank; Houghton, Martin B.

    1997-05-01

    As part of the Discovery Program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has solicited proposals for inter-planetary research to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. A mission, called Venus 2000 (V2k), has been proposed for exploration of the Venus Atmosphere. This is NASAs first voyage to Venus to investigate key science objectives since Magellan and will be launched in summer 2002. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, V2k mission design and control will focus on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs and control systems provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  17. Precise attitude rate estimation using star images obtained by mission telescope for satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamori, Takaya; Hosonuma, Takayuki; Ikari, Satoshi; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Sako, Nobutada; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    2015-02-01

    Recently, small satellites have been employed in various satellite missions such as astronomical observation and remote sensing. During these missions, the attitudes of small satellites should be stabilized to a higher accuracy to obtain accurate science data and images. To achieve precise attitude stabilization, these small satellites should estimate their attitude rate under the strict constraints of mass, space, and cost. This research presents a new method for small satellites to precisely estimate angular rate using star blurred images by employing a mission telescope to achieve precise attitude stabilization. In this method, the angular velocity is estimated by assessing the quality of a star image, based on how blurred it appears to be. Because the proposed method utilizes existing mission devices, a satellite does not require additional precise rate sensors, which makes it easier to achieve precise stabilization given the strict constraints possessed by small satellites. The research studied the relationship between estimation accuracy and parameters used to achieve an attitude rate estimation, which has a precision greater than 1 × 10-6 rad/s. The method can be applied to all attitude sensors, which use optics systems such as sun sensors and star trackers (STTs). Finally, the method is applied to the nano astrometry satellite Nano-JASMINE, and we investigate the problems that are expected to arise with real small satellites by performing numerical simulations.

  18. Accurate Establishment of Error Models for the Satellite Gravity Gradiometry Recovery and Requirements Analysis for the Future GOCE Follow-On Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zhaokui; Ding, Yanwei; Li, Zhaowei

    2016-06-01

    Firstly, the new single and combined error models applied to estimate the cumulative geoid height error are efficiently produced by the dominating error sources consisting of the gravity gradient of the satellite-equipped gradiometer and the orbital position of the space-borne GPS/GLONASS receiver using the power spectral principle. At degree 250, the cumulative geoid height error is 1.769 × 10-1 m based on the new combined error model, which preferably accords with a recovery accuracy of 1.760 ×10-1 m from the GOCE-only Earth gravity field model GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM_R2 released in Germany. Therefore, the new combined error model of the cumulative geoid height is correct and reliable in this study. Secondly, the requirements analysis for the future GOCE Follow-On satellite system is carried out in respect of the preferred design of the matching measurement accuracy of key payloads comprising the gravity gradient and orbital position and the optimal selection of the orbital altitude of the satellite. We recommend the gravity gradient with an accuracy of 10-13-10-15 /s2, the orbital position with a precision of 1-0.1 cm and the orbital altitude of 200-250 km in the future GOCE Follow-On mission.

  19. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  20. Coordinated science with the Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe Plus, Interhelioprobe and SPORT missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, Milan; Vourlidas, Angelos; Zimovets, Ivan; Velli, Marco; Zhukov, Andrei; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Liu, Ying; Bale, Stuart; Ming, Xiong

    The concurrent science operations of the ESA Solar Orbiter (SO), NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP), Russian Interhelioprobe (IHP) and Chinese SPORT missions will offer a truly unique epoch in heliospheric science. While each mission will achieve its own important science objectives, taken together the four missions will be capable of doing the multi-point measurements required to address many problems in Heliophysics such as the coronal origin of the solar wind plasma and magnetic field or the way the Solar transients drive the heliospheric variability. In this presentation, we discuss the capabilities of the four missions and the Science synergy that will be realized by concurrent operations

  1. Mission-level performance verification approach for the Euclid space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrek, Roland D.; Laureijs, René J.; Lorenzo Alvarez, Jose; Amiaux, Jérôme; Mellier, Yannick; Azzollini, Ruyman; Buenadicha, Guillermo; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Cropper, Mark; Dabin, Christophe; Ealet, Anne; Garilli, Bianca; Gregorio, Anna; Hoekstra, Henk; Jahnke, Knud; Kilbinger, Martin; Kitching, Tom; Hoar, John; Percival, Will; Racca, Giuseppe D.; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Sauvage, Marc; Scaramella, Roberto; Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.; Wang, Yun; Zacchei, Andrea; Wachter, Stefanie

    2016-08-01

    ESA's Dark Energy Mission Euclid will map the 3D matter distribution in our Universe using two Dark Energy probes: Weak Lensing (WL) and Galaxy Clustering (GC). The extreme accuracy required for both probes can only be achieved by observing from space in order to limit all observational biases in the measurements of the tracer galaxies. Weak Lensing requires an extremely high precision measurement of galaxy shapes realised with the Visual Imager (VIS) as well as photometric redshift measurements using near-infrared photometry provided by the Near Infrared Spectrometer Photometer (NISP). Galaxy Clustering requires accurate redshifts (Δz/(z+1)<0.1%) of galaxies to be obtained by the NISP Spectrometer. Performance requirements on spacecraft, telescope assembly, scientific instruments and the ground data-processing have been carefully budgeted to meet the demanding top level science requirements. As part of the mission development, the verification of scientific performances needs mission-level end-to-end analyses in which the Euclid systems are modeled from as-designed to final as-built flight configurations. We present the plan to carry out end-to-end analysis coordinated by the ESA project team with the collaboration of the Euclid Consortium. The plan includes the definition of key performance parameters and their process of verification, the input and output identification and the management of applicable mission configurations in the parameter database.

  2. Mission Scenario Development Workbench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Baker, John; Gilbert, John; Hanks, David; Mandutianu, Dan; Hooper, David

    2006-01-01

    The Mission Scenario Development Workbench (MSDW) is a multidisciplinary performance analysis software tool for planning and optimizing space missions. It provides a number of new capabilities that are particularly useful for planning the surface activities on other planets. MSDW enables rapid planning of a space mission and supports flight system and scientific-instrumentation trades. It also provides an estimate of the ability of flight, ground, and science systems to meet high-level mission goals and provides means of evaluating expected mission performance at an early stage of planning in the project life cycle. In MSDW, activity plans and equipment-list spreadsheets are integrated with validated parameterized simulation models of spacecraft systems. In contrast to traditional approaches involving worst-case estimates with large margins, the approach embodied in MSDW affords more flexibility and more credible results early in the lifecycle through the use of validated, variable- fidelity models of spacecraft systems. MSDW is expected to help maximize the scientific return on investment for space missions by understanding early the performance required to have a successful mission while reducing the risk of costly design changes made at late stages in the project life cycle.

  3. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings, Upstate New York

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient; the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in three multifamily buildings.

  4. Multidimensional Challenges and Benefits of the CASSIOPE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A.; James, G.; Enno, G.; Hum, R.; Duggan, P.; Senez, M.; Ali, Z.; Brassard, G.; Desjardins, B.; Dubé, L.; Guroux, R.; Beattie, D.; Walkty, I.

    2008-08-01

    We discuss both the synergistic benefits and the challenges of the multi-purpose Canadian CASSIOPE small satellite mission, in which we merge a science mission (e-POP), a technology demonstration mission (CASCADE), and the Canadian Small Satellite Bus Development Program into a single mission. The scientific objectives of the mission concentrate on understanding the central role of the polar ionosphere in moderating the exchange of energy and mass among the ionosphere, thermosphere and magnetosphere. The cross- disciplinary merger posed a number of technical and programmatic challenges on both payloads and the spacecraft bus, including a stringent level of electro- magnetic cleanliness and surface electrical conductivity for plasma and high-sensitivity electric and magnetic field measurements on e-POP; differences in development philosophies, mission reliability requirements, and product assurance-cost tradeoff between the two payloads and between mission subsystems, and cost- effective management of technical and programmatic interfaces between subsystems and between development teams. As well, the mission exemplifies the significant benefits that can be achieved with efficient and pragmatic cooperation between development teams and practical, "outside-the-box" problem solving in addressing these challenges.

  5. Geospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Geospace Missions - Understanding and being able to predict the behavior of the Earth's near space environment, called Geospace, is important for several reasons. These include the fact that most of the space-based commercial, military, and space research assets are exposed to this environment and that investigating fundamental plasma processes at work through out the solar system can most readily be accomplished in Geospace, the only place we can access the processes. NASA missions that are directed toward understanding, characterizing, and predicting the Geospace environment are described in this presentation. Emphasis is placed on those missions that investigate those phenomena that most affect life and society. The significance of investigating ionospheric irregularities, the radiation belt dynamics with the LWS Geospace Mission will be discussed.

  6. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  7. Teamwork Reasoning and Multi-Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  8. Study to define and verify the personal oral hygiene requirements for extended manned space flight: Oral physiology and microbiology in Skylab manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for metabolic fingerprinting of pathogenic oral bacteria were developed and the effects of Skylab missions on salivary electrolyte levels were studied. High resolution gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) and pyrolysis-GLC procedures were used to obtain metabolic profiles of closely related bacteria associated with dental caries and periodontal disease. It was found that the GLC procedures provide a practical and reproducible means of obtaining metabolic markers for identifying closely related strains of these organisms. Fractions of stimulated whole saliva samples from the prime and back-up crews of the three Skylab missions were used to measure salivary electrolyte concentrations. All the electrolytes previously reported as having increased in urine and feces during the missions were assessed. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and chloride were studied. A decrease in sodium and an increase in magnesium were observed, but the mineral imbalances attributable to the mission-related increases in urinary electrolytes were not detected.

  9. Cassini's Solstice Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, David; Mitchell, Robert

    2010-01-01

    With the recent approval of NASA's flagship Cassini mission for seven more years of continued operations, dozens more Titan, Enceladus and other icy moon flybys await, as well as many occultations and multiple close passages to Saturn. Seasonal change is the principal scientific theme as Cassini extends its survey of the target-rich system over one full half-season, from just after northern winter solstice at arrival back in 2004, to northern summer solstice at the end of mission in 2017. The new seven-year mission extension requires careful propellant management as well as streamlined operations strategies with smaller spacecraft, sequencing and science teams. Cassini's never-before-envisioned end of mission scenario also includes nearly two dozen high-inclination orbits which pass between the rings and the planet allowing thrilling and unique science opportunities before entry into Saturn's atmosphere.

  10. Microspacecraft missions and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross M.

    1989-01-01

    The microspacecraft is defined as a fully functional spacecraft whose mass is on the order of 10 kg or less. The results of a recent microspacecraft workshop are reviewed. The workshop concluded that microspacecraft are feasible and can be enabling for missions that require multiple simultaneous measurements displaced in position or very high mission delta-VSDIO-s. The paper includes discussions of science objectives and instruments as well as potential missions. Potential missions include a very close approach to the sun, determining the origin of gamma ray bursters and a search for gravity waves. Technology for microspacecraft is coming from the 'Lightsat' or small satellite community and developments sponsored by the SDIO. Concepts for microspacecraft power and telecommunications subsystems developed at the JPL are presented. Due to their small size, microspacecraft can be launched by traditional chemical rockets and also unconventional launchers such as electromagnetic launchers.

  11. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  12. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  13. The Stellar Imager (SI) "Vision Mission"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K.; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Schrijver, C.; Kilston, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a Vision Mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) NASA Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, a t ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (>20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. In this paper, we present an update on the ongoing SI mission concept and technology development studies.

  14. The Stellar Imager (SI) "Vision Mission"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K.; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Schrijver, C.; Kilston, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a Vision Mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) NASA Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, at ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (greater than 20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. In this paper, we present an update on the ongoing SI mission concept and technology development studies.

  15. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The nation's efforts to expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system was given renewed emphasis in January of 1988 when the Presidential Directive on National Space Policy was signed into effect. The expansion of human presence into the solar system has particular significance, in that it defines long-range goals for NASA's future missions. To embark and achieve such ambitious ventures is a significant undertaking, particularly compared to past space activities. Missions to Mars, the Moon, and Phobos, as well as an observatory based on the dark side of the Moon are discussed.

  16. A review of mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Sorensen, E. M.; Wolff, T.; Haddow, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    A general definition of Mission Planning is given. The definition covers the full scope of an end-to-end mission planning system. Noting the mission-specific nature of most mission planning systems, a classification of autonomous spacecraft missions is made into Observatory, Survey, multi-instrument science, and Telecommunications missions. The mission planning approach for one mission in each category is examined critically. The following missions were chosen: ISO (Infrared Space Observatory); ERS-1 (European Remote Sensing Satellite); and Eureca (European Retrievable Carrier). The paper gives a summary of lessons learned from these missions suggesting improvements in areas such as requirements analysis, testing, user interfacing, rules, and constraints handling. The paper will also examine commonalities in functions, which could constitute a basis for identification of generic mission planning support tools.

  17. User requirements and user acceptance of current and next-generation satellite mission and sensor complement, oriented toward the monitoring of water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Fowler, T. R.; Robinson, P.

    1975-01-01

    Principal water resources users were surveyed to determine the applicability of remotely sensed data to their present and future requirements. Analysis of responses was used to assess the levels of adequacy of LANDSAT 1 and 2 in fulfilling hydrological functions, and to derive systems specifications for future water resources-oriented remote sensing satellite systems. The analysis indicates that water resources applications for all but the very large users require: (1) resolutions on the order of 15 meters, (2) a number of radiometric levels of the same order as currently used in LANDSAT 1 (64), (3) a number of spectral bands not in excess of those used in LANDSAT 1, and (4) a repetition frequency on the order of 2 weeks. The users had little feel for the value of new sensors (thermal IR, passive and active microwaves). What is needed in this area is to achieve specific demonstrations of the utility of these sensors and submit the results to the users to evince their judgement.

  18. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  19. Spacelab Mission 3 experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission is the first operational flight of Spacelab aboard the shuttle transportation system. The primary objectives of this mission are to conduct application, science, and technology experimentation that requires the low gravity environment of Earth orbit and an extended duration, stable vehicle attitude with emphasis on materials processing. This document provides descriptions of the experiments to be performed during the Spacelab 3 mission.

  20. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  1. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  2. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  3. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  4. Pioneer Mars surface penetrator mission. Mission analysis and orbiter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Mars Surface Penetrator mission was designed to provide a capability for multiple and diverse subsurface science measurements at a low cost. Equipment required to adapt the Pioneer Venus spacecraft for the Mars mission is described showing minor modifications to hardware. Analysis and design topics which are similar and/or identical to the Pioneer Venus program are briefly discussed.

  5. [Historical and Hygienic Aspects on Roles of Quality Requirements for Antibiotic Products in Japan: Part 2--Achievements of Domestic Production of Penicillin and Streptomycin].

