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Sample records for achieve normal growth

  1. Learned Helplessness in Normally Achieving and Learning Disabled Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilgosh, L.

    1984-01-01

    A study involving 30 learning disabled and 30 normally achieving grade four girls suggested that helplessness effects may be stronger for learning disabled than for normally achieving children. Comparison to an earlier study with grade four boys suggested the possibility of sex differences regarding effectiveness of helplessness alleviation…

  2. The Growth Patterns of General Medical Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    This longitudinal study investigates the growth of medical achievement as a multilevel process and emphasizes the structure of the growth. Subjects were students in all 15 U.S. osteopathic medical schools, a total of 1,060 (78 percent of the 1987 osteopathic cohort). Students took appropriate portions of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical…

  3. Student Achievement and National Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Luo, Xiaowei; Schofer, Evan; Meyer, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Educational policy around the world has increasingly focused on improving aggregate student achievement as a means to increase economic growth. In the last two decades, attention has focused especially on the importance of achievement in science and mathematics. Yet, the policy commitments involved have not been based on research evidence. The…

  4. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  5. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-06-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence.

  6. DEM simulation of growth normal fault slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sheng-Shin; Lin, Ming-Lang; Nien, Wie-Tung; Chan, Pei-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Slip of the fault can cause deformation of shallower soil layers and lead to the destruction of infrastructures. Shanchiao fault on the west side of the Taipei basin is categorized. The activities of Shanchiao fault will cause the quaternary sediments underneath the Taipei basin to become deformed. This will cause damage to structures, traffic construction, and utility lines within the area. It is determined from data of geological drilling and dating, Shanchiao fault has growth fault. In experiment, a sand box model was built with non-cohesive sand soil to simulate the existence of growth fault in Shanchiao Fault and forecast the effect on scope of shear band development and ground differential deformation. The results of the experiment showed that when a normal fault containing growth fault, at the offset of base rock the shear band will develop upward along with the weak side of shear band of the original topped soil layer, and this shear band will develop to surface much faster than that of single top layer. The offset ratio (basement slip / lower top soil thickness) required is only about 1/3 of that of single cover soil layer. In this research, it is tried to conduct numerical simulation of sand box experiment with a Discrete Element Method program, PFC2D, to simulate the upper covering sand layer shear band development pace and scope of normal growth fault slip. Results of simulation indicated, it is very close to the outcome of sand box experiment. It can be extended to application in water pipeline project design around fault zone in the future. Keywords: Taipei Basin, Shanchiao fault, growth fault, PFC2D

  7. Auditory word identification in dyslexic and normally achieving readers

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Jennifer L.; Manis, Franklin R.; Keating, Patricia; Sperling, Anne J.; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The integrity of phonological representation/processing in dyslexic children was explored with a gating task in which children listened to successively longer segments (gates) of a word. At each gate, the task was to decide what the entire word was. Responses were scored for overall accuracy as well as the children’s sensitivity to coarticulation from the final consonant. As a group, dyslexic children were less able than normally achieving readers to detect coarticulation present in the vowel portion of the word, particularly on the most difficult items, namely those ending in a nasal sound. Hierarchical regression and path analyses indicated that phonological awareness mediated the relation of gating and general language ability to word and pseudoword reading ability. PMID:17359994

  8. Reasoning Abilities in Primary School: A Pilot Study on Poor Achievers vs. Normal Achievers in Computer Game Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnino, Francesca Maria; Ballauri, Margherita; Benigno, Vincenza; Caponetto, Ilaria; Pesenti, Elia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary research on the assessment of reasoning abilities in primary school poor achievers vs. normal achievers using computer game tasks. Subjects were evaluated by means of cognitive assessment on logical abilities and academic skills. The aim of this study is to better understand the relationship between…

  9. The Effects of Different Approaches to Reading Instruction on Letter Detection Tasks in Normally Achieving and Low Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Kandelshine-Waldman, Osnat

    2011-01-01

    The present study used two letter detection tasks, the classic missing letter effect paradigm and a single word versus familiar word compound version of this paradigm, to study bottom-up and top-down processes involved in reading in normally achieving as compared to low achieving elementary school readers. The research participants were children…

  10. The Role of Academic Achievement Growth in School Track Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Lenkeit, Jenny; Lehmann, Rainer; Schwippert, Knut

    2009-01-01

    Students in Germany are tracked into different forms of secondary schooling based on teachers' recommendations. The literature shows that school tracking is largely affected by academic achievement levels, but neglects the influence of individual achievement growth. The authors used data from the Berlin study ELEMENT (N = 2242) to characterize…

  11. Documenting Reading Achievement and Growth for Students Taking Alternate Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Farley, Dan; Saven, Jessica L.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been included in state accountability systems for more than a decade; however, only in the past few years have alternate assessments of alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) become stable enough to allow examination of these students' achievement growth. Using data from Oregon's AA-AAS in Reading during the…

  12. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  13. Guiding atypical facial growth back to normal. Part 1: Understanding facial growth.

    PubMed

    Galella, Steve; Chow, Daniel; Jones, Earl; Enlow, Donald; Masters, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Many practitioners find the complexity of facial growth overwhelming and thus merely observe and accept the clinical features of atypical growth and do not comprehend the long-term consequences. Facial growth and development is a strictly controlled biological process. Normal growth involves ongoing bone remodeling and positional displacement. Atypical growth begins when this biological balance is disturbed With the understanding of these processes, clinicians can adequately assess patients and determine the causes of these atypical facial growth patterns and design effective treatment plans. This is the first of a series of articles which addresses normal facial growth, atypical facial growth, patient assessment, causes of atypical facial growth, and guiding facial growth back to normal.

  14. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-08-01

    Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students' mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level. PMID:27432947

  15. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-08-01

    Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students' mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level.

  16. Effects of Teacher Professional Learning Activities on Student Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. The…

  17. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day…

  18. Growth in Mathematics Achievement: Analysis with Classification and Regression Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin

    2005-01-01

    A recently developed statistical technique, often referred to as classification and regression trees (CART), holds great potential for researchers to discover how student-level (and school-level) characteristics interactively affect growth in mathematics achievement. CART is a host of advanced statistical methods that statistically cluster…

  19. Differential negative air ion effects on learning disabled and normal-achieving children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.; Kershner, J. R.

    1990-03-01

    Forty normal-achieving and 33 learning disabled (LD) children were assigned randomly to either a negative ion or placebo test condition. On a dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel (CV) combinations, both groups showed an ioninduced increase in the normal right ear advantage (REA). However, the mechanisms for this effect were different for each group. The LDs showed the effect at the right ear/left hemisphere (enhancement). The normal achievers showed the effect at the left ear/right hemisphere (inhibition). The results are consistent with an activation-inhibition model of cerebral function and suggest a functional relationship between arousal, interhemispheric activation-inhibition, and learning disabilities. The LDs may have an interhemispheric dysfunction. Both groups showed superior right ear report and the normal achiever showed overall superiority. Normal achievers showed higher consonant intrusion scores, probably due to a greater cognitive capacity. Age was a significant covariate reflecting developmental capacity changes. Negative air ions are seen to be a tool with potential theoretical and remedial applications.

  20. Normality, Deviance, Identity, Cultural Tracking and School Achievement: The Case of Ethiopian Jews in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berhanu, Girma

    2005-01-01

    This article reveals the intrinsic connection between the constructs normality, identity, meaning, cultural tracking, and school achievement. In particular, it illuminates the indirect connection between cultural tracking and a reduction in the meaningful engagement of school tasks. As documented elsewhere, learning proceeds in a meaningful…

  1. A Comparison of Emotional-Motivational (A-R-D Theory) Personality Characteristics in Learning Disabled, Normal Achieving, and High Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufano, Linda D.

    The study examined emotional-motivational personality characteristics of 15 learning disabled, 15 normal achieving, and 15 high achieving students (grades 3-5). The study tested the hypothesis derived from the A-R-D (attitude-reinforcer-discriminative) theory of motivation that learning disabled (LD) children differ from normal and high achieving…

  2. Measuring growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in infants: what is normal?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick; Grimberg, Adda

    2013-12-01

    The role of growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I) change through early childhood. Whereas poor growth is a later presenting feature, infants with isolated GH deficiency have a normal birth weight and length, and often present with hypoglycemia. IGF-I plays an important role antenatally and post-natally in somatic and brain growth. In order to evaluate the GH/IGF-I axis in infancy, an understanding of the normal physiology is required. Measurements of GH and IGF-I in this population should be interpreted in the context of the assays used, as well as their limitations. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of normal GH and IGF-I secretion in children under 18 months of age, and describe variations in the reported assay-specific measurements.

  3. Measuring Growth Hormone and Insulin-like Growth Factor-I in Infants: What is Normal?

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick; Grimberg, Adda

    2014-01-01

    The role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) change through early childhood. Whereas poor growth is a later presenting feature, infants with isolated GH deficiency have a normal birth weight and length, and often present with hypoglycemia. IGF-I plays an important role antenatally and post-natally in somatic and brain growth. In order to evaluate the GH/IGF-I axis in infancy, an understanding of the normal physiology is required. Measurements of GH and IGF-I in this population should be interpreted in the context of the assays used, as well as their limitations. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of normal GH and IGF-I secretion in children under 18 months of age, and describe variations in the reported assay-specific measurements. PMID:24575549

  4. The moderating effect of self-efficacy on normal-weight, overweight, and obese children's math achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell

    2015-03-01

    Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children.

  5. Differential Growth Trajectories for Achievement among Children Retained in First Grade: A Growth Mixture Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the differential effect of retention on the development of academic achievement from grades 1 to 5 on children retained in grade 1 over 6 years. Growth mixture model (GMM) analyses supported the existence of two distinct trajectory groups of retained children for both reading and math among 125 ethnically and…

  6. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement Among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between EF and science achievement among normally developing 10 year olds. A sample of fifth grade students from a Northeastern suburban community participated in tests of EF, science, and intelligence. Consistent with adult models of EF, principal components analysis identified a three-factor model of EF organization in middle childhood, including cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function processes of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition were all predictive of science performance. Post hoc analyses revealed that high-performing science students differed significantly from low-performing students in both cognitive flexibility and working memory. These findings suggest that complex academic demands specific to science achievement rely on the emergence and maturation of EF components.

  7. Incorporating Student Mobility in Achievement Growth Modeling: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve Model.

    PubMed

    Grady, Matthew W; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2010-05-28

    Multiple membership random effects models (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve modeling (GCM). This study introduces a cross-classified multiple membership growth curve model (CCMM-GCM) for modeling, for example, academic achievement trajectories in the presence of student mobility. Real data are used to demonstrate and compare growth curve model estimates using the CCMM-GCM and a conventional GCM that ignores student mobility. Results indicate that the CCMM-GCM represents a promising option for modeling growth for multiple membership data structures.

  8. Sparc Protein Is Required for Normal Growth of Zebrafish Otoliths

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Young-Jin; Stevenson, Amy K.; Yau, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Otoliths and the homologous otoconia in the inner ear are essential for balance. Their morphogenesis is less understood than that of other biominerals, such as bone, and only a small number of their constituent proteins have been characterized. As a novel approach to identify unknown otolith proteins, we employed shotgun proteomics to analyze crude extracts from trout and catfish otoliths. We found three proteins that had not been associated previously with otolith or otoconia formation: ‘Secreted acidic cysteine rich glycoprotein’ (Sparc), an important bone protein that binds collagen and Ca2+; precerebellin-like protein, which contains a C1q domain and may associate with the collagenous otolin-1 during its assembly into a framework; and neuroserpin, a serine protease inhibitor that may regulate local protease activity during framework assembly. We then used the zebrafish to investigate whether Sparc plays a role in otolith morphogenesis. Immunodetection demonstrated that Sparc is a true constituent of otoliths. Knockdown of Sparc expression in morphant zebrafish resulted in four principal types of defective otoliths: smaller, extra and ectopic, missing and fused, or completely absent. Smaller size was the predominant phenotype and independent of the severity of otic-vesicle defects. These results suggested that Sparc is directly required for normal otolith growth. PMID:18784957

  9. CONDITIONS GOVERNING THE GROWTH OF DISPLACED NORMAL TISSUE.

    PubMed

    Craster, C V

    1912-10-01

    We are unwilling to draw any very definite conclusions from the experiments, partly because they show a survival of implanted skin of so much shorter duration than that which seems to occur in the case of spontaneous implantation cysts, and partly because the method of reëxposing the submerged grafts is rather a crude way of testing their vitality. Nevertheless, the following points seem clear: 1. The repeated transplantation of a piece of skin from one animal to another confers no exceptional power of growth upon that skin. 2. The repeated implantation of skin into one animal decreases, if anything, its receptivity for such grafts. 3. The burial of skin in the interior of the body causes, after a time, a change in the skin of such a nature that it cannot resume its normal function as an external covering tissue, even when its circulation \\ is well maintained and it is buried in the body of the same animal. The experiments do not determine how long the cells of the skin actually remain alive, and indeed it is conceivable that the mere maceration of the protective horny layer puts the skin, when reëxposed, into the position of a moist tissue, such as the intestinal mucosa, so that it readily dries up and succumbs. Nor do the experiments throw any light upon the possible existence of cytolytic substances in the circulating fluids, although, naturally, the idea of such an action has always been present in our minds in observing the gradual loss of vitality in the transplanted tissues.

  10. Achievement Gaps: An Examination of Differences in Student Achievement and Growth. The Full Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Martha S.; Hauser, Carl; Cronin, John; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Houser, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The difference between the academic performance of poor students and wealthier students and between minority students and their non-minority peers is commonly known as the achievement gap. The current study examines the achievement gap using a large sample of students from a wide variety of school districts across the United States. It examines…

  11. Role of growth factors in the growth of normal and transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lokeshwar, V.B.

    1989-01-01

    Growth factors play an important role in the growth of normal cells. However, their untimely and/or excess production leads to neoplastic transformation. The role of growth factors in the growth of normal cells was studied by investigating the mechanism of transmodulation of the cell surface EGF receptor number by protamine. Protamine increased the EGF stimulated mitogenic response in Swiss mouse 3T3 cells and A431 cells by increasing the number of functionally active EGF receptors. Protamine also increased EGF receptor number in plasma membranes and solubilized membranes. This was evidenced by an increase in both {sup 125}I-EGF-EGF-receptor complex and EGF stimulated phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. The solubilized EGF receptor was retained on a protamine-agarose gel indicating that protamine might increase EGF receptor number by directly activating cryptic EGF receptors in the plasma membranes. The role of growth factors in neoplastic transformation was studied by investigating the role of the oncogene v-sis in the growth of Simian sarcoma virus (SSV) transformed cells. The product of the oncogene v-sis is 94% homologous to the B chain of PDGF. This study found that (i) v-sis gene product is synthesized as a 32 kDa unglycosylated monomer which is glycosylated, dimerized and proteolytically processed into p36, p72, p68, p58, p44 and p27 mol. wt. species respectively. (ii) p36, p72, p68 and p58 are very likely formed in the endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi complex. A fraction of newly synthesized p72, p68 and p58 is degraded intracellularly at a fast rate. (iii) p44 is a secretory product which remains tightly associated with the cell surface. p44 is recaptured by the cells through interaction with cell surface PDGF receptors and degraded into p27. (iv) During long term cultures p44 is extracellularly cleaved into a 27 kDa product.

  12. Academic task persistence of normally achieving ADHD and control boys: performance, self-evaluations, and attributions.

    PubMed

    Hoza, B; Pelham, W E; Waschbusch, D A; Kipp, H; Owens, J S

    2001-04-01

    The authors examined academic task persistence, pretask expectancies, self-evaluations, and attributions of boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared with control boys. Participants were 83 ADHD boys and 66 control boys, all normally achieving. Prior to the task, performance expectancies were assessed. After a success-failure manipulation with find-a-word puzzles, performance on subsequent trials, self-evaluations, and attributions were evaluated. Compared with controls, ADHD boys solved fewer test puzzles, quit working more often, and found fewer words on a generalization task. Consistent with these behavioral findings, research assistants rated ADHD boys as less effortful and less cooperative than control boys. Although ADHD boys did not differ significantly from controls in their posttask self-evaluations, they did differ significantly from controls in some aspects of their attributions. Attributional data indicated that ADHD boys endorsed luck as a reason for success more strongly and lack of effort as a reason for failure less strongly than controls. PMID:11393604

  13. Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  14. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  15. Modulation of growth and differentiation in normal human keratinocytes by transforming growth factor-beta

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Hashiro, M.; Yoshimasa, H.; Yoshikawa, K. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of transforming growth factor-type beta 1(TGF-beta) on the growth and differentiation of normal human skin keratinocytes cultured in serum-free medium was investigated. TGF-beta markedly inhibited the growth of keratinocytes at the concentrations greater than 2 ng/ml under low Ca2+ conditions (0.1 mM). Growth inhibition was accompanied by changes in cell functions related to proliferation. Remarkable inhibition of DNA synthesis was demonstrated by the decrease of (3H)thymidine incorporation. The decrease of (3H)thymidine incorporation was observed as early as 3 hr after addition of TGF-beta. TGF-beta also decreased c-myc messenger RNA (mRNA) expression 30 min after addition of TGF-beta. This rapid reduction of c-myc mRNA expression by TGF-beta treatment is possibly one of the main factors in the process of TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition of human keratinocytes. Since growth inhibition and induction of differentiation are closely related in human keratinocytes, the growth-inhibitory effect of TGF-beta under high Ca2+ conditions was examined. TGF-beta inhibited the growth of keratinocytes under high Ca2+ conditions in the same manner as under low Ca2+ conditions, suggesting that it is a strong growth inhibitor in both low and high Ca2+ environments. The induction of keratinocyte differentiation was evaluated by measuring involucrin expression and cornified envelope formation: TGF-beta at 20 ng/ml increased involucrin expression from 9.3% to 18.8% under high Ca2+ conditions, while it decreased involucrin expression from 7.0% to 3.3% under low Ca2+ conditions. Cornified envelope formation was modulated in a similar way by addition of TGF-beta: TGF-beta at 20 ng/ml decreased cornified envelope formation by 53% under low Ca2+ conditions, while it enhanced cornified envelope formation by 30.7% under high Ca2+ conditions.

  16. Growth and gaps in mathematics achievement of students with and without disabilities on a statewide achievement test.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C; Elliott, Stephen N; Nese, Joseph F T; Tindal, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated mathematics achievement growth trajectories in a statewide sample of 92,045 students with and without disabilities over Grades 3 to 7. Students with disabilities (SWDs) were identified in seven exceptionality categories. Students without disabilities (SWoDs) were categorized as General Education (GE) or Academically/Intellectually Gifted (AIG). Students in all groups showed significant growth that decelerated over grades as well as significant variability in achievement by student group, both at the initial assessment in Grade 3 and in rates of growth over time. Race/ethnicity, gender, parental education, free/reduced lunch status, and English language proficiency were also significant predictors of achievement. Effect size estimates showed substantial year-to-year growth that decreased over grades. Sizeable achievement gaps that were relatively stable over grades were observed between SWoDs and students in specific exceptionality categories. Our study also demonstrated the importance of statistically controlling for variation related to student demographic characteristics. Additional research is needed that expands on these results with the same and additional exceptionality groups. PMID:25636260

  17. Growth and gaps in mathematics achievement of students with and without disabilities on a statewide achievement test.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C; Elliott, Stephen N; Nese, Joseph F T; Tindal, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated mathematics achievement growth trajectories in a statewide sample of 92,045 students with and without disabilities over Grades 3 to 7. Students with disabilities (SWDs) were identified in seven exceptionality categories. Students without disabilities (SWoDs) were categorized as General Education (GE) or Academically/Intellectually Gifted (AIG). Students in all groups showed significant growth that decelerated over grades as well as significant variability in achievement by student group, both at the initial assessment in Grade 3 and in rates of growth over time. Race/ethnicity, gender, parental education, free/reduced lunch status, and English language proficiency were also significant predictors of achievement. Effect size estimates showed substantial year-to-year growth that decreased over grades. Sizeable achievement gaps that were relatively stable over grades were observed between SWoDs and students in specific exceptionality categories. Our study also demonstrated the importance of statistically controlling for variation related to student demographic characteristics. Additional research is needed that expands on these results with the same and additional exceptionality groups.

  18. Normalizing Stigmatized Practices: Achieving Co-membership by "Doing Being Ordinary".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Samuel G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the effect of the interactive accomplishment of conversational normalization. To illuminate this process, this article investigates how the parties to a news interview collaborate to normalize the interviewee's practices in operating a house of prostitution. The methodological impetus for this study involves a variant of conversation…

  19. Achieving and documenting closure in plant growth facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.; Sager, John C.; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    As NASA proceeds with its effort to develop a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) that will provide life support to crews during long duration space missions, it must address the question of facility and system closure. The concept of closure as it pertains to CELSS and engineering specifications, construction problems and monitoring procedures used in the development and operation of a closed plant growth facility for the CELSS program are described. A plant growth facility is one of several modules required for a CELSS. A prototype of this module at Kennedy Space Center is the large (7m tall x 3.5m diameter) Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), the central facility of the CELSS Breadboard Project. The BPC is atmospherically sealed to a leak rate of approximately 5 percent of its total volume per 24 hours. This paper will discuss the requirements for atmospheric closure in the facility, present CO2 and trace gas data from initial tests of the BPC with and without plants, and describe how the chamber was sealed atmospherically. Implications that research conducted in this type of facility will have for the CELSS program are discussed.

  20. Exploring Gains in Reading and Mathematics Achievement among Regular and Exceptional Students Using Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tacksoo; Davison, Mark L.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Chan, Chi-Keung; Heistad, David

    2013-01-01

    Using four-wave longitudinal reading and mathematics data (4th to 7th grades) from a large urban school district, growth curve modeling was used as a tool for examining three research questions: Are achievement gaps closing in reading and mathematics? What are the associations between prior-achievement and growth across the reading and mathematics…

  1. Once, Sometimes, or Always in Special Education: Mathematics Growth and Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ann C.; Stevens, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a statewide longitudinal sample to examine mathematics achievement gaps and growth in students with and without disabilities and to examine the impact of different methods of determining disability group membership on achievement gaps and growth. When disability status was determined on the basis of special education placement each…

  2. High-Achieving and Average Students' Reading Growth: Contrasting School and Summer Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Much is unknown about how initially high-achieving students grow academically, especially given the measurement issues inherent in assessing growth for the highest performing students. This study compared initially high-achieving and average students' growth in reading (in a cohort of third-grade students from 2,000 schools) over 3 years.…

  3. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  4. The effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in 5th grade science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Pamela Mccrea

    2007-12-01

    At-risk students show consistent patterns of under achievement and social maladjustment in school which leads to their demise in high school (McMillian & Reed, 1994). Similarly, special education students are at increased risk of not completing high school and do not perform as well on national achievement tests than their nondisabled peers (Land & Legters, 2002). It is possible that students at-risk for academic failure will not meet graduation requirements unless interventions are put in place to alleviate this problem. It has been documented that science textbooks contain difficult vocabulary and high reading levels that are challenging for struggling students. Using approaches such as activities oriented instruction, which supports the cooperative learning/peer tutoring model is one approach that has been successful with normally achieving and special education students. This research examined the effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements with peer tutoring on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in science. A crossover design was implemented in three fifth grade inclusive classes, consisting of typically achieving students, students at-risk, and students with learning disabilities. The participants included 16 at-risk students, three special education students and 44 normally achieving students. The science review activities were implemented during two consecutive science units. One unit covered Earth and Space science. The other unit covered Light and Sound. Each curriculum enhancement had identification and production level activities. The identification level provided prompts; the production level did not provide prompts. Pretest and posttest were administered. Overall findings of the study revealed a significant interaction between experimental condition and treatment order, suggesting an advantage for students using differentiated curriculum enhancements. Main effects analysis suggested that students performed better on one

  5. Cas Proteins in Normal and Pathological Cell Growth Control

    PubMed Central

    Tikhmyanova, Nadezhda; Little, Joy L.; Golemis, Erica A.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins of the CAS (Crk-Associated Substrate) family (BCAR1/p130Cas, NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L, EFS/SIN and CASS4/HEPL) are integral players in normal and pathological cell biology. CAS proteins act as scaffolds to regulate protein complexes controlling migration and chemotaxis, apoptosis, cell cycle, and differentiation, and have more recently been linked to a role in progenitor cell function. Reflecting these complex functions, over-expression of CAS proteins has now been strongly linked to poor prognosis and increased metastasis in cancer, as well as resistance to first-line chemotherapeutics in multiple tumor types including breast and lung cancers, glioblastoma, and melanoma. Further, CAS proteins have also been linked to additional pathological conditions including inflammatory disorders, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, as well as developmental defects. This review will explore the roles of the CAS proteins in normal and pathological states in the context of the many mechanistic insights into CAS protein function that have emerged in the past decade. PMID:19937461

  6. Normal growth of the "see-through" medaka.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Takashi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Ozato, Kenjiro; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2003-05-01

    The see-through stock in the medaka Oryzias latipes, causes pigments to be absent from the whole body and has a transparent body in the adult stage as well as during embryonic stages. To establish a standard table of growth stages for this model fish, morphological features were examined during the growing period from hatching to adulthood. The main observations were performed on morphological changes in external and internal organs that could be seen through the body wall of the living fish during growth. Finally, five growth stages from just after hatching to the adult stage were defined on the basis of synchronized or definite changes in morphology as follows: (1) stage 40 in which the nodes (joints) in bony rays of the caudal and pectoral fins first appear, (2) the stage 41 in which the ribs and the anal, dorsal and ventral fins are formed by degeneration of the membrane fin folds, as recognized by the first appearance of nodes in the fin rays of the anal, pectoral and dorsal fins, and the parallel distribution of the dorsal artery and ventral vein of the tail, (3) stage 42 in which the 2-spiral pattern of the gut, the ray nodes in the ventral fins, and the scales first appear, (4) stage 43 in which early secondary sexual characters such as urinogenital protruberances (female) and papillar processes (male) appear, (5) stage 44 in which the 3-spiral pattern of the gut and the papillar process on the 2nd ray of pectral fins (male) appear. PMID:12777831

  7. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this…

  8. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  9. Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students

    PubMed Central

    Castejón, Juan L.; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications. PMID:27729879

  10. Promising Practices in Professional Growth & Support: "Case Study of Achievement First"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…

  11. The Groove of Growth: How Early Gains in Math Ability Influence Adolescent Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…

  12. Reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of children with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Christiano, Elizabeth R A; Yu, Jennifer W; Wagner, Mary; Spiker, Donna

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of a nationally representative sample of children ages 6 through 9 with an autism spectrum disorder. Four distinct achievement profiles were identified: higher-achieving (39%), hyperlexia (9%), hypercalculia (20%) and lower-achieving (32%). Children with hypercalculia and lower-achieving profiles were more likely to be from low socioeconomic families and had lower functional cognitive skills than the higher-achieving profile. All four profiles lost ground in passage comprehension over time. Slower improvement occurred for the higher-achieving group on letter-word identification, the hyperlexia group on conversation abilities and the hypercalculia group on calculation and functional cognitive skills relative to the lower-achieving group.

