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Sample records for achieve mission requirements

  1. Mission requirements: Second Skylab mission SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Complete SL-3 mission objectives and requirements, as revised 1 February 1972 (Rev. 6), are presented. Detailed test objectives are also given on the medical experiments, Apollo Telescope Mount experiments, Earth Resources Experiment Package, and corollary experiments and environmental microbiology experiments.

  2. EVAL mission requirements, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The aspects of NASA's applications mission were enhanced by utilization of shuttle/spacelab, and payload groupings which optimize the cost of achieving the mission goals were defined. Preliminary Earth Viewing Application Laboratory (EVAL) missions, experiments, sensors, and sensor groupings were developed. The major technological EVAL themes and objectives which NASA will be addressing during the 1980 to 2,000 time period were investigated. Missions/experiments which addressed technique development, sensor development, application development, and/or operational data collection were considered as valid roles for EVAL flights.

  3. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; McGuire, Jill; Pellegrino, Joseph; Strube, Matthew; Aranyos, Thomas; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface samples, and equipment to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that relies on the concept of in space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  4. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; Pellegrino, Joseph F.; McGuire, Jill; Henry, Ross; DeWeese, Keith; Reed, Benjamin; Aranyos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface sample to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In-space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that utilizes the concept of in-space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  5. Achieving Operability via the Mission System Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Fred J.; Kahr, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, flight and ground systems have been developed largely-independently, with the flight system taking the lead, and dominating the development process. Operability issues have been addressed poorly in planning, requirements, design, I&T, and system-contracting activities. In many cases, as documented in lessons-learned, this has resulted in significant avoidable increases in cost and risk. With complex missions and systems, operability is being recognized as an important end-to-end design issue. Never-the-less, lessons-learned and operability concepts remain, in many cases, poorly understood and sporadically applied. A key to effective application of operability concepts is adopting a 'mission system' paradigm. In this paradigm, flight and ground systems are treated, from an engineering and management perspective, as inter-related elements of a larger mission system. The mission system consists of flight hardware, flight software, telecom services, ground data system, testbeds, flight teams, science teams, flight operations processes, procedures, and facilities. The system is designed in functional layers, which span flight and ground. It is designed in response to project-level requirements, mission design and an operations concept, and is developed incrementally, with early and frequent integration of flight and ground components.

  6. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; Pellegrino, Joseph; McGuire, Jill; Henry, Ross; DeWeese, Keith; Reed, Benjamin; Aranyos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface samples, and equipment to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, re-use and or re-purpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In-space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that relies on the concept of in-space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  7. The Requirements Generation System: A tool for managing mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Sylvia B.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, NASA's cost for developing mission requirements has been a significant part of a mission's budget. Large amounts of time have been allocated in mission schedules for the development and review of requirements by the many groups who are associated with a mission. Additionally, tracing requirements from a current document to a parent document has been time-consuming and costly. The Requirements Generation System (RGS) is a computer-supported cooperative-work tool that assists mission developers in the online creation, review, editing, tracing, and approval of mission requirements as well as in the production of requirements documents. This paper describes the RGS and discusses some lessons learned during its development.

  8. Mission requirements: Skylab rescue mission SL-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab Program includes three low earth orbit missions. These missions are designated SL-1/SL-2,SL-3 and SL-4. In addition to the three nominal Skylab missions, the program includes the Skylab Rescue Mission (SL-R). The SL-R mission is designed to provide a safe return of the Skylab crew in the event the Command Service Module (CSM) becomes disabled while docked to the Saturn Workshop (SWS). Mission requirements for the SL-R mission only are presented. SL-R mission configuration will be a CSM (modified with a field installed kit) manned by two crewmen launched on a Saturn IB Launch Vechicle. The SL-R CSM will rendezvous and dock with the SWS (or Orbital Assembly (OA), consisting of the SWS and disabled CSM, if the disabled CSM has not previously been jettisoned). The SWS configuration includes a Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Airlock Module (AM), and an S-IVB stage (modified as an Orbital Workshop (OWS), previously launched and inserted into orbit on a two-stage Saturn V Launch Vehicle for the SL-1/SL-2 mission.

  9. Space Power Requirements for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulville, Daniel R.

    1996-01-01

    The key technology issues for the power requirements of future NASA space missions are: reduction in mass to enable smaller launch vehicles, faster trip time and lower cost; simpler more autonomous operations to reduce life cycle cost; reduce design, development , and qualification time to enable frequent low-cost missions; increase payload fraction and science return; enable next generation missions; stimulate U.S. industry to promote strong world leadership capability; and incorporate dual-use strategy into technology development.

  10. Space Mission Utility and Requirements for a Heat Melt Compactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Lee, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of waste on long-duration space missions is both a problem and an opportunity. Uncontained or unprocessed waste is a crew health hazard and a habitat storage problem. A Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) such as NASA has been developing is capable of processing space mission trash and converting it to useful products. The HMC is intended to process space mission trash to achieve a number of objectives including: volume reduction, biological safening and stabilization, water recovery, radiation shielding, and planetary protection. This paper explores the utility of the HMC to future space missions and how this translates into HMC system requirements.

  11. Deep space network: Mission support requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to provide NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory management with a concise summary of information concerning the forecasting of the necessary support and requirements for missions described here, including the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini, and the Dynamics Explorer-1. A brief description of various missions along with specific support requirements for each are given.

  12. Remote sensor support requirements for planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddell, J. B.; Wheeler, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    The study approach, methods, results, and conclusions of remote sensor support requirements for planetary missions are summarized. Major efforts were made to (1) establish the scientific and engineering knowledge and observation requirements for planetary exploration in the 1975 to 1985 period; (2) define the state of the art and expected development of instrument systems appropriate for sensing planetary environments; (3) establish scaling laws relating performance and support requirements of candidate remote sensor systems; (4) establish fundamental remote sensor system capabilities, limitations, and support requirements during encounter and other dynamical conditions for specific missions; and (5) construct families of candidate remote sensors compatible with selected missions. It was recommended that these data be integrated with earlier results to enhance utility, and that more restrictions be placed on the system.

  13. Protein requirements for long term missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, T. P.

    1994-11-01

    A key component of the diet for a space mission is protein. This first part of this paper reviews the reasons for emphasizing protein nutrition and then discusses what the requirements are likely to be. The second part discusses potential advantages of modifying these requirements and describes potential approaches to effecting these modifications based on well established ground based models.

  14. Protein requirements for long term missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    1994-01-01

    A key component of the diet for a space mission is protein. This first part of this paper reviews the reasons for emphasizing protein nurtition and then discusses what the requirements are likely to be. The second part discusses potential advantages of modifying these requirements and describes potential potential approaches to effecting these modificatons based on well established ground based models.

  15. Spacecraft radiators for advanced mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Design requirements for spacecraft heat rejection systems are identified, and their impact on the construction of conventional pumped fluid and hybrid heat pipe/pumped fluid radiators is evaluated. Heat rejection systems to improve the performance or reduce the cost of the spacecraft are proposed. Heat rejection requirements which are large compared to those of existing systems and mission durations which are relatively long, are discussed.

  16. FIREX mission requirements document for renewable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F.; Dixon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The initial experimental program and mission requirements for a satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for renewable resources is described. The spacecraft SAR is a C-band and L-band VV polarized system operating at two angles of incidence which is designated as a research instrument for crop identification, crop canopy condition assessments, soil moisture condition estimation, forestry type and condition assessments, snow water equivalent and snow wetness assessments, wetland and coastal land type identification and mapping, flood extent mapping, and assessment of drainage characteristics of watersheds for water resources applications. Specific mission design issues such as the preferred incidence angles for vegetation canopy measurements and the utility of a dual frequency (L and C-band) or dual polarization system as compared to the baseline system are addressed.

  17. FIREX mission requirements document for nonrenewable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, T.; Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed mission requirements and a proposed experimental program for satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system named FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for nonrenewable resources is described. The recommended spacecraft minimum SAR system is a C-band imager operating in four modes: (1) low look angle HH-polarized; (2) intermediate look angle, HH-polarized; (3) intermediate look angle, IIV-polarized; and (4) high look angle HH-polarized. This SAR system is complementary to other future spaceborne imagers such as the Thematic Mapper on LANDSAT-D. A near term aircraft SAR based research program is outlined which addresses specific mission design issues such as preferred incidence angles or polarizations for geologic targets of interest.

  18. Spacelab mission dependent training parametric resource requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogden, D. H.; Watters, H.; Steadman, J.; Conrad, L.

    1976-01-01

    Training flows were developed for typical missions, resource relationships analyzed, and scheduling optimization algorithms defined. Parametric analyses were performed to study the effect of potential changes in mission model, mission complexity and training time required on the resource quantities required to support training of payload or mission specialists. Typical results of these analyses are presented both in graphic and tabular form.

  19. Mission requirements for a manned earth observatory. Task 2: Reference mission definition and analyiss, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The mission requirements and conceptual design of manned earth observatory payloads for the 1980 time period are discussed. Projections of 1980 sensor technology and user data requirements were used to formulate typical basic criteria pertaining to experiments, sensor complements, and reference missions. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission selection and prioritization, (2) baseline mission analysis, (3) earth observation data handling and contingency plans, and (4) analysis of low cost mission definition and rationale.

  20. How mission requirements affect observations: case of the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbah, A.; Meftah, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Damé, L.; Djafer, D.

    2016-07-01

    The scientific objectives of a space mission result into instrumental developments and specific satellite operations to observe astronomical objects of interest. The payload in its space environment is however subject to important thermal variations that affect observations. This is well observed when images of the Sun are recorded with the constraint of keeping the solar rotational axis in a constant direction relatively to the camera reference frame. Consequences are clearly observed on image positions that follow the thermal variations induced by the satellite orbit. This is, in particular, the case for the space mission PICARD. This phenomenon is similar to defocus and motions of images recorded with ground-based telescopes. We first present some simulations showing these effects. We then compare our results with real data obtained from the space mission PICARD.

  1. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 3: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    User missions that are enabled or enhanced by a manned space station are identified. The mission capability requirements imposed on the space station by these users are delineated. The accommodation facilities, equipment, and functional requirements necessary to achieve these capabilities are identified, and the economic, performance, and social benefits which accrue from the space station are defined.

  2. Geostationary Platforms Mission and Payload Requirements study. Volume 2: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of using geostationary platforms to provide communications and other services was examined. Detailed data on the payload and housekeeping requirements of selected communications missions and one typical noncommunications mission are presented.

  3. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) missions applications and systems requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. G.; Cramblit, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    The routine delivery of large payloads to low earth orbit has become a reality with the Space Transportation System (STS). However, once earth orbit has been achieved, orbit transfer operations represent an inefficient use of the Space Shuttle. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will add a new and needed dimension to STS capabilities. Utilized in a reusable manner, the OMV is needed to deliver and retrieve satellites to and from orbital altitudes or inclinations beyond the practical limits of the Space Shuttle and to support basic Space Station activities. The initial OMV must also be designed to permit the addition of future mission kits to support the servicing, module changeout, or refueling of satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), and the retrieval and deorbit of space debris. This paper addresses the mission needs along with the resulting performance implications, design requirements and operational capabilities imposed on the OMV planned for use in the late 1980s.

  4. Scientific and Mission Requirements of Next-generation Space Infrared Space Telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Ichikawa, Takashi; Takami, Michihiro; Sakon, Itsuki

    SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology Astrophysics) is a next-generation space tele-scope for mid-and far-infrared astronomy, based on the heritage of AKARI, Spitzer, and Her-schel, Here we introduce Mission Requirement Document (MRD), where scientific and mission requirement of SPICA are described. The MRD clarifies the objectives of the SPICA mission. These objectives are more concretely expressed by various scientific targets, and based on these targets, the mission requirements, such as required specifications of the mission instrumenta-tions, scientific operations etc. are defined. Also the success criteria, by which the evaluation of the mission achievement will be addressed, are clearly described. The mission requirements described here will give the baseline of the study of the system requirements. In the future, The MRD will also be used to confirm the development status, system performance, and operational results on orbit etc. are well in-line with the mission requirements. To summarize, the most important mission requirement of SPICA is to realize a large, mono-lithic (not segmented) 3-m class or larger mirror cooled down below 6K, in order to perform extremely deep imaging and spectroscopy at 5-210µm.

  5. Shuttle vehicle and mission simulation requirements report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for the space shuttle vehicle and mission simulation are developed to analyze the systems, mission, operations, and interfaces. The requirements are developed according to the following subject areas: (1) mission envelope, (2) orbit flight dynamics, (3) shuttle vehicle systems, (4) external interfaces, (5) crew procedures, (6) crew station, (7) visual cues, and (8) aural cues. Line drawings and diagrams of the space shuttle are included to explain the various systems and components.

  6. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riel, F. D.

    1983-01-01

    Space station missions and their requirements are discussed. Analyses of the following four mission categories are summarized: (1) commercial, (2) technology, (3) operation, and (4) science and applications. The requirements determined by the study dictate a very strong need for a manned space station to satisfy the majority of the missions. The station is best located at a 28.5-deg inclination and initially (1992 era) requires a crew of four (three for mission payloads) and a mission power of 25 kW. A space platform in a polar orbit is needed to augment the station capability; it initially would be a 15-kW system, located in a sun-synchronous orbit.

  7. Mars rover/sample return mission requirements affecting space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The possible interfaces between the Space Station and the Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission are defined. In order to constrain the scope of the report a series of seven design reference missions divided into three major types were assumed. These missions were defined to span the probable range of Space Station-MRSR interactions. The options were reduced, the MRSR sample handling requirements and baseline assumptions about the MRSR hardware and the key design features and requirements of the Space Station are summarized. Only the aspects of the design reference missions necessary to define the interfaces, hooks and scars, and other provisions on the Space Station are considered. An analysis of each of the three major design reference missions, is reported, presenting conceptual designs of key hardware to be mounted on the Space Station, a definition of weights, interfaces, and required hooks and scars.

  8. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission, 6 years in operations: status and achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Maestroni, Elia; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 6th years of operational life in April 2016. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and its main scientific achievements. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  9. Mars Sample Return: Mars Ascent Vehicle Mission and Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Huynh, Loc C.; Hawke, Veronica M.; Jiang, Xun J.

    2013-01-01

    A Mars Sample Return mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science, the key community input process that guides NASAs science missions. A feasibility study was conducted of a potentially simple and low cost approach to Mars Sample Return mission enabled by the use of developing commercial capabilities. Previous studies of MSR have shown that landing an all up sample return mission with a high mass capacity lander is a cost effective approach. The approach proposed is the use of an emerging commercially available capsule to land the launch vehicle system that would return samples to Earth. This paper describes the mission and technology requirements impact on the launch vehicle system design, referred to as the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV).

  10. Mars Sample Return: Mars Ascent Vehicle Mission and Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Huynh, Loc C.; Hawke, Veronica M.

    2013-01-01

    A Mars Sample Return mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science, the key community input process that guides NASA's science missions. A feasibility study was conducted of a potentially simple and low cost approach to Mars Sample Return mission enabled by the use of new commercial capabilities. Previous studies of MSR have shown that landing an all up sample return mission with a high mass capacity lander is a cost effective approach. The approach proposed is the use of a SpaceX Dragon capsule to land the launch vehicle system that would return samples to Earth. This paper describes the mission and technology requirements impact on the launch vehicle system design, referred to as the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV).

  11. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Mars Mission Systems Analysis and Requirements Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Chiroux, Robert C.; Thomas, Dan; Crane, Tracie

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the Mars transportation vehicle design concepts developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office. These vehicle design concepts provide an indication of the most demanding and least demanding potential requirements for nuclear thermal propulsion systems for human Mars exploration missions from years 2025 to 2035. Vehicle concept options vary from large "all-up" vehicle configurations that would transport all of the elements for a Mars mission on one vehicle. to "split" mission vehicle configurations that would consist of separate smaller vehicles that would transport cargo elements and human crew elements to Mars separately. Parametric trades and sensitivity studies show NTP stage and engine design options that provide the best balanced set of metrics based on safety, reliability, performance, cost and mission objectives. Trade studies include the sensitivity of vehicle performance to nuclear engine characteristics such as thrust, specific impulse and nuclear reactor type. Tbe associated system requirements are aligned with the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Reference Mars mission as described in the Explorations Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) report. The focused trade studies include a detailed analysis of nuclear engine radiation shield requirements for human missions and analysis of nuclear thermal engine design options for the ESAS reference mission.

  12. An Overview of Power Capability Requirements for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jose M.; Cataldo, Robert L.; Soeder, James F.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Hakimzadeh, Roshanak

    2005-01-01

    Advanced power is one of the key capabilities that will be needed to achieve NASA's missions of exploration and scientific advancement. Significant gaps exist in advanced power capabilities that are on the critical path to enabling human exploration beyond Earth orbit and advanced robotic exploration of the solar system. Focused studies and investment are needed to answer key development issues for all candidate technologies before down-selection. The viability of candidate power technology alternatives will be a major factor in determining what exploration mission architectures are possible. Achieving the capabilities needed to enable the CEV, Moon, and Mars missions is dependent on adequate funding. Focused investment in advanced power technologies for human and robotic exploration missions is imperative now to reduce risk and to make informed decisions on potential exploration mission decisions beginning in 2008. This investment would begin the long lead-time needed to develop capabilities for human exploration missions in the 2015 to 2030 timeframe. This paper identifies some of the key technologies that will be needed to fill these power capability gaps. Recommendations are offered to address capability gaps in advanced power for Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) power, surface nuclear power systems, surface mobile power systems, high efficiency power systems, and space transportation power systems. These capabilities fill gaps that are on the critical path to enabling robotic and human exploration missions. The recommendations address the following critical technology areas: Energy Conversion, Energy Storage, and Power Management and Distribution.

  13. Analysing Global Achievements in Orbital Lifetime Reduction at the End of LEO Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krag, Holger; Lemmens, Stijn; Flohrer, Tim; Klinkard, Heiner

    2013-08-01

    The major driver for future debris proliferation, besides the intentional and unintentional release of objects, is the abundance of objects with large masses and sizes in orbit that could be involved in catastrophic collisions. Mitigation measures thus concentrate on the prevention of object release (explosions, mission-related objects, SRM (Solid Rocket Motor) exhaust products), the disposal of objects and active collision avoidance. As ESA's simulations show, the most effective means of stabilizing the space debris environment is the removal of mass from regions with high spatial densities. A limitation of the residence time of controlled objects in altitudes below 2000km to 25 years followed by either atmospheric re-entry or reboost to higher altitudes allows to limit the growth of object numbers in the densely populated LEO environment. This is the most relevant requirement for operations. In this paper we look into the achievements of all spacefaring nations with respect to this requirement. For this purpose, ESA has developed a method to determine the operational status of running missions, by monitoring their manoeuvre activity with the help of the publicly available orbit data distributed by the US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). Missions that have been found to have terminated their operational life will be processed to determine the remaining orbital lifetime. The results will be presented in a statistical manner.

  14. Difficult Requirements for a Gravitational Wave Mission using Atom Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Peter L.

    2014-03-01

    A PRL paper by Graham, Hogan, Kasevich, and Rajendran in April, 2013 suggested gravitational wave observations in space using single photon transitions on highly forbidden optical lines for atom interferometry measurements. The main example given was based on use of the 698 nm optical clock transition in Sr-87, a 1000 km baseline, and large momentum transfer laser pulse sequences producing 2400 state transitions for a given atom over a 100 s observation period. A specific scenario for such a mission is needed in order to permit evaluation of the requirements. As a stop-gap, a laser power of 30 W, square laser pulses, 1 m diam. transmitting telescopes, and operation of 4 concurrent pairs of atom interferometers are being assumed. Based on these assumptions, the atom cloud temperature requirement would be below 0.1 pK, and the number of atoms required per cloud would be extremely high. Such a mission would be much more complex than a laser interferometry mission with better overall sensitivity, such as the extensively studied LISA mission or the recently proposed evolved-LISA (eLISA) mission. A LISA Pathfinder mission is scheduled for launch in 2015, funded mainly by ESA . A gravitational wave observation theme is being considered by ESA as part of their Cosmic Vision Programme.

  15. Radiometer mission requirements for large space antenna systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.; Swanson, P.; Eckerman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements are defined for Earth observational microwave radiometry using large space antenna systems with apertures in the 50 to 200 meter range. General Earth observational needs, specific measurement requirements, orbital mission guidelines and constraints, and general radiometric requirements are defined. Specific measurements include soil moisture, water surface temperature, water roughness, ice boundaries, salinity, and water pollutants. Measurements with 10 to 1 km spatial resolution and 3 to 1 day temporal resolution are required.

  16. Management of Operational Support Requirements for Manned Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Instruction establishes responsibilities for managing the system whereby operational support requirements are levied for support of manned flight missions including associated payloads. This management system will ensure that support requirements are properly requested and responses are properly obtained to meet operational objectives.

  17. Shuttle mission simulator requirements report, volume 1, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The tasks are defined required to design, develop produce, and field support a shuttle mission simulator for training crew members and ground support personnel. The requirements for program management, control, systems engineering, design and development are discussed along with the design and construction standards, software design, control and display, communication and tracking, and systems integration.

  18. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The baseline mission model used to develop the space station mission-related requirements is described as well as the 90 civil missions that were evaluated, (including the 62 missions that formed the baseline model). Mission-related requirements for the space station baseline are defined and related to space station architectural development. Mission-related sensitivity analyses are discussed.

  19. A risk-based approach to robotic mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, William C.; Bourke, Roger D.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Risk Team has developed a method for the application of risk management to the definition of robotic mission requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative. These requirements encompass environmental information, infrastructural emplacement in advance, and either technology testing or system/subsystems demonstration. Attention is presently given to a method for step-by-step consideration and analysis of the risk component inherent in mission architecture, followed by a calculation of the subjective risk level. Mitigation strategies are then applied with the same rules, and a comparison is made.

  20. Achieving Maximum Integration Utilizing Requirements Flow Down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archiable, Wes; Askins, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A robust and experienced systems engineering team is essential for a successful program. It is often a challenge to build a core systems engineering team early enough in a program to maximize integration and assure a common path for all supporting teams in a project. Ares I was no exception. During the planning of IVGVT, the team had many challenges including lack of: early identification of stakeholders, team training in NASA s system engineering practices, solid requirements flow down and a top down documentation strategy. The IVGVT team started test planning early in the program before the systems engineering framework had been matured due to an aggressive schedule. Therefore the IVGVT team increased their involvement in the Constellation systems engineering effort. Program level requirements were established that flowed down to IVGVT aligning all stakeholders to a common set of goals. The IVGVT team utilized the APPEL REQ Development Management course providing the team a NASA focused model to follow. The IVGVT team engaged directly with the model verification and validation process to assure that a solid set of requirements drove the need for the test event. The IVGVT team looked at the initial planning state, analyzed the current state and then produced recommendations for the ideal future state of a wide range of systems engineering functions and processes. Based on this analysis, the IVGVT team was able to produce a set of lessons learned and to provide suggestions for future programs or tests to use in their initial planning phase.

  1. User definition and mission requirements for unmanned airborne platforms, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhner, M. B.; Mcdowell, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The airborne measurement requirements of the scientific and applications experiment user community were assessed with respect to the suitability of proposed strawman airborne platforms. These platforms provide a spectrum of measurement capabilities supporting associated mission tradeoffs such as payload weight, operating altitude, range, duration, flight profile control, deployment flexibility, quick response, and recoverability. The results of the survey are used to examine whether the development of platforms is warranted and to determine platform system requirements as well as research and technology needs.

  2. Earth-orbit mission considerations and Space Tug requirements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The reusable Space Tug is a major system planned to augment the Space Shuttle's capability to deliver, retrieve, and support automated payloads. The Space Tug will be designed to perform round-trip missions from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Space Tug goals and requirements are discussed together with the characteristics of the full capability Tug. The Tug is to be operated in an unmanned 'teleoperator' fashion. Details of potential teleoperator applications are considered, giving attention to related systems studies, candidate Tug mission applications, Tug 'end-effector' alternatives, technical issues associated with Tug payload retrieval, and Tug/payload accommodations.

  3. Effect of power system technology and mission requirements on high altitude long endurance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine how various power system components and mission requirements affect the sizing of a solar powered long endurance aircraft. The aircraft power system consists of photovoltaic cells and a regenerative fuel cell. Various characteristics of these components, such as PV cell type, PV cell mass, PV cell efficiency, fuel cell efficiency, and fuel cell specific mass, were varied to determine what effect they had on the aircraft sizing for a given mission. Mission parameters, such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power, were also altered to determine how mission constraints affect the aircraft sizing. An aircraft analysis method which determines the aircraft configuration, aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass, for maximum endurance or minimum required power based on the stated power system and mission parameters is presented. The results indicate that, for the power system, the greatest benefit can be gained by increasing the fuel cell specific energy. Mission requirements also substantially affect the aircraft size. By limiting the time of year the aircraft is required to fly at high northern or southern latitudes, a significant reduction in aircraft size or increase in payload capacity can be achieved.

  4. Life sciences flight experiments program mission science requirements document. The first life sciences dedicated Spacelab mission, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Mission Science Requirements Document (MSRD) for the First Dedicated Life Sciences Mission (LS-1) represents the culmination of thousands of hours of experiment selection, and science requirement definition activities. NASA life sciences has never before attempted to integrate, both scientifically and operationally, a single mission dedicated to life sciences research, and the complexity of the planning required for such an endeavor should be apparent. This set of requirements completes the first phase of a continual process which will attempt to optimize (within available programmatic and mission resources) the science accomplished on this mission.

  5. Earth resources requirements Skylab missions SL-1/SL-2, SL-3, and SL-4. Appendix B: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Earth resources requirements to be investigated by Skylab missions 1 through 4 are presented tabularly. Areas to be investigated include: (1) agriculture, range, and forestry; (2) geology; (3) continental water resources; (4) ocean investigations; (5) atmospheric investigations; (6) coastal zones, shoals, and bays; (7) remote sensing techniques; and (8) cartography.

  6. Sample Return Missions from Minor Bodies: Achievements, Future Plan and Observational Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, J. R.; Rotundi, A.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta

    2009-09-01

    We are entering in a new era of space exploration signed by sample return missions. Since the Apollo and Luna Program, the study of extraterrestrial samples in laboratory is gathering an increased interest of the scientific community so that nowadays exploration program of the Solar System is characterized by swelling sample return missions. Beside lunar samples, the NASA Stardust mission was the first successful space mission that on 15 January 2006 brought to Earth solid extraterrestrial samples collected from comet 81P/Wild 2 coma. Grains were collected during cometary fly-by into aerogel and once on Earth have been extracted for laboratory analyses. In the coming two decades many space missions on going or under study will harvest samples from minor bodies. Measurements required for detailed analysis that cannot be performed from a robotic spacecraft, will be carried out on Earth laboratories with the highest analytical accuracy attainable so far. An intriguing objective for the next sample return missions is to understand the nature of organic compounds. Organic compounds found in Stardust grains even if processed to large extend during aerogel capturing are here reported. Major objectives of Marco Polo mission are reported. Various ground-based observational programs within the framework of general characterizations of families and classes, cometary-asteroid transition objects and NEOs with cometary albedo are discussed and linked to sample return mission.

  7. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and systems analysis study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Turnaround requirements for the manned orbital transfer vehicle (MOTV) baseline and alternate concepts with and without a space operations center (SOC) are defined. Manned orbital transfer vehicle maintenance, refurbishment, resupply, and refueling are considered as well as the most effective combination of ground based and space based turnaround activities. Ground and flight operations requirements for abort are identified as well as low cost approaches to space and ground operations through maintenance and missions sensitivity studies. The recommended turnaround mix shows that space basing MOTV at SOC with periodic return to ground for overhaul results in minimum recurring costs. A pressurized hangar at SOC reduces labor costs by approximately 50%.

  8. New mission requirements methodologies for services provided by the Office of Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Dwight P.; Hall, J. R.; Macoughtry, William; Spearing, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Space Communications, NASA Headquarters, has recently revised its methodology for receiving, accepting and responding to customer requests for use of that office's tracking and communications capabilities. This revision is the result of a process which has become over-burdened by the size of the currently active and proposed missions set, requirements reviews that focus on single missions rather than on mission sets, and negotiations most often not completed early enough to effect needed additions to capacity or capability prior to launch. The requirements-coverage methodology described is more responsive to project/program needs and provides integrated input into the NASA budget process early enough to effect change, and describes the mechanisms and tools in place to insure a value-added process which will benefit both NASA and its customers. Key features of the requirements methodology include the establishment of a mechanism for early identification of and systems trades with new customers, and delegates the review and approval of requirements documents to NASA centers in lieu of Headquarters, thus empowering the system design teams to establish and negotiate the detailed requirements with the user. A Mission Requirements Request (MRR) is introduced to facilitate early customer interaction. The expected result is that the time to achieve an approved set of implementation requirements which meet the customer's needs can be greatly reduced. Finally, by increasing the discipline in requirements management, through the use of base lining procedures, a tighter coupling between customer requirements and the budget is provided. A twice-yearly projection of customer requirements accommodation, designated as the Capacity Projection Plan (CPP), provides customer feedback allowing the entire mission set to be serviced.

  9. Science Requirements for Hydrologic Storage Change from the SWOT Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Alsdorf, D.; Durand, M.; Duan, J.; Shum, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission has been selected by the NRC Decadal Survey for launch between 2014 and 2016. NASA and CNES have jointly endorsed SWOT and provided encouragement via the formation of a Science Working Group. It is critical to study the Level 1 SWOT hydrologic science requirements, which drive the mission design. Hydrologic requirements include estimates of surface water discharge and changes in storage. This paper focuses on describing current results of simulation studies aimed at quantifying specific SWOT science requirements on global hydrologic storage changes. The objectives of the study include the optimal spatial and temporal sampling of storage changes and the related height accuracies and radar pixel sizes for the SWOT instrument. (1) Storage changes in the Amazon and Siberian Arctic have been estimated from existing satellite measurements, in-situ data, and model outputs. (2) The changes in water surface elevations and areas are calculated by dividing the storage changes from Task 1 by classifications indicating water body locations (i.e., water masks). (3) The desired level of storage change accuracy needed for hydrologic science descriptions of the Level 1 requirements have been incorporated. (4) Orbital tracks with differing spatial and temporal samplings have been studied using the various storage change maps (generated from Task 1) to determine percentages of the total that are or are not measured. We report the results of weekly, monthly, and seasonal variations in water surface elevations and areas (from Task 2) to determine the required SWOT instrument accuracies.

  10. Radiation shielding requirements for manned deep space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1991-04-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and, particularly, solar flares (SF) constitute the major radiation hazards in deep space. The dose to astronauts from these radiation sources and the shielding required to mitigate its effect during a 480 day Mars mission is estimated here for a simplistic spacecraft geometry. The intent is to ball park'' the magnitude of the doses for the constant GCR background and for SF's that occur randomly during the mission. The spacecraft shielding and dose data are given only for primary GCR and SF radiation, recognizing that secondary particles produced by primary particle reactions in the spacecraft and High Z-High Energy particles will also contribute to the dose suffered by the astronauts. 22 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Large solar flare radiation shielding requirements for manned interplanetary missions.

    PubMed

    Townsend, L W; Nealy, J E; Wilson, J W; Atwell, W

    1989-01-01

    As the 21st century approaches, there is an ever-increasing interest in launching manned missions to Mars. A major concern to mission planners is exposure of the flight crews to highly penetrating and damaging space radiations. Beyond the protective covering of the Earth's magnetosphere, the two main sources of these radiations are galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. Preliminary analyses of potential exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) were presented elsewhere. In this Note, estimates of shielding thicknesses required to protect astronauts on interplanetary missions from the effects of large solar flare events are presented. The calculations use integral proton fluences for the February 1956, November 1960, and August 1972 solar particle events as inputs into the NASA Langley Research Center nucleon transport code BRYNTRN. This deterministic computer code transports primary protons and secondary protons and neutrons through any number of layers of target material of arbitrary thickness and composition. Contributions from target nucleus breakup (fragmentation) and recoil are also included. The results for each flare are presented as estimates of dose equivalent [in units of roentgen equivalent man (rem)] to the skin, eye, and bloodforming organs (BFO) behind various thicknesses of aluminum shielding. These results indicate that the February 1956 event was the most penetrating; however, the August 1972 event, the largest ever recorded, could have been mission- or life-threatening for thinly shielded (< or = 5 g/cm2) spacecraft. Also presented are estimates of the thicknesses of water shielding required to reduce the BFO dose equivalent to currently recommended astronaut exposure limits. These latter results suggest that organic polymers, similar to water, appear to be a much more desirable shielding material than aluminum. PMID:11537157

  12. Capabilities required to conduct the LLNL plutonium mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, J.; Bish, W.; Copeland, A.; West, J.; Sack, S.; Myers, B.

    1991-09-10

    This report outlines the LLNL plutonium related mission anticipated over the next decade and defines the capabilities required to meet that mission wherever the Plutonium Facility is located. If plutonium work is relocated to a place where the facility is shared, then some capabilities can be commonly used by the sharing parties. However, it is essential that LLNL independently control about 20000 sq ft of net lab space, filled with LLNL controlled equipment, and staffed by LLNL employees. It is estimated that the cost to construct this facility should range from $140M to $200M. Purchase and installation of equipment to replace that already in Bldg 332 along with additional equipment identified as being needed to meet the mission for the next ten to fifteen years, is estimated to cost $118M. About $29M of the equipment could be shared. The Hardened Engineering Test Building (HETB) with its additional 8000 sq ft of unique test capability must also be replaced. The fully equipped replacement cost is estimated to be about $10M. About 40000 sq ft of setup and support space are needed along with office and related facilities for a 130 person resident staff. The setup space is estimated to cost $8M. The annual cost of a 130 person resident staff (100 programmatic and 30 facility operation) is estimated to be $20M.

  13. National facilities study. Volume 3: Mission and requirements model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 by Daniel S. Goldin, Administrator of NASA as an initiative to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future facilities. The resulting, multi-agency NFS consisted of three Task Groups: Aeronautics, Space Operations, and Space Research and Development (R&D) Task Groups. A fourth group, the Engineering and Cost Analysis Task Group, was subsequently added to provide cross-cutting functions, such as assuring consistency in developing an inventory of space facilities. Space facilities decisions require an assessment of current and future needs. Therefore, the two task groups dealing with space developed a consistent model of future space mission programs, operations and R&D. The model is a middle ground baseline constructed for NFS analytical purposes with excursions to cover potential space program strategies. The model includes three major sectors: DOD, civilian government, and commercial space. The model spans the next 30 years because of the long lead times associated with facilities development and usage. This document, Volume 3 of the final NFS report, is organized along the following lines: Executive Summary -- provides a summary view of the 30-year mission forecast and requirements baseline, an overview of excursions from that baseline that were studied, and organization of the report; Introduction -- provides discussions of the methodology used in this analysis; Baseline Model -- provides the mission and requirements model baseline developed for Space Operations and Space R&D analyses; Excursions from the baseline -- reviews the details of variations or 'excursions' that were developed to test the future program projections captured in the baseline; and a Glossary of Acronyms.

  14. Shuttle mission simulator requirements report, volume 1, revision C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The contractor tasks required to produce a shuttle mission simulator for training crew members and ground personnel are discussed. The tasks will consist of the design, development, production, installation, checkout, and field support of a simulator with two separate crew stations. The tasks include the following: (1) review of spacecraft changes and incorporation of appropriate changes in simulator hardware and software design, and (2) the generation of documentation of design, configuration management, and training used by maintenance and instructor personnel after acceptance for each of the crew stations.

  15. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  16. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements for Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew; Neubek, Deborah; Whitmire, Alexandria

    2012-01-01

    One possible next leap in human space exploration for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA). In order to achieve such an ambitious goal, a space habitat will need to accommodate a crew of four for the 380-day round trip. The Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) developed a conceptual design for such a habitat. The team identified activities that would be performed inside a long-duration, deep space habitat, and the capabilities needed to support such a mission. A list of seven functional activities/capabilities was developed: individual and group crew care, spacecraft and mission operations, subsystem equipment, logistics and resupply, and contingency operations. The volume for each activity was determined using NASA STD-3001 and the companion Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Although, the sum of these volumes produced an over-sized spacecraft, the team evaluated activity frequency and duration to identify functions that could share a common volume without conflict, reducing the total volume by 24%. After adding 10% for growth, the resulting functional pressurized volume was calculated to be a minimum of 268 m3 (9,464 ft3) distributed over the functions. The work was validated through comparison to Mir, Skylab, the International Space Station (ISS), Bigelow Aerospace s proposed habitat module, and NASA s Trans-Hab concept. Using HIDH guidelines, the team developed an internal layout that (a) minimized the transit time between related crew stations, (b) accommodated expected levels of activity at each station, (c) isolated stations when necessary for health, safety, performance, and privacy, and (d) provided a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

  17. Nuclear power technology requirements for NASA exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that future exploration of the moon and Mars will mandate developments in many areas of technology. In particular, major advances will be required in planet surface power systems. Critical nuclear technology challenges that can enable strategic self-sufficiency, acceptable operational costs, and cost-effective space transportation goals for NASA exploration missions have been identified. Critical technologies for surface power systems include stationary and mobile nuclear reactor and radioisotope heat sources coupled to static and dynamic power conversion devices. These technologies can provide dramatic reductions in mass, leading to operational and transportation cost savings. Critical technologies for space transportation systems include nuclear thermal rocket and nuclear electric propulsion options, which present compelling concepts for significantly reducing mass, cost, or travel time required for Earth-Mars transport.

  18. The instrument on NASA's GRACE Mission: Augmentation of GPS to achieve unprecedented gravity field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C.; Bertiger, W.; Franklin, G.; Harris, I.; Kruizinga, G.; Meehan, T.; Nandi, S.; Nguyen, D.; Rogstad, T.; Thomas, J. B.; Tien, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will describe the design and on-orbit performance of the GRACE Instrument Processing Unit (IPU) that integrates most of the critical science functions required by the GRACE mission to perform its gravity science and atmospheric radio occultation tasks.