    PubMed

    Yagisawa, Morimasa; Foster, Patrick J; Kurokawa, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Domestic production of penicillin was initiated in 1946 and that of streptomycin in 1950. In the early days, however, the quality of products was considerably lower and the capacity of production small. Surprisingly, there was a sufficient amount of penicillin preparations, with a purity of 85% or more, satisfying domestic demand within three years (1949). In the case of streptomycin, within three years (1953), preparations with a purity two-fold higher than initially available were produced in amounts sufficient to meet both domestic demand and create a surplus availability for exporting purposes. Such increases in quality and production were considered to be made possible by strict quality control of penicillin and streptomycin preparations, based on "Minimum Requirements for Penicillin" established in May 1947 and "Minimum Requirements for Streptomycin" established in December 1949. These requirements were also amended over time in order to provide even higher quality standards in response to the evolving improvements in production processes. Life-threatening diseases such as septicemia and pneumonia were controlled by the sufficient supply of high-quality penicillin preparations and the mortality rate of tuberculosis, regarded as a national disease at the time, markedly decreased by that of streptomycin preparations. Achievements of domestic production of penicillin and streptomycin were considered important factors that contributed greatly to the maintenance of public health in Japan.

  6. Modeling and Simulation for Multi-Missions Space Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Max

    2011-01-01

    Asteroids and Near-Earth Objects [NEOs] are of great interest for future space missions. The Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle [MMSEV] is being considered for future Near Earth Object missions and requires detailed planning and study of its Guidance, Navigation, and Control [GNC]. A possible mission of the MMSEV to a NEO would be to navigate the spacecraft to a stationary orbit with respect to the rotating asteroid and proceed to anchor into the surface of the asteroid with robotic arms. The Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation [DARTS] laboratory develops reusable models and simulations for the design and analysis of missions. In this paper, the development of guidance and anchoring models are presented together with their role in achieving mission objectives and relationships to other parts of the simulation. One important aspect of guidance is in developing methods to represent the evolution of kinematic frames related to the tasks to be achieved by the spacecraft and its robot arms. In this paper, we compare various types of mathematical interpolation methods for position and quaternion frames. Subsequent work will be on analyzing the spacecraft guidance system with different movements of the arms. With the analyzed data, the guidance system can be adjusted to minimize the errors in performing precision maneuvers.

  7. Challenges of Space Mission Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Warren L.; Hooke, Adrian J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the international challenges to space mission interoperability. Interoperability is the technical capability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged. One of the challenges that is addressed is the problem of spectrum bandwidth, and interference. The key to interoperability is the standardization of space communications services and protocols. Various levels of international cross support are reviewed: harmony, cooperation cross support and confederation cross support. The various international bodies charged with implementing cross support are reviewed. The goal of the Interagency Operations Advisory Group (IOAG) is to achieve plug-and-play operations where all that is required is for each of the systems to use an agreed communications medium, after which the systems configure each other for the purpose of exchanging information and subsequently effect such exchange automatically.

  8. Mars Observer mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Horvat, Glen M.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1989-01-01

    The spacecraft for the Mars Observer mission is described, and an interplanetary trajectory design maximizing the spacecraft dry mass delivered into its mapping orbit is presented, along with an orbit insertion strategy minimizing spacecraft propulsive requirements. Emphasis is placed on the mapping orbit designed to meet the science requirements for a low-altitude near-circular near-polar orbit which is sun-synchronous with the dayside equatorial crossing at 2 PM local mean solar time. Additional requirements on the design are that the mapping orbit have a repeating groundtrack of no more than 7 sols and comply with the NASA Planetary Protection requirements. It is planned to operate the spacecraft and instruments in a repetitive fashion to minimize mission operation complexity and cost.

  9. Aerothermodynamics Feasibility Assessment of a Mars Atmoshperic Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferracina, L.; Larranaga, J.; Falkner, P.

    2011-02-01

    ESA's optional Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation (MREP) programme is based on a long term collaboration with NASA, by taking Mars exploration as global objective, and Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission as long term goal to be achieved by the mid 2020's. Considering today's uncertainties, different missions are envisaged and prepared by ESA as possible alternative missions to MSR in the timeframe of 2020- 2026, in case the required technology readiness is not reached by 2015 or landed mass capabilities are exceeded for any of the MSR mission elements. One of the ESA considered missions within this framework is the Mars Atmospheric Sample Return Mission. This mission has been recently assessed by ESA using its Concurrent Design Facility (CDF), aiming to enter with a probe at Mars low altitudes (≈50 km), collect a sample of airborne atmosphere (gas and dust) and return the sample back to Earth. This paper aim at reporting the preliminary aerothermodynamic assessment of the design of the Martian entry probe conducted within the CDF study. Special attention has been paid to the selection of aerodynamically efficient vehicle concepts compare to blunt bodies and to the effect of the hot-temperature shock to the cavity placed at stagnation point and used in the atmospheric sampling system.

  10. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  11. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.; Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R.

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  12. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  13. Earth Science Missions Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marius, Julio L.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation gives a general overlook of the engineering efforts that are necessary to meet science mission requirement especially for Earth Science missions. It provides brief overlook of NASA's current missions and future Earth Science missions and the engineering challenges to meet some of the specific science objectives. It also provides, if time permits, a brief summary of two significant weather and climate phenomena in the Southern Hemisphere: El Nino and La Nina, as well as the Ozone depletion over Antarctica that will be of interest to IEEE intercom 2009 conference audience.

  14. Lessons Learned on Operating and Preparing Operations for a Technology Mission from the Perspective of the Earth Observing-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Howard, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program's first Earth-observing mission (EO-1) is a technology validation mission. It is managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland and is scheduled for launch in the summer of 2000. The purpose of this mission is to flight-validate revolutionary technologies that will contribute to the reduction of cost and increase of capabilities for future land imaging missions. In the EO-1 mission, there are five instrument, five spacecraft, and three supporting technologies to flight-validate during a year of operations. EO-1 operations and the accompanying ground system were intended to be simple in order to maintain low operational costs. For purposes of formulating operations, it was initially modeled as a small science mission. However, it quickly evolved into a more complex mission due to the difficulties in effectively integrating all of the validation plans of the individual technologies. As a consequence, more operational support was required to confidently complete the on-orbit validation of the new technologies. This paper will outline the issues and lessons learned applicable to future technology validation missions. Examples of some of these include the following: (1) operational complexity encountered in integrating all of the validation plans into a coherent operational plan, (2) initial desire to run single shift operations subsequently growing to 6 "around-the-clock" operations, (3) managing changes in the technologies that ultimately affected operations, (4) necessity for better team communications within the project to offset the effects of change on the Ground System Developers, Operations Engineers, Integration and Test Engineers, S/C Subsystem Engineers, and Scientists, and (5) the need for a more experienced Flight Operations Team to achieve the necessary operational flexibility. The discussion will conclude by providing several cost comparisons for developing operations from previous missions to EO-1 and

  15. The Trojans' Odyssey space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, P.; Vernazza, P.; Groussin, O.; Poncy, J.; Martinot, V.; Hinglais, E.; Bell, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Helbert, J.; Marzari, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2011-10-01

    In our present understanding of the Solar System, small bodies (asteroids, Jupiter Trojans, comets and TNOs) are the most direct remnants of the original building blocks that formed the planets. Jupiter Trojan and Hilda asteroids are small primitive bodies located beyond the "snow line", around respectively the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter at 5.2 AU (Trojans) and in the 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter near 3.9 AU (Hildas). They are at the crux of several outstanding and still conflicting issues regarding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. They hold the potential to unlock the answers to fundamental questions about planetary migration, the late heavy bombardment, the formation of the Jovian system, the origin and evolution of trans-neptunian objects, and the delivery of water and organics to the inner planets. The proposed Trojans' Odyssey mission is envisioned as a reconnaissance, multiple flyby mission aimed at visiting several objects, typically five Trojans and one Hilda. It will attempt exploring both large and small objects and sampling those with any known differences in photometric properties. The orbital strategy consists in a direct trajectory to one of the Trojan swarms. By carefully choosing the aphelion of the orbit (typically 5.3 AU), the trajectory will offer a long arc in the swarm thus maximizing the number of flybys. Initial gravity assists from Venus and Earth will help reducing the cruise to 7 years as well as the ?V needed for injection thus offering enough capacity to navigate among Trojans. This solution further opens the unique possibility to flyby a Hilda asteroid when leaving the Trojan swarm. During the cruise phase, a Main Belt Asteroid could be targeted if requiring a modest ?V. The specific science objectives of the mission will be best achieved with a payload that will perform high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imaging, thermal-infrared imaging/ radiometry, near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy

  16. Woven TPS Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, M.; Feldman, J.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2013-01-01

    WTPS is a new approach to producing TPS architectures that uses precisely engineered 3D weaving techniques to customize material characteristics needed to meet specific missions requirements for protecting space vehicles from the intense heating generated during atmospheric entry. Using WTPS, sustainable, scalable, mission-optimized TPS solutions can be achieved with relatively low life cycle costs compared with the high costs and long development schedules currently associated with material development and certification. WTPS leverages the mature state-of-the-art weaving technology that has evolved from the textile industry to design TPS materials with tailorable performance. Currently, missions anticipated encountering heat fluxes in the range of 1500 4000 Wcm2 and pressures greater than 1.5 atm are limited to using fully dense Carbon Phenolic. However, fully dense carbon phenolic is only mass efficient at higher heat fluxes greater than 4000 Wcm2), and current mission designs suffer this mass inefficiency for lack of an alternative mid-density TPS. WTPS not only bridges this mid-density TPS gap but also offers a replacement for carbon phenolic, which itself requires a significant and costly redevelopment effort to re-establish its capability for use in the high heat flux missions recently prioritized in the NRC Decadal survey, including probe missions to Venus, Saturn and Neptune. This presentation will overview the WTPS concept and present some results from initial testing completed comparing WTPS architectures to heritage carbon phenolic.

  17. Mission Control Technologies: A New Way of Designing and Evolving Mission Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Walton, Joan; Saddler, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Current mission operations systems are built as a collection of monolithic software applications. Each application serves the needs of a specific user base associated with a discipline or functional role. Built to accomplish specific tasks, each application embodies specialized functional knowledge and has its own data storage, data models, programmatic interfaces, user interfaces, and customized business logic. In effect, each application creates its own walled-off environment. While individual applications are sometimes reused across multiple missions, it is expensive and time consuming to maintain these systems, and both costly and risky to upgrade them in the light of new requirements or modify them for new purposes. It is even more expensive to achieve new integrated activities across a set of monolithic applications. These problems impact the lifecycle cost (especially design, development, testing, training, maintenance, and integration) of each new mission operations system. They also inhibit system innovation and evolution. This in turn hinders NASA's ability to adopt new operations paradigms, including increasingly automated space systems, such as autonomous rovers, autonomous onboard crew systems, and integrated control of human and robotic missions. Hence, in order to achieve NASA's vision affordably and reliably, we need to consider and mature new ways to build mission control systems that overcome the problems inherent in systems of monolithic applications. The keys to the solution are modularity and interoperability. Modularity will increase extensibility (evolution), reusability, and maintainability. Interoperability will enable composition of larger systems out of smaller parts, and enable the construction of new integrated activities that tie together, at a deep level, the capabilities of many of the components. Modularity and interoperability together contribute to flexibility. The Mission Control Technologies (MCT) Project, a collaboration of

  18. An Analysis of Green Propulsion Applied to NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.; Mulkey, Henry W.; Baca, Caitlin E.

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of green propulsion for five mission classes are examined, including a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) mission (GPM), a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) mission (SDO), a High Earth Orbit (HEO) mission (MMS), a lunar mission (LRO), and a planetary mission (MAVEN). The propellant mass benefits are considered for all five missions, as well as the effects on the tanks, propellant loading, thruster throughput, thermal considerations, and range requirements for both the AF-M315E and LMP-103S propellants.

  19. The application of lissajous orbits for the SIRTF mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Martin

    1992-08-01

    A lissajous orbit about L2 provides an ideal observation geometry for the SIRTF mission. To avoid contamination, the baseline SIRTF spacecraft uses a low thrust helium cold gas propulsion system. Three types of maneuvers are required for the L2 mission: trajectory correction maneuvers (TCM), lissajous orbit insertion maneuver (LOI), and orbit maintenance maneuvers (OMM). Analysis shows a total thrust level of 0.1 N is sufficient to achieve LOI and the smaller OMMs. Rough estimates indicate thrst level greater than 1N is needed to perform the TCMs. A hybrid hydrazine/cold gas propulsion system provides a possible solution.

  20. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2009-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for spaceborne gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. LISA Pathfinder is currently in the integration and test phase of the development, and is due to be launched on a dedicated launch vehicle in late 2011, with first results on the performance of the system being available approx 6 months later. This poster will describe the mission in detail, give the current status of the spacecraft development, and highlight the future milestones in the integration and test campaign.

  1. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2015-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder is the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology (SMART). The goal of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is to demonstrate the technologies required for future laser interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave detectors. The development of the LPF hardware is now over, and final integration and testing of the spacecraft and payload is underway. The delivery of the opto-mechanical heart of the payload is scheduled for Q2 2015, following which the final system tests will be performed. Launch is scheduled for September 2015. First results will be available approximately 3 months after launch. In this presentation I will describe the LISA Pathfinder mission, and provide the current status of the mission and remaining activities to launch and operations.

  2. Mission reliability model programmers guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Joseph M.; Simonson, Jonathan H.; Veatch, Michael H.

    1986-12-01

    The Mission Reliability Model (MIREM) has been developed to evaluate the reliability and sustained operating capability of advanced electronic circuits during the early stages of development. MIREM is applicable to integrated systems that achieve fault tolerance through dynamic fault detection, fault isolation, and reconfiguration. The model can also be valuable in evaluating designs that employ only dedicated or hard-wired redundancy. The most unique feature of MIREM is its ability to accurately reflect the impact of reconfigurable, competing functions on system reliability. The user defines the resources necessary to support a required function, e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS), and the model will compute the probability of losing that functional capability over a certain operating time. A critical failure occurs when there is not a sufficient number of working resources to support a specified function. As an analytic model, MIREM determines a value for Mean Time Between Critical Failure, Mission Completion Success Probability, and Failure Resiliency. The MIREM Programmers Guide addresses the model's program structure, function of routines, interdependence of subprograms and common blocks, and file usage. The information needed to port the model to other computer systems is also provided.

  3. The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Lyon, Richard G.; Mundy, Lee G.; Allen, Ronald J.; Armstrong, Thomas; Danchi, William C.; Karovska, Margarita; Marzouk, Joe; Mazzuca, Lisa M.; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5 km. It is designed to image stars and binaries with sufficient resolution to enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also support asteroseismology (acoustic imaging) to probe stellar internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of the magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate these fields, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars. The ultimate goal of the mission is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity as a driver of climate and space weather on time scales ranging from months up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on life in the Universe. In this paper we describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address these goals, the "enabling technology" development efforts being pursued, and the design concepts now under study for the full mission and a possible pathfinder mission.

  4. SEQUOIA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Carone, Timothy; Siegmund, Oswald H.; Jelinsky, Patrick N.; Polidan, Ronald S.

    1995-06-01

    We describe a mission concept for the SEQUOIA instrument, which would carry out the first wide-field, far ultraviolet, photometric all-sky survey. SEQUOIA will image the astronomical sky in the 912-1050 angstrom spectral region to a limiting magnitude of 19.5(superscript m) over a one degree field of view with a spatial resolution of less than 30 arc seconds. This mission was proposed to the USRA STEDI program in late 1994, and has been designed as a low cost, fast-track program for launch within 3 years. The spacecraft bus is being provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation (Dulles) and since the entire payload weighs less than 100kg, it can be launched using either a Minuteman or Pegasus rocket.