  13. Normal-incidence steering effect in crystal growth: Ag/Ag(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Montalenti, F.; Voter, A. F.

    2001-08-15

    During crystal growth by vapor deposition, normal incident atoms are deflected toward three-dimensional surface structures. The effect becomes strong when the atoms are deposited with a low initial kinetic energy. At low T this steering effect induces an instability in the growth process, causing a perfectly flat surface to become rough after a few monolayers are deposited. Quantitative results for the initial stages of growth of Ag/Ag(100) at T{approx}0 K are presented.

  14. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P.; Acock, Alan C.; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics. PMID:25071619

  15. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Megan M; Cameron, Claire E; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P; Acock, Alan C; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics. PMID:25071619

  16. Modeling stability of growth between mathematics and science achievement during middle and high school.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Ma, Lingling

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the authors introduced a multivariate multilevel model to estimate the consistency among students and schools in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement during the entire middle and high school years with data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY). There was no evident consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students, and this inconsistency was not much influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. However, there was evident consistency in the average rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among schools, and this consistency was influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. Major school-level variables associated with parental involvement did not show any significant impacts on consistency among either students or schools. Results call for educational policies that promote collaboration between mathematics and science departments or teachers.

  17. Role of polypeptide growth factors in phenotypic transformation of normal rat kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    van Zoelen, E.J.J.; van Oostwaard, T.M.J.; de Laat, S.W.

    1988-01-05

    A serum-free assay has been established for studying the role of polypeptide growth factors in inducing loss of density-dependent inhibition of growth of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. The process has been characterized by measuring the time course of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into confluent, quiescent NRK cultures stimulated by defined polypeptide growth factors, in combination with cell counting studies, increases in DNA content, and cell cycle analysis by means of a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. It is shown that none of the growth factors tested is able to induce loss of density-dependent inhibition of growth by itself, but strong synergism was observed when combinations of growth factors were tested. None of the above factors was found to be essential, however, since any combination of three of the above four growth factors strongly induced the process. Strong parallels were observed between the growth factor requirements for inducing loss of density-dependent inhibition of growth under serum-free conditions and the requirements for induction of anchorage-independent proliferation under growth factor-defined assay conditions. This indicates that most likely the same cellular processes underlie these two aspects of phenotypic transformation, although data indicate that anchorage-independent proliferation may be a more restricted property of phenotypic transformation than loss of density dependence of proliferation. It is concluded that phenotypic transformation of NRK cells does not require specific polypeptide growth factors, but reflects the ability of these cells to respond to multiple growth factors.

  18. Incorporating Student Mobility in Achievement Growth Modeling: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Matthew W.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Multiple membership random effects models (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve…

  19. Self organized growth of doped vertical quantum wells for normal incidence intersubband transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, V.; Vermeire, G.; Demeester, P.; Weisbuch, C.

    1996-06-01

    The self-organized growth of N-doped vertical AlGaAs quantum wells by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of a single doped AlGaAs layer on a submicron grating is described. Intersubband absorption at normal incidence is demonstrated in those vertical quantum wells. This opens new possibilities for infrared quantum well devices using intersubband transitions, including normal incidence infrared modulators.

  20. Global transcriptome profiles of Italian Mediterranean buffalo embryos with normal and retarded growth.

    PubMed

    Strazzullo, Maria; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Francioso, Romina; Rossetti, Cristina; Nassa, Giovanni; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Weisz, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Serena; Vecchio, Domenico; D'Esposito, Maurizio; D'Occhio, Michael John; Zicarelli, Luigi; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptome profiles were compared for buffalo embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating. Embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating have a reduced likelihood of undergoing attachment to the uterine endometrium and establishing a pregnancy. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes were mated by AI and on Day 25 underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to ascertain embryo development. Embryos with an embryonic width (EW)>2.7 mm were classed as normal embryos and embryos with an EW<2.7 mm were classed as retarded embryos. Three buffaloes with embryos of the largest EW (3.7, 3.7 and 3.9 mm) and three buffaloes with embryos of the smallest EW (1.5, 1.6 and 1.9 mm) were slaughtered on Day 27 to recover embryos for transcriptome analysis using a bovine custom designed oligo array. A total of 1,047 transcripts were differentially expressed between embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth. Retarded embryos showed 773/1,047 (74%) transcripts that were down-regulated and 274/1,047 (26%) transcripts that were up-regulated relative to normal embryos; in silico analyses focused on 680/1,047 (65%) of the differentially expressed transcripts. The most altered transcripts observed in retarded embryos were associated with membrane structure and function and with metabolic and homeostasis maintenance functions. Other notable functions altered in retarded embryos were developmental processes and in particular nervous system differentiation and function. Specific biochemical pathways such as the complement cascade and coagulation were also altered in retarded embryos. It was concluded from the findings that buffalo embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating show altered gene expression compared with normal embryos, and some de-regulated functions are associated with attachment to the uterine endometrium. PMID:24587197

  1. Global Transcriptome Profiles of Italian Mediterranean Buffalo Embryos with Normal and Retarded Growth

    PubMed Central

    Neglia, Gianluca; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Francioso, Romina; Rossetti, Cristina; Nassa, Giovanni; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Weisz, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Serena; Vecchio, Domenico; D'Esposito, Maurizio; D'Occhio, Michael John; Zicarelli, Luigi; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptome profiles were compared for buffalo embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating. Embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating have a reduced likelihood of undergoing attachment to the uterine endometrium and establishing a pregnancy. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes were mated by AI and on Day 25 underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to ascertain embryo development. Embryos with an embryonic width (EW)>2.7 mm were classed as normal embryos and embryos with an EW<2.7 mm were classed as retarded embryos. Three buffaloes with embryos of the largest EW (3.7, 3.7 and 3.9 mm) and three buffaloes with embryos of the smallest EW (1.5, 1.6 and 1.9 mm) were slaughtered on Day 27 to recover embryos for transcriptome analysis using a bovine custom designed oligo array. A total of 1,047 transcripts were differentially expressed between embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth. Retarded embryos showed 773/1,047 (74%) transcripts that were down-regulated and 274/1,047 (26%) transcripts that were up-regulated relative to normal embryos; in silico analyses focused on 680/1,047 (65%) of the differentially expressed transcripts. The most altered transcripts observed in retarded embryos were associated with membrane structure and function and with metabolic and homeostasis maintenance functions. Other notable functions altered in retarded embryos were developmental processes and in particular nervous system differentiation and function. Specific biochemical pathways such as the complement cascade and coagulation were also altered in retarded embryos. It was concluded from the findings that buffalo embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating show altered gene expression compared with normal embryos, and some de-regulated functions are associated with attachment to the uterine endometrium. PMID:24587197

  2. Development and Growth of the Normal Cranial Vault : An Embryologic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sung-Won; Kim, Sang-Dae

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of a skull deformity requires an understanding of the normal morphogenesis of the cranium. Craniosynostosis is the premature, pathologic ossification of one or more cranial sutures leading to skull deformities. A review of the English medical literature using textbooks and standard search engines was performed to gather information about the prenatal development and growth of the cranial vault of the neurocranium. A process of morphogenic sequencing begins during prenatal development and growth, continues postnatally, and contributes to the basis for the differential manner of growth of cranial vault bones. This improved knowledge might facilitate comprehension of the pathophysiology of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226848

  3. Growth in Reading Achievement of Students with Disabilities, Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Blackorby, Jose; Schiller, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SRI International, 2002), this study estimated reading growth trajectories in a nationally representative sample of 3,421 students with disabilities ages 7 to 17 representing 11 federal disability categories. Reading achievement in all disability categories increased with age,…

  4. A Longitudinal Assessment of Early Acceleration of Students in Mathematics on Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, X.

    2005-01-01

    Early acceleration of students in mathematics (in the form of early access to formal abstract algebra) has been a controversial educational issue. The current study examined the rate of growth in mathematics achievement of accelerated gifted, honors, and regular students across the entire secondary years (Grades 7-12), in comparison to their…

  5. Precollege science achievement growth: Racial-ethnic and gender differences in cognitive and psychosocial constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Patricia Ann

    The purpose of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the differences in science, mathematics and engineering education among racial-ethnic and gender subgroups by exploring factors related to precollege science achievement growth rates. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and multi-wave, longitudinal data from the first three waves of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988--1994 (NELS:88/94), this study examined precollege science achievement growth rates during the 8th to 10th grade period and the 10th to 12th grade period for African American males, African American females, Latino males, Latina females, Asian American males, Asian American females, White males and White females. For the 8th--10th grade period, previous grades were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups; and socio-economic status and high school program were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups except one (Latino males, and Asian American males respectively). For the 10th--12th grade period, the quantity of science courses completed (science units) was the only variable that was statistically significant for more than one racial-ethnic by gender subgroup. Science units taken were significantly and positively related to 10 th--12th grade growth rates for all racial-ethnic by gender subgroups except Latino males. Locus-of-control was the only cognitive or psychosocial factor included from Eccles, Adler, Futterman, Goff, Kaczala, Meece and Midgley's (1983) theoretical framework for achievement behaviors that appeared to exhibit any pattern across race-ethnicities. Locus-of-control was positively related to 8th--10 th grade science achievement growth for females across all racial-ethnic subgroups, as well as for African American males. However, for both the 8 th--10th grade and 10th--12 th grade periods, there was no consistency across racial-ethnic or gender subgroups in

  6. Craniofacial skeletal measurements based on computed tomography: Part II. Normal values and growth trends.

    PubMed

    Waitzman, A A; Posnick, J C; Armstrong, D C; Pron, G E

    1992-03-01

    Current diagnosis and surgical correction of craniofacial anomalies would benefit from accurate quantitative and standardized points of reference. A retrospective study was undertaken to define normal values for a series of craniofacial measurements and to evaluate the growth patterns of the craniofacial complex through axial computed tomography (CT). Fifteen measurements were taken from 542 CT scan series of skeletally normal subjects. The measurement values were then divided into 1-year age categories from 1 to 17 years, and into four age groups for those under 1 year of age. The normal range and growth pattern of measurement values for the cranial vault, orbital region, and upper midface are presented. The overall size of the cranio-orbito-zygomatic skeleton reaches more than 85 percent of adult size by age 5 years. The cranial vault grows rapidly in the first year of life but growth levels off early. The upper midface grows at a slower rate in infancy, but continues to grow later in childhood and early adolescence. Knowledge of the differential growth patterns and normal measurement values in the craniofacial region will help improve diagnostic accuracy, staging of reconstruction, precision of corrective surgery, and follow-up of patients. PMID:1571345

  7. Normal birth weight piglets with impaired preweaning growth utilize alternative metabolic pathways in the liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine if normal weight pigs that grow poorly during the pre-weaning period have altered hepatic metabolism, as reported for intrauterine growth retarded pigs. Eight pairs of average birth weight pigs (1.57 +/- 0.05 kg) were identified that diverged in weight by...

  8. Implementation of Combined Feather and Surface-Normal Ice Growth Models in LEWICE/X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velazquez, M. T.; Hansman, R. J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental observations have shown that discrete rime ice growths called feathers, which grow in approximately the direction of water droplet impingement, play an important role in the growth of ice on accreting surfaces for some thermodynamic conditions. An improved physical model of ice accretion has been implemented in the LEWICE 2D panel-based ice accretion code maintained by the NASA Lewis Research Center. The LEWICE/X model of ice accretion explicitly simulates regions of feather growth within the framework of the LEWICE model. Water droplets impinging on an accreting surface are withheld from the normal LEWICE mass/energy balance and handled in a separate routine; ice growth resulting from these droplets is performed with enhanced convective heat transfer approximately along droplet impingement directions. An independent underlying ice shape is grown along surface normals using the unmodified LEWICE method. The resulting dual-surface ice shape models roughness-induced feather growth observed in icing wind tunnel tests. Experiments indicate that the exact direction of feather growth is dependent on external conditions. Data is presented to support a linear variation of growth direction with temperature and cloud water content. Test runs of LEWICE/X indicate that the sizes of surface regions containing feathers are influenced by initial roughness element height. This suggests that a previous argument that feather region size is determined by boundary layer transition may be incorrect. Simulation results for two typical test cases give improved shape agreement over unmodified LEWICE.

  9. Association between mandibular posterior alveolar morphology and growth pattern in a Chinese population with normal occlusion*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Min; Wang, Rong-yang; Liu, Hong; Zhu, Xiu-juan; Wei, Fu-lan; Lv, Tao; Wang, Na-na; Hu, Li-hua; Li, Guo-ju; Liu, Dong-xu; Wang, Chun-ling

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between growth patterns and mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology in a Chinese population with normal occlusion. Methods: Forty-five patients with normal occlusion (23 males, 22 females) were included in this study. Among these patients, 20 displayed the vertical growth pattern, and 20 had the horizontal growth pattern, while the remaining patients displayed the average growth pattern. All of the patients underwent dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which included the region of the mandibular posterior teeth and the alveolar. A linear regression analysis and a correlation analysis between the facial height index (FHI) and the alveolar bone morphology were performed. Results: The inclination of the molars, the thickness of the cortical bone, and the height of the mandibular bone differed significantly between patients with the horizontal growth pattern and those with the vertical growth pattern (P<0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between: the FHI and the inclination of the molars; the FHI and the thickness of the cortical bone; and the FHI and the height of the mandibular bone. Conclusions: The mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology may be affected by growth patterns. PMID:23303628

  10. Substrate flexibility regulates growth and apoptosis of normal but not transformed cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. B.; Dembo, M.; Wang, Y. L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of oncogenic transformation is anchorage-independent growth (27). Here we demonstrate that responses to substrate rigidity play a major role in distinguishing the growth behavior of normal cells from that of transformed cells. We cultured normal or H-ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells on flexible collagen-coated polyacrylamide substrates with similar chemical properties but different rigidity. Compared with cells cultured on stiff substrates, nontransformed cells on flexible substrates showed a decrease in the rate of DNA synthesis and an increase in the rate of apoptosis. These responses on flexible substrates are coupled to decreases in cell spreading area and traction forces. In contrast, transformed cells maintained their growth and apoptotic characteristics regardless of substrate flexibility. The responses in cell spreading area and traction forces to substrate flexibility were similarly diminished. Our results suggest that normal cells are capable of probing substrate rigidity and that proper mechanical feedback is required for regulating cell shape, cell growth, and survival. The loss of this response can explain the unregulated growth of transformed cells.

  11. Cognitive predictors of achievement growth in mathematics: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Geary, David C

    2011-11-01

    The study's goal was to identify the beginning of 1st grade quantitative competencies that predict mathematics achievement start point and growth through 5th grade. Measures of number, counting, and arithmetic competencies were administered in early 1st grade and used to predict mathematics achievement through 5th (n = 177), while controlling for intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. Multilevel models revealed intelligence and processing speed, and the central executive component of working memory predicted achievement or achievement growth in mathematics and, as a contrast domain, word reading. The phonological loop was uniquely predictive of word reading and the visuospatial sketch pad of mathematics. Early fluency in processing and manipulating numerical set size and Arabic numerals, accurate use of sophisticated counting procedures for solving addition problems, and accuracy in making placements on a mathematical number line were uniquely predictive of mathematics achievement. Use of memory-based processes to solve addition problems predicted mathematics and reading achievement but in different ways. The results identify the early quantitative competencies that uniquely contribute to mathematics learning.

  12. A Study of the Effects of the Accelerated Reader Program on Fifth Grade Students' Reading Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Cindy M.; Smothers, Bobbie C.; Anderson, Eugene; Fulton, Ray; Replogle, William H.; Thomas, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reading achievement growth of fifth grade students following a year of participation in the Accelerated Reader program with the reading achievement growth of fifth grade students who did not participate in the Accelerated Reader program. The Terra Nova standardized achievement test was used as the…

  13. Silencing Egr1 Attenuates Radiation-induced Apoptosis in Normal Tissues while Killing Cancer Cells and Delaying Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Diana Yi; Jacobs, Keith M; Hallahan, Dennis E; Thotala, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Normal tissue toxicity reduces the therapeutic index of radiotherapy and decreases the quality of life for cancer survivors. Apoptosis is a key element of the radiation response in normal tissues like the hippocampus and small intestine, resulting in neurocognitive disorders and intestinal malabsorption. The Early Growth Response 1 (Egr1) transcription factor mediates radiation-induced apoptosis by activating the transcription of pro-apoptosis genes in response to ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we hypothesized that the genetic abrogation of Egr1 and the pharmacological inhibition of its transcriptional activity could attenuate radiation-induced apoptosis in normal tissues. We demonstrated that Egr1 null mice had less apoptosis in the hippocampus and intestine following irradiation as compared to their wild-type littermates. A similar result was achieved using Mithramycin A (MMA) to prevent binding of Egr1 to target promoters in the mouse intestine. Egr1 expression using shRNA dampened apoptosis and enhanced the clonogenic survival of irradiated HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells and IEC6 intestinal epithelial cells. Mechanistically, these events involved an abrogation of p53 induction by IR and an increase in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression. In contrast, targeted silencing of Egr1 in two cancer cell lines (GL261 glioma cells, HCT116 colorectal cancer cells) was not radioprotective, since it reduced their growth while also sensitizing them to radiation-induced death. Further, Egr1 depletion delayed the growth of heterotopically implanted GL261 and HCT116 tumors. These results support the potential of silencing Egr1 in order to minimize the normal tissue complications associated with radiotherapy while enhancing tumor control. PMID:26206332

  14. Peptide T bolus normalizes the growth hormone secretion pattern in two children with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Barbey-Morel, Charlotte; McDonnell, Kevin; Pert, Candace B; Adams, MerriBeth; Farrand, Dean; Ruff, Michael R; Lumpkin, Michael D

    2002-12-01

    In humans, HIV infection reduces growth hormone (GH) secretion contributing to AIDS wasting. In rats, the HIV envelope protein gp120 alone blocks GH secretion both in vitro and in vivo through GH-releasing hormone receptors. Peptide T, a modified octapeptide derived from gp120, normalizes GH secretion. We now report that an intravenous bolus of peptide T normalizes nocturnal GH secretion in two out of three children with AIDS. These results, coupled with the lack of toxicity of this experimental AIDS therapeutic, justify clinical trials for AIDS wasting and pediatric AIDS. A clinical and basic science update on peptide T appears in Current HIV Research. PMID:12535709

  15. Simulation of growth normal fault sandbox tests using the 2D discrete element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sheng-Shin; Lin, Ming-Lang; Huang, Wen-Chao; Nien, Wei-Tung; Liu, Huan-Chi; Chan, Pei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    A fault slip can cause the deformation of shallow soil layers and destroy infrastructures. The Shanchiao Fault on the west side of the Taipei Basin is one such fault. The activities of the Shanchiao Fault have caused the quaternary sediment beneath the Taipei Basin to become deformed, damaging structures, traffic construction, and utility lines in the area. Data on geological drilling and dating have been used to determine that a growth fault exists in the Shanchiao Fault. In an experiment, a sandbox model was built using noncohesive sandy soil to simulate the existence of a growth fault in the Shanchiao Fault and forecast the effect of the growth fault on shear-band development and ground differential deformation. The experimental results indicated that when a normal fault contains a growth fault at the offset of the base rock, the shear band develops upward beside the weak side of the shear band of the original-topped soil layer, and surfaces considerably faster than that of the single-topped layer. The offset ratio required is approximately one-third that of the single-cover soil layer. In this study, a numerical simulation of the sandbox experiment was conducted using a discrete element method program, PFC2D, to simulate the upper-covering sand layer shear-band development pace and the scope of a growth normal fault slip. The simulation results indicated an outcome similar to that of the sandbox experiment, which can be applied to the design of construction projects near fault zones.

  16. Sonar biparietal diameter. I. Analysis of percentile growth differences in two normal populations using same methodology.

    PubMed

    Sabbagha, R E; Barton, F B; Barton, B A

    1976-10-15

    BPD measurements were obtained from 107 white and 91 black normal gravid women, with established dates, between weeks 16 to 40 of pregnancy. The sonar methodology used is uniform, employing nonpersistent image scanning with electronic calipers. It is noted that the BPD percentile growth patterns derived from these racially different fetuses are alike. Similarly, the fetal age distributions corresponding to white vs. black fetal BPD's show minor differences. From a clinical standpoint, therefore, one percentile curve is constructed for both populations. It is concluded that the BPD differences observed in the currently used growth curves, reported by different investigators, are related to nonuniformity in sonar BPD methodology.

  17. Normal Dendrite Growth in Drosophila Motor Neurons Requires the AP-1 Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Cortnie L.; Worrell, Jason; Levine, Richard B.; Ramaswami, Mani; Sanyal, Subhabrata

    2009-01-01

    During learning and memory formation, information flow through networks is regulated significantly through structural alterations in neurons. Dendrites, sites of signal integration, are key targets of activity-mediated modifications. Although local mechanisms of dendritic growth ensure synapse-specific changes, global mechanisms linking neural activity to nuclear gene expression may have profound influences on neural function. Fos, being an immediate-early gene, is ideally suited to be an initial transducer of neural activity, but a precise role for the AP-1 transcription factor in dendrite growth remains to be elucidated. Here we measure changes in the dendritic fields of identified Drosophila motor neurons in vivo and in primary culture to investigate the role of the immediate-early transcription factor AP-1 in regulating endogenous and activity-induced dendrite growth. Our data indicate that (a) increased neural excitability or depolarization stimulates dendrite growth, (b) AP-1 (a Fos, Jun heterodimer) is required for normal motor neuron dendritic growth during development and in response to activity induction, and (c) neuronal Fos protein levels are rapidly but transiently induced in motor neurons following neural activity. Taken together, these results show that AP-1 mediated transcription is important for dendrite growth, and that neural activity influences global dendritic growth through a gene-expression dependent mechanism gated by AP-1. PMID:18548486

  18. Normal fault growth above pre-existing structures: insights from discrete element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, Thilo; Finch, Emma; Bell, Rebecca; Jackson, Christopher; Gawthorpe, Robert; Phillips, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In extensional systems, pre-existing structures such as shear zones may affect the growth, geometry and location of normal faults. Recent seismic reflection-based observations from the North Sea suggest that shear zones not only localise deformation in the host rock, but also in the overlying sedimentary succession. While pre-existing weaknesses are known to localise deformation in the host rock, their effect on deformation in the overlying succession is less well understood. Here, we use 3-D discrete element modelling to determine if and how kilometre-scale shear zones affect normal fault growth in the overlying succession. Discrete element models use a large number of interacting particles to describe the dynamic evolution of complex systems. The technique has therefore been applied to describe fault and fracture growth in a variety of geological settings. We model normal faulting by extending a 60×60×30 km crustal rift-basin model including brittle and ductile interactions and gravitation and isostatic forces by 30%. An inclined plane of weakness which represents a pre-existing shear zone is introduced in the lower section of the upper brittle layer at the start of the experiment. The length, width, orientation and dip of the weak zone are systematically varied between experiments to test how these parameters control the geometric and kinematic development of overlying normal fault systems. Consistent with our seismic reflection-based observations, our results show that strain is indeed localised in and above these weak zones. In the lower brittle layer, normal faults nucleate, as expected, within the zone of weakness and control the initiation and propagation of neighbouring faults. Above this, normal faults nucleate throughout the overlying strata where their orientations are strongly influenced by the underlying zone of weakness. These results challenge the notion that overburden normal faults simply form due to reactivation and upwards propagation of pre

  19. Mammary Gland Growth Factors: Roles in Normal Development and in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Nancy E.; Watson, Christine J.

    2010-01-01

    Normal development of the mammary gland proceeds via interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme that start during embryogenesis and continue during pubertal outgrowth and differentiation. The function of specific peptide growth factors that bind members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family and the cytokine receptor family are required at each stage. In many cases the peptides are produced in one compartment and act on receptors in the other compartment. One of the striking differences between normal development and cancer is the loss of this cross-talk. Mammary tumor cells often produce a peptide and express the receptor on the same cell leading to autocrine activation of signaling pathways, a mechanism that is characteristic for cancer cells. We will discuss different peptides in the context of normal development and cancer in this review. PMID:20554705

  20. Remodelling of bone and bones: growth of normal and transplanted caudal vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Feik, S A; Storey, E

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the rate of growth, shape and structure of the 8th, 16th and 22nd caudal vertebrae of 4 and 24-27 days old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in situ and in three different non-functional transplantation sites for 12 weeks. With increasing size, maturity and age the three vertebrae showed progressively decreasing growth, changes in shape and structural abnormalities. The smallest anlages grew faster and matured sooner than normal, so that their length equalled that of controls. Central endochondral necrosis in older bones was associated with decreased longitudinal growth but in some younger ones, despite a perforation of the cartilage and herniation of the nucleus pulposus into the marrow cavity of the shaft, growth proceeded at near normal rates. The free ends of older, larger transplants grew faster than the abutting ends joined by joint connective tissue, indicating that central necrosis of cartilage resulted from impaired nutrient diffusion. The results suggest that the cartilage model may possess an inherent capacity to produce a certain limited amount of bone tissue which may be distributed either in the form of long and thin or short and inwaisted bones, depending on the balance of forces between interstitial cartilage expansion and the restraining ensheathing periosteal-perichondrial tissues. This basic form may be modified further by functional forces.

  1. The role of growth of normal and preneoplastic cell populations for tumor promotion in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Hermann, R.; Schuppler, J.; Timmermann-Trosiener, I.; Ohde, G.; Bursch, W.; Berger, H.