  19. Requirements for a common nuclear propulsion and power reactor for human exploration missions to Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    1998-01-15

    Requirements for propulsion and power systems capable of achieving a safe, reliable, robust and affordable human Mars exploration mission have been identified. Nuclear systems have been identified that can meet the challenges of short trip times, reduced number of launch vehicles, potential for 'all propulsive' maneuvers, abundant in-space power and low mass, volume and deployed area, and energy rich surface power. Reduced total systems cost will also be mandatory to achieve affordable human exploration of Mars. Hence, it is desirable to design a space propulsion and surface power reactor with the greatest degree of commonality as possible with the goal of reducing total system costs.

  20. Planetary data system requirements: Multi-mission radio science requirements for the 1978 to 1988 era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, H. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The functional and performance requirements for support of multimission radio science are established. The classes of radio science investigation are described and the needed data is discussed. This document is for a sliding ten year period and will be iterated as the mission set evolves.

  1. Characterizing 3D Vegetation Structure from Space: Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Bergen, Kathleen; Blair, James B.; Dubayah, Ralph; Houghton, Richard; Hurtt, George; Kellndorfer, Josef; Lefsky, Michael; Ranson, Jon; Saatchi, Sasan; Shugart, H. H.; Wickland, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Human and natural forces are rapidly modifying the global distribution and structure of terrestrial ecosystems on which all of life depends, altering the global carbon cycle, affecting our climate now and for the foreseeable future, causing steep reductions in species diversity, and endangering Earth s sustainability. To understand changes and trends in terrestrial ecosystems and their functioning as carbon sources and sinks, and to characterize the impact of their changes on climate, habitat and biodiversity, new space assets are urgently needed to produce high spatial resolution global maps of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of vegetation, its biomass above ground, the carbon stored within and the implications for atmospheric green house gas concentrations and climate. These needs were articulated in a 2007 National Research Council (NRC) report (NRC, 2007) recommending a new satellite mission, DESDynI, carrying an L-band Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-SAR) and a multi-beam lidar (Light RAnging And Detection) operating at 1064 nm. The objectives of this paper are to articulate the importance of these new, multi-year, 3D vegetation structure and biomass measurements, to briefly review the feasibility of radar and lidar remote sensing technology to meet these requirements, to define the data products and measurement requirements, and to consider implications of mission durations. The paper addresses these objectives by synthesizing research results and other input from a broad community of terrestrial ecology, carbon cycle, and remote sensing scientists and working groups. We conclude that: (1) current global biomass and 3-D vegetation structure information is unsuitable for both science and management and policy. The only existing global datasets of biomass are approximations based on combining land cover type and representative carbon values, instead of measurements of actual biomass. Current measurement attempts based on radar and multispectral

  2. Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

  3. A study of system requirements for Phobos/Deimos missions. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The technical feasibility of accomplishing a variety of cost-effective missions to the satellites of Mars were investigated. Three mission options were studied: a basic satellite rendezvous and landing mission, a satellite sample return mission, and a combination Mars landing and Phobos/Deimos exploration mission. Nominal science payloads and supporting subsystems were defined for each mission design. Configuration layouts, program schedules, and cost estimates were also developed for each option. Environmental criteria unique to the mission were developed. Supporting studies, research, and technology requirements were identified.

  4. Support requirements for remote sensor systems on unmanned planetary missions, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results of a study to determine the support requirements for remote sensor systems on unmanned planetary flyby and orbiter missions are presented. Sensors and experiment groupings for selected missions are also established. Computer programs were developed to relate measurement requirements to support requirements. Support requirements were determined for sensors capable of performing required measurements at various points along the trajectories of specific selected missions.

  5. Development of a Thrust Stand to Meet LISA Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, William D., III; Zakrzwski, Charles M.; Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    A thrust stand has been built to measure the force-noise produced by electrostatic micro-Newton (muN) thrusters. The LISA mission's Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) requires thrusters that are capable of producing continuous thrust levels between 1-100 muN with a resolution of 0.1 muN. The stationary force-noise produced by these thrusters must not exceed 0.1 muN/dHz in the measurement bandwidth 10(exp -4) to 1 Hz. The LISA Thrust Stand (LTS) is a torsion-balance type thrust stand designed to meet the following requirements: stationary force-noise measurements from l0( -4) to 1 Hz with 0.1 muN/dHz sensitivity, absolute thrust measurements from 1-100 muN with better than 0.1 muN resolution, and dynamic thruster response from to 10 Hz. The LTS employs a unique vertical configuration, autocollimator for angular position measurements, and electrostatic actuators that are used for dynamic pendulum control and null-mode measurements. Force-noise levels are measured indirectly by characterizing the thrust stand as a spring-mass system. The LTS was initially designed to test the indium FEEP thruster developed by the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf (ARCS), but can be modified for testing other thrusters of this type.

  6. The geostationary tropospheric pollution explorer (GeoTROPE) mission: objectives, requirements and mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.; Bergametti, G.; Flaud, J. M.; Orphal, J.; Noël, S.; Monks, P. S.; Corlett, G. K.; Goede, A. P.; von Clarmann, T.; Steck, T.; Fischer, H.; Friedl-Vallon, F.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing atmospheric sciences is to assess, understand and quantify the impact of natural and anthropogenic pollution on the quality of life on Earth on a local, regional and continental scale. It has become apparent that pollution originating from local/regional events can have serious effects on the composition of the lower atmosphere on a continental scale. However, to understand the effects of regional pollution on a continental scale there is a requirement to transcend traditional atmospheric spatial and temporal scales and attempt to monitor the entire atmosphere at the same time. In the troposphere the variability of chemical processes, of source strength and the dynamics induce important short term, i.e., sub-hourly, variations and significant horizontal and vertical variability of constituents and geophysical parameters relevant to a range of contemporary issues such as air quality. To study tropospheric composition, it is therefore required to link diurnal with seasonal and annual timescales, as well as local and regional with continental spatial scales, by performing sub-hourly measurements at appropriate horizontal and vertical resolution. Tropospheric observations from low-Earth orbit (LEO) platforms have already demonstrated the potential of detecting constituents relevant for air quality but they are limited, for example by the daily revisit time and local cloud cover statistics. The net result of this is that the troposphere is currently significantly under sampled. Measurements from Geostationary Orbit (GEO) offer the only practical approach to the observation of diurnal variation from space with the pertinent horizontal resolution. The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) is an attempt to determine tropospheric constituents with high temporal and spatial resolution. The paper will summarise the needs for geostationary observations of tropospheric composition and will give the mission objectives and the

  7. Application of contoured beam shaped reflector antennas to mission requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, R. A.; Kalatidazeh, Y.; Driscoll, B. G.; Philippou, G. Y.; Claydon, B.; Brain, D. J.

    Contoured beam antennas are now widely used on-board communications and broadcast satellites to provide the optimum coverage of irregular shaped regions on earth and to minimize the interference outside the coverage boundaries. Unshaped array-fed reflector systems have been successfully implemented, for example in the EUTELSAT 2 series, however these systems suffer from the need for relatively large feed arrays. A number of international satellite organizations, including INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and European Space Agency (ESA) are interested in the use of shaped reflector antennas for single and multiple coverage scenarios. This technology offers the potential to reduce or completely remove the beamforming network and its associated losses and weight. In recent years, ERA has carried out a number of studies involving the design of shaped reflector antennas for particular mission requirements. This paper reviews a number of these case studies and highlights the coverage specifications and the advantages of adopting shaped reflectors, as well as the factors which limit their use. A description of a number of contoured beam scenarios is provided, and a summary of these is given.

  8. Manned orbital systems concepts study. Book 2: Requirements for extended-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    In order to provide essential data needed in long-range program planning, the Manned Orbital Systems Concepts (MOSC) study attempted to define, evaluate, and compare concepts for manned orbital systems that provide extended experiment mission capabilities in space, flexibility of operation, and growth potential. Specific areas discussed include roles and requirements for man in future space missions, requirements for extended capability, mission/payload concepts, and preliminary design and operational requirements.

  9. A modernized approach to meet diversified earth observing system (EOS) AM-1 mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft; Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.

    1998-01-01

    From a flight dynamics perspective, the EOS AM-1 mission design and maneuver operations present a number of interesting challenges. The mission design itself is relatively complex for a low Earth mission, requiring a frozen, Sun-synchronous, polar orbit with a repeating ground track. Beyond the need to design an orbit that meets these requirements, the recent focus on low-cost, 'lights out' operations has encouraged a shift to more automated ground support. Flight dynamics activities previously performed in special facilities created solely for that purpose and staffed by personnel with years of design experience are now being shifted to the mission operations centers (MOCs) staffed by flight operations team (FOT) operators. These operators' responsibilities include flight dynamics as a small subset of their work; therefore, FOT personnel often do not have the experience to make critical maneuver design decisions. Thus, streamlining the analysis and planning work required for such a complicated orbit design and preparing FOT personnel to take on the routine operation of such a spacecraft both necessitated increasing the automation level of the flight dynamics functionality. The FreeFlyer(TM) software developed by AI Solutions provides a means to achieve both of these goals. The graphic interface enables users to interactively perform analyses that previously required many parametric studies and much data reduction to achieve the same result In addition, the fuzzy logic engine enables the simultaneous evaluation of multiple conflicting constraints, removing the analyst from the loop and allowing the FOT to perform more of the operations without much background in orbit design. Modernized techniques were implemented for EOS AM-1 flight dynamics support in several areas, including launch window determination, orbit maintenance maneuver control strategies, and maneuver design and calibration automation. The benefits of implementing these techniques include increased

  10. A Modernized Approach to Meet Diversified Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft; Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.

    1998-01-01

    From a flight dynamics perspective, the EOS AM-1 mission design and maneuver operations present a number of interesting challenges. The mission design itself is relatively complex for a low Earth mission, requiring a frozen, Sun-synchronous, polar orbit with a repeating ground track. Beyond the need to design an orbit that meets these requirements, the recent focus on low-cost, "lights out" operations has encouraged a shift to more automated ground support. Flight dynamics activities previously performed in special facilities created solely for that purpose and staffed by personnel with years of design experience are now being shifted to the mission operations centers (MOCs) staffed by flight operations team (FOT) operators. These operators' responsibilities include flight dynamics as a small subset of their work; therefore, FOT personnel often do not have the experience to make critical maneuver design decisions. Thus, streamlining the analysis and planning work required for such a complicated orbit design and preparing FOT personnel to take on the routine operation of such a spacecraft both necessitated increasing the automation level of the flight dynamics functionality. The FreeFlyer(trademark) software developed by AI Solutions provides a means to achieve both of these goals. The graphic interface enables users to interactively perform analyses that previously required many parametric studies and much data reduction to achieve the same result. In addition, the fuzzy logic engine .enables the simultaneous evaluation of multiple conflicting constraints, removing the analyst from the loop and allowing the FOT to perform more of the operations without much background in orbit design. Modernized techniques were implemented for EOS AM-1 flight dynamics support in several areas, including launch window determination, orbit maintenance maneuver control strategies, and maneuver design and calibration automation. The benefits of implementing these techniques include

  11. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options study. Volume 1: Missions and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Science and applications, NOAA environmental observation, commercial resource observations, commercial space processing, commercial communications, national security, technology development, and GEO servicing are addressed. Approach to time phasing of mission requirements, system sizing summary, time-phased user mission payload support, space station facility requirements, and integrated time-phased system requirements are also addressed.

  12. Geostationary Platforms Mission and Payload Requirements Study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Time-phased missions and payloads for potential accommodation on geostationary platforms and the engineering requirements placed upon the platform housekeeping elements by selected payloads are identified. Optimum locations for geostationary platforms, potential missions and their characteristics, and potential user requirements were determined as well as the interface requirements between the missions and h the geostationary platform. A payload data book was prepared and antenna tradeoff studies were conducted. Payload missions are defined in terms of frequencies, power, beam patterns, interconnections, support requirements, and other characteristics.

  13. Time required to achieve homogeneity in swine feed mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, G J; Miller, E; King, M T; Perfetti, G A; Warner, C R; Adamo, N C; Sporn, E M

    1982-03-01

    FD&C Red No. 3 was mixed with 20 kg pig feed to give a concentration of 0.1%. A mixing time of 30 min was sufficient to achieve homogeneity for this mixture. For larger amounts or more flocculent types of additives, a longer time may be required. Ammoniated glycyrrhizin was mixed with 8 separate batches of pig feed at a concentration of 1%; 1 h was sufficient mixing time.

  14. Sea-Ice Mission Requirements for the US FIREX and Canada RADARSAT programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Ramseier, R. O.; Weeks, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    A bilateral synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite program is defined. The studies include addressing the requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by a number of disciplines including science and operations in sea ice covered waters. Sea ice research problems such as ice information and total mission requirements, the mission components, the radar engineering parameters, and an approach to the transition of spacecraft SAR from a research to an operational tool were investigated.

  15. Future Requirements For Small Deep Space And Landed Modules Power Systems In Science And Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Jens Biele; Van Zoest, Tim; Grundmann, Jan Thimo

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses various power concepts for small missions to deep space requiring low (typically < 100 W) average power. Particular emphasis is on landed devices, e.g., for the Moon, Mars, or small bodies. We present the status and the future power system requirements for such modules in science and exploration missions. We outline the developments where we see potential for a significant increase in power system performance (mass, robustness, predictability) for the mission types mentioned.

  16. Apollo 14 mission: Failure to achieve docking probe capture latch engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Six docking attempts were required in order to successfully achieve capture latch engagement during the transposition and docking phase following translunar injection. After docking, the probe and drogue were examined by the crew. Probe operation appeared normal and radial marks were noted on the drogue. During all subsequent operations, the probe operated properly.

  17. A review of methods for compliance with planetary protection requirements by recent NASA planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, Jack

    The approaches taken by recent NASA planetary missions to comply with specific NASA planetary protection (PP) requirements and specifications are reviewed to illuminate their pragmatic consequences to the missions. The requirements discussed include probability of impact, microbial burden, and recontamination requirements. The related specifications relate to surface and encapsulated burden density, dry heat, time-temperature for sterility, and hardy organisms. Missions have had to negotiate the precise interpretation for some of the requirements. Later missions have chosen to have these precedence interpretations approved via their PP Plans. Some methods, especially analysis methods, have, of necessity, been developed to demonstrate compliance with the requirements. Finally, some of the requirements have affected the design of the flight hardware and of the mission design.

  18. Bathymetry from space: Rationale and requirements for a new, high-resolution altimetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Smith, Walter H. F.; Gille, Sarah; Kappel, Ellen; Jayne, Steven; Soofi, Khalid; Coakley, Bernard; Géli, Louis

    2006-11-01

    of continental margins; providing bathymetric maps for numerous other practical applications, including reconnaissance for submarine cable and pipeline routes, improving tide models, and assessing potential territorial claims to the seabed under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Because ocean bathymetry is a fundamental measurement of our planet, there is a broad spectrum of interest from government, the research community, industry, and the general public. Mission requirements. The resolution of the altimetry technique is limited by physical law, not instrument capability. Everything that can be mapped from space can be achieved now, and there is no gain in waiting for technological advances. Mission requirements for Bathymetry from Space are much less stringent and less costly than typical physical oceanography missions. Long-term sea-surface height accuracy is not needed; the fundamental measurement is the slope of the ocean surface to an accuracy of ˜1 μrad (1 mm km -1). The main mission requirements are: improved range precision (a factor of two or more improvement in altimeter range precision with respect to current altimeters is needed to reduce the noise due to ocean waves); fine cross-track spacing and long mission duration (a ground track spacing of 6 km or less is required. A six-year mission would reduce the error by another factor of two); moderate inclination (existing satellite altimeters have relatively high orbital inclinations, thus their resolution of east-west components of ocean slope is poor at low latitudes. The new mission should have an orbital inclination close to 60° or 120° so as to resolve north-south and east-west components almost equally while still covering nearly all the world's ocean area); near-shore tracking (for applications near coastlines, the ability of the instrument to track the ocean surface close to shore, and acquire the surface soon after leaving land, is desirable). To cite this article: D

  19. Medical and technology requirements for human solar system exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld; Harris, Leonard; Couch, Lana; Sulzman, Frank; Gaiser, Karen

    1989-01-01

    Measures that need to be taken to cope with the health problems posed by zero gravity and radiation in manned solar system exploration missions are discussed. The particular systems that will be used aboard Space Station Freedom are addressed, and relevant human factors problems are examined. The development of a controlled ecological life support system is addressed.

  20. Long Duration Space Missions: Human Subsystem Risks and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Criag E.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the human health and performance risks associated with long duration space flight beyond low earth orbit. The contents include: 1) Human Research Program; 2) Human Subsystem Risks; 3) Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) Architecture Elements; 4) Potentially Unacceptable Risks -1; 5) Potentially Unacceptable Risks-2; and 6) Major Mission Drivers of Risk.

  1. Exploring Europa's Habitability: Science achieved from the Europa Orbiter and Clipper Mission Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senske, D. A.; Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Patterson, G. W.; Vance, S.

    2012-12-01

    Europa is a prime candidate in the search for present-day habitable environments in our solar system. Europa is unique among the large icy satellites because it probably has a saltwater ocean today beneath an ice shell that is geodynamically active. The combination of irradiation of its surface and tidal heating of its interior could make Europa a rich source of chemical energy for life. Perhaps most importantly, Europa's ocean is believed to be in direct contact with its rocky mantle, where conditions could be similar to those on Earth's biologically rich sea floor. Hydrothermal zones on Earth's seafloor are known to be rich with life, powered by energy and nutrients that result from reactions between the seawater and the warm rocky ocean floor. Life as we know it depends on three principal "ingredients": 1) a sustained liquid water environment; 2) essential chemical elements that are critical for building life; and 3) a source of energy that could be utilized by life. Europa's habitability requires understanding whether it possesses these three ingredients. NASA has enlisted a study team to consider Europa mission options feasible over the next decade, compatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget and addressing Planetary Decadal Survey priorities. Two Europa mission concepts (Orbiter and multiple flyby—call the "Clipper") are undergoing continued study with the goal to "Explore Europa to investigate its habitability." Each mission would address this goal in complementary ways, with high science value of its own. The Orbiter and Clipper architectures lend themselves to specific types of scientific measurements. The Orbiter concept is tailored to the unique geophysical science that requires being in orbit at Europa. This includes confirming the existence of an ocean and characterizing that ocean through geophysical measurements of Europa's gravitational tides and magnetic induction response. It also includes mapping of the global morphology and

  2. Electric Propulsion Requirements and Mission Analysis Under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, Leonard a.; Pencil, Eric J.; Dankanich, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology Project (ISPT) is currently NASA's sole investment in electric propulsion technologies. This project is managed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the NASA Headquarters Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The objective of the electric propulsion project area is to develop near-term and midterm electric propulsion technologies to enhance or enable future NASA science missions while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Systems analysis activities sponsored by ISPT seek to identify future mission applications in order to quantify mission requirements, as well as develop analytical capability in order to facilitate greater understanding and application of electric propulsion and other propulsion technologies in the ISPT portfolio. These analyses guide technology investments by informing decisions and defining metrics for technology development to meet identified mission requirements. This paper discusses the missions currently being studied for electric propulsion by the ISPT project, and presents the results of recent electric propulsion (EP) mission trades. Recent ISPT systems analysis activities include: an initiative to standardize life qualification methods for various electric propulsion systems in order to retire perceived risk to proposed EP missions; mission analysis to identify EP requirements from Discovery, New Frontiers, and Flagship classes of missions; and an evaluation of system requirements for radioisotope-powered electric propulsion. Progress and early results of these activities is discussed where available.

  3. Support requirements for remote sensor systems on unmanned planetary missions. Appendix A: Support requirement summary tables, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An appendix containing one page summary tables of sensor observation objectives, measurement capabilities, support requirments, and worth values is presented. Tables are arranged according to (1) sensor type number, (2) flyby mission number, (3) for multi-planet missions, in order of increasing distance from the sun, (4) for orbiter mission, by planets in order of increasing distance from the sun, and (5) by orbit number.

  4. Earth Observing System. Science and Mission Requirements, Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a planned NASA program, which will carry the multidisciplinary Earth science studies employing a variety of remote sensing techniques in the 1990's, as a prime mission, using the Space Station polar platform. The scientific rationale, recommended observational needs, the broad system configuration and a recommended implementation strategy to achieve the stated mission goals are provided.

  5. Six Years Into Its Mission, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory Continues to Achieve Scientific Firsts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    In August 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened for business. Six years later, it continues to achieve scientific firsts. "When Chandra opened its sunshade doors for the first time, it opened the possibility of studying the X-ray emission of the universe with unprecedented clarity," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "Already surpassing its goal of a five-year life, Chandra continues to rewrite textbooks with discoveries about our own solar system and images of celestial objects as far as billions of light years away." Based on the observatory's outstanding results, NASA Headquarters in Washington decided in 2001 to extend Chandra s mission from five years to ten. During the observatory s sixth year of operation, auroras from Jupiter, X-rays from Saturn, and the early days of our solar system were the focus of Chandra discoveries close to home -- discoveries with the potential to better understand the dynamics of life on Earth. Jupiter's auroras are the most spectacular and active auroras in the solar system. Extended Chandra observations revealed that Jupiter s auroral X-rays are caused by highly charged particles crashing into the atmosphere above Jupiter's poles. These results gave scientists information needed to compare Jupiter's auroras with those from Earth, and determine if they are triggered by different cosmic and planetary events. Mysterious X-rays from Saturn also received attention, as Chandra completed the first observation of a solar X-ray flare reflected from Saturn's low-latitudes, the region that correlates to Earth's equator and tropics. This observation led scientists to conclude the ringed planet may act as a mirror, reflecting explosive activity from the sun. Solar-storm watchers on Earth might see a surprising benefit. The results imply scientists could use giant planets like Saturn as remote-sensing tools to help monitor X-ray flaring on portions of the sun

  6. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation. Level C requirements for the shuttle mission control center orbital guidance software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The formulation of Level C requirements for guidance software was reported. Requirements for a PEG supervisor which controls all input/output interfaces with other processors and determines which PEG mode is to be utilized were studied in detail. A description of the two guidance modes for which Level C requirements have been formulated was presented. Functions required for proper execution of the guidance software were defined. The requirements for a navigation function that is used in the prediction logic of PEG mode 4 were discussed. It is concluded that this function is extracted from the current navigation FSSR.

  7. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and systems analysis study extension. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the types of manned missions that will likely be performed in the late 1980's or early 1990's timeframe, to define MOTV configurations which satisfy these missions requirements, and to develop a program plan for its development. Twenty generic missions were originally defined for MOTV but, to simplify the selection process, five of these missions were selected as typical and used as Design Reference Missions. Systems and subsystems requirements were re-examined and sensitivity analyses performed to determine optimum point designs. Turnaround modes were considered to determine the most effective combination of ground based and spaced based activities. A preferred concept for the crew capsule and for the mission mode was developed.

  8. Round Table Part 1: Review of future manned missions and Identification key ECLSS requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Wheeler, Raymond; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Joshi, Jitendra; Dussap, Gilles; Godia, Francesc

    2016-07-01

    All forecast an end of ISS in 2024. What so ever will be the exact date date the main part of the space agencies are currently elaborating plans for future manned missions. So far mainly 3 destination are considered :" Moon, Mars and Lagrange point L2. Depending of the missions duration, crew size, safety .. the ECLSS will have major difference . In this first part of the round table it is proposed to review the main missions scenario and elaborate top level requirements.

  9. An assessment of the Instrument Pointing Subsystems (IPS) requirements for spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nein, M. E.; Nicaise, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    Instrument Pointing Subsystem requirements for Spacelab missions in solar physics, stellar astronomy, and earth observation are analyzed and design guidelines for fine pointing instrument platforms are presented. The requirements for the platforms are time-phased based on NASA projections of flight mission models and payload scheduling. The experiments used for these projections are to be viewed as representative payloads. Other experiments or experiment groupings within any one discipline may be accommodated by an Instrument Pointing Subsystem that meets these requirements.

  10. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 3, task 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The mission requirements of the space station program are investigated. Mission parameters are divided into user support from private industry, scientific experimentation, U.S. national security, and space operations away from the space station. These categories define the design and use of the space station. An analysis of cost estimates is included.

  11. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Mission Resource Requirements (MRR), FY 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Resource Requirement (MRR) represents the level of funding necessary for an institution given its mission, size, and complexity of programs, based on regional and national norms, and the amount of the previous year's appropriation. This document is the MRR for the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education for Fiscal Year 2007-2008.…

  12. 14 CFR 431.79 - Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Post-Licensing Requirements-Reusable Launch Vehicle Mission License Terms and Conditions § 431.79 Reusable...

  13. 14 CFR 431.79 - Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Post-Licensing Requirements-Reusable Launch Vehicle Mission License Terms and Conditions § 431.79 Reusable...

  14. 14 CFR 431.79 - Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Post-Licensing Requirements-Reusable Launch Vehicle Mission License Terms and Conditions § 431.79 Reusable...

  15. 14 CFR 431.79 - Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reusable launch vehicle mission reporting... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Post-Licensing Requirements-Reusable Launch Vehicle Mission License Terms and Conditions § 431.79 Reusable...

  16. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 1, book 1: Flight article requirements. Appendix A: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The requirements for several configurations of flight articles are presented. These requirements provide the basis to design manned remote work station development test articles and establish tests and simulation objectives for the resolution of development issues. Mission system and subsystem requirements for four MRWS configurations included: open cherry picker; closed cherry picker; crane turret; and free flyer.

  17. Planetary protection and Mars: requirements and constraints on the 2016 and 2018 missions, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J.; Kminek, G.; Conley, C.

    2011-10-01

    The suite of missions being planned currently by NASA and ESA as a partnership under the name "ExoMars" include an orbiter and an entry, descent, and landing demonstrator module (EDM) for the 2016 "ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter" mission (ExoMars TGO), as well as a highly capable rover to be launched in 2018 to address the original ExoMars objectives (including the Pasteur payload). This 2018 ExoMars rover is expected to begin a series of missions leading to the first sample return mission from Mars, also conducted jointly between NASA, ESA, and their partners (JMSR). Each of these missions and mission components has a role in enabling future Mars exploration, including the search for life or life-related compounds on Mars, and each of them has the potential to carry confounding biological and organic materials into sensitive environments on Mars. Accordingly, this suite of missions will be subjected to joint planetary protection requirements applied by both ESA and NASA to their respective components, according to the COSPAR-delineated planetary protection policy to protect Mars from contamination, and eventually to provide for the protection of the Earth from potential life returned in a martian sample. This paper will discuss the challenges ahead for mission designers and the mission science teams, and will outline some of the potential pitfalls involved with different mission options.

  18. An operations concept methodology to achieve low-cost mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledbetter, Kenneth W.; Wall, Stephen D.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, the Mission Operations System (MOS) for a space mission has been designed last because it is needed last. This has usually meant that the ground system must adjust to the flight vehicle design, sometimes at a significant cost. As newer missions have increasingly longer flight operations lifetimes, the MOS becomes proportionally more difficult and more resource-consuming. We can no longer afford to design the MOS last. The MOS concept may well drive the spacecraft, instrument, and mission designs, as well as the ground system. A method to help avoid these difficulties, responding to the changing nature of mission operations is presented. Proper development and use of an Operations Concept document results in a combined flight and ground system design yielding enhanced operability and producing increased flexibility for less cost.

  19. Civilian and military missions SP-100 preliminary user requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-29

    This document defines the top level requirements of potential users of a space based nuclear electric power supply. This provides the SP-100 Project and information required to design the modular (10-1000 KWe) space power systems to meet the needs of most potential users.

  20. Earth resources mission performance studies. Volume 1: Requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The need for a realistic set of earth resources collection requirements to test and maximize the data gathering capabilities of the EOS remote sensor systems is considered. The collection requirements will be derived from established user requirements. In order to confine and bound the requirements study, some baseline assumptions were established. These are: (1) image acquisition is confined to the contiguous United States, (2) the fundamental data users are select participating federal agencies, (3) the acquired data will be applied to generating information necessary or in support of existing federal agency charters, and (4) the most pressing or desired federal agency earth resources data requirements have been defined, suggested, or implied in current available literature.

  1. Science, Measurement, and Technology Requirements for Infrared Climate Benchmark Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David G.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying climate change in the presence of natural variability requires highly accurate global measurements covering more than a decade. Instrument design considerations for trending terrestrial emitted radiance are described.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission scientific instrument protective enclosure design requirements and contamination controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.; Hedgeland, Randy J.; Chivatero, Craig J.; Studer, Robert J.; Kostos, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    The Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosures were designed for the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Missions to provide a beginning environment to a Scientific Instrument during ground and on orbit activities. The Scientific Instruments required very stringent surface cleanliness and molecular outgassing levels to maintain ultraviolet performance. Data from the First Servicing Mission verified that both the Scientific Instruments and Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosures met surface cleanliness level requirements during ground and on-orbit activities.

  3. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study. Volume 2: Mission support requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The science objectives, the experiment and instrument requirements, and the total ground and mission related requirements to be implemented by GSFC and other NASA centers for each AMPS/Labcraft mission are defined.

  4. GRAIL project management: Launching on cost, schedule, and spec and achieving full mission success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. L.; Zuber, M. T.; Lehman, D. H.; Hoffman, T. L.

    The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) project, a NASA Discovery Program mission with a cost cap, was launched September 10, 2011, on spec, on time and under budget. Led by Principal Investigator (PI) Dr. Maria T. Zuber of MIT and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with Lockheed Martin as spacecraft contractor and the late Sally Ride as Education and Public Outreach Lead, GRAIL completed its Prime Mission in May 2012, successfully meeting its objectives-to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure “ from crust to core,” determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. This paper updates last year's IEEE Aerospace Conference paper [1], summarizing key development challenges and accomplishments through completion of the Primary Mission, and reporting progress in the Extended Mission.

  5. Post LANDSAT D Advanced Concept Evaluation (PLACE). [with emphasis on mission planning, technological forecasting, and user requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An outline is given of the mission objectives and requirements, system elements, system concepts, technology requirements and forecasting, and priority analysis for LANDSAT D. User requirements and mission analysis and technological forecasting are emphasized. Mission areas considered include agriculture, range management, forestry, geology, land use, water resources, environmental quality, and disaster assessment.

  6. Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International

  7. Admission Requirements for Teacher Education as a Factor of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous researches have demonstrated the enormous role of teachers in achievements of students. Educated and motivated teacher that cares about the success of students devotes more effort to preparing the lesson and thus provides the students better conditions for achieving results. The problem occurs when teachers are not equally qualified,…

  8. Lunar mission safety and rescue: Hazards analysis and safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of the hazards analysis which was concerned only with hazards to personnel and not with loss of equipment or property. Hazards characterization includes the definition of a hazard, the hazard levels, and the hazard groups. The analysis methodology is described in detail. The methodology was used to prepare the top level functional flow diagrams, to perform the first level hazards assessment, and to develop a list of conditions and situations requiring individual hazard studies. The 39 individual hazard study results are presented in total.

  9. Report on the COSPAR Workshop on Refining Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spry, James Andrew; Rummel, John; Conley, Catharine; Race, Margaret; Kminek, Gerhard; Siegel, Bette

    2016-07-01

    A human mission to Mars has been the driving long-term goal for the development of the Global Exploration Roadmap by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group. Additionally, multiple national space agencies and commercial organizations have published similar plans and aspirations for human missions beyond LEO. The current COSPAR planetary protection "Guidelines for Human Missions to Mars" were developed in a series of workshops in the early 2000s and adopted into COSPAR policy at the Montreal Assembly in 2008. With changes and maturation in mission architecture concepts and hardware capabilities, the holding of a workshop provided an opportunity for timely review of these guidelines and their interpretation within current frameworks provided by ISECG and others. The COSPAR Workshop on Refining Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Missions was held in the US in spring 2016 to evaluate recent efforts and activities in the context of current COSPAR policy, as well as collect inputs from the various organizations considering crewed exploration missions to Mars and precursor robotic missions focused on surface material properties and environmental challenges. The workshop also considered potential updates to the COSPAR policy for human missions across a range of planetary destinations. This paper will report on those deliberations.

  10. Achieving recognition that mental health is part of the mission of CDC.

    PubMed

    Safran, Marc A

    2009-11-01

    For much of its history the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considered mental health to be outside of its mission. That assumption persisted even after CDC became a leading public health agency and began to face important mental health issues. This narrative describes how the organizational paradigm indicating that mental health was not mission related was challenged and superseded by a new paradigm recognizing mental health as part of CDC's public health mission. Even after the CDC Mental Health Work Group's establishment in 2000, CDC took eight more years to overcome powerful remnants of the old paradigm that had for so long excluded, minimized, or discouraged attention to mental health. The CDC Mental Health Work Group led the agency's mental health efforts without funding or dedicated staffing but with more than 100 CDC professionals from multiple disciplines and centers serving as voluntary members, in addition to their other CDC responsibilities.

  11. Mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Barta, D. J.; Dragg, J.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation and robotics for Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS). The focus is on requirements and applications for command and control, control and monitoring, situation assessment and response, diagnosis and recovery, adaptive planning and scheduling, and other automation applications in addition to mechanized equipment and robotics applications to reduce the excessive human labor requirements to operate and maintain an ALSS. Based on principles of systems engineering, an approach is proposed to assess requirements for automation and robotics using mission simulation tools. First, the story of a simulated mission is defined in terms of processes with attendant types of resources needed, including options for use of automation and robotic systems. Next, systems dynamics models are used in simulation to reveal the implications for selected resource allocation schemes in terms of resources required to complete operational tasks. The simulations not only help establish ALSS design criteria, but also may offer guidance to ALSS research efforts by identifying gaps in knowledge about procedures and/or biophysical processes. Simulations of a planned one-year mission with 4 crewmembers in a Human Rated Test Facility are presented as an approach to evaluation of mission feasibility and definition of automation and robotics requirements.

  12. Work Package 5: Contingency Management. Mission Planning Requirements Document: Preliminary Version. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify the general flight/mission planning requirements for same-day file-and-fly access to the NAS for both civil and military High-Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Currently the scope of this document is limited to Step 1, operations above flight level 43,000 feet (FL430). This document describes the current applicable mission planning requirements and procedures for both manned and unmanned aircraft and addresses HALE UAS flight planning considerations in the future National Airspace System (NAS). It also discusses the unique performance and operational capabilities of HALE UAS associated with the Access 5 Project, presents some of the projected performance characteristics and conceptual missions for future systems, and provides detailed analysis of the recommended mission planning elements for operating HALE UAS in the NAS.

  13. Space Station Workshop: Commercial Missions and User Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The topics of discussion addressed during a three day workshop on commercial application in space are presented. Approximately half of the program was directed towards an overview and orientation to the Space Station Project; the technical attributes of space; and present and future potential commercial opportunities. The remaining time was spent addressing technological issues presented by previously-formed industry working groups, who attempted to identify the technology needs, problems or issues faced and/or anticipated by the following industries: extraction (mining, agriculture, petroleum, fishing, etc.); fabrication (manufacturing, automotive, aircraft, chemical, pharmaceutical and electronics); and services (communications, transportation and retail robotics). After the industry groups presented their technology issues, the workshop divided into smaller discussion groups composed of: space experts from NASA; academia; industry experts in the appropriate disciplines; and other workshop participants. The needs identified by the industry working groups, space station technical requirements, proposed commercial ventures and other issues related to space commercialization were discussed. The material summarized and reported are the consensus from the discussion groups.

  14. Planetary mission requirements, technology and design considerations for a solar electric propulsion stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Hastrup, R. C.; Menard, W. A.; Olson, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    High energy planetary missions such as comet rendezvous, Saturn orbiter and asteroid rendezvous require development of a Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) for augmentation of the Shuttle-IUS. Performance and functional requirements placed on the SEPS are presented. These requirements will be used in evolution of the SEPS design, which must be highly interactive with both the spacecraft and the mission design. Previous design studies have identified critical SEPS technology areas and some specific design solutions which are also presented in the paper.

  15. Orbiter data reduction complex data processing requirements for the OFT mission evaluation team (level C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This document addresses requirements for post-test data reduction in support of the Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) mission evaluation team, specifically those which are planned to be implemented in the ODRC (Orbiter Data Reduction Complex). Only those requirements which have been previously baselined by the Data Systems and Analysis Directorate configuration control board are included. This document serves as the control document between Institutional Data Systems Division and the Integration Division for OFT mission evaluation data processing requirements, and shall be the basis for detailed design of ODRC data processing systems.

  16. Improved Traceability of a Small Satellite Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based System Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reil, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the "traditional" document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This paper presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magic's MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the mission's original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to demonstrate the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Anecdotal information and process-duration metrics are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  17. System-level Analysis of Food Moisture Content Requirements for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Perchonok, Michele H.

    2004-01-01

    In order to ensure that adequate water resources are available during a mission, any net water loss from the habitat must be balanced with an equivalent amount of required makeup water. Makeup water may come from a variety of sources, including water in shipped tanks, water stored in prepackaged food, product water from fuel cells, and in-situ water resources. This paper specifically addresses the issue of storing required makeup water in prepackaged food versus storing the water in shipped tanks for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission, one of the Advanced Life Support Reference Missions. In this paper, water mass balances have been performed for the Dual Lander Transit Mission, to determine the necessary requirement of makeup water under nominal operation (i.e. no consideration of contingency needs), on a daily basis. Contingency issues are briefly discussed with respect to impacts on makeup water storage (shipped tanks versus storage in prepackaged food). The Dual Lander Transit Mission was selected for study because it has been considered by the Johnson Space Center Exploration Office in enough detail to define a reasonable set of scenario options for nominal system operation and contingencies. This study also illustrates the concept that there are multiple, reasonable life support system scenarios for any one particular mission. Thus, the need for a particular commodity can depend upon many variables in the system. In this study, we examine the need for makeup water as it depends upon the configuration of the rest of the life support system.