  5. Planning Coverage Campaigns for Mission Design and Analysis: CLASP for DESDynl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell L.; McLaren, David A.; Hu, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Mission design and analysis presents challenges in that almost all variables are in constant flux, yet the goal is to achieve an acceptable level of performance against a concept of operations, which might also be in flux. To increase responsiveness, automated planning tools are used that allow for the continual modification of spacecraft, ground system, staffing, and concept of operations, while returning metrics that are important to mission evaluation, such as area covered, peak memory usage, and peak data throughput. This approach was applied to the DESDynl mission design using the CLASP planning system, but since this adaptation, many techniques have changed under the hood for CLASP, and the DESDynl mission concept has undergone drastic changes. The software produces mission evaluation products, such as memory highwater marks, coverage percentages, given a mission design in the form of coverage targets, concept of operations, spacecraft parameters, and orbital parameters. It tries to overcome the lack of fidelity and timeliness of mission requirements coverage analysis during mission design. Previous techniques primarily use Excel in ad hoc fashion to approximate key factors in mission performance, often falling victim to overgeneralizations necessary in such an adaptation. The new program allows designers to faithfully represent their mission designs quickly, and get more accurate results just as quickly.

  6. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2012-07-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for future spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed ESA mission, NGO. The technologies required for NGO are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical NGO technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the NGO constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the NGO interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  7. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  8. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Nominal Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald; williams, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Mission (ARCM) nominal design and performance costs associated with an Orion based crewed rendezvous mission to a captured asteroid in an Earth-Moon DRO. The ARM study includes two fundamental mission phases: 1) The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) and 2) the ARCM. The ARRM includes a solar electric propulsion based robotic asteroid return vehicle (ARV) sent to rendezvous with a selected near Earth asteroid, capture it, and return it to a DRO in the Earth-Moon vicinity. The DRO is selected over other possible asteroid parking orbits due to its achievability (by both the robotic and crewed vehicles) and by its stability (e.g., no orbit maintenance is required). After the return of the asteroid to the Earth-Moon vicinity, the ARCM is executed and carries a crew of two astronauts to a DRO to rendezvous with the awaiting ARV with the asteroid. The outbound and inbound transfers employ lunar gravity assist (LGA) flybys to reduce the Orion propellant requirement for the overall nominal mission, which provides a nominal mission with some reserve propellant for possible abort situations. The nominal mission described in this report provides a better understanding of the mission considerations as well as the feasibility of such a crewed mission, particularly with regard to spacecraft currently undergoing development, such as the Orion vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS).

  9. Intravenous Solutions for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher J.; Niederhaus, Charles; Barlow, Karen; Griffin, DeVon

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements being developed for medical care during NASA s future exploration class missions. Previous research on IV solution generation and mixing in space is summarized. The current exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. We briefly introduce potential methods for generating IV fluids in microgravity. Conclusions on the recommended fluid volume requirements are presented.

  10. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  11. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  12. 2007 Western States Fire Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    A general overview of the Ikhana Uninhabited Air System (UAS) is presented. The contents include: 1) Ikhana UAS; 2) Ikhana UAS / Ground Control Station (GCS); 3) Ikhana UAS / Antennas; 4) Western States Fire Mission 2007 Partners; 5) FAA Certificate of Authorization (COA); 6) Western States Fire Missions (WSFM) 2007; 7) WSFM 1-4 2007; 8) California Wildfire Emergency Response 2007; 9) WSFM 5-8 Emergency Response 2007; 10) WSFM Achievements; and 11) WSFM Challenges.

  13. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  14. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  15. Mission assurance increased with regression testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, R.; Spezio, M.

    - C based and big endian. The presence of byte swap issues that might not have been identified in the required software changes was very real and can be difficult to find. The ability to have test designs that would exercise all major functions and operations was invaluable to assure that critical operations and tools would operate as they had since first operational use. With the longevity of the mission also came the realization that the original ISAT team would not be the people working on the ISAT regression testing. The ability to have access to all original test designs and test results identified in the regression test suite greatly improved the ability to identify not only the expected system behavior, but also the actual behavior with the old architecture. So in summary, this paper will discuss the importance, practicality, and results achieved by having a well-defined regression test available to assure the New Horizons Mission Operations Control system continues to meet its functional requirements to support the mission objectives.

  16. Mars Mission Concepts: SAR and Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, Michael; Clifford, S.; Lawrence, S.; Klaus, K.; Smith, D.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: The time has come to leverage technology advances to reduce the cost and increase the flight rate of planetary missions, while actively developing a scientific and engineering workforce to achieve national space objectives. Mission Science at Mars: A SAR imaging radar offers an ability to conduct high resolution investigations of the shallow subsurface of Mars, enabling identification of fine-scale layering within the Martian polar layered deposits (PLD), as well as the identification of pingos, investigations of polygonal terrain, and measurements of the thickness of mantling layers at non-polar latitudes. It would allow systematic near-surface prospecting, which is tremendously useful for human exploration purposes. Limited color capabilities in a notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would enable the generation of false color images, resulting in useful science results, and the stereo data could be reduced into high-resolution Digital Elevation Models uniquely useful for exploration planning and science purposes. Mission Concept: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Our concept involves using a Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Summary/Conclusions: A robust and compelling Mars mission can be designed to meet the 2018 Mars launch window opportunity. Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute the baseline science mission and conduct necessary Mars Sample Return Technology Demonstrations in Mars orbit on the same mission. An observation spacecraft platform like the high power 5Kw) 702SP at Mars also enables the use of a SAR instrument to reveal new insights and understanding of the Mars regolith for both

  17. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  18. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  19. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-09-27

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

  20. Estimation of yield and water requirements of maize crops combining high spatial and temporal resolution images with a simple crop model, in the perspective of the Sentinel-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battude, Marjorie; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Brut, Aurore; Cros, Jérôme; Dejoux, Jean-François; Huc, Mireille; Marais Sicre, Claire; Tallec, Tiphaine; Demarez, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Water resources are under increasing pressure as a result of global change and of a raising competition among the different users (agriculture, industry, urban). It is therefore important to develop tools able to estimate accurately crop water requirements in order to optimize irrigation while maintaining acceptable production. In this context, remote sensing is a valuable tool to monitor vegetation development and water demand. This work aims at developing a robust and generic methodology mainly based on high resolution remote sensing data to provide accurate estimates of maize yield and water needs at the watershed scale. Evapotranspiration (ETR) and dry aboveground biomass (DAM) of maize crops were modeled using time series of GAI images used to drive a simple agro-meteorological crop model (SAFYE, Duchemin et al., 2005). This model is based on a leaf partitioning function (Maas, 1993) for the simulation of crop biomass and on the FAO-56 methodology for the ETR simulation. The model also contains a module to simulate irrigation. This study takes advantage of the SPOT4 and SPOT5 Take5 experiments initiated by CNES (http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/multitemp/). They provide optical images over the watershed from February to May 2013 and from April to August 2015 respectively, with a temporal and spatial resolution similar to future images from the Sentinel-2 and VENμS missions. This dataset was completed with LandSat8 and Deimos1 images in order to cover the whole growing season while reducing the gaps in remote sensing time series. Radiometric, geometric and atmospheric corrections were achieved by the THEIA land data center, and the KALIDEOS processing chain. The temporal dynamics of the green area index (GAI) plays a key role in soil-plant-atmosphere interactions and in biomass accumulation process. Consistent seasonal dynamics of the remotely sensed GAI was estimated by applying a radiative transfer model based on artificial neural networks (BVNET, Baret

  1. Trade space evaluation of multi-mission architectures for the exploration of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibay, F.; Strange, N. J.

    Recent cuts to NASA's planetary exploration budget have precipitated a debate in the community on whether large flagship missions to planetary bodies in the outer solar system or sequences of smaller missions as part of a long-term exploration program would be more beneficial. The work presented explores the trade between these two approaches as applied to the exploration of Europa and concentrates on identifying combinations of flyby, orbiter and/or lander missions that achieve high value at a lower cost than the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) flagship mission concept. The effects of the value attributed to the four main science objectives for Europa, which can be broadly classified as investigating the ocean, ice-shell, composition and geology, are demonstrated. The current approach proposed to complete the ocean exploration objective is shown to have conflicting requirements with the other three objectives. For missions that fully address all the science objectives, such as JEO, the ocean goal is therefore found to be the main cost driver. Instrument combinations for low-cost flyby missions are also presented, and simple lander designs able to achieve a wide range of objectives at a low additional cost are identified. Finally, the current designs for the Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) are compared to others in the trade space, based on the prioritization given to the science goals for the exploration of Europa. The current EHM flyby mission (Clipper) is found to be highly promising in terms of providing very high potential science value at a low cost.

  2. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  3. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  4. Flight Test Success through Effective Mission Assurance Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-19

    design limits Pinched or nicked lanyard FT-6 FPA half blinded No failsafe software FOD FT-7 No DACS response Poor potting compound choice FOD FT-8 TVA...short Exposed hot pins FOD FT-9 DACS nozzle break Poor material properties, excessive shocks Ground handling damage FT-3 FT-4 Date 01-Aug-1995 13-Oct...achieve mission success • Require unfettered access to the highest organizational leadership, programs and supply chain • Be empowered and

  5. Feasibility and Definition of a Lunar Polar Volatiles Prospecting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Elphic, Richard; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry; Pedersen, Liam; Beyer, Ross; Cockrell, James

    2012-01-01

    The recent Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission has provided evidence for significant amounts of cold trapped volatiles in Cabeus crater near the Moon's south pole. Moreover, LRO/Diviner measurements of extremely cold lunar polar surface temperatures imply that volatiles can be stable outside or areas of strict permanent shadows. These discoveries suggest that orbital neutron spectrometer data point to extensive deposits at both lunar poles. The physical state, composition and distribution of these volatiles are key scientific issues that relate to source and emplacement mechanisms. These issues are also important for enabling lunar in situ resource utilization (ISRU). An assessment of the feasibility of cold-trapped volatile ISRU requires a priori information regarding the location, form, quantity, and potential for extraction of available resources. A robotic mission to a mostly shadowed but briefly .unlit location with suitable environmental conditions (e.g. short periods of oblique sunlight and subsurface cryogenic temperatures which permit volatile trapping) can help answer these scientific and exploration questions. Key parameters must be defined in order to identify suitable landing sites, plan surface operations, and achieve mission success. To address this need, we have conducted an initial study for a lunar polar volatile prospecting mission, assuming the use of a solar-powered robotic lander and rover. Here we present the mission concept, goals and objectives, and landing site selection analysis for a short-duration, landed, solar-powered mission to a potential hydrogen volatile-rich site.

  6. Ultra Stable Microwave Radiometers for Future Sea Surface Salinity Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science System Pathfinder (ESSP) mission Aquarius will measure global sea surface salinity with 100-km spatial resolution every 8 days with an average monthly salinity accuracy of 0.2 psu (parts per thousand). This requires an L-band low-noise radiometer with the long-term calibration stability of less than 0.1 K over 8 days. This three-year research program on ultra stable radiometers has addressed the radiometer requirements and configuration necessary to achieve this objective for Aquarius and future ocean salinity missions. The system configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer testbeds at both JPL and GSFC. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature, a procedure for the measurement and correction for radiometer system non-linearity, noise diode calibration versus temperature, low noise amplifier performance over voltage, and temperature control requirements to achieve the required stability. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability. This report also presents the results of the radiometer test program, a detailed radiometer noise model, and details of the operational switching sequence optimization that can be used to achieve the low noise and stability requirements. Many of the results of this research have been incorporated into the Aquarius radiometer design and will allow this instrument to achieve its goals.

  7. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  8. Monte Carlo Analysis as a Trajectory Design Driver for the TESS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, Craig; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen; Dichmann, Donald; Parker, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.

  9. Innovations in Mission Architectures for Human and Robotic Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Douglas R.; Joosten, B. Kent; Lo, Martin W.; Ford, Ken; Hansen, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies, mission concepts, and new ideas in combining capabilities, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to discovery driven, technology enabled exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet enable the pursuit of a broader range of objectives. The scope of missions addressed range from the assembly and maintenance of arrays of telescopes for emplacement at the Earth-Sun L2, to Human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. Vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities; allowing for decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration.

  10. Monte Carlo Analysis as a Trajectory Design Driver for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, Craig; Parker, Joel; Dichmann, Don; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.

  11. Commerce Lab: Mission analysis. Payload integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the commerce lab mission analysis and payload integration study are discussed. A mission model which accommodates commercial users and provides a basic data base for future mission planning is described. The data bases developed under this study include: (1) user requirements; (2) apparatus capabilities and availabilities; and (3) carrier capabilities. These data bases are synthesized in a trades and analysis phase along with the STS flight opportunities. Optimum missions are identified.

  12. Exploration Missions to Host Small Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirtain, Jonathan; Pelfrey, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The next-generation heavy launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS), will provide the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the exploration mission trajectory. We will describe the payload mission concept of operations, the payload capacity for the SLS, and the payload requirements. Exploration Mission 1, currently planned for launch in December 2017, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS.

  13. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  14. Mission specification for three generic mission classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mission specifications for three generic mission classes are generated to provide a baseline for definition and analysis of data acquisition platform system concepts. The mission specifications define compatible groupings of sensors that satisfy specific earth resources and environmental mission objectives. The driving force behind the definition of sensor groupings is mission need; platform and space transportation system constraints are of secondary importance. The three generic mission classes are: (1) low earth orbit sun-synchronous; (2) geosynchronous; and (3) non-sun-synchronous, nongeosynchronous. These missions are chosen to provide a variety of sensor complements and implementation concepts. Each mission specification relates mission categories, mission objectives, measured parameters, and candidate sensors to orbits and coverage, operations compatibility, and platform fleet size.

  15. Visual Navigation - SARE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Kuba, Jose; Caruso, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The SARE Earth Observing and Technological Mission is part of the Argentinean Space Agency (CONAE - Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) Small and Technological Payloads Program. The Argentinean National Space Program requires from the SARE program mission to test in a real environment of several units, assemblies and components to reduce the risk of using these equipments in more expensive Space Missions. The objective is to make use those components with an acceptable maturity in design or development, but without any heritage at space. From the application point of view, this mission offers new products in the Earth Observation data market which are listed in the present paper. One of the technological payload on board of the SARE satellite is the sensor Ground Tracker. It computes the satellite attitude and orbit in real time (goal) and/or by ground processing. For the first operating mode a dedicated computer and mass memory are necessary to be part of the mentioned sensor. For the second operational mode the hardware and software are much simpler.