    1983-01-01

    A number of different compounds, including phenobarbital, hypolipidemic drugs such as clofibrate and nafenopin, the sex steroids progesterone, cyproterone acetate, estradiol and mestranol, chlorinated hydrocarbons such as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, and TCDD and the antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene, appears to promote the development of liver tumors from previously induced initiated cells. The mechanisms of tumor promotion by several representative prototypes of these compounds were studied in rat liver in vivo. All liver tumor promoters mentioned above stimulate growth of normal liver. The growth response is due to cellular hypertrophy and/or increased rate of DNA (and cell) replication and/or decreased rate of cell death. Hepatocytes in foci or islands of altered cells (putatively preneoplastic) show higher rates of replication than normal liver cells; various different liver tumor promoters cause a further increase of proliferation of focal cells. The increased proliferative activity is found in different island phenotypes and thus seems to be a useful marker of the putative preneoplastic state. The focal cells respond to several factors limiting proliferation in normal liver, suggesting that they are not autonomous with respect to growth control. Early preneoplastic foci grow slowly without promotion, despite the relatively high rates of cell replication. Thus their cells seem to have a much shorter life-time than normal hepatocytes or to undergo reversion to the normal phenotype. Promoters seem to accelerate island enlargement by increasing cell replication and delaying cell death or remodeling. Thus, tumor promoters enhance the manifestation of the proliferation advantage of the putative initiated cell population. In addition, promoters cause increases in the number of detectable islands. This can partially be explained by enlargement of existing islands, but phenotypic changes that would enhance the probability of detection of remodelling islands and growth

  2. Self-Growth of Centimeter-Scale Single Crystals by Normal Sintering Process in Modified Potassium Sodium Niobate Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Lee, Ho-Yong; Han, Guifang; Zhang, Shujun; Choi, Si-Young; Choi, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Park, Dong-Soo; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Ryu, Jungho

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, an interesting phenomenon is reported. That is the self-growth of single crystals in Pb-free piezoelectric ceramics. These crystals are several centimeters in size. They are grown without any seed addition through a normal sintering process in modified potassium sodium niobate ceramics. It has been achieved by the composition designed to compensate the Na+ loss which occurs during the liquid phase sintering. The composition of the crystals is (K0.4925Na0.4925−xBa0.015+x/2)Nb0.995+xO3 [x is determined by the Na+ loss, due to Na2O volatilization]. These crystals have high piezoelectric voltage coefficients (g33, 131 10−3Vm/N), indicating that they are good candidates for piezoelectric sensors and energy harvesting devices. We hope that this report can offer the opportunity for many researchers to have an interest in these crystals. PMID:26631973

  3. Perceived social support and academic achievement: cross-lagged panel and bivariate growth curve analyses.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, Sean P

    2012-04-01

    As students transition to post-secondary education, they experience considerable stress and declines in academic performance. Perceived social support is thought to improve academic achievement by reducing stress. Longitudinal designs with three or more waves are needed in this area because they permit stronger causal inferences and help disentangle the direction of relationships. This study uses a cross-lagged panel and a bivariate growth curve analysis with a three-wave longitudinal design. Participants include 10,445 students (56% female; 12.6% born outside of Canada) transitioning to post-secondary education from ages 15-19. Self-report measures of academic achievement and a generalized measure of perceived social support were used. An increase in average relative standing in academic achievement predicted an increase in average relative standing on perceived social support 2 years later, but the reverse was not true. High levels of perceived social support at age 15 did not protect against declines in academic achievement over time. In sum, perceived social support appears to have no bearing on adolescents' future academic performance, despite commonly held assumptions of its importance.

  4. Using hierarchical linear growth models to evaluate protective mechanisms that mediate science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Secker, Clare Elaine

    The study of students at risk is a major topic of science education policy and discussion. Much research has focused on describing conditions and problems associated with the statistical risk of low science achievement among individuals who are members of groups characterized by problems such as poverty and social disadvantage. But outcomes attributed to these factors do not explain the nature and extent of mechanisms that account for differences in performance among individuals at risk. There is ample theoretical and empirical evidence that demographic differences should be conceptualized as social contexts, or collections of variables, that alter the psychological significance and social demands of life events, and affect subsequent relationships between risk and resilience. The hierarchical linear growth models used in this dissertation provide greater specification of the role of social context and the protective effects of attitude, expectations, parenting practices, peer influences, and learning opportunities on science achievement. While the individual influences of these protective factors on science achievement were small, their cumulative effect was substantial. Meta-analysis conducted on the effects associated with psychological and environmental processes that mediate risk mechanisms in sixteen social contexts revealed twenty-two significant differences between groups of students. Positive attitudes, high expectations, and more intense science course-taking had positive effects on achievement of all students, although these factors were not equally protective in all social contexts. In general, effects associated with authoritative parenting and peer influences were negative, regardless of social context. An evaluation comparing the performance and stability of hierarchical linear growth models with traditional repeated measures models is included as well.

  5. Loss of p53 induces epidermal growth factor receptor promoter activity in normal human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bheda, A; Creek, KE; Pirisi, L

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human papillomavirus type 16-immortalized human keratinocytes (HKc) is caused by the viral oncoprotein E6, which targets p53 for degradation. We have previously observed that expression of p53 RNAi in normal HKc is associated with an increase in EGFR mRNA and protein. We now report that p53 RNAi induces EGFR promoter activity up to approximately 10-fold in normal HKc, and this effect does not require intact p53 binding sites on the EGFR promoter. Exogenous wild-type p53 inhibits the EGFR promoter at low levels, and activates it at higher concentrations. Yin Yang 1 (YY1), which negatively regulates p53, induces EGFR promoter activity, and this effect is augmented by p53 RNAi. Intact p53 binding sites on the EGFR promoter are not required for activation by YY1. In addition, Sp1 and YY1 synergistically induce the EGFR promoter in normal HKc, indicating that Sp1 may recruit YY1 as a co-activator. Wild-type p53 suppressed Sp1- and YY1-mediated induction of the EGFR promoter. We conclude that acute loss of p53 in normal HKc induces EGFR expression bya mechanism that involves YY1 and Sp1 and does not require p53 binding to the EGFR promoter. PMID:18391986

  6. Sildenafil citrate increases fetal weight in a mouse model of fetal growth restriction with a normal vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, Mark Robert; Andersson, Irene; Renshall, Lewis James; Cowley, Elizabeth; Baker, Philip; Greenwood, Susan; Sibley, Colin Peter; Wareing, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5(th) centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8%) in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml) via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056). Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5(th) centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. (14)C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity) per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR.

  7. Developmental changes in polyamines and autophagic marker levels in normal and growth-restricted fetal pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y H; Lin, G; Dai, Z L; Zhou, T J; Yuan, T L; Feng, C P; Chen, F; Wu, G Y; Wang, J J

    2015-07-01

    Polyamines are essential for embryonic and fetal survival, growth, and development. Additionally, polyamines may induce autophagy in mammalian cells. However, little is known about the availability of polyamines or autophagy in the porcine conceptus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The present study was performed to evaluate the developmental changes of polyamine concentrations in IUGR and normal porcine fetuses as well as autophagic marker levels in the fetal intestinal mucosa during the second half of gestation when most fetal growth occurs. Allantoic fluid (ALF), amniotic fluid (AMF), umbilical vein, and the small-intestinal mucosa were obtained from both IUGR and normal fetal pigs at d 60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Concentrations of polyamines in fetal fluids as well as protein abundances of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B), an autophagic marker, in the fetal small-intestinal mucosa were determined. Concentrations of polyamines varied greatly in different fetal compartments and changed substantially with advancing gestation. Concentrations of polyamines in IUGR fetal fluids and the small-intestinal mucosa were markedly different from those in their normal counterparts at d 60 and 90 of gestation, whereas most of the differences were not detected by late (d 110) gestation. Specifically, polyamine levels were lower in the umbilical vein plasma but higher in ALF and AMF from IUGR fetuses. Furthermore, enhanced levels of an autophagic marker were observed in the small-intestinal mucosa of IUGR fetuses throughout mid and late gestation in association with abnormal spermidine levels in fetal plasma. These findings support the notion that enhanced autophagy may be an important survival mechanism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings provide a new framework for future studies to define the roles for polyamines in the prevention and treatment of IUGR in both human medicine and animal production.

  8. Relationship of blood rheology to lipoprotein profile during normal pregnancies and those with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, A; Uberos, J; Molina, A; Valenzuela, A; Cano, D; Ruiz, C; Molina Font, J A

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--The effects on fetal growth of hyperlipidaemia in pregnancy are not well understood at present. In this study the different lipid fractions in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) were determined and related to changes in plasma and serum viscosity. METHODS--Two groups of pregnant women were studied. Group 1 consisted of 35 healthy pregnant women aged between 21 and 38 years with no previous pathology and a normal pregnancy to term. Group 1 patients were studied at four periods defined at the start of the study: (1) < or = 17 weeks; (2) 18-24 weeks; (3) 25-32 weeks, (4) > or = 33 weeks. Group 2 consisted of 24 pregnant women aged between 16 and 34 years with ultrasound diagnosed IUGR confirmed after birth. Plasma lipids and plasma and serum viscosity were measured. RESULTS--Plasma triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol increased progressively throughout pregnancy, with significantly higher values after week 25. Apolipoprotein A (ApoA) and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the normal group. The HDL/ApoA ratio was greater in the IUGR group than in the control group, as was the ApoB/ApoA ratio. There were no differences in the other lipids. Plasma and serum viscosity was higher in the IUGR group than in the normal group. CONCLUSIONS--Haemorheological modifications in the IUGR group are partly secondary to changes in high density lipoprotein metabolism and the competitive inhibition of fibrinolysis by ApoB, which is increased in pregnancies with IUGR. Changes in ApoA, and more specifically in the ApoB/ApoA ratio, could be good markers for the early detection of IUGR. PMID:7665704

  9. Do multi-branched colonial organisms exceed normal growth after partial mortality?

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Juan Armando; Lasker, Howard R

    2004-01-01

    One of the advantages of modular colonial growth is the capability to recover after partial mortality. Tolerance to partial mortality is a known property of some resistant species of plants that respond to mortality with vigorous regrowth or overcompensation. It is not clear whether modular marine invertebrates such as octocorals overcompensate. This study provides evidence that following injury to colonies (by breaking apical dominance), new growth exceeds normal rates of branching, as observed in some plants, in a degree correlated to the original multi-branched network setting (e.g. the number of original branches connected to main stem), in colonies of the Caribbean gorgonian octocoral Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata. This can be explained by the network of communicating vessels and canals inside octocoral colonies, which provide the structure for effective allocation of resources to regenerating parts. PMID:15101437

  10. Landscape response to normal fault growth and linkage in the Southern Apennines, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; Whittaker, Alex

    2016-04-01

    It is now well-established that landscape can record spatial and temporal variations in tectonic rates. However, decoding this information to extract detailed histories of fault growth is often a complex problem that requires careful integration of tectonic and geomorphic data sets. Here, we present new data addressing both normal fault evolution and coupled landscape response for two normal faults in the Southern Apennines: the Vallo di Diano and East Agri faults. By integrating published constraints with new data, we show that these faults have total throws of up to 2100 m, and Holocene throw rates of up to 1 mm/yr at their maximum. We demonstrate that geomorphology is effectively recording tectonics, with relief, channel and catchment slopes varying along fault strike as normal fault activity does. Therefore, valuable information about fault growth and interaction can be extracted from their geomorphic expression. We use the spatial distribution of knickpoints on the footwall channels to infer two episodes of base level change, which can be associated with distinct fault interaction events. From our detailed fault throw profiles, we reconstruct the amount of throw accumulated after each of these events, and the segments involved in each, and we use slip rate enhancement factors derived from fault interaction theory to estimate the magnitude of the tectonic perturbation in each case. From this approach, we are able to reconstruct pre-linkage throw rates, and we estimate that fault linkage events likely took place 0.7 ± 0.2 Ma and 1.9 ± 0.6 Ma in the Vallo di Diano fault, and 1.1 ± 0.1 and 2.3 ± 0.9 Ma in the East Agri fault. Our study suggests that both faults started their activity at 3.6 ± 0.5 Ma. These fault linkage scenarios are consistent with the knickpoint heights, and may relate to soft-linkage interaction with the Southern Apennines normal fault array, the existence of which has been the subject of considerable debate. Our combined geomorphic and

  11. Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: the unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage  = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies.

  12. Effect of normal endometrial stroma on growth and differentiation in Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julia T; Lessey, Bruce A; Seppälä, Markku; Kaufman, David G

    2002-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is characterized by alterations in the stromal cells and the supporting extracellular matrix in addition to the intrinsic alterations of the malignant epithelial cells. We have developed a cell culture model that demonstrates the role of stromal cells in the regulation of proliferation, hormone responsiveness, and differentiation of an endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line (Ishikawa). Conditioned medium (CM) was collected from normal primary human endometrial stromal cells grown on plastic or within the basement membrane extract, Matrigel. The CM produced by stromal cells cultured in contact with Matrigel markedly inhibited Ishikawa cell proliferation compared with CM from stromal cells cultured on plastic. Ishikawa cell proliferation varied with steroid hormone treatment in the presence of CM from stromal cells embedded in Matrigel. When the Ishikawa cells were placed in coculture in contact with stromal cells in Matrigel, production of a differentiated epithelial secretory product, glycodelin, was induced. Gene expression of stromal cell hormone receptors, growth factors, and integrins was analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR in the presence of Matrigel to determine the potential factors involved in stromal regulatory function. These combined studies imply that the phenotype of the Ishikawa cells can be induced to differentiate to more closely resemble normal endometrial epithelium by reintroduction of stromal factors and appropriate extracellular matrix. Additionally, the study shows that basement membrane proteins influence the regulatory function of stromal cells as they mediate epithelial cell growth.

  13. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is Required for Normal Follicle Development and Ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Takashi; Kim, Jaeyeon; Li, Qinglei; Lydon, John P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lyons, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich protein the synthesis and secretion of which are hypothesized to be selectively regulated by activins and other members of the TGF-β superfamily. To investigate the in vivo roles of CTGF in female reproduction, we generated Ctgf ovarian and uterine conditional knockout (cKO) mice. Ctgf cKO mice exhibit severe subfertility and multiple reproductive defects including disrupted follicle development, decreased ovulation rates, increased numbers of corpus luteum, and smaller but functionally normal uterine horns. Steroidogenesis is disrupted in the Ctgf cKO mice, leading to increased levels of serum progesterone. We show that disrupted follicle development is accompanied by a significant increase in granulosa cell apoptosis. Moreover, despite normal cumulus expansion, Ctgf cKO mice exhibit a significant decrease in oocytes ovulated, likely due to impaired ovulatory process. During analyses of mRNA expression, we discovered that Ctgf cKO granulosa cells show gene expression changes similar to our previously reported granulosa cell-specific knockouts of activin and Smad4, the common TGF-β family intracellular signaling protein. We also discovered a significant down-regulation of Adamts1, a progesterone-regulated gene that is critical for the remodeling of extracellular matrix surrounding granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles. These findings demonstrate that CTGF is a downstream mediator in TGF-β and progesterone signaling cascades and is necessary for normal follicle development and ovulation. PMID:21868453

  14. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  15. Effects of longterm epidermal growth factor treatment on the normal rat colon.

    PubMed Central

    Kissmeyer-Nielsen, P; Vinter-Jensen, L; Smerup, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Epidermal growth factor (EGF) exerts trophic effects on the mucosa of damaged and defunctioned colon, but the effects on the normal large bowel wall are not known. AIMS--To investigate the effect of systemic EGF treatment on growth and morphology of normal rat colon. METHODS--Rats were treated with subcutaneous biosynthetic EGF injections of 150 micrograms/kg/day for 28 days. The weight of the histological colonic wall layers and the luminal surface area were measured using quantitative morphometric analysis (stereology). The colon was subdivided into proximal and distal parts. RESULTS--EGF treatment increased the total colon wet weight by 23% compared with controls (p < 0.005). The weight increase occurred in the mucosal (33%) and the submucosal layers of the bowel wall (36%) and there was a 69% increase of the total luminal surface area (p = 0.001). In the proximal part of colon of EGF rats there was a 68% increase in mucosal weight (p < 0.005) accompanied by a 79% increase in the mucosal surface area compared with controls (p < 0.005), whereas submucosal and muscularis propria weights were identical. In distal colon, the mucosal weight increased 28% in the EGF group (p < 0.005), the mucosal surface area increased by 72% after treatment (p < 0.01). Furthermore there was a 34% increase in the weight of submucosa (p < 0.001) in the distal colon among EGF rats. CONCLUSIONS--Treatment of rats with EGF has a stimulating role on the mucosa and luminal surface area of the entire functioning colon and a trophic effect on the submucosa of the distal colon. Images Figure 1 PMID:8707092

  16. Gender Differences in Growth in Mathematics Achievement: Three-Level Longitudinal and Multilevel Analyses of Individual, Home, and School Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Xiaoxia

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on gender differences in growth in mathematics achievement in relation to various social-psychological factors such as attitude towards mathematics, self-esteem, parents' academic encouragement, mathematics teachers' expectations, and peer influence. Results indicate that gender differences in growth in mathematics varied by the student's…

  17. Uptake and distribution of hepatocyte growth factor in normal and regenerating adult rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, M. L.; Mars, W. M.; Zarnegar, R.; Michalopoulos, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    We have previously shown that systemically injected hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is primarily taken up by the liver. The present study shows that HGF injected systemically or through the portal circulation is retained primarily at periportal sites. The periportal retention of HGF seems to persist longer in regenerating liver. The percentage of the total HGF injected that was retained within the liver at 1 minute after injection varied with the dose. A maximal amount of 0.157 +/- 0.012 microgram of HGF per gram liver tissue is retained by normal liver. Analysis of the circulating form of HGF in the plasma showed a relative enrichment with time for the heterodimeric form of HGF. A portion of portally injected HGF, composed of both single chain and two chain (heterodimeric) form was excreted intact in the bile. This was found in both normal and regenerating liver. These studies show that the liver can sequester large amounts of HGF and that the sequestration occurs primarily at periportal sites. Our studies support the hypothesis that a nonlysosomal processing pathway for HGF is present in the liver. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:8291602

  18. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R. )

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV.

  19. Fundamental voice frequence during normal and abnormal growth, and after androgen treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Vuorenkoski, V; Lenko, H L; Tjernlund, P; Vuorenkoski, L; Perheentupa, J

    1978-01-01

    A simple treatment was shown to be suitable for clinical measurement of fundamental voice frequency. Basal frequency (SFF) and lowest frequency (LF) were determined in 374 normal subjects aged 6 years to adulthood. SFF fell between ages 8 and 10 years in boys (from 259 to 247 Hz), but not in girls (253 Hz). LF fell between ages 6 and 10 years in boys (from 234 to 203 Hz) and girls (from 230 to 218 Hz), and a sex difference appeared. In puberty, parallel to pubic hair (PH) development, a gradual fall of SFF and LF occurred in both boys (to 100 and 90 Hz, respectively) and girls (to 213 and 180 Hz). As a group, young hypopituitary children and girls with Turner's syndrome had a high SFF, and prepubertal boys with delayed maturation a low SFF. In some children with prenatal growth failure, SFF was abnormally high. The girls with Turner's syndrome exhibited a high, though individually variable, sensitivity of voice to androgen; their voices became lower before the appearance of any other masculinising effects. The instrument is useful for characterisation of growth failure syndromes and stages of puberty. It is particularly recommended for monitoring an undesirable effect on the voice during androgen treatment. Images Fig. 1 p202-b PMID:646429

  20. Changes in longitudinal craniofacial growth in subjects with normal occlusions using the Ricketts analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun-ju; Kwon, Hye-jin

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to define the Korean norm values for the Ricketts analysis. Methods In this longitudinal study, lateral cephalograms of 31 subjects with normal occlusion were taken biennially from ages 9-19 years. Cephalometric measurements were performed. Parameters for which the 10-year change did not exceed one standard deviation were defined as unchanged. The means and standard deviations for the measured parameters were determined for each age group. Results No significant changes in growth were observed in the molar relationship, incisor overjet, incisor overbite, mandibular incisor extrusion, interincisor angle, lower incisor tip (B1) to A point-Pogonion (A-PO) plane, upper incisor tip (A1) to A-PO plane, B1 inclination to A-PO, A1 inclination to A-PO, B1 inclination to Frankfurt plane (FH), convexity, lower facial height, facial axis, maxillary depth, maxillary height, palatal plane to FH, cranial deflection, ramus Xi position, or porion location. Continual changes over the 10 years of growth were observed in the maxillary first molar distal position to pterygoid true vertical plane, facial depth, mandibular plane to FH, anterior cranial length, mandibular arc, and corpus length. Conclusions Clinicians can apply the Korean norms at age 9 as determined in this study when using the Ricketts analysis. The patient's age at the beginning of treatment and their sex should be taken into consideration when drawing visual treatment objectives. PMID:24696824

  1. Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 is compatible with normal growth and development in a patient with congenital chloride diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeglund, P.; Holmberg, C.; Chapelle, A. de la; Kere, J.

    1994-10-01

    Uniparental disomy for maternal chromosome 7 has been described in three patients with recessive disorders. Short stature in each of these patients has been explained by the effect of imprinting of growth-related genes on maternal chromosome 7. Alternatively, although less likely, all these patients may be homozygous for a rare recessive mutation. Here we report both paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth in a patient with a recessive disorder, congenital chloride diarrhea. She had inherited only paternal alleles at 10 loci and was homozygous for another 10 chromosome 7 loci studied. Her physical status and laboratory tests were normal except for a mild high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. As the patient has normal stature, it is likely that the paternal chromosome 7 lacks the suggested maternal imprinting effect on growth. Paternal isodisomy for human chromosome 7 may have no phenotypic effect on growth. 38 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Human growth hormone (GH1) gene polymorphism map in a normal-statured adult population

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Cristina; Audí, Laura; Carrascosa, Antonio; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Pérez-Arroyo, Annalisa; Ulied, Angels; Andaluz, Pilar; Arjona, Rosa; Albisu, Marian; Clemente, María; Gussinyé, Miquel; Yeste, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Objective GH1 gene presents a complex map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire promoter, coding and noncoding regions. The aim of the study was to establish the complete map of GH1 gene SNPs in our control normal population and to analyse its association with adult height. Design, subjects and measurements A systematic GH1 gene analysis was designed in a control population of 307 adults of both sexes with height normally distributed within normal range for the same population: −2 standard deviation scores (SDS) to +2 SDS. An analysis was performed on individual and combined genotype associations with adult height. Results Twenty-five SNPs presented a frequency over 1%: 11 in the promoter (P1 to P11), three in the 5′UTR region (P12 to P14), one in exon 1 (P15), three in intron 1 (P16 to P18), two in intron 2 (P19 and P20), two in exon 4 (P21 and P22) and three in intron 4 (P23 to P25). Twenty-nine additional changes with frequencies under 1% were found in 29 subjects. P8, P19, P20 and P25 had not been previously described. P6, P12, P17 and P25 accounted for 6·2% of the variation in adult height (P = 0·0007) in this population with genotypes A/G at P6, G/G at P6 and A/G at P12 decreasing height SDS (−0·063 ± 0·031, −0·693 ± 0·350 and −0·489 ± 0·265, Mean ± SE) and genotypes A/T at P17 and T/G at P25 increasing height SDS (+1·094 ± 0·456 and +1·184 ± 0·432). Conclusions This study established the GH1 gene sequence variation map in a normal adult height control population confirming the high density of SNPs in a relatively small gene. Our study shows that the more frequent SNPs did not significantly contribute to height determination, while only one promoter and two intronic SNPs contributed significantly to it. Studies in larger populations will have to confirm the associations and in vitro functional studies will elucidate the mechanisms involved. Systematic GH1 gene analysis in patients with growth delay and suspected

  3. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA for growth factors and growth factor receptors from normal and healing rabbit medial collateral ligament tissue.

    PubMed

    Sciore, P; Boykiw, R; Hart, D A

    1998-07-01

    Growth factors and their receptors play an essential role in the development, maturation, and response to injury of all tissues. A number of studies have explored the possibility of improving ligament healing with exogenous growth factors. However, limited data is available regarding the endogenous growth factor network in ligaments on which any exogenous growth factors must impact. The purpose of this study was to assess the endogenous growth factor network with molecular techniques. By the sensitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique, transcripts for a number of growth factors and receptors were detected with RNA isolated from normal and healing rabbit medial collateral ligament tissues. These include transforming growth factor-beta1, insulin-like growth factors I and II, basic fibroblast growth factor, endothelin-1, and the receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor II. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of RNA from normal and scar tissues from the medial collateral ligament revealed that the levels of several transcripts were elevated in the scar tissue. It was not possible to confirm biological activity because of the hypocellularity of the tissues; however, the results obtained indicate that the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approach to defining the endogenous growth factor-receptor phenotype is feasible, and further definition should contribute to the development of rational approaches to exogenous therapy to improve healing.

  4. Endothelin-1 acts as an autocrine growth factor for normal human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, R; Sato, C; Shi, C M; Nakamura, T; Sakurai, T; Ogawa, H

    1994-05-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived 21 amino acid vasoconstrictor peptide possessing two intrachain disulfide bridges. Recently it has become evident that isoforms of ET (ET-1, -2, and -3) have a wide range of pharmacological effects in various tissues and act as autocrine/paracrine factors. We demonstrate here that ET-1 is secreted from normal human keratinocytes and may work as an autocrine growth factor through a specific receptor. In this study, human foreskin keratinocytes were cultured in serum-free MCDB 153 medium. Cell growth and [3H] thymidine incorporation in low and high Ca++ concentration media was stimulated by ET-1, -2, and -3 with similar potencies. The strongest response was observed at 10 nM ETs, whereas stimulatory activity was reduced at 100 nM. ETs suppressed keratinocyte differentiation as measured by reactivity with involucrin antibody. Plasminogen activator activity (mainly urokinase) in the medium was also stimulated by the addition of 10 nM ETs. ET-1-like immunoreactivity measured by radioimmunoassay was 1.4 fmol/day/10(6) cells in non-treated condition medium. Among the various cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta stimulated ET-1 secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The strongest response (ten-fold) was observed upon the addition of 10 ng/ml TNF-alpha. Scatchard plot analysis of [125I] ET-1 binding to keratinocytes revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity receptors (KD 50 pM, 9 x 10(3) sites/cell). Binding was competitively inhibited by the addition of unlabeled ET-1 and -2 with similar affinities and by ET-3 with weaker affinity. ET-1 mRNA expression in keratinocytes was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and was increased by treatment with 10 ng/ml TNF-alpha. These results suggest that ET-1 acts as an autocrine growth factor for keratinocytes through a specific receptor.