  18. Improved Traceability of Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reil, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the traditional document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This thesis presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magics MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the missions original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to analyze the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Overall experience and methodology are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  19. ESA's Spaceborne Lidar Mission ADM-Aeolus; Recent Achievements and Preparations for Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grete Straume, Anne; Elfving, Anders; Wernham, Denny; Culoma, Alain; Mondin, Linda; de Bruin, Frank; Kanitz, Thomas; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Buscaglione, Fabio; Dehn, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Within ESA's Living Planet Programme, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus) was chosen as the second Earth Explorer Core mission in 1999. It shall demonstrate the potential of high spectral resolution Doppler Wind lidars for operational measurements of wind profiles and their use in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Spin-off products are profiles of cloud and aerosol optical properties. ADM-Aeolus carries the novel Doppler Wind lidar instrument ALADIN. Recently the two ALADIN laser transmitters were successfully qualified and delivered for further instrument integration. The instrument delivery will follow later this year and the satellite qualification and launch readiness is scheduled for 2016. In February 2015, an Aeolus Science and Calibration and Validation (CAL/VAL) Workshop was held in ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, bringing industry, the user community and ESA together to prepare for the Aeolus Commissioning and Operational Phases. During the Workshop the science, instrument and product status, commissioning phase planning and the extensive number of proposals submitted in response to the Aeolus CAL/VAL call in 2014 were presented and discussed. A special session was dedicated to the Aeolus CAL/VAL Implementation Plan. In this paper, the Aeolus mission, status and launch preparation activities are described.

  20. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2: Technical. Book 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbronn, O.

    1983-01-01

    The following types of space missions were evaluated to determine those that require, or will be benefited materially, by a manned space station: (1) science and applications, (2) commercial, (3) technology development, (4) space operations, and (5) national security. Integrated mission requirements for man-operated and man-tended free-flying missions were addressed. A manned space station will provide major performance and economic benefits to a wide range of missions planned for the 1990s.

  1. Magnetometer Data for the Ages: Achieving complete FGM instrument coverage of the multi-spacecraft Cluster mission (2000 to 2015+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alconcel, Leah-Nani; Fox, Peter; Colgan, Cary; Oddy, Tim; Brown, Patrick; Carr, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The calibrated dataset from the Cluster magnetometer instruments (FGMs) aboard the four Cluster spacecraft comprises an invaluable contribution to magnetospheric physics. It is also essential for the derivation of some datasets from other instruments, all of which have been made available through ESA's Cluster Science Archive (CSA). The FGM team at Imperial College - the PI institute that built and supports operation of the magnetometers - has regularly provided validated data to the CSA since its inception. Now that other multi-spacecraft missions such as the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have come online, it will be possible to make inter-mission as well as inter-spacecraft comparisons. The FGM team hopes to enable those comparisons by delivering magnetic field data from periods when the Cluster spacecraft are not otherwise taking science telemetry. These periods are becoming more common as the spacecraft age. Accomplishing this would also achieve near-complete magnetic field coverage throughout the Cluster mission. Preparation of these data to archival standards raises unusual challenges to be discussed in this presentation.

  2. Technology Requirements For a Square-Meter, Arcsecond-Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William; Freeman, Mark; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; O'Dell, Steve; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first supermassive black holes. We have envisioned a mission based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, in order to achieve the required reduction of mass to collecting area for the mirrors. We are pursuing technology which effects this adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMARTX will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no more stringent requirements than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  3. Round-trip mission requirements for Asteroids 1976 AA and 1973 EC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niehoff, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of manned or unmanned missions to two recently discovered asteroids is assessed. Characteristics of a likely target for a round-trip exploratory excursion include: a period close to one year; and an orbit that is nearly circular and nearly coplanar with the ecliptic. Mass requirements and optimal times of launch are investigated for unmanned and manned missions to Asteroids 1976 AA and 1973 EC (recently numbered 1943); 365-day round-trip trajectories in the first half of the 1990s are proposed. However, since neither of the two targets considered entirely fulfills all the necessary orbital characteristics, neither can offer the opportunity for a fast low-energy round-trip mission; nevertheless, other minor planets crossing earth's orbit may be found to meet the requirements.

  4. Systems engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford cleanup mission: First issue. Addendum 3, Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.; Bailey, K.B.; Collings, J.L.; Hubbard, A.B.; Niepke, T.M.

    1994-05-01

    This addendum provides additional information, in the form of Functional Flow Block Diagrams (FFBD), concerning the system engineering functional analysis for the Hanford cleanup mission. Details of the mission analysis including mission statement, scope, problem statement, initial state definition, and final state definition are provided in the parent document. The results of the functional analysis as depicted in Integrated Definition language notation (IDEFO) diagrams are provided in Addendum 2 to the parent document. The FFBDs provided herein cover the total Hanford cleanup mission and depict the decomposition of functions to a reasonable level for understanding (generally level 3 or 4). Functional definitions are contained in Section 3.0 of Addendum 2 to the parent document. Specific programs such as the Tank Waste Remediation System and Environmental Restoration, whose IDEFO diagrams were presented as part of their specific baseline documentation and not included in Addendum 2, have their FFBDs included in this addendum. The information contained in this addendum will remain tied to the overall Hanford cleanup mission through the top-level (``Capstone``) functional analysis so that a complete, top-to-bottom functional documentation set always exists for all mission activities. This linkage is accomplished through the use of the Requirements Driven Design (RDD-100{reg_sign}) design tool. Through the use of RDD-100{reg_sign}, this addendum supports and is traceable to the information presented in Addendum 2 to the parent document.

  5. Combustion Module-2 Achieved Scientific Success on Shuttle Mission STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    The familiar teardrop shape of a candle is caused by hot, spent air rising and cool fresh air flowing behind it. This type of airflow obscures many of the fundamental processes of combustion and is an impediment to our understanding and modeling of key combustion controls used for manufacturing, transportation, fire safety, and pollution. Conducting experiments in the microgravity environment onboard the space shuttles eliminates these impediments. NASA Glenn Research Center's Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) and its three experiments successfully flew on STS-107/Columbia in the SPACEHAB module and provided the answers for many research questions. However, this research also opened up new questions. The CM-2 facility was the largest and most complex pressurized system ever flown by NASA and was a precursor to the Glenn Fluids and Combustion Facility planned to fly on the International Space Station. CM-2 operated three combustion experiments: Laminar Soot Processes (LSP), Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number (SOFBALL), and Water Mist Fire Suppression Experiment (Mist). Although Columbia's mission ended in tragedy with the loss of her crew and much data, most of the CM-2 results were sent to the ground team during the mission.

  6. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  7. Guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planets. Volume 4: High thrust mission, part 2, phase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The guidance and navigation requirements for a set of impulsive thrust missions involving one or more outer planets or comets. Specific missions considered include two Jupiter entry missions of 800 and 1200 day duration, two multiple swingby missions with the sequences Jupiter-Uranus-Neptune and Jupiter-Saturn-Pluto, and two comets rendezvous missions involving the short period comets P/Tempel 2 and P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak. Results show the relative utility of onboard and Earth-based DSN navigation. The effects of parametric variations in navigation accuracy, measurement rate, and miscellaneous constraints are determined. The utility of a TV type onboard navigation sensor - sighting on planetary satellites and comets - is examined. Velocity corrections required for the nominal and parametrically varied cases are tabulated.

  8. Guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planets. Volume 2: impulsive high thrust missions, phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The impulsive, high thrust missions portion of a study on guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planet is presented. The proper balance between groundbased navigational capability, using the deep space network (DSN) alone, and an onboard navigational capability with and without supplemental use of DSN tracking, for unmanned missions to the outer planets of the solar system is defined. A general guidance and navigation requirements program is used to survey parametrically the characteristics associated with three types of navigation systems: (1) totally onboard, (2) totally Earth-based, and (3) a combination of these two.

  9. Latina/o Student Achievement: A Collaborative Mission of Professional Associations of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Patricia; Castillo, Linda G.

    2011-01-01

    Latina/o student achievement is a priority for the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE). To date, AAHHE has worked deliberately on this agenda. However, well-established higher education associations such as the Association of American Universities (AAU) and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) are…

  10. Use of Virtual Mission Operations Center Technology to Achieve JPDO's Virtual Tower Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Program Development Office has proposed that the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) consolidate control centers. NGATS would be managed from a few strategically located facilities with virtual towers and TRACONS. This consolidation is about combining the delivery locations for these services not about decreasing service. By consolidating these locations, cost savings in the order of $500 million have been projected. Evolving to spaced-based communication, navigation, and surveillance offers the opportunity to reduce or eliminate much of the ground-based infrastructure cost. Dynamically adjusted airspace offers the opportunity to reduce the number of sectors and boundary inconsistencies; eliminate or reduce "handoffs;" and eliminate the distinction between Towers, TRACONS, and Enroute Centers. To realize a consolidation vision for air traffic management there must be investment in networking. One technology that holds great potential is the use of Virtual Mission Operations Centers to provide secure, automated, intelligent management of the NGATS. This paper provides a conceptual framework for incorporating VMOC into the NGATS.

  11. Optimization of Crew Shielding Requirement in Reactor-Powered Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.

    2007-01-01

    On the surface of the moon -and not only during heightened solar activities- the radiation environment As such that crew protection will be required for missions lasting in excess of six months. This study focuses on estimating the optimized crew shielding requirement for lunar surface missions with a nuclear option. Simple, transport-simulation based dose-depth relations of the three (galactic, solar, and fission) radiation sources am employed in a 1-dimensional optimization scheme. The scheme is developed to estimate the total required mass of lunar-regolith separating reactor from crew. The scheme was applied to both solar maximum and minimum conditions. It is shown that savings of up to 30% in regolith mass can be realized. It is argued, however, that inherent variation and uncertainty -mainly in lunar regolith attenuation properties in addition to the radiation quality factor- can easily defeat this and similar optimization schemes.

  12. Optimization of Crew Shielding Requirement in Reactor-Powered Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2007-01-01

    On the surface of the moon and not only during heightened solar activities the radiation environment is such that crew protection will be required for missions lasting in excess of six months. This study focuses on estimating the optimized crew shielding requirement for lunar surface missions with a nuclear option. Simple, transport-simulation based dose-depth relations of the three radiation sources (galactic, solar, and fission) are employed in a one-dimensional optimization scheme. The scheme is developed to estimate the total required mass of lunar regolith separating reactor from crew. The scheme was applied to both solar maximum and minimum conditions. It is shown that savings of up to 30% in regolith mass can be realized. It is argued, however, that inherent variation and uncertainty mainly in lunar regolith attenuation properties in addition to the radiation quality factor can easily defeat this and similar optimization schemes.

  13. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, Stephan R.; Baker, David Frank; Schuh, Andrew E.; Abshire, James Brice; Browell, Edward V.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument.

  14. Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 1: Executive Summary. Volume 1: Mission trade studies and requirements. Volume 2: Subsystem trade studies and selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Michael; Denecke, Johan; Garber, Suzanne; Kader, Beth; Liu, Celia; Weintraub, Ben; Cazeau, Patrick; Goetz, John; Haughwout, James; Larson, Erik

    1992-01-01

    In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew to the lunar surface at any latitude and back to Earth with a 14-28 day stay on the lunar surface. Safety followed by cost of the Columbiad Mission were the top level priorities of HAC. The resulting design has a precursor mission that emplaces the required surface payloads before the piloted mission arrives. Both the precursor and piloted missions require two National Launch System (NLS) launches. Both the precursor and piloted mission have an Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) with a direct transit to the Moon post-EOR. The piloted mission returns to Earth via a direct transit. Included among the surface payloads preemplaced are a habitat, solar power plant (including fuel cells for the lunar night), lunar rover, and mechanisms used to cover the habitat with regolith (lunar soil) in order to protect the crew members from severe solar flare radiation.

  15. Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 1: Executive Summary. Volume 1: Mission trade studies and requirements. Volume 2: Subsystem trade studies and selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Michael; Denecke, Johan; Garber, Suzanne; Kader, Beth; Liu, Celia; Weintraub, Ben; Cazeau, Patrick; Goetz, John; Haughwout, James; Larson, Erik

    In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew to the lunar surface at any latitude and back to Earth with a 14-28 day stay on the lunar surface. Safety followed by cost of the Columbiad Mission were the top level priorities of HAC. The resulting design has a precursor mission that emplaces the required surface payloads before the piloted mission arrives. Both the precursor and piloted missions require two National Launch System (NLS) launches. Both the precursor and piloted mission have an Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) with a direct transit to the Moon post-EOR. The piloted mission returns to Earth via a direct transit. Included among the surface payloads preemplaced are a habitat, solar power plant (including fuel cells for the lunar night), lunar rover, and mechanisms used to cover the habitat with regolith (lunar soil) in order to protect the crew members from severe solar flare radiation.

  16. A consensus approach to planetary protection requirements: recommendations for Mars lander missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Meyer, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last several years, the nature of the surface conditions on the planet Mars, our knowledge of the growth capabilities of Earth organisms under extreme conditions, and future opportunities for Mars exploration have been under extensive review in the United States and elsewhere. As part of these examinations, in 1992 the US Space Studies Board made a series of recommendations to NASA on the requirements that should be implemented on future missions that will explore Mars. In particular, significant changes were recommended in the requirements for Mars landers, changes that significantly alleviated the burden of planetary protection implementation for these missions. In this paper we propose a resolution implementing this new set of recommendations, for adoption by COSPAR at its 30th meeting in Hamburg. We also discuss future directions and study areas for planetary protection, in light of changing plans for Mars exploration.

  17. A consensus approach to planetary protection requirements: recommendations for Mars lander missions.

    PubMed

    Rummel, J D; Meyer, M A

    1996-01-01

    Over the last several years, the nature of the surface conditions on the planet Mars, our knowledge of the growth capabilities of Earth organisms under extreme conditions, and future opportunities for Mars exploration have been under extensive review in the United States and elsewhere. As part of these examinations, in 1992 the US Space Studies Board made a series of recommendations to NASA on the requirements that should be implemented on future missions that will explore Mars. In particular, significant changes were recommended in the requirements for Mars landers, changes that significantly alleviated the burden of planetary protection implementation for these missions. In this paper we propose a resolution implementing this new set of recommendations, for adoption by COSPAR at its 30th meeting in Hamburg. We also discuss future directions and study areas for planetary protection, in light of changing plans for Mars exploration.

  18. Experiencing and Measuring the Unteachable: Achieving AACSB Learning Assurance Requirements in Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Katherine E.; Reed, Kendra L.; Locander, William

    2011-01-01

    The AACSB requires continuous improvement of business school outcomes through a comprehensive Assurance of Learning program. Measuring ethical decision making poses an interesting challenge for schools making it central to their mission. The authors provide an innovative and effective approach to assessing ethical decision making and closing the…

  19. Investigation of dust particles with future Russian lunar missions: achievements of further development of PmL instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Ilya; Zakharov, Alexander; Afonin, Valeri; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Lyash, Andrey; Dolnikov, Gennady; Popel, Sergey; Lisin, Evgeny

    2016-07-01

    , solar emission. Dust analyzer instrument PmL for future Russian lander missions intends for investigation the dynamics of dusty plasma near lunar surface. PmL consists of three parts in the case of Luna-Glob: Impact Sensor and two Electric Field Sensors (EFC). There are 9 parts of PmL instrument for Luna-Resource mission: two Impact Sensors, 5 EFC (three on the Boom and two on the lander) and 2 Solar Wind and Dust Analyzers. These days the engineering model of PmL for LG-mission is finished. We obtained first practical results from the simulating chambers with dust particles injectors and plasma inside. All the important achievements are presented in this report as well as the roadmap for further development of PmL instruments in both of Russian lunar missions.

  20. Leveraging Improvements in Precipitation Measuring from GPM Mission to Achieve Prediction Improvements in Climate, Weather and Hydrometeorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the GPM mission, currently planned for start in the 2007 time frame, is to investigate important scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing Operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US and the National Space Development Agency in Japan. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international partners and domestic scientific agencies and institutions, as well as participation by individual scientists from academia, government, and the private sector to fulfill mission goals and to pave

  1. Requirements assessment and operational demands for a resource mapping rover mission to the lunar polar regions

    SciTech Connect

    KLARER,PAUL R.; BINDER,ALAN B.; LENARD,ROGER X.

    2000-01-26

    A preliminary set of requirements for a robotic rover mission to the lunar polar region are described and assessed. Tasks to be performed by the rover include core drill sample acquisition, mineral and volatile soil content assay, and significant wide area traversals. Assessment of the postulated requirements is performed using first order estimates of energy, power, and communications throughput issues. Two potential rover system configurations are considered, a smaller rover envisioned as part of a group of multiple rovers, and a larger single rover envisioned along more traditional planetary surface rover concept lines.

  2. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and systems analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyland, R. E.; Sherman, S. W.; Morfin, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The crew capsule of the MOTV was studied with emphasis on crew accommodations, crew capsule functional requirements, subsystem interface definition between crew module and propulsion module, and man rating requirements. Competing mission modes were studied covering a wide range of propulsion concepts. These included one stage, one and one half stage, and two stage concepts using either the standard STS or an augmented STS. Several deorbit concepts were considered, including all propulsive modes, direct re-entry, and aeromaneuvering skip in skip out in the upper reaches of Earth's atmosphere. A five year plan covering costs, schedules, and critical technology issues is discussed.

  3. Advanced space power requirements and techniques. Task 1: Mission projections and requirements. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop projections of the NASA, DoD, and civil space power requirements for the 1980-1995 time period; (2) identify specific areas of application and space power subsystem type needs for each prospective user; (3) document the supporting and historical base, including relevant cost related measures of performance; and (4) quantify the benefits of specific technology projection advancements. The initial scope of the study included: (1) construction of likely models for NASA, DoD, and civil space systems; (2) generation of a number of future scenarios; (3) extraction of time phased technology requirements based on the scenarios; and (4) cost/benefit analyses of some of the technologies identified.

  4. Guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planets. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Unmanned spacecraft missions to the outer planets are of current interest to planetary scientists, and are being studied for the post 1970 time period. Flyby, entry and orbiter missions are all being considered using both direct and planetary swingby trajectory modes. The navigation and guidance requirements for a variety of missions to the outer planets and comets including both the three and four planet Grand Tours, are summarized.

  5. Analysis of Data in Accordance with Space Flight Mission Environmental Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shei, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Assurance Program sets forth standards to ensure that all flight hardware is compatible with the environments that will be encountered during a spacecraft mission. It outlines the design, test and analysis, and risk control standards for the mission and certifies that it will survive in any external or self-induced environments that the spacecraft may experience. The Environmental Requirements Document (ERD) is the most important document in the Environmental Assurance Program, providing the design and test requirements for the project's flight system, subsystems, assemblies, and instruments. This summer's project was to assist Environmental Requirements Engineers (ERE's) in completing the Environmental Assurance Program Summary Report for both the Juno Project and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project. The Summary Report is a document summarizing the environmental tests and analyses of each spacecraft at both the assembly and system level. It compiles a source of all relevant information such as waivers and Problem/Failure Reports (PFRs) into a single report for easy reference of how well the spacecraft met the requirements of the project.

  6. Mission-oriented requirements for updating MIL-H-8501: Calspan proposed structure and rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalk, C. R.; Radford, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the effort by Arvin/Calspan Corporation to formulate a revision of MIL-H-8501A in terms of Mission-Oriented Flying Qualities Requirements for Military Rotorcraft. Emphasis is placed on development of a specification structure which will permit addressing Operational Missions and Flight Phases, Flight Regions, Classification of Required Operational Capability, Categorization of Flight Phases, and Levels of Flying Qualities. A number of definitions is established to permit addressing the rotorcraft state, flight envelopes, environments, and the conditions under which degraded flying qualities are permitted. Tentative requirements are drafted for Required Operational Capability Class 1. Also included is a Background Information and Users Guide for the draft specification structure proposed for the MIL-H-8501A revision. The report also contains a discussion of critical data gaps and attempts to prioritize these data gaps and to suggest experiments that should be performed to generate data needed to support formulation of quantitative design criteria for the additional Operational Capability Classes 2, 3, and 4.

  7. The First Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of the mission manager in coordinating the payload with the space transportation system is studied. The establishment of the investigators working group to assist in achieving the mission objectives is examined. Analysis of the scientific requirements to assure compatibility with available resources, and analysis of the payload in order to define orbital flight requirements are described. The training of payload specialists, launch site integration, and defining the requirements for the operation of the integrated payload and the payload operations control center are functions of the mission manager. The experiences gained from the management of the Spacelab One Mission, which can be implemented in future missions, are discussed. Examples of material processing, earth observations, and life sciences advances from the First Spacelab Mission are presented.

  8. Assessment of Soil Moisture Data Requirements by the Potential SMAP Data User Community: Review of SMAP Mission User Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is planned for launch in October 2014 and will provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze thaw state. The project is driven by both basic research and applied science goals. Understanding how application driven end-users will apply SMAP data, prior to the satellite's launch, is an important goal of NASA's applied science program and SMAP mission success. Because SMAP data are unique, there are no direct proxy data sets that can be used in research and operational studies to determine how the data will interact with existing processes. The objective of this study is to solicit data requirements, accuracy needs, and current understanding of the SMAP mission from the potential user community. This study showed that the data to be provided by the SMAP mission did substantially meet the user community needs. Although there was a broad distribution of requirements stated, the SMAP mission fit within these requirements.

  9. SEPS mission and system integration/interface requirements for the space transportation system. [Solar Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Barnett, P. M.; Shaffer, J., Jr.; Doran, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Earth escape mission requirements on Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), and the interface definition and planned integration between SEPS, user spacecraft, and other elements of the STS. Emphasis is placed on the Comet rendezvous mission, scheduled to be the first SEPS user. Interactive SEPS interface characteristics with spacecraft and mission, as well as the multiple organizations and inter-related development schedules required to integrate the SEPS with spacecraft and STS, require early attention to definition of interfaces in order to assure a successful path to the first SEPS launch in July 1985

  10. Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David; Perry,Jay; Sargusingh, Miriam; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development on areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-situ maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  11. Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions: Recommendations from a 2009 NRC Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret; Farmer, Jack

    A 2009 report by the National Research Council (NRC) reviewed a previous study on Mars Sample Return (1997) and provided updated recommendations for future sample return mis-sions based on our current understanding about Mars and its biological potential, as well as advances in technology and analytical capabilities. The committee* made 12 specific recommen-dations that fall into three general categories—one related to current scientific understanding, ten based on changes in the technical and/or policy environment, and one aimed at public com-munication. Substantive changes from the 1997 report relate mainly to protocols and methods, technology and infrastructure, and general oversight. This presentation provides an overview of the 2009 report and its recommendations and analyzes how they may impact mission designs and plans. The full report, Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions is available online at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?recordi d = 12576 * Study participants: Jack D. Farmer, Arizona State University (chair) James F. Bell III, Cornell University Kathleen C. Benison, Central Michigan University William V. Boynton, University of Arizona Sherry L. Cady, Portland State University F. Grant Ferris, University of Toronto Duncan MacPherson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Margaret S. Race, SETI Institute Mark H. Thiemens, University of California, San Diego Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University

  12. Evaluation of the NASA Arc Jet Capabilities to Support Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony; Bruce, Walt; Gage, Peter; Horn, Dennis; Mastaler, Mike; Rigali, Don; Robey, Judee; Voss, Linda; Wahlberg, Jerry; Williams, Calvin

    2010-01-01

    NASA accomplishes its strategic goals through human and robotic exploration missions. Many of these missions require launching and landing or returning spacecraft with human or return samples through Earth's and other planetary atmospheres. Spacecraft entering an atmosphere are subjected to extreme aerothermal loads. Protecting against these extreme loads is a critical element of spacecraft design. The safety and success of the planned mission is a prime concern for the Agency, and risk mitigation requires the knowledgeable use of thermal protection systems to successfully withstand the high-energy states imposed on the vehicle. Arc jets provide ground-based testing for development and flight validation of re-entry vehicle thermal protection materials and are a critical capability and core competency of NASA. The Agency's primary hypersonic thermal testing capability resides at the Ames Research Center and the Johnson Space Center and was developed and built in the 1960s and 1970s. This capability was critical to the success of Apollo, Shuttle, Pioneer, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder, and Orion. But the capability and the infrastructure are beyond their design lives. The complexes urgently need strategic attention and investment to meet the future needs of the Agency. The Office of Chief Engineer (OCE) chartered the Arc Jet Evaluation Working Group (AJEWG), a team of experienced individuals from across the Nation, to capture perspectives and requirements from the arc jet user community and from the community that operates and maintains this capability and capacity. This report offers the AJEWG's findings and conclusions that are intended to inform the discussion surrounding potential strategic technical and investment strategies. The AJEWG was directed to employ a 30-year Agency-level view so that near-term issues did not cloud the findings and conclusions and did not dominate or limit any of the strategic options.

  13. Surface infrastructure functions, requirements and subsystems for a manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairchild, Kyle

    1986-01-01

    Planning and development for a permanently manned scientific outpost on Mars requires an in-depth understanding and analysis of the functions the outpost is expected to perform. The optimum configuration that accomplishes these functions then arises during the trade studies process. In a project this complex, it becomes necessary to use a formal methodology to document the design and planning process. The method chosen for this study is called top-down functional decomposition. This method is used to determine the functions that are needed to accomplish the overall mission, then determine what requirements and systems are needed to do each of the functions. This method facilitates automation of the trades and options process. In the example, this was done with an off-the shelf software package called TK! olver. The basic functions that a permanently manned outpost on Mars must accomplish are: (1) Establish the Life Critical Systems; (2) Support Planetary Sciences and Exploration; and (3) Develop and Maintain Long-term Support Functions, including those systems needed towards self-sufficiency. The top-down functional decomposition methology, combined with standard spread sheet software, offers a powerful tool to quickly assess various design trades and analyze options. As the specific subsystems, and the relational rule algorithms are further refined, it will be possible to very accurately determine the implications of continually evolving mission requirements.

  14. Requirements and design reference mission for the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Charley; Neville, Timothy; Pham, Hung; Rud, Mike; Tang, Hong; Villalvazo, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument takes advantage of AFTAs 2.4-meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes: Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, Lyot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architectures. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predicts the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  15. Interpreting Space-Mission LET Requirements for SEGR in Power MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, J. M.; Ladbury, R. L.; Batchelor, D. A.; Goldsman, N.; Kim, H. S.; Phan, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation-based method is developed to evaluate whether derating of high-energy heavy-ion accelerator test data bounds the risk for single-event gate rupture (SEGR) from much higher energy on-orbit ions for a mission linear energy transfer (LET) requirement. It is shown that a typical derating factor of 0.75 applied to a single-event effect (SEE) response curve defined by high-energy accelerator SEGR test data provides reasonable on-orbit hardness assurance, although in a high-voltage power MOSFET, it did not bound the risk of failure.

  16. Technology requirements for a square meter, arcsecond resolution telescope for x-rays: the SMART-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Ramirez, J. Israel; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2014-09-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  17. Technology Requirements for a Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Ramirez, J. Israel; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  18. External store effects on the stability of fighter and interceptor airplanes. [application to military aircraft mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Sawyer, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    Some criteria for external carriage of missiles for fighter aircraft intended for aerial combat missions and for fighter-interceptor missions are considered. The mission requirements discussed include the short-range fighter-interceptor, the short-range interceptor, the medium-range interceptor, and the long-range interceptor. Missiles types considered to be compatible with the various point mission designs include the short-range missile, the medium-range missile, and the long-range missile. From the study, it appears that point mission design aircraft can be arranged in such a way that the required external-store arrangement will not impair the stability of the aircraft. An extensive reference list of NASA external store research is included.

  19. Manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Terrapin Technologies proposes a Manned Mars Mission design study. The purpose of the Manned Mars Mission is to transport ten people and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an expedition of three months to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. These priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a waverider transfer module. Information is given on how the plan meets the mission requirements.

  20. Using Achieving the Dream to Meet Accreditation Requirements. Principles and Practices of Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Terri Mulkins

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental concepts of Achieving the Dream--using evidence to develop and evaluate strategies for improving student learning and success--are also important to successful efforts to meet accreditation requirements. Following the Achieving the Dream approach can help community colleges organize and document improvement efforts in ways that are…

  1. A SLAM II simulation model for analyzing space station mission processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Space station mission processing is modeled via the SLAM 2 simulation language on an IBM 4381 mainframe and an IBM PC microcomputer with 620K RAM, two double-sided disk drives and an 8087 coprocessor chip. Using a time phased mission (payload) schedule and parameters associated with the mission, orbiter (space shuttle) and ground facility databases, estimates for ground facility utilization are computed. Simulation output associated with the science and applications database is used to assess alternative mission schedules.

  2. Display requirements for the final approach and landing phase of an RPV mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A two part investigation was conducted to determine the display requirements for the final approach and landing phase of a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) mission, and to assess the relative merits of several possible display configurations. The objective of the first part of the investigation was to obtain subjective assessments of several display configurations, and to select the most promising display concepts for subsequent evaluation in terms of performance measures. A basic display consisting of a perspective image of terrain and runway, a horizon bar and an aircraft symbol was used, and guidance symbology was added to the basic displaying selected state variables. Initial results suggested that as guidance symbology is added to the basic display, pilot acceptance tends to increase. A point of diminishing returns is eventually reached, however, when additional information produces too much clutter, and makes it difficult for the pilot to process the displayed information.

  3. Advanced space power requirements and techniques. Task 1: Mission projections and requirements. Volume 3: Appendices. [cost estimates and computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Contents: (1) general study guidelines and assumptions; (2) launch vehicle performance and cost assumptions; (3) satellite programs 1959 to 1979; (4) initiative mission and design characteristics; (5) satellite listing; (6) spacecraft design model; (7) spacecraft cost model; (8) mission cost model; and (9) nominal and optimistic budget program cost summaries.

  4. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 3: Mission and System Requirements for the Total Earth Resources System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Resource management missions to be performed by TERSSE are described. Mission and user requirements are defined along with information flows developed for each major resource management mission. Other topics discussed include: remote sensing platforms, remote sensor requirements, ground system architecture, and such related issues as cloud cover, resolution, orbit mechanics, and aircraft versus satellite.

  5. Determining Exercise Strength Requirements for Astronaut Critical Mission Tasks: Reaching Under G-Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The critical mission tasks assessments effort seeks to determine the physical performance requirements that astronauts must meet in order to safely and successfully accomplish lunar exploration missions. These assessments will determine astronaut preflight strength, fitness, and flexibility requirements, and the extent to which exercise and other countermeasures must prevent the physical deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The purpose is to determine the flexibility and strength that crewmembers must possess in order to reach Crew Exploration Vehicle controls during maneuvers that result in sustained acceleration levels ranging from 3.7G to 7.8G. An industry standard multibody dynamics application was used to create human models representing a 5th percentile female, a 50th percentile male, and a 95th percentile male. The additional mass of a space suit sleeve was added to the reaching arm to account for the influence of the suit mass on the reaching effort. The human model was merged with computer models of a pilot seat and control panel for the Crew Exploration Vehicle. Three dimensional paths were created that guided the human models hand from a starting position alongside its thigh to three control targets: a joystick, a keyboard, and an overhead switch panel. The reaching motion to each target was repeated under four vehicle acceleration conditions: nominal ascent (3.7G), two ascent aborts (5.5G and 7.8G) and lunar reentry (4.6G). Elbow and shoulder joint angular excursions were analyzed to assess range of motion requirements. Mean and peak elbow and shoulder joint torques were determined and converted to equivalent resistive exercise loads to assess strength requirements. Angular excursions for the 50th and 95th percentile male models remained within joint range of motion limits. For the 5th percentile female, both the elbow and the shoulder exceeded range of motion limits during the overhead reach. Elbow joint torques ranged from 10 N

  6. Systems engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford cleanup mission. First issue, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This addendum provides the technical detail of a systems engineering functional analysis for the Hanford cleanup mission. Details of the mission analysis including mission statement, scope, problem statement, initial state definition, and final state definition are provided in the parent document. The functional analysis consists of Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams an definitions, which will be understood by systems engineers, but which may be difficult for others to comprehend. For a more complete explanation of this work, refer to the parent document. The analysis covers the total Hanford cleanup mission including the decomposition levels at which the various Hanford programs or integrated activities are encountered.

  7. The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) mission: Objectives and Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, J.; Bergametti, G.; Bovensmann, H.; Flaud, J.; Orphal, J.; Noel, S.; Monks, P.; Corlett, G.; Goede, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Steck, T.; Fischer, H.; Friedl-Vallon, F.

    One of the major challenges facing atmospheric sciences is to assess, understand and quantify the impact of natural and anthropogenic pollution on the quality of life on Earth on a local, regional and continental scale. It has become apparent that pollution originating from local/regional events can have serious effects on the composition of the lower atmosphere on a continental scale. However, to understand the effects of regional pollution on a continental scale there is a requirement to transcend traditional atmospheric spatial and temporal scales and attempt to monitor the entire atmosphere at the same time. In the troposphere the variability of chemical processes, of source strength and the dynamics induce important short term, i.e. sub-hourly, variations and significant horizontal and vertical variability of constituents and geophysical parameters relevant to a range of contemporary issues such as air quality. To study tropospheric composition, it is therefore required to link diurnal with seasonal and annual timescales, as well as local and regional with continental spatial scales, by performing sub-hourly measurements at appropriate horizontal and vertical resolution. Tropospheric observations from low-Earth orbit (LEO) platforms have already demonstrated the potential of detecting constituents relevant for air quality but they are limited, for example by the daily revisit time and local cloud cover statistics. The net result of this is is that the troposphere is currently significantly under sampled. Measurements from Geostationary Orbit (GEO) offer the only practical approach to the observation of diurnal variation from space with the pertinent horizontal resolution. The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) is an attempt to determine tropospheric constituents with high temporal and spatial resolution. The talk will summarise the needs for geostationary observations of tropospheric composition and will give the mission objectives and

  8. An overview of NASA's projected mission requirements for space nuclear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Smith, William L.; Stetson, Douglas S.

    1993-01-01

    The near-term ongoing NASA space nuclear program is the Cassini mission to Saturn which will use three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Beyond that NASA is studying a Pluto Fast Flyby mission which will challenge the space power community to produce a low-mass RTG. Another candidate RTG mission is the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) mission to emplace a number of probes on the surface of Mars to obtain a more global survey of the planet than was accomplished with the two Viking Landers. Looking toward the 21st century, there are a number of exciting planetary missions, such as the Jupiter Grand Tour, Outer Planet Orbiters/Probes, comet/asteroid rendezvous/sample return, which are enabled or greatly enhanced by nuclear reactor power coupled with electric propulsion.

  9. Data Handling for EO-Missions with High Data Rates Requiring Low Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penné, B.; Tobehn, C.; Rathje, R.; Michalik, H.

    2008-08-01

    High spatial or spectral resolution optical or SAR Earth observation missions set requirements for high data rate and volume. The limited downlink bandwidth on the other hand can be overcome by recently new technolo- gies within the transmitter technology on one side and the data pre-processing and/or compression on-board on the other side. This advanced architecture for space- borne high speed payload data handling system (PDHS) is an important element to process more data with even smaller system to gain significant the overall system effectiveness. The PDHS chain introduces the advantages of channel link and IEEE 1355 space wire standards to provide scaleable redundancy and performance. The modules of the chain like on-board data processing (LEON proces- sor) feature data pre-processing, compression, and trun- cation of data to the area of interest as well as data stor- age, data formatting (CCSDS), data encryption and downlink. The system comprises also the complete ground test equipment for verification of the PDHS as stand-alone units, at subsystem level and for complete system tests during satellite AIV. The OHB-System experience gained from development of PDHS within three projects MSRS, KOMPSAT II and SAR-Lupe, form the baseline of our PDHS, that reaches several Gbit/s input rate and an output rate of about 500 up to 1000 Mbit/s using dual polarisation techniques at X-Band at considerable low resources.

  10. Preliminary estimates of galactic cosmic ray shielding requirements for manned interplanetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Estimates of radiation risk to the blood forming organs from galactic cosmic rays are presented for manned interplanetary missions. The calculations use the Naval Research Laboratory cosmic ray spectrum model as input into the Langley Research Center galactic cosmic ray transport code. This transport code, which transports both heavy ions and nucleons, can be used with any number of layers of target material, consisting of up to five different constituents per layer. Calculated galactic cosmic ray doses and dose equivalents behind various thicknesses of aluminum and water shielding are presented for solar maximum and solar minimum periods. Estimates of risk to the blood forming organs are made using 5 cm depth dose/dose equivalent values for water. These results indicate that at least 5 g/sq cm (5 cm) of water of 6.5 g/sq cm (2.4 cm) of aluminum shield is required to reduce annual exposure below the current recommended limit of 50 rem. Because of the large uncertainties in fragmentation parameters, and the input cosmic ray spectrum, these exposure estimates may be uncertain by as much as 70 percent. Therefore, more detailed analyses with improved inputs could indicate the need for additional shielding.

  11. The Habitable Exoplanet (HabEx) Imaging Mission: preliminary science drivers and technical requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennesson, Bertrand; Gaudi, Scott; Seager, Sara; Cahoy, Kerri; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Feinberg, Lee; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, Jeremy; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Tamura, Motohide; Mouillet, David; Prusti, Timo; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Robinson, Tyler; Rogers, Leslie; Scowen, Paul; Somerville, Rachel; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stern, Daniel; Still, Martin; Turnbull, Margaret; Booth, Jeffrey; Kiessling, Alina; Kuan, Gary; Warfield, Keith

    2016-07-01

    HabEx is one of four candidate flagship missions being studied in detail by NASA, to be submitted for consideration to the 2020 Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics for possible launch in the 2030s. It will be optimized for direct imaging and spectroscopy of potentially habitable exoplanets, and will also enable a wide range of general astrophysics science. HabEx aims to fully characterize planetary systems around nearby solar-type stars for the first time, including rocky planets, possible water worlds, gas giants, ice giants, and faint circumstellar debris disks. In particular, it will explore our nearest neighbors and search for signs of habitability and biosignatures in the atmospheres of rocky planets in the habitable zones of their parent stars. Such high spatial resolution, high contrast observations require a large (roughly greater than 3.5m), stable, and diffraction-limited optical space telescope. Such a telescope also opens up unique capabilities for studying the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies. We present some preliminary science objectives identified for HabEx by our Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT), together with a first look at the key challenges and design trades ahead.

  12. Guidance and Navigation Requirements for Unmanned Flyby and Swingby Missions to the Outer Planets. Volume 3; Low Thrust Missions, Phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned missions to the outer planets, assuming constant, low thrust, ion propulsion are discussed. The navigational capability of the ground based Deep Space Network is compared to the improvements in navigational capability brought about by the addition of guidance and navigation related onboard sensors. Relevant onboard sensors include: (1) the optical onboard navigation sensor, (2) the attitude reference sensors, and (3) highly sensitive accelerometers. The totally ground based, and the combination ground based and onboard sensor systems are compared by means of the estimated errors in target planet ephemeris, and the spacecraft position with respect to the planet.