  16. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts through Application of Complexity Indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Craig; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap Conmrittee (chartered by NASA to develop the roadmap for Solar System Exploration Missions for the coming decades) found itself posed with the difficult problem of sorting through several mission concepts and determining their relative costs. While detailed mission studies are the normal approach to costing, neither the budget nor schedule allotted to the conmrittee could support such studies. Members of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supporting the conmrittee were given the challenge of developing a semi-quantitative approach that could provide the relative costs of these missions, without requiring an in depth study of the missions. In response to this challenge, a rapid cost assessment methodology based on a set of mission cost/complexity indexes was developed. This methodology also underwent two separate validations, one comparing its results when applied to historical missions, and another comparing its estimates against those of veteran space mission managers. Remarkably good agreement was achieved, suggesting that this approach provides an effective early indication of space mission costs.

  17. Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    To mark the 10th anniversary of the Apollo-Soyuz joint space mission, a recent conference examined the prospects for human exploration of Mars and for international cooperation in space. Most of the participants at the conference, which was jointly sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and The Planetary Society, seemed to agree that some sort of collaboration like that between the United States and Soviet Union a decade ago would be desirable, and probably necessary, if humans are ever to reach Mars. Sen. Spark Matsunaga (D-Hawaii) extended the idea by saying that to gain the support of Congress, plans for future space exploration should be tied to international cooperation.

  18. Mission Planning and Scheduling System for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Gonzalo; Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa; Saylor, Rick; Cosgrove, Sager; Ritter, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of NASA's return to the Moon efforts, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step. It is an unmanned mission to create a comprehensive atlas of the Moon's features and resources necessary to design and build a lunar outpost. LRO is scheduled for launch in April, 2009. LRO carries a payload comprised of six instruments and one technology demonstration. In addition to its scientific mission LRO will use new technologies, systems and flight operations concepts to reduce risk and increase productivity of future missions. As part of the effort to achieve robust and efficient operations, the LRO Mission Operations Team (MOT) will use its Mission Planning System (MPS) to manage the operational activities of the mission during the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) and operational phases of the mission. The MPS, based on GMV's flexplan tool and developed for NASA with Honeywell Technology Solutions (prime contractor), will receive activity and slew maneuver requests from multiple science operations centers (SOC), as well as from the spacecraft engineers. flexplan will apply scheduling rules to all the requests received and will generate conflict free command schedules in the form of daily stored command loads for the orbiter and a set of daily pass scripts that help automate nominal real-time operations.

  19. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  20. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  1. Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

  2. Asteroid Crewed Segment Mission Lean Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gard, Joe; McDonald, Mark; Jermstad, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of human spaceflight missions presents numerous challenges to designers that must be addressed to produce a feasible concept. The specific challenges of designing an exploration mission utilizing the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts beyond earth orbit to explore an asteroid stored in a distant retrograde orbit around the moon will be addressed. Mission designers must carefully balance competing constraints including cost, schedule, risk, and numerous spacecraft performance metrics including launch mass, nominal landed mass, abort landed mass, mission duration, consumable limits and many others. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will be described along with results from the concurrent mission design trades that led to its formulation. While the trades presented are specific to this mission, the integrated process is applicable to any potential future mission. The following trades were critical in the mission formulation and will be described in detail: 1) crew size, 2) mission duration, 3) trajectory design, 4) docking vs grapple, 5) extravehicular activity tasks, 6) launch mass and integrated vehicle performance, 7) contingency performance, 8) crew consumables including food, clothing, oxygen, nitrogen and water, and 9) mission risk. The additional Orion functionality required to perform the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission and how it is incorporated while minimizing cost, schedule and mass impacts will be identified. Existing investments in the NASA technology portfolio were leveraged to provide the added functionality that will be beneficial to future exploration missions. Mission kits are utilized to augment Orion with the necessary functionality without introducing costly new requirements to the mature Orion spacecraft design effort. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission provides an exciting early mission for the Orion and SLS while providing a stepping stone to even more ambitious missions in the future.

  3. Enabling the human mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosley, John

    The duplication of earth conditions aboard a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat requires 60 lb/day/person of food, potable and hygiene water, and oxygen. A 1000-day mission to Mars would therefore require 30 tons of such supplies per crew member in the absence of a closed-cycle, or regenerative, life-support system. An account is given of the development status of regenerative life-support systems, as well as of the requisite radiation protection and EVA systems, the health-maintenance and medical care facilities, zero-gravity deconditioning measures, and planetary surface conditions protection.

  4. Exomars Mission Verification Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

    between the different levels (system, modules, subsystems, etc) and giving an overview of the main test defined at Spacecraft level. The paper is mainly focused on the verification aspects of the EDL Demonstrator Module and the Rover Module, for which an intense testing activity without previous heritage in Europe is foreseen. In particular the Descent Module has to survive to the Mars atmospheric entry and landing, its surface platform has to stay operational for 8 sols on Martian surface, transmitting scientific data to the Orbiter. The Rover Module has to perform 180 sols mission in Mars surface environment. These operative conditions cannot be verified only by analysis; consequently a test campaign is defined including mechanical tests to simulate the entry loads, thermal test in Mars environment and the simulation of Rover operations on a 'Mars like' terrain. Finally, the paper present an overview of the documentation flow defined to ensure the correct translation of the mission requirements in verification activities (test, analysis, review of design) until the final verification close-out of the above requirements with the final verification reports.

  5. STS-99 / Endeavour Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This radar system will produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. This videotape presents a mission overview press briefing. The panel members are Dr. Ghassem Asrar, NASA Associate Administrator Earth Sciences; General James C. King, Director National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA); Professor Achim Bachem, Member of the Executive Board, Deutschen Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German National Aerospace Research Center; and Professor Sergio Deiulio, President of the Italian Space Agency. Dr. Asrar opened with a summary of the history of Earth Observations from space, relating the SRTM to this history. This mission, due to cost and complexity, required partnership with other agencies and nations, and the active participation of the astronauts. General King spoke to the expectations of NIMA, and the use of the Synthetic Aperture Radar to produce the high resolution topographic images. Dr. Achim Bachem spoke about the international cooperation that this mission required, and some of the commercial applications and companies that will use this data. Dr Deiulio spoke of future plans to improve knowledge of the Earth using satellites. Questions from the press concerned use of the information for military actions, the reason for the restriction on access to the higher resolution data, the mechanism to acquire that data for scientific research, and the cost sharing from the mission's partners. There was also discussion about the mission's length.

  6. Spacelab Mission Simulation-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Shumate, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center conducted the second in a series of Spacelab mission simulations during the week of January 26-February 1, 1976. The facilities that supported the Spacelab Mission Simulation-II (SMS-II) included mock-ups of Spacelab, the Orbiter mid-deck and aft flight deck areas, and support areas simulating a mission control area and a payload operation control area. The SMS-II encompassed presently identified Spacelab mission requirements including experiment solicitation, evaluation, selection, and prioritization; crew selection and training; experiment hardware development, integration, and evaluation. The payload chosen included a cosmic ray physics experiment which was located on a pallet aft of the Spacelab and 20 biomedical experiments which were performed in the Spacelab. This paper will summarize simulation experience to date and list areas requiring substantial evaluation in the future.

  7. Austere Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Hoppy; Hawkins, Alisa M.; Tadcliffe, Torrey O.

    2009-01-01

    The Design Reference Architecture 5 (DRA 5) is the most recent concept developed by NASA to send humans to Mars in the 2030 time frame using Constellation Program elements. DRA 5 is optimized to meet a specific set of requirements that would provide for a robust exploration program to deliver a new six-person crew at each biennial Mars opportunity and provide for power and infrastructure to maintain a highly capable continuing human presence on Mars. This paper examines an alternate architecture that is scaled back from DRA 5 and might offer lower development cost, lower flight cost, and lower development risk. It is recognized that a mission set using this approach would not meet all the current Constellation Mars mission requirements; however, this 'austere' architecture may represent a minimum mission set that would be acceptable from a science and exploration standpoint. The austere approach is driven by a philosophy of minimizing high risk or high cost technology development and maximizing development and production commonality in order to achieve a program that could be sustained in a flat-funded budget environment. Key features that would enable a lower technology implementation are as follows: using a blunt-body entry vehicle having no deployable decelerators, utilizing aerobraking rather than aerocapture for placing the crewed element into low Mars orbit, avoiding the use of liquid hydrogen with its low temperature and large volume issues, using standard bipropellant propulsion for the landers and ascent vehicle, and using radioisotope surface power systems rather than a nuclear reactor or large area deployable solar arrays. Flat funding within the expected NASA budget for a sustained program could be facilitated by alternating cargo and crew launches for the biennial Mars opportunities. This would result in two assembled vehicles leaving Earth orbit for Mars per Mars opportunity. The first opportunity would send two cargo landers to the Mars surface to

  8. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  9. Progress on the Cluster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, Margaret; Khurana, Krishan; Acuna, Mario (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Prof M. G. Kivelson and Dr. K. K. Khurana (UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)) are co-investigators on the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium (CMC) that provided the fluxgate magnetometers and associated mission support for the Cluster Mission. The CMC designated UCLA as the site with primary responsibility for the inter-calibration of data from the four spacecraft and the production of fully corrected data critical to achieving the mission objectives. UCLA will also participate in the analysis and interpretation of the data. The UCLA group here reports its excellent progress in developing fully intra-calibrated data for large portions of the mission and an excellent start in developing inter-calibrated data for selected time intervals, especially extended intervals in August, 2001 on which a workshop held at ESTEC in March, 2002 focused. In addition, some scientific investigations were initiated and results were reported at meetings.

  10. Living off the land: the practical low-cost approach to piloted Mars missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrin, R. M.

    This paper investigates means for achieving human expeditions to Mars utilizing existing or near-term technology. Both mission plans described here, Mars Direct and Semi-Direct are accomplished with tandem direct launches of payloads to Mars using the upper stages of the heavy lift booster used to lift the payloads to orbit. No on-orbit assembly of large interplanetary spacecraft is required. In situ-propellant production of CH4/O2 and H2O on the Martian surface is used to reduce return propellant and surface consumable requirements, and thus total mission mass and cost. The proposed surface systems payload manifest is presented, and mission back-up plans are described. It is concluded that both the Mars Direct and Semi-Direct plans offer viable options for robust piloted Mars missions employing near-term technology.

  11. The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten

  12. The Ulysses mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, K.-P.; Marsden, R. G.; Page, D. E.; Smith, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Ulysses mission is unique in the history of the exploration of solar system by spacecraft. The path followed by Ulysses will make it possible, for the first time, to explore the heliosphere within a few astronomical units of the sun over the full range of heliographic latitudes, thereby providing the first characterization of the uncharted third heliospheric dimension. Advanced scientific instrumentation carried on board the spacecraft is designed to measure the properties of the heliospheric magnetic field, the solar wind, the sun/wind interface, solar radio bursts and plasma waves, solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays, solar X-rays, and interplanetary/interstellar neutral gas and dust. Ulysses will also be used to detect cosmic gamma-ray bursts and search for gravitational waves. The mission, a collaboration between ESA and NASA, was launched in October 1990 and employs a Jupiter gravity-assist to achieve the trajectory extending to high solar latitudes. The paper describes the characteristics of the Ulysses mission in order to establish a framework within which to better understand the objectives and goals of the scientific investigations.

  13. The Gaia mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaia Collaboration; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-11-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page. http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia

  14. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  15. Designing Spacecraft and Mission Operations Plans to Meet Flight Crew Radiation Dose Requirements: Why is this an "Epic Challenge" for Long-Term Manned Interplanetary Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Outline of presentation: (1) Radiation Shielding Concepts and Performance - Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) (1a) Some general considerations (1b) Galactic Cosmic Rays (2)GCR Shielding I: What material should I use and how much do I need? (2a) GCR shielding materials design and verification (2b) Spacecraft materials point dose cosmic ray shielding performance - hydrogen content and atomic number (2c) Accelerator point dose materials testing (2d) Material ranking and selection guidelines (2e) Development directions and return on investment (point dose metric) (2f) Secondary particle showers in the human body (2f-1) limited return of investment for low-Z, high-hydrogen content materials (3) GCR shielding II: How much will it cost? (3a) Spacecraft design and verification for mission radiation dose to the crew (3b) Habitat volume, shielding areal density, total weight, and launch cost for two habitat volumes (3c) It's All about the Money - Historical NASA budgets and budget limits (4) So, what can I do about all this? (4a) Program Design Architecture Trade Space (4b) The Vehicle Design Trade Space (4c) Some Near Term Recommendations

  16. Follow-on mission description of HITEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesugi, Kuninori; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro; Ishii, Nobuaki; Shuto, Miwako; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kimie

    This paper describes a design strategy and flight results of the HITEN follow-on mission. HITEN was launched on January 24, 1990, from Kagoshima Space Center, Japan. One of the primary purposes of the HITEN mission was to establish the technologies required for lunar and planetary missions in the near future. On March 30, 1991, HITEN passed into the upper atmospherere of 120 km in altitude, and the second aerobraking experiment was successfully accomplished. Although, at this moment, the main missions of HITEN scheduled before launch were completed, HITEN still had a residual fuel of 12 kg, which corresponded to the capability of about 130 m/s in velocity maneuver. Hence, taking a maximum used of the limited fuel, several trajectories for the HITEN follow-on mission had been discussed. One of the candidates of the follow-on mission was an exploration of Lagrangian points in the earth-moon gravity field, so as to detect micro-dust around these gravitationally equilibrated environment using a micro-dust counter installed in HITEN. Other candidate was an insertion of HITEN itself into an orbit around the Moon. Prior to the Lagrangian Points Excursion (LPE), the apogee distance of the HITEN orbit was enlarged from 462,000 km to 1,538,000 km by the 9th lunar gravity assist on April 27, 1991, because of reducing the deceleration velocity required to enter the orbit around the Moon. On October 2, 1991, HITEN entered into the LPE orbit, taking advantage of the 10th lunar gravity assist. After the exploration of the Lagrangian points, the approaching velocity to the Moon was retarded at the closest encounter moment of the 11th lunar swingby on February 15, 1992. Thereafter, HITEN was orbiting the Moon. The resultant velocity increment amounted to 116 m/s in total, which included 34 m/s for setting the encounter conditions of the above lunar swingby and 82 m/s for entering the orbit around the Moon. Although the Sun-Earth-Moon graity field was complicated to analyze, the

  17. Hitchhiker mission operations: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kathryn

    1995-01-01

    What is mission operations? Mission operations is an iterative process aimed at achieving the greatest possible mission success with the resources available. The process involves understanding of the science objectives, investigation of which system capabilities can best meet these objectives, integration of the objectives and resources into a cohesive mission operations plan, evaluation of the plan through simulations, and implementation of the plan in real-time. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive description of what the Hitchhiker mission operations approach is and why it is crucial to mission success. The authors describe the significance of operational considerations from the beginning and throughout the experiment ground and flight systems development. The authors also address the necessity of training and simulations. Finally, the authors cite several examples illustrating the benefits of understanding and utilizing the mission operations process.