  5. Achievement in children with birth weights less than 750 grams with normal cognitive abilities: evidence for specific learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Hack, M; Klein, N; Schatschneider, C

    1995-12-01

    Examined achievement, behavior, and neuropsychological outcomes at early school age in a regional population of children < 750-g birth weight who were neurologically intact and who scored in the broad average range on a test of cognitive ability. Comparison groups included children of birth weight 750-1,499 g and children born at full-term. The children < 750 g performed more poorly than the higher birth weight groups on tests of math, even after adjusting for group differences in cognitive ability. Corresponding group differences were found in language, perceptual motor, and attentional skills, but not in behavior outcomes. Findings document specific weaknesses in achievement and neuropsychological skills in children < 750 g birth weight and support the need for early identification and special education interventions.

  6. Identification and characterization of specific binding proteins for growth hormone in normal human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Herington, A C; Ymer, S; Stevenson, J

    1986-01-01

    The well-recognized "big" forms (45,000-100,000 mol wt) of immunoreactive human growth hormone (hGH) in human serum have been reported to be random aggregates or formal polymers. However, we have now investigated the possibility that they are protein-bound forms. After incubation of monomeric 125I-hGH with normal serum, gel chromatography indicated a peak of bound 125I-hGH (at approximately 120,000 mol wt), which was completely displaced by excess unlabeled hGH. When serum alone was chromatographed two peaks of specific binding were subsequently detected, the major peak, eluting between 74,000 and 85,000 mol wt corresponded to the 125I-hGH-binding protein complex observed at approximately 120,000 mol wt. Using a mini-gel filtration system for separating bound from free hormone, binding of 125I-hGH by normal human serum was dependent on time (equilibrium was reached in 2 h at 21 degrees C), temperature (21 degrees C greater than 37 degrees C), Ca2+ and serum concentrations. Binding was reversible and highly specific for hGH, not being displayed by GH or prolactins from several species. Scatchard analysis revealed linear plots with an affinity (KA) of 0.32 +/- 0.06 X 10(9) M-1 (n = 7). Human serum with low endogenous hGH levels, when added to rabbit liver membranes, decreased the binding of 125I-hGH in this tissue in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that human sera contain a specific, high affinity binding protein for hGH and that this may account, at least in part, for the known size heterogeneity of GH in serum. Its effect on GH binding to target tissues may indicate a role for the binding protein in the regulation of GH action. PMID:3711337

  7. Testosterone-induced increase of insulin-like growth factor I levels depends upon normal levels of growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Cesaretti, G; Franchi, G; Startari, L

    1996-08-01

    Pubertal development is associated with a rise in plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels that is related both to the increase in sex steroids and/or to the sex steroid-induced augmentation in endogenous growth hormone (GH) secretion. In order to investigate the relationship between IGF-I, GH and testosterone, we examined 42 male subjects with various clinical conditions (classical GH deficiency (CGHD, N = 5), non-classical GH deficiency (NCGHD, N = 7), short idiopathic stature (N = 6), nutritional obesity (N = 8), GH-treated CGHD (N = 4), GH-treated NCGHD (N = 5) and normal stature (N = 7)) in which , for evaluation of hypogonadism (i.e. the absence of one or both testes from the scrotal sac), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) tests were performed. We measured IGF-I, total and free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) by radioimmunoassays before and 48 and 96 h after the start of the test. The values of IGF-I were lower (0.001 < p < 0.005) in CGHD and NCGHD than in the other groups. In comparison to basal levels, IGF-I values increased (0.005 < p < 0.05) both 48 and 96 h after the start of the hCG test in short idiopathic and normal stature children and in GH-treated subjects with NCGHD, but only 96 h in subjects with untreated NCGHD and GH-treated CGHD. No difference was demonstrated in basal values of total testosterone among any of the groups, while basal free testosterone levels were higher (0.001 < p < 0.05) in GH-treated subjects with NCGHD than in all the other groups except nutritional obesity; furthermore, free testosterone was higher (p < 0.05) in nutritional obesity than in CGHD. The values of total and free testosterone obtained both 48 and 96 h after the start of the hCG test were higher (0.001 < p < 0.05) than basal values in all groups. The DHEAS values did not show any significant change during the hCG test. Basal values were higher (0.01 < p < 0.05) in nutritional obesity than in the other groups. Considering all

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor function is necessary for normal craniofacial development and palate closure.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, P J; Chin, J R; Shum, L; Slavkin, H C; Shuler, C F; Derynck, R; Werb, Z

    1999-05-01

    Craniofacial malformations are among the most frequent congenital birth defects in humans; cleft palate, that is inadequate fusion of the palatal shelves, occurs with an annual incidence of 1 in 700 to 1 in 1,000 live births among individuals of European descent. The secondary palate arises as bilateral outgrowths from the maxillary processes, and its formation depends on the coordinated development of craniofacial structures including the Meckel's cartilage and the mandible. Cleft lip and palate syndromes in humans are associated with polymorphisms in the gene (TGFA) encoding transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand made by most epithelia. Here we have characterized craniofacial development in Egfr-deficient (Egfr-/-) mice. Newborn Egfr-/- mice have facial mediolateral defects including narrow, elongated snouts, underdeveloped lower jaw and a high incidence of cleft palate. Palatal shelf explants from Egfr-/- mice fused, but frequently had residual epithelium in the midline. In addition, morphogenesis of Meckel's cartilage was deficient in cultured mandibular processes from Egfr-/- embryos. The secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was diminished in Egfr-/- explants, consistent with the ability of EGF to increase MMP secretion and with the decreased MMP expression caused by inhibition of Egfr signalling in wild-type explants. Accordingly, inactivation of MMPs in wild-type explants phenocopied the defective morphology of Meckel's cartilage seen in Egfr-/- explants. Our results indicate that EGFR signalling is necessary for normal craniofacial development and that its role is mediated in part by its downstream targets, the MMPs, and may explain the genetic correlation of human cleft palate with polymorphisms in TGFA.

  9. Auditory normalization of French vowels synthesized by an articulatory model simulating growth from birth to adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménard, Lucie; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Boë, Louis-Jean; Kandel, Sonia; Vallée, Nathalie

    2002-04-01

    The present article aims at exploring the invariant parameters involved in the perceptual normalization of French vowels. A set of 490 stimuli, including the ten French vowels eye, why, you, ee, ø oh, eh, oelig, openo, aye produced by an articulatory model, simulating seven growth stages and seven fundamental frequency values, has been submitted as a perceptual identification test to 43 subjects. The results confirm the important effect of the tonality distance between F1 and f0 in perceived height. It does not seem, however, that height perception involves a binary organization determined by the 3-3.5-Bark critical distance. Regarding place of articulation, the tonotopic distance between F1 and F2 appears to be the best predictor of the perceived front-back dimension. Nevertheless, the role of the difference between F2 and F3 remains important. Roundedness is also examined and correlated to the effective second formant, involving spectral integration of higher formants within the 3.5-Bark critical distance. The results shed light on the issue of perceptual invariance, and can be interpreted as perceptual constraints imposed on speech production.

  10. Normal Growth of Transgenic Tobacco Plants in the Absence of Cytosolic Pyruvate Kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Gottlob-McHugh, Sylvia G.; Sangwan, Rajender S.; Blakeley, Stephen D.; Vanlerberghe, Greg C.; Ko, Kenton; Turpin, David H.; Plaxton, William C.; Miki, Brian L.; Dennis, David T.

    1992-01-01

    The coding sequence of the cytosolic isozyme of potato tuber pyruvate kinase (PK) was attached to the transit peptide of the small subunit of pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase and placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. This construct was transformed into Nicotiana tabacum. Unexpectedly, two primary transformants were recovered in which PK activity in leaves was greatly reduced. The reduction in PK activity appeared to result from the complete absence of the cytosolic form of the enzyme (PKc). In addition, no PKc could be detected on western blots of leaf extracts. Metabolite analyses indicated that the levels of phosphoenolpyruvate are substantially higher in PKc-deficient leaves than in wild-type leaves, consistent with a block in glycolysis at the step catalyzed by PK. PKc deficiency in the leaves does not appear to adversely affect plant growth. Analysis of progeny indicates that PKc deficiency is a heritable trait. The leaves of PKc-deficient transformants have normal rates of photosynthetic O2 evolution and respiratory O2 consumption, indicating that these plants are using alternative pathways to bypass PK. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16653063

  11. An ABC transporter in the mitochondrial inner membrane is required for normal growth of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, J; Schatz, G

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to identify a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, we have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify 10 DNA fragments homologous to members of the ABC family from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We disrupted five of the corresponding genes and found that one of the resulting null mutants barely grew on rich medium and failed to grow on minimal medium. This gene, termed ATM1, encodes a putative 'half-transporter' of 694 amino acids. Atm1p is synthesized with an N-terminal mitochondrial matrix-targeting signal and is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, with its C-terminal ATPase domain exposed to the matrix. Cells lacking a functional ATM1 gene have an unstable mitochondrial genome and have white mitochondria that completely lack cytochromes. Atm1p is the first mitochondrial member of the ABC family to be identified and the only eukaryotic ABC transporter that has been shown to be necessary for normal cellular growth. Images PMID:7828591

  12. EHD1 mediates vesicle trafficking required for normal muscle growth and transverse tubule development.

    PubMed

    Posey, Avery D; Swanson, Kaitlin E; Alvarez, Manuel G; Krishnan, Swathi; Earley, Judy U; Band, Hamid; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M; Demonbreun, Alexis R

    2014-03-15

    EHD proteins have been implicated in intracellular trafficking, especially endocytic recycling, where they mediate receptor and lipid recycling back to the plasma membrane. Additionally, EHDs help regulate cytoskeletal reorganization and induce tubule formation. It was previously shown that EHD proteins bind directly to the C2 domains in myoferlin, a protein that regulates myoblast fusion. Loss of myoferlin impairs normal myoblast fusion leading to smaller muscles in vivo but the intracellular pathways perturbed by loss of myoferlin function are not well known. We now characterized muscle development in EHD1-null mice. EHD1-null myoblasts display defective receptor recycling and mislocalization of key muscle proteins, including caveolin-3 and Fer1L5, a related ferlin protein homologous to myoferlin. Additionally, EHD1-null myoblast fusion is reduced. We found that loss of EHD1 leads to smaller muscles and myofibers in vivo. In wildtype skeletal muscle EHD1 localizes to the transverse tubule (T-tubule), and loss of EHD1 results in overgrowth of T-tubules with excess vesicle accumulation in skeletal muscle. We provide evidence that tubule formation in myoblasts relies on a functional EHD1 ATPase domain. Moreover, we extended our studies to show EHD1 regulates BIN1 induced tubule formation. These data, taken together and with the known interaction between EHD and ferlin proteins, suggests that the EHD proteins coordinate growth and development likely through mediating vesicle recycling and the ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton.

  13. EHD1 mediates vesicle trafficking required for normal muscle growth and tubule development

    PubMed Central

    Posey, Avery D.; Swanson, Kaitlin E.; Alvarez, Manuel G.; Krishnan, Swathi; Earley, Judy E.; Band, Hamid; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M.; Demonbreun, Alexis R.

    2014-01-01

    EHD proteins have been implicated in intracellular trafficking, especially endocytic recycling, where they mediate receptor and lipid recycling back to the plasma membrane. Additionally, EHDs help regulate cytoskeletal reorganization and induce tubule formation. It was previously shown that EHD proteins bind directly to the C2 domains in myoferlin, a protein that regulates myoblast fusion. Loss of myoferlin impairs normal myoblast fusion leading to smaller muscles in vivo but the intracellular pathways perturbed by loss of myoferlin function are not well known. We now characterized muscle development in EHD1-null mice. EHD1-null myoblasts display defective receptor recycling and mislocalization of key muscle proteins, including caveolin-3 and Fer1L5, a related ferlin protein homologous to myoferlin. Additionally, EHD1-null myoblast fusion is reduced. We found that loss of EHD1 leads to smaller muscles and myofibers in vivo. In wildtype skeletal muscle EHD1 localizes to the transverse tubule (T-tubule), and loss of EHD1 results in overgrowth of T-tubules with excess vesicle accumulation in skeletal muscle. We provide evidence that tubule formation in myoblasts relies on a functional EHD1 ATPase domain. Moreover, we extended our studies to show EHD1 regulates BIN1 induced tubule formation. These data, taken together and with the known interaction between EHD and ferlin proteins, suggests that the EHD proteins coordinate growth and development likely through mediating vesicle recycling and the ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PMID:24440153

  14. Distinct 5′ UTRs regulate XIAP expression under normal growth conditions and during cellular stress

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Alura; Jordan, Lindsay E.; Holcik, Martin

    2010-01-01

    X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis, XIAP, is cellular caspase inhibitor and a key regulator of apoptosis. We and others have previously shown that XIAP expression is regulated primarily at the level of protein synthesis; the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of XIAP mRNA contains an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) that supports cap-independent expression of XIAP protein during conditions of pathophysiological stress, such as serum deprivation or gamma irradiation. Here, we show that XIAP is encoded by two distinct mRNAs that differ in their 5′ UTRs. We further show that the dominant, shorter, 5′ UTR promotes a basal level of XIAP expression under normal growth conditions. In contrast, the less abundant longer 5′ UTR contains an IRES and supports cap-independent translation during stress. Our data suggest that the combination of alternate regulatory regions and distinct translational initiation modes is critical in maintaining XIAP levels in response to cellular stress and may represent a general mechanism of cellular adaptation. PMID:20385593

  15. Proportion of corn silage in diets of feedlot steers fed to achieve stepwise increases in growth.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J E; Loerch, S C

    2001-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of proportion of dietary corn silage during periods of feed restriction on performance of steers. In Exp. 1, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 107; initial BW = 273 +/- 3.8 kg) were allotted to 12 pens with eight or nine steers/pen and four pens/treatment. Periods of growth were 273 to 366 kg BW (Period 1), 367 to 501 kg BW (Period 2), and 502 to 564 kg BW (Period 3). In two of the dietary regimens, steers were given ad libitum access to feed throughout the experiment and were fed either a 15% corn silage diet in each period or an 85, 50, and 15% corn silage diet in Periods 1, 2, and 3; respectively. In the third feeding regimen, a programmed intake feeding regimen was used. Steers were fed a 15% corn silage diet in each period. However, feed intake was restricted to achieve a predicted gain of 1.13 kg/d in Period 1 and 1.36 kg/d in Period 2, and feed was offered for ad libitum consumption in Period 3. For the entire experiment, ADG was similar (P = 0.41) among treatments and feed efficiency was lower (P < 0.10) for steers in the corn silage regimen than for steers in the programmed intake and ad libitum regimens. In Exp. 2, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 106; initial BW = 233 +/- 2 kg) were allotted by BW to 12 pens (three pens/treatment) and fed in three periods similar to those described in Exp. 1. Four feeding regimens were investigated: 1) AL; steers were offered a 15% corn silage diet for ad libitum consumption in all three periods; 2) PI; DMI was programmed to achieve gains as described in Exp. 1; 3) CS-HLL; programmed intake as described above except diets contained 85, 15, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and 4) CS-HIL; same feeding regimens as CS-HLL, except diets contained 85, 50, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers were given ad libitum access to feed in Period 3. Overall ADG was lower (P < 0.05) for steers in the CS-HLL and CS

  16. Mechanisms that uncouple growth and differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells: restoration of requirement for normal growth-inducing protein without restoring induction of differentiation-inducing protein.

    PubMed Central

    Lotem, J; Sachs, L

    1982-01-01

    There are different macrophage- and granulocyte-inducing (MGI) proteins. Normal myeloid precursors are induced to multiply by one form (MGI-1) and to differentiate by another form (MGI-2). There are clones of myeloid leukemia cells that no longer require MGI-1 for growth but can still be induced to differentiate by MGI-2. After induction of differentiation in these leukemia cells by adding MCI-2 or inducing endogenous production of MGI-2 by lipopolysaccharide, the differentiating leukemia cells, like normal cells, again required MGI-1 for growth. This growth requirement for MGI-1 could not be substituted for by adding other protein growth factors such as epidermal, fibroblast, or nerve growth factor or insulin. Induction of differentiation in these leukemia cells by dexamethasone, arabinonucleoside (cytosine arabinoside), or methotrexate instead of by MGI-2, did not restore the requirement of MGI-1 for growth. Mutant myeloid leukemia cells that could not be induced to differentiate by MGI-2 also did not show this restoration of the requirement of MGI-1 for growth. MGI-1 in normal cells induced cell growth and also induced MGI-2, so that the cells could then differentiate by the endogenously produced MGI-2. However, MGI-1 did not induce production of MGI-2 in the leukemia cells, even though they again required MGI-1 for growth, so that there was no induction of differentiation after adding MGI-1. This lack of induction of differentiation-inducing protein by growth-inducing protein has thus identified an effective mechanism for uncoupling of growth and differentiation in malignant cells. PMID:6981812

  17. Understanding the mathematics and science achievement and growth trajectories of high ability high school students using hierarchical linear modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen-Ferrer, Bellasanta

    2009-12-01

    This study used longitudinal data and individual, family, and academic-related matriculation variables to examine trends in initial status and growth trajectories in overall academics, mathematics, and science achievement among 224 high ability high school Asian students. Results indicate that females have an advantage in both initial status and growth rates in overall academics and science. None of the family variables entered in the models were found to be significantly related to overall academics grade point average. All available matriculation variables entered into the models explained less than or at most about half the variance in initial achievement status and growth rate in overall academics and science but not in mathematics. These results strongly imply that other factors, notably family and school and/or classroom-related variables, not measured by the ones used in the models could explain the expected variance in initial status and growth rate of the students especially in Mathematics.

  18. Growth Trajectories of Mathematics Achievement: Longitudinal Tracking of Student Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Zhu, Jinxin; Or, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of methods to investigate growth have been reported in the literature, including hierarchical linear modelling (HLM), latent growth modelling (LGM), and multidimensional scaling applied to longitudinal profile analysis (LPAMS). Aims: This study aimed at modelling the mathematics growth of students over a span of 6 years from…

  19. Gibberellins are not required for normal stem growth in Arabidopsis thaliana in the absence of GAI and RGA.

    PubMed

    King, K E; Moritz, T; Harberd, N P

    2001-10-01

    The growth of Arabidopsis thaliana is quantitatively regulated by the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) via two closely related nuclear GA-signaling components, GAI and RGA. Here we test the hypothesis that GAI and RGA function as "GA-derepressible repressors" of plant growth. One prediction of this hypothesis is that plants lacking GAI and RGA do not require GA for normal stem growth. Analysis of GA-deficient mutants lacking GAI and RGA confirms this prediction and suggests that in the absence of GAI and RGA, "growth" rather than "no growth" is the default state of plant stems. The function of the GA-signaling system is thus to act as a control system regulating the amount of this growth. We also demonstrate that the GA dose dependency of hypocotyl elongation is altered in mutants lacking GAI and RGA and propose that increments in GAI/RGA repressor function can explain the quantitative nature of GA responses.

  20. EXTENSIN18 is required for full male fertility as well as normal vegetative growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Pratibha; Saha, Prasenjit; Ray, Tui; Tang, Yuhong; Yang, David; Cannon, Maura C.

    2015-01-01

    EXTENSINS (EXTs) are a 65-member subfamily of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) of which 20 putatively form crosslinking networks in the cell wall. These 20 classical EXTs are involved at the start of new wall assembly as evidenced by a requirement for EXT3 during cytokinesis, and the ability of some EXTs to polymerize in vitro into dendritic patterns. EXT3 was previously shown to form pulcherosine (three Tyrosines) cross-links. Little direct data exists on the other 19 classical EXTs. Here, we describe the phenotypes of ext18 mutants and rescued progeny as well as associated expression profiles of all 20 classical EXT genes. We found that EXT18 is required for full male fertility, as well as for normal vegetative growth. EXT18 has potential to form crosslinking networks via di-iso-di-tyrosine (four Tyrosines) covalent bonds, and not via pulcherosine due to deficit of lone Tyrosines. This together with ext18 defective pollen grains and pollen tubes, and reduced plant size, suggests that EXT18-type EXTs are important contributors to wall integrity, in pollen and other rapidly extending walls. The data also show that a knockout of EXT18 had a pleiotropic affect on the expression of several EXTs, as did the reintroduction of the native EXT18 gene, thus supporting the thesis that transcription of groups of EXTs are co-regulated and work in different combinations to make distinctive inputs into wall assembly of different cell types. These insights contribute to basic knowledge of cell wall self-assembly in different cell types, and potentially enable biotechnological advances in biomass increase and plant fertility control. PMID:26257758

  1. Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…

  2. Estimating Correlates of Growth between Mathematics and Science Achievement via a Multivariate Multilevel Design with Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lingling; Ma, Xin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to improve a multivariate multilevel model in the research literature which estimates the consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students and schools. We introduced a new multivariate multilevel model via a latent variable approach. Data from the Longitudinal Study…

  3. Measuring Opportunity to Learn and Achievement Growth: Key Research Issues with Implications for the Effective Education of All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The related constructs of opportunity to learn (OTL) and achievement growth are fundamental aspects of the current large-scale assessment and accountability system in operation in the United States. For purposes of this article, OTL is defined as the degree to which a teacher dedicates instructional time and content coverage to the intended…

  4. Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth and development in a patient with congenital chloride diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeglund, P.; de la Chapelle, A.; Kere, J.

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in an increasing number of patients, occasionally ascertained because of concomitant autosomal recessive disorders. In some cases, additional signs such as growth alteration, mental retardation or minor anomalies are present, suggesting an imprinting effect. For maternal chromosome 7, UPD has been described in three patients with recessive disorders. Severe growth retardation diagnosed in all these patients has been explained by the effect of imprinting of growth related genes on maternal chromosome 7. No cases of paternally derived disomy from chromosome 7 were previously known. Here we report paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth in a patient with a recessive disorder, congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; MIM 214700). Ten informative microsatellite markers on chromosome 7 demonstrated that the proband did not have any maternal contribution to her genotype for that chromosome. Maternal and paternal alleles could not be distinguished for another 10 markers tested for chromosome 7, but the proband was always homozygous. As most uniparental paternal disomies appear to have a postzygotic origin, the primary event might have been a maternal meiotic nondisjunction. A thorough clinical evaluation with a view to additional signs of imprinted genes localized in chromosome 7 was performed. The physical status and laboratory tests were normal except for a mild high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. As the patient has normal stature, it is likely that the paternal chromosome 7 lacks the suggested maternal imprinting effect on growth. The origin of the hearing loss remains speculative.

  5. Acromegaly with Normal Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels and Congestive Heart Failure as the First Clinical Manifestation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyae Min; Lee, Sun Hee; Yang, In Ho; Hwang, In Kyoung; Hwang, You Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Hwang, Hui Jeong; Jeong, In Kyung

    2015-09-01

    The leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acromegaly is cardiovascular complications. Myocardial exposure to excessive growth hormone can cause ventricular hypertrophy, hypertension, arrhythmia, and diastolic dysfunction. However, congestive heart failure as a result of systolic dysfunction is observed only rarely in patients with acromegaly. Most cases of acromegaly exhibit high levels of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Acromegaly with normal IGF-1 levels is rare and difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a rare case of an acromegalic patient whose first clinical manifestation was severe congestive heart failure, despite normal IGF-1 levels. We diagnosed acromegaly using a glucose-loading growth hormone suppression test. Cardiac function and myocardial hypertrophy improved 6 months after transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma.

  6. Targeted Disruption of Heparan Sulfate Interaction with Hepatocyte and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors Blocks Normal and Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Fabiola; Pajalunga, Deborah; Fowler, C. Andrew; Uren, Aykut; Rabe, Daniel C.; Peruzzi, Benedetta; MacDonald, Nicholas J.; Blackman, Davida K.; Stahl, Stephen J.; Byrd, R. Andrew; Bottaro, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) regulate normal development and homeostasis, and drive disease progression in many forms of cancer. Both proteins signal by binding to receptor tyrosine kinases and heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans on target cell surfaces. Basic residues comprising the primary HS binding sites on HGF and VEGF provide similar surface charge distributions without underlying structural similarity. Combining three acidic amino acid substitutions in these sites in the HGF isoform NK1 or the VEGF isoform VEGF165 transformed each into potent, selective competitive antagonists of their respective normal and oncogenic signaling pathways. Our findings illustrate the importance of HS in growth factor driven cancer progression and reveal an efficient strategy for therapeutic antagonist development. PMID:22897854

  7. Are short normal children at a disadvantage? The Wessex growth study.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, A. B.; Mulligan, J.; Stratford, R. J.; Betts, P. R.; Voss, L. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether short stature through childhood represents a disadvantage at around 12 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal non-intervention study of the physical and psychological development of children recruited from the community in 1986-7 after entry into primary school at age 5-6 years; this is the second psychometric assessment made in 1994-5 after entry into secondary school at age 11-13 years. SETTING: Southampton and Winchester health districts. SUBJECTS: 106 short normal children (< 3rd centile for height when recruited) and 119 controls of average stature (10th-90th centile). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychometric measures of cognitive development, self concept development, behaviour, and locus of control. RESULTS: The short children did not differ significantly from the control children on measures of self esteem (19.4 v 20.2), self perception (104.2 v 102.4), parents' perception (46.9 v 47.0), or behaviour (6.8 v 5.3). The short children achieved significantly lower scores on measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) (102.6 v 108.6; P < 0.005), reading attainment (44.3 v 47.9; P < 0.002), and basic number skills (40.2 v 43.5; P < 0.003) and displayed less internalisation of control (16.6 v 14.3; P < 0.001) and less satisfaction with their height (P < 0.0001). More short than control children, however, came from working class homes (P < 0.05). Social class was a better predictor than height of all measures except that of body satisfaction. Attainment scores were predicted by class and IQ together rather than by height. Height accounted for some of the variance in IQ and locus of control scores. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide only limited support for the hypothesis that short children are disadvantaged, at least up until 11-13 years old. Social class seems to have more influence than height on children's psychological development. PMID:9006466

  8. 3D seismic analysis of gravity-driven and basement influenced normal fault growth in the deepwater Otway Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, A. G.; King, R. C.; Holford, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    We use three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data to analyse the structural style and growth of a normal fault array located at the present-day shelf-edge break and into the deepwater province of the Otway Basin, southern Australia. The Otway Basin is a Late Jurassic to Cenozoic, rift-to-passive margin basin. The seismic reflection data images a NW-SE (128-308) striking, normal fault array, located within Upper Cretaceous clastic sediments and which consists of ten fault segments. The fault array contains two hard-linked fault assemblages, separated by only 2 km in the dip direction. The gravity-driven, down-dip fault assemblage is entirely contained within the 3D seismic survey, is located over a basement plateau and displays growth commencing and terminating during the Campanian-Maastrichtian, with up to 1.45 km of accumulated throw (vertical displacement). The up-dip normal fault assemblage penetrates deeper than the base of the seismic survey, but is interpreted to be partially linked along strike at depth to major basement-involved normal faults that can be observed on regional 2D seismic lines. This fault assemblage displays growth initiating in the Turonian-Santonian and has accumulated up to 1.74 km of throw. Our detailed analysis of the 3D seismic data constraints post-Cenomanian fault growth of both fault assemblages into four evolutionary stages: [1] Turonian-Santonian basement reactivation during crustal extension between Australia and Antarctica. This either caused the upward propagation of basement-involved normal faults or the nucleation of a vertically isolated normal fault array in shallow cover sediments directly above the reactivated basement-involved faults; [2] continued Campanian-Maastrichtian crustal extension and sediment loading eventually created gravitational instability on the basement plateau, nucleating a second, vertically isolated normal fault array in the cover sediments; [3] eventual hard-linkage of fault segments in both fault

  9. Growth hormone is secreted by normal breast epithelium upon progesterone stimulation and increases proliferation of stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Sara; Honeth, Gabriella; Ginestier, Christophe; Shinomiya, Ireneusz; Marlow, Rebecca; Buchupalli, Bharath; Gazinska, Patrycja; Brown, John; Catchpole, Steven; Liu, Suling; Barkan, Ariel; Wicha, Max; Purushotham, Anand; Burchell, Joy; Pinder, Sarah; Dontu, Gabriela

    2014-06-01

    Using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems and in situ analysis, we show that growth hormone (GH) is secreted locally by normal human mammary epithelial cells upon progesterone stimulation. GH increases proliferation of a subset of cells that express growth hormone receptor (GHR) and have functional properties of stem and early progenitor cells. In 72% of ductal carcinoma in situ lesions, an expansion of the cell population that expresses GHR was observed, suggesting that GH signaling may contribute to breast cancer development.