  13. Training resident physicians in fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy. How many supervised examinations are required to achieve competence?

    PubMed

    Hawes, R; Lehman, G A; Hast, J; O'Connor, K W; Crabb, D W; Lui, A; Christiansen, P A

    1986-03-01

    Twenty-five resident physicians performed 495 fiberoptic sigmoidoscopic examinations that were graded for overall skill according to a six-point competence scale. In general, 24 to 30 examinations were required to become competent at fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy. Trainees with prior rigid sigmoidoscopy experience achieved competence more quickly than those with no prior rigid sigmoidoscopy experience. As experience increased, unassisted insertion distance and luminal visualization increased, insertion time and assisted time decreased, and management scores and percent correct diagnoses improved. Trainees detected 93 to 100 percent of polyps and cancers viewed by the experienced sigmoidoscopist once competence was achieved. These data indicate that programs for training primary care physicians in fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy are feasible, help define the number of examinations required to become competent, and indicate that such trainees should be effective in cancer screening.

  14. Defining departmental mission.

    PubMed

    Hartman, M D; Barrow, J A; Sawyer, W R

    1990-02-01

    Mission statements have long been recognized by corporate America as a way to define an enterprise. The necessary business orientation of the health care industry requires that hospitals and hospital departments define their scope of services and reason for existence. The accelerating reprofessionalization affecting departments of pharmacy requires the same. "Improving the quality of patient care" can no longer represent a euphemism for simply reacting to external factors or acting on a whim without clear meaningful intent. Professional departments and hospitals must demonstrate a sense of direction and purpose and be able to justify costs to a budget-conscious management and skeptical public. Mission statements are not substitutes for a clearly defined sense of professional mission. However, well-constructed mission statements contribute to clarity of departmental and professional purpose and effective achievement of goals. PMID:10128549

  15. Covenant model of corporate compliance. "Corporate integrity" program meets mission, not just legal, requirements.

    PubMed

    Tuohey, J F

    1998-01-01

    Catholic healthcare should establish comprehensive compliance strategies, beyond following Medicare reimbursement laws, that reflect mission and ethics. A covenant model of business ethics--rather than a self-interest emphasis on contracts--can help organizations develop a creed to focus on obligations and trust in their relationships. The corporate integrity program (CIP) of Mercy Health System Oklahoma promotes its mission and interests, educates and motivates its employees, provides assurance of systemwide commitment, and enforces CIP policies and procedures. Mercy's creed, based on its mission statement and core values, articulates responsibilities regarding patients and providers, business partners, society and the environment, and internal relationships. The CIP is carried out through an integrated network of committees, advocacy teams, and an expanded institutional review board. Two documents set standards for how Mercy conducts external affairs and clarify employee codes of conduct. PMID:10181597

  16. Covenant model of corporate compliance. "Corporate integrity" program meets mission, not just legal, requirements.

    PubMed

    Tuohey, J F

    1998-01-01

    Catholic healthcare should establish comprehensive compliance strategies, beyond following Medicare reimbursement laws, that reflect mission and ethics. A covenant model of business ethics--rather than a self-interest emphasis on contracts--can help organizations develop a creed to focus on obligations and trust in their relationships. The corporate integrity program (CIP) of Mercy Health System Oklahoma promotes its mission and interests, educates and motivates its employees, provides assurance of systemwide commitment, and enforces CIP policies and procedures. Mercy's creed, based on its mission statement and core values, articulates responsibilities regarding patients and providers, business partners, society and the environment, and internal relationships. The CIP is carried out through an integrated network of committees, advocacy teams, and an expanded institutional review board. Two documents set standards for how Mercy conducts external affairs and clarify employee codes of conduct.

  17. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB’s) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  18. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    ​While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  19. Formulation of detailed consumables management models for the development (preoperational) period of advanced space transportation system. Volume 1: Detailed requirements for the mission planning processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed requirements for the mission planning processor are documented. The mission planning processor is a user oriented tool for consumables management and is part of the total consumables subsystem management concept. A quasi top-down approach was applied to the design of the mission planning processor. Interface requirements, input/output, and data base concepts were considered before computational processing. Existing analytical models were investigated for applicability before new models were developed. The mission planning processor was designed for an interactive system using demand terminals for input/outputdisplay and interfacing with an updateable mission data bank. The control and support routines provide the user interface, peripheral data handling, program control, and support functions required by the mission planning processor for execution on an interactive system. A description, interface requirements, definition of internal variables, listing of input data, processing flow diagram, and listing of output data are presented for each routine.

  20. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  1. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  2. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and system analysis study extension. Manned Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV) capabilities handbook and user guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The primary change in crew capsule definition is a smaller MOTV crew capsule, switching from a 3-man capsule to a 2-man capsule. A second change permitted crew accommodations for sleeping and privacy to be combined with the flight station. The current baseline DRM, ER1, requires 2 men for 3 to 4 days to repair a multi-disciplined GOE Platform and a modest amount of mission dedicated hardware. A 2-man MOTV crew capsule to be used as a design reference point for the OTV, and its interfaces between the STS and other associated equipment or facilities are described in detail. The functional capabilities of the 2-man capsule, as well as its application to a wide range of generic missions, is also presented. The MOTV turnaround is addressed and significant requirements for both space based and ground based scenarios are summarized.

  3. Science and Measurement Requirements for a Plant Physiology and Functional Types Mission: Measuring the Composition, Function and Health of Global Land and Coastal Ocean Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Rogez, Francois; Green, Rob; Ungar, Steve; Knox, Robert; Asner, Greg; Muller-Karger, Frank; Bissett, Paul; Chekalyuk, Alex; Dierssen, Heidi; Gamon, John; Hook, Simon; Meister, Gerhard; Middleton, Betsy; Ollinger, Scott; Roberts, Dar; Siegel, Dave; Townsend, Phil; Saatchi, Sassan; Unstin, Susan; Turner, Woody; Wickland, Diane; Bontempi, Paula; Emanuel, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed Plant Physiology and Functional Types (PPFT) Mission. The National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, placed a critical priority on a Mission to observe distribution and changes in ecosystem functions. The PPFT satellite mission provides the essential measurements needed to assess drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystem services that affect human welfare. The presentation reviews the science questions that the mission will be designed to answer, the science rationale, the science measurements, the mission concept, the planned instrumentation, the calibration method, and key signal to noise ratios and uniformity requirements.

  4. The Effects of Reducing the Structural Mass of the Transit Habitat on the Cryogenic Propellant Required for a Human Phobos Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John Joseph

    2016-01-01

    A technique for rapidly determining the relationship between the pressurized volume, structural mass and the cryogenic propellant required to be delivered to Earth orbit for a Mars Transit Habitat is provided. This technique is based on assumptions for the required delta-V's, the Exploration Upper Stage performance and the historical structural masses for human spacecraft from Mercury Program through the International Space Station. If the Mars Transit Habitat is constructed from aluminum, structural mass estimates based on the habitat pressurized volume are accurate to within 15%. Other structural material options for the Mars Transit Habitat are also evaluated. The results show that small, achievable reductions in the structural mass of the Transit Habitat can save tens of thousands of pounds of cryogenic propellant that need to be delivered to Earth orbit for a human Phobos Mission.

  5. The Effects of Reducing the Structural Mass of the Transit Habitat on the Cryogenic Propellant Required for a Human Phobos Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A technique for rapidly determining the relationship between the pressurized volume, structural mass and the cryogenic propellant required to be delivered to Earth orbit for a Mars Transit Habitat is provided. This technique is based on assumptions for the required delta-V's, the Exploration Upper Stage performance and the historical structural masses for human spacecraft from Mercury Program through the International Space Station. If the Mars Transit Habitat is constructed from aluminum, structural mass estimates based on the habitat pressurized volume are accurate to within 15 percent. Other structural material options for the Mars Transit Habitat are also evaluated. The results show that small, achievable reductions in the structural mass of the Transit Habitat can save tens of thousands of pounds of cryogenic propellant that need to be delivered to Earth orbit for a human Phobos Mission.

  6. Mission requirements for a manned earth observatory. Volume 1, task 1: Experiment selection, definition, and documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Information related to proposed earth observation experiments for shuttle sortie missions (SSM) in the 1980's is presented. The step-wise progression of study activities and the development of the rationale that led to the identification, selection, and description of earth observation experiments for SSM are listed. The selected experiments are described, defined, and documented by individual disciplines. These disciplines include: oceanography; meteorology; agriculture, forestry, and rangeland; geology; hydrology; and environmental impact.

  7. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  8. Lunar scout missions: Galileo encounter results and application to scientific problems and exploration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Belton, M.; Greeley, R.; Pieters, C.; Mcewen, A.; Neukum, G.; Mccord, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Lunar Scout Missions (payload: x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, high-resolution stereocamera, neutron spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, imaging spectrometer, gravity experiment) will provide a global data set for the chemistry, mineralogy, geology, topography, and gravity of the Moon. These data will in turn provide an important baseline for the further scientific exploration of the Moon by all-purpose landers and micro-rovers, and sample return missions from sites shown to be of primary interest from the global orbital data. These data would clearly provide the basis for intelligent selection of sites for the establishment of lunar base sites for long-term scientific and resource exploration and engineering studies. The two recent Galileo encounters with the Moon (December, 1990 and December, 1992) illustrate how modern technology can be applied to significant lunar problems. We emphasize the regional results of the Galileo SSI to show the promise of geologic unit definition and characterization as an example of what can be done with the global coverage to be obtained by the Lunar Scout Missions.

  9. Implementation of a complex of measures to fulfill the planetary protection requirements of the ExoMars-2016 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamidullina, Natalia; Novikova, Nataliya; Deshevaya, Elena; Orlov, Oleg; Guridov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Dmitry; Zaytseva, Olga

    2016-07-01

    The major purpose of the planetary protection program in the ExoMars-2016 mission is to forestall Mars contamination by terrestrial microorganisms. Since Martian descent module is not intended for biological experiments, ExoMars-2016 mission falls under COSPAR category IVa. Within the joint project co-sponsored by ESA and Roscosmos the European side holds full responsibility for ensuring a prescribed level of SC microbiological purity, while the Russian side is charged with compliance of the launch services provided on Baikonur technical complex with the planetary protection requirements that is, specifically, prevention of SC recontamination. To this end, a complex of measures was executed to control microbial contamination of cosmodrome facilities on the prescribed level which included: - regular decontamination of clean rooms using an effective disinfectant and impulse ultraviolet radiation that created favorable conditions for reliable functioning of the ESA clean tent, - replacement of airline filters in the Thermal Conditioning Unit (TCU) air duct for SC conditioning with pure air. The results of microbiological tests performed in the period of 2015 - 2016 lead to the conclusion that the Baikonur clean rooms (ISO class 8), TCU air ducts and Air Thermal Control System (ATCS) at launch site are ready for the launch campaign and that the Russian side fulfilled the planetary protection requirements of the ExoMars-2016 mission.

  10. Optimization of Instrument Requirements for NASAs GEO-CAPE Coastal Mission Concept Based On Sensor Capability And Cost Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    NASA's GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEOCAPE) mission concept recommended by the U.S. National Research Council (2007) focuses on measurements of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and aquatic coastal ecology and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit (35,786 km altitude). GEO-CAPE is currently in pre-formulation (pre- Phase) A with no established launch date. NASA continues to support science and engineering studies to reduce mission risk. Instrument design lab (IDL) studies were commissioned in 2014 to design and cost two implementations for geostationary ocean color instruments (1) Wide-Angle Spectrometer (WAS) and (2) Filter Radiometer (FR) and (3) a cost scaling study to compare the costs for implementing different science performance requirements.

  11. Measurement requirements for a Near-Earth Asteroid impact mitigation demonstration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolters, Stephen D.; Ball, Andrew J.; Wells, Nigel; Saunders, Christopher; McBride, Neil

    2011-10-01

    A concept for an Impact Mitigation Preparation Mission, called Don Quijote, is to send two spacecrafts to a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA): an Orbiter and an Impactor. The Impactor collides with the asteroid while the Orbiter measures the resulting change in the asteroid's orbit, by means of a Radio Science Experiment (RSE) carried out before and after the impact. Three parallel Phase A studies on Don Quijote were carried out for the European Space Agency: the research presented here reflects the outcomes of the study by QinetiQ. We discuss the mission objectives with regard to the prioritisation of payload instruments, with emphasis on the interpretation of the impact. The Radio Science Experiment is described and it is examined how solar radiation pressure may increase the uncertainty in measuring the orbit of the target asteroid. It is determined that to measure the change in orbit accurately a thermal IR spectrometer is mandatory, to measure the Yarkovsky effect. The advantages of having a laser altimeter are discussed. The advantages of a dedicated wide-angle impact camera are discussed and the field-of-view is initially sized through a simple model of the impact.

  12. A Launch Requirements Trade Study for Active Space Radiation Shielding for Long Duration Human Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Bollweg, Ken; Martin, Trent; Westover, Shayne; Battiston, Roberto; Burger, William J.; Meinke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A trade study for an active shielding concept based on magnetic fields in a solenoid configuration versus mass based shielding was developed. Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the radiation exposure for two values of the magnetic field strength and the mass of the magnetic shield configuration. For each field strength, results were reported for the magnetic region shielding (end caps ignored) and total region shielding (end caps included but no magnetic field protection) configurations. A value of 15 cSv was chosen to be the maximum exposure for an astronaut. The radiation dose estimate over the total shield region configuration cannot be used at this time without a better understanding of the material and mass present in the end cap regions through a detailed vehicle design. The magnetic shield region configuration, assuming the end cap regions contribute zero exposure, can be launched on a single Space Launch System rocket and up to a two year mission can be supported. The magnetic shield region configuration results in two versus nine launches for a comparable mass based shielding configuration. The active shielding approach is clearly more mass efficient because of the reduced number of launches than the mass based shielding for long duration missions.

  13. [Ethics and occupational physicians: ethics and mission required for occupational physicians].

    PubMed

    Fujino, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    The ethics of occupational physicians are considered from the following three viewpoints: (1) their legal standing and ethics in job execution; (2) ethics in research in occupational medicine; and (3) ethics in the 21st century and fundamental issues. We discuss: in (1), the contract types of occupational physicians and their independency and neutrality, the protection of health information and privacy, and the use of authority and the security measures; in (2), ethical standards of medical research in Japanese and international organizations, the significance and role of ethics committees, and issues characteristic of occupational health research; and in (3), occupational physicians and politic ethics, the practical abilities and ethics necessary for occupational physicians, and the practice and philosophy of occupational medicine as an art. These considerations suggest that occupational physicians, who have a special status based on the governmental policy of the occupational physician system, should develop an ethical consciousness at the core of their duties and perform their mission with responsibility to employees and employers, all of whom are Japanese citizens. Finally, we propose that the ultimate mission of occupational physicians is "to practice occupational medicine as a branch of the humanities."

  14. Current Trends of High-Throughput Methods for Planetary Protection Requirements Associated with a Human Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouia, F.; Peyvan, K.; Santos, O.; Pohorille, A.

    2015-03-01

    We will discuss which “omics” technologies are currently amenable to adaptations for space applications and how these adaptations can be achieved to be ready for deployment on-board spacecraft in the next few years.

  15. Guiding Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development in areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-flight maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  16. Mission requirements CSM-111/DM-2 Apollo/Soyuz test project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmer, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Test systems are developed for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft and stations that are suitable for use as a standard international system. This includes the rendezvous and docking of Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft, and crew transfer. The conduct of the mission will include: (1) testing of compatible rendezvous systems in orbit; (2) testing of universal docking assemblies; (3) verifying the techniques for transfer of cosmonauts and astronauts; (4) performing certain activities by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. crews in joint flight; and (5) gaining of experience in conducting joint flights by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. spacecraft, including, in case of necessity, rendering aid in emergency situations.

  17. Physical Property Requirements of a Target Asteroid for a Mitigation Demonstration Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drube, Line; Harris, Alan; Barucci, A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Perna, D.

    2012-10-01

    As part of the NEOShield project we are carrying out a statistical investigation of the properties of the known NEO population, using the latest published data, with the aim of estimating the most likely mitigation-relevant physical properties of the first threatening NEO to trigger a space-borne mitigation campaign. A major aim of NEOShield is to pave the way for a mitigation demonstration mission, including an appropriate and realistic choice of target NEO. Our investigation focuses on the physical properties of the most frequent serious impactors. We define a serious impactor to be one with the potential to lead to major loss of life and damage to infrastructure. At the low end of the size range our definition includes atmospheric events such as the 1908 Tunguska explosion, caused by a body with a diameter of around 50 m. We consider the upper limit of our diameter range of interest to be around 200 m: for objects above this size the impact frequency drops below 1 per 10 000 years. The small sizes of the NEOs in question present technical difficulties for mitigation planning. The complexity and chances of failure of a mitigation mission increase with decreasing diameter below a few hundred meters due to, e.g., the difficulties of targeting and maneuvering around an optically faint, low-gravity object. Further complications arise due to the fact that rotation rates and shapes tend to be more extreme in the case of such small NEOs. Very little is known about the mitigation-relevant properties of small NEOs. An important aspect of our study is to determine to what extent common assumptions about NEO physical properties are justified for mitigation planning, and identify the most critical areas of ignorance. We present and briefly discuss results obtained to date. Funded under EU FP7 program agreement no. 282703.

  18. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 3, attachment 1, task 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and systems architectural requirements of the space station program are described. The system design is determined by user requirements. Investigated topics include physical and life science experiments, commercial utilization, U.S. national security, and remote space operations. The economic impact of the space station program is analyzed.

  19. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 2, task 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Mission areas analyzed for input to the baseline mission model include: (1) commercial materials processing, including representative missions for producing metallurgical, chemical and biological products; (2) commercial Earth observation, represented by a typical carry-on mission amenable to commercialization; (3) solar terrestrial and resource observations including missions in geoscience and scientific land observation; (4) global environment, including representative missions in meteorology, climatology, ocean science, and atmospheric science; (5) materials science, including missions for measuring material properties, studying chemical reactions and utilizing the high vacuum-pumping capacity of space; and (6) life sciences with experiments in biomedicine and animal and plant biology.

  20. Frequency standards requirements of the NASA deep space network to support outer planet missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fliegel, H. F.; Chao, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    Navigation of Mariner spacecraft to Jupiter and beyond will require greater accuracy of positional determination than heretofore obtained if the full experimental capabilities of this type of spacecraft are to be utilized. Advanced navigational techniques which will be available by 1977 include Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), three-way Doppler tracking (sometimes called quasi-VLBI), and two-way Doppler tracking. It is shown that VLBI and quasi-VLBI methods depend on the same basic concept, and that they impose nearly the same requirements on the stability of frequency standards at the tracking stations. It is also shown how a realistic modelling of spacecraft navigational errors prevents overspecifying the requirements to frequency stability.

  1. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies required to... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies...

  2. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies required to... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies...

  3. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth- Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time.

  4. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  5. Manned maneuvering unit mission definition study. Volume 1: MMU applications analysis and performance requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Applications of Manned Maneuvering Units (MMU'S) to the space shuttle program are identified and described. The applications analyses included studies of the shuttle orbiter, orbiter subsystems, and both Sortie and Automated Payloads. Based on practicable MMU applications, general performance and control requirements for shuttle supporting maneuvering units are defined and compared to units evaluated on Skylab. The results of the MMU applications analyses and the general MMU performance and control requirements are presented. To describe a versatile utility-type maneuvering unit, conceptual designs of MMU support subsystems and ancillary equipment were prepared. Concepts for attaching and securing the MMU crewman to various vehicles, structure configurations, and rescue systems were developed. Concepts for ancillary provisions are reported.

  6. How to meet intersatellite links mission requirements by an adequate optical terminal design?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchmann, O.; Planche, G.

    1991-06-01

    The SILEX system involves a large set of advanced techniques and technologies which need to be merged and confronted. A macroscopic approach makes it possible to consider an optical terminal, with reference to common space fields of activities as a combination of a communication payload, an attitude and orbit control system, an optical instrument, and an on-board data handling system. It requires great technical expertise in areas commonly mastered in these techniques, namely, highly sensitive detectors such as coupled charge detector matrices, avalanche photodiodes, accurate and/or high bandwidth pointing and steering mechanisms, high optical quality mirrors and optical coatings, and accurate thermal control. Basic system and engineering tasks are to be mastered to combine them in an optimal way. This calls, among other things, for requirements analysis to derive the main design drivers and specific constraints with respect to each technique involved, and sizing and configuration of the system.

  7. Earth Entry Requirements for Mars, Europa and Enceladus Sample Return Missions: A Thermal Protection System Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gage, Peter; Ellerby, Don; Mahzari, Milad; Peterson, Keith; Stackpoole, Mairead; Young, Zion

    2016-01-01

    This oral presentation will be given at the 13th International Planetary Probe Workshop on June 14th, 2016 and will cover the drivers for reliability and the challenges faced in selecting and designing the thermal protection system (TPS). In addition, an assessment is made on new emerging TPS related technologies that could help with designs to meet the planetary protection requirements to prevent backward (Earth) contamination by biohazardous samples.

  8. A new methodology to integrate planetary quarantine requirements into mission planning, with application to a Jupiter orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R. A.; North, D. W.; Pezier, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed for integrating planetary quarantine objectives into space exploration planning. This methodology is designed to remedy the major weaknesses inherent in the current formulation of planetary quarantine requirements. Application of the methodology is illustrated by a tutorial analysis of a proposed Jupiter Orbiter mission. The proposed methodology reformulates planetary quarantine planning as a sequential decision problem. Rather than concentrating on a nominal plan, all decision alternatives and possible consequences are laid out in a decision tree. Probabilities and values are associated with the outcomes, including the outcome of contamination. The process of allocating probabilities, which could not be made perfectly unambiguous and systematic, is replaced by decomposition and optimization techniques based on principles of dynamic programming. Thus, the new methodology provides logical integration of all available information and allows selection of the best strategy consistent with quarantine and other space exploration goals.

  9. An analysis of approach navigation accuracy and guidance requirements for the grand tour mission to the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. W.

    1971-01-01

    The navigation and guidance process for the Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus planetary encounter phases of the 1977 Grand Tour interior mission was simulated. Reference approach navigation accuracies were defined and the relative information content of the various observation types were evaluated. Reference encounter guidance requirements were defined, sensitivities to assumed simulation model parameters were determined and the adequacy of the linear estimation theory was assessed. A linear sequential estimator was used to provide an estimate of the augmented state vector, consisting of the six state variables of position and velocity plus the three components of a planet position bias. The guidance process was simulated using a nonspherical model of the execution errors. Computation algorithms which simulate the navigation and guidance process were derived from theory and implemented into two research-oriented computer programs, written in FORTRAN.

  10. Solid rocket motor certification to meet space shuttle requirements from challenge to achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. Q.; Kilminster, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three solid rocket motor (SRM) design requirements for the Space Shuttle were discussed. No existing solid rocket motor experience was available for the requirement for a thrust-time trace, twenty uses for the principle hardware, and a moveable nozzle with an 8 deg. omnivaxial vectoring capability. The solutions to these problems are presented.

  11. How Changes in Entry Requirements Alter the Teacher Workforce and Affect Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2006-01-01

    We are in the midst of what amounts to a national experiment in how best to attract, prepare, and retain teachers, particularly for high-poverty urban schools. Using data on students and teachers in grades 3-8, this study assesses the effects of pathways into teaching in New York City on the teacher workforce and on student achievement. We ask…

  12. Functional Requirements: 2014 No Child Left Behind--Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the Minnesota No Child Left Behind (NCLB) calculation as it relates to measuring Title III districts for Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAO). In 2012, a new assessment was used to measure language proficiency skills for English Learners. New AMAO targets were created, and new values for determining individual…

  13. Threads of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  14. Earth Observations Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring: Evaluating the Revisit Capabilities of Current & Planned Moderate Resolution Optical & Thermal Infrared Earth Observing Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Vermote, E.; Killough, B.; Justice, C. O.

    2014-12-01

    For several decades, Earth observations (EO) have been employed to monitor agriculture, including crop area, type, condition, and yield forecasting processes. However, the EO data required to consistently derive these informational products at multiple scales had not been well-defined. Responding to this dearth, we have articulated spatially explicit EO requirements with a focus on moderate resolution (10-70m) active and passive remote sensors, and evaluated current and near-term missions' capabilities to meet these EO requirements. These spatially explicit requirements incorporate cropland location, growing season timing, and cloud cover information, establishing the revisit frequency required to yield reasonably clear views within 8 or 16 days. A comparison of these requirements with hypothetical constellations formed from current/planned moderate resolution optical EO missions shows that to return a scene at least 70% clear within 8 or 16 days, 46-55% or 10-32% of cropped areas, respectively, require a revisit more frequent than 8 days, with is more frequent than Landsat 7 & 8 combined can deliver. Supplementing Landsat 7 & 8 with missions from different space agencies leads to an improved capacity to meet requirements, with Resourcesat-2 providing the largest incremental improvement in requirements met. Globally, no single mission/observatory can consistently meet all 8 or 16 day requirements throughout the year. Meanwhile, the only way to meet a majority of these requirements is through coordination of multiple missions. Gaps exist in persistently cloudy regions and periods, highlighting the need for data coordination and for consideration of active microwave EO for agricultural monitoring.

  15. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is an ESA mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for space-borne gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system LISA Pathfinder is scheduled to be launched in the first half of 2010 to a Lissajous orbit around the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point, L1. In addition to a complete European technology package (the LISA Technology Package, or LTP), LISA Pathfinder will also carry thrusters and software, known as ST-7, a part of NASA's New Millennium Program. Here I will give an introduction to, and status of, the mission, followed by a discussion on the technologies to be tested. Finally I will discuss the ways in which the LISA Pathfinder mission will be used for preparation of LISA (e.g. ground segment development as well as technology development) and for other future missions (formation flying, Fundamental Physics Explorer, etc.).

  16. ESA CHEOPS mission: development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, N.; Asquier, J.; Corral Van Damme, C.; Isaak, K.; Ratti, F.; Safa, F.; Southworth, R.; Broeg, C.; Benz, W.

    2016-07-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Science Programme Committee (SPC) selected CHEOPS (Characterizing Exoplanets Satellite) in October 2012 as the first S-class mission (S1) within the Agency's Scientific Programme, targeting launch readiness by the end of 2017. The CHEOPS mission is devoted to the first-step characterization of known exoplanets orbiting bright stars, to be achieved through the precise measurement of exo-planet radii using the technique of transit photometry. It is implemented as a partnership between ESA and a consortium of Member States led by Switzerland. CHEOPS is considered as a pilot case for implementing "small science missions" in ESA with the following requirements: science driven missions selected through an open Call for missions (bottom-up process); spacecraft development schedule much shorter than for M and L missions, in the range of 4 years; and cost-capped missions to ESA with possibly higher Member States involvement than for M or L missions. The paper describes the CHEOPS development status, focusing on the performed hardware manufacturing and test activities.

  17. Piloted Mars mission planning: NEP technology and power levels

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.A.; Hack, K.J.; Dudzinski, L.A.; Gefert, L.P. ); Gilland, J.H. )

    1993-01-10

    This paper examines the strong interrelationship between assumed technology and mission performance requirements for NEP. Recent systems analysis efforts by NASA, DOE, and various contractors are used to project achievable system performance as a function of technological sophistication for two piloted Mars mission applications. Specific mass regimes for each collection of technologies are presented as a function of power level for piloted applications. Low thrust mission analyses are presented which relate these system performance projections to achievable mission performance. Mission performance maps'' are constructed which link prime mission figures-of-merit of time and initial mass with system requirements on power level and specific mass, and hence technology. Both opposition and conjunction class piloted Mars missions are presented for the 2016 opportunity, analogous to those proposed in the 90-Day Study'' and Synthesis'' architecture studies. Mass and time breakdowns are presented for 10 MWe piloted and 5 MWe cargo point designs.

  18. Shared mission operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradlin, Gary L.; Rudd, Richard P.; Linick, Susan H.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, new JPL flight projects have developed a Mission Operations System (MOS) as unique as their spacecraft, and have utilized a mission-dedicated staff to monitor and control the spacecraft through the MOS. NASA budgetary pressures to reduce mission operations costs have led to the development and reliance on multimission ground system capabilities. The use of these multimission capabilities has not eliminated an ongoing requirement for a nucleus of personnel familiar with a given spacecraft and its mission to perform mission-dedicated operations. The high cost of skilled personnel required to support projects with diverse mission objectives has the potential for significant reduction through shared mission operations among mission-compatible projects. Shared mission operations are feasible if: (1) the missions do not conflict with one another in terms of peak activity periods, (2) a unique MOS is not required, and (3) there is sufficient similarity in the mission profiles so that greatly different skills would not be required to support each mission. This paper will further develop this shared mission operations concept. We will illustrate how a Discovery-class mission would enter a 'partner' relationship with the Voyager Project, and can minimize MOS development and operations costs by early and careful consideration of mission operations requirements.

  19. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 8: User's Mission and System Requirements Data (appendix A of Volume 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A computer printout is presented of the mission requirement for the TERSSE missions and their associated user tasks. The data included in the data base represents a broad-based attempt to define the amount, extent, and type of information needed for an earth resources management program in the era of the space shuttle. An effort was made to consider all aspects of remote sensing and resource management; because of its broad scope, it is not intended that the data be used without verification for in-depth studies of particular missions and/or users. The data base represents the quantitative structure necessary to define the TERSSE architecture and requirements, and to an overall integrated view of the earth resources technology requirements of the 1980's.

  20. ACHIEVING THE REQUIRED COOLANT FLOW DISTRIBUTION FOR THE ACCELERATOR PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM (APT) TUNGSTEN NEUTRON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    D. SIEBE; K. PASAMEHMETOGLU

    2000-11-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium neutron source consists of clad tungsten targets, which are concentric cylinders with a center rod. These targets are arranged in a matrix of tubes, producing a large number of parallel coolant paths. The coolant flow required to meet thermal-hydraulic design criteria varies with location. This paper describes the work performed to ensure an adequate coolant flow for each target for normal operation and residual heat-removal conditions.

  1. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 1: Mission and system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofal, Allen E.

    1987-01-01

    The mission and system requirements for the concept definition and system analysis of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) are established. The requirements set forth constitute the single authority for the selection, evaluation, and optimization of the technical performance and design of the OTV. This requirements document forms the basis for the Ground and Space Based OTV concept definition analyses and establishes the physical, functional, performance and design relationships to STS, Space Station, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), and payloads.

  2. Achieving Metabolic Flux Analysis for S. cerevisiae at a Genome-Scale: Challenges, Requirements, and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Saratram; Maranas, Costas D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in 13C-Metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) have increased its capability to accurately resolve fluxes using a genome-scale model with narrow confidence intervals without pre-judging the activity or inactivity of alternate metabolic pathways. However, the necessary precautions, computational challenges, and minimum data requirements for successful analysis remain poorly established. This review aims to establish the necessary guidelines for performing 13C-MFA at the genome-scale for a compartmentalized eukaryotic system such as yeast in terms of model and data requirements, while addressing key issues such as statistical analysis and network complexity. We describe the various approaches used to simplify the genome-scale model in the absence of sufficient experimental flux measurements, the availability and generation of reaction atom mapping information, and the experimental flux and metabolite labeling distribution measurements to ensure statistical validity of the obtained flux distribution. Organism-specific challenges such as the impact of compartmentalization of metabolism, variability of biomass composition, and the cell-cycle dependence of metabolism are discussed. Identification of errors arising from incorrect gene annotation and suggested alternate routes using MFA are also highlighted. PMID:26393660

  3. Crumbs is required to achieve proper organ size control during Drosophila head development

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Emily C. N.; Pichaud, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Crumbs (Crb) is a conserved apical polarity determinant required for zonula adherens specification and remodelling during Drosophila development. Interestingly, crb function in maintaining apicobasal polarity appears largely dispensable in primary epithelia such as the imaginal discs. Here, we show that crb function is not required for maintaining epithelial integrity during the morphogenesis of the Drosophila head and eye. However, although crb mutant heads are properly developed, they are also significantly larger than their wild-type counterparts. We demonstrate that in the eye, this is caused by an increase in cell proliferation that can be attributed to an increase in ligand-dependent Notch (N) signalling. Moreover, we show that in crb mutant cells, ectopic N activity correlates with an increase in N and Delta endocytosis. These data indicate a role for Crb in modulating endocytosis at the apical epithelial plasma membrane, which we demonstrate is independent of Crb function in apicobasal polarity. Overall, our work reveals a novel function for Crb in limiting ligand-dependent transactivation of the N receptor at the epithelial cell membrane. PMID:20110329

  4. Pre-Mission Input Requirements to Enable Successful Sample Collection by A Remote Field/EVA Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Lim, D. S. S.; Young, K. E.; Brunner, A.; Elphic, R. E.; Horne, A.; Kerrigan, M. C.; Osinski, G. R.; Skok, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Saint-Jacques, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team, part of the Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute (SSERVI), is a field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, Phobos and Deimos, and beyond. In contract to other technology-driven NASA analog studies, The FINESSE WCIS activity is science-focused and, moreover, is sampling-focused with the explicit intent to return the best samples for geochronology studies in the laboratory. We used the FINESSE field excursion to the West Clearwater Lake Impact structure (WCIS) as an opportunity to test factors related to sampling decisions. We examined the in situ sample characterization and real-time decision-making process of the astronauts, with a guiding hypothesis that pre-mission training that included detailed background information on the analytical fate of a sample would better enable future astronauts to select samples that would best meet science requirements. We conducted three tests of this hypothesis over several days in the field. Our investigation was designed to document processes, tools and procedures for crew sampling of planetary targets. This was not meant to be a blind, controlled test of crew efficacy, but rather an effort to explicitly recognize the relevant variables that enter into sampling protocol and to be able to develop recommendations for crew and backroom training in future endeavors.

  5. Observed Variability in CO2 Column Abundances from aircraft vertical profiles: Insight into future space-based mission requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kooi, S. A.; Vay, S. A.; Browell, E. V.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation discusses the use of high-resolution in-situ CO2 data to quantify the variability in tropospheric CO2 column optical depth. CO2 column abundances are derived from vertical soundings executed during several large-scale airborne campaigns over different geographic regions and seasons spanning the eastern United States (INTEX-NA summer 2004); Mexico (MILAGRO March 2006); the eastern North Pacific and Alaska (INTEX-B May 2006); the Canadian Arctic (ARCTAS spring and summer 2008); and California (CARB June 2008). Data from smaller-scale field experiments associated with the calibration/validation activities of a new active remote CO2 sensor for ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) conducted over OK, MI, NH, VA, and CA, since 2005, are also examined. Nominal weighting functions for ASCENDS measurements of CO2 in the 1.57- and 2.0-microns regions are used to convert the observed CO2 mixing ratio profiles to column optical depths. Using statistics calculated from these optical depths, we show the variability of the CO2 columns and how it relates to the measurement requirements for future space-based missions.

  6. Achieving CDU requirement for 90-nm technology node and beyond with advanced mask making process technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzu, San-De; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kliem, Karl-Heinz; Hudek, Peter; Beyer, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    For 90nm node and beyond technology generations, one of the most critical challenges is how to meet the local CD uniformity (proximity) and global CD uniformity (GCDU) requirements within the exposure field. Both of them must be well controlled in the mask making process: (1) proximity effect and, (2) exposure pattern loading effect, or the so-called e-beam "fogging effect". In this paper, we report a method to improve our global CDU by means of a long range fogging compensation together with the Leica SB350 MW. This exposure tool is operated at 50keV and 1nm design grid. The proximity correction is done by the software - package "PROXECCO" from PDF Solutions. We have developed a unique correction method to reduce the fogging effect in dependency of the pattern density of the mask. This allows us to meet our customers" CDU specifications for the 90nm node and beyond.

  7. Measure for measure: curriculum requirements and children's achievement in music education.

    PubMed

    Bond, Trevor; Bond, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Children in all public primary schools in Queensland, Australia have weekly music lessons designed to develop key musical concepts such as reading, writing, singing and playing simple music notation. Their understanding of basic musical concepts is developed through a blend of kinaesthetic, visual and auditory experiences. In keeping with the pedagogical principles outlined by the Hungarian composer, Zoltan Kodaly, early musical experiences are based in singing well-known children's chants - usually restricted to notes of the pentatonic scale. In order to determine the extent to which primary school children's musical understandings developed in response to these carefully structured developmental learning experiences, the Queensland Primary Music Curriculum was examined to yield a set of over 70 indicators of musical understanding in the areas of rhythm, melody and part-work,the essential skills for choral singing. Data were collected from more than 400 children's attempts at elicited musical performances. Quantitative data analysis procedures derived from the Rasch model for measurement were used to establish the sequence of children's mastery of key musical concepts. Results suggested that while the music curriculum did reflect the general development of musical concepts, the grade allocation for a few concepts needed to be revised. Subsequently, children's performances over several years were also analysed to track the musical achievements of students over time. The empirical evidence confirmed that children's musical development was enhanced by school learning and that indicators can be used to identify both outstanding and atypical development of musical understanding. It was concluded that modest adjustments to the music curriculum might enhance children's learning opportunities in music. PMID:21164226

  8. Measure for measure: curriculum requirements and children's achievement in music education.

    PubMed

    Bond, Trevor; Bond, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Children in all public primary schools in Queensland, Australia have weekly music lessons designed to develop key musical concepts such as reading, writing, singing and playing simple music notation. Their understanding of basic musical concepts is developed through a blend of kinaesthetic, visual and auditory experiences. In keeping with the pedagogical principles outlined by the Hungarian composer, Zoltan Kodaly, early musical experiences are based in singing well-known children's chants - usually restricted to notes of the pentatonic scale. In order to determine the extent to which primary school children's musical understandings developed in response to these carefully structured developmental learning experiences, the Queensland Primary Music Curriculum was examined to yield a set of over 70 indicators of musical understanding in the areas of rhythm, melody and part-work,the essential skills for choral singing. Data were collected from more than 400 children's attempts at elicited musical performances. Quantitative data analysis procedures derived from the Rasch model for measurement were used to establish the sequence of children's mastery of key musical concepts. Results suggested that while the music curriculum did reflect the general development of musical concepts, the grade allocation for a few concepts needed to be revised. Subsequently, children's performances over several years were also analysed to track the musical achievements of students over time. The empirical evidence confirmed that children's musical development was enhanced by school learning and that indicators can be used to identify both outstanding and atypical development of musical understanding. It was concluded that modest adjustments to the music curriculum might enhance children's learning opportunities in music.