  18. Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The Micro-Arcsecond Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imaging mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 microarcsecond imaging. To achieve mission requirements, MAXIM will have to improve on pointing by orders of magnitude. This pointing requirement impacts the control and design of the formation. Currently the architecture is comprised of 25 spacecraft, which will form the sparse apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This configuration will deploy 24 spacecraft as optics modules and one as the detector. The formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis and trades of several control efforts that are dependent upon the pointing requirements and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions that minimize the control efforts and we address both continuous and discrete control via LQR and feedback linearization. Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

  19. Humanitarian Surgical Missions: Planning for Success.

    PubMed

    Boston, Mark; Horlbeck, Drew

    2015-09-01

    Humanitarian surgical missions can provide much needed care for those who are otherwise unable to receive such care because of limited local health care resources and cost. These missions also offer excellent training opportunities and can be life-changing experiences for those who participate in them. A successful humanitarian surgical mission requires careful planning and coordination and can be challenging for those tasked with the responsibilities to organize and lead these missions. This article addresses many of the issues and challenges encountered when planning and leading humanitarian surgical missions and offers a template to be used by those who take on these challenges.

  20. Mars Sample Return Using Commercial Capabilities: Mission Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Andrew A.; Stoker, Carol R.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Bowles, Jeffery V.; Huynh, Loc C.; Faber, Nicholas T.; Race, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science. This presentation provides an overview of a feasibility study for a MSR mission in which emerging commercial capabilities are used alongside other sources of mission elements. Goal is to reduce the number of mission systems and launches required to return the samples, with the goal of reducing mission cost.. Major elements required for the MSR mission are described. We report the feasibility of a complete and closed MSR mission design

  1. Mission Review: Foundation for Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruthers, J. Kent; Lott, Gary B.

    Developed as part of the Mission, Role, and Scope Procedures projects, conducted from 1977 through 1979 by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS), this book identifies topics to be covered in determining an institution's mission and how such a determination could be achieved through traditional, campus based, academic…

  2. Strategic Map for Achieving Enceladus Ocean Exploration in Our Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, B.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, the author presented a decomposition and sequencing of science questions and technical capabilities that define viable programmatic pathways to enable sample return and advanced in situ exploration of the Enceladan ocean, consistent with NASA mission-opportunity constraints. Elaborated and refined in 2015 via JpGU, AbSciCon, IAC, and COSPAR Water, this plan is now specific: discrete and integrated analyses and coordination actions that, if acted on by the community over the next 45 months, could result in Enceladus ocean exploration appearing in the next Planetary Decadal Survey's mission priorities, issued in 2021. At AGU 2015, a product-based, outcome-measurable, stepwise milestone plan is presented to catalyze the next level of community discussion. Topics covered by the action plan include: hypothesis-driven science questions; mission cost as a function of mission capability; mission selectability as a function of programmatic constraints and evaluation process; exploration technologies as a function of funding and schedule; international consensus on forward and backward planetary protection requirements and solutions for exploring worlds with astrobiologically significant liquid water; and strategic balance among major NASA planetary science initiatives. Key Decadal-runup milestones are analyzed with respect to stakeholders, success criteria, and - critically - calendar and precedence. These results then inform a multi-year action plan to generate, vet, and socialize throughout the community a set of technically and fiscally viable mission concepts, respectively enabled by an achievable technology development roadmap also detailed in the presentation. This can begin to align advocate actions toward a broad community goal of exploring the Enceladan ocean. Without such coordination, which must reach fruition by Sep 2019, the probability that the next Decadal could explicitly prioritize mission objectives for Enceladus ocean exploration - as one of

  3. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  4. Intrepid: A Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behling, Michael; Buchman, Donald; Marcus, Andres; Procopis, Stephanie; Wassgren, Carl; Ziemer, Sarah

    1990-01-01

    A proposal for an exploratory spacecraft mission to Pluto/Charon system was written in response to the request for proposal for an unmannned probe to pluto (RFP). The design requirements of the RFP are presented and under the guidance of these requirements, the spacecraft Intrepid was designed. The RPF requirement that was of primary importance is the minimization of cost. Also, the reduction of flight time was of extreme importance because the atmosphere of Pluto is expected to collapse close to the Year 2020. If intrepid should arrive after the collapse, the mission would be a failure; for Pluto would be only a solid rock of ice. The topics presented include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion subsystem; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communications; and (6) attitude and articulation control.

  5. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. R.; Joosten, B. J.; Lo, M. W.; Ford, K. M.; Hansen, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cryogenic propulsion for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafi, S.; DeLee, C.; Francis, J.; Li, X.; McGuinness, D.; Nixon, C. A.; Purves, L.; Willis, W.; Riall, S.; Devine, M.; Hedayat, A.

    2016-03-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) cryogenic propellants can dramatically enhance NASA's ability to explore the solar system due to their superior specific impulse (Isp) capability. Although these cryogenic propellants can be challenging to manage and store, they allow significant mass advantages over traditional hypergolic propulsion systems and are therefore enabling for many planetary science missions. New cryogenic storage techniques such as subcooling and the use of advanced insulation and low thermal conductivity support structures will allow for the long term storage and use of cryogenic propellants for solar system exploration and hence allow NASA to deliver more payloads to targets of interest, launch on smaller and less expensive launch vehicles, or both. These new cryogenic storage technologies were implemented in a design study for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission, with LH2 and LO2 as propellants, and the resulting spacecraft design was able to achieve a 43% launch mass reduction over a TOPS mission, that utilized a traditional hypergolic propulsion system with mono-methyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants. This paper describes the cryogenic propellant storage design for the TOPS mission and demonstrates how these cryogenic propellants are stored passively for a decade-long Titan mission that requires the cryogenics propellants to be stored for 8.5 years.

  7. Passing through Science: The Effects of Raising Graduation Requirements in Science on Course-Taking and Academic Achievement in Chicago. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Nicholas; Allensworth, Elaine M.

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the effects of increasing science course-taking requirements in the Chicago Public Schools. CPS has been at the forefront of the national movement to require a college-preparatory curriculum for all high school students. In 1997, CPS mandated that all entering ninth-graders take a college-preparatory curriculum in high school,…

  8. Mission operations computing systems evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurzhals, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its preparation for the operational Shuttle era, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently replacing most of the mission operations computing complexes that have supported near-earth space missions since the late 1960's. Major associated systems include the Metric Data Facility (MDF) which preprocesses, stores, and forwards all near-earth satellite tracking data; the Orbit Computation System (OCS) which determines related production orbit and attitude information; the Flight Dynamics System (FDS) which formulates spacecraft attitude and orbit maneuvers; and the Command Management System (CMS) which handles mission planning, scheduling, and command generation and integration. Management issues and experiences for the resultant replacement process are driven by a wide range of possible future mission requirements, flight-critical system aspects, complex internal system interfaces, extensive existing applications software, and phasing to optimize systems evolution.

  9. Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of At-Risk Youth Following Participation in a Required Ninth-Grade Academic Support Study Center Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Overall, pretest-posttest results for achievement, behavior, and engagement for at-risk boys not eligible (n = 13) and eligible (n = 9) for participation in the free or reduced price lunch program who completed a school-year long academic support study center program were not statistically different over time and end of school year for cumulative…

  10. The Efforts to Improve Mathematics Learning Achievement Results of High School Students as Required by Competency-Based Curriculum and Lesson Level-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidabutar, Ropinus

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the effect of various, innovated teaching models to improved the student's achievement in various topic in Mathematics. The study was conduct experiment by using innovated teaching with contextual, media and web which are the compared. with conventional teaching method. The result showed the innovation in the…

  11. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark A.; Rogers, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  12. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B. ); Pieters, C. ); Ulmer, M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Henrikson, C. )

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth's Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low [Delta]V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  13. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.; Pieters, C.; Ulmer, M.; Henrikson, C.

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth`s Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low {Delta}V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  14. Mission Stream Analysis - Delta Analytic Model. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    demonstrating mission effectiveness. The second tool is the  ( Delta ) Analytic Model, which provides an approach for identifying disparate...requirements into a system’s technical performance and operator workload requirements; and help minimize the “ delta ” between domains across the system’s...mission and system capability requirements into a system’s technical performance and operator workload requirements; and help minimize the “ delta

  15. Concept design theory and model for multi-use space facilities: Analysis of key system design parameters through variance of mission requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynerson, Charles Martin

    This research has been performed to create concept design and economic feasibility data for space business parks. A space business park is a commercially run multi-use space station facility designed for use by a wide variety of customers. Both space hardware and crew are considered as revenue producing payloads. Examples of commercial markets may include biological and materials research, processing, and production, space tourism habitats, and satellite maintenance and resupply depots. This research develops a design methodology and an analytical tool to create feasible preliminary design information for space business parks. The design tool is validated against a number of real facility designs. Appropriate model variables are adjusted to ensure that statistical approximations are valid for subsequent analyses. The tool is used to analyze the effect of various payload requirements on the size, weight and power of the facility. The approach for the analytical tool was to input potential payloads as simple requirements, such as volume, weight, power, crew size, and endurance. In creating the theory, basic principles are used and combined with parametric estimation of data when necessary. Key system parameters are identified for overall system design. Typical ranges for these key parameters are identified based on real human spaceflight systems. To connect the economics to design, a life-cycle cost model is created based upon facility mass. This rough cost model estimates potential return on investments, initial investment requirements and number of years to return on the initial investment. Example cases are analyzed for both performance and cost driven requirements for space hotels, microgravity processing facilities, and multi-use facilities. In combining both engineering and economic models, a design-to-cost methodology is created for more accurately estimating the commercial viability for multiple space business park markets.

  16. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  17. Fission-Based Electric Propulsion for Interstellar Precursor Missions

    SciTech Connect

    HOUTS,MICHAEL G.; LENARD,ROGER X.; LIPINSKI,RONALD J.; PATTON,BRUCE; POSTON,DAVID; WRIGHT,STEVEN A.

    1999-11-03

    This paper reviews the technology options for a fission-based electric propulsion system for interstellar precursor missions. To achieve a total {Delta}V of more than 100 km/s in less than a decade of thrusting with an electric propulsion system of 10,000s Isp requires a specific mass for the power system of less than 35 kg/kWe. Three possible configurations are described: (1) a UZrH-fueled,NaK-cooled reactor with a steam Rankine conversion system,(2) a UN-fueled gas-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system, and (3) a UN-fueled heat pipe-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system. All three of these systems have the potential to meet the specific mass requirements for interstellar precursor missions in the near term. Advanced versions of a fission-based electric propulsion system might travel as much as several light years in 200 years.

  18. Supportability Technologies for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Kevin; Thompson, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Future long-duration human exploration missions will be challenged by resupply limitations and mass and volume constraints. Consequently, it will be essential that the logistics footprint required to support these missions be minimized and that capabilities be provided to make them highly autonomous from a logistics perspective. Strategies to achieve these objectives include broad implementation of commonality and standardization at all hardware levels and across all systems, repair of failed hardware at the lowest possible hardware level, and manufacture of structural and mechanical replacement components as needed. Repair at the lowest hardware levels will require the availability of compact, portable systems for diagnosis of failures in electronic systems and verification of system functionality following repair. Rework systems will be required that enable the removal and replacement of microelectronic components with minimal human intervention to minimize skill requirements and training demand for crews. Materials used in the assembly of electronic systems (e.g. solders, fluxes, conformal coatings) must be compatible with the available repair methods and the spacecraft environment. Manufacturing of replacement parts for structural and mechanical applications will require additive manufacturing systems that can generate near-net-shape parts from the range of engineering alloys employed in the spacecraft structure and in the parts utilized in other surface systems. These additive manufacturing processes will need to be supported by real-time non-destructive evaluation during layer-additive processing for on-the-fly quality control. This will provide capabilities for quality control and may serve as an input for closed-loop process control. Additionally, non-destructive methods should be available for material property determination. These nondestructive evaluation processes should be incorporated with the additive manufacturing process - providing an in

  19. Mars Aquarius Mission and Titan Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulla, Brian; Glaser, Christina; Lopez, Jason; Lucas, Jeffrey; Reyes, Michelle; Rimrodt, James; Philpott, Stephen; Diedrich, Paul; Ladau, Terry; Lagassa, David

    1991-01-01

    The Mars Aquarius Mission is designed to carry out several scientific studies of the surface and subsurface of Mars with an emphasis on locating subterranean water. This mission is a precursor to a manned mission to Mars. A manned mission will require an extended stay on the planet's surface, and an accessible source of water will greatly simplify life support requirements. Using data from previous Mars observations, four sites were selected as possible locations of subsurface water. The Aquarius spacecraft carries one penetrator for each of these sites.

  20. Concept for A Mission to Titan, Saturn System and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Elliott, J.

    2008-09-01

    propellant required for Titan orbit insertion. Following its 1.5 year Saturn system tour, the spacecraft would enter into a 950 km by 15,000 km elliptical orbit. The next phase would utilize concurrent aerosampling and aerobraking (to a depth of 600 km altitude) in Titan's upper atmosphere, gradually moving the orbit toward circular and reducing the propellant required to achieve a final circular mapping orbit. The spacecraft would execute a final periapsis raise burn to achieve a 1500 km circular, 85º polar mapping orbit that initiates in the 10 AM orbit plane and would move ~ 40º towards the 8 AM orbit plane. At completion of the mission, a disposal phase would be initiated by simply letting the spacecraft decay under the influence of Saturn perturbations and Titan's atmospheric drag. The Titan Saturn System Mission is enabled by proven flight systems, launch capabilities, and wellunderstood trajectory options. The concept relies on traditional chemical propulsion (similar to Cassini and Galileo), a power source consisting of five Multi- Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (MMRTGs) and a robust data downlink. The Titan Saturn System Mission maps well to NASA and ESA scientific objectives. This concept builds on a considerable basis of previous work and indicates that a flagship-class Titan mission is ready to enter Phase A and could be launched in the 2016-18 timeframe, requiring no new technologies. Furthermore, this mission includes accommodations to deliver and support ESA provided in situ elements (e.g., Montgolfiere balloon system and capable lander) should they be available. Alternative concepts (abiet higher cost) have been identified that provide benefits to the mission of reduced trip time to Saturn, higher delivered mass, enhanced resources for in situ accommodation and mission flexibility. These options, taken with the baseline described herein, provide NASA and ESA with a robust trade space for implementing a Titan Saturn System Mission.

  1. Orbit Control Operations for the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Powtawche N.; Gist, Emily M.; Goodson, Troy D.; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Wagner, Sean V.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft was launched in 1997 as an international and collaborative mission to study Saturn and its many moons. After a seven-year cruise, Cassini began orbiting Saturn for a four- year tour. This tour consists of 157 planned maneuvers, and their back-up locations, designed to target 52 encounters, mostly of Saturn's largest moon Titan. One of the mission's first activities was to release the Huygens probe to Titan in December 2004. Currently in its last year of the prime mission, Cassini-Huygens continues to obtain valuable data on Saturn, Titan, and Saturn's other satellites. Return of this information is in large part due to a healthy spacecraft and successful navigation. A two-year extended mission, beginning July 2008, will offer the opportunity to continue science activities. With a demanding navigation schedule that compares with the prime tour, the Cassini Navigation team relies on operations procedures developed during the prime mission to carry-out the extended mission objectives. Current processes for orbit control operations evolved from the primary navigational requirement of staying close to predetermined targeting conditions according to Cassini science sequence planning. The reference trajectory is comprised of flyby conditions to be accomplished at minimal propellant cost. Control of the planned reference trajectory orbit, and any trajectory updates, is achieved with the execution of Orbit Trim Maneuvers (OTMs). The procedures for designing, processing, and analyzing OTMs during Cassini operations is presented. First, a brief overview of the Cassini-Huygens Mission is given, followed by a general description of navigation. Orbit control and maneuver execution methods are defined, along with an outline of the orbit control staffing and operations philosophy. Finally, an example schedule of orbit control operations is shown.