  10. Does Growth Rate in Oral Reading Fluency Matter in Predicting Reading Comprehension Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship of growth trajectories of oral reading fluency, vocabulary, phonological awareness, letter-naming fluency, and nonsense word reading fluency from 1st grade to 3rd grade with reading comprehension in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades. Data from 12,536 children who were followed from kindergarten to 3rd grade…

  11. Connection and Regulation at Home and in School: Predicting Growth in Achievement for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Anne; Weinstein, Rhona S.

    2004-01-01

    Qualities of adolescent-adult relationships across home and school environments are examined as predictors of academic growth in mathematics. An ethnically diverse sample of adolescents was drawn from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, 1988. In separate analyses, adolescents' perceptions of (a) connection with parents and teachers and…

  12. Birth Weight, Math and Reading Achievement Growth: A Multilevel between-Sibling, between-Families Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2009-01-01

    We used multilevel covariance structure analysis to study the relationship between birth weight, family context and youth math and reading comprehension growth from approximately ages 5 through 14 within and between families. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Sample, we examined the relationship between birth weight…

  13. A General Multivariate Latent Growth Model with Applications to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianconcini, Silvia; Cagnone, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of the formative process in the University system has been assuming an ever increasing importance in the European countries. Within this context, the analysis of student performance and capabilities plays a fundamental role. In this work, the authors propose a multivariate latent growth model for studying the performances of a…

  14. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  15. Entrepreneurship Education in Delta State Tertiary Institution as a Means of Achieving National Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osakwe, Regina N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined entrepreneurship education in Delta Sate tertiary institutions as a means of national growth and development. Two research questions were asked to guide the study. The population comprised all the 1,898 academic staff in eight tertiary institutions in the state. A sample of 800 lecturers was drawn through the multi stage and…

  16. DASEES: A Tripartite Decision Analysis Framework to Achieve Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society Growth and Management Goals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of Societies management and growth decisions are often made without a balanced consideration of pertinent factors from environmental, economic and societal perspectives. All three of these areas are key players in many of the decisions facing societies as they strive to ope...

  17. Measuring the Impact of Substance Abuse on Student Academic Achievement and Academic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattermann, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    This research presents data linking the impact of substance disorder to academic achievement, using data gathered at a recovery high school. Recovery schools provide recovery supports and a high-quality education to students with substance use disorders. The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs -- Short Screener and the Northwest Evaluation…

  18. Utilizing Precision Teaching To Measure Growth of Reading Comprehension Skills in Low Achieving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitti, Joanne M.

    A practicum addressed the problem of reading comprehension skills in low achieving students by monitoring their progress utilizing precision teaching. Based on referrals from classroom teachers, guidance counselors, and parents, five students ranging in ability levels from kindergarten through grade 8 were accepted into the program for one or more…

  19. Perceived Social Support and Academic Achievement: Cross-Lagged Panel and Bivariate Growth Curve Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinnon, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    As students transition to post-secondary education, they experience considerable stress and declines in academic performance. Perceived social support is thought to improve academic achievement by reducing stress. Longitudinal designs with three or more waves are needed in this area because they permit stronger causal inferences and help…

  20. Emotions, Self-Regulated Learning, and Achievement in Mathematics: A Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Wondimu; van der Werf, Greetje; Kuyper, Hans; Minnaert, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was twofold: (a) to investigate the developmental trends of 4 academic emotions (anxiety, boredom, enjoyment, and pride) and (b) to examine whether changes in emotions are linked to the changes in students' self-regulatory strategies (shallow, deep, and meta-cognitive) and achievement in mathematics. Four hundred…

  1. Predictors of Early Growth in Academic Achievement: The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P.; Acock, Alan C.; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by…

  2. Aspartame and its constituent amino acids: effects on prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, insulin, and glucose in normal humans.

    PubMed

    Carlson, H E; Shah, J H

    1989-03-01

    Because large doses of phenylalanine stimulate prolactin secretion in man, we studied the acute effects of oral doses of aspartame (0.534 g, equivalent to the amount of aspartame in approximately 1 L beverage), aspartic acid (0.242 g), and phenylalanine (0.3 and 1.0 g) on serum prolactin and other hormones in normal humans. Prolactin was not stimulated by any of the aspartame meals, aspartic acid, or 0.3 g phenylalanine; a small rise in serum prolactin, similar to that produced by a high-protein mixed meal, followed ingestion of 1.0 g phenylalanine. Serum growth hormone showed no statistically significant changes in response to any of the experimental meals whereas cortisol and insulin fell slightly and glucose rose slightly during each of the meals. We conclude that these doses of aspartame do not alter secretion of prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, or insulin in normal individuals.

  3. Dopamine induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages in rat C6 glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Tian; Wang, Chenlong; Chen, Xuewei; Duan, Chenfan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Tian; Chen, Honglei; Yue, Jiang; Li, Ying; Yang, Jing

    2015-07-15

    Dopamine (DA), a monoamine catecholamine neurotransmitter with antiangiogenic activity, stabilizes tumor vessels in colon, prostate and ovarian cancers, thus increases chemotherapeutic efficacy. Here, in the rat C6 glioma models, we investigated the vascular normalization effects of DA and its mechanisms of action. DA (25, 50 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth, while a precursor of DA (levodopa) prolonged the survival time of rats bearing orthotopic C6 glioma. DA improved tumor perfusion, with significant effects from day 3, and a higher level at days 5 to 7. In addition, DA decreased microvessel density and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in tumor tissues, while increasing the coverage of pericyte. Conversely, an antagonist of dopamine receptor 2 (DR2) (eticlopride) but not DR1 (butaclamol) abrogated DA-induced tumor regression and vascular normalization. Furthermore, DA improved the delivery and efficacy of temozolomide therapy. Importantly, DA increased representative M1 markers (iNOS, CXCL9, etc.), while decreasing M2 markers (CD206, arginase-1, etc.). Depletion of macrophages by clodronate or zoledronic acid attenuated the effects of DA. Notably, DA treatment induced M2-to-M1 polarization in RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages, and enhanced the migration of pericyte-like cells (10T1/2), which was reversed by eticlopride or DR2-siRNA. Such changes were accompanied by the downregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling. In summary, DA induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages. Thus, targeting the tumor microvasculature by DA represents a promising strategy for human glioma therapy. - Highlights: • Dopamine induces tumor growth inhibition and vascular normalization in rat C6 glioma. • Dopamine switches macrophage phenotype from M2 to M1. • Dopamine-induced vascular normalization is mediated by macrophage polarization. • Dopamine is a promising agent targeting the microvasculature in tumor

  4. Assessment of disease activity in treated acromegalic patients using a sensitive GH assay: should we achieve strict normal GH levels for a biochemical cure?

    PubMed

    Costa, Augusto C F; Rossi, Adriana; Martinelli, Carlos E; Machado, Hélio R; Moreira, Ayrton C

    2002-07-01

    The definition of a cure for acromegaly is controversial in the absence of a well-defined clinical end-point. Therefore, cure in acromegaly may be arbitrarily defined as a normalization of biochemical parameters. The accepted normal GH levels have been modified over time with the improved sensitivity of GH assays. The objective of the present study was to investigate the suppression of GH levels in the oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) using a sensitive GH immunoassay in a large group of normal adult subjects and treated acromegalic patients. We evaluated these results in conjunction with IGF-I and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. Nadir GH levels after the ingestion of 75 g of glucose, as well as baseline IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels, were evaluated in 56 normal adult subjects and 32 previously treated acromegalic patients. GH was assayed by an immunofluorometric assay. Normal controls had a mean GH nadir of 0.07 +/- 0.09 microg/liter. Their mean basal IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels were 160 +/- 58 microg/liter and 1926 +/- 497 microg/liter, respectively. Acromegalic patients had mean GH nadir, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 levels higher than those of normal subjects (2.6 +/- 7.6 microg/liter, 313 +/- 246 microg/liter, and 2625 +/- 1154 microg/liter, respectively). Considering a GH cut-off value of 0.25 microg/liter, as the normalized postglucose GH upper limit (mean + 2 SD) and, therefore, the target for treated patients, only five patients (15.6%) would have been considered cured. These results suggest that the strict physiological normalization of GH levels after oGTT is not often achieved as a therapeutic endpoint in acromegaly. In addition to the refinement of GH assays, epidemiological studies have suggested that the mean basal GH levels (<2.5 microg/liter) or oGTT-derived GH levels < 2 microg/liter (RIA), or the normalization of IGF-I levels, appear to reduce morbidity and mortality in treated acromegaly. Using this epidemiologically based definition of cure for

  5. Asiaticoside enhances normal human skin cell migration, attachment and growth in vitro wound healing model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Hye-Lee; Lee, Mi Hee; You, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Seo, Hyok Jin; Park, Jong-Chul

    2012-10-15

    Wound healing proceeds through a complex collaborative process involving many types of cells. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts of epidermal and dermal layers of the skin play prominent roles in this process. Asiaticoside, an active component of Centella asiatica, is known for beneficial effects on keloid and hypertrophic scar. However, the effects of this compound on normal human skin cells are not well known. Using in vitro systems, we observed the effects of asiaticoside on normal human skin cell behaviors related to healing. In a wound closure seeding model, asiaticoside increased migration rates of skin cells. By observing the numbers of cells attached and the area occupied by the cells, we concluded that asiaticoside also enhanced the initial skin cell adhesion. In cell proliferation assays, asiaticoside induced an increase in the number of normal human dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, asiaticoside promotes skin cell behaviors involved in wound healing; and as a bioactive component of an artificial skin, may have therapeutic value.

  6. Cellular growth and survival are mediated by beta 1 integrins in normal human breast epithelium but not in breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Howlett, Anthony R; Bailey, Nina; Damsky, Caroline; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    1994-11-28

    We previously established a rapid three-dimensional assay for discrimination of normal and malignant human breast epithelial cells using a laminin-rich reconstituted basement membrane. In this assay, normal epithelial cells differentiate into well-organized acinar structures whereas tumor cells fail to recapitulate this process and produce large, disordered colonies. The data suggest that breast acinar morphogenesis and differentiation is regulated by cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions and that these interactions are altered in malignancy. Here, we investigated the role of ECM receptors (integrins) in these processes and report on the expression and function of potential laminin receptors in normal and tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. Immmunocytochemical analysis showed that normal and carcinoma cells in a three-dimensional substratum express profiles of integrins similar to normal and malignant breast tissues in situ. Normal cells express {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}3, {alpha}6, {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin subunits, whereas breast carcinoma cells show variable losses, disordered expression, or down regulation of these subunits. Function-blocking experiments using inhibitory antiintegrin subunit antibodies showed a >5-fold inhibition of the formation of acinar structures by normal cells in the presence of either anti-{beta}1 or anti-{alpha}3 antibodies, whereas anti-{alpha}2 or -{alpha}6 had little or no effect. In experiments where collagen type I gels were used instead of basement membrane, acinar morphogenesis was blocked by anti-{beta}1 and -{alpha}2 antibodies but not by anti-{alpha}3. These data suggest a specificity of integrin utilization dependent on the ECM ligands encountered by the cell. The interruption of normal acinar morphogenesis by anti-integrin antibodies was associated with an inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Function-blocking antibodies had no inhibitory effect on the rate of tumor cell growth, survival or

  7. Intrauterine-like growth rates can be achieved with premixed parenteral nutrition solution in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Jacques; Senterre, Thibault

    2013-12-01

    Growth failure in neonatal intensive care units is a major challenge for pediatricians and neonatologists. The use of early "aggressive" parenteral nutrition (PN), with >2.5 g/(kg ·d) of amino acids and at least 40 kcal/(kg ·d) of energy from the first day of life, has been shown to provide nutritional intakes in the range recommended by international guidelines, reducing nutritional deficit and the incidence of postnatal growth restriction in preterm infants. However, nutritional practices and adherence to recommendations may vary in different hospitals. Two ready-to-use (RTU), premixed parenteral solutions (PSs) designed for preterm infants have been prospectively evaluated: a binary RTU premixed PS from our hospital pharmacy and a commercially premixed 3-chamber bag (Baxter Healthcare). These premixed PSs provide nitrogen and energy intakes in the range of the most recent recommendations, reducing or eliminating the early cumulative nutritional deficit in very-low-birth-weight infants, and avoiding the development of postnatal growth restriction. A further rationale for RTU premixed PSs is that preterm infants require balanced PN that contains not only amino acids and energy but also minerals and electrolytes from the first day of life in order to reduce the incidence of metabolic disorders frequently reported in extremely-low-birth-weight infants during the early weeks of life.

  8. Intrauterine-like growth rates can be achieved with premixed parenteral nutrition solution in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Jacques; Senterre, Thibault

    2013-12-01

    Growth failure in neonatal intensive care units is a major challenge for pediatricians and neonatologists. The use of early "aggressive" parenteral nutrition (PN), with >2.5 g/(kg ·d) of amino acids and at least 40 kcal/(kg ·d) of energy from the first day of life, has been shown to provide nutritional intakes in the range recommended by international guidelines, reducing nutritional deficit and the incidence of postnatal growth restriction in preterm infants. However, nutritional practices and adherence to recommendations may vary in different hospitals. Two ready-to-use (RTU), premixed parenteral solutions (PSs) designed for preterm infants have been prospectively evaluated: a binary RTU premixed PS from our hospital pharmacy and a commercially premixed 3-chamber bag (Baxter Healthcare). These premixed PSs provide nitrogen and energy intakes in the range of the most recent recommendations, reducing or eliminating the early cumulative nutritional deficit in very-low-birth-weight infants, and avoiding the development of postnatal growth restriction. A further rationale for RTU premixed PSs is that preterm infants require balanced PN that contains not only amino acids and energy but also minerals and electrolytes from the first day of life in order to reduce the incidence of metabolic disorders frequently reported in extremely-low-birth-weight infants during the early weeks of life. PMID:24108133

  9. Ubiquitous Expression of MAKORIN-2 in Normal and Malignant Hematopoietic Cells and Its Growth Promoting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, King Yiu; Chan, Kathy Yuen Yee; Tsang, Kam Sze; Chen, Yang Chao; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Ng, Pak Cheung; Li, Chi Kong; Leung, Kam Tong; Li, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Makorin-2 (MKRN2) is a highly conserved protein and yet its functions are largely unknown. We investigated the expression levels of MKRN2 and RAF1 in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells, and leukemia cell lines. We also attempted to delineate the role of MKRN2 in umbilical cord blood CD34+ stem/progenitor cells and K562 cell line by over-expression and inhibition of MKRN2 through lentivirus transduction and shRNA nucleofection, respectively. Our results provided the first evidence on the ubiquitous expression of MKRN2 in normal hematopoietic cells, embryonic stem cell lines, primary leukemia and leukemic cell lines of myeloid, lymphoid, erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. The expression levels of MKRN2 were generally higher in primary leukemia samples compared with those in age-matched normal BM cells. In all leukemia subtypes, there was no significant correlation between expression levels of MKRN2 and RAF1. sh-MKRN2-silenced CD34+ cells had a significantly lower proliferation capacity and decreased levels of the early stem/progenitor subpopulation (CFU-GEMM) compared with control cultures. Over-expression of MKRN2 in K562 cells increased cell proliferation. Our results indicated possible roles of MKRN2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. PMID:24675897

  10. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery.

    PubMed

    Datta, Meenal; Via, Laura E; Kamoun, Walid S; Liu, Chong; Chen, Wei; Seano, Giorgio; Weiner, Danielle M; Schimel, Daniel; England, Kathleen; Martin, John D; Gao, Xing; Xu, Lei; Barry, Clifton E; Jain, Rakesh K

    2015-02-10

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes almost 2 million deaths annually, and an increasing number of patients are resistant to existing therapies. Patients who have TB require lengthy chemotherapy, possibly because of poor penetration of antibiotics into granulomas where the bacilli reside. Granulomas are morphologically similar to solid cancerous tumors in that they contain hypoxic microenvironments and can be highly fibrotic. Here, we show that TB-infected rabbits have impaired small molecule distribution into these disease sites due to a functionally abnormal vasculature, with a low-molecular-weight tracer accumulating only in peripheral regions of granulomatous lesions. Granuloma-associated vessels are morphologically and spatially heterogeneous, with poor vessel pericyte coverage in both human and experimental rabbit TB granulomas. Moreover, we found enhanced VEGF expression in both species. In tumors, antiangiogenic, specifically anti-VEGF, treatments can "normalize" their vasculature, reducing hypoxia and creating a window of opportunity for concurrent chemotherapy; thus, we investigated vessel normalization in rabbit TB granulomas. Treatment of TB-infected rabbits with the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab significantly decreased the total number of vessels while normalizing those vessels that remained. As a result, hypoxic fractions of these granulomas were reduced and small molecule tracer delivery was increased. These findings demonstrate that bevacizumab treatment promotes vascular normalization, improves small molecule delivery, and decreases hypoxia in TB granulomas, thereby providing a potential avenue to improve delivery and efficacy of current treatment regimens.

  11. Pulsed Shortwave Diathermy and Joint Mobilizations for Achieving Normal Elbow Range of Motion After Injury or Surgery With Implanted Metal: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Draper, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Regaining full, active range of motion (ROM) after trauma to the elbow is difficult. Objective: To report the cases of 6 patients who lacked full ROM in the elbow because of trauma. The treatment regimen was thermal pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations. Design: Case series. Setting: University therapeutic modalities laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Six patients (5 women [83%], 1 man [17%]) lacked a mean active ROM of 24.5° of extension approximately 4.8 years after trauma or surgery. Intervention(s): Treatment consisted of 20 minutes of pulsed shortwave diathermy at 800 pulses per second for 400 microseconds (40–48 W average power, 150 W peak power) applied to the cubital fossa, immediately followed by 7 to 8 minutes of joint mobilizations. After posttreatment ROM was recorded, ice was applied to the area for about 30 minutes. Main Outcomes Measure(s): Changes in extension active ROM were assessed before and after each treatment. Once the patient achieved full, active ROM or failed to improve on 2 consecutive visits, he or she was discharged from the study. Results: By the fifth treatment, 4 participants (67%) achieved normal extension active ROM, and 2 of the 4 (50%) exceeded the norm. Five participants (83%) returned to normal activities and full use of their elbows. One month later, the 5 participants had maintained, on average, (mean ± SD) 92% ± 6% of their final measurements. Conclusions: A combination of thermal pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations was effective in restoring active ROM of elbow extension in 5 of the 6 patients (83%) who lacked full ROM after injury or surgery. PMID:25485976

  12. Growth hormone receptor gene expression in the skeletal muscle of normal and double-muscled bovines during foetal development.

    PubMed

    Listrat, Anne; Hocquette, Jean François; Picard, Brigitte; Ménissier, François; Djiane, Jean; Jammes, Hélène

    2005-01-01

    The expression of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene was investigated in semitendinosus muscle during bovine foetal development in both normal and double-muscled Charolais foetuses which differ with respect to muscle development. Northern-blot analysis of foetal muscle RNA preparations with a GHR cDNA probe identified the 4.5 kb GHR mRNA as early as 130 days post-conception. In double-muscled animals, the expression of GHR mRNA increased from 130 to 210 days of gestation while it stayed stable in normal ones. It was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in double-muscled foetuses compared to normal ones from the second third of gestation. Northern-blot analysis of foetal muscle RNA preparations from both genotypes with a beta-actin cDNA probe, revealed lower beta-actin gene expression in double-muscled foetuses than in normal ones, suggesting a delay in the differentiation of muscle cells. In situ hybridisation revealed the localisation of specific GHR mRNA in muscle cells at all gestation stages analysed (130, 170, 210 days post-conception) but not in connective tissue surrounding the muscle cells. At the adult stage, the hybridisation signal was also very high and observed in muscle cells only. These results show the ontogeny of GHR mRNA in bovine muscle and demonstrate a difference between normal and double-muscled animals.

  13. Metabolic alterations due to caloric restriction and every other day feeding in normal and growth hormone receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Reyhan; Bonkowski, Michael S; Arum, Oge; Strader, April D; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Mutations causing decreased somatotrophic signaling are known to increase insulin sensitivity and extend life span in mammals. Caloric restriction and every other day (EOD) dietary regimens are associated with similar improvements to insulin signaling and longevity in normal mice; however, these interventions fail to increase insulin sensitivity or life span in growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice. To investigate the interactions of the GHRKO mutation with caloric restriction and EOD dietary interventions, we measured changes in the metabolic parameters oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory quotient produced by either long-term caloric restriction or EOD in male GHRKO and normal mice. GHRKO mice had increased VO2, which was unaltered by diet. In normal mice, EOD diet caused a significant reduction in VO2 compared with ad libitum (AL) mice during fed and fasted conditions. In normal mice, caloric restriction increased both the range of VO2 and the difference in minimum VO2 between fed and fasted states, whereas EOD diet caused a relatively static VO2 pattern under fed and fasted states. No diet significantly altered the range of VO2 of GHRKO mice under fed conditions. This provides further evidence that longevity-conferring diets cause major metabolic changes in normal mice, but not in GHRKO mice. PMID:23833202

  14. Acromegaloidism with normal growth hormone secretion associated with X-tetrasomy.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vázquez, Paula; Rivera, Alberto; Figueroa, Irene; Páramo, Concepción; García-Mayor, Ricardo V

    2006-01-01

    We reported a case of a 26-year-old female who was referred to our clinic with the diagnosis of possible acromegaly. She was born from a term pregnancy by forceps delivery. The patient was diagnosed as having hip luxation at one month and spoke her first word at 15 months. She had been diagnosed at the age of 9 years old as having perinatal encephalopathy with intellectual and motor affectation. Since this period of time she has undergone an insidious change in her appearance, mainly comprising progressive coarsening of the face. For this reason she was submitted to our clinic with presumed acromegaly. Dynamic tests of growth hormone secretion ruled out such a diagnosis. The Patient was considered as having "acromegaloidism", a term used for patients whom manifest clinical features of acromegaly but do not present a demonstrable growth hormone hypersecretion. Subsequently cytogenetic evaluation revealed an infrequent chromosome pattern: X-Tetrasomy. In the present article a differential diagnosis of acromegaloidism and the potential role of genes present on X-chromosome involved in human growth such as SHOX gene are discussed. Overdosification of SHOX gene might explain tall stature of girls with X-tetrasomy. Our observation suggested that X-tetrasomy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acromegaloidism. Furthermore, this may lead to the identification of new genes in the X-chromosome that are important for growth of facial structures. PMID:16832583

  15. Combination therapy with acipimox enhances the effect of growth hormone treatment on linear body growth in the normal and small-for-gestational-age rat.

    PubMed

    Vickers, M H; Hofman, P L; Gluckman, P D; Lobie, P E; Cutfield, W S

    2006-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) therapy is often associated with adverse side effects, including impaired insulin sensitivity. GH treatment of children with idiopathic short stature does not lead to an optimized final adult height. It has been demonstrated that FFA reduction induced by pharmacological antilipolysis can stimulate GH secretion per se in both normal subjects and those with GH deficiency. However, to date, no investigation has been undertaken to establish efficacy of combination treatment with GH and FFA regulators on linear body growth. Using a model of maternal undernutrition in the rat to induce growth-restricted offspring, we investigated the hypothesis that combination treatment with GH and FFA regulators can enhance linear body growth above that of GH alone. At postnatal day 28, male offspring of normally nourished mothers (controls) and offspring born with low birth weight [small for gestational age (SGA)] were treated with saline, GH, or GH (5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) in combination with acipimox (GH + acipimox, 20 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) or fenofibrate (GH + fenofibrate, 30 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) for 40 days. GH plus acipimox treatment significantly enhanced linear body growth in the control and SGA animals above that of GH, as quantified by tibial and total body length. Treatment with GH significantly increased fasting plasma insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio, and plasma volumes in control and SGA animals but was not significantly different between saline and GH-plus-acipimox-treated animals. GH-induced lipolysis was blocked by GH plus acipimox treatment in both control and SGA animals, concomitant with a significant reduction in fasting plasma FFA and insulin concentrations. This is the first study to show that GH plus acipimox combination therapy, via pharmacological blocking of lipolysis during GH exposure, can significantly enhance the efficacy of GH in linear growth promotion and ameliorate unwanted metabolic side effects.