  9. Planetary protection issues for sample return missions.

    PubMed

    DeVincenzi, D L; Klein, H P

    1989-01-01

    Sample return missions from a comet nucleus and the Mars surface are currently under study in the US, USSR, and by ESA. Guidance on Planetary Protection (PP) issues is needed by mission scientists and engineers for incorporation into various elements of mission design studies. Although COSPAR has promulgated international policy on PP for various classes of solar system exploration missions, the applicability of this policy to sample return missions, in particular, remains vague. In this paper, we propose a set of implementing procedures to maintain the scientific integrity of these samples. We also propose that these same procedures will automatically assure that COSPAR-derived PP guidelines are achieved. The recommendations discussed here are the first step toward development of official COSPAR implementation requirements for sample return missions. PMID:11537373

  10. Building America Case Study: Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings, Upstate New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  11. Spacecraft attitude determination accuracy from mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasoveanu, D.; Hashmall, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes a compilation of attitude determination accuracies attained by a number of satellites supported by the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility. The compilation is designed to assist future mission planners in choosing and placing attitude hardware and selecting the attitude determination algorithms needed to achieve given accuracy requirements. The major goal of the compilation is to indicate realistic accuracies achievable using a given sensor complement based on mission experience. It is expected that the use of actual spacecraft experience will make the study especially useful for mission design. A general description of factors influencing spacecraft attitude accuracy is presented. These factors include determination algorithms, inertial reference unit characteristics, and error sources that can affect measurement accuracy. Possible techniques for mitigating errors are also included. Brief mission descriptions are presented with the attitude accuracies attained, grouped by the sensor pairs used in attitude determination. The accuracies for inactive missions represent a compendium of missions report results, and those for active missions represent measurements of attitude residuals. Both three-axis and spin stabilized missions are included. Special emphasis is given to high-accuracy sensor pairs, such as two fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and fine Sun sensor plus FHST. Brief descriptions of sensor design and mode of operation are included. Also included are brief mission descriptions and plots summarizing the attitude accuracy attained using various sensor complements.

  12. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  13. Payload/orbiter contamination control requirement study: Preliminary contamination mission support plan. [a management analysis of project planning of spacecraft sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareiss, L. E.; Hooper, V. W.; Ress, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the mission support plan and those support activities envisioned to be applicable and necessary during premission and postmission phases of the Spacelab program. The purpose, role, and requirements of the contamination control operations for the first two missions of the Spacelab equipped Space Transportation System are discussed. The organization of the contamination control operation and its relationship to and interfaces with other mission support functions is also discussed. Some specific areas of contamination to be investigated are treated. They are: (1) windows and viewports, (2) experiment equipment, (3) thermal control surfaces, (4) the contaminant induced atmosphere (as differentiated from the normal ambient atmosphere at the orbit altitude), and (5) optical navigation instruments.

  14. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2: Technical. Book 1: Mission requirements. Appendixes 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The space station mission requirements data base consists of 149 attached and free-flying missions each of which is documented by a set of three interrelated documents: (1) NASA LaRC Data Sheets - with three sheets comprising a set for each payload element described. These sheets contain user payload element data necessary to drive Space Station architectural options. (2) GDC-derived operations descriptions that supplement the LaRC payload element data in the operations areas such as further descriptions of crew involvement, EVA, etc. (3) Payload elements synthesis sheets used by GDC to provide requirements traceability to data sources and to provide a narrative describing the basis for formulating the payload element requirements.

  15. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  16. An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  17. Achieving Accuracy Requirements for Forest Biomass Mapping: A Data Fusion Method for Estimating Forest Biomass and LiDAR Sampling Error with Spaceborne Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montesano, P. M.; Cook, B. D.; Sun, G.; Simard, M.; Zhang, Z.; Nelson, R. F.; Ranson, K. J.; Lutchke, S.; Blair, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    The synergistic use of active and passive remote sensing (i.e., data fusion) demonstrates the ability of spaceborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multispectral imagery for achieving the accuracy requirements of a global forest biomass mapping mission. This data fusion approach also provides a means to extend 3D information from discrete spaceborne LiDAR measurements of forest structure across scales much larger than that of the LiDAR footprint. For estimating biomass, these measurements mix a number of errors including those associated with LiDAR footprint sampling over regional - global extents. A general framework for mapping above ground live forest biomass (AGB) with a data fusion approach is presented and verified using data from NASA field campaigns near Howland, ME, USA, to assess AGB and LiDAR sampling errors across a regionally representative landscape. We combined SAR and Landsat-derived optical (passive optical) image data to identify forest patches, and used image and simulated spaceborne LiDAR data to compute AGB and estimate LiDAR sampling error for forest patches and 100m, 250m, 500m, and 1km grid cells. Forest patches were delineated with Landsat-derived data and airborne SAR imagery, and simulated spaceborne LiDAR (SSL) data were derived from orbit and cloud cover simulations and airborne data from NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (L VIS). At both the patch and grid scales, we evaluated differences in AGB estimation and sampling error from the combined use of LiDAR with both SAR and passive optical and with either SAR or passive optical alone. This data fusion approach demonstrates that incorporating forest patches into the AGB mapping framework can provide sub-grid forest information for coarser grid-level AGB reporting, and that combining simulated spaceborne LiDAR with SAR and passive optical data are most useful for estimating AGB when measurements from LiDAR are limited because they minimized

  18. GLXP BMT: Lunar Lander Mission Definition & Opportunistic Science during Nominal Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenarejo, P.; Mammarella, M.; Zaballa, M.; Claramunt, X.; García, C.; Martínez, A.

    2012-09-01

    The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is the Barcelona Moon Team Lunar Lander and Lunar exploration mission within the GLXP initiative. GMV is the mission technical leader and is in charge of the primary mission analysis that will later derive into the different mission subsystems and elements requirements and specifications for design and manufacturing. The classical scientific missions pivot around the scientific requirement and most of the mission elements design have the final purpose of fulfilling with the scientific requirements. This has the advantage of producing a dedicated mission to cope with all the scientific objectives (design-toperformance). The main drawback being the usually high mission complexity and cost. The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is a low cost mission and, thus, design-to-cost approach is used instead. Even if the "MoonRaise" mission will have some dedicated scientific objectives and dedicated resources, the maximization of the scientific content of the mission is a challenge in itself, and emphasis has to be placed in the imagination and achievement of opportunistic science while in nominal (nonscientific) operational phases. This paper presents the GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission architecture and mission approach and will identify potential opportunistic science targets with minimum impact on the Lunar Lander module and Rover module systems and at quasi-zero cost. The first section/s will be devoted to analyse the mission aspects, while the later section/s will be devoted to identification of interesting opportunistic science.

  19. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, Wayne; Rogers, John; Moore, Arlene

    1992-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  20. Asteroid Redirect Mission: EVA and Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Stich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Overview (1) Notional Development Schedule, (2) ARV Crewed Mission Accommodations; Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) Mission Summary; ARCM Accomplishments; Sample collection/curation plan (1) CAPTEM Requirements; SBAG Engagement Plan

  1. Planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific and engineering aspects of near-term missions for planetary exploration are outlined. The missions include the Voyager Neptune flyby, the Magellan survey of Venus, the Ocean Topography Experiment, the Mars Observer mission, the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter and Probe, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Cassini mission to Saturn and Titan, and the Daedalus probe to Barnard's star. The spacecraft, scientific goals, and instruments for these missions are noted.

  2. Small V/STOL aircraft analysis. Volume 2: Appendices. [to determine current and future general aviation missions and performance requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. R., Jr.; Belina, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of general aviation activities in the United States was principally conducted through interviews with users, manufacturers, trade associations, and government organizations. A list of the organizations interviews is presented. The data became the basis for defining the current and future general aviation missions and performance. The economic characteristics of general aviation are examined. The desires of each organization regarding future aircraft characteristics are summarized.

  3. Re-Engineering the Mission Operations System (MOS) for the Prime and Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Joseph C., Jr.; Cheng, Leo Y.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in a space science mission is designing the Mission Operations System (MOS). Whereas the focus of the project is getting the spacecraft built and tested for launch, the mission operations engineers must build a system to carry out the science objectives. The completed MOS design is then formally assessed in the many reviews. Once a mission has completed the reviews, the Mission Operation System (MOS) design has been validated to the Functional Requirements and is ready for operations. The design was built based on heritage processes, new technology, and lessons learned from past experience. Furthermore, our operational concepts must be properly mapped to the mission design and science objectives. However, during the course of implementing the science objective in the operations phase after launch, the MOS experiences an evolutional change to adapt for actual performance characteristics. This drives the re-engineering of the MOS, because the MOS includes the flight and ground segments. Using the Spitzer mission as an example we demonstrate how the MOS design evolved for both the prime and extended mission to enhance the overall efficiency for science return. In our re-engineering process, we ensured that no requirements were violated or mission objectives compromised. In most cases, optimized performance across the MOS, including gains in science return as well as savings in the budget profile was achieved. Finally, we suggest a need to better categorize the Operations Phase (Phase E) in the NASA Life-Cycle Phases of Formulation and Implementation

  4. Mission-oriented requirements for updating MIL-H-8501. Volume 1: STI proposed structure. [military rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, W. F.; Hoh, R. H.; Ferguson, S. W., III; Mitchell, D. G.; Ashkenas, I. L.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of a new flying and ground handling qualities specification for military rotorcraft is presented. This preliminary specification structure is intended to evolve into a replacement for specification MIL-H-8501A. The new structure is designed to accommodate a variety of rotorcraft types, mission flight phases, flight envelopes, and flight environmental characteristics and to provide criteria for three levels of flying qualities, a systematic treatment of failures and reliability, both conventional and multiaxis controllers, and external vision aids which may also incorporate synthetic display content. Existing and new criteria were incorporated into the new structure wherever they could be substantiated.

  5. Mission management - Lessons learned from early Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The concept and the responsibilities of a mission manager approach are reviewed, and some of the associated problems in implementing Spacelab mission are discussed. Consideration is given to program control, science management, integrated payload mission planning, and integration requirements. Payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities are outlined.

  6. Fulfilling an Ambitious Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James; Mero, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Given its success as a high achieving, award-winning magnet school for academically oriented students in grades 9-12, Columbus Alternative High School has more than successfully fulfilled its ambitious mission in the 30 years since it was named. According to the school's mission statement, Columbus Alternative aims "to create a truly alternative…

  7. Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalvelage, T.A.; ,

    2002-01-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  8. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  9. Atmosphere, Magnetosphere and Plasmas in Space (AMPS). Space payload definition study. Volume 2: Mission support requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The flight payload, its operation, and the support required from the Space Transporatation System (STS) is defined including the flight objectives and requirements, the experiment operations, and the payload configurations. The support required from the STS includes the accommodation of the payload by the orbiter/Spacelab, use of the flight operations network and ground facilities, and the use of the launch site facilities.

  10. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The duration of a mission--and subsequently, the minimum spacecraft lifetime--is a key component in designing the capabilities of a spacecraft during mission formulation. However, determining the duration is not simply a function of how long it will take the spacecraft to execute the activities needed to achieve mission objectives. Instead, the effects of the interaction between the spacecraft and ground operators must also be taken into account. This paper describes a method, using "operations efficiency factors", to account for these effects for Mars surface missions. Typically, this level of analysis has not been performed until much later in the mission development cycle, and has not been able to influence mission or spacecraft design. Further, the notion of moving to sustainable operations during Prime Mission--and the effect that change would have on operations productivity and mission objective choices--has not been encountered until the most recent rover missions (MSL, the (now-cancelled) joint NASA-ESA 2018 Mars rover, and the proposed rover for Mars 2020). Since MSL had a single control center and sun-synchronous relay assets (like MER), estimates of productivity derived from MER prime and extended missions were used. However, Mars 2018's anticipated complexity (there would have been control centers in California and Italy, and a non-sun-synchronous relay asset) required the development of an explicit model of operations efficiency that could handle these complexities. In the case of the proposed Mars 2018 mission, the model was employed to assess the mission return of competing operations concepts, and as an input to component lifetime requirements. In this paper we provide examples of how to calculate the operations efficiency factor for a given operational configuration, and how to apply the factors to surface mission scenarios. This model can be applied to future missions to enable early effective trades between operations design, science mission

  11. Study of a Simulation Tool to Determine Achievable Control Dynamics and Control Power Requirements with Perfect Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.

  12. Mars mission concepts and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie C.

    1986-01-01

    Trajectory and mission requirement data are presented for Earth Mars opposition and conjunction class roundtrip flyby and stopover mission opportunities available between 1997 and 2045. The opposition class flyby mission uses direct transfer trajectories to and on return from Mars. The opposition class stopover mission employs the gravitational field of Venus to accelerate the space vehicle on either the outbound or inbound leg in order to reduce the propulsion requirement associated with the opposition class mission. The conjunction class mission minimizes propulsion requirements by optimizing the stopover time at Mars.

  13. Titan and Enceladus mission (TANDEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.

    2007-08-01

    Our understanding of Titan's atmosphere and surface has recently been enhanced by the data returned by the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini orbiter will continue to be operational for about 3 more years during its extended mission. After this mission, any unanswered questions will forever remain unknown, unless we go back with an optimized orbital tour and advanced instrumentation. Considering the complementary nature of the geological, chemical and evolutionary history of Titan and Enceladus, we propose to carry out studies for a mission to perform an in situ exploration of these two objects in tandem. In our proposal we determine key science measurements, the types of samples that would be needed and the instrument suites for achieving the science goals. In particular, we develop conceptual designs for delivering the science payload, including orbiters, aerial platforms and probes, and define a launch/delivery/communication management architecture. This mission will require new technologies and capabilities so that the science goals can be achieved within the cost cap and acceptable risks. International participation will play a key role in achieving all the science goals of this mission. We will build this mission concept around a central core of single orbiter, a single Titan aerial probe and a core group of category 1 instruments. Aerobraking with Titan's atmosphere will be given serious consideration to minimize resource requirements and risk. This approach will allow a single orbiter to be used for both Enceladus science and Titan science with final orbit around Titan and later release of aerial probe(s) into Titan's atmosphere. The Titan aerial probe may be a Montgolfière balloon concept that will use the waster heat ~ 1000 watts from a single RTG power system. There will be a release of penetrator(s) on Enceladus also. This proposal addresses directly several of the scientific questions highlighted in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 call, particularly

  14. Software Innovation in a Mission Critical Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Operating in mission-critical environments requires trusted solutions, and the preference for "tried and true" approaches presents a potential barrier to infusing innovation into mission-critical systems. This presentation explores opportunities to overcome this barrier in the software domain. It outlines specific areas of innovation in software development achieved by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate in support of NASA's major human spaceflight programs, including International Space Station, Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), and Commercial Crew Programs. Software engineering teams at JSC work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements for genuinely mission critical applications. The innovations described, including the use of NASA Core Flight Software and its associated software tool chain, can lead to software that is more affordable, more reliable, better modelled, more flexible, more easily maintained, better tested, and enabling of automation.

  15. Flight Software for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Howard N.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft was launched on September 6, 2013, and completed its mission on April 17, 2014 with a directed impact to the Lunar Surface. Its primary goals were to examine the lunar atmosphere, measure lunar dust, and to demonstrate high rate laser communications. The LADEE mission was a resounding success, achieving all mission objectives, much of which can be attributed to careful planning and preparation. This paper discusses some of the highlights from the mission, and then discusses the techniques used for developing the onboard Flight Software. A large emphasis for the Flight Software was to develop it within tight schedule and cost constraints. To accomplish this, the Flight Software team leveraged heritage software, used model based development techniques, and utilized an automated test infrastructure. This resulted in the software being delivered on time and within budget. The resulting software was able to meet all system requirements, and had very problems in flight.

  16. Hanford Tanks Initiative mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaus, P.S.

    1997-09-22

    This mission analysis report for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) supports the Hanford Site`s Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from the SSTs for treatment and final closure of the tanks. The results of the HTI will support the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) privatization of retrieval efforts. This report addresses the HTI problem statement: Alternative technologies to past practice sluicing (PPS) have not yet been demonstrated to remove the hard heel from a sluiced tank or to remove waste from a leaking SST. Nor have performance-based criteria for cleanout and closure been demonstrated to the degree necessary to validate them as technically and economically achievable. This report also defines the mission statement and mission boundaries; the known interfaces, both programmatic and project; the mission level requirements; the test and evaluation methodology; and measures of success.

  17. Spectral Astrometry Mission for Planets Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2002-08-09

    The Spectral Astrometry Mission is a space-mission concept that uses simultaneous, multiple-star differential astrometry to measure exo-solar planet masses. The goal of SAM is to measure the reflex motions of hundreds of nearby ({approx}50 pc) F, G and K stars, relative to adjacent stars, with a resolution of 2.5 {micro}-arcsec. SAM is a new application of Spectral Interferometry (SI), also called Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI), that can simultaneously measure the angular difference between the target and multiple reference stars. SI has demonstrated the ability to measure a {lambda}/20,000 white-light fringe shift with only {lambda}/3 baseline control. SAM's structural stability and compensation requirements are therefore dramatically reduced compared to existing long-arm balanced-arm interferometric astrometry methods. We describe the SAM's mission concept, long-baseline SI astrometry method, and technical challenges to achieving the mission.

  18. Terrapin technologies manned Mars mission proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amato, Michael; Bryant, Heather; Coleman, Rodney; Compy, Chris; Crouse, Patrick; Crunkleton, Joe; Hurtado, Edgar; Iverson, Eirik; Kamosa, Mike; Kraft, Lauri (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A Manned Mars Mission (M3) design study is proposed. The purpose of M3 is to transport 10 personnel and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an eight-man surface expedition of 3 months, to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience, but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. Those priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a Waverider transfer module.

  19. Generic astronomy mission planning and scheduling: The AXAF solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guffin, O. T.

    1994-01-01

    During SpaceOps 92 the idea of generic mission planning concepts for space astronomy missions, that could be applied to future missions in order to simplify software development, was introduced. It was proposed that mission planning systems could be decomposed into functional elements that could be standardized and then organized into optimal functional flows for each individual mission. In addition, it was further suggested that these flows themselves could be reduced to a small set of possibilities by describing them in terms of generic mission type, such as manned, unmanned, high orbit, low orbit, etc. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), planned for launch in the latter part of 1998, represents the first application of this idea on an unmanned mission. This paper examines the AXAF Mission Planning and Scheduling concept in light of the generic system theory. Each functional element is evaluated according to AXAF characteristics and requirements and then compared to its generic counterpart. Functional flow considerations are then derived from the overall AXAF mission planning concept to determine the viability and sensitivity of the generic flow to actual requirements. The results of this analysis are then used to update the generic system concept and to define the level of commonality and core system components that are practical to achieve across multiple missions.

  20. Generic mission planning and scheduling: The AXAF solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guffin, O. T.; Newhouse, M.

    1994-01-01

    During SpaceOps 92 the idea of generic mission planning concepts for space astronomy missions, that could be applied to future missions in order to simplify software development, was introduced. It was proposed that mission planning systems could be decomposed into functional elements that could be standardized and then organized into optimal functional flows for each individual mission. In addition, it was further suggested that these flows themselves could be reduced to a small set of possibilities by describing them in terms of generic mission type, such as manned, unmanned, high orbit, low orbit, etc. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), planned for launch in the latter part of '98, represents the first application of this idea on an unmanned mission. This paper examines the AXAF Mission Planning and Scheduling concept in light of the generic system theory. Each functional element is evaluated according to AXAF characteristics and requirements and then compared to its generic counterpart. Functional flow considerations are then derived from the overall AXAF mission planning concept to determine the viability and sensitivity of the generic flow to actual requirements. The results of this analysis are then used to update the generic system concept and to define the level of commonality and core system components that are practical to achieve across multiple missions.

  1. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  2. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  3. Power system technologies for the manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, Dave; Patterson, Michael J.; Berkopec, F.; Myers, Ira; Presler, A.

    1986-01-01

    The high impulse of electric propulsion makes it an attractive option for manned interplanetary missions such as a manned mission to Mars. This option is, however, dependent on the availability of high energy sources for propulsive power in addition to that required for the manned interplanetary transit vehicle. Two power system technologies are presented: nuclear and solar. The ion thruster technology for the interplanetary transit vehicle is described for a typical mission. The power management and distribution system components required for such a mission must be further developed beyond today's technology status. High voltage-high current technology advancements must be achieved. These advancements are described. In addition, large amounts of waste heat must be rejected to the space environment by the thermal management system. Advanced concepts such as the liquid droplet radiator are discussed as possible candidates for the manned Mars mission. These thermal management technologies have great potential for significant weight reductions over the more conventional systems.

  4. End of Mission Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    While a great deal of effort goes into planning and executing successful mission operations, it is also important to consider the End of the Mission during the planning, design, and operations phases of any mission. Spacecraft and launch vehicles must be disposed of properly in order to limit the generation of orbital debris, and better preserve the orbital environment for all future missions. Figure 30-1 shows a 1990's projected growth of debris with and without the use of responsible disposal techniques. This requires early selection of a responsible disposal scenario, so that the necessary capabilities can be incorporated into the hardware designs. The mission operations must then be conducted in such a way as to preserve, and then actually perform, the planned, appropriate end of mission disposal.

  5. Mission-oriented requirements for updating MIL-H-8501. Volume 2: STI background and rationale. [military rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, W. F.; Hoh, R. H.; Mitchell, D. G.; Ferguson, S. W., III

    1985-01-01

    A supplement to the structure of a new flying and ground handling qualities specification for military rotorcraft structure is presented in order to explain the background and rationale for the specification structure, the proposed forms of criteria, and the status of the existing data base. Critical gaps in the data base for the new structure are defined, and recommendations are provided for the research required to address the most important of these gaps.

  6. Supportability Issues and Approaches for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. K.; Ivins, M. S.; Cunningham, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Maintaining and repairing spacecraft systems hardware to achieve required levels of operational availability during long-duration exploration missions will be challenged by limited resupply opportunities, constraints on the mass and volume available for spares and other maintenance-related provisions, and extended communications times. These factors will force the adoption of new approaches to the integrated logistics support of spacecraft systems hardware. For missions beyond the Moon, all spares, equipment, and supplies must either be prepositioned prior to departure from Earth of human crews or carried with the crews. The mass and volume of spares must be minimized by enabling repair at the lowest hardware levels, imposing commonality and standardization across all mission elements at all hardware levels, and providing the capability to fabricate structural and mechanical spares as required. Long round-trip communications times will require increasing levels of autonomy by the crews for most operations including spacecraft maintenance. Effective implementation of these approaches will only be possible when their need is recognized at the earliest stages of the program, when they are incorporated in operational concepts and programmatic requirements, and when diligence is applied in enforcing these requirements throughout system design in an integrated way across all contractors and suppliers. These approaches will be essential for the success of missions to Mars. Although limited duration lunar missions may be successfully accomplished with more traditional approaches to supportability, those missions will offer an opportunity to refine these concepts, associated technologies, and programmatic implementation methodologies so that they can be most effectively applied to later missions.

  7. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  8. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  9. Adapting the SpaceCube v2.0 Data Processing System for Mission-Unique Application Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Gill, Nat; Hasouneh, Munther; Stone, Robert; Winternitz, Luke; Thomas, Luke; Davis, Milton; Sparacino, Pietro; Flatley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The SpaceCube (sup TM) v2.0 system is a superior high performance, reconfigurable, hybrid data processing system that can be used in a multitude of applications including those that require a radiation hardened and reliable solution. This paper provides an overview of the design architecture, flexibility, and the advantages of the modular SpaceCube v2.0 high performance data processing system for space applications. The current state of the proven SpaceCube technology is based on nine years of engineering and operations. Five systems have been successfully operated in space starting in 2008 with four more to be delivered for launch vehicle integration in 2015. The SpaceCube v2.0 system is also baselined as the avionics solution for five additional flight projects and is always a top consideration as the core avionics for new instruments or spacecraft control. This paper will highlight how this multipurpose system is currently being used to solve design challenges of three independent applications. The SpaceCube hardware adapts to new system requirements by allowing for application-unique interface cards that are utilized by reconfiguring the underlying programmable elements on the core processor card. We will show how this system is being used to improve on a heritage NASA GPS technology, enable a cutting-edge LiDAR instrument, and serve as a typical command and data handling (C&DH) computer for a space robotics technology demonstration.

  10. Adapting the SpaceCube v2.0 Data Processing System for Mission-Unique Application Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David

    2015-01-01

    The SpaceCubeTM v2.0 system is a superior high performance, reconfigurable, hybrid data processing system that can be used in a multitude of applications including those that require a radiation hardened and reliable solution. This paper provides an overview of the design architecture, flexibility, and the advantages of the modular SpaceCube v2.0 high performance data processing system for space applications. The current state of the proven SpaceCube technology is based on nine years of engineering and operations. Five systems have been successfully operated in space starting in 2008 with four more to be delivered for launch vehicle integration in 2015. The SpaceCube v2.0 system is also baselined as the avionics solution for five additional flight projects and is always a top consideration as the core avionics for new instruments or spacecraft control. This paper will highlight how this multipurpose system is currently being used to solve design challenges of three independent applications. The SpaceCube hardware adapts to new system requirements by allowing for application-unique interface cards that are utilized by reconfiguring the underlying programmable elements on the core processor card. We will show how this system is being used to improve on a heritage NASA GPS technology, enable a cutting-edge LiDAR instrument, and serve as a typical command and data handling (CDH) computer for a space robotics technology demonstration.

  11. A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.

  12. Human Mars Mission Performance Crew Taxi Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duaro, Vince A.

    1999-01-01

    Using the results from Integrated Mission Program (IMP), a simulation language and code used to model present and future Earth Moon, or Mars missions, this report presents six different case studies of a manned Mars mission. The mission profiles, timelines, propellant requirements, feasibility and perturbation analysis is presented for two aborted, two delayed rendezvous, and two normal rendezvous cases for a future Mars mission.

  13. Simulation Framework to Estimate the Performance of CO2 and O2 Sensing from Space and Airborne Platforms for the ASCENDS Mission Requirements Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plitau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    The Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission recommended by the NRC Decadal Survey has a desired accuracy of 0.3% in carbon dioxide mixing ratio (XCO2) retrievals requiring careful selection and optimization of the instrument parameters. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating 1.57 micron carbon dioxide as well as the 1.26-1.27 micron oxygen bands for our proposed ASCENDS mission requirements investigation. Simulation studies are underway for these bands to select optimum instrument parameters. The simulations are based on a multi-wavelength lidar modeling framework being developed at NASA LaRC to predict the performance of CO2 and O2 sensing from space and airborne platforms. The modeling framework consists of a lidar simulation module and a line-by-line calculation component with interchangeable lineshape routines to test the performance of alternative lineshape models in the simulations. As an option the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) program may also be used for line-by-line calculations. The modeling framework is being used to perform error analysis, establish optimum measurement wavelengths as well as to identify the best lineshape models to be used in CO2 and O2 retrievals. Several additional programs for HITRAN database management and related simulations are planned to be included in the framework. The description of the modeling framework with selected results of the simulation studies for CO2 and O2 sensing is presented in this paper.

  14. Apollo 17 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 17 mission are outlined. The vehicle configuration was similar to those of Apollo 15 and 16. There were significant differences in the science payload for Apollo 17 and spacecraft hardware differences and experiment equipment are described. The mission achieved a landing in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon and returned samples of the pre-Imbrium highlands and young craters.

  15. Assessment, Intervention, and Program Needs of Lower Achieving and Multiply Disabled Deaf People Requiring Extended Transition Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiman, John; And Others

    This paper begins with an overview of the population of adolescents and young adults with deafness. More detailed information is then provided on the characteristics of lower achieving deaf persons and those with multiple disabling conditions. School-to-community transition experiences of these groups are then discussed, with special focus on the…

  16. Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R.; Textor, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) are summarized. The general objectives of the VIM are to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar media and to continue the Voyager program of ultraviolet astronomy. The VIM will utilize both Voyager spacecraft for the period from January 1990 through December 2019. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, control and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  17. The Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  18. The Effect of Mission Location on Mission Costs and Equivalent System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie

    2002-01-01

    It is the goal of developers of advanced life support researcher to develop technology that reduces the cost of life support for future space missions and thereby enables missions that are currently infeasible or too expensive. Because the cost of propulsion dominates the cost of hardware emplacement in space and because the mass of a deliverable object controls its propulsive requirements, equivalent system mass (ESM) is used as a means for accounting for mission costs. ESM is typically calculated by adding to the actual mass the equivalent amount of mass that must be added to a mission due to other characteristics of a piece of hardware such as the item s volume or energy requirements. This approach works well for comparing different pieces of hardware when they go to the same location in space. However, different locations in mission space such low Earth orbit, Mars surface, or full trip to Mars and return to low Earth orbit require vastly different amounts of propulsion. Moving an object from Earth surface to the Martian surface and returning it to Earth will require as much as 100 times the propulsion that is required to move the object to low Earth orbit only. This paper presents the case for including the effect that location can have on cost as a part of ESM and suggests a method for achieving this improvement of ESM.

  19. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  20. MSFC Flight Mission Directive Apollo-Saturn 205 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The purpose of this directive is to provide, under one cover, coordinated direction for the AS-205 Space Vehicle Flight. Within this document, mission objectives are specified, vehicle configuration is described and referenced, flight trajectories, data acquisition requirements, instrumentation requirements, and detailed documentation requirements necessary to meet launch vehicle mission objectives are defined and/or referenced.

  1. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  2. The CHEOPS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, Christopher; benz, willy; fortier, andrea; Ehrenreich, David; beck, Thomas; cessa, Virginie; Alibert, Yann; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017.CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based radial velocity surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. To achieve this performance, the CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. CHEOPS will be inserted in a low Earth orbit and the total duration of the CHEOPS mission is 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).The presentation will describe the current payload and mission design of CHEOPS, give the development status, and show the expected performances.

  3. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a mission of the European Space Mission aimed at demonstrating the space-time metrology required for space-borne gravitational wave observatories like eLISA. In particular the mission aims at experimentally test the detailed physical model of the eLISA instrument using the hardware to be flown on eLISA. This model predicts that no true forces on test-bodies will compete with gravitational signals in excess to fN/Hz^(-1/2). The mission is in phase C/D and is due to launch in two years. The talk will describe the mission, its development status, and the metrology under test.

  4. Mission and vehicle sizing sensitivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie C.

    1986-01-01

    Representative interplanetary space vehicle systems are sized to compare and show sensitivity of the initial mass required in low Earth orbit to one mission mode and mission opportunity. Data are presented to show the requirements for Earth-Mars opposition and conjunction class roundtrip flyby and stopover mission opportunities available during the time period from year 1997 to year 2045. The interplanetary space vehicle consists of a spacecraft and a space vehicle acceleration system. Propellant boil-off for the various mission phases is given for the Lox/LH (Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen) propulsion systems. Mission abort information is presented for the 1999 Venus outbound swingby trajectory, transfer profile.

  5. Ballistic mode Mercury orbiter mission opportunity handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbeck, G. R.; Roos, D. G.; Lewis, P. S.

    1973-01-01

    Significant payloads in Mercury orbit can be achieved through use of high-thrust, chemical propulsion systems on ballistic trajectories. Interplanetary trajectory characteristics are presented, for Venus swingbys to Mercury, were multiple revolutions about the sun are allowed on each leg to provide low energy mission in 1977, 1980, 1985 and 1988. Guidance and navigation results are shown for each opportunity. Additionally, the use of midcourse maneuvers and multiple Venus swingbys are explored as means of further reducing the energy requirements.

  6. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) mission profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. C.; Defazio, R. L.; Sauter, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The GOES mission profile used to achieve geostationary orbit following separation from the Delta launch vehicle is described. The mission profile was constrained by the solid-propellant apogee kick motor which was undersized relative to the spacecraft weight. The resulting deficiency in delivered delta-V had to be made up by the spacecraft hydrazine propulsion system. The mission profile which best utilizes the on-board hydrazine requires that the transfer orbit apogee height be biased 13,800 km above geosynchronous altitude. This maximizes the effectiveness of the apogee motor in performing the plane change necessary to achieve near-equatorial orbit. The highly eccentric drift orbit which results from the apogee motor firing has an average drift rate of 60 deg/day. Circularizing this orbit requires maneuvers designed to achieve geostationary position within a tightly constrained hydrazine allocation. The sequence takes advantage of the orbit changes resulting from attitude maneuvers and combined inplane/out-of-plane maneuvers to achieve hydrazine savings.

  7. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D R; Joosten, B J; Lo, M W; Ford, K M; Hansen, R J

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration.

  8. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D R; Joosten, B J; Lo, M W; Ford, K M; Hansen, R J

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration. PMID:14649260

  9. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael (Editor); Shaw, Tianna

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood/urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions. SUMMARY The NASA Exploration Laboratory Analysis project seeks to develop capability to diagnose anticipated space exploration medical conditions on future manned missions. To achieve

  10. Process advances to achieve ultra-shallow junctions for 0.10 μm technology requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuch, Adam F.; Zhao, Zhiyong; Downey, Daniel F.; Falk, Scott W.

    1999-06-01

    Ion implants of 11B+, 49BF2+, 31P+ and 75As+ at energies as low as 0.25 keV at various doses were implanted and rapid thermal annealed (RTA) with controlled O2 levels in N2 ambient to investigate the effects of oxygen during anneal. For each of these implant species, an optimal RTA ambient of O2 in N2 is established which maximizes retained dose and uniformity while minimizing oxidation enhanced diffusion (OED) and other oxygen related diffusion effects. TEM analysis was performed for all species and energy thresholds identified (at 1e15/cm2), below which no extended-defects or loops were observed to form and hence a regime where transient enhanced diffusion (TED) should not affect dopant diffusion. In this energy regime with anneals in a low ppm O2 in N2 ambient, the contributions from TED, OED, BED (boridation enhanced diffusion or other dopant enhanced diffusion effects) are minimized/eliminated. With these enhanced diffusion mechanisms under control, the effects of minimizing the thermal diffusion by controlled "slow" and "fast" spike anneals (<0.1s) are investigated. Taking advantage of these various processing techniques, source/drain extension requirements to satisfy the National Technology Roadmap (NTRS) requirements at the 0.10 μm node are satisfied for the p-extension by both B (0.25 to 0.5 keV) and BF2 (1.1 to 2.2 keV). In addition, n-extension requirements are meet for As+ (1.0 to 2.0 keV), and P+ (1.0 to 5.0 keV) for contact junctions are reviewed for the NTRS requirements at 0.10μm geometries.

  11. Recce mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  12. Solar Probe Plus: Mission design challenges and trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yanping

    2010-11-01

    NASA plans to launch the first mission to the Sun, named Solar Probe Plus, as early as 2015, after a comprehensive feasibility study that significantly changed the original Solar Probe mission concept. The original Solar Probe mission concept, based on a Jupiter gravity assist trajectory, was no longer feasible under the new guidelines given to the mission. A complete redesign of the mission was required, which called for developing alternative trajectories that excluded a flyby of Jupiter. Without the very powerful gravity assist from Jupiter it was extremely difficult to get to the Sun, so designing a trajectory to reach the Sun that is technically feasible under the new mission guidelines became a key enabler to this highly challenging mission. Mission design requirements and challenges unique to this mission are reviewed and discussed, including various mission scenarios and six different trajectory designs utilizing various planetary gravity assists that were considered. The V 5GA trajectory design using five Venus gravity assists achieves a perihelion of 11.8 solar radii ( RS) in 3.3 years without any deep space maneuver (DSM). The V 7GA trajectory design reaches a perihelion of 9.5 RS using seven Venus gravity assists in 6.39 years without any DSM. With nine Venus gravity assists, the V 9GA trajectory design shows a solar orbit at inclination as high as 37.9° from the ecliptic plane can be achieved with the time of flight of 5.8 years. Using combined Earth and Venus gravity assists, as close as 9 RS from the Sun can be achieved in less than 10 years of flight time at moderate launch C3. Ultimately the V 7GA trajectory was chosen as the new baseline mission trajectory. Its design allowing for science investigation right after launch and continuing for nearly 7 years is unprecedented for interplanetary missions. The redesigned Solar Probe Plus mission is not only feasible under the new guidelines but also significantly outperforms the original mission concept

  13. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  14. Some Suggested Techniques for Achieving Required Main Ring Low Level RF Performance for the Tevatron I Program

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.E.; MacLachlan, J.

    1984-05-01

    These techniques are derived from experience with the existing low level rf system and from the results of accelerator experiments directed at the Tev I requirements which were performed using a specially modified low level rf system. The techniques suggested here are not necessarily unique and other techniques may be acceptable. It is important to realize that certain performance requirements on the Booster and Main Ring are substantially different in the Tev I program from those which have been acceptable in the fixed target program. For example, the longitudinal emittance of the bunches has been routinely and intentionally blown up by the 'bunch spreader' during acceleration to improve the smoothness of the spill. In the Tev I case, the 'bunch narrowing' procedure preceding {bar p} production and in bunch coalescing is facilitated by maintaining the smallest possible longitudinal emittance (i.e. the largest possible longitudinal phase space density). Also, during fixed target physics the Main Ring is essentially full (i.e. approx. 1090 of 1113 buckets occupied) so transient beam loading of the rf system is negligible except during injection, whereas for {bar p} production a single high intensity Booster batch (approx. 83 bunches) is to be accelerated causing substantial transient beam induced phase shift of the rf voltage during each passage. The low level phase and position error signals are normally derived from an essentially full ring during fixed target operation whereas in the Tev I program the systems must perform adequately with as few as ten adjacent buckets occupied. Because of the differences in emphasis between fixed target operation and Tevatron I operation is seems sensible to use separate low level rf systems for these two modes of operation. If a single low level system were to be used for both modes of operation some compromises may be necessary which might cause performance in either mode to be less than adequate. Because of the severe demands

  15. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  16. How to become a mentalist: reading decisions from a competitor's pupil can be achieved without training but requires instruction.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Stoll, Josef; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Carter, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Pupil dilation is implicated as a marker of decision-making as well as of cognitive and emotional processes. Here we tested whether individuals can exploit another's pupil to their advantage. We first recorded the eyes of 3 "opponents", while they were playing a modified version of the "rock-paper-scissors" childhood game. The recorded videos served as stimuli to a second set of participants. These "players" played rock-paper-scissors against the pre-recorded opponents in a variety of conditions. When players just observed the opponents' eyes without specific instruction their probability of winning was at chance. When informed that the time of maximum pupil dilation was indicative of the opponents' choice, however, players raised their winning probability significantly above chance. When just watching the reconstructed area of the pupil against a gray background, players achieved similar performance, showing that players indeed exploited the pupil, rather than other facial cues. Since maximum pupil dilation was correct about the opponents' decision only in 60% of trials (chance 33%), we finally tested whether increasing this validity to 100% would allow spontaneous learning. Indeed, when players were given no information, but the pupil was informative about the opponent's response in all trials, players performed significantly above chance on average and half (5/10) reached significance at an individual level. Together these results suggest that people can in principle use the pupil to detect cognitive decisions in another individual, but that most people have neither explicit knowledge of the pupil's utility nor have they learnt to use it despite a lifetime of exposure.