  2. Mission Peculiar Equipment (MPE) For Spacelab Mission 1 Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, John H.; Dodeck, Hauke

    1982-02-01

    Spacelab interfaces and services for payloads are advertised in the Spacelab Payload Accommodations Handbook (SPAH). These accommodations are available to the total payload and must be managed and apportioned by a payload integrator. A major part of the integration task is satisfying all instruments/facilities servicing requirements which vary with each item of payload equipment and, when totalled, sometimes exceed the capabilities as defined in SPAH. Such a determination is an output of the integrated payload design and integration effort which consists of analytical assessments based on individual payload equipment requirements inputs, STS and Spacelab available accommodations and constraints, and programmatic considerations. This systems engineering activity spans all engineering disciplines, assesses the module and pallet layouts and simultaneous operation of instrument/facility combinations, and requires a detailed knowledge of the Spacelab design. Introduction of a broad range of payload integrator-provided Mission Peculiar Equipment (MPE) into the Spacelab Mission 1 payload complement was necessary to be added to the Spacelab provisions in order to satisfy the interface and service requirements for each payload developer. This paper provides insight into various aspects of this MPE; including why it is needed, driving design considerations, design and development problems, and conclusions and recommendations for the future. MPE identified for Spacelab Mission 1 begins an inventory that will continue to expand as other mission requirements are identified and the Spacelab flight frequency increases.

  3. Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy (LAXS) mission concept study continues to evolve strongly following the merging of the LAXS mission with the Next Generation X-ray Observatory (NGXO, PI: Nick White) into the re-named High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission. HTXS retains key elements of the LAXS proposal, including the use of multiple satellites for risk-reduction and cost savings. A key achievement of the program has been the recommendation by the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEUS) (April 1997) for a new start for the HTXS mission in the 2000-2004 timeframe.

  4. Water Cycle Missions for the Next Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The global water cycle describes the circulation of water as a vital and dynamic substance in its liquid, solid, and vapor phases as it moves through the atmosphere, oceans and land. Life in its many forms exists because of water, and modern civilization depends on learning how to live within the constraints imposed by the availability of water. The scientific challenge posed by the need to observe the global water cycle is to integrate in situ and space-borne observations to quantify the key water-cycle state variables and fluxes. The vision to address that challenge is a series of Earth observation missions that will measure the states, stocks, flows, and residence times of water on regional to global scales followed by a series of coordinated missions that will address the processes, on a global scale, that underlie variability and changes in water in all its three phases. The accompanying societal challenge is to foster the improved use of water data and information as a basis for enlightened management of water resources, to protect life and property from effects of extremes in the water cycle. A major change in thinking about water science that goes beyond its physics to include its role in ecosystems and society is also required. Better water-cycle observations, especially on the continental and global scales, will be essential. Water-cycle predictions need to be readily available globally to reduce loss of life and property caused by water-related natural hazards. Building on the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space , and the 2012 Chapman Conference on Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle, a workshop was held in April 2013 to gather wisdom and determine how to prepare for the next generation of water cycle missions in support of the second Earth Science Decadal Survey. This talk will present the outcomes of the workshop including the intersection between

  5. Numerical Roll Reversal Predictor Corrector Aerocapture and Precision Landing Guidance Algorithms for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a numerical roll reversal predictor-corrector guidance algorithm for the atmospheric flight portion of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander missions. The Lander mission utilizes direct entry and has a demanding requirement to deploy its parachute within 10 km of the target deployment point. The Orbiter mission utilizes aerocapture to achieve a precise captured orbit with a single atmospheric pass. Detailed descriptions of these predictor-corrector algorithms are given. Also, results of three and six degree-of-freedom Monte Carlo simulations which include navigation, aerodynamics, mass properties and atmospheric density uncertainties are presented.

  6. Small power plant reverse trade mission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-06

    This draft report was prepared as required by Task No. 2 of the US Department of Energy, Grant No. FG07-89ID12850 Reverse Trade Mission to Acquaint International Representatives with US Power Plant and Drilling Technology'' (mission). As described in the grant proposal, this report covers the reactions of attendees toward US technology, its possible use in their countries, and an evaluation of the mission by the staff leaders. Note this is the draft report of one of two missions carried out under the same contract number. Because of the diversity of the mission subjects and the different attendees at each, a separate report for each mission has been prepared. This draft report has been sent to all mission attendees, specific persons in the US Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Lab., the California Energy Commission (CEC), and various other governmental agencies.

  7. Horizon Missions Technology Study. [for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the HMT Study was to develop and demonstrate a systematic methodology for identifying and evaluating innovative technology concepts offering revolutionary, breadkthrough-type capabilities for advanced space missions and for assessing their potential mission impact. The methodology is based on identifying the new functional, operational and technology capabilities needed by hypothetical 'Horizon' space missions that have performance requirements that cannot be met, even by extrapolating known space technologies. Nineteen Horizon Missions were selected to represent a collective vision of advanced space missions of the mid-21st century. The missions typically would occur beyond the lifetime of current or planned space assets. The HM methodology and supporting data base may be used for advanced technology planning, advanced mission planning and multidisciplinary studies and analyses.

  8. The ISPM Mission - Science objectives and mission overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, K.-P.; Marsden, R. G.; Smith, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) will, for the first time, allow exploration of the heliosphere within a few astronomical units of the sun over the full range of heliographic latitudes. The prime mission objective is to study, as a function of solar latitude, the properties of the interplanetary medium and solar corona. The scientific instrumentation is designed to explore, in the third heliospheric dimension, the properties of the solar wind, the sun/wind interface, the heliospheric magnetic field, solar radio bursts and plasma waves, solar X-rays, solar and galactic cosmic rays, and interplanetary/interstellar neutral gas and dust. ISPM will also detect cosmic gamma-ray bursts and search for gravitational waves. ISPM is a cooperative mission carried out jointly by ESA and NASA, to be launched in May 1986 and utilising a Jupiter gravity-assist to achieve a high-solar-latitude trajectory.

  9. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  10. Woven TPS Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Feldman, Jay D.

    2013-01-01

    NASAs Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) Game Changing Division recently funded an effort to advance a Woven TPS (WTPS) concept. WTPS is a new approach to producing TPS architectures that uses precisely engineered 3D weaving techniques to customize material characteristics needed to meet specific missions requirements for protecting space vehicles from the intense heating generated during atmospheric entry. Using WTPS, sustainable, scalable, mission-optimized TPS solutions can be achieved with relatively low life cycle costs compared with the high costs and long development schedules currently associated with material development and certification. WTPS leverages the mature state-of-the-art weaving technology that has evolved from the textile industry to design TPS materials with tailorable performance. Currently, missions anticipated encountering heat fluxes in the range of 1500 4000 Wcm2 and pressures greater than 1.5 atm are limited to using fully dense Carbon Phenolic. However, fully dense carbon phenolic is only mass efficient at higher heat fluxes g(reater than 4000 Wcm2), and current mission designs suffer this mass inefficiency for lack of an alternative mid-density TPS. WTPS not only bridges this mid-density TPS gap but also offers a replacement for carbon phenolic, which itself requires a significant and costly redevelopment effort to re-establish its capability for use in the high heat flux missions recently prioritized in the NRC Decadal survey, including probe missions to Venus, Saturn and Neptune. This presentation will overview the WTPS concept and present some results from initial testing completed comparing WTPS architectures to heritage carbon phenolic.

  11. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  12. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  13. Spacelab Mission Implementation Cost Assessment (SMICA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, B. V.

    1984-01-01

    A total savings of approximately 20 percent is attainable if: (1) mission management and ground processing schedules are compressed; (2) the equipping, staffing, and operating of the Payload Operations Control Center is revised, and (3) methods of working with experiment developers are changed. The development of a new mission implementation technique, which includes mission definition, experiment development, and mission integration/operations, is examined. The Payload Operations Control Center is to relocate and utilize new computer equipment to produce cost savings. Methods of reducing costs by minimizing the Spacelab and payload processing time during pre- and post-mission operation at KSC are analyzed. The changes required to reduce costs in the analytical integration process are studied. The influence of time, requirements accountability, and risk on costs is discussed. Recommendation for cost reductions developed by the Spacelab Mission Implementation Cost Assessment study are listed.

  14. Study of multiple asteroid flyby missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility, scientific objectives, mission profile characteristics, and implementation of an asteroid belt exploration mission by a spacecraft guided to intercept three or more asteroids at close range are discussed. A principal consideration in planning a multiasteroid mission is to cut cost by adapting an available and flight-proven spacecraft design such as Pioneer F and G, augmenting its propulsion and guidance capabilities and revising the scientific payload complement in accordance with required mission characteristics. Spacecraft modification necessary to meet the objectives and requirements of the mission were studied. A ground rule of the study was to hold design changes to a minimum and to utilize available technology as much as possible. However, with mission dates not projected before the end of this decade, a reasonable technology growth in payload instrument design and some subsystem components is anticipated that can be incorporated in the spacecraft adaptation.

  15. First Results of the SMOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Yann; Font, Jordi; Neira, Manuel Martin; Delwart, Steven; Hahne, Achim; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Bermudo, François

    2010-05-01

    It is now well understood that soil moisture and sea surface salinity are required to improve meteorological and climatic predictions. These two quantities were not available globally and with an adequate temporal sampling. So as to cover this data gap, it has been recognized that, provided it is possible to accommodate a suitable antenna on board a satellite, L Band radiometry was most probably the most promising way to fulfill this gap. It is within this framework that the European Space Agency (ESA)'s selected the second Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission, namely the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. SMOS, launched successfully in November 2009. The SMOS mission is ESA's second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission it is a joint program lead by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent. Consequently, the instrument probes the Earth surface emissivity. Surface emissivity can then be related to the moisture content in the first few centimeters of soil over land, and, after some surface roughness and temperature corrections, spatio temporal aggregation, to the sea surface salinity over oceans. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) seeking to meet soil moisture science objectives. Such innovative concept has required a significant effort in the development of calibration techniques. It provides multiangular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days to retrieve soil moisture and ocean salinity, but with a somewhat reduced sensitivity when compared to conventional radiometers. SMOS as been now

  16. An Initial Comparison of Selected Earth Departure Options for Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Komar, D. R.; Qu, Min; Chrone, Jon; Strange, Nathan; Landau, Damon

    2012-01-01

    Earth departure options such as the location for deployment, aggregation, and crew rendezvous as well as the type of propulsion leveraged for each mission phase effect overall mission performance metrics such as number of critical maneuvers, mass of propellant to achieve departure, and initial mass required in low Earth orbit. This paper identifies and compares a subset of tactical options for deployment, crew rendezvous, and Earth departure that leverage electric propulsion and hybrid chemical electric propulsion with a goal of improving system efficiency. Departure maneuver specific limitations and penalties are then identified for missions to specific targets for human interplanetary missions providing a better understanding of the impact of decisions related to aggregation and rendezvous locations as well as Earth departure maneuvers on overall system performance.

  17. OPALS: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) will launch to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a 90-day baseline mission, OPALS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) in Wrightwood, California. To achieve mission success, interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure are established. For OPALS, the interfaces facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes such as pointing prediction and data processing satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The tests have provided valuable insight into operational considerations on the ISS.

  18. GSFC Safety and Mission Assurance Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's approach to safety and mission assurance. The contents include: 1) NASA GSFC Background; 2) Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate; 3) The Role of SMA-D and the Technical Authority; 4) GSFC Mission assurance Requirements; 5) GSFC Systems Review Office (SRO); 6) GSFC Supply Chain Management Program; and 7) GSFC ISO9001/AS9100 Status Brief.

  19. School Achievements, Behavioural Adjustments and Health at Nine Years of Age in a Population of Infants Who Were Born Preterm or Required Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; And Others

    The prevalence of subtle handicapping conditions, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and recurrent illness, in a population of 88 high-risk infants was investigated when the children reached 9 years of age. Infants had had birthweights of less than 1500 grams or had required prolonged mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period.…

  20. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  1. Benefits of advanced software techniques for mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern spacecraft, and the stringent requirement for maximizing their mission return, call for a new generation of Mission Planning Systems (MPS). In this paper, we discuss the requirements for the Space Mission Planning and the benefits which can be expected from Artificial Intelligence techniques through examples of applications developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  2. Systems Engineering and Integration as a Foundation for Mission Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    requirements, and ultimately provide a context for definition of mission engineering. 14. SUBJECT TERMS mission engineering, systems engineering...requirements, and ultimately provide a context for definition of mission engineering. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF...of Defense (DOD) circles without formal definition or scope. However, the use of the term in systems engineering contexts implies a relationship that

  3. Austere Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Hoppy; Hawkins, Alisa; Radcliffe, Torrey

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a possible mission architecture for a more austere Mars mission, than the one developed by NASA outlined in the Design Reference Architecture 5 (DRA 5). "Austere" architecture is scaled back from DRA 5 and might offer lower development cost, lower flight cost, and lower development risk. This approach will not meet all the DRA 5 mission requirements. Included in the presentation are the elements of an Austere mission, diagrams of the trans-Mars injection (TMI), cruise, and Mars Orbital Insertion for various phases of the mission, the entry descent landing (EDL) concept. The key features of the Transit Habitat (TransHab), the Earth Departure Stage (EDS), the landers, are reviewed. A chart shows the Mass in tons, of the conceptual types of Mars Landers. The EDL concept, EDL Phase diagrams for the Mars Lander are reviewed. New technologies that would be required are also reviewed. Flight test programs for the various parts of the architecture and a flight schedule are reviewed.

  4. Catholic Higher Education as Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the work of Anthony J. Gittins to reframe our understanding of Catholic higher education as mission. The broad adoption of this framework would require a common intellectual foundation, the possibility of which is dismissed by many. An accessible ontology is implied, however, in the existential analysis and theology of Karl…

  5. Generic procedure for designing and implementing plan management systems for space science missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaizy, P. A.; Dimbylow, T. G.; Allan, P. M.; Hapgood, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper is one of the components of a larger framework of activities whose purpose is to improve the performance and productivity of space mission systems, i.e. to increase both what can be achieved and the cost effectiveness of this achievement. Some of these activities introduced the concept of Functional Architecture Module (FAM); FAMs are basic blocks used to build the functional architecture of Plan Management Systems (PMS). They also highlighted the need to involve Science Operations Planning Expertise (SOPE) during the Mission Design Phase (MDP) in order to design and implement efficiently operation planning systems. We define SOPE as the expertise held by people who have both theoretical and practical experience in operations planning, in general, and in space science operations planning in particular. Using ESA's methodology for studying and selecting science missions we also define the MDP as the combination of the Mission Assessment and Mission Definition Phases. However, there is no generic procedure on how to use FAMs efficiently and systematically, for each new mission, in order to analyse the cost and feasibility of new missions as well as to optimise the functional design of new PMS; the purpose of such a procedure is to build more rapidly and cheaply such PMS as well as to make the latter more reliable and cheaper to run. This is why the purpose of this paper is to provide an embryo of such a generic procedure and to show that the latter needs to be applied by people with SOPE during the MDP. The procedure described here proposes some initial guidelines to identify both the various possible high level functional scenarii, for a given set of possible requirements, and the information that needs to be associated with each scenario. It also introduces the concept of catalogue of generic functional scenarii of PMS for space science missions. The information associated with each catalogued scenarii will have been identified by the above procedure and

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Architecture and Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses some of the key trades that have been completed, including the selection of the Core Observatory s orbit, orbit maintenance trades, and design issues related to meeting orbital debris requirements.