  16. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  17. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance.

    PubMed

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  18. N alpha acetylation is required for normal growth and mating of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F J; Lin, L W; Smith, J A

    1989-01-01

    Acetylation is the most frequently occurring chemical modification of the alpha-NH2 group of eucaryotic proteins and is catalyzed by N alpha-acetyltransferase. The yeast enzyme is encoded by the AAA1 (amino-terminal alpha-amino acetyltransferase) gene. A null mutation (aaa1-1) created by gene replacement, while not lethal, slows cell growth and results in heterogeneous colony morphology. In comparison with wild-type cells, aaa1-1/aaa1-1 diploids cannot enter stationary phase, are sporulation defective, and are sensitive to heat shock. In addition, the aaa1-1 mutation specifically reduces mating functions of MATa cells. These results indicate that N alpha acetylation plays a crucial role in yeast cell growth and mating. Images PMID:2681143

  19. Thymosin increases production of T-cell growth factor by normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zatz, M M; Oliver, J; Samuels, C; Skotnicki, A B; Sztein, M B; Goldstein, A L

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro incubation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes with thymosin results in a marked and reproducible increase in production of T-cell growth factor, which is dose dependent and most pronounced in the first 24 hr of culture. Incubation of lymphocytes with thymosin alone failed to induce any production of T-cell growth factor. The biological activity of thymosin fraction 5 cannot be attributed to the activity of thymosin alpha 1, one of the well-characterized peptide components of fraction 5. These data provide the basis for (i) a potential mechanism for the in vivo immunorestorative effects of thymosin in primary and secondary immunodeficiencies and (ii) identification of an additional, but as yet undefined, immunoregulatory component of thymosin fraction 5. PMID:6609371

  20. A growth curve model of learning acquisition among cognitively normal older adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard N; Rosenberg, Adrienne L; Morris, John N; Allaire, Jason C; McCoy, Karin J M; Marsiske, Michael; Kleinman, Ken P; Rebok, George W; Malloy, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model recall and learning on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test using latent growth curve techniques. Participants were older adults recruited for the ACTIVE cognitive intervention pilot. A series of nested models revealed that an approximately logarithmic growth curve model provided optimal fit to the data. Although recall and learning factors were statistically uncorrelated, a fitted multivariate model suggested that initial recall was significantly associated with demographic characteristics but unrelated to health factors and cognitive abilities. Individual differences in learning were related to race/ethnicity, speed of processing, verbal knowledge, and global cognitive function level. These results suggest that failing to recognize initial recall and learning as distinct constructs clouds the interpretation of supraspan memory tasks.

  1. Microencapsulation of human cells: its effects on growth of normal and tumour cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, S. M.; Hopwood, D.; Newman, E. L.; Cuschieri, A.

    1991-01-01

    The growth kinetics of established human colorectal tumour cell lines (HT29, HT115 and COLO 320DM) and human diploid fibroblasts (Flow 2002) were studied in conventional culture and in microcapsules formed from alginate-poly(L-lysine)-alginate membranes. The tumour lines grew rapidly in microcapsules but, in the case of the substrate-adherent lines HT29 and HT115, only after a prolonged lag phase. This phase was reduced by serial passage in microcapsules. The anchorage-independent line COLO 320DM showed no lengthening in lag phase. Microencapsulated fibroblasts underwent negligible growth but remained viable. Some evidence for functional differentiation (microvilli, cell-cell junctions) of the tumour line HT115 within the microcapsules was observed. We conclude that the use of microcapsules provides an alternative system with some advantages for the study of human cancer and its metastases in vitro. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:2039691

  2. A GROWTH CURVE MODEL OF LEARNING ACQUISITION AMONG COGNITIVELY NORMAL OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Richard N.; Rosenberg, Adrienne L.; Morris, John N.; Allaire, Jason C.; McCoy, Karin J. M.; Marsiske, Michael; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rebok, George W.; Malloy, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model recall and learning on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test using latent growth curve techniques. Participants were older adults recruited for the ACTIVE cognitive intervention pilot. A series of nested models revealed that an approximately logarithmic growth curve model provided optimal fit to the data. Although recall and learning factors were statistically uncorrelated, a fitted multivariate model suggested that initial recall was significantly associated with demographic characteristics but unrelated to health factors and cognitive abilities. Individual differences in learning were related to race/ethnicity, speed of processing, verbal knowledge, and global cognitive function level. These results suggest that failing to recognize initial recall and learning as distinct constructs clouds the interpretation of supraspan memory tasks. PMID:16036723

  3. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:26771139

  4. A putative APSES transcription factor is necessary for normal growth and development of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Lee-Han; Kim, Ha-Eun; Park, Jae-Sin; Han, Kap-Hoon; Han, Dong-Min

    2013-12-01

    The nsdD gene encoding a GATA type transcription factor positively controls sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. According to microarray data, 20 genes that were upregulated by deleting nsdD during various life cycle stages were randomly selected and deleted for functional analysis. None of the mutants showed apparent changes in growth or development compared with those of the wild-type except the AN3154 gene that encodes a putative APSES transcription factor and is an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae swi4. Deleting AN3154 resulted in retarded growth and development, and the gene was named rgdA (retared growth and development). The rgdA deletion mutant developed a reduced number of conidia even under favorable conditions for asexual development. The retarded growth and development was partially suppressed by the veA1 mutation. The conidial heads of the mutant aborted, showing reduced and irregular shaped phialides. Fruiting body development was delayed compared with that in the wild-type. The mutant did not respond to various nutritional or environmental factors that affected the development patterns. The rgdA gene was expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle and was not significantly affected by several regulators of sexual and asexual development such as nsdD, veA, stuA, or brlA. However, the rgdA gene affected brlA and abaA expression, which function as key regulators of asexual sporulation, suggesting that rgdA functions upstream of those genes.

  5. Growth Factor–dependent Activation of αvβ3 Integrin in Normal Epithelial Cells: Implications for Tumor Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Trusolino, Livio; Serini, Guido; Cecchini, Germana; Besati, Cristina; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio; Marchisio, Pier Carlo; De Filippi, Rosaria

    1998-01-01

    Integrin activation is a multifaceted phenomenon leading to increased affinity and avidity for matrix ligands. To investigate whether cytokines produced during stromal infiltration of carcinoma cells activate nonfunctional epithelial integrins, a cellular system of human thyroid clones derived from normal glands (HTU-5) and papillary carcinomas (HTU-34) was employed. In HTU-5 cells, αvβ3 integrin was diffused all over the membrane, disconnected from the cytoskeleton, and unable to mediate adhesion. Conversely, in HTU-34 cells, αvβ3 was clustered at focal contacts (FCs) and mediated firm attachment and spreading. αvβ3 recruitment at FCs and ligand-binding activity, essentially identical to those of HTU-34, occurred in HTU-5 cells upon treatment with hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). The HTU-34 clone secreted HGF/SF and its receptor was constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated suggesting an autocrine loop responsible for αvβ3 activated state. Antibody-mediated inhibition of HGF/SF function in HTU-34 cells disrupted αvβ3 enrichment at FCs and impaired adhesion. Accordingly, activation of αvβ3 in normal cells was produced by HTU-34 conditioned medium on the basis of its content of HGF/SF. These results provide the first example of a growth factor–driven integrin activation mechanism in normal epithelial cells and uncover the importance of cytokine-based autocrine loops for the physiological control of integrin activation. PMID:9722624

  6. Caloric Restriction Normalizes Obesity-Induced Alterations on Regulators of Skeletal Muscle Growth Signaling.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Cory M; Li, Ji; Williamson, David L

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the impact of caloric restriction on high fat diet-induced alterations on regulators of skeletal muscle growth. We hypothesized that caloric restriction would reverse the negative effects of high fat diet-induced obesity on REDD1 and mTOR-related signaling. Following an initial 8 week period of HF diet-induced obesity, caloric restriction (CR ~30 %) was employed while mice continued to consume either a low (LF) or high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks. Western analysis of skeletal muscle showed that CR reduced (p < 0.05) the obesity-related effects on the lipogenic protein, SREBP1. Likewise, CR reduced (p < 0.05) the obesity-related effects on the hyperactivation of mTORC1 and ERK1/2 signaling to levels comparable to the LF mice. CR also reduced (p < 0.05) obesity-induced expression of negative regulators of growth, REDD1 and cleaved caspase 3. These findings have implications for on the reversibility of dysregulated growth signaling in obese skeletal muscle, using short-term caloric restriction. PMID:27289530

  7. Extracellular Vesicles from Metastatic Rat Prostate Tumors Prime the Normal Prostate Tissue to Facilitate Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Halin Bergström, Sofia; Hägglöf, Christina; Thysell, Elin; Bergh, Anders; Wikström, Pernilla; Lundholm, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data indicates that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are responsible for tumor-promoting effects. However, if tumor EVs also prepare the tumor-bearing organ for subsequent tumor growth, and if this effect is different in low and high malignant tumors is not thoroughly explored. Here we used orthotopic rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumors to compare the role of EVs from fast growing and metastatic MatLyLu (MLL) tumors with EVs from more indolent and non-metastatic Dunning G (G) tumors. Prostate tissue pre-conditioned with MLL-EVs in vivo facilitated G tumor establishment compared to G-EVs. MLL-EVs increased prostate epithelial proliferation and macrophage infiltration into the prostate compared to G-EVs. Both types of EVs increased macrophage endocytosis and the mRNA expression of genes associated with M2 polarization in vitro, with MLL-EVs giving the most pronounced effects. MLL-EVs also altered the mRNA expression of growth factors and cytokines in primary rat prostate fibroblasts compared to G-EVs, suggesting fibroblast activation. Our findings propose that EVs from metastatic tumors have the ability to prime the prostate tissue and enhance tumor growth to a higher extent than EVs from non-metastatic tumors. Identifying these differences could lead to novel therapeutic targets and potential prognostic markers for prostate cancer. PMID:27550147

  8. Extracellular Vesicles from Metastatic Rat Prostate Tumors Prime the Normal Prostate Tissue to Facilitate Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Halin Bergström, Sofia; Hägglöf, Christina; Thysell, Elin; Bergh, Anders; Wikström, Pernilla; Lundholm, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data indicates that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are responsible for tumor-promoting effects. However, if tumor EVs also prepare the tumor-bearing organ for subsequent tumor growth, and if this effect is different in low and high malignant tumors is not thoroughly explored. Here we used orthotopic rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumors to compare the role of EVs from fast growing and metastatic MatLyLu (MLL) tumors with EVs from more indolent and non-metastatic Dunning G (G) tumors. Prostate tissue pre-conditioned with MLL-EVs in vivo facilitated G tumor establishment compared to G-EVs. MLL-EVs increased prostate epithelial proliferation and macrophage infiltration into the prostate compared to G-EVs. Both types of EVs increased macrophage endocytosis and the mRNA expression of genes associated with M2 polarization in vitro, with MLL-EVs giving the most pronounced effects. MLL-EVs also altered the mRNA expression of growth factors and cytokines in primary rat prostate fibroblasts compared to G-EVs, suggesting fibroblast activation. Our findings propose that EVs from metastatic tumors have the ability to prime the prostate tissue and enhance tumor growth to a higher extent than EVs from non-metastatic tumors. Identifying these differences could lead to novel therapeutic targets and potential prognostic markers for prostate cancer. PMID:27550147

  9. Comparative growth, cross stress resistance, transcriptomics of Streptococcus pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity and normal gravity

    PubMed Central

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Im, Chanki; Lee, Yang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly found on pharynx, mouth and rarely on skin, lower gastrointestinal tract. It is a potential pathogen causing tonsillitis, pneumonia, endocarditis. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of low shear modeled microgravity on growth, morphology, antibiotic resistance, cross-stress resistance to various stresses and alteration in gene expression of S. pyogenes. The growth analysis performed using UV–Visible spectroscopy indicated decrease in growth of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity. Morphological analysis by Bio-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Bio-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) did not reveal much difference between normal and low shear modeled microgravity grown S. pyogenes. The sensitivity of S. pyogenes to antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, hygromycin, rifampicin indicates that the bacterium is resistant to hygromycin. Further S. pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity was found to be more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin as compared with normal gravity grown S. pyogenes. The bacteria were tested for the acid, osmotic, temperature and oxidative cross stress resistances. The gene expression of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity analyzed by microarray revealed upregulation of 26 genes and down regulation of 22 genes by a fold change of 1.5. PMID:26858535

  10. Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of plant growth regulator 1-naphthalene acetamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, C.; Padmaja, L.; Hubert Joe, I.

    2010-02-01

    FT Raman and IR spectra of the biologically active molecule, 1-naphthalene acetamide (NA) have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers of NA have been calculated with the help of B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) method. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology (SQMFF). The downshifting of NH 2 stretching wavenumber indicates the formation of intermolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The NBO analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the molecule.

  11. Developmental axon stretch stimulates neuron growth while maintaining normal electrical activity, intracellular calcium flux, and somatic morphology

    PubMed Central

    Loverde, Joseph R.; Pfister, Bryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18% applied over 5 min. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25% strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury. PMID:26379492

  12. Modeling the Normal Spectral Emissivity of Aluminum 1060 at 800-910 K During the Growth of Oxide Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Deheng; Zou, Fenghui; Zhu, Zunlue; Sun, Jinfeng

    2015-04-01

    This work strives to model the normal spectral emissivity of aluminum 1060 during the growth of oxide layer in air over the temperatures ranging from 800 to 910 K. For this reason, the normal spectral emissivity of aluminum 1060 has been measured over a 6 h heating period at a definite temperature. In our experiment, the radiance coming from the specimen is received by an InGaAs photodiode detector, which works at 1.5 μm with the bandwidth of 20 nm. The temperature of specimen surface is measured by averaging the two platinum-rhodium thermocouples, which are symmetrically welded in the front surface of specimen near the measuring area viewed by the detector. The strong oscillations of normal spectral emissivity have been observed and discussed, which are affirmed to be connected with the thickness of oxide layer on the specimen surface, and originate from the interference effect between the radiation coming from the oxide layer on the specimen surface and the radiation stemming from the substrate. The uncertainty of normal spectral emissivity contributed only by the surface oxidization is about 4.6-10.6%, and the corresponding uncertainty of temperature contributed only by the surface oxidization is about 3.5-8.4 K. The analytical model between the normal spectral emissivity and the heating time is evaluated at a definite temperature. A simple functional form with the exponential and logarithmic functions can be employed to reproduce well the variation of normal spectral emissivity with the heating time at a definite temperature, including the reproduction of strong oscillations.

  13. A mitochondria-K+ channel axis is suppressed in cancer and its normalization promotes apoptosis and inhibits cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Sébastien; Archer, Stephen L; Allalunis-Turner, Joan; Haromy, Alois; Beaulieu, Christian; Thompson, Richard; Lee, Christopher T; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; Bonnet, Sandra; Harry, Gwyneth; Hashimoto, Kyoko; Porter, Christopher J; Andrade, Miguel A; Thebaud, Bernard; Michelakis, Evangelos D

    2007-01-01

    The unique metabolic profile of cancer (aerobic glycolysis) might confer apoptosis resistance and be therapeutically targeted. Compared to normal cells, several human cancers have high mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and low expression of the K+ channel Kv1.5, both contributing to apoptosis resistance. Dichloroacetate (DCA) inhibits mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), shifts metabolism from glycolysis to glucose oxidation, decreases DeltaPsim, increases mitochondrial H2O2, and activates Kv channels in all cancer, but not normal, cells; DCA upregulates Kv1.5 by an NFAT1-dependent mechanism. DCA induces apoptosis, decreases proliferation, and inhibits tumor growth, without apparent toxicity. Molecular inhibition of PDK2 by siRNA mimics DCA. The mitochondria-NFAT-Kv axis and PDK are important therapeutic targets in cancer; the orally available DCA is a promising selective anticancer agent. PMID:17222789

  14. The effect of Yohimbine, an alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the growth hormone response to apomorphine in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Lal, S; Thavundayil, J X; Krishnan, B; Nair, N P; Schwartz, G; Guyda, H

    1996-01-01

    Yohimbine HCl (16 mg po) administered 30 min before clonidine (CLON) (2 ug/kg infused over 10 min) (N = 5) or apomorphine HCl (Apo) (0.5 mg sc) (N = 10) antagonized the growth hormone (GH) response to CLON but had no effect on the GH response to Apo in normal men. This finding suggests that in humans, alpha2 adrenergic mechanisms do not modulate dopaminergic function, at least not in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and that the GH response to Apo is not mediated via an alpha2 adrenergic link. PMID:8820174

  15. Insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R) expression in normal breast, proliferative breast lesions, and breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Rohit; Beriwal, Sushil; McManus, Kim; Dabbs, David J

    2011-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is activated by ligand (IGF-1) binding and promotes mitogenic, metastatic, and antiapoptotic phenotypes of breast cancer. There is a dearth of studies analyzing IGF-1R expression by immunohistochemistry in breast carcinoma. This biomarker analysis will be important for pharmacologic interventions that target the IGF system. IGF-1R expression pattern was first analyzed in normal breast tissue and a variety of breast lesions (71 diagnoses from 35 patients), followed by analysis in 191 consecutive invasive breast carcinomas. Furthermore, 86 carcinomas treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were also analyzed. The carcinomas were classified using immunohistochemical surrogate (to molecular classes) markers-estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. IGF-1R is expressed at moderate level in normal breast tissue which was considered as normal expression. Overexpression and lower expression were defined as higher than normal or lower than normal expression, respectively. Among the benign and noninvasive breast lesions, IGF-1R expression was slightly increased in lesions that are hormonally driven (such as atypical ductal hyperplasia and columnar cells changes) whereas it was significantly reduced in ER-negative lesions (such as apocrine metaplasia). Similarly, in 191 consecutive breast carcinomas, IGF-1R overexpression was predominantly seen in ER-positive+ tumors. The tumor group that consistently showed reduced expression was the ERBB2 group (ER negative/progesterone receptors negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive). The expression was somewhat heterogeneous in the triple-negative group. IGF-1R expression was not predictive of pathologic complete response or tumor volume reduction in ER-negative tumors, but reduced IGF-1R was associated with pathologic complete response and significant tumor volume reduction in

  16. The dynamic sclera: extracellular matrix remodeling in normal ocular growth and myopia development.

    PubMed

    Harper, Angelica R; Summers, Jody A

    2015-04-01

    Myopia is a common ocular condition, characterized by excessive elongation of the ocular globe. The prevalence of myopia continues to increase, particularly among highly educated groups, now exceeding 80% in some groups. In parallel with the increased prevalence of myopia, are increases in associated blinding ocular conditions including glaucoma, retinal detachment and macular degeneration, making myopia a significant global health concern. The elongation of the eye is closely related to the biomechanical properties of the sclera, which in turn are largely dependent on the composition of the scleral extracellular matrix. Therefore an understanding of the cellular and extracellular events involved in the regulation of scleral growth and remodeling during childhood and young adulthood will provide future avenues for the treatment of myopia and its associated ocular complications.

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana glyoxalase 2-1 is required during abiotic stress but is not essential under normal plant growth.

    PubMed

    Devanathan, Sriram; Erban, Alexander; Perez-Torres, Rodolfo; Kopka, Joachim; Makaroff, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The glyoxalase pathway, which consists of the two enzymes, GLYOXALASE 1 (GLX 1) (E.C.: 4.4.1.5) and 2 (E.C.3.1.2.6), has a vital role in chemical detoxification. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are at least four different isoforms of glyoxalase 2, two of which, GLX2-1 and GLX2-4 have not been characterized in detail. Here, the functional role of Arabidopsis thaliana GLX2-1 is investigated. Glx2-1 loss-of-function mutants and plants that constitutively over-express GLX2-1 resemble wild-type plants under normal growth conditions. Insilico analysis of publicly available microarray datasets with ATTEDII, Mapman and Genevestigator indicate potential role(s) in stress response and acclimation. Results presented here demonstrate that GLX2-1 gene expression is up-regulated in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana by salt and anoxia stress, and by excess L-Threonine. Additionally, a mutation in GLX2-1 inhibits growth and survival during abiotic stresses. Metabolic profiling studies show alterations in the levels of sugars and amino acids during threonine stress in the plants. Elevated levels of polyamines, which are known stress markers, are also observed. Overall our results suggest that Arabidopsis thaliana GLX2-1 is not essential during normal plant life, but is required during specific stress conditions. PMID:24760003

  18. Mechanisms of adaptation in rat small intestine: regional differences in quantitative morphology during normal growth and experimental hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, T M; Carson, F L

    1989-01-01

    The gross and microscopical dimensions of small intestines from three groups of rats were investigated by morphometric (mainly stereological) methods. The groups were chosen to represent relatively 'steady state' situations: normal growth (over a 12 week period) and intestinal hyperplasia due to streptozotocin-diabetes of 12 weeks duration. Four intestinal segments were sampled along each intestine. For normal groups, no interaction effects were found, suggesting that growth affected all regions of the small intestine in the same way. Older rats were heavier and their intestines were longer and narrower. In addition, villous surface area was more extensive and the villi differed in shape. Volumes of crypts, submucosa and muscularis externa were all reduced. Diabetic animals weighed less than age-matched controls and their intestines were wider but not significantly longer. All surface areas and volumes were increased substantially. However, hypertrophy of the muscularis externa was not detected by measuring muscularis thickness. Villi altered their shape. At least for villous height, the effects of diabetes were greater in terminal segments. These findings are discussed in the context of the reported effects of age and experimental hyperplasia (including diabetes) on intestinal architecture and behaviour. PMID:2532638

  19. Arabidopsis thaliana Glyoxalase 2-1 Is Required during Abiotic Stress but Is Not Essential under Normal Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Devanathan, Sriram; Erban, Alexander; Perez-Torres, Rodolfo; Kopka, Joachim; Makaroff, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The glyoxalase pathway, which consists of the two enzymes, GLYOXALASE 1 (GLX 1) (E.C.: 4.4.1.5) and 2 (E.C.3.1.2.6), has a vital role in chemical detoxification. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are at least four different isoforms of glyoxalase 2, two of which, GLX2-1 and GLX2-4 have not been characterized in detail. Here, the functional role of Arabidopsis thaliana GLX2-1 is investigated. Glx2-1 loss-of-function mutants and plants that constitutively over-express GLX2-1 resemble wild-type plants under normal growth conditions. Insilico analysis of publicly available microarray datasets with ATTEDII, Mapman and Genevestigator indicate potential role(s) in stress response and acclimation. Results presented here demonstrate that GLX2-1 gene expression is up-regulated in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana by salt and anoxia stress, and by excess L-Threonine. Additionally, a mutation in GLX2-1 inhibits growth and survival during abiotic stresses. Metabolic profiling studies show alterations in the levels of sugars and amino acids during threonine stress in the plants. Elevated levels of polyamines, which are known stress markers, are also observed. Overall our results suggest that Arabidopsis thaliana GLX2-1 is not essential during normal plant life, but is required during specific stress conditions. PMID:24760003

  20. Older individuals heterozygous for a growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor gene mutation are shorter than normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H; Cardoso-Filho, Marco A; Pereira, Rossana M C; Oliveira, Carla R P; Souza, Anita H O; Santos, Elenilde G; Campos, Viviane C; Valença, Eugênia H O; de Oliveira, Francielle T; Oliveira-Neto, Luiz A; Gois-Junior, Miburge B; Oliveira-Santos, Alecia A; Salvatori, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) is the most important stimulus for GH secretion by the pituitary gland. Subjects homozygous for GHRH receptor (GHRHR) gene (GHRHR) inactivating mutations have severe GH deficiency, resulting in severe short stature if not treated. We previously reported that young adults heterozygous for the c.57+1G>A null GHRHR mutation (MUT/N) have reduced weight and body mass index (BMI) but normal stature. Here we have studied whether older MUT/N have an additional phenotype. In a cross-sectional study, we measured height, weight and blood pressure, and calculated BMI in two groups (young, 20-40 years of age) and old (60-80 years) of individuals heterozygous for the same GHRHR mutation, and compared with a large number of individuals of normal genotype residing in the same geographical area. Standard deviation score (SDS) of weight was lower, and BMI had a trend toward reduction in young heterozygous compared with young normals, without significant difference in stature. Conversely, SDS of height was lower in older heterozygous individuals than in controls, corresponding to a reduction of 4.2 cm. These data show a reduced stature in older subjects heterozygous for the c.57+1G>A GHRHR mutation, indicating different effects of heterozygosis through lifespan. PMID:25761575

  1. Arabidopsis ACT11 modifies actin turnover to promote pollen germination and maintain the normal rate of tube growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming; Huang, Shanjin

    2015-08-01

    Actin is an ancient conserved protein that is encoded by multiple isovariants in multicellular organisms. There are eight functional actin genes in the Arabidopsis genome, and the precise function and mechanism of action of each isovariant remain poorly understood. Here, we report the characterization of ACT11, a reproductive actin isovariant. Our studies reveal that loss of function of ACT11 causes a delay in pollen germination, but enhances pollen tube growth. Cytological analysis revealed that the amount of filamentous actin decreased, and the rate of actin turnover increased in act11 pollen. Convergence of actin filaments upon the germination aperture was impaired in act11 pollen, consistent with the observed delay of germination. Reduction of actin dynamics with jasplakinolide suppressed the germination and tube growth phenotypes in act11 pollen, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms involve an increase in actin dynamics. Thus, we demonstrate that ACT11 is required to maintain the rate of actin turnover in order to promote pollen germination and maintain the normal rate of pollen tube growth.

  2. Metabolomic analysis reveals differences in umbilical vein plasma metabolites between normal and growth-restricted fetal pigs during late gestation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gang; Liu, Chuang; Feng, Cuiping; Fan, Zhiyong; Dai, Zhaolai; Lai, Changhua; Li, Zhen; Wu, Guoyao; Wang, Junjun

    2012-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major problem for both human health and animal production due to its association with high rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality, low efficiency of food utilization, permanent adverse effects on postnatal growth and development, and long-term health and productivity of the offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms for IUGR are largely unknown. In this study, one IUGR fetus and one normal body weight (NBW) fetus were obtained from each of 9 gilts at each of 2 gestational ages (d 90 and 110). Metabolomes of umbilical vein plasma in IUGR and NBW fetuses were determined by MS, while hormones, amino acids, and related metabolites in maternal and fetal plasma were measured using assay kits and chromatographic methods. Metabolites (including glucose, urea, ammonia, amino acids, and lipids) in umbilical vein plasma exhibited a cluster of differences between IUGR and NBW fetuses on d 90 and 110 of gestation. These changes in the IUGR group are associated with disorders of nutrient and energy metabolism as well as endocrine imbalances, which may contribute to the retardation of fetal growth and development. The findings help provide information regarding potential mechanisms responsible for IUGR in swine and also have important implications for the design of effective strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat IUGR in other mammalian species, including humans.