  17. Precise attitude rate estimation using star images obtained by mission telescope for satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamori, Takaya; Hosonuma, Takayuki; Ikari, Satoshi; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Sako, Nobutada; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    2015-02-01

    Recently, small satellites have been employed in various satellite missions such as astronomical observation and remote sensing. During these missions, the attitudes of small satellites should be stabilized to a higher accuracy to obtain accurate science data and images. To achieve precise attitude stabilization, these small satellites should estimate their attitude rate under the strict constraints of mass, space, and cost. This research presents a new method for small satellites to precisely estimate angular rate using star blurred images by employing a mission telescope to achieve precise attitude stabilization. In this method, the angular velocity is estimated by assessing the quality of a star image, based on how blurred it appears to be. Because the proposed method utilizes existing mission devices, a satellite does not require additional precise rate sensors, which makes it easier to achieve precise stabilization given the strict constraints possessed by small satellites. The research studied the relationship between estimation accuracy and parameters used to achieve an attitude rate estimation, which has a precision greater than 1 × 10-6 rad/s. The method can be applied to all attitude sensors, which use optics systems such as sun sensors and star trackers (STTs). Finally, the method is applied to the nano astrometry satellite Nano-JASMINE, and we investigate the problems that are expected to arise with real small satellites by performing numerical simulations.

  18. A space-based mission to characterize the IEO population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, Ross; Eßmann, Olaf; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hoffmann, Harald; Kührt, Ekkehard; Messina, Gabriele; Michaelis, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Müller, Hartmut; Pedersen, Jakob Fromm

    2013-09-01

    In 2007 the German Space Agency (DLR) initiated the Kompaktsatellit series of small satellites. With growing scientific interest in the threat of future asteroid impacts on Earth, the first mission selected for the Kompaktsatellit programme was AsteroidFinder, a mission to characterise the unknown Inner Earth Object (IEO) population. The mission is based around the AsteroidFinder Instrument (AFI), a high-performance optical telescope, with asteroids identified on-ground via their apparent motion against the fixed star background. Such a challenging mission implies significant demands on the Kompaktsatellit bus platform required to support the AFI. The tight constraints of small satellite design, namely time, finance and available mass, require innovative solutions to problems. With a launch scheduled for 2014 and the project due to enter Phase C in 2011, the challenges of achieving high science with a small satellite are already apparent.

  19. Verification and Implementation of Operations Safety Controls for Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalls, James R.; Jones, Cheryl L.; Carrier, Alicia S.

    2010-01-01

    There are several engineering disciplines, such as reliability, supportability, quality assurance, human factors, risk management, safety, etc. Safety is an extremely important engineering specialty within NASA, and the consequence involving a loss of crew is considered a catastrophic event. Safety is not difficult to achieve when properly integrated at the beginning of each space systems project/start of mission planning. The key is to ensure proper handling of safety verification throughout each flight/mission phase. Today, Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) operations engineers continue to conduct these flight product reviews across all open flight products. As such, these reviews help ensure that each mission is accomplished with safety requirements along with controls heavily embedded in applicable flight products. Most importantly, the S&MA operations engineers are required to look for important design and operations controls so that safety is strictly adhered to as well as reflected in the final flight product.

  20. Accurate establishment of error models for the satellite gravity gradiometry recovery and requirements analysis for the future GOCE follow-on mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zhaokui; Ding, Yanwei; Li, Zhaowei

    2016-05-01

    Firstly, the new single and combined error models applied to estimate the cumulative geoid height error are efficiently produced by the dominating error sources consisting of the gravity gradient of the satellite-equipped gradiometer and the orbital position of the space-borne GPS/GLONASS receiver using the power spectral principle. At degree 250, the cumulative geoid height error is 1.769 × 10-1 m based on the new combined error model, which preferably accords with a recovery accuracy of 1.760 × 10-1 m from the GOCE-only Earth gravity field model GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM_R2 released in Germany. Therefore, the new combined error model of the cumulative geoid height is correct and reliable in this study. Secondly, the requirements analysis for the future GOCE Follow-On satellite system is carried out in respect of the preferred design of the matching measurement accuracy of key payloads comprising the gravity gradient and orbital position and the optimal selection of the orbital altitude of the satellite. We recommend the gravity gradient with an accuracy of 10-13-10-15/s2, the orbital position with a precision of 1-0.1 cm and the orbital altitude of 200-250 km in the future GOCE Follow-On mission.

  1. Manned NEO Mission EVA Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The President has proposed to land astronauts on an asteroid by 2025. However, Manned NEO (Near Earth Objects) Missions will present a host of new and exciting problems that will need to be better defined and solved before such a mission is launched. Here I will focus on the challenges for conducting asteroidal EVAs. Specfically, crew locomotion, sampling, drilling, documentation, and instrument deployment issues arising from the micro gravity environments associated with NEOs. Therefore, novel methods and techniques will need to be developed and tested in order to achieve specific mission science objectives. Walking or driving on the surface will not be a realistic option due to the small sizes (10 s to 100 s of meters in diameter) and hence extremely low gravity of the present day known candidate NEOs. EVAs will have to be carried out with crew members either using a self propelled device (akin to the MMU and SAFER units used on Shuttle/ISS) and or tethers. When using tethers a grid system could be deployed which is anchored to the asteroid. These anchor points could be inserted by firing penetrators into the surface from the spacecraft while it is still at a safe standoff distance. These penetrators would pull double duty by being laden with scientific instrumentation to probe the subsurface. Dust and debris generated by sample collection and locomotion in a microgravity environment could also pose some problems that will require forethought.

  2. The Effects of Prosthesis Inertial Properties on Prosthetic Knee Moment and Hip Energetics Required to Achieve Able-Bodied Kinematics.

    PubMed

    Narang, Yashraj S; Arelekatti, V N Murthy; Winter, Amos G

    2016-07-01

    There is a major need in the developing world for a low-cost prosthetic knee that enables users to walk with able-bodied kinematics and low energy expenditure. To efficiently design such a knee, the relationship between the inertial properties of a prosthetic leg and joint kinetics and energetics must be determined. In this paper, using inverse dynamics, the theoretical effects of varying the inertial properties of an above-knee prosthesis on the prosthetic knee moment, hip power, and absolute hip work required for walking with able-bodied kinematics were quantified. The effects of independently varying mass and moment of inertia of the prosthesis, as well as independently varying the masses of each prosthesis segment, were also compared. Decreasing prosthesis mass to 25% of physiological leg mass increased peak late-stance knee moment by 43% and decreased peak swing knee moment by 76%. In addition, it reduced peak stance hip power by 26%, average swing hip power by 76%, and absolute hip work by 22%. Decreasing upper leg mass to 25% of its physiological value reduced absolute hip work by just 2%, whereas decreasing lower leg and foot mass reduced work by up to 22%, with foot mass having the greater effect. Results are reported in the form of parametric illustrations that can be utilized by researchers, designers, and prosthetists. The methods and outcomes presented have the potential to improve prosthetic knee component selection, facilitate able-bodied kinematics, and reduce energy expenditure for users of low-cost, passive knees in developing countries, as well as for users of advanced active knees in developed countries. PMID:26186794

  3. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  4. Science and Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever wondered about the science goals of various deep space missions? Or why scientists want such seemingly complicated spacecraft and operations scenarios? With a focus on outer planets) this talk will cover the scientific goals and results of several recent and future missions) how scientists approach a requirements flow down) and how the disparate needs of mission engineers and scientists can come together for mission success. It will also touch on several up and coming technologies and how they will change mission architectures in the future.

  5. The Stellar Imager (SI)"Vision Mission"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Ken; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Karovska, M.; Allen, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a "Vision" mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar magnetic activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, at ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and thus baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (less than 20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. SI's resolution will make it an invaluable resource for many other areas of astrophysics, including studies of AGN s, supernovae, cataclysmic variables, young stellar objects, QSO's, and stellar black holes. ongoing mission concept and technology development studies for SI. These studies are designed to refine the mission requirements for the science goals, define a Design Reference Mission, perform trade studies of selected major technical and architectural issues, improve the existing technology roadmap, and explore the details of deployment and operations, as well as the possible roles of astronauts and/or robots in construction and servicing of the facility.

  6. A review of Spacelab mission management approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Spacelab development program is a joint undertaking of the NASA and ESA. The paper addresses the initial concept of Spacelab payload mission management, the lessons learned, and modifications made as a result of the actual implementation of Spacelab Mission 1. The discussion covers mission management responsibilities, program control, science management, payload definition and interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. After 3.5 years the outlined overall mission manager approach has proven to be most successful. The approach does allow the mission manager to maintain the lowest overall mission cost.

  7. Coordinated science with the Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe Plus, Interhelioprobe and SPORT missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, Milan; Vourlidas, Angelos; Zimovets, Ivan; Velli, Marco; Zhukov, Andrei; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Liu, Ying; Bale, Stuart; Ming, Xiong

    The concurrent science operations of the ESA Solar Orbiter (SO), NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP), Russian Interhelioprobe (IHP) and Chinese SPORT missions will offer a truly unique epoch in heliospheric science. While each mission will achieve its own important science objectives, taken together the four missions will be capable of doing the multi-point measurements required to address many problems in Heliophysics such as the coronal origin of the solar wind plasma and magnetic field or the way the Solar transients drive the heliospheric variability. In this presentation, we discuss the capabilities of the four missions and the Science synergy that will be realized by concurrent operations

  8. Scalability of a Base Level Design for an On-Board-Computer for Scientific Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treudler, Carl Johann; Schroder, Jan-Carsten; Greif, Fabian; Stohlmann, Kai; Aydos, Gokce; Fey, Gorschwin

    2014-08-01

    Facing a wide range of mission requirements and the integration of diverse payloads requires extreme flexibility in the on-board-computing infrastructure for scientific missions. We show that scalability is principally difficult. We address this issue by proposing a base level design and show how the adoption to different needs is achieved. Inter-dependencies between scaling different aspects and their impact on different levels in the design are discussed.

  9. The Spacelab J mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremin, J. W.; Leslie, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes Spacelab J (SL-J), its mission characteristics, features, parameters and configuration, the unique nature of the shared reimbursable cooperative effort with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan and the evolution, content and objectives of the mission scientific experiment complement. The mission is planned for launch in 1991. This long module mission has 35 experiments from Japan as well as 9 investigations from the United States. The SL-J payload consists of two broad scientific disciplines which require the extended microgravity or cosmic ray environment: (1) materials science such as crystal growth, solidification processes, drop dynamics, free surface flows, gas dynamics, metallurgy and semiconductor technology; and (2) life science including cell development, human physiology, radiation-induced mutations, vestibular studies, embryo development, and medical technology. Through an international agreement with NASDA, NASA is preparing to fly the first Japanese manned, scientific, cooperative endeavor with the United States.

  10. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  11. Study to define and verify the personal oral hygiene requirements for extended manned space flight: Oral physiology and microbiology in Skylab manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for metabolic fingerprinting of pathogenic oral bacteria were developed and the effects of Skylab missions on salivary electrolyte levels were studied. High resolution gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) and pyrolysis-GLC procedures were used to obtain metabolic profiles of closely related bacteria associated with dental caries and periodontal disease. It was found that the GLC procedures provide a practical and reproducible means of obtaining metabolic markers for identifying closely related strains of these organisms. Fractions of stimulated whole saliva samples from the prime and back-up crews of the three Skylab missions were used to measure salivary electrolyte concentrations. All the electrolytes previously reported as having increased in urine and feces during the missions were assessed. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and chloride were studied. A decrease in sodium and an increase in magnesium were observed, but the mineral imbalances attributable to the mission-related increases in urinary electrolytes were not detected.

  12. Teamwork Reasoning and Multi-Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  13. TAU - A mission to a thousand astronomical units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nock, K. T.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is investigated as the enabling technology for achieving a mission to a thousand astronomical units within 50 years duration. By means of a 1000 AU baseline, the primary objective is to make measurements of distances to the stars in the Galaxy and beyond. In addition, several deep space unique studies in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and space plasma physics can be carried out. NEP technology requirements for a mission to 1000 AU are addressed. These technology requirements are compared with current plans for both nuclear space power and ion propulsion research. And finally an example TAU spacecraft system is described.

  14. Magellan: mission summary.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R S; Pettengill, G H

    1991-04-12

    The Magellan radar mapping mission is in the process of producing a global, high-resolution image and altimetry data set of Venus. Despite initial communications problems, few data gaps have occurred. Analysis of Magellan data is in the initial stages. The radar system data are of high quality, and the planned performance is being achieved in terms of spatial resolution and geometric and radiometric accuracy. Image performance exceeds expectations, and the image quality and mosaickability are extremely good. Future plans for the mission include obtaining gravity data, filling gaps in the initial map, and conducting special studies with the radar.

  15. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The nation's efforts to expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system was given renewed emphasis in January of 1988 when the Presidential Directive on National Space Policy was signed into effect. The expansion of human presence into the solar system has particular significance, in that it defines long-range goals for NASA's future missions. To embark and achieve such ambitious ventures is a significant undertaking, particularly compared to past space activities. Missions to Mars, the Moon, and Phobos, as well as an observatory based on the dark side of the Moon are discussed.

  16. The Euromir missions.

    PubMed

    Andresen, R D; Domesle, R

    1996-11-01

    The 179-day flight of ESA Astronaut Thomas Reiter onboard the Russian Space Station Mir drew to a successful conclusion on 29 February 1996 with the safe landing of the Soyuz TM-22 capsule near Arkalyk in Kazakhstan. This mission, known as Euromir 95, was part of ESA's precursor flight programme for the International Space Station, and followed the equally successful Euromir 94 mission by ESA Astronaut Ulf Merbold (3 October-4 November 1994). This article discusses the objectives of the two flights and presents an overview of the experiment programme, a preliminary assessment of its results and achievements, and reviews some of the lessons learnt for future Space Station operations.

  17. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  18. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  19. The Stellar Imager (SI) "Vision Mission"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K.; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Schrijver, C.; Kilston, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a Vision Mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) NASA Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, at ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (greater than 20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. In this paper, we present an update on the ongoing SI mission concept and technology development studies.

  20. The Stellar Imager (SI) "Vision Mission"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K.; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Schrijver, C.; Kilston, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a Vision Mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) NASA Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, a t ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (>20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. In this paper, we present an update on the ongoing SI mission concept and technology development studies.

  1. A small RTG for future planetary missions

    SciTech Connect

    Cockfield, R.D.; Kull, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    A design study was conducted to characterize conceptual designs for a small Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), one that might be suitable for future planetary missions. Conceptual design configurations were derived from the General Purpose Heat Source{emdash}RTG (GPHS-RTG), with the design goal of providing 70 watts of electrical power at the end of a ten year mission life. Design improvements for mass minimization were evaluated, considering also the technical risk of the corresponding engineering development required. It was concluded that an RTG mass of 18 kg could be achieved with moderate risk. Further studies are recommended to define in detail the testing and other development activities that would be required to bring the conceptual design for such an RTG to reality. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings, Upstate New York

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient; the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in three multifamily buildings.

  3. Multiple asteroid rendezvous missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, D. F.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    Asteroid missions, centered on multiple asteroid rendezvous missions to main belt asteroids, are discussed and the required solar electric propulsion for these missions as well as the current performance estimates are examined. A brief statistical analysis involving asteroid availability transfer requirements and propulsion system capabilities is given, leading to a prediction that 5 to 8 asteroids can be encountered with a single launch. Measurement techniques include visual imaging, radio tracking, magnetometry, and in the case of landers, seismometry. The spacecraft will be propelled by a solar electric system with a power level of 25 kW to 40 kW and tour possibilities for 13 different asteroids have been developed. Preliminary estimates of asteroid triaxiality are made to calculate the effect of close orbits.

  4. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  5. A review of mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Sorensen, E. M.; Wolff, T.; Haddow, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    A general definition of Mission Planning is given. The definition covers the full scope of an end-to-end mission planning system. Noting the mission-specific nature of most mission planning systems, a classification of autonomous spacecraft missions is made into Observatory, Survey, multi-instrument science, and Telecommunications missions. The mission planning approach for one mission in each category is examined critically. The following missions were chosen: ISO (Infrared Space Observatory); ERS-1 (European Remote Sensing Satellite); and Eureca (European Retrievable Carrier). The paper gives a summary of lessons learned from these missions suggesting improvements in areas such as requirements analysis, testing, user interfacing, rules, and constraints handling. The paper will also examine commonalities in functions, which could constitute a basis for identification of generic mission planning support tools.

  6. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  7. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  8. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  9. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  10. User requirements and user acceptance of current and next-generation satellite mission and sensor complement, oriented toward the monitoring of water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Fowler, T. R.; Robinson, P.

    1975-01-01

    Principal water resources users were surveyed to determine the applicability of remotely sensed data to their present and future requirements. Analysis of responses was used to assess the levels of adequacy of LANDSAT 1 and 2 in fulfilling hydrological functions, and to derive systems specifications for future water resources-oriented remote sensing satellite systems. The analysis indicates that water resources applications for all but the very large users require: (1) resolutions on the order of 15 meters, (2) a number of radiometric levels of the same order as currently used in LANDSAT 1 (64), (3) a number of spectral bands not in excess of those used in LANDSAT 1, and (4) a repetition frequency on the order of 2 weeks. The users had little feel for the value of new sensors (thermal IR, passive and active microwaves). What is needed in this area is to achieve specific demonstrations of the utility of these sensors and submit the results to the users to evince their judgement.

  11. Spacelab Mission 3 experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission is the first operational flight of Spacelab aboard the shuttle transportation system. The primary objectives of this mission are to conduct application, science, and technology experimentation that requires the low gravity environment of Earth orbit and an extended duration, stable vehicle attitude with emphasis on materials processing. This document provides descriptions of the experiments to be performed during the Spacelab 3 mission.

  12. Application of hybrid propulsion systems to planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Don, J. P.; Phen, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility and application of hybrid rocket propulsion to outer-planet orbiter missions is assessed in this study and guidelines regarding future development are provided. A Jupiter Orbiter Mission was selected for evaluation because it is the earliest planetary mission which may require advanced chemical propulsion. Mission and spacecraft characteristics which affect the selection and design of propulsion subsystems are presented. Alternative propulsion subsystems, including space-storable bipropellant liquids, a solid/monopropellant vernier, and a hybrid, are compared on the basis of performance, reliability, and cost. Cost-effectiveness comparisons are made for a range of assumptions including variation in (1) the level of need for spacecraft performance (determined in part by launch vehicle injected mass capability), and (2) achievable reliability at corresponding costs. The results indicated that the hybrid and space-storable bipropellant mechanizations are competitive.

  13. Mission Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    As teachers, our most important mission is to turn our students into readers. It sounds so simple, but it's hard work, and we're all on a deadline. Kittle describes a class in which her own expectations that students would become readers combined with a few impassioned strategies succeeded ... at least with a young man named Alan.

  14. Mission and Assets Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, John; Zendejas, Silvino; Gutheinz, Sandy; Borden, Chester; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Mission and Assets Database (MADB) Version 1.0 is an SQL database system with a Web user interface to centralize information. The database stores flight project support resource requirements, view periods, antenna information, schedule, and forecast results for use in mid-range and long-term planning of Deep Space Network (DSN) assets.

  15. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  16. Modeling and Simulation for Multi-Missions Space Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Max

    2011-01-01

    Asteroids and Near-Earth Objects [NEOs] are of great interest for future space missions. The Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle [MMSEV] is being considered for future Near Earth Object missions and requires detailed planning and study of its Guidance, Navigation, and Control [GNC]. A possible mission of the MMSEV to a NEO would be to navigate the spacecraft to a stationary orbit with respect to the rotating asteroid and proceed to anchor into the surface of the asteroid with robotic arms. The Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation [DARTS] laboratory develops reusable models and simulations for the design and analysis of missions. In this paper, the development of guidance and anchoring models are presented together with their role in achieving mission objectives and relationships to other parts of the simulation. One important aspect of guidance is in developing methods to represent the evolution of kinematic frames related to the tasks to be achieved by the spacecraft and its robot arms. In this paper, we compare various types of mathematical interpolation methods for position and quaternion frames. Subsequent work will be on analyzing the spacecraft guidance system with different movements of the arms. With the analyzed data, the guidance system can be adjusted to minimize the errors in performing precision maneuvers.

  17. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  18. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.; Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R.

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  19. Earth Science Missions Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marius, Julio L.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation gives a general overlook of the engineering efforts that are necessary to meet science mission requirement especially for Earth Science missions. It provides brief overlook of NASA's current missions and future Earth Science missions and the engineering challenges to meet some of the specific science objectives. It also provides, if time permits, a brief summary of two significant weather and climate phenomena in the Southern Hemisphere: El Nino and La Nina, as well as the Ozone depletion over Antarctica that will be of interest to IEEE intercom 2009 conference audience.

  20. [Historical and Hygienic Aspects on Roles of Quality Requirements for Antibiotic Products in Japan: Part 2--Achievements of Domestic Production of Penicillin and Streptomycin].

    PubMed

    Yagisawa, Morimasa; Foster, Patrick J; Kurokawa, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Domestic production of penicillin was initiated in 1946 and that of streptomycin in 1950. In the early days, however, the quality of products was considerably lower and the capacity of production small. Surprisingly, there was a sufficient amount of penicillin preparations, with a purity of 85% or more, satisfying domestic demand within three years (1949). In the case of streptomycin, within three years (1953), preparations with a purity two-fold higher than initially available were produced in amounts sufficient to meet both domestic demand and create a surplus availability for exporting purposes. Such increases in quality and production were considered to be made possible by strict quality control of penicillin and streptomycin preparations, based on "Minimum Requirements for Penicillin" established in May 1947 and "Minimum Requirements for Streptomycin" established in December 1949. These requirements were also amended over time in order to provide even higher quality standards in response to the evolving improvements in production processes. Life-threatening diseases such as septicemia and pneumonia were controlled by the sufficient supply of high-quality penicillin preparations and the mortality rate of tuberculosis, regarded as a national disease at the time, markedly decreased by that of streptomycin preparations. Achievements of domestic production of penicillin and streptomycin were considered important factors that contributed greatly to the maintenance of public health in Japan.

  1. Passive ZBO storage of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen applied to space science mission concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, D. W.; Christie, R. J.; Jurns, J. M.; Kittel, P.

    2006-02-01

    Liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic propulsion and storage were recently considered for application to Titan Explorer and Comet Nuclear Sample Return space science mission investigations. These missions would require up to 11 years of cryogenic storage. We modeled and designed cryogenic propellant storage concepts for these missions. By isolating the propellant tank’s view to deep space, we were able to achieve zero boil-off for both liquid hydrogen and oxygen propellant storage without cryocoolers. Several shades were incorporated to protect the tanks from the sun and spacecraft bus, and to protect the hydrogen tank from the warmer oxygen tank. This had a dramatic effect on the surface temperatures of the propellant tank insulation. These passive storage concepts for deep space missions substantially improved this application of cryogenic propulsion. It is projected that for missions requiring larger propellant tank sizes, the results would be even more dramatic.

  2. Lessons Learned on Operating and Preparing Operations for a Technology Mission from the Perspective of the Earth Observing-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Howard, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program's first Earth-observing mission (EO-1) is a technology validation mission. It is managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland and is scheduled for launch in the summer of 2000. The purpose of this mission is to flight-validate revolutionary technologies that will contribute to the reduction of cost and increase of capabilities for future land imaging missions. In the EO-1 mission, there are five instrument, five spacecraft, and three supporting technologies to flight-validate during a year of operations. EO-1 operations and the accompanying ground system were intended to be simple in order to maintain low operational costs. For purposes of formulating operations, it was initially modeled as a small science mission. However, it quickly evolved into a more complex mission due to the difficulties in effectively integrating all of the validation plans of the individual technologies. As a consequence, more operational support was required to confidently complete the on-orbit validation of the new technologies. This paper will outline the issues and lessons learned applicable to future technology validation missions. Examples of some of these include the following: (1) operational complexity encountered in integrating all of the validation plans into a coherent operational plan, (2) initial desire to run single shift operations subsequently growing to 6 "around-the-clock" operations, (3) managing changes in the technologies that ultimately affected operations, (4) necessity for better team communications within the project to offset the effects of change on the Ground System Developers, Operations Engineers, Integration and Test Engineers, S/C Subsystem Engineers, and Scientists, and (5) the need for a more experienced Flight Operations Team to achieve the necessary operational flexibility. The discussion will conclude by providing several cost comparisons for developing operations from previous missions to EO-1 and

  3. CAPACITY: Operational Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelder, H.; Goede, A.; van Weele, M.

    The ESA project CAPACITY refers to future Operational Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring Missions. Here operational is meant in the sense that a reliable service of specified information products can be established that satisfies user needs. Monitoring is meant in the sense that long-term continuity and consistency in the quality of the information products can be achieved. The objectives of the project are: To consult with user communities to develop high level information requirements and the form of the information products. To identify and prioritise mission objectives. To derive mission data requirements from the high level user information requirements and iterate these with the users. To set these requirements against observation systems available or approved for the future. To identify missing information products or information products of insufficient quality. To define a global observation system that would satisfy user requirements. The time frame of this operational system is projected to cover the period 2010 to 2020 concurrent with the operational satellites MetOp and NPOESS. In order to address these objectives a large European consortium has been formed consisting of approximately 30 partners from 9 ESA countries (F, D, UK, I, SW, N, DK, B, NL). The project is led by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the core team includes the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Univ Leicester, Univ Bremen and industry. Four application areas are identified: Protocol Monitoring (Montreal and Kyoto) and Policy Support Air Quality Monitoring and Policy Support (CLRTAP) Long Term Science Issues and Climate Monitoring Forecast Capacity In the derivation of data level 2/3 requirements from high level user requirements the consortium relies on a large group of modellers using satellite data, and of space research institutes with expertise in retrieval and calibration/validation of satellite data as well as Industry with experience in building space

  4. Mission Control Technologies: A New Way of Designing and Evolving Mission Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Walton, Joan; Saddler, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Current mission operations systems are built as a collection of monolithic software applications. Each application serves the needs of a specific user base associated with a discipline or functional role. Built to accomplish specific tasks, each application embodies specialized functional knowledge and has its own data storage, data models, programmatic interfaces, user interfaces, and customized business logic. In effect, each application creates its own walled-off environment. While individual applications are sometimes reused across multiple missions, it is expensive and time consuming to maintain these systems, and both costly and risky to upgrade them in the light of new requirements or modify them for new purposes. It is even more expensive to achieve new integrated activities across a set of monolithic applications. These problems impact the lifecycle cost (especially design, development, testing, training, maintenance, and integration) of each new mission operations system. They also inhibit system innovation and evolution. This in turn hinders NASA's ability to adopt new operations paradigms, including increasingly automated space systems, such as autonomous rovers, autonomous onboard crew systems, and integrated control of human and robotic missions. Hence, in order to achieve NASA's vision affordably and reliably, we need to consider and mature new ways to build mission control systems that overcome the problems inherent in systems of monolithic applications. The keys to the solution are modularity and interoperability. Modularity will increase extensibility (evolution), reusability, and maintainability. Interoperability will enable composition of larger systems out of smaller parts, and enable the construction of new integrated activities that tie together, at a deep level, the capabilities of many of the components. Modularity and interoperability together contribute to flexibility. The Mission Control Technologies (MCT) Project, a collaboration of

  5. Updated Integrated Mission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, Vincent A., Sr.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated Mission Program (IMP) is a computer program for simulating spacecraft missions around the Earth, Moon, Mars, and/or other large bodies. IMP solves the differential equations of motion by use of a Runge-Kutta numerical-integration algorithm. Users control missions through selection from a large menu of events and maneuvers. Mission profiles, time lines, propellant requirements, feasibility analyses, and perturbation analyses can be computed quickly and accurately. A prior version of IMP, written in FORTRAN 77, was reported in Program Simulates Spacecraft Missions (MFS-28606), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 17, No. 4 (April 1993), page 60. The present version, written in double-precision Lahey FORTRAN 90, incorporates a number of improvements over the prior version. Some of the improvements modernize the code to take advantage of today's greater central-processing-unit speeds. Other improvements render the code more modular; provide additional input, output, and debugging capabilities; and add to the variety of maneuvers, events, and means of propulsion that can be simulated. The IMP user manuals (of which there are now ten, each addressing a different aspect of the code and its use) have been updated accordingly.

  6. The Euclid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe; Laureijs, Rene

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing their signatures on the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of large structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid is optimised for two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for a launch date in the first half of 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. The ground segment is broken down into three elements: the Mission Operations, the Science Operations under the responsibility of ESA and the Science Data Centres belonging to the Euclid Consortium. We will describe the overall mission, the mission elements architecture and the current project status.

  7. Woven TPS Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, M.; Feldman, J.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2013-01-01

    WTPS is a new approach to producing TPS architectures that uses precisely engineered 3D weaving techniques to customize material characteristics needed to meet specific missions requirements for protecting space vehicles from the intense heating generated during atmospheric entry. Using WTPS, sustainable, scalable, mission-optimized TPS solutions can be achieved with relatively low life cycle costs compared with the high costs and long development schedules currently associated with material development and certification. WTPS leverages the mature state-of-the-art weaving technology that has evolved from the textile industry to design TPS materials with tailorable performance. Currently, missions anticipated encountering heat fluxes in the range of 1500 4000 Wcm2 and pressures greater than 1.5 atm are limited to using fully dense Carbon Phenolic. However, fully dense carbon phenolic is only mass efficient at higher heat fluxes greater than 4000 Wcm2), and current mission designs suffer this mass inefficiency for lack of an alternative mid-density TPS. WTPS not only bridges this mid-density TPS gap but also offers a replacement for carbon phenolic, which itself requires a significant and costly redevelopment effort to re-establish its capability for use in the high heat flux missions recently prioritized in the NRC Decadal survey, including probe missions to Venus, Saturn and Neptune. This presentation will overview the WTPS concept and present some results from initial testing completed comparing WTPS architectures to heritage carbon phenolic.

  8. An Analysis of Green Propulsion Applied to NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.; Mulkey, Henry W.; Baca, Caitlin E.

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of green propulsion for five mission classes are examined, including a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) mission (GPM), a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) mission (SDO), a High Earth Orbit (HEO) mission (MMS), a lunar mission (LRO), and a planetary mission (MAVEN). The propellant mass benefits are considered for all five missions, as well as the effects on the tanks, propellant loading, thruster throughput, thermal considerations, and range requirements for both the AF-M315E and LMP-103S propellants.

  9. The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Lyon, Richard G.; Mundy, Lee G.; Allen, Ronald J.; Armstrong, Thomas; Danchi, William C.; Karovska, Margarita; Marzouk, Joe; Mazzuca, Lisa M.; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5 km. It is designed to image stars and binaries with sufficient resolution to enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also support asteroseismology (acoustic imaging) to probe stellar internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of the magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate these fields, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars. The ultimate goal of the mission is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity as a driver of climate and space weather on time scales ranging from months up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on life in the Universe. In this paper we describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address these goals, the "enabling technology" development efforts being pursued, and the design concepts now under study for the full mission and a possible pathfinder mission.

  10. HOW MANY REPETITIONS OF CHILD CARE SKILLS ARE REQUIRED FOR HEALTH WORKER STUDENTS TO ACHIEVE PROFICIENCY? LEARNING CURVE PATTERNS IN CHILD CARE SKILLS ACQUISITION

    PubMed Central

    Emami Moghadam, Zahra; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Abadi, Fatemeh Sardar; Pour, Parastoo Majidi; Davoudi, Malihe; Banafsheh, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The vulnerability of children under 5 years old requires paying more attention to the health of this group. In the Iranian health care system, health workers are the first line of human resources for health care in rural areas. Because most health workers begin working in conditions with minimal facilities, their clinical qualifications are crucial. The aim of this study was to determine the number of repetitions of child care skills, required for health worker students to achieve proficiency based on the learning curve. Methods: A time series research design was used. Participants in this study were first year health worker students enrolled in three health schools in 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of demographic information and a checklist evaluating the health worker students’ clinical skills proficiency for child care. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) using descriptive and inferential statistics including Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests. Results: Learning curve patterns in child care skills acquisition showed that for less than 20 and between 20 to 29 times, the level of skill acquisition had an upward slope. Between 30- 39 the learning curve was descending, however the slope became ascending once more and then it leveled off (with change of less than 5%). Conclusion: It seems that 40 repetitions of child care skills are sufficient for health worker students to achieve proficiency. This suggests that time, resources and additional costs for training health worker students’ trainees can be saved by this level of repetition. PMID:26622199

  11. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  12. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  13. Outer planet probe navigation. [considering Pioneer space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L.

    1974-01-01

    A series of navigation studies in conjunction with outer planet Pioneer missions are reformed to determine navigation requirements and measurement systems in order to target probes. Some particular cases are established where optical navigation is important and some cases where radio alone navigation is suffucient. Considered are a direct Saturn mission, a Saturn Uranus mission, a Jupiter Uranus mission, and a Titan probe mission.

  14. Planning Coverage Campaigns for Mission Design and Analysis: CLASP for DESDynl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell L.; McLaren, David A.; Hu, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Mission design and analysis presents challenges in that almost all variables are in constant flux, yet the goal is to achieve an acceptable level of performance against a concept of operations, which might also be in flux. To increase responsiveness, automated planning tools are used that allow for the continual modification of spacecraft, ground system, staffing, and concept of operations, while returning metrics that are important to mission evaluation, such as area covered, peak memory usage, and peak data throughput. This approach was applied to the DESDynl mission design using the CLASP planning system, but since this adaptation, many techniques have changed under the hood for CLASP, and the DESDynl mission concept has undergone drastic changes. The software produces mission evaluation products, such as memory highwater marks, coverage percentages, given a mission design in the form of coverage targets, concept of operations, spacecraft parameters, and orbital parameters. It tries to overcome the lack of fidelity and timeliness of mission requirements coverage analysis during mission design. Previous techniques primarily use Excel in ad hoc fashion to approximate key factors in mission performance, often falling victim to overgeneralizations necessary in such an adaptation. The new program allows designers to faithfully represent their mission designs quickly, and get more accurate results just as quickly.

  15. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  16. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  17. Intravenous Solutions for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher J.; Niederhaus, Charles; Barlow, Karen; Griffin, DeVon

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements being developed for medical care during NASA s future exploration class missions. Previous research on IV solution generation and mixing in space is summarized. The current exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. We briefly introduce potential methods for generating IV fluids in microgravity. Conclusions on the recommended fluid volume requirements are presented.

  18. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Nominal Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald; williams, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Mission (ARCM) nominal design and performance costs associated with an Orion based crewed rendezvous mission to a captured asteroid in an Earth-Moon DRO. The ARM study includes two fundamental mission phases: 1) The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) and 2) the ARCM. The ARRM includes a solar electric propulsion based robotic asteroid return vehicle (ARV) sent to rendezvous with a selected near Earth asteroid, capture it, and return it to a DRO in the Earth-Moon vicinity. The DRO is selected over other possible asteroid parking orbits due to its achievability (by both the robotic and crewed vehicles) and by its stability (e.g., no orbit maintenance is required). After the return of the asteroid to the Earth-Moon vicinity, the ARCM is executed and carries a crew of two astronauts to a DRO to rendezvous with the awaiting ARV with the asteroid. The outbound and inbound transfers employ lunar gravity assist (LGA) flybys to reduce the Orion propellant requirement for the overall nominal mission, which provides a nominal mission with some reserve propellant for possible abort situations. The nominal mission described in this report provides a better understanding of the mission considerations as well as the feasibility of such a crewed mission, particularly with regard to spacecraft currently undergoing development, such as the Orion vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS).

  19. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  20. Payload missions integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the Payload Missions Integration Contract (PMIC) are summarized. Spacelab Missions no. 1 to 3, OSTA partial payloads, Astro-1 Mission, premission definition, and mission peculiar equipment support structure are addressed.

  1. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  2. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  3. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  4. Mars Mission Concepts: SAR and Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, Michael; Clifford, S.; Lawrence, S.; Klaus, K.; Smith, D.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: The time has come to leverage technology advances to reduce the cost and increase the flight rate of planetary missions, while actively developing a scientific and engineering workforce to achieve national space objectives. Mission Science at Mars: A SAR imaging radar offers an ability to conduct high resolution investigations of the shallow subsurface of Mars, enabling identification of fine-scale layering within the Martian polar layered deposits (PLD), as well as the identification of pingos, investigations of polygonal terrain, and measurements of the thickness of mantling layers at non-polar latitudes. It would allow systematic near-surface prospecting, which is tremendously useful for human exploration purposes. Limited color capabilities in a notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would enable the generation of false color images, resulting in useful science results, and the stereo data could be reduced into high-resolution Digital Elevation Models uniquely useful for exploration planning and science purposes. Mission Concept: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Our concept involves using a Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Summary/Conclusions: A robust and compelling Mars mission can be designed to meet the 2018 Mars launch window opportunity. Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute the baseline science mission and conduct necessary Mars Sample Return Technology Demonstrations in Mars orbit on the same mission. An observation spacecraft platform like the high power 5Kw) 702SP at Mars also enables the use of a SAR instrument to reveal new insights and understanding of the Mars regolith for both

  5. Generic mission planning concepts for space astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guffin, O. T.; Onken, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The past two decades have seen the rapid development of space astronomy, both manned and unmanned, and the concurrent proliferation of the operational concepts and software that have been produced to support each individual project. Having been involved in four of these missions since the '70's and three yet to fly in the present decade, the authors believe it is time to step back and evaluate this body of experience from a macro-systems point of view to determine the potential for generic mission planning concepts that could be applied to future missions. This paper presents an organized evaluation of astronomy mission planning functions, functional flows, iteration cycles, replanning activities, and the requirements that drive individual concepts to specific solutions. The conclusions drawn from this exercise are then used to propose a generic concept that could support multiple missions.