  7. Mission design for the low-cost Mariner Mark II missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Blume, W. H.; Hulkower, N. D.; Yen, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    Mariner Mark II is a program of missions, now under study at JPL, which will maximize scientific return at substantially reduced cost. There will be 3 to 5 missions in the program investigating comets, asteroids, the outer planets and their satellites, and Mars in the 1990s. Mission opportunities for these targets in this time period are described in terms of launch vehicle, propulsion, and flight time requirements, as well as other mission constraints such as margin and launch period objectives. Example encounter designs as well as mission launch scenarios are also described.

  8. A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickler, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

  9. The Solar-A mission - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawara, Y.; Takano, T.; Kato, T.; Kosugi, T.; Tsuneta, S.; Watanabe, T.; Kondo, I.; Uchida, Y.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the Solar-A spacecraft, launched in August 1991, is presented. This mission is dedicated primarily to the study of solar flares, especially of high-energy phenomena observed in the X- and gamma-ray ranges. With a coordinated set of instruments, including hard X-ray and soft X-ray imaging telescopes as well as spectrometers with advanced capabilities, it is expected to reveal many new aspects of flares and help better understand their physics, supporting international collaboration with ground-based observatories as well as theoretical investigations. The scientific instruments of Solar-A, especially the soft X-ray telescope, require sophisticated control of flight operations to exploit their capabilities with the constraints of the telemetry data rate and the capacity of the data recorder; this is achieved by the 'data processor' unit. Objectives include flare-related phenomena, dynamical phenomena not necessarily related to flares, and global coronal structure.

  10. An Analytical Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Small Satellites in Performing Novel Imaging Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Oesa A.

    In the last two decades, small satellites have opened up the use of space to groups other than governments and large corporations, allowing for increased participation and experimentation. This democratization of space was primarily enabled by two factors: improved technology and reduced launch costs. Improved technology allowed the miniaturization of components and reduced overall cost meaning many of the capabilities of larger satellites could be replicated at a fraction of the cost. In addition, new launcher systems that could host many small satellites as ride-shares on manifested vehicles lowered launch costs and simplified the process of getting a satellite into orbit. The potential of these smaller satellites to replace or augment existing systems has led to a flood of potential satellite and mission concepts, often with little rigorous study of whether the proposed satellite or mission is achievable or necessary. This work proposes an analytical framework to aid system designers in evaluating the ability of an existing concept or small satellite to perform a particular imaging mission, either replacing or augmenting existing capabilities. This framework was developed and then refined by application to the problem of using small satellites to perform a wide area search mission -- a mission not possible with existing imaging satellites, but one that would add to current capabilities. Requirements for a wide area search mission were developed, along with a list of factors that would affect image quality and system performance. Two existing small satellite concepts were evaluated for use by examining image quality from the systems, selecting an algorithm to perform the search function automatically, and then assessing mission feasibility by applying the algorithm to simulated imagery. Finally, a notional constellation design was developed to assess the number of satellites required to perform the mission. It was found that a constellation of 480 Cube

  11. Safety and Mission Assurance: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott Alan

    2011-01-01

    Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) consists of the safety, reliability, maintainability, software assurance and quality disciplines, which are applied to reduce the probability of mishaps and ensure mission success. NASA uses a risk management process which requires various organizations to identify, analyze and mitigate/control risks associated with operations and decision making processes.

  12. Saturn IB Launch Vehicle - Characteristics and Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This 1968 chart illustrates the characteristics and proposed missions for the Saturn IB launch vehicle. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the marned lunar missions.

  13. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Small Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Varied mission life and complexity is growing for small spacecraft. Small missions benefit from detailed hazard definition and evaluation as done in the past. Requirements need to flow from the system down to the parts level and aid system level radiation tolerance. RHA is highlighted with increasing COTS usage.

  14. Advanced automation for space missions: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several representative missions which would require extensive applications of machine intelligence were identified and analyzed. The technologies which must be developed to accomplish these types of missions are discussed. These technologies include man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators, and robot systems.

  15. Battery performance simulation for the Magellan mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glueck, Peter

    1991-01-01

    A battery performance simulation for the Magellan mission to Venus has been operating at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for nearly three years. The unique operational requirements for the Magellan batteries and the test system constructed to simulate them are described. Simulation results to date are presented and compared with actual spacecraft battery performance. Recommendations for planning of future mission simulation tests are provided.

  16. Electrodynamic Tethers for Novel LEO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantner, Michael; Hoyt, Robert; Scardera, Michael; Johnson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The exponential increase of launch system size - and cost - with deltaV makes missions requiring large total impulse cost prohibitive. Northrop Grumman and partners have matured a fundamentally different method for generating propulsion using electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) that escapes the limitations of the rocket equation. With essentially unlimited delta V, we can perform new classes of missions that are currently unaffordable or unfeasible.

  17. Mission maps for use in the choice of specific impulse for manned Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.; Olson, T.S.; Siahpush, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The choice of engine concept for the initial manned missions to Mars should be driven by what can be feasibly built and flight qualified in the near term, and by the level of engine performance that is required for these missions. This paper addresses how mission requirements affect the choice of specific impulse, and consequently what values of the specific impulse best serve these missions. Broad mission surveys and sensitivity studies were performed to determine the specific impulse values that allow for fast transfer times and wide launch windows. We find that a specific impulse of around 1000 to 1200 sec is sufficient. Choosing an engine concept that has a higher specific impulse value is not justified for these missions because the modest reduction in propellant requirements and further widening of the launch windows does not compensate for the substantially greater technical risk. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  18. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  19. Pyroshock Testing of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, David; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Bennett, Russell; Hammel, Tom; Otting, William

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, or MMRTG, was developed by the Department Of Energy to a set of requirements from multiple NASA mission concepts. Those concepts included deep space missions to the outer planets as well as missions to Mars. The synthesis of that diverse set of requirements addressed functional as well as environmental requirements.

  20. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  1. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR

    PubMed Central

    Bieniosek, MF

    2015-01-01

    The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency (RF) and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog ‘electro-optial’ method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3mm × 3mm × 20mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3mm × 3mm × 5mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain. PMID:25905626

  2. Technology for Future Exoplanet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter; Devirian, Michael; van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A central theme in NASA's and ESA's vision for future missions is the search for habitable worlds and life beyond our Solar System. This presentation will review the current state of the art in planet-finding technology, with an emphasis on methods of starlight suppression. At optical wavelengths, Earth-like planets are about 10 billion times fainter than their host stars. Starlight suppression is therefore necessary to enable measurements of biosignatures in the atmospheres of faint Earth-like planets. Mission concepts based on coronagraph, starshade, and interferometers will be described along with their science objectives and technology requirements.

  3. Project Cerberus: Flyby Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivier, K.; Koepke, A.; Humphrey, Theodore W.; Elbel, Jeffrey P.; Hackett, Bruce E.; Kennedy, Ralph G.; Leo, Donald J.; Zimmerman, Shery A.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Cerberus Project was to design a feasible and cost-effective unmanned flyby mission to Pluto. The requirements in the request for proposal for an unmanned probe to Pluto are presented and were met. The design stresses proven technology that will avoid show stoppers which could halt mission progress. Cerberus also utilizes the latest advances in the spacecraft industry to meet the stringent demands of the mission. The topics covered include: (1) mission management, planning, and costing; (2) structures; (3) power and propulsion; (4) attitude, articulation, and control; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) scientific instrumentation.

  4. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  5. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable md sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (8) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, end verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered systems are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are made to refine model details.

  6. Potential Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiments and Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction and use of resources on the Moon, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can potentially reduce the cost and risk of human lunar exploration while also increasing science achieved. By not having to bring all of the shielding and mission consumables from Earth and being able to make products on the Moon, missions may require less mass to accomplish the same objectives, carry more science equipment, go to more sites of exploration, and/or provide options to recover from failures not possible with delivery of spares and consumables from Earth alone. The concept of lunar ISRU has been considered and studied for decades, and scientists and engineers were theorizing and even testing concepts for how to extract oxygen from lunar soil even before the Apollo 11 mission to the Moon. There are four main areas where ISRU can significantly impact how human missions to the Moon will be performed: mission consumable production, civil engineering and construction, energy production, storage, and transfer, and manufacturing and repair. The area that has the greatest impact on mission mass, hardware design and selection, and mission architecture is mission consumable production, in particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, and fuel cell reagents. Mission consumable production allows for refueling and reuse of spacecraft, increasing power production and storage, and increased capabilities and failure tolerance for crew life support. The other three areas allow for decreased mission risk due to radiation and plume damage, alternative power systems, and failure recover capabilities while also enabling infrastructure growth over Earth delivered assets. However, while lunar ISRU has significant potential for mass, cost, and risk reduction for human lunar missions, it has never been demonstrated before in space. To demonstrate that ISRU can meet mission needs and to increase confidence in incorporating ISRU capabilities into mission

  7. Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office Status and Support Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest; Webb, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office (CxP MOP) at Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas is preparing to support the CxP mission operations objectives for the CEV/Orion flights, the Lunar Lander, and and Lunar surface operations. Initially the CEV will provide access to the International Space Station, then progress to the Lunar missions. Initial CEV mission operations support will be conceptually similar to the Apollo missions, and we have set a challenge to support the CEV mission with 50% of the mission operations support currently required for Shuttle missions. Therefore, we are assessing more efficient way to organize the support and new technologies which will enhance our operations support. This paper will address the status of our preparation for these CxP missions, our philosophical approach to CxP operations support, and some of the technologies we are assessing to streamline our mission operations infrastructure.

  8. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Levin, C S

    2015-05-07

    The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in a space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog 'electro-optial' method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3 ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain.

  9. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  10. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  11. Agile: From Software to Mission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Shirley, Mark H.; Hobart, Sarah Groves

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission, designed to search for volatiles at the Lunar South Pole. This is NASA's first near real time tele-operated rover on the Moon. The primary objective is to search for volatiles at one of the Lunar Poles. The combination of short mission duration, a solar powered rover, and the requirement to explore shadowed regions makes for an operationally challenging mission. To maximize efficiency and flexibility in Mission System design and thus to improve the performance and reliability of the resulting Mission System, we are tailoring Agile principles that we have used effectively in ground data system software development and applying those principles to the design of elements of the mission operations system.

  12. Manned Mars Mission program concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, E. C.; Johnson, P.; Pearson, J.; Tucker, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the SRS Manned Mars Mission and Program Analysis study designed to support a manned expedition to Mars contemplated by NASA for the purposes of initiating human exploration and eventual habitation of this planet. The capabilities of the interactive software package being presently developed by the SRS for the mission/program analysis are described, and it is shown that the interactive package can be used to investigate the impact of various mission concepts on the sensitivity of mass required in LEO, schedules, relative costs, and risk. The results, to date, indicate the need for an earth-to-orbit transportation system much larger than the present STS, reliable long-life support systems, and either advanced propulsion or aerobraking technology.

  13. Spacelab 3 Mission Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, George H. (Editor); Theon, John S. (Editor); Hill, Charles K. (Editor); Vaughan, Otha H. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Papers and abstracts of the presentations made at the symposium are given as the scientific report for the Spacelab 3 mission. Spacelab 3, the second flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) orbital laboratory, signified a new era of research in space. The primary objective of the mission was to conduct applications, science, and technology experiments requiring the low-gravity environment of Earth orbit and stable vehicle attitude over an extended period (e.g., 6 days) with emphasis on materials processing. The mission was launched on April 29, 1985, aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger which landed a week later on May 6. The multidisciplinary payload included 15 investigations in five scientific fields: material science, fluid dynamics, life sciences, astrophysics, and atmospheric science.

  14. The GLAST mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a next-generation high-energy gamma-ray telescope for studying high energy gamma-ray emission from astrophysical sources. The main instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT) which operated in the energy band from 20 MeV to greater than 300 GeV. A second instrument, the Glast Burst Monitor to provide supportive observations of gamma-ray bursts at lower energies. The LAT is a solid state pair-conversion telescope which will have capabilities well beyond those achieved by the highly successful EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory. The sensitivity achieved on the entire sky after a single day's observation is similar to the point source sensitivity of EGRET for its entire mission. The large effective area will allow flares from AGN to be detected at much lower flux levels and on far shorter time intervals that has previously been possible from space. The very large field of view will make it possible to monitor approx. 20% of the sky at any instant, and the entire sky on timescale of a few hours. In this talk I will describe the design of the GLAST instruments and discuss their science capabilities.

  15. Developing the NASA food system for long-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maya; Douglas, Grace; Perchonok, Michele

    2011-03-01

    Even though significant development has transformed the space food system over the last 5 decades to attain more appealing dietary fare for low-orbit space crews, the advances do not meet the need for crews that might travel to Mars and beyond. It is estimated that a food system for a long-duration mission must maintain organoleptic acceptability, nutritional efficacy, and safety for a 3- to 5-y period to be viable. In addition, the current mass and subsequent waste of the food system must decrease significantly to accord with the allowable volume and payload limits of the proposed future space vehicles. Failure to provide the appropriate food or to optimize resource utilization introduces the risk that an inadequate food system will hamper mission success and/or threaten crew performance. Investigators for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Food Technology (AFT) consider identified concerns and work to mitigate the risks to ensure that any new food system is adequate for the mission. Yet, even with carefully planned research, some technological gaps remain. NASA needs research advances to develop food that is nutrient-dense and long-lasting at ambient conditions, partial gravity cooking processes, methods to deliver prescribed nutrients over time, and food packaging that meets the mass, barrier, and processing requirements of NASA. This article provides a brief review of research in each area, details the past AFT research efforts, and describes the remaining gaps that present barriers to achieving a food system for long exploration missions.

  16. Editing the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Fogg, Piper

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the decision by Columbia University's new president to reevaluate the mission of its journalism school before naming a new dean, in order to explore how the journalism school fits into the mission of a research university. (EV)

  17. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  18. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  19. Factors Associated with Performance on the Educational Testing Service (ETS) Major Field Achievement Test in Business (MFAT-B)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bycio, Peter; Allen, Joyce S.

    2007-01-01

    Accrediting bodies, including Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-International (AACSB), require evidence that business schools fulfill their stated missions. This often involves using the Major Field Achievement Test in Business (MFAT-B). In this article, the authors studied MFAT-B performance for its relationship to grade point…

  20. Status of robotic mission studies for the Space Exploration Initiative - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Roger D.; Dias, William C.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Pivirotto, Donna L.; Sturms, Francis M.; Hubbard, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Results of studies of robotic missions to the moon and Mars planned under the U.S. Space Exploration Initiative are summarized. First, an overall strategy for small robotic missions to accomplish the information gathering required by human missions is reviewed, and the principal robotic mission requirements are discussed. The discussion covers the following studies: the Lunar Observer, the Mars Environmental Survey mission, Mars Sample Return missions using microtechnology, and payloads.