  3. Cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by SDS-solubilized single-walled carbon nanotubes in normal rat kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Chang-Won; Kang, Su-Jin; Kang, Youn Kyung; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung

    2011-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), promising novel nanomaterials, have been applied to drug delivery and bio-imaging; however, their potential harmful effects on human health and environment have gained much attention recently. In the present study, we investigated cytotoxic effect of solubilized single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs), which were dispersed in water by sodium dodesyl sulfate (SDS), in normal rat kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E). SDS-SWCNT (0.125-10 μg/mL)-treated NRK-52E cells showed decreased cell viability and enhanced cytotoxicity marker levels following 24-48 h incubation. In addition, SDS-SWCNT treatment evoked the cell growth inhibition: 8 μg/mL SDS-SWCNT induced the growth arrest at G(0)/G(1) phase and levels of cell cycle-related proteins such as CDK2, CDK6 and phosphorylated-retinoblastoma (pRB) were significantly reduced by CNT. Whereas, at higher concentration of SDS-SWCNT, the percentage of cell numbers in apoptotic sub-G(1) phase was substantially increased. Along with these changes, SDS-SWCNT treatment elevated protein levels for p53 and p21 with a concomitant increase in the single strand DNA breakage. Taken together, these results suggest that SDS-solubilized SWCNTs exert genotoxic effect in renal epithelial cells, and p53-dependent signaling can be associated with the growth arrest and apoptosis events upon CNT-induced DNA damage.

  4. Achieving pH control in microalgal cultures through fed-batch addition of stoichiometrically-balanced growth media

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of accounting for proton uptake and secretion has confounded interpretation of the stoichiometry of photosynthetic growth of algae. This is also problematic for achieving growth of microalgae to high cell concentrations which is necessary to improve productivity and the economic feasibility of commercial-scale chemical production systems. Since microalgae are capable of consuming both nitrate and ammonium, this represents an opportunity to balance culture pH based on a nitrogen feeding strategy that does not utilize gas-phase CO2 buffering. Stoichiometry suggests that approximately 36 weight%N-NH4+ (balance nitrogen as NO3-) would minimize the proton imbalance and permit high-density photoautotrophic growth as it does in higher plant tissue culture. However, algal media almost exclusively utilize nitrate, and ammonium is often viewed as ‘toxic’ to algae. Results The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exclusively utilize ammonium when both ammonium and nitrate are provided during growth on excess CO2. The resulting proton imbalance from preferential ammonium utilization causes the pH to drop too low to sustain further growth when ammonium was only 9% of the total nitrogen (0.027 gN-NH4+/L). However, providing smaller amounts of ammonium sequentially in the presence of nitrate maintained the pH of a Chlorella vulgaris culture for improved growth on 0.3 gN/L to 5 gDW/L under 5% CO2 gas-phase supplementation. Bioreactor pH dynamics are shown to be predictable based on simple nitrogen assimilation as long as there is sufficient CO2 availability. Conclusions This work provides both a media formulation and a feeding strategy with a focus on nitrogen metabolism and regulation to support high-density algal culture without buffering. The instability in culture pH that is observed in microalgal cultures in the absence of buffers can be overcome through alternating utilization of ammonium and nitrate. Despite the highly regulated

  5. T Cells Development Is Different between Thymus from Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetus at Different Gestational Stage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Weizong; Lai, Changhua

    2013-03-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the development of T cells in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) piglets at different gestational stages, and tentatively explore the relationship between T cells development and the Notch signaling pathway. A total of 18 crossbred (Landrace×Large white) primiparous sows were mated at similar weights and estruses and euthanized at d 60, 90 and 110 of gestation with six replicates for each time point. One IUGR and one normal fetus were picked from each litter. The T-cell subsets, mRNA expression of Delta-like1, Delta-like4, Jagged1, and Notch2 genes in the thymus were investigated. Compared to normal piglets, CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(+) cells in IUGR fetuses at d 90 was 0.13% lower (p<0.05). At d 110 of gestation CD8(+) T cells in IUGR fetuses was 0.19% lower (p<0.05). The percentage of CD8(+) T cells was 3.14% lower (p<0.05) of the total T cells in IUGR pigs at d 60. The abundance of Notch2 and Delta-like4 mRNA at d 110 was 20.93% higher and 0.77% (p<0.05) lower, and Delta-like1 mRNA at d 90 was 0.19% (p<0.05) higher compared to normal pigs. These results suggested that normal fetuses had a greater proportion of T-cell subsets at earlier gestation periods, and the Notch signaling pathway was likely partially responsible for these differences to some degree.

  6. HOXA/PBX3 knockdown impairs growth and sensitizes cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia cells to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Glenda J.; Liberante, Fabio G.; Kettyle, Laura M; O’Hagan, Kathleen A.; Finnegan, Damian P. J.; Bullinger, Lars; Geerts, Dirk; McMullin, Mary Frances; Lappin, Terry R. J.; Mills, Ken I.; Thompson, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The cytogenetically normal subtype of acute myeloid leukemia is associated with an intermediate risk which complicates therapeutic options. Lower overall HOX/TALE expression appears to correlate with more favorable prognosis/better response to treatment in some leukemias and solid cancer. The functional significance of the associated gene expression and response to chemotherapy is not known. Three independent microarray datasets obtained from large cohorts of patients along with quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation were used to identify a four-gene HOXA/TALE signature capable of prognostic stratification. Biochemical analysis was used to identify interactions between the four encoded proteins and targeted knockdown used to examine the functional importance of sustained expression of the signature in leukemia maintenance and response to chemotherapy. An 11 HOXA/TALE code identified in an intermediate-risk group of patients (n=315) compared to a group with a favorable risk (n=105) was reduced to a four-gene signature of HOXA6, HOXA9, PBX3 and MEIS1 by iterative analysis of independent platforms. This signature maintained the favorable/intermediate risk partition and where applicable, correlated with overall survival in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia. We further showed that cell growth and function are dependent on maintained levels of these core genes and that direct targeting of HOXA/PBX3 sensitizes cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia cells to standard chemotherapy. Together the data support a key role for HOXA/TALE in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia and demonstrate that targeting of clinically significant HOXA/PBX3 elements may provide therapeutic benefit to patients with this subtype of leukemia. PMID:23539541

  7. Normal calves produced after transfer of embryos cultured in a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization in Japanese black cows.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Nobutada; Umeki, Hidenobu; Nishino, Osamu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether high concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) would have a beneficial effect on bovine embryo development in vitro and to obtain normal calves by using an ovum pick up method and embryo culture in a chemically defined medium. When compared with controls, EGF (100 or 200 ng/ml) or IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the rate of embryos that developed into blastocysts during an 8-day culture after the in vitro fertilization of oocytes obtained from ovaries from a slaughterhouse. IGF-I induced a dose-dependent increase in cell number in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, whereas EGF stimulated proliferation only in the inner cell mass. A combination of EGF (100 ng/ml) and IGF-I (50 ng/ml) produced an additive effect, and embryos developed into blastocysts at a comparatively high rate (27.9%) compared with controls (12.0%). A similar rate of development was achieved using a combination of EGF and IGF-I in the culture of embryos following ovum pick up by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration and in vitro fertilization, and 5 blastocysts that developed after the culture were transferred into uteri; two embryos implanted, and normal calves were born. These results suggest that the combined use of EGF and IGF-I makes bovine embryo culture in a chemically defined medium a practical and useful procedure for producing blastocysts, and its application to embryo culture following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization could be useful for producing normal calves.

  8. A numerical modelling approach to investigate the surface processes response to normal fault growth in multi-rift settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechlivanidou, Sofia; Cowie, Patience; Finch, Emma; Gawthorpe, Robert; Attal, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    This study uses a numerical modelling approach to explore structural controls on erosional/depositional systems within rifts that are characterized by complex multiphase extensional histories. Multiphase-rift related topography is generated by a 3D discrete element model (Finch et al., Basin Res., 2004) of normal fault growth and is used to drive the landscape evolution model CHILD (Tucker et al., Comput. Geosci., 2001). Fault populations develop spontaneously in the discrete element model and grow by both tip propagation and segment linkage. We conduct a series of experiments to simulate the evolution of the landscape (55x40 km) produced by two extensional phases that differ in the direction and in the amount of extension. In order to isolate the effects of fault propagation on the drainage network development, we conduct experiments where uplift/subsidence rates vary both in space and time as the fault array evolves and compare these results with experiments using a fixed fault array geometry with uplift rate/subsidence rates that vary only spatially. In many cases, areas of sediment deposition become uplifted and vise-versa due to complex elevation changes with respect to sea level as the fault array develops. These changes from subaerial (erosional) to submarine (depositional) processes have implications for sediment volumes and sediment caliber as well as for the sediment routing systems across the rift. We also explore the consequences of changing the angle between the two phases of extension on the depositional systems and we make a comparison with single-phase rift systems. Finally, we discuss the controls of different erodibilities on sediment supply and detachment-limited versus transport-limited end-member models for river erosion. Our results provide insights into the nature and distribution of sediment source areas and the sediment routing in rift systems where pre-existing rift topography and normal fault growth exert a fundamental control on

  9. Association of Tumor Growth Factor-β and Interferon-γ Serum Levels With Insulin Resistance in Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sotoodeh Jahromi, Abdolreza; Sanie, Mohammad Sadegh; Yusefi, Alireza; Zabetian, Hassan; Zareian, Parvin; Hakimelahi, Hossein; Madani, Abdolhossien; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2015-09-28

    Pregnancy is related to change in glucose metabolism and insulin production. The aim of our study was to determine the association of serum IFN-γ and TGF- β levels with insulin resistance during normal pregnancy. This cross sectional study was carried out on 97 healthy pregnant (in different trimesters) and 28 healthy non-pregnant women. Serum TGF-β and IFN- γ level were measured by ELISA method. Pregnant women had high level TGF-β and low level IFN-γ as compared non-pregnant women. Maternal serum TGF-β concentration significantly increased in third trimester as compared first and second trimester of pregnancy. Maternal serum IFN-γ concentration significantly decreased in third trimester as compared first and second trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant women exhibited higher score of HOMA IR as compared non-pregnant women. There were association between gestational age with body mass index (r=0.28, P=0.005), TGF-β (r=0.45, P<0.001) and IFN-γ (r=-0.50, P<0.001). There was significant association between Insulin resistance and TGF-β (r=0.17, p=0.05). Our findings suggest that changes in maternal cytokine level in healthy pregnant women were anti-inflammatory. Furthermore, Tumor Growth Factor-β appears has a role in induction insulin resistance in healthy pregnant women. However, further studies needed to evaluate role of different cytokines on insulin resistance in normal pregnancy.

  10. Assessing the Effects of a School-Wide Data-Based Decision-Making Intervention on Student Achievement Growth in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Geel, Marieke; Keuning, Trynke; Visscher, Adrie J.; Fox, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing international interest in the use of data to improve education, few studies examining the effects on student achievement are yet available. In the present study, the effects of a two-year data-based decision-making intervention on student achievement growth were investigated. Fifty-three primary schools participated in the project,…

  11. Effects of recombinant insulin-like growth factor I on insulin secretion and renal function in normal human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Guler, H P; Schmid, C; Zapf, J; Froesch, E R

    1989-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an important mediator of growth hormone (GH) action and it appeared tempting to evaluate possible clinical applications. Recombinant IGF-I was infused s.c. at a dose of 20 micrograms/kg of body weight per hour during 6 days in two healthy adult subjects. Blood glucose and fasting insulin levels remained within normal limits and IGF-II levels were suppressed. In contrast to insulin, fasting C peptide levels were decreased. GH secretion was also suppressed by IGF-I. Our preliminary data allow us to distinguish between the effects of GH per se and those of IGF-I: GH causes hyperinsulinism, whereas IGF-I leads to decreased insulin secretion. Glomerular filtration rate, as estimated by creatinine clearance, increased to 130% of preinfusion values during the IGF-I infusion. Total creatinine and urea excretion remained unchanged. We conclude that IGF-I influences kidney function and, in contrast to GH, exerts an insulin-sparing effect. It may be speculated that the therapeutic spectrum of IGF-I is quite different from that of GH. Images PMID:2649897

  12. Citrus flavone tangeretin inhibits leukaemic HL-60 cell growth partially through induction of apoptosis with less cytotoxicity on normal lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, T.; Abe, K.; Gotoh, M.; Oka, K.

    1995-01-01

    Certain anti-cancer agents are known to induce apoptosis in human tumour cells. However, these agents are intrinsically cytotoxic against cells of normal tissue origin, including myelocytes and immunocytes. Here we show that a naturally occurring flavone of citrus origin, tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone), induces apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells, whereas the flavone showed no cytotoxicity against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The growth of HL-60 cells in vitro assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation or tetrazolium crystal formation was strongly suppressed in the presence of tangeretin; the IC50 values range between 0.062 and 0.173 microM. Apoptosis of HL-60 cells, assessed by cell morphology and DNA fragmentation, was demonstrated in the presence of > 2.7 microM tangeretin. Flow cytometric analysis of tangeretin-treated HL-60 cells also demonstrated apoptotic cells with low DNA content and showed a decrease of G1 cells and a concomitant increase of S and/or G2/M cells. Apoptosis was evident after 24 h of incubation with tangeretin, and the tangeretin effect as assessed by DNA fragmentation or growth inhibition was significantly attenuated in the presence of Zn2+, which is known to inhibit Ca(2+)-dependent endonuclease activity. Ca2+ and Mg2+, in contrast, promoted the effect of tangeretin. Cycloheximide significantly decreased the tangeretin effect on HL-60 cell growth, suggesting that protein synthesis is required for flavonoid-induced apoptosis. Tangeretin showed no cytotoxicity against either HL-60 cells or mitogen-activated PBMCs even at high concentration (27 microM) as determined by a dye exclusion test. Moreover, the flavonoid was less effective on growth of human T-lymphocytic leukaemia MOLT-4 cells or on blastogenesis of PBMCs. These results suggest that tangeretin inhibits growth of HL-60 cells in vitro, partially through induction of apoptosis, without causing serious side-effects on immune cells

  13. Rapid copper acquisition by developing murine mesothelioma: decreasing bioavailable copper slows tumor growth, normalizes vessels and promotes T cell infiltration.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Andrew; Jackaman, Connie; Beddoes, Katie M; Ricciardo, Belinda; Nelson, Delia J

    2013-01-01

    Copper, an essential trace element acquired through nutrition, is an important co-factor for pro-angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Decreasing bioavailable copper has been used as an anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer strategy with promising results. However, the role of copper and its potential as a therapy in mesothelioma is not yet well understood. Therefore, we monitored copper levels in progressing murine mesothelioma tumors and analyzed the effects of lowering bioavailable copper. Copper levels in tumors and organs were assayed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mesothelioma tumors rapidly sequestered copper at early stages of development, the copper was then dispersed throughout growing tumor tissues. These data imply that copper uptake may play an important role in early tumor development. Lowering bioavailable copper using the copper chelators, penicillamine, trientine or tetrathiomolybdate, slowed in vivo mesothelioma growth but did not provide any cures similar to using cisplatin chemotherapy or anti-VEGF receptor antibody therapy. The impact of copper lowering on tumor blood vessels and tumor infiltrating T cells was measured using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Copper lowering was associated with reduced tumor vessel diameter, reduced endothelial cell proliferation (reduced Ki67 expression) and lower surface ICAM/CD54 expression implying reduced endothelial cell activation, in a process similar to endothelial normalization. Copper lowering was also associated with a CD4(+) T cell infiltrate. In conclusion, these data suggest copper lowering is a potentially useful anti-mesothelioma treatment strategy that slows tumor growth to provide a window of opportunity for inclusion of other treatment modalities to improve patient outcomes.

  14. Normal growth and development

    MedlinePlus

    ... and development can be divided into four periods: Infancy Preschool years Middle childhood years Adolescence Soon after ... child's age. Healthy eating habits should begin during infancy. This can help prevent diseases such as high ...

  15. Posttranslational regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 in normal and transformed human fibroblasts. Insulin-like growth factor dependence and biological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Conover, C A; Kiefer, M C; Zapf, J

    1993-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) is a 24-26-kD protein expressed by a variety of cell types in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of normal adult human fibroblasts with 10 nM insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) for 24 h resulted in an 85% decrease in endogenous IGFBP-4, as assessed by Western ligand blot analysis of the conditioned medium. Incubation of human fibroblast-conditioned medium (HFCM) with IGF-II under cell-free conditions led to a similar loss of IGFBP-4. This posttranslationally regulated decrease in IGFBP-4 appeared to be due to a protease in HFCM: (a) It could be prevented with specific protease inhibitors or incubation at 4 degrees C; (b) proteolysis of recombinant human (rh) IGFBP-4 required HFCM; (c) immunoblotting and radiolabeling confirmed cleavage of IGFBP-4 into 18- and 14-kD IGFBP-4 fragments. The protease was specific for IGFBP-4, and was strictly dependent on IGFs for activation. IGF-II was the most effective of the natural and mutant IGFs tested, inducing complete hydrolysis of rhIGFBP-4 at a molar ratio of 0.25:1 (IGF/IGFBP-4). Simian virus 40-transformed adult human fibroblasts also expressed IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-4 protease, as well as an inhibitor of IGFBP-4 proteolysis. In biological studies, intact rhIGFBP-4 potently inhibited IGF-I-stimulated [3H]aminoisobutyric acid uptake, whereas proteolyzed rhIGFBP-4 had no inhibitory effect. In conclusion, these data provide evidence for a novel IGF-dependent IGFBP-4-specific protease that modifies IGFBP-4 structure and function, and indicate a preferential role for IGF-II in its activation. Posttranslational regulation of IGFBP-4 may provide a means for cooperative control of local cell growth by IGF-I and IGF-II. Images PMID:7680662

  16. Structural inheritance during normal fault growth in multi-phase rifts; a case study from the Northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazli Khani, Hamed; Bell, Rebecca E.; Fossen, Haakon; A-L. Jackson, Christopher; Rotevatn, Atle; Gawthorpe, Robert L.

    2015-04-01

    In multi-phase rift systems such as the northern North Sea rift, pre-existing basement structures influence the nucleation, growth and linkage of rift-related normal faults. However, our understanding of the degree of physical and kinematic linkage between basement and cover structures is limited, since deep structures are generally poorly imaged on seismic reflection data. In the North Sea Rift, two main phases of rifting are recognized in the Permian-Triassic and Middle Jurassic-to-Early Cretaceous. Moreover, prior to rifting, the area underwent multiple episodes of deformation during the Ordovician-Devonian Caledonian orogeny and Devonian extension. In this study we investigate the influence of pre-existing structures on the i) evolution of Permian-Triassic and Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous normal fault systems and ii) distribution of strain during reactivation of older structures in the northern North Sea rift. For this purpose we utilize 2D (-9 s TWT) and 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the North Viking Graben, covering the Horda Platform in the east and the East Shetland Basin in the west. We show that low-angle (< 30°) intrabasement reflections extend, in some areas, upward into the Triassic section. West-dipping and east-dipping intrabasement structures are identified in the Horda Platform and East Shetland Basin respectively, while in the Northern Viking Graben area both west and east-dipping structures are mapped. At depth, some of intrabasement structures terminate against high-amplitude reflections in the lower-crust. This study documents dissimilar development of Intrabasement structures in the Horda Platform, Viking Graben and East Shetland Basin. In the Viking Graben and Horda Platform these structures are more developed and in some places cross-cut each other, while in the East Shetland Basin, only two sets of structures have been mapped. We also show that intrabasement structures in the Horda Platform are generally lower angle than

  17. A unique receptor-independent mechanism by which insulinlike growth factor I regulates the availability of insulinlike growth factor binding proteins in normal and transformed human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Conover, C A

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) associate with specific IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) present in plasma and extracellular fluids that can modulate the anabolic effects of these peptides. IGF-I has been shown to increase IGFBP concentrations in vivo and in vitro, but the mechanism and significance of this action are unknown. We examined these issues using normal and simian virus 40-transformed adult human fibroblasts (SV40-HF) in culture. Treatment with IGF-I markedly stimulated the appearance of IGFBP-3 (42/38 kD doublet), a 36 kD IGFBP, and 28-32 kD IGFBPs in the medium of these cells, as assessed by Western ligand blotting; IGF-I decreased levels of 24 kD IGFBP in normal HF cultures. The IGF-I-induced change in IGFBP levels was not a type I IGF receptor-mediated effect on IGFBP synthesis because (a) high concentrations of insulin did not mimic IGF-I's effect; (b) IGF-II and IGF-I analogues having reduced affinity for the IGF-I receptor were equipotent with IGF-I in increasing medium IGFBPs; (c) [QAYL]IGF-I, and IGF-I analogue having normal receptor affinity and decreased affinity for IGFBPs, had no effect; and (d) alpha IR-3, a monoclonal antibody specific for the type I IGF receptor, did not block IGF-I-stimulated increases in IGFBPs. In physiological studies, preincubation with 1 nM IGF-I had no effect on type I IGF receptor binding in normal HF and SV40-HF. In contrast, preincubation of cells with an equivalent concentration of [QAYL]IGF-I downregulated the receptors 40-50%. Changes in cell surface receptor number were reflected in cell responsiveness to IGF-I-stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation and [3H]aminoisobutyric acid uptake. In conclusion, IGF-I regulates the availability of specific IGFBPs in cultured human fibroblasts by a novel receptor-independent mechanism. Rapid changes in levels of soluble IGFBPs as a direct response to extracellular IGF-I, in turn, modulate IGF-I peptide and receptor interaction, and may constitute an

  18. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    PubMed

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.01), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05) were more likely to achieve puberty by 251 days of age. Thirty-six percent of the lambs conceived and, at the estimated date of conception, the average live weight was 46.9 ± 0.6 kg and average age was 273 days. Fertility, fecundity and reproductive rate were positively related to PWT (P < 0.05) and thus live weight at the start of mating (P < 0.001). Reproductive performance was not correlated with blood concentrations of ghrelin, leptin or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Many ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Normal versus Fetal Growth Restriction in Pregnancy: The Significance of Maternal Body Mass Index, Nutritional Status, Anemia, and Ultrasonography Screening

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Laxmichaya D.; Venkat, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction or intrauterine growth restriction is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity in newborns. Fetal growth restriction is a complex multifactorial condition resulting from several fetal and maternal disorders. The objective of this study was twofold: first to examine the correlation between maternal parameters such as body mass index (BMI), nutritional status, anemia, and placental weight and diameter, and their effects on fetal growth and then to evaluate the effect of early screening by ultrasonography (USG) on the outcome of growth restricted pregnancies. In this study, 53 cases of fetal growth restriction were compared to 53 normal fetuses delivered in consecutive sequence. Growth restricted fetuses were delivered earlier in gestation, when compared with normal growth fetuses. Maternal anemia and malnutrition have significant association with the fetal growth restriction. Maternal anthropometry, such as low BMI, had effects on placental diameter and weight, which, in turn, adversely affected fetal weight. Thus, early USG screening along with robust screening for maternal BMI, nutritional status, and anemia can assist the obstetric team in providing early diagnosis, prompt intervention, and better outcome in pregnancy with fetal growth restriction. PMID:25763389

  20. A Longitudinal Study on State Mathematics and Reading Assessments: Comparisons of Growth Models on Students' Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Pui Chi

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student growth on mathematics and reading assessments across academic years (Spring 2006 through Spring 2009) using three different growth models: hierarchical linear model (HLM), value-added model (VAM), and student growth percentile model (SGP). Comparisons across these three growth models were conducted to investigate the…

  1. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in normal human liver and during active hepatic fibrogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Pinzani, M.; Milani, S.; Herbst, H.; DeFranco, R.; Grappone, C.; Gentilini, A.; Caligiuri, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Ngo, D. V.; Romanelli, R. G.; Gentilini, P.