  6. Estimation of yield and water requirements of maize crops combining high spatial and temporal resolution images with a simple crop model, in the perspective of the Sentinel-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battude, Marjorie; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Brut, Aurore; Cros, Jérôme; Dejoux, Jean-François; Huc, Mireille; Marais Sicre, Claire; Tallec, Tiphaine; Demarez, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Water resources are under increasing pressure as a result of global change and of a raising competition among the different users (agriculture, industry, urban). It is therefore important to develop tools able to estimate accurately crop water requirements in order to optimize irrigation while maintaining acceptable production. In this context, remote sensing is a valuable tool to monitor vegetation development and water demand. This work aims at developing a robust and generic methodology mainly based on high resolution remote sensing data to provide accurate estimates of maize yield and water needs at the watershed scale. Evapotranspiration (ETR) and dry aboveground biomass (DAM) of maize crops were modeled using time series of GAI images used to drive a simple agro-meteorological crop model (SAFYE, Duchemin et al., 2005). This model is based on a leaf partitioning function (Maas, 1993) for the simulation of crop biomass and on the FAO-56 methodology for the ETR simulation. The model also contains a module to simulate irrigation. This study takes advantage of the SPOT4 and SPOT5 Take5 experiments initiated by CNES (http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/multitemp/). They provide optical images over the watershed from February to May 2013 and from April to August 2015 respectively, with a temporal and spatial resolution similar to future images from the Sentinel-2 and VENμS missions. This dataset was completed with LandSat8 and Deimos1 images in order to cover the whole growing season while reducing the gaps in remote sensing time series. Radiometric, geometric and atmospheric corrections were achieved by the THEIA land data center, and the KALIDEOS processing chain. The temporal dynamics of the green area index (GAI) plays a key role in soil-plant-atmosphere interactions and in biomass accumulation process. Consistent seasonal dynamics of the remotely sensed GAI was estimated by applying a radiative transfer model based on artificial neural networks (BVNET, Baret

  7. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  8. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  9. Visual Navigation - SARE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Kuba, Jose; Caruso, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The SARE Earth Observing and Technological Mission is part of the Argentinean Space Agency (CONAE - Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) Small and Technological Payloads Program. The Argentinean National Space Program requires from the SARE program mission to test in a real environment of several units, assemblies and components to reduce the risk of using these equipments in more expensive Space Missions. The objective is to make use those components with an acceptable maturity in design or development, but without any heritage at space. From the application point of view, this mission offers new products in the Earth Observation data market which are listed in the present paper. One of the technological payload on board of the SARE satellite is the sensor Ground Tracker. It computes the satellite attitude and orbit in real time (goal) and/or by ground processing. For the first operating mode a dedicated computer and mass memory are necessary to be part of the mentioned sensor. For the second operational mode the hardware and software are much simpler.

  10. Exploration Missions to Host Small Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirtain, Jonathan; Pelfrey, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The next-generation heavy launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS), will provide the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the exploration mission trajectory. We will describe the payload mission concept of operations, the payload capacity for the SLS, and the payload requirements. Exploration Mission 1, currently planned for launch in December 2017, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS.

  11. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  12. Feasibility and Definition of a Lunar Polar Volatiles Prospecting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Elphic, Richard; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry; Pedersen, Liam; Beyer, Ross; Cockrell, James

    2012-01-01

    The recent Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission has provided evidence for significant amounts of cold trapped volatiles in Cabeus crater near the Moon's south pole. Moreover, LRO/Diviner measurements of extremely cold lunar polar surface temperatures imply that volatiles can be stable outside or areas of strict permanent shadows. These discoveries suggest that orbital neutron spectrometer data point to extensive deposits at both lunar poles. The physical state, composition and distribution of these volatiles are key scientific issues that relate to source and emplacement mechanisms. These issues are also important for enabling lunar in situ resource utilization (ISRU). An assessment of the feasibility of cold-trapped volatile ISRU requires a priori information regarding the location, form, quantity, and potential for extraction of available resources. A robotic mission to a mostly shadowed but briefly .unlit location with suitable environmental conditions (e.g. short periods of oblique sunlight and subsurface cryogenic temperatures which permit volatile trapping) can help answer these scientific and exploration questions. Key parameters must be defined in order to identify suitable landing sites, plan surface operations, and achieve mission success. To address this need, we have conducted an initial study for a lunar polar volatile prospecting mission, assuming the use of a solar-powered robotic lander and rover. Here we present the mission concept, goals and objectives, and landing site selection analysis for a short-duration, landed, solar-powered mission to a potential hydrogen volatile-rich site.

  13. [The mission of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the following about Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory: its mission; requirements and guidance documents for the QA program; architecture; assessment organization; and specific management issues.

  14. [The mission of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses the following about Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory: its mission; requirements and guidance documents for the QA program; architecture; assessment organization; and specific management issues.

  15. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  16. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  17. Ultra Stable Microwave Radiometers for Future Sea Surface Salinity Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science System Pathfinder (ESSP) mission Aquarius will measure global sea surface salinity with 100-km spatial resolution every 8 days with an average monthly salinity accuracy of 0.2 psu (parts per thousand). This requires an L-band low-noise radiometer with the long-term calibration stability of less than 0.1 K over 8 days. This three-year research program on ultra stable radiometers has addressed the radiometer requirements and configuration necessary to achieve this objective for Aquarius and future ocean salinity missions. The system configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer testbeds at both JPL and GSFC. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature, a procedure for the measurement and correction for radiometer system non-linearity, noise diode calibration versus temperature, low noise amplifier performance over voltage, and temperature control requirements to achieve the required stability. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability. This report also presents the results of the radiometer test program, a detailed radiometer noise model, and details of the operational switching sequence optimization that can be used to achieve the low noise and stability requirements. Many of the results of this research have been incorporated into the Aquarius radiometer design and will allow this instrument to achieve its goals.

  18. Mission Planning and Scheduling System for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Gonzalo; Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa; Saylor, Rick; Cosgrove, Sager; Ritter, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of NASA's return to the Moon efforts, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step. It is an unmanned mission to create a comprehensive atlas of the Moon's features and resources necessary to design and build a lunar outpost. LRO is scheduled for launch in April, 2009. LRO carries a payload comprised of six instruments and one technology demonstration. In addition to its scientific mission LRO will use new technologies, systems and flight operations concepts to reduce risk and increase productivity of future missions. As part of the effort to achieve robust and efficient operations, the LRO Mission Operations Team (MOT) will use its Mission Planning System (MPS) to manage the operational activities of the mission during the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) and operational phases of the mission. The MPS, based on GMV's flexplan tool and developed for NASA with Honeywell Technology Solutions (prime contractor), will receive activity and slew maneuver requests from multiple science operations centers (SOC), as well as from the spacecraft engineers. flexplan will apply scheduling rules to all the requests received and will generate conflict free command schedules in the form of daily stored command loads for the orbiter and a set of daily pass scripts that help automate nominal real-time operations.

  19. Monte Carlo Analysis as a Trajectory Design Driver for the TESS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, Craig; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen; Dichmann, Donald; Parker, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.

  20. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  1. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts through Application of Complexity Indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Craig; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap Conmrittee (chartered by NASA to develop the roadmap for Solar System Exploration Missions for the coming decades) found itself posed with the difficult problem of sorting through several mission concepts and determining their relative costs. While detailed mission studies are the normal approach to costing, neither the budget nor schedule allotted to the conmrittee could support such studies. Members of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supporting the conmrittee were given the challenge of developing a semi-quantitative approach that could provide the relative costs of these missions, without requiring an in depth study of the missions. In response to this challenge, a rapid cost assessment methodology based on a set of mission cost/complexity indexes was developed. This methodology also underwent two separate validations, one comparing its results when applied to historical missions, and another comparing its estimates against those of veteran space mission managers. Remarkably good agreement was achieved, suggesting that this approach provides an effective early indication of space mission costs.

  2. Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

  3. STS-99 / Endeavour Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This radar system will produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. This videotape presents a mission overview press briefing. The panel members are Dr. Ghassem Asrar, NASA Associate Administrator Earth Sciences; General James C. King, Director National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA); Professor Achim Bachem, Member of the Executive Board, Deutschen Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German National Aerospace Research Center; and Professor Sergio Deiulio, President of the Italian Space Agency. Dr. Asrar opened with a summary of the history of Earth Observations from space, relating the SRTM to this history. This mission, due to cost and complexity, required partnership with other agencies and nations, and the active participation of the astronauts. General King spoke to the expectations of NIMA, and the use of the Synthetic Aperture Radar to produce the high resolution topographic images. Dr. Achim Bachem spoke about the international cooperation that this mission required, and some of the commercial applications and companies that will use this data. Dr Deiulio spoke of future plans to improve knowledge of the Earth using satellites. Questions from the press concerned use of the information for military actions, the reason for the restriction on access to the higher resolution data, the mechanism to acquire that data for scientific research, and the cost sharing from the mission's partners. There was also discussion about the mission's length.

  4. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  5. Asteroid Crewed Segment Mission Lean Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gard, Joe; McDonald, Mark; Jermstad, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of human spaceflight missions presents numerous challenges to designers that must be addressed to produce a feasible concept. The specific challenges of designing an exploration mission utilizing the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts beyond earth orbit to explore an asteroid stored in a distant retrograde orbit around the moon will be addressed. Mission designers must carefully balance competing constraints including cost, schedule, risk, and numerous spacecraft performance metrics including launch mass, nominal landed mass, abort landed mass, mission duration, consumable limits and many others. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will be described along with results from the concurrent mission design trades that led to its formulation. While the trades presented are specific to this mission, the integrated process is applicable to any potential future mission. The following trades were critical in the mission formulation and will be described in detail: 1) crew size, 2) mission duration, 3) trajectory design, 4) docking vs grapple, 5) extravehicular activity tasks, 6) launch mass and integrated vehicle performance, 7) contingency performance, 8) crew consumables including food, clothing, oxygen, nitrogen and water, and 9) mission risk. The additional Orion functionality required to perform the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission and how it is incorporated while minimizing cost, schedule and mass impacts will be identified. Existing investments in the NASA technology portfolio were leveraged to provide the added functionality that will be beneficial to future exploration missions. Mission kits are utilized to augment Orion with the necessary functionality without introducing costly new requirements to the mature Orion spacecraft design effort. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission provides an exciting early mission for the Orion and SLS while providing a stepping stone to even more ambitious missions in the future.

  6. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  7. Progress on the Cluster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, Margaret; Khurana, Krishan; Acuna, Mario (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Prof M. G. Kivelson and Dr. K. K. Khurana (UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)) are co-investigators on the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium (CMC) that provided the fluxgate magnetometers and associated mission support for the Cluster Mission. The CMC designated UCLA as the site with primary responsibility for the inter-calibration of data from the four spacecraft and the production of fully corrected data critical to achieving the mission objectives. UCLA will also participate in the analysis and interpretation of the data. The UCLA group here reports its excellent progress in developing fully intra-calibrated data for large portions of the mission and an excellent start in developing inter-calibrated data for selected time intervals, especially extended intervals in August, 2001 on which a workshop held at ESTEC in March, 2002 focused. In addition, some scientific investigations were initiated and results were reported at meetings.

  8. Austere Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Hoppy; Hawkins, Alisa M.; Tadcliffe, Torrey O.

    2009-01-01

    The Design Reference Architecture 5 (DRA 5) is the most recent concept developed by NASA to send humans to Mars in the 2030 time frame using Constellation Program elements. DRA 5 is optimized to meet a specific set of requirements that would provide for a robust exploration program to deliver a new six-person crew at each biennial Mars opportunity and provide for power and infrastructure to maintain a highly capable continuing human presence on Mars. This paper examines an alternate architecture that is scaled back from DRA 5 and might offer lower development cost, lower flight cost, and lower development risk. It is recognized that a mission set using this approach would not meet all the current Constellation Mars mission requirements; however, this 'austere' architecture may represent a minimum mission set that would be acceptable from a science and exploration standpoint. The austere approach is driven by a philosophy of minimizing high risk or high cost technology development and maximizing development and production commonality in order to achieve a program that could be sustained in a flat-funded budget environment. Key features that would enable a lower technology implementation are as follows: using a blunt-body entry vehicle having no deployable decelerators, utilizing aerobraking rather than aerocapture for placing the crewed element into low Mars orbit, avoiding the use of liquid hydrogen with its low temperature and large volume issues, using standard bipropellant propulsion for the landers and ascent vehicle, and using radioisotope surface power systems rather than a nuclear reactor or large area deployable solar arrays. Flat funding within the expected NASA budget for a sustained program could be facilitated by alternating cargo and crew launches for the biennial Mars opportunities. This would result in two assembled vehicles leaving Earth orbit for Mars per Mars opportunity. The first opportunity would send two cargo landers to the Mars surface to

  9. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  10. Novel Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detector Developments for Future Large Area and High Resolution X-ray Astronomy Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, Abe

    In the coming years, X-ray astronomy will require new soft X-ray detectors that can be read very quickly with low noise and can achieve small pixel sizes over a moderately large focal plane area. These requirements will be present for a variety of X-ray missions that will attempt to address science that was highly ranked by the Decadal Review, including missions with science that over-laps with that of IXO and ATHENA, as well as other missions addressing science topics beyond those of IXO and ATHENA. An X-ray Surveyor mission was recently endorsed by the NASA long term planning document entitled "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions," and a detailed description of one possible realization of such a mission has been referred to as SMART-X, which was described in a recent NASA RFI response. This provides an example of a future mission concept with these requirements since it has high X-ray throughput and excellent spatial resolution. We propose to continue to modify current active pixel sensor designs, in particular the hybrid CMOS detectors that we have been working with for several years, and implement new in-pixel technologies that will allow us to achieve these ambitious and realistic requirements on a timeline that will make them available to upcoming X-ray missions. This proposal is a continuation of our program that has been working on these developments for the past several years.

  11. Extended mission life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  12. Toward lowering the cost of mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. D.; Ledbetter, K. W.

    1993-01-01

    The mission operations system is one of the more significant drivers of the cost of the mission operations and data analysis segment of missions. In large or long-lived projects, the MOS can also be a driver in total mission cost. Larger numbers of missions, together with an increasingly cost-conscious environment, dictate that future missions must more strictly control costs as they perform to their requirements. It is therefore prudent to examine the conduct of past missions for ways to conserve resources. In this paper we review inputs made to past projects' 'lessons-learned' activities, in which personnel from past projects (among other things) identified major cost drivers of MOS's and considered how economies were or might have been realized in both design and performance of their MOS. Common themes among four such reviews are summarized in an attempt to provide suggestions for cost reduction in future missions.

  13. Designing Spacecraft and Mission Operations Plans to Meet Flight Crew Radiation Dose Requirements: Why is this an "Epic Challenge" for Long-Term Manned Interplanetary Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Outline of presentation: (1) Radiation Shielding Concepts and Performance - Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) (1a) Some general considerations (1b) Galactic Cosmic Rays (2)GCR Shielding I: What material should I use and how much do I need? (2a) GCR shielding materials design and verification (2b) Spacecraft materials point dose cosmic ray shielding performance - hydrogen content and atomic number (2c) Accelerator point dose materials testing (2d) Material ranking and selection guidelines (2e) Development directions and return on investment (point dose metric) (2f) Secondary particle showers in the human body (2f-1) limited return of investment for low-Z, high-hydrogen content materials (3) GCR shielding II: How much will it cost? (3a) Spacecraft design and verification for mission radiation dose to the crew (3b) Habitat volume, shielding areal density, total weight, and launch cost for two habitat volumes (3c) It's All about the Money - Historical NASA budgets and budget limits (4) So, what can I do about all this? (4a) Program Design Architecture Trade Space (4b) The Vehicle Design Trade Space (4c) Some Near Term Recommendations

  14. Game changing: NASA's space launch system and science mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creech, S. D.

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher characteristic energy (C3) energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as “ monolithic” telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  15. Living off the land: the practical low-cost approach to piloted Mars missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrin, R. M.

    This paper investigates means for achieving human expeditions to Mars utilizing existing or near-term technology. Both mission plans described here, Mars Direct and Semi-Direct are accomplished with tandem direct launches of payloads to Mars using the upper stages of the heavy lift booster used to lift the payloads to orbit. No on-orbit assembly of large interplanetary spacecraft is required. In situ-propellant production of CH4/O2 and H2O on the Martian surface is used to reduce return propellant and surface consumable requirements, and thus total mission mass and cost. The proposed surface systems payload manifest is presented, and mission back-up plans are described. It is concluded that both the Mars Direct and Semi-Direct plans offer viable options for robust piloted Mars missions employing near-term technology.

  16. The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten

  17. Hitchhiker mission operations: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kathryn

    1995-01-01

    What is mission operations? Mission operations is an iterative process aimed at achieving the greatest possible mission success with the resources available. The process involves understanding of the science objectives, investigation of which system capabilities can best meet these objectives, integration of the objectives and resources into a cohesive mission operations plan, evaluation of the plan through simulations, and implementation of the plan in real-time. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive description of what the Hitchhiker mission operations approach is and why it is crucial to mission success. The authors describe the significance of operational considerations from the beginning and throughout the experiment ground and flight systems development. The authors also address the necessity of training and simulations. Finally, the authors cite several examples illustrating the benefits of understanding and utilizing the mission operations process.

  18. Enabling interferometry technologies for the GAIA astrometric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M.; Bonino, L.; Cecconi, Massimo; Cesare, Stefano; Bertinetto, Fabrizio; Mana, Giovanni; Carollo, D.; Gai, Mario; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Canuto, Enrico; Donati, F.

    1999-08-01

    Within a Technology Research Program funded by the European Space Agency, a team led by Alenia Aerospazio has investigated and started the development of some technologies which are considered fundamental for the achievement of the scientific objectives of the future astrometric mission GAIA. The activities have been focused on the design of a two-aperture optical interferometer and of a system for the active stabilization of its configuration within few picometers. A laboratory prototype of the active stabilization system has been implemented and tested. The results achieved in the laboratory tests proved that the very challenging requirements imposed by the GAIA astrometric goal of 10 micro-arcsec accuracy can be fulfilled.

  19. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  20. Mission impossible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2008-05-01

    Achieving the impossible might turn out to actually be impossible, but in the process of trying we can redefine the possible. It is the difference between ambition and complacency. Again and again - especially towards the end of the 19th century - complacent scientists have made future fools of themselves by proclaiming the impossibility of things such as determining the composition of stars or discovering the ultimate structure of matter. Ambitious authors, on the other hand, write books about "impossible" science. John Horgan tried with The End of Science, and John Barrow with Impossibility: The Limits of Science and the Science of Limits. Now the physicist and science communicator Michio Kaku offers us Physics of the Impossible.

  1. 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission Design Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abilleira, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in the fall of 2011 with arrival at Mars occurring in the summer of 2012, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory will explore and assess whether Mars ever had conditions capable of supporting microbial life. In order to achieve its science objectives, the Mars Science Laboratory will be equipped with the most advanced suite of instruments ever sent to the surface of the Red Planet. Delivering the next mobile science laboratory safely to the surface of Mars has various key challenges derived from a strict set of requirements which include launch vehicle performance, spacecraft mass, communications coverage during Entry, Descent, and Landing, atmosphere-relative entry speeds, latitude accessibility, and dust storm season avoidance among others. The Mars Science Laboratory launch/arrival strategy selected after careful review satisfies all these mission requirements.

  2. Autonomous collaborative mission systems (ACMS) for multi-UAV missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-L.; Peot, M.; Lee, J.; Sundareswaran, V.; Altshuler, T.

    2005-05-01

    UAVs are a key element of the Army"s vision for Force Transformation, and are expected to be employed in large numbers per FCS Unit of Action (UoA). This necessitates a multi-UAV level of autonomous collaboration behavior capability that meets RSTA and other mission needs of FCS UoAs. Autonomous Collaborative Mission Systems (ACMS) is a scalable architecture and behavior planning / collaborative approach to achieve this level of capability. The architecture is modular and the modules may be run in different locations/platforms to accommodate the constraints of available hardware, processing resources and mission needs. The Mission Management Module determines the role of member autonomous entities by employing collaboration mechanisms (e.g., market-based, etc.), the individual Entity Management Modules work with the Mission Manager in determining the role and task of the entity, the individual Entity Execution Modules monitor task execution and platform navigation and sensor control, and the World Model Module hosts local and global versions of the environment and the Common Operating Picture (COP). The modules and uniform interfaces provide a consistent and platform-independent baseline mission collaboration mechanism and signaling protocol across different platforms. Further, the modular design allows flexible and convenient addition of new autonomous collaborative behaviors to the ACMS through: adding new behavioral templates in the Mission Planner component, adding new components in appropriate ACMS modules to provide new mission specific functionality, adding or modifying constraints or parameters to the existing components, or any combination of these. We describe the ACMS architecture, its main features, current development status and future plans for simulations in this report.

  3. Intrepid: A Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behling, Michael; Buchman, Donald; Marcus, Andres; Procopis, Stephanie; Wassgren, Carl; Ziemer, Sarah

    1990-01-01

    A proposal for an exploratory spacecraft mission to Pluto/Charon system was written in response to the request for proposal for an unmannned probe to pluto (RFP). The design requirements of the RFP are presented and under the guidance of these requirements, the spacecraft Intrepid was designed. The RPF requirement that was of primary importance is the minimization of cost. Also, the reduction of flight time was of extreme importance because the atmosphere of Pluto is expected to collapse close to the Year 2020. If intrepid should arrive after the collapse, the mission would be a failure; for Pluto would be only a solid rock of ice. The topics presented include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion subsystem; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communications; and (6) attitude and articulation control.

  4. Guidelines for mission integration, a summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are presented for instrument/experiment developers concerning hardware design, flight verification, and operations and mission implementation requirements. Interface requirements between the STS and instruments/experiments are defined. Interface constraints and design guidelines are presented along with integrated payload requirements for Spacelab Missions 1, 2, and 3. Interim data are suggested for use during hardware development until more detailed information is developed when a complete mission and an integrated payload system are defined. Safety requirements, flight verification requirements, and operations procedures are defined.

  5. Mars Sample Return Using Commercial Capabilities: Mission Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Andrew A.; Stoker, Carol R.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Bowles, Jeffery V.; Huynh, Loc C.; Faber, Nicholas T.; Race, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science. This presentation provides an overview of a feasibility study for a MSR mission in which emerging commercial capabilities are used alongside other sources of mission elements. Goal is to reduce the number of mission systems and launches required to return the samples, with the goal of reducing mission cost.. Major elements required for the MSR mission are described. We report the feasibility of a complete and closed MSR mission design

  6. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B. ); Pieters, C. ); Ulmer, M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Henrikson, C. )

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth's Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low [Delta]V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  7. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.; Pieters, C.; Ulmer, M.; Henrikson, C.

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth`s Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low {Delta}V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  8. Mars exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Seiji

    1991-07-01

    Mars exploration scenarios are reviewed. An emphasis is placed on scientific exploration. The review and evaluation results are reported for the following items: (1) orbit plans for Mars surface exploration missions that begin in Low Earth Orbit (LEO); (2) powered and aerodynamic capturing payloads from the transfer orbit to a Mars revolving orbit; and (3) a penetrator system as a Mars landing vehicle. Proposed Mars transfer orbits have the following advantages over Hohmann orbits: (1) transfer time and angle are less; (2) the inclination between the orbital planes of Earth and Mars is considered; and (3) velocity variations are not required to change orbit plane.

  9. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. R.; Joosten, B. J.; Lo, M. W.; Ford, K. M.; Hansen, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cryogenic propulsion for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafi, S.; DeLee, C.; Francis, J.; Li, X.; McGuinness, D.; Nixon, C. A.; Purves, L.; Willis, W.; Riall, S.; Devine, M.; Hedayat, A.

    2016-03-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) cryogenic propellants can dramatically enhance NASA's ability to explore the solar system due to their superior specific impulse (Isp) capability. Although these cryogenic propellants can be challenging to manage and store, they allow significant mass advantages over traditional hypergolic propulsion systems and are therefore enabling for many planetary science missions. New cryogenic storage techniques such as subcooling and the use of advanced insulation and low thermal conductivity support structures will allow for the long term storage and use of cryogenic propellants for solar system exploration and hence allow NASA to deliver more payloads to targets of interest, launch on smaller and less expensive launch vehicles, or both. These new cryogenic storage technologies were implemented in a design study for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission, with LH2 and LO2 as propellants, and the resulting spacecraft design was able to achieve a 43% launch mass reduction over a TOPS mission, that utilized a traditional hypergolic propulsion system with mono-methyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants. This paper describes the cryogenic propellant storage design for the TOPS mission and demonstrates how these cryogenic propellants are stored passively for a decade-long Titan mission that requires the cryogenics propellants to be stored for 8.5 years.

  11. Concept design theory and model for multi-use space facilities: Analysis of key system design parameters through variance of mission requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynerson, Charles Martin

    This research has been performed to create concept design and economic feasibility data for space business parks. A space business park is a commercially run multi-use space station facility designed for use by a wide variety of customers. Both space hardware and crew are considered as revenue producing payloads. Examples of commercial markets may include biological and materials research, processing, and production, space tourism habitats, and satellite maintenance and resupply depots. This research develops a design methodology and an analytical tool to create feasible preliminary design information for space business parks. The design tool is validated against a number of real facility designs. Appropriate model variables are adjusted to ensure that statistical approximations are valid for subsequent analyses. The tool is used to analyze the effect of various payload requirements on the size, weight and power of the facility. The approach for the analytical tool was to input potential payloads as simple requirements, such as volume, weight, power, crew size, and endurance. In creating the theory, basic principles are used and combined with parametric estimation of data when necessary. Key system parameters are identified for overall system design. Typical ranges for these key parameters are identified based on real human spaceflight systems. To connect the economics to design, a life-cycle cost model is created based upon facility mass. This rough cost model estimates potential return on investments, initial investment requirements and number of years to return on the initial investment. Example cases are analyzed for both performance and cost driven requirements for space hotels, microgravity processing facilities, and multi-use facilities. In combining both engineering and economic models, a design-to-cost methodology is created for more accurately estimating the commercial viability for multiple space business park markets.

  12. KEPLER Mission: development and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170 000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many ‘blind alleys’ before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170 000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  13. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth. PMID:26863223

  14. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  15. Supportability Technologies for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Kevin; Thompson, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Future long-duration human exploration missions will be challenged by resupply limitations and mass and volume constraints. Consequently, it will be essential that the logistics footprint required to support these missions be minimized and that capabilities be provided to make them highly autonomous from a logistics perspective. Strategies to achieve these objectives include broad implementation of commonality and standardization at all hardware levels and across all systems, repair of failed hardware at the lowest possible hardware level, and manufacture of structural and mechanical replacement components as needed. Repair at the lowest hardware levels will require the availability of compact, portable systems for diagnosis of failures in electronic systems and verification of system functionality following repair. Rework systems will be required that enable the removal and replacement of microelectronic components with minimal human intervention to minimize skill requirements and training demand for crews. Materials used in the assembly of electronic systems (e.g. solders, fluxes, conformal coatings) must be compatible with the available repair methods and the spacecraft environment. Manufacturing of replacement parts for structural and mechanical applications will require additive manufacturing systems that can generate near-net-shape parts from the range of engineering alloys employed in the spacecraft structure and in the parts utilized in other surface systems. These additive manufacturing processes will need to be supported by real-time non-destructive evaluation during layer-additive processing for on-the-fly quality control. This will provide capabilities for quality control and may serve as an input for closed-loop process control. Additionally, non-destructive methods should be available for material property determination. These nondestructive evaluation processes should be incorporated with the additive manufacturing process - providing an in

  16. Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy (LAXS) mission concept study continues to evolve strongly following the merging of the LAXS mission with the Next Generation X-ray Observatory (NGXO, PI: Nick White) into the re-named High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission. HTXS retains key elements of the LAXS proposal, including the use of multiple satellites for risk-reduction and cost savings. A key achievement of the program has been the recommendation by the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEUS) (April 1997) for a new start for the HTXS mission in the 2000-2004 timeframe.

  17. Potential Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiments and Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction and use of resources on the Moon, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can potentially reduce the cost and risk of human lunar exploration while also increasing science achieved. By not having to bring all of the shielding and mission consumables from Earth and being able to make products on the Moon, missions may require less mass to accomplish the same objectives, carry more science equipment, go to more sites of exploration, and/or provide options to recover from failures not possible with delivery of spares and consumables from Earth alone. While lunar ISRU has significant potential for mass, cost, and risk reduction for human lunar missions, it has never been demonstrated before in space. To demonstrate that ISRU can meet mission needs and to increase confidence in incorporating ISRU capabilities into mission architectures, terrestrial laboratory and analog field testing along with robotic precursor missions are required. A stepwise approach with international collaboration is recommended. This paper will outline the role of ISRU in future lunar missions, and define the approach and possible experiments to increase confidence in ISRU applications for future human lunar exploration

  18. Strategic Map for Achieving Enceladus Ocean Exploration in Our Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, B.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, the author presented a decomposition and sequencing of science questions and technical capabilities that define viable programmatic pathways to enable sample return and advanced in situ exploration of the Enceladan ocean, consistent with NASA mission-opportunity constraints. Elaborated and refined in 2015 via JpGU, AbSciCon, IAC, and COSPAR Water, this plan is now specific: discrete and integrated analyses and coordination actions that, if acted on by the community over the next 45 months, could result in Enceladus ocean exploration appearing in the next Planetary Decadal Survey's mission priorities, issued in 2021. At AGU 2015, a product-based, outcome-measurable, stepwise milestone plan is presented to catalyze the next level of community discussion. Topics covered by the action plan include: hypothesis-driven science questions; mission cost as a function of mission capability; mission selectability as a function of programmatic constraints and evaluation process; exploration technologies as a function of funding and schedule; international consensus on forward and backward planetary protection requirements and solutions for exploring worlds with astrobiologically significant liquid water; and strategic balance among major NASA planetary science initiatives. Key Decadal-runup milestones are analyzed with respect to stakeholders, success criteria, and - critically - calendar and precedence. These results then inform a multi-year action plan to generate, vet, and socialize throughout the community a set of technically and fiscally viable mission concepts, respectively enabled by an achievable technology development roadmap also detailed in the presentation. This can begin to align advocate actions toward a broad community goal of exploring the Enceladan ocean. Without such coordination, which must reach fruition by Sep 2019, the probability that the next Decadal could explicitly prioritize mission objectives for Enceladus ocean exploration - as one of

  19. Requirements management and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Red

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for thermal nuclear propulsion requirements and configuration definition is described in outline and graphic form. Functional analysis and mission attributes for a Mars exploration mission are also addressed.

  20. Mission Design Overview for the Phoenix Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Mark D.; Fujii, Kenneth K.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix mission "follows the water" by landing in a region where NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter has discovered evidence of ice-rich soil very near the Martian surface. For three months after landing, the fixed Lander will perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, sub-surface, and atmosphere, and will identify potential provenance of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics and any accessible water ice. The Lander will employ a robotic arm to dig to the ice layer, and will analyze the acquired samples using a suite of deck-mounted, science instruments. The development of the baseline strategy to achieve the objectives of this mission involves the integration of a variety of elements into a coherent mission plan.

  1. Water Cycle Missions for the Next Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The global water cycle describes the circulation of water as a vital and dynamic substance in its liquid, solid, and vapor phases as it moves through the atmosphere, oceans and land. Life in its many forms exists because of water, and modern civilization depends on learning how to live within the constraints imposed by the availability of water. The scientific challenge posed by the need to observe the global water cycle is to integrate in situ and space-borne observations to quantify the key water-cycle state variables and fluxes. The vision to address that challenge is a series of Earth observation missions that will measure the states, stocks, flows, and residence times of water on regional to global scales followed by a series of coordinated missions that will address the processes, on a global scale, that underlie variability and changes in water in all its three phases. The accompanying societal challenge is to foster the improved use of water data and information as a basis for enlightened management of water resources, to protect life and property from effects of extremes in the water cycle. A major change in thinking about water science that goes beyond its physics to include its role in ecosystems and society is also required. Better water-cycle observations, especially on the continental and global scales, will be essential. Water-cycle predictions need to be readily available globally to reduce loss of life and property caused by water-related natural hazards. Building on the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space , and the 2012 Chapman Conference on Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle, a workshop was held in April 2013 to gather wisdom and determine how to prepare for the next generation of water cycle missions in support of the second Earth Science Decadal Survey. This talk will present the outcomes of the workshop including the intersection between

  2. Toward a new satellite gravimetric mission: opportunities and scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancale, Richard; Seoane, Lucia; Gegout, Pascal; Ramillien, Guillaume; Bruinsma, Sean

    Based on the CNES concept of "MIni-Constellation of Research Orbiters for Mapping the Earth Gravity Anomalies" (MICROMEGA) we have refined simulation scenarios in order to meet the requirements of the E.motion project, a proposal for ESA's Earth Explorer-8 mission. Mainly in view of hydrological applications, the foremost objective of next GRACE-like missions is to provide higher spatial resolution but without loss of precision. That is why we aspire a precision of 1 cm at 200 km resolution (spherical harmonic degree 100). This requires the development of a satellite-to-satellite laser link with sub micrometric precision -which should be technologically mature -coupled with optimal orbit and measurement scenarios. This presentation aims to describe the different numerical simulations achieved in this context and to give an optimal realistic configuration.

  3. Fission-Based Electric Propulsion for Interstellar Precursor Missions

    SciTech Connect

    HOUTS,MICHAEL G.; LENARD,ROGER X.; LIPINSKI,RONALD J.; PATTON,BRUCE; POSTON,DAVID; WRIGHT,STEVEN A.

    1999-11-03

    This paper reviews the technology options for a fission-based electric propulsion system for interstellar precursor missions. To achieve a total {Delta}V of more than 100 km/s in less than a decade of thrusting with an electric propulsion system of 10,000s Isp requires a specific mass for the power system of less than 35 kg/kWe. Three possible configurations are described: (1) a UZrH-fueled,NaK-cooled reactor with a steam Rankine conversion system,(2) a UN-fueled gas-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system, and (3) a UN-fueled heat pipe-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system. All three of these systems have the potential to meet the specific mass requirements for interstellar precursor missions in the near term. Advanced versions of a fission-based electric propulsion system might travel as much as several light years in 200 years.

  4. The NASA LWS Sentinels Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Robert P.; Science, Sentinels; DefinitionTeam, Technology

    2006-06-01

    One of the primary goals of NASA's Sentinels mission, the heliospheric element of the integrated LWS (Living With a Star) program, is to provide the observations necessary for an understanding of the physics of the Sun/inner heliosphere processes that produce Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events, so the requirements for eventual predictive capability can be defined. We present the results of the study by the Sentinels Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) that recommends a combination of the Inner Heliosphere Sentinels (IHS),consisting of four identical spacecraft that utilize Venus gravity assists to achieve 0.25-0.75 AU orbits, primarily for in situ particles and fields measurements; a Near-Earth Sentinel (NES) with a spectroscopic coronagraph to provide the physical conditions in the SEP acceleration region and a wide field (>0.3AU) coronagraph to connect to the HIS measurements, and a Farside Sentinel (FS) with a magnetograph to provide near global photospheric magnetic field measurements for modeling the structure of the inner heliosphere. We show how the combined measurements are designed to lead to an understanding of SEP origin and to improve our predictive capability for large SEP events.

  5. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  6. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  7. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Amy Turner

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  8. Small power plant reverse trade mission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-06

    This draft report was prepared as required by Task No. 2 of the US Department of Energy, Grant No. FG07-89ID12850 Reverse Trade Mission to Acquaint International Representatives with US Power Plant and Drilling Technology'' (mission). As described in the grant proposal, this report covers the reactions of attendees toward US technology, its possible use in their countries, and an evaluation of the mission by the staff leaders. Note this is the draft report of one of two missions carried out under the same contract number. Because of the diversity of the mission subjects and the different attendees at each, a separate report for each mission has been prepared. This draft report has been sent to all mission attendees, specific persons in the US Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Lab., the California Energy Commission (CEC), and various other governmental agencies.

  9. Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of At-Risk Youth Following Participation in a Required Ninth-Grade Academic Support Study Center Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Overall, pretest-posttest results for achievement, behavior, and engagement for at-risk boys not eligible (n = 13) and eligible (n = 9) for participation in the free or reduced price lunch program who completed a school-year long academic support study center program were not statistically different over time and end of school year for cumulative…

  10. The Efforts to Improve Mathematics Learning Achievement Results of High School Students as Required by Competency-Based Curriculum and Lesson Level-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidabutar, Ropinus

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the effect of various, innovated teaching models to improved the student's achievement in various topic in Mathematics. The study was conduct experiment by using innovated teaching with contextual, media and web which are the compared. with conventional teaching method. The result showed the innovation in the…

  11. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  12. The Euclid mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe D.; Laureijs, René; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Lorenzo Alvarez, José; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Gaspar Venancio, Luis; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Bönke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jérôme; Berthé, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the scientific objectives. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. All sensor data are downlinked using K-band transmission and processed by a dedicated ground segment for science data processing. The Euclid data and catalogues will be made available to the public at the ESA Science Data Centre.