  1. Roadmap to a human Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc; Heidmann, Richard

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new roadmap for the preparation of the first human mission to Mars. This proposal is based on the work of ISECG and several recent recommendations on human Mars mission architectures. A table is proposed to compare the possible benefits of different preparatory missions. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of qualifying important systems thanks to a heavy Mars sample return mission. It is shown that this mission is mandatory for the qualification of Mars aerocapture at scale-1, EDL systems at scale 1 and Mars ascent. Moreover, it is a good opportunity to test many other systems, such as the heavy launcher and the transportation systems for the trips beyond LEO. These tests were not mentioned in the last ISECG report. This strategy is facilitated in the case of the simplified Mars mission scenarios that have recently been presented because it is suggested that relatively small vehicles with small crew sizes are used in order to optimize the payload mass fraction of the landing vehicles and to avoid the LEO assembly. An important finding of the study is that a human mission to the surface of the Moon is not required for the qualification of the systems of a human mission to Mars. Since affordability is a key criterion, two important missions are proposed in the roadmap. The first is a heavy Mars sample return mission and the second is a manned mission to a high Earth orbit or eventually to the vicinity of the Moon. It is shown that both missions are complementary and sufficient to qualify all the critical systems of the Mars mission.

  2. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  3. Mission and system optimization of nuclear electric propulsion vehicles for lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed mission and system optimization of low thrust electric propulsion missions is a complex, iterative process involving interaction between orbital mechanics and system performance. Through the use of appropriate approximations, initial system optimization and analysis can be performed for a range of missions. The intent of these calculations is to provide system and mission designers with simple methods to assess system design without requiring access or detailed knowledge of numerical calculus of variations optimizations codes and methods. Approximations for the mission/system optimization of Earth orbital transfer and Mars mission have been derived. Analyses include the variation of thruster efficiency with specific impulse. Optimum specific impulse, payload fraction, and power/payload ratios are calculated. The accuracy of these methods is tested and found to be reasonable for initial scoping studies. Results of optimization for Space Exploration Initiative lunar cargo and Mars missions are presented for a range of power system and thruster options.

  4. Tracking and orbit determination strategies for the AMPTE mission set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frauenholz, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    The three-spacecraft AMPTE mission set to be Delta-launched in August 1984 will become the first highly-elliptical Earth orbiters to be supported by the Deep Space Network. Orbit accuracies for the transponder-equipped CCE and IRM spacecraft are defined using coherent doppler and range, non-coherent doppler, and angles. Required navigation accuracies for both spacecraft are met using coherent doppler, and while the use of range enhances the achievable accuracy, it is not a required radio metric data type. Use of non-coherent doppler and angles shows that the IRM navigation accuracy requirements can also be met using listen-only antennas, although this requires an accurate estimate of the doppler bias.

  5. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  6. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  7. Spaceport operations for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

  8. Shuttle mission simulator software conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Software conceptual designs (SCD) are presented for meeting the simulator requirements for the shuttle missions. The major areas of the SCD discussed include: malfunction insertion, flight software, applications software, systems software, and computer complex.

  9. LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated LANDSAT-D systems operation plan is presented and discussed with respect to functional elements, personnel, and procedures. Specifically, a review of the LANDSAT-D program, mission requirements and management, and flight operations is given.

  10. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  11. Analogue Missions on Earth, a New Approach to Prepare Future Missions on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    Human exploration of the Moon is a target by 2020 with an initial lunar outpost planned in polar regions. Current architectures maintain a capability for sorties to other latitudes for science activities. In the early stages of design of lunar outpost infrastructure and science activity planning, it has been recognized that analogue missions could play a major role in Moon mission design. Analogue missions, as high fidelity simulations of human and robotic surface operations, can help field scientists and engineers develop and test strategies as well as user requirements, as they provide opportunities to groundtruth measurements, and for the team to share understanding of key science needs and key engineering trades. These types of missions also provide direct training in planning science operations, and in team building and communication. The Canadian Space Agency's Exploration Core Program targets the development of technology infrastructure elements in key areas of science, technology and robotics in preparation for its role in the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. Within this Program, Analogue Missions specifically target the operations requirements and lessons learned that will reduce costs and lower the risk of planetary surface missions. Analogue missions are simulations of planetary surface operations that take place at analogue sites on Earth. A terrestrial analogue site resembles in some key way: eg. geomorphologically or geochemically, a surface environment of another planet. An analogue mission can, therefore, be defined as an integrated set of activities that represent (or simulate) entire mission designs or narrowly focus on specific aspects of planned or potential future planetary exploration missions. Within the CSA's Exploration Core Program, Analogue Missions facilitate the maturation of science instruments and mission concepts by integrating ongoing space instrument and technology development programs with science and analogue elements. As

  12. ORION: A Supersynchronous Transfer Orbit mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, I. M.; Baker, J. F.; Shurmer, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    ORION F1 was launched on 29th November 1994 on an Atlas IIA launch vehicle. It was designed, built and delivered in-orbit by Matra Marconi Space Systems Plc and was handed over to ORION Satellite Corporation on 20th January 1995 at its on-station longitude of 37.5 deg W. The mission differed significantly from that of any other geostationary communications satellite in that the Transfer Orbit apogee altitude of 123,507 km was over three times geosynchronous (GEO) altitude and one third of the way to the moon. The SuperSynchronous Transfer Orbit (SSTO) mission is significantly different from the standard Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO)mission in a number of ways. This paper discusses the essential features of the mission design through its evolution since 1987 and the details of the highly successful mission itself including a detailed account of the attitude determination achieved using the Galileo Earth and Sun Sensor (ESS).

  13. SCATHA mission termination report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakkestad, Kjell; Fennessey, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The SCATHA (Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes) satellite was operated from the Consolidated Space Test Center in Sunnyvale, California from February 1979 to May 1991. It was a spin stabilized vehicle in a highly eccentric orbit that collected data on spacecraft charging. The purpose of such data gathering was to predict and/or model the effects of the Earth's magnetic field on synchronous and near synchronous satellites. During the majority of its lifetime, attitude precession maneuvers were done every 10-15 days to maintain solar panel orientation. Maneuver planning was difficult due to the structural characteristics of SCATHA. It is cylindrically shaped and has seven booms ranging in length from 2 to 50 meters. These precession maneuvers induced predictable nutation that damped out after a few days. Eventually fuel began running low due to these frequent maneuvers. Experiments that had required the spin axis be in the orbit plane had already been turned off or had collected all their data. To increase the vehicle lifetime, the spin axis was moved to ecliptic normal. While this stopped the need for frequent attitude maneuvering (only two per year required now), this movement of the spin axis caused nutation that would not damp out for the remainder of the mission. This phase of the mission, with the ecliptic normal orientation, lasted for approximately three years. Although nutation never damped, data gathering was uninterrupted. In late 1990, when SCATHA's transmitter became seriously degraded, the Air Force decided to turn SCATHA off. This would only be done after the satellite was made 'safe'. The most difficult part of making the vehicle safe was quickly purging the fuel. Several plans were considered. The selected plan was to perform a series of 20 degree attitude precession maneuvers (3 days apart to allow for the worst nutation to damp) until the fuel was depleted. Although this sounded simple, the actual execution proved difficult. This was due to a

  14. SCATHA mission termination report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stakkestad, Kjell; Fennessey, Richard

    1993-02-01

    The SCATHA (Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes) satellite was operated from the Consolidated Space Test Center in Sunnyvale, California from February 1979 to May 1991. It was a spin stabilized vehicle in a highly eccentric orbit that collected data on spacecraft charging. The purpose of such data gathering was to predict and/or model the effects of the Earth's magnetic field on synchronous and near synchronous satellites. During the majority of its lifetime, attitude precession maneuvers were done every 10-15 days to maintain solar panel orientation. Maneuver planning was difficult due to the structural characteristics of SCATHA. It is cylindrically shaped and has seven booms ranging in length from 2 to 50 meters. These precession maneuvers induced predictable nutation that damped out after a few days. Eventually fuel began running low due to these frequent maneuvers. Experiments that had required the spin axis be in the orbit plane had already been turned off or had collected all their data. To increase the vehicle lifetime, the spin axis was moved to ecliptic normal. While this stopped the need for frequent attitude maneuvering (only two per year required now), this movement of the spin axis caused nutation that would not damp out for the remainder of the mission. This phase of the mission, with the ecliptic normal orientation, lasted for approximately three years. Although nutation never damped, data gathering was uninterrupted. In late 1990, when SCATHA's transmitter became seriously degraded, the Air Force decided to turn SCATHA off. This would only be done after the satellite was made 'safe'. The most difficult part of making the vehicle safe was quickly purging the fuel. Several plans were considered. The selected plan was to perform a series of 20 degree attitude precession maneuvers (3 days apart to allow for the worst nutation to damp) until the fuel was depleted.

  15. EDL Pathfinder Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing a long-term strategy for achieving extended human missions to Mars in support of the policies outlined in the 2010 NASA Authorization Act and National Space Policy. The Authorization Act states that "A long term objective for human exploration of space should be the eventual international exploration of Mars." Echoing this is the National Space Policy, which directs that NASA should, "By 2025, begin crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid. By the mid-2030s, send humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to Earth." Further defining this goal, NASA's 2014 Strategic Plan identifies that "Our long-term goal is to send humans to Mars. Over the next two decades, we will develop and demonstrate the technologies and capabilities needed to send humans to explore the red planet and safely return them to Earth." Over the past several decades numerous assessments regarding human exploration of Mars have indicated that landing humans on the surface of Mars remains one of the key critical challenges. In 2015 NASA initiated an Agency-wide assessment of the challenges associated with Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of large payloads necessary for supporting human exploration of Mars. Due to the criticality and long-lead nature of advancing EDL techniques, it is necessary to determine an appropriate strategy to improve the capability to land large payloads. This paper provides an overview of NASA's 2015 EDL assessment on understanding the key EDL risks with a focus on determining what "must" be tested at Mars. This process identified the various risks and potential risk mitigation strategies, that is, benefits of flight demonstration at Mars relative to terrestrial test, modeling, and analysis. The goal of the activity was to determine if a subscale demonstrator is necessary, or if NASA should take a direct path to a human-scale lander. This assessment also provided insight into how EDL advancements align with other Agency

  16. Assured Mission Support Space Architecture (AMSSA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamon, Rob

    1993-01-01

    The assured mission support space architecture (AMSSA) study was conducted with the overall goal of developing a long-term requirements-driven integrated space architecture to provide responsive and sustained space support to the combatant commands. Although derivation of an architecture was the focus of the study, there are three significant products from the effort. The first is a philosophy that defines the necessary attributes for the development and operation of space systems to ensure an integrated, interoperable architecture that, by design, provides a high degree of combat utility. The second is the architecture itself; based on an interoperable system-of-systems strategy, it reflects a long-range goal for space that will evolve as user requirements adapt to a changing world environment. The third product is the framework of a process that, when fully developed, will provide essential information to key decision makers for space systems acquisition in order to achieve the AMSSA goal. It is a categorical imperative that military space planners develop space systems that will act as true force multipliers. AMSSA provides the philosophy, process, and architecture that, when integrated with the DOD requirements and acquisition procedures, can yield an assured mission support capability from space to the combatant commanders. An important feature of the AMSSA initiative is the participation by every organization that has a role or interest in space systems development and operation. With continued community involvement, the concept of the AMSSA will become a reality. In summary, AMSSA offers a better way to think about space (philosophy) that can lead to the effective utilization of limited resources (process) with an infrastructure designed to meet the future space needs (architecture) of our combat forces.

  17. STARS MDT-II targets mission

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.; White, J.E.

    1997-08-01

    The Strategic Target System (STARS) was launched successfully on August 31, 1996 from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF) at the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF). The STARS II booster delivered a payload complement of 26 vehicles atop a post boost vehicle. These targets were designed and the mission planning was achieved to provide for a dedicated mission for view by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Satellite Sensor Suite. Along with the MSX Satellite, other corollary sensors were involved. Included in these were the Airborne Surveillance Test Bed (AST) aircraft, the Cobra Judy sea based radar platform, Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR), and the Kiernan Reentry Measurements Site (KREMS). The launch was a huge success from all aspects. The STARS Booster flew a perfect mission from hardware, software and mission planning respects. The payload complement achieved its desired goals. All sensors (space, air, ship, and ground) attained excellent coverage and data recording.

  18. Planetary Protection Implementation for the MAVEN Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauffman, Sandra; Jakosky, Bruce; Witte, Joe

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission was launched on November 18, 2013. The primary science objectives of the MAVEN project are to provide a comprehensive picture of the present state of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars and the processes controlling them and to determine how loss of volatiles to outer space in the present epoch varies with changing solar conditions. To do this it is required that MAVEN fly in a highly elliptical orbit with a nominal periapsis altitude of 150 km, apoapsis altitude of 6220 km, and period of 4.5 hours. Unfortunately this orbit fails the required 20-year orbit life requirements set in NASA Policy Guideline. So rather than sacrifice the science goals of the mission by raising the science orbit, the MAVEN Project chose to pursue the bio-burden reduction approach to planetary protection for the observatory. Cleaning alone is insufficient to achieve the bio-burden threshold requirement in NASA Policy. This presentation outlines the processes developed to reduce bio-burden by taking credit for hardware that will either never reach the surface or will reach high temperature during entry due to ablation. An entry heating Break-up and Burn-up (B&B) analysis was performed to demonstrate that most of the spacecraft would reach 500ºC for 0.5 seconds or more during entry into the Mars atmosphere. The Planetary Protection Officer provided two additional new time-temperature allowances that were incorporated into the final B&B analysis. This process considers the assumptions that go into modeling and into decision methods that result on structural degradation branching points. Additionally, an implementation plan was generated to address the highest contributors to the bio-burden assessment that fail to meet the requirements. The spore burden for these components was estimated by direct and proxy burden assays, NASA PP specifications, and dry heat microbial reduction, as appropriate. Items on the observatory that

  19. Guidelines and Capabilities for Designing Human Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Burnett, Rebeka; Charles, John; Cucinotta, Frank; Fullerton, Richard; Goodman, Jerry R.; Griffith, Anthony D., Sr.; Kosmo, Joseph J.; Perchonok, Michele; Railsback, Jan; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Stilwell, Don; Thomas, Gretchen; Tri, Terry; Joshi, Jitendra; Wheeler, Ray; Rudisill, Marianne; Wilson, John; Mueller, Alyssa; Simmons, Anne

    2003-01-01

    These guidelines and capabilities identify the points of intersection between human spaceflight crews and mission considerations such as architecture, vehicle design, technologies, operations, and science requirements. In these chapters, we will provide clear, top-level guidelines for human-related exploration studies and technology research that will address common questions and requirements. As a result, we hope that ongoing mission trade studies will consider common, standard, and practical criteria for human interfaces.

  20. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-09

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.