  13. Interplanetary Laser Ranging. Analysis for Implementation in Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkx, Dominic

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of the motion of natural (and artificial) bodies in the solar system provide key input on their interior structre and properties. Currently, the most accurate measurements of solar system dynamics are performed using radiometric tracking systems on planetary missions, providing range measurement with an accuracy in the order of 1 m. Laser ranging to Earth-orbiting satellites equipped with laser retroreflectors provides range data with (sub-)cm accuracy. Extending this technology to planetary missions, however, requires the use of an active space segment equipped with a laser detector and transmitter (for a two-way system). The feasibility of such measurements have been demonstrated at planetary distances, and used operationally (with a one-way system) for the Lunar Reconaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. The topic of this dissertation is the analysis of the application of interplanetary laser ranging (ILR) to improve the science return from next-generation space missions, with a focus on planetary science objectives. We have simulated laser ranging data for a variety of mission and system architectures, analyzing the influence of both model and measurement uncertainties. Our simulations show that the single-shot measurement precision is relatively inconsequential compared to the systematic range errors, providing a strong rationale for the consistent use of single-photon signal-intensity operation. We find that great advances in planetary geodesy (tidal, rotational characteristics, etc.) could be achieved by ILR. However, the laser data should be accompanied by commensurate improvements in other measurements and data analysis models to maximize the system's science return. The science return from laser ranging data will be especially strong for planetary landers, with a radio system remaining the preferred choice for many orbiter missions. Furthermore, we conclude that the science case for a one-way laser ranging is relatively weak compared to next

  14. Woven TPS Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Feldman, Jay D.

    2013-01-01

    NASAs Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) Game Changing Division recently funded an effort to advance a Woven TPS (WTPS) concept. WTPS is a new approach to producing TPS architectures that uses precisely engineered 3D weaving techniques to customize material characteristics needed to meet specific missions requirements for protecting space vehicles from the intense heating generated during atmospheric entry. Using WTPS, sustainable, scalable, mission-optimized TPS solutions can be achieved with relatively low life cycle costs compared with the high costs and long development schedules currently associated with material development and certification. WTPS leverages the mature state-of-the-art weaving technology that has evolved from the textile industry to design TPS materials with tailorable performance. Currently, missions anticipated encountering heat fluxes in the range of 1500 4000 Wcm2 and pressures greater than 1.5 atm are limited to using fully dense Carbon Phenolic. However, fully dense carbon phenolic is only mass efficient at higher heat fluxes g(reater than 4000 Wcm2), and current mission designs suffer this mass inefficiency for lack of an alternative mid-density TPS. WTPS not only bridges this mid-density TPS gap but also offers a replacement for carbon phenolic, which itself requires a significant and costly redevelopment effort to re-establish its capability for use in the high heat flux missions recently prioritized in the NRC Decadal survey, including probe missions to Venus, Saturn and Neptune. This presentation will overview the WTPS concept and present some results from initial testing completed comparing WTPS architectures to heritage carbon phenolic.

  15. Numerical Roll Reversal Predictor Corrector Aerocapture and Precision Landing Guidance Algorithms for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a numerical roll reversal predictor-corrector guidance algorithm for the atmospheric flight portion of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander missions. The Lander mission utilizes direct entry and has a demanding requirement to deploy its parachute within 10 km of the target deployment point. The Orbiter mission utilizes aerocapture to achieve a precise captured orbit with a single atmospheric pass. Detailed descriptions of these predictor-corrector algorithms are given. Also, results of three and six degree-of-freedom Monte Carlo simulations which include navigation, aerodynamics, mass properties and atmospheric density uncertainties are presented.

  16. Mass Spectrometers in Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Niemann, Hasso; Harpold, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been included in the payloads of several deep space missions over the past three decades. Our laboratory has designed and developed mass spectrometers for the Galileo Probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, the Cassini Orbiter Mission to Saturn, the Cassini/Huygens Probe Mission to Saturn's moon Titan, the Nozomi Mission to Mars, and most recently the CONTOUR comet nucleus flyby mission. Each mission has required attention to miniaturization, autonomous sampling, and consideration of the special hazards and measurement requirements of the target environment. Development ongoing in our laboratory includes further miniaturization, improved performance in the areas of sensitivity and precision for the important isotope measurements, and adaptation for the unusual environments to be encountered in locations such as the surface or subsurface of Europa or Mars. Various aspects of both the technical implementation of these delivered and planned experiments and the science drivers will be described.

  17. Study of multiple asteroid flyby missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility, scientific objectives, mission profile characteristics, and implementation of an asteroid belt exploration mission by a spacecraft guided to intercept three or more asteroids at close range are discussed. A principal consideration in planning a multiasteroid mission is to cut cost by adapting an available and flight-proven spacecraft design such as Pioneer F and G, augmenting its propulsion and guidance capabilities and revising the scientific payload complement in accordance with required mission characteristics. Spacecraft modification necessary to meet the objectives and requirements of the mission were studied. A ground rule of the study was to hold design changes to a minimum and to utilize available technology as much as possible. However, with mission dates not projected before the end of this decade, a reasonable technology growth in payload instrument design and some subsystem components is anticipated that can be incorporated in the spacecraft adaptation.

  18. Spacelab Mission Implementation Cost Assessment (SMICA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, B. V.

    1984-01-01

    A total savings of approximately 20 percent is attainable if: (1) mission management and ground processing schedules are compressed; (2) the equipping, staffing, and operating of the Payload Operations Control Center is revised, and (3) methods of working with experiment developers are changed. The development of a new mission implementation technique, which includes mission definition, experiment development, and mission integration/operations, is examined. The Payload Operations Control Center is to relocate and utilize new computer equipment to produce cost savings. Methods of reducing costs by minimizing the Spacelab and payload processing time during pre- and post-mission operation at KSC are analyzed. The changes required to reduce costs in the analytical integration process are studied. The influence of time, requirements accountability, and risk on costs is discussed. Recommendation for cost reductions developed by the Spacelab Mission Implementation Cost Assessment study are listed.

  19. First Results of the SMOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Yann; Font, Jordi; Neira, Manuel Martin; Delwart, Steven; Hahne, Achim; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Bermudo, François

    2010-05-01

    It is now well understood that soil moisture and sea surface salinity are required to improve meteorological and climatic predictions. These two quantities were not available globally and with an adequate temporal sampling. So as to cover this data gap, it has been recognized that, provided it is possible to accommodate a suitable antenna on board a satellite, L Band radiometry was most probably the most promising way to fulfill this gap. It is within this framework that the European Space Agency (ESA)'s selected the second Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission, namely the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. SMOS, launched successfully in November 2009. The SMOS mission is ESA's second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission it is a joint program lead by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent. Consequently, the instrument probes the Earth surface emissivity. Surface emissivity can then be related to the moisture content in the first few centimeters of soil over land, and, after some surface roughness and temperature corrections, spatio temporal aggregation, to the sea surface salinity over oceans. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) seeking to meet soil moisture science objectives. Such innovative concept has required a significant effort in the development of calibration techniques. It provides multiangular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days to retrieve soil moisture and ocean salinity, but with a somewhat reduced sensitivity when compared to conventional radiometers. SMOS as been now

  20. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark A.; Rogers, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  1. Descope of the ALIA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuefei; Lau, Yun-Kau; Xu, Shengnian; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Bai, Shan; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chen, Gerui; Chen, Xian; Ding, Yanwei; Dong, Peng; Gao, Wei; Heinzel, Gerhard; Li, Ming; Li, Shuo; Liu, Fukun; Luo, Ziren; Shao, Mingxue; Spurzem, Rainer; Sun, Baosan; Tang, Wenlin; Wang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Yu, Pin; Yuan, Yefei; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhou, Zebing

    2015-05-01

    The present work reports on a feasibility study commissioned by the Chinese Academy of Sciences of China to explore various possible mission options to detect gravitational waves in space alternative to that of the eLISA/LISA mission concept. Based on the relative merits assigned to science and technological viability, a few representative mission options descoped from the ALIA mission are considered. A semi-analytic Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to understand the cosmic black hole merger histories and the possible scientific merits of the mission options in probing the light seed black holes and their coevolution with galaxies in early Universe. The study indicates that, by choosing the armlength of the interferometer to be three million kilometers and shifting the sensitivity floor to around one-hundredth Hz, together with a very moderate improvement on the position noise budget, there are certain mission options capable of exploring light seed, intermediate mass black hole binaries at high redshift that are not readily accessible to eLISA/LISA, and yet the technological requirements seem to within reach in the next few decades for China.

  2. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  3. GSFC Safety and Mission Assurance Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's approach to safety and mission assurance. The contents include: 1) NASA GSFC Background; 2) Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate; 3) The Role of SMA-D and the Technical Authority; 4) GSFC Mission assurance Requirements; 5) GSFC Systems Review Office (SRO); 6) GSFC Supply Chain Management Program; and 7) GSFC ISO9001/AS9100 Status Brief.

  4. Chandrayaan-1: India's first planetary science mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath Goswami, Jitendra

    A new initiative of the Indian Space Research Organization to have dedicated Space Science Missions led to two major missions that are currently in progress: Astrosat and Chandrayaan-1, the latter being the first planetary science mission of the country. The spadework for this mission started about ten years back and culminated in late 2003 with the official endorsement for the mission. This remote sensing mission, to be launched in early next year, is expected to further our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon based on a chemical, mineralogical and topographic study of the lunar surface at spatial and spectral resolutions much better than those for previous and other currently planned lunar missions. The Chandrayaan-1 mission is also international in character and will have an array of Indian instruments as well as several instruments from abroad some of which will have very strong Indian collaboration. This talk will provide a brief overview of our present understanding of the Moon, the science objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission and how we hope to achieve these from the data to be obtained by the various instruments on board the mission. A possible road map for Indian planetary exploration programme in the context of the International scenario will be presented at the end.

  5. OPALS: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) will launch to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a 90-day baseline mission, OPALS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) in Wrightwood, California. To achieve mission success, interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure are established. For OPALS, the interfaces facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes such as pointing prediction and data processing satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The tests have provided valuable insight into operational considerations on the ISS.

  6. Austere Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Hoppy; Hawkins, Alisa; Radcliffe, Torrey

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a possible mission architecture for a more austere Mars mission, than the one developed by NASA outlined in the Design Reference Architecture 5 (DRA 5). "Austere" architecture is scaled back from DRA 5 and might offer lower development cost, lower flight cost, and lower development risk. This approach will not meet all the DRA 5 mission requirements. Included in the presentation are the elements of an Austere mission, diagrams of the trans-Mars injection (TMI), cruise, and Mars Orbital Insertion for various phases of the mission, the entry descent landing (EDL) concept. The key features of the Transit Habitat (TransHab), the Earth Departure Stage (EDS), the landers, are reviewed. A chart shows the Mass in tons, of the conceptual types of Mars Landers. The EDL concept, EDL Phase diagrams for the Mars Lander are reviewed. New technologies that would be required are also reviewed. Flight test programs for the various parts of the architecture and a flight schedule are reviewed.

  7. Achieving Results in MBA Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Rice University's Jones Graduate School of Management achieves their mission for the communication program. Discusses three keys to the success of the program: individual coaching, integrated team instruction, and constant assessment of the students and the program. Presents an overview of the program. (SG)

  8. Benefits of advanced software techniques for mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern spacecraft, and the stringent requirement for maximizing their mission return, call for a new generation of Mission Planning Systems (MPS). In this paper, we discuss the requirements for the Space Mission Planning and the benefits which can be expected from Artificial Intelligence techniques through examples of applications developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  9. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Architecture and Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses some of the key trades that have been completed, including the selection of the Core Observatory s orbit, orbit maintenance trades, and design issues related to meeting orbital debris requirements.

  10. Aerobraking systems for manned Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents a synopsis of aerobraking uses, benefits, performance requirements, design issues, and technology requirements for manned Mars missions. Aerobraking can provide significant advantages in several key mission functions: Mars orbit capture, Mars entry from orbit, and earth orbit capture or direct entry. The resulting range of aerobraking performance requirements are described. Study results show that none of the aerobrake unique concerns are show stoppers but are issues having reasonable design solutions and operational impacts.

  11. A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickler, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

  12. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  13. A method of predicting flow rates required to achieve anti-icing performance with a porous leading edge ice protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    A proposed method of analytically predicting the minimum fluid flow rate required to provide anti-ice protection with a porous leading edge system on a wing under a given set of flight conditions is presented. Results of the proposed method are compared with the actual results of an icing test of a real wing section in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel.

  14. School Achievements, Behavioural Adjustments and Health at Nine Years of Age in a Population of Infants Who Were Born Preterm or Required Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; And Others

    The prevalence of subtle handicapping conditions, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and recurrent illness, in a population of 88 high-risk infants was investigated when the children reached 9 years of age. Infants had had birthweights of less than 1500 grams or had required prolonged mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period.…

  15. Generic procedure for designing and implementing plan management systems for space science missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaizy, P. A.; Dimbylow, T. G.; Allan, P. M.; Hapgood, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper is one of the components of a larger framework of activities whose purpose is to improve the performance and productivity of space mission systems, i.e. to increase both what can be achieved and the cost effectiveness of this achievement. Some of these activities introduced the concept of Functional Architecture Module (FAM); FAMs are basic blocks used to build the functional architecture of Plan Management Systems (PMS). They also highlighted the need to involve Science Operations Planning Expertise (SOPE) during the Mission Design Phase (MDP) in order to design and implement efficiently operation planning systems. We define SOPE as the expertise held by people who have both theoretical and practical experience in operations planning, in general, and in space science operations planning in particular. Using ESA's methodology for studying and selecting science missions we also define the MDP as the combination of the Mission Assessment and Mission Definition Phases. However, there is no generic procedure on how to use FAMs efficiently and systematically, for each new mission, in order to analyse the cost and feasibility of new missions as well as to optimise the functional design of new PMS; the purpose of such a procedure is to build more rapidly and cheaply such PMS as well as to make the latter more reliable and cheaper to run. This is why the purpose of this paper is to provide an embryo of such a generic procedure and to show that the latter needs to be applied by people with SOPE during the MDP. The procedure described here proposes some initial guidelines to identify both the various possible high level functional scenarii, for a given set of possible requirements, and the information that needs to be associated with each scenario. It also introduces the concept of catalogue of generic functional scenarii of PMS for space science missions. The information associated with each catalogued scenarii will have been identified by the above procedure and

  16. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Small Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Varied mission life and complexity is growing for small spacecraft. Small missions benefit from detailed hazard definition and evaluation as done in the past. Requirements need to flow from the system down to the parts level and aid system level radiation tolerance. RHA is highlighted with increasing COTS usage.

  17. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-06

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces.

  18. Advanced automation for space missions: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several representative missions which would require extensive applications of machine intelligence were identified and analyzed. The technologies which must be developed to accomplish these types of missions are discussed. These technologies include man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators, and robot systems.

  19. Electrodynamic Tethers for Novel LEO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantner, Michael; Hoyt, Robert; Scardera, Michael; Johnson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The exponential increase of launch system size - and cost - with deltaV makes missions requiring large total impulse cost prohibitive. Northrop Grumman and partners have matured a fundamentally different method for generating propulsion using electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) that escapes the limitations of the rocket equation. With essentially unlimited delta V, we can perform new classes of missions that are currently unaffordable or unfeasible.

  20. Technology for Future Exoplanet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter; Devirian, Michael; van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A central theme in NASA's and ESA's vision for future missions is the search for habitable worlds and life beyond our Solar System. This presentation will review the current state of the art in planet-finding technology, with an emphasis on methods of starlight suppression. At optical wavelengths, Earth-like planets are about 10 billion times fainter than their host stars. Starlight suppression is therefore necessary to enable measurements of biosignatures in the atmospheres of faint Earth-like planets. Mission concepts based on coronagraph, starshade, and interferometers will be described along with their science objectives and technology requirements.

  1. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  2. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Koczor, Ron; Lee, Jonathan; Grady, Kevin J.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Njoku, Eni G.

    1990-01-01

    To preserve the earth, it is necessary to understand the tremendously complex interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land, and man's activities deeply enough to construct models that can predict the consequences of our actions and help us make sound environmental, energy, agriculture, and economic decisions. Mission to Planet Earth is NASA's suggested share and the centerpiece of the U.S. contribution to understanding the environment, the Global Change Research Program. The first major element of the mission would be the Earth Observing System, which would give the simultaneous, comprehensive, long-term earth coverage lacking previously. NASA's Geosynchronous Earth Observatory with two additional similar spacecraft would be orbited by the U.S., plus one each by Japan and the European Space Agency. These would be the first geostationary satellites to span all the disciplines of the earth sciences. A number of diverse data gathering payloads are also planned to be carried aboard the Polar Orbiting Platform. Making possible the long, continuous observations planned and coping with the torrent of data acquired will require technical gains across a wide front. Finally, how all this data is consolidated and disseminated by the EOS Data and Information System is discussed.

  3. Mission maps for use in the choice of specific impulse for manned Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.; Olson, T.S.; Siahpush, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The choice of engine concept for the initial manned missions to Mars should be driven by what can be feasibly built and flight qualified in the near term, and by the level of engine performance that is required for these missions. This paper addresses how mission requirements affect the choice of specific impulse, and consequently what values of the specific impulse best serve these missions. Broad mission surveys and sensitivity studies were performed to determine the specific impulse values that allow for fast transfer times and wide launch windows. We find that a specific impulse of around 1000 to 1200 sec is sufficient. Choosing an engine concept that has a higher specific impulse value is not justified for these missions because the modest reduction in propellant requirements and further widening of the launch windows does not compensate for the substantially greater technical risk. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Project Cerberus: Flyby Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivier, K.; Koepke, A.; Humphrey, Theodore W.; Elbel, Jeffrey P.; Hackett, Bruce E.; Kennedy, Ralph G.; Leo, Donald J.; Zimmerman, Shery A.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Cerberus Project was to design a feasible and cost-effective unmanned flyby mission to Pluto. The requirements in the request for proposal for an unmanned probe to Pluto are presented and were met. The design stresses proven technology that will avoid show stoppers which could halt mission progress. Cerberus also utilizes the latest advances in the spacecraft industry to meet the stringent demands of the mission. The topics covered include: (1) mission management, planning, and costing; (2) structures; (3) power and propulsion; (4) attitude, articulation, and control; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) scientific instrumentation.

  5. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable md sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (8) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, end verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered systems are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are made to refine model details.

  6. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  7. An Analytical Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Small Satellites in Performing Novel Imaging Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Oesa A.

    In the last two decades, small satellites have opened up the use of space to groups other than governments and large corporations, allowing for increased participation and experimentation. This democratization of space was primarily enabled by two factors: improved technology and reduced launch costs. Improved technology allowed the miniaturization of components and reduced overall cost meaning many of the capabilities of larger satellites could be replicated at a fraction of the cost. In addition, new launcher systems that could host many small satellites as ride-shares on manifested vehicles lowered launch costs and simplified the process of getting a satellite into orbit. The potential of these smaller satellites to replace or augment existing systems has led to a flood of potential satellite and mission concepts, often with little rigorous study of whether the proposed satellite or mission is achievable or necessary. This work proposes an analytical framework to aid system designers in evaluating the ability of an existing concept or small satellite to perform a particular imaging mission, either replacing or augmenting existing capabilities. This framework was developed and then refined by application to the problem of using small satellites to perform a wide area search mission -- a mission not possible with existing imaging satellites, but one that would add to current capabilities. Requirements for a wide area search mission were developed, along with a list of factors that would affect image quality and system performance. Two existing small satellite concepts were evaluated for use by examining image quality from the systems, selecting an algorithm to perform the search function automatically, and then assessing mission feasibility by applying the algorithm to simulated imagery. Finally, a notional constellation design was developed to assess the number of satellites required to perform the mission. It was found that a constellation of 480 Cube

  8. Origins of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Frederick K.

    2013-01-01

    In the mid 1970s, X-ray astronomy missions such as Uhuru, SAS-3, HEAO-1, and others achieved dramatic scientific breakthroughs, such as the discovery of X-ray pulsars, thermonuclear X-ray bursts, and other rapid variations in X-ray emission from neutron stars and black hole candidates. However, by the late 1970s there were serious concerns that without a follow-on mission, these breakthroughs would not be followed up for many years. In 1978, I became convinced that further progress required a unified, community-wide effort, and I decided to organize such an effort. I offer here some personal recollections of my early involvement in this endeavor, which continued until the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in late 1995. A key initial element of this effort was the April 1979 Washington Workshop that I organized in collaboration with David Pines. This workshop and its proceedings, the highly influential “Orange Book” titled Compact Galactic X-ray Sources and published in 1979, were carefully designed to achieve three goals: (1) to identify the key scientific questions, (2) to develop agreement within the U.S. astrophysics community on how these questions could best be addressed observationally, and (3) to build community-wide support for such a mission. The Washington Workshop and the “Orange Book” achieved all three of these goals. The participants unanimously endorsed the Workshop’s conclusions that further study of neutron stars and black holes was of the utmost scientific importance and that an Explorer-class X-ray timing mission could address the key outstanding scientific questions. Furthermore, the participants unanimously recommended that NASA initiate such a mission as soon as possible. Following the Washington Workshop and publication of the Orange Book, I energetically advocated creation of an X-ray timing mission in many venues, arguing the case to National Research Council and NASA advisory panels, the 1980 Astronomy Decadel

  9. History of the Spitzer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George

    2006-12-01

    The Spitzer Telescope was launched more than 20 years after the original announcement of opportunity was released. During this long gestation period, the mission took a wide variety of forms and had to survive many political and managerial environments within NASA and in the US Government generally. Finally, approval to build the telescope was won at the height of the faster-better-cheaper era, but completing it extended beyond this phase. This poster shows the key steps in preserving the mission and why decision makers viewed it positively at critical points when it might have been killed. In the end, the scope of the mission was reduced by a factor of about five while still preserving much of its science capabilities. This reduction required a new way to streamline the science objectives by adopting a limited number of key programs and requiring that all features be justified in terms of those programs. This philosophy provided decision rules to carry out necessary descopes while preserving a coherent set of capabilities. In addition, the faster-better-cheaper guidelines requires use of a small launch vehicle, which was only possible by the invention of a new “warm launch” telescope concept, in which the telescope would cool primarily by radiation into space after launch. Both of these concepts are critical to the approach to future missions such as JWST. This work is partially supported by contract 1255094 from JPL/Caltech to the University of Arizona.

  10. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  11. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  12. Editing the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Fogg, Piper

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the decision by Columbia University's new president to reevaluate the mission of its journalism school before naming a new dean, in order to explore how the journalism school fits into the mission of a research university. (EV)

  13. Revolutionary Materials for NASA's Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Kim, M.-H. Y.

    2002-03-01

    Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Studies have been made for L2, Lunar, Mars and Mars/Venus swing-by reference missions. For all these missions, material trades have been studied. And, as an example, a crew age trade for Mars/Venus swing-by mission has been done. The career blood forming organ (BFO) constraints are more stringent and play a critical role in the optimization procedure. The short missions to L2 and the Moon mainly need to deal with the possibility of solar particle events. It is found that improved shield materials will be required to enable a Mars mission in which middle-aged astronauts can participate. If the age of the astronauts are allowed to be 55 and older then more options are available. Revolutionary materials need to be developed to have younger crewmembers on board to Mars and other long duration missions. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed.

  14. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  15. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  16. Pyroshock Testing of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, David; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Bennett, Russell; Hammel, Tom; Otting, William

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, or MMRTG, was developed by the Department Of Energy to a set of requirements from multiple NASA mission concepts. Those concepts included deep space missions to the outer planets as well as missions to Mars. The synthesis of that diverse set of requirements addressed functional as well as environmental requirements.

  17. Spacelab 3 Mission Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, George H. (Editor); Theon, John S. (Editor); Hill, Charles K. (Editor); Vaughan, Otha H. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Papers and abstracts of the presentations made at the symposium are given as the scientific report for the Spacelab 3 mission. Spacelab 3, the second flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) orbital laboratory, signified a new era of research in space. The primary objective of the mission was to conduct applications, science, and technology experiments requiring the low-gravity environment of Earth orbit and stable vehicle attitude over an extended period (e.g., 6 days) with emphasis on materials processing. The mission was launched on April 29, 1985, aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger which landed a week later on May 6. The multidisciplinary payload included 15 investigations in five scientific fields: material science, fluid dynamics, life sciences, astrophysics, and atmospheric science.

  18. The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.

  19. Agile: From Software to Mission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Shirley, Mark H.; Hobart, Sarah Groves

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission, designed to search for volatiles at the Lunar South Pole. This is NASA's first near real time tele-operated rover on the Moon. The primary objective is to search for volatiles at one of the Lunar Poles. The combination of short mission duration, a solar powered rover, and the requirement to explore shadowed regions makes for an operationally challenging mission. To maximize efficiency and flexibility in Mission System design and thus to improve the performance and reliability of the resulting Mission System, we are tailoring Agile principles that we have used effectively in ground data system software development and applying those principles to the design of elements of the mission operations system.

  20. Architecting a mission plan for Lunar Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridenoure, Rex W.

    1991-01-01

    The present status of NASA's Lunar Observer study effort at JPL is discussed in the context of an ongoing 20-year series of studies focused on defining a robotic, low-altitude, polar-orbiting mission to the moon. The primary emphasis of the discussion is a review of the various systems-level factors that drive the overall architecture of the mission plan. Selected top-level project and science requirements are summarized and the current mission and science objectives are presented. A brief description of the candidate science instrument complement is included. Several significant orbital effects caused by the lunar gravity field are explained and the variety of trajectory and maneuver options considered for both getting to the moon and orbiting there are described. Several candidate mission architectures are outlined and the mission plans chosen for future study are described. Two mission options result: a single-spacecraft, single-launch scenario, and a multiple-spacecraft, multiple-launch concept.

  1. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  2. Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office Status and Support Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest; Webb, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office (CxP MOP) at Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas is preparing to support the CxP mission operations objectives for the CEV/Orion flights, the Lunar Lander, and and Lunar surface operations. Initially the CEV will provide access to the International Space Station, then progress to the Lunar missions. Initial CEV mission operations support will be conceptually similar to the Apollo missions, and we have set a challenge to support the CEV mission with 50% of the mission operations support currently required for Shuttle missions. Therefore, we are assessing more efficient way to organize the support and new technologies which will enhance our operations support. This paper will address the status of our preparation for these CxP missions, our philosophical approach to CxP operations support, and some of the technologies we are assessing to streamline our mission operations infrastructure.

  3. Potential Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiments and Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction and use of resources on the Moon, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can potentially reduce the cost and risk of human lunar exploration while also increasing science achieved. By not having to bring all of the shielding and mission consumables from Earth and being able to make products on the Moon, missions may require less mass to accomplish the same objectives, carry more science equipment, go to more sites of exploration, and/or provide options to recover from failures not possible with delivery of spares and consumables from Earth alone. The concept of lunar ISRU has been considered and studied for decades, and scientists and engineers were theorizing and even testing concepts for how to extract oxygen from lunar soil even before the Apollo 11 mission to the Moon. There are four main areas where ISRU can significantly impact how human missions to the Moon will be performed: mission consumable production, civil engineering and construction, energy production, storage, and transfer, and manufacturing and repair. The area that has the greatest impact on mission mass, hardware design and selection, and mission architecture is mission consumable production, in particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, and fuel cell reagents. Mission consumable production allows for refueling and reuse of spacecraft, increasing power production and storage, and increased capabilities and failure tolerance for crew life support. The other three areas allow for decreased mission risk due to radiation and plume damage, alternative power systems, and failure recover capabilities while also enabling infrastructure growth over Earth delivered assets. However, while lunar ISRU has significant potential for mass, cost, and risk reduction for human lunar missions, it has never been demonstrated before in space. To demonstrate that ISRU can meet mission needs and to increase confidence in incorporating ISRU capabilities into mission

  4. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  5. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  6. The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Neff, Susan G.; Armstrong, Thomas J.; Pauls, Thomas A.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5 km. It will image stars and binaries with one hundred to one thousand resolution elements on their surface and enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns and their evolution with time, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also sound their interiors through asteroseismology to image internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity on times scales ranging up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on astrobiology and life in the Universe. The road to that goal will revolutionize our understanding of stars and stellar systems, the building blocks of the Universe. Fitting naturally within the NASA and ESA long-term time lines, SI complements defined missions, and with them will show us entire other solar systems, from the central star to their orbiting planets. In this paper we will describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address those goals, and the design concepts now under study.

  7. The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Neff, Susan G.; Armstrong, J. Thomas; Pauls, Thomas A.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5 km. It will image stars and binaries with one hundred to one thousand resolution elements on their surface and enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns and their evolution with time, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also sound their interiors through asteroseismology to image internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity on times scales ranging up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on astrobiology and life in the Universe. The road to that goal will revolutionize our understanding of stars and stellar systems, the building blocks of the Universe. Fitting naturally within the NASA and ESA long-term time lines, SI complements defined missions, and with them will show us entire other solar systems, from the central star to their orbiting planets. In this paper we will describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address those goals, and the design concepts now under study.

  8. EDL Pathfinder Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing a long-term strategy for achieving extended human missions to Mars in support of the policies outlined in the 2010 NASA Authorization Act and National Space Policy. The Authorization Act states that "A long term objective for human exploration of space should be the eventual international exploration of Mars." Echoing this is the National Space Policy, which directs that NASA should, "By 2025, begin crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid. By the mid-2030s, send humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to Earth." Further defining this goal, NASA's 2014 Strategic Plan identifies that "Our long-term goal is to send humans to Mars. Over the next two decades, we will develop and demonstrate the technologies and capabilities needed to send humans to explore the red planet and safely return them to Earth." Over the past several decades numerous assessments regarding human exploration of Mars have indicated that landing humans on the surface of Mars remains one of the key critical challenges. In 2015 NASA initiated an Agency-wide assessment of the challenges associated with Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of large payloads necessary for supporting human exploration of Mars. Due to the criticality and long-lead nature of advancing EDL techniques, it is necessary to determine an appropriate strategy to improve the capability to land large payloads. This paper provides an overview of NASA's 2015 EDL assessment on understanding the key EDL risks with a focus on determining what "must" be tested at Mars. This process identified the various risks and potential risk mitigation strategies, that is, benefits of flight demonstration at Mars relative to terrestrial test, modeling, and analysis. The goal of the activity was to determine if a subscale demonstrator is necessary, or if NASA should take a direct path to a human-scale lander. This assessment also provided insight into how EDL advancements align with other Agency

  9. The Science Goals of the Constellation-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Weaver, Kimberly; Petre, Robert; Bookbinder, Jay

    2004-01-01

    The Constellation-X mission will address the questions: "What happens to matter close to a black hole?" and "What is Dark Energy?" These questions are central to the NASA Beyond Einstein Program, where Constellation-X plays a central role. The mission will address these questions by using high throughput X-ray spectroscopy to observe the effects of strong gravity close to the event horizon of black holes, and to observe the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies in order to precisely determine Cosmological parameters. To achieve these primary science goals requires a factor of 25-100 increase in sensitivity for high resolution spectroscopy. The mission will also perform routine high- resolution X-ray spectroscopy of faint and extended X-ray source populations. This will provide diagnostic information such as density, elemental abundances, velocity, and ionization state for a wide range of astrophysical problems. This has enormous potential for the discovery of new unexpected phenomena. The Constellation-X mission is a high priority in the National Academy of Sciences McKee-Taylor Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey of new Astrophysics Facilities for the first decade of the 21st century.

  10. Developing the NASA food system for long-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maya; Douglas, Grace; Perchonok, Michele

    2011-03-01

    Even though significant development has transformed the space food system over the last 5 decades to attain more appealing dietary fare for low-orbit space crews, the advances do not meet the need for crews that might travel to Mars and beyond. It is estimated that a food system for a long-duration mission must maintain organoleptic acceptability, nutritional efficacy, and safety for a 3- to 5-y period to be viable. In addition, the current mass and subsequent waste of the food system must decrease significantly to accord with the allowable volume and payload limits of the proposed future space vehicles. Failure to provide the appropriate food or to optimize resource utilization introduces the risk that an inadequate food system will hamper mission success and/or threaten crew performance. Investigators for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Food Technology (AFT) consider identified concerns and work to mitigate the risks to ensure that any new food system is adequate for the mission. Yet, even with carefully planned research, some technological gaps remain. NASA needs research advances to develop food that is nutrient-dense and long-lasting at ambient conditions, partial gravity cooking processes, methods to deliver prescribed nutrients over time, and food packaging that meets the mass, barrier, and processing requirements of NASA. This article provides a brief review of research in each area, details the past AFT research efforts, and describes the remaining gaps that present barriers to achieving a food system for long exploration missions.

  11. Developing the NASA food system for long-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maya; Douglas, Grace; Perchonok, Michele

    2011-03-01

    Even though significant development has transformed the space food system over the last 5 decades to attain more appealing dietary fare for low-orbit space crews, the advances do not meet the need for crews that might travel to Mars and beyond. It is estimated that a food system for a long-duration mission must maintain organoleptic acceptability, nutritional efficacy, and safety for a 3- to 5-y period to be viable. In addition, the current mass and subsequent waste of the food system must decrease significantly to accord with the allowable volume and payload limits of the proposed future space vehicles. Failure to provide the appropriate food or to optimize resource utilization introduces the risk that an inadequate food system will hamper mission success and/or threaten crew performance. Investigators for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Food Technology (AFT) consider identified concerns and work to mitigate the risks to ensure that any new food system is adequate for the mission. Yet, even with carefully planned research, some technological gaps remain. NASA needs research advances to develop food that is nutrient-dense and long-lasting at ambient conditions, partial gravity cooking processes, methods to deliver prescribed nutrients over time, and food packaging that meets the mass, barrier, and processing requirements of NASA. This article provides a brief review of research in each area, details the past AFT research efforts, and describes the remaining gaps that present barriers to achieving a food system for long exploration missions. PMID:21535783

  12. Optimal parking orbits for manned Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupples, Michael L.; Nordwall, Jill A.

    This paper summarizes a Mars parking orbit optimization effort. This parking orbit study includes the selection of optimal elliptic Mars parking orbits that meet mission constraints and that include pertinent apsidal misalignment losses. Mars missions examined are for the opportunity years of 2014, 2016, and 2018. For these mission opportunities, it is shown that the optimal parking orbits depend on the year that the mission occurs and are coupled with the outbound, Mars stay, and return phases of the mission. Constraints included in the parking orbit optimization process are periapsis lighting angle (related to a daylight landing requirement), periapsis latitude (related to a landing latitude range requirement) and the vehicle Trans-Earth-Injection stage mass. Also, effects of mission abort requirements on optimal parking orbits are investigated. Off-periapsis maneuvers for Mars orbit capture were found to be cost effective in reducing the mission delta-V for the 2016 abort from Mars capture scenario. The total capture and departure delta-V was `split' between the capture maneuver and the departure maneuver to reduce the 2016 Mars departure delta-V to below the level of the corresponding stage of the 2014 baseline mission. Landing results are provided that show Mars landing site access from the optimal elliptic parking orbits for Mars excursion vehicles with low (0.2) and high (1.3 and 1.6) lift to drag ratio.

  13. The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth S.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5 approximately km. It will image stars and binaries with one hundred to one thousand resolution elements on their surface and enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns and their evolution with time, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also sound their interiors through asteroseismology to image internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate these fields, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which these dynamos operate. The ultimate goal of the mission is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar activity as a driver of climate and space weather on times scales ranging from months to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on astrobiology and life in the Universe. The road to that goal will revolutionize our understanding of stars and stellar systems, the building blocks of the Universe. Fitting naturally within the NASA and ESA long-term time lines, SI complements defined missions, and with them will show us entire other solar systems, from the central star to their orbiting planets. In this paper we will describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address those goals, and the design concepts now under study.

  14. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  15. Mission and system optimization of nuclear electric propulsion vehicles for lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed mission and system optimization of low thrust electric propulsion missions is a complex, iterative process involving interaction between orbital mechanics and system performance. Through the use of appropriate approximations, initial system optimization and analysis can be performed for a range of missions. The intent of these calculations is to provide system and mission designers with simple methods to assess system design without requiring access or detailed knowledge of numerical calculus of variations optimizations codes and methods. Approximations for the mission/system optimization of Earth orbital transfer and Mars mission have been derived. Analyses include the variation of thruster efficiency with specific impulse. Optimum specific impulse, payload fraction, and power/payload ratios are calculated. The accuracy of these methods is tested and found to be reasonable for initial scoping studies. Results of optimization for Space Exploration Initiative lunar cargo and Mars missions are presented for a range of power system and thruster options.

  16. Spaceport operations for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

  17. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Levin, C S

    2015-05-01

    The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in a space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog 'electro-optial' method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3 ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain.

  18. ORION: A Supersynchronous Transfer Orbit mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, I. M.; Baker, J. F.; Shurmer, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    ORION F1 was launched on 29th November 1994 on an Atlas IIA launch vehicle. It was designed, built and delivered in-orbit by Matra Marconi Space Systems Plc and was handed over to ORION Satellite Corporation on 20th January 1995 at its on-station longitude of 37.5 deg W. The mission differed significantly from that of any other geostationary communications satellite in that the Transfer Orbit apogee altitude of 123,507 km was over three times geosynchronous (GEO) altitude and one third of the way to the moon. The SuperSynchronous Transfer Orbit (SSTO) mission is significantly different from the standard Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO)mission in a number of ways. This paper discusses the essential features of the mission design through its evolution since 1987 and the details of the highly successful mission itself including a detailed account of the attitude determination achieved using the Galileo Earth and Sun Sensor (ESS).

  19. The Keys to Successful Extended Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, David A.; Manor-Chapman, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Many of NASA's successful missions of robotic exploration have gone on to highly productive mission extensions, from Voyager, Magellan, Ulysses, and Galileo, to the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, a variety of Mars orbiters, Spitzer, Deep Impact / EPOXI, and Cassini. These missions delivered not only a high science return during their prime science phase, but a wealth of opportunities during their extensions at a low incremental cost to the program. The success of such mission extensions can be traced to demonstration of new and unique science achievable during the extension; reduction in cost without significant increase in risk to spacecraft health; close inclusion of the science community and approval authorities in planning; intelligent design during the development and prime operations phase; and well crafted and conveyed extension proposals. This paper discusses lessons learned collected from a variety of project leaders which can be applied by current and future missions to maximize their chances of approval and success.

  20. Shuttle mission simulator software conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Software conceptual designs (SCD) are presented for meeting the simulator requirements for the shuttle missions. The major areas of the SCD discussed include: malfunction insertion, flight software, applications software, systems software, and computer complex.