    1996-01-01

    Expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor (R) subunits was evaluated in normal human liver and in cirrhotic liver tissue by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In normal liver, PDGF and PDGF-R subunit expression was limited to a few mesenchymal cells of the portal tract stroma and vessels. In cirrhotic liver, PDGF-A and -B chain mRNA expression was markedly increased and was co-distributed with immunoreactivity for PDGF-AA and -BB in infiltrating inflammatory cells and along vascular structures within fibrous septa. These aspects were paralleled by a marked overexpression of PDGF-R alpha- and beta-subunit mRNAs and of the relative immunoreactivities in a wide range of mesenchymal cells in fibrous septa and in perisinusoidal alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-positive cells. In general expression and distribution of PDGF-R subunits appeared to be related to the activation of different mesenchymal cell types involved in the fibroproliferative process. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of PDGF-R subunits in liver tissue specimens with increasing degrees of necroinflammatory activity. The results of this additional study confirmed that expression of PDGF-R subunits is highly correlated with the severity of histological lesions and collagen deposition. Our results, providing evidence for a functional involvement of PDGF/PDGF-R in liver fibrogenesis, greatly support the results of previous in vitro studies and direct attention toward pharmacological strategies able to affect the series of signaling events arising from the autophosphorylation of PDGF-R subunits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8774134

  2. Sildenafil Therapy Normalizes the Aberrant Metabolomic Profile in the Comt−/− Mouse Model of Preeclampsia/Fetal Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Joanna L.; Sulek, Karolina; Andersson, Irene J.; Davidge, Sandra T.; Kenny, Louise C.; Sibley, Colin P.; Mandal, Rupasri; Wishart, David S.; Broadhurst, David I.; Baker, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are serious complications of pregnancy, associated with greatly increased risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These complications are difficult to diagnose and no curative treatments are available. We hypothesized that the metabolomic signature of two models of disease, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT−/−) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Nos3−/−) knockout mice, would be significantly different from control C57BL/6J mice. Further, we hypothesised that any differences in COMT−/− mice would be resolved following treatment with Sildenafil, a treatment which rescues fetal growth. Targeted, quantitative comparisons of serum metabolic profiles of pregnant Nos3−/−, COMT−/− and C57BL/6J mice were made using a kit from BIOCRATES. Significant differences in 4 metabolites were observed between Nos3−/− and C57BL/6J mice (p < 0.05) and in 18 metabolites between C57BL/6J and COMT−/− mice (p < 0.05). Following treatment with Sildenafil, only 5 of the 18 previously identified differences in metabolites (p < 0.05) remained in COMT−/− mice. Metabolomic profiling of mouse models is possible, producing signatures that are clearly different from control animals. A potential new treatment, Sildenafil, is able to normalize the aberrant metabolomic profile in COMT−/− mice; as this treatment moves into clinical trials, this information may assist in assessing possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26667607

  3. Heterosis, maternal and direct effects in double-muscled and normal cattle: I. Reproduction and growth traits.

    PubMed

    Arthur, P F; Makarechian, M; Price, M A; Berg, R T

    1989-04-01

    Data from a two-breed group diallel experiment involving double-muscled (DM) and normal (N) cattle were analyzed to evaluate the importance of heterosis, maternal and direct effects for reproduction and growth traits. The DM cattle were from a composite of primarily Angus, Charolais, Galloway and Hereford breeds, and N cattle were crossbred cattle with at least 50% Hereford breeding. The data comprised a total of 491 matings and 389 calvings in four breeding seasons. Records on calving performance, calving date, calf crop born and weaned, sex ratio of progeny and weight of calves were analyzed using least squares procedures. Significant heterosis of 5 to 12% was observed for all the calf crop and growth traits, except for birth weight. Heterosis resulted in 24% reduction in the incidence of dystocia and perinatal calf mortality (P less than .05). The significant heterosis was due mainly to poor production in DM X DM crosses. The DM cows were superior (P less than .05) to N cows in reciprocal crossing (maternal effect) for all the calf crop traits, but had higher incidence of calving difficulty and a higher proportion of male progeny. Significant direct effect was observed for all the traits except calving date and sex ratio among progeny. The N sires were superior for all the calf crop traits and caused less incidence of dystocia and perinatal mortality compared with the DM sires. Significant differences were obtained between the straightbreds for all the traits except calving date. The N straightbreds were superior to the DM straightbreds for all the significant traits.

  4. Expression profiles of inhibitor of growth protein 2 in normal and cancer tissues: An immunohistochemical screening analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuang; Yang, Xue-Feng; Gou, Wen-Feng; Lu, Hang; Li, Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Tu; Sun, Hong-Zhi; Zheng, Hua-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitor of growth protein 2 (ING2) has an important role in the regulation of chromatin remodeling, cell proliferation, cell‑cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. The present study performed an immunohistochemical analysis for expression profiling of ING2 protein in an array of tissues comprising normal mouse and human tissues, as well as human hepatocellular (n=62), renal clear cell (n=62), pancreatic (n=62), esophageal squamous cell (n=45), cervical squamous cell (n=31), breast (n=144), gastric (n=196), colorectal (n=96), ovarian (n=208), endometrial (n=96) and lung (n=192) carcinoma tissues. In mouse tissues, ING2 was detected in the nuclei and cytoplasm of the glandular epithelium of breast, hepatocytes, intestine, bronchium and alveoli, as well as the squamous epithelium of skin and glomeruli, and in myocardial cells, while it was located in the cytoplasm of renal tubules and striated muscle cells. ING2 protein was scattered in the brain and spleen. In human tissues, ING2 protein was principally distributed in the cytoplasm, while in it was present in the cytoplasm and nuclei in the stomach, intestine, cervix, endometrium trachea, breast and pancreas. The nuclear location of ING2 in the stomach was more prominent than that in the cytoplasm. High ING2 immunoreactivity was detected in the tongue, stomach, skin, pancreas, cervix and breast, whereas weakly in the brain stem, thymus, thyroid, lung, striated muscle, testis, bladder and ovary. In total, 617 out of 1,194 of the tested cancer tissues (51.7%) were ING2-positive. In most cases, ING2 expression was found to be restricted to the cytoplasm of all cancer tissues, while in certain cancer types, including renal clear cell, ovarian and colorectal carcinoma, it was occasionally present in the nuclei. Among the cancer tissues examined, ING2 was most frequently expressed in breast cancer (67.4%) and gynecological cancer types, including ovarian cancer (61.5%) and endometrial cancer (57.3%). Compared with

  5. Expression profiles of inhibitor of growth protein 2 in normal and cancer tissues: An immunohistochemical screening analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuang; Yang, Xue-Feng; Gou, Wen-Feng; Lu, Hang; Li, Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Tu; Sun, Hong-Zhi; Zheng, Hua-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitor of growth protein 2 (ING2) has an important role in the regulation of chromatin remodeling, cell proliferation, cell‑cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. The present study performed an immunohistochemical analysis for expression profiling of ING2 protein in an array of tissues comprising normal mouse and human tissues, as well as human hepatocellular (n=62), renal clear cell (n=62), pancreatic (n=62), esophageal squamous cell (n=45), cervical squamous cell (n=31), breast (n=144), gastric (n=196), colorectal (n=96), ovarian (n=208), endometrial (n=96) and lung (n=192) carcinoma tissues. In mouse tissues, ING2 was detected in the nuclei and cytoplasm of the glandular epithelium of breast, hepatocytes, intestine, bronchium and alveoli, as well as the squamous epithelium of skin and glomeruli, and in myocardial cells, while it was located in the cytoplasm of renal tubules and striated muscle cells. ING2 protein was scattered in the brain and spleen. In human tissues, ING2 protein was principally distributed in the cytoplasm, while in it was present in the cytoplasm and nuclei in the stomach, intestine, cervix, endometrium trachea, breast and pancreas. The nuclear location of ING2 in the stomach was more prominent than that in the cytoplasm. High ING2 immunoreactivity was detected in the tongue, stomach, skin, pancreas, cervix and breast, whereas weakly in the brain stem, thymus, thyroid, lung, striated muscle, testis, bladder and ovary. In total, 617 out of 1,194 of the tested cancer tissues (51.7%) were ING2-positive. In most cases, ING2 expression was found to be restricted to the cytoplasm of all cancer tissues, while in certain cancer types, including renal clear cell, ovarian and colorectal carcinoma, it was occasionally present in the nuclei. Among the cancer tissues examined, ING2 was most frequently expressed in breast cancer (67.4%) and gynecological cancer types, including ovarian cancer (61.5%) and endometrial cancer (57.3%). Compared with

  6. Electrotransfer of gene encoding endostatin into normal and neoplastic mouse tissues: inhibition of primary tumor growth and metastatic spread.

    PubMed

    Cichoń, Tomasz; Jamrozy, Laura; Glogowska, Joanna; Missol-Kolka, Ewa; Szala, Stanisław

    2002-09-01

    Electroporation-mediated gene transfer relies upon direct delivery of plasmids into cells permeabilized by electric fields, a method more efficient than transfer using nonviral vectors, although neither approaches the transfer efficiency of viral vectors. Here we studied electrotransfer of a gene encoding an angiogenesis inhibitor (endostatin) into primary tumors and muscle tissues, which would serve as a site of synthesis and secretion into the bloodstream of a therapeutic antimetastatic protein with systemic effects. Optimum electroporation conditions (voltage, number and duration of impulses, separation of caliper electrodes) were first established to maximize expression of a reporter gene transferred into murine Renca kidney carcinoma, B16(F10) melanoma, or skeletal muscle tissues. In neoplastic tissues, electrotransfer of plasmid DNA was far more efficient than electroporation with lipoplexes, but no differences between naked DNA and lipoplexes were found in case of electroporated muscles. We then studied the electrotransfer of plasmid DNA carrying the endostatin gene into pre-established experimental Renca tumors. A significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in animals electroporated with this construct. Electrotransfer of the endostatin gene into muscle tissues resulted in reduced numbers of experimental B16(F10) metastases in the lungs. This study clearly shows that electroporation may be used to efficiently transfer antiangiogenic genes into both normal and neoplastic tissues. PMID:12189527

  7. The polysome-associated proteins Scp160 and Bfr1 prevent P body formation under normal growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Julie; Wang, Congwei; Prescianotto-Baschong, Cristina; Estrada, Alejandro F; Spang, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Numerous mRNAs are degraded in processing bodies (P bodies) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In logarithmically growing cells, only 0-1 P bodies per cell are detectable. However, the number and appearance of P bodies change once the cell encounters stress. Here, we show that the polysome-associated mRNA-binding protein Scp160 interacts with P body components, such as the decapping protein Dcp2 and the scaffold protein Pat1, presumably, on polysomes. Loss of either Scp160 or its interaction partner Bfr1 caused the formation of Dcp2-positive structures. These Dcp2-positive foci contained mRNA, because their formation was inhibited by the presence of cycloheximide. In addition, Scp160 was required for proper P body formation because only a subset of bona fide P body components could assemble into the Dcp2-positive foci in Δscp160 cells. In either Δbfr1 or Δscp160 cells, P body formation was uncoupled from translational attenuation as the polysome profile remained unchanged. Collectively, our data suggest that Bfr1 and Scp160 prevent P body formation under normal growth conditions.

  8. Biosynthesis and interconversion of Drosophila nuclear lamin isoforms during normal growth and in response to heat shock

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Two major immunocross-reactive polypeptides of the Drosophila nuclear envelope, distinguishable in interphase cells on the basis of one- dimensional SDS-PAGE mobility, have been localized to the nuclear lamina by immunoelectron microscopy. These have been designated lamins Dm1 and Dm2. Both lamins are apparently derived posttranslationally from a single, primary translation product, lamin Dm0. A pathway has been established whereby lamin Dm0 is processed almost immediately upon synthesis in the cytoplasm to lamin Dm1. Processing occurs posttranslationally, is apparently proteolytic, and has been reconstituted from cell-free extracts in vitro. Processing in vitro is ATP dependent. Once assembled into the nuclear envelope, a portion of lamin Dm1 is converted into lamin Dm2 by differential phosphorylation. Throughout most stages of development and in Schneider 2 tissue culture cells, both lamin isoforms are present in approximately equal abundance. However, during heat shock, lamin Dm2 is converted nearly quantitatively into lamin Dm1. Implications for understanding the regulation of nuclear lamina plasticity through normal growth and in response to heat shock are discussed. PMID:3624309

  9. Expression of SOCS genes in normal and leukemic human leukocytes stimulated by prolactin, growth hormone and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Dogusan, Z; Hooghe-Peters, E L; Berus, D; Velkeniers, B; Hooghe, R

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the possible role of the recently described family of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) factors in the human lympho-hemopoietic system, we have monitored SOCS factor expression, both constitutive and induced by either cytokines, prolactin (PRL) or growth hormone (GH), using polymerase chain reaction in normal and leukemic cells. CIS (cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein), SOCS-2 and SOCS-3 were constitutively expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. SOCS-3 expression was enhanced by PRL or by IFN-gamma. In bone marrow cells and granulocytes, CIS expression was induced and SOCS-2 enhanced by IFN-gamma and by PRL. In tonsillar cells, CIS expression was increased and SOCS-2 was induced by IL-1beta, IL-6, PRL and GH. SOCS-3 expression was enhanced by IL-1beta. The expression of SOCS-7 was increased by IL-6, PRL and GH. In Raji B-lymphoma cells, the expression of SOCS-2 and SOCS-7 was enhanced by IL-1beta. In THP-1 myeloid leukemia cells pretreated with TPA (to induce receptors for IFN-gamma), IFN-gamma induced SOCS-2. Jurkat cells expressed more SOCS-2 when exposed to PRL. Original observations in this work include the first report on SOCS-7 induction by cytokines. Also our data shed new light on the possible involvement of PRL and GH in the cytokine network. These hormones could modulate the transduction of signals originating from receptors for various cytokines.

  10. Genotype-by-environment interaction with broiler genotypes differing in growth rate. 3. Growth rate and water consumption of broiler progeny from weight-selected versus nonselected parents under normal and high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Deeb, N; Cahaner, A

    2002-03-01

    One cycle of high-intensity selection on BW was conducted to study correlated effects on performance under high ambient temperature (AT). From a large flock of a commercial sire-line, 3 males and 15 females with the highest BW at 35 d of age were mated and produced a group of 120 BW-selected chicks. Three average-BW males and 15 average-BW females from the same flock were mated to produce a control group of 120 chicks. On Day 17, the two groups were equally divided between two temperature-controlled chambers and housed in individual cages. One chamber was set to a normal AT (NAT; constant 22 C) and the second chamber to high AT (HAT; constant 32 C). Under NAT, the relative advantage of the selected broilers over the controls did not change from 17 to 42 d of age, averaging about 15% for BW gain and 9.7% for feed consumption. These differences were halved under HAT from Days 17 to 28 and were reversed from 28 to 42 d of age, when the selected broilers consumed significantly less feed and gained less BW than the controls. Water-to-feed ratio was measured in each AT treatment. From 28 to 42 d of age, averaged over the two groups, birds under HAT consumed 2.5 g water/g of feed compared to only 1.5 g water/g feed under NAT. The diminished superiority of the selected broilers under HAT led to a substantial genotype-by-environment interaction involving high AT and within-stock genetic differences in growth rate. It appears that broilers selected for rapid growth under optimal conditions do not achieve their genetic potential under high AT. Thus, specific indicators of adaptation to heat, possibly water consumption or body temperature, should be added to commercial selection for rapid growth to improve broiler performance in hot climates.

  11. Requirements of blue, UV-A, and UV-B light for normal growth of higher plants, as assessed by action spectra for growth and related phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Artificial lighting is very important for experimental purposes, as well as for the practical use of plants when not enough sunlight is available. To grow green higher plants in their normal forms under artificial lighting constructing efficient and economically reasonable lighting systems is not an easy task. One possible approach would be to simulate sunlight in intensity and the radiation spectrum, but its high construction and running costs are not likely to allow its use in practice. Sunlight may be excessive in irradiance in some or all portions of the spectrum. Reducing irradiance and removing unnecessary wavebands might lead to an economically feasible light source. However, removing or reducing a particular waveband from sunlight for testing is not easy. Another approach might be to find the wavebands required for respective aspects of plant growth and to combine them in a proper ratio and intensity. The latter approach seems more practical and economical, and the aim of this Workshop lies in advancing this approach. I summarize our present knowledge on the waveband requirements of higher plants for the regions of blue, UV-A and UV-B.

  12. Teaching normal birth, normally.

    PubMed

    Hotelling, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    Teaching normal-birth Lamaze classes normally involves considering the qualities that make birth normal and structuring classes to embrace those qualities. In this column, teaching strategies are suggested for classes that unfold naturally, free from unnecessary interventions. PMID:19436595

  13. Culture of normal and malignant primary human mammary epithelial cells in a physiological manner simulates in vivo growth patterns and allows discrimination of cell type.

    PubMed

    Bergstraesser, L M; Weitzman, S A

    1993-06-01

    We cultured primary human mammary epithelial cells from five reduction mammoplasties and five breast carcinomas and attempted to improve culture conditions and define cell populations grown. Normal cells cultured on Matrigel basement membrane-like substance formed multicellular three-dimensional structures reminiscent of tissue ducts and alveoli, while malignant cells remained as single cells crawling through Matrigel much as malignant cells separate and invade basement membrane in vivo. This re-creation of normal and malignant breast cell morphology may facilitate studies of breast cancer cell biology and determination of malignant cell authenticity in culture. Growth of cells in a reduced oxygen concentration of 12% improved cell proliferation over room air (21%); however, cells could not proliferate in a completely physiological oxygen concentration of 6%, perhaps because of the medium used. We developed an improved medium for malignant cell growth, which lengthened their life span in culture, and a completely defined medium which supported cell proliferation for six passages. Methods to determine the epithelial nature of mammary epithelial cells are illustrated and discussed. The authenticity of malignant cells in culture was suggested by their proliferation without certain growth factors required for normal cell growth or with transforming growth factor-beta, which arrests normal cell proliferation, and by their contact independence.

  14. Summary of a Three-Year Study of Academic and School Achievement Between Color-Deficient and Normal Primary Age Pupils: Phase Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, John M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The results of this study suggest that little relationship exists between color vision and primary academic achievement. The authors believe that staff time could be more effectively utilized in a junior high school screening program for color vision rather than in the primary grades. (JC)

  15. Regulation of transglutaminase type II by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in normal and transformed human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    George, M D; Vollberg, T M; Floyd, E E; Stein, J P; Jetten, A M

    1990-07-01

    This study examines the effect of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) on the expression of Type I and II transglutaminase in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK cells). Treatment of undifferentiated NHEK cells with 100 pM TGF-beta 1 caused a 10- to 15-fold increase in the activity of a soluble transglutaminase. Based on its cellular distribution and immunoreactivity this transglutaminase was identified as Type II (tissue) transglutaminase. TGF-beta 1 did not enhance the levels of the membrane-bound Type I (epidermal) transglutaminase activity which is induced during squamous cell differentiation and did not increase Type II transglutaminase activity in differentiated NHEK cells. Several SV40 large T antigen-immortalized NHEK cell lines also exhibited a dramatic increase in transglutaminase Type II activity after TGF-beta 1 treatment; however, TGF-beta 1 did not induce any significant change in transglutaminase activity in the carcinoma-derived cell lines SCC-13, SCC-15, and SQCC/Y1. Half-maximal stimulation of transglutaminase Type II activity in NHEK cells occurred at a dose of 15 pM TGF-beta 1. TGF-beta 2 was about equally effective. This enhancement in transglutaminase activity was related to an increase in the amount of transglutaminase Type II protein as indicated by immunoblot analysis. Northern blot analyses using a specific cDNA probe for Type II transglutaminase showed that exposure of NHEK cells to TGF-beta 1 caused a marked increase in the mRNA levels of this enzyme which could be observed as early as 4 h after the addition of TGF-beta 1. Maximal induction of transglutaminase Type II mRNA occurred between 18 and 24 h. The increase in Type II transglutaminase mRNA levels was blocked by the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that this increase in mRNA by TGF-beta 1 is dependent on protein synthesis. PMID:1972706

  16. The conserved carboxy-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFIID is sufficient to support normal cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Poon, D; Schroeder, S; Wang, C K; Yamamoto, T; Horikoshi, M; Roeder, R G; Weil, P A

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the structure-function relationships of TFIID through in vivo complementation tests. A yeast strain was constructed which lacked the chromosomal copy of SPT15, the gene encoding TFIID, and was therefore dependent on a functional plasmid-borne wild-type copy of this gene for viability. By using the plasmid shuffle technique, the plasmid-borne wild-type TFIID gene was replaced with a family of plasmids containing a series of systematically mutated TFIID genes. These various forms of TFIID were expressed from three different promoter contexts of different strengths, and the ability of each mutant form of TFIID to complement our chromosomal TFIID null allele was assessed. We found that the first 61 amino acid residues of TFIID are totally dispensable for vegetative cell growth, since yeast strains containing this deleted form of TFIID grow at wild-type rates. Amino-terminally deleted TFIID was further shown to be able to function normally in vivo by virtue of its ability both to promote accurate transcription initiation from a large number of different genes and to interact efficiently with the Gal4 protein to activate transcription of GAL1 with essentially wild-type kinetics. Any deletion removing sequences from within the conserved carboxy-terminal region of S. cerevisiae TFIID was lethal. Further, the exact sequence of the conserved carboxy-terminal portion of the molecule is critical for function, since of several heterologous TFIID homologs tested, only the highly related Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene could complement our S. cerevisiae TFIID null mutant. Taken together, these data indicate that all important functional domains of TFIID appear to lie in its carboxy-terminal 179 amino acid residues. The significance of these findings regarding TFIID function are discussed. Images PMID:1922021

  17. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in the transition from normal mammary development to preneoplastic mammary lesions.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, David L; Wood, Teresa L; Furth, Priscilla A; Lee, Adrian V

    2009-02-01

    Adult female mammary development starts at puberty and is controlled by tightly regulated cross-talk between a group of hormones and growth factors. Although estrogen is the initial driving force and is joined by luteal phase progesterone, both of these hormones require GH-induced IGF-I in the mammary gland in order to act. The same group of hormones, when experimentally perturbed, can lead to development of hyperplastic lesions and increase the chances, or be precursors, of mammary carcinoma. For example, systemic administration of GH or IGF-I causes mammary hyperplasia, and overproduction of IGF-I in transgenic animals can cause the development of usual or atypical hyperplasias and sometimes carcinoma. Although studies have clearly demonstrated the transforming potential of both GH and IGF-I receptor in cell culture and in animals, debate remains as to whether their main role is actually instructive or permissive in progression to cancer in vivo. Genetic imprinting has been shown to occur in precursor lesions as early as atypical hyperplasia in women. Thus, the concept of progression from normal development to cancer through precursor lesions sensitive to hormones and growth factors discussed above is gaining support in humans as well as in animal models. Indeed, elevation of estrogen receptor, GH, IGF-I, and IGF-I receptor during progression suggests a role for these pathways in this process. New agents targeting the GH/IGF-I axis may provide a novel means to block formation and progression of precursor lesions to overt carcinoma. A novel somatostatin analog has recently been shown to prevent mammary development in rats via targeted IGF-I action inhibition at the mammary gland. Similarly, pegvisomant, a GH antagonist, and other IGF-I antagonists such as IGF binding proteins 1 and 5 also block mammary gland development. It is, therefore, possible that inhibition of IGF-I action, or perhaps GH, in the mammary gland may eventually play a role in breast cancer

  18. Ovarian follicular development and the follicular fluid hormones and growth factors in normal women of advanced reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N A; Battaglia, D E; Miller, P B; Branigan, E F; Giudice, L C; Soules, M R

    1996-05-01

    Reproductive aging in women (a physiological decline in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis) is an infrequently investigated and poorly understood biological phenomenon. Although menstrual irregularity and anovulation are known to precede the menopause, normal women in their fifth decade experience a profound decrease in fertility while still experiencing regular menstrual cycles. To further our understanding of the physiological changes associated with reproductive aging, this study examined the spontaneous development and function of ovarian follicles in normal women, aged 40-45 yr. The subjects were women (n = 21), aged 40-45 yr, who had regular 25- to 35-day ovulatory menstrual cycles, were not infertile, had no medical problems, and met specific criteria for weight, diet, and exercise. The controls were normal women (n = 20), age 20-25 yr, who met the same criteria. The subjects were monitored with daily hormone measurements [LH, FSH, estradiol (E), progesterone (P), and inhibin] and pelvic sonograms from day 1 of their study cycle until the dominant ovarian follicle reached a mean diameter of 15 mm and/or a serum E level of 550 pmol/L or higher was attained. At that time, 10,000 U hCG were given, and a transvaginal sonographic follicle aspiration was performed 32 h later. The follicular fluid (FF) was collected, stored frozen at -70 C, and later analyzed for E, P, testosterone (T), androstenedione, inhibin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and IGF-II. The number of cycle days to aspiration was lower (11.6 vs. 15.6 days; P < 0.001) and the early follicular phase mean FSH and mean E levels were higher (9.3 vs. 6.6 mIU/mL and 305 vs. 160 pmol/L; P < 0.01) in the older (O) group compared to the younger group. There was a strong trend toward higher FF mean E (2280 vs. 1931 nmol/L) and lower FF mean T (978 vs. 2361 pmol/L) levels in group O. The E/T ratio was significantly higher (5253 vs. 2408; P < 0.03) in group O. In group O, the mean FF

  19. Ovarian follicular development and the follicular fluid hormones and growth factors in normal women of advanced reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N A; Battaglia, D E; Miller, P B; Branigan, E F; Giudice, L C; Soules, M R

    1996-05-01

    Reproductive aging in women (a physiological decline in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis) is an infrequently investigated and poorly understood biological phenomenon. Although menstrual irregularity and anovulation are known to precede the menopause, normal women in their fifth decade experience a profound decrease in fertility while still experiencing regular menstrual cycles. To further our understanding of the physiological changes associated with reproductive aging, this study examined the spontaneous development and function of ovarian follicles in normal women, aged 40-45 yr. The subjects were women (n = 21), aged 40-45 yr, who had regular 25- to 35-day ovulatory menstrual cycles, were not infertile, had no medical problems, and met specific criteria for weight, diet, and exercise. The controls were normal women (n = 20), age 20-25 yr, who met the same criteria. The subjects were monitored with daily hormone measurements [LH, FSH, estradiol (E), progesterone (P), and inhibin] and pelvic sonograms from day 1 of their study cycle until the dominant ovarian follicle reached a mean diameter of 15 mm and/or a serum E level of 550 pmol/L or higher was attained. At that time, 10,000 U hCG were given, and a transvaginal sonographic follicle aspiration was performed 32 h later. The follicular fluid (FF) was collected, stored frozen at -70 C, and later analyzed for E, P, testosterone (T), androstenedione, inhibin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and IGF-II. The number of cycle days to aspiration was lower (11.6 vs. 15.6 days; P < 0.001) and the early follicular phase mean FSH and mean E levels were higher (9.3 vs. 6.6 mIU/mL and 305 vs. 160 pmol/L; P < 0.01) in the older (O) group compared to the younger group. There was a strong trend toward higher FF mean E (2280 vs. 1931 nmol/L) and lower FF mean T (978 vs. 2361 pmol/L) levels in group O. The E/T ratio was significantly higher (5253 vs. 2408; P < 0.03) in group O. In group O, the mean FF

  20. A syndrome of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with normal teeth, peculiar facies, pigmentary disturbances, psychomotor and growth retardation, bilateral nuclear cataract, and other signs.

    PubMed Central

    Freire-Maia, N; Fortes, V A; Pereira, L C; Opitz, J M; Marcalle, F A; Cavalli, I J

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a 7-year-old girl with trichodysplasia, normal teeth, onychogryposis, hypohidrosis, psychomotor and growth retardation, dry and warm skin with follicular hyperkeratosis, pigmentary disturbances (hyper- and hypochromic spots), bilateral nuclear cataract, dermatoglyphic anomalies, and other signs. This condition is considered a new form of ectodermal dysplasia. Images PMID:1177286

  1. Influence of Student Engagement, Moods and Completed Assignments with on Normalized Gains and Growth in Reading Literature Using iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how engagement, mood and number of assignments completed on computerized differentiated homework using an iPad in a one-to-one mobile device environment influenced the growth index and normalized gain in reading literature benchmark assessments of students in grades five, six, and seven. Furthermore,…

  2. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on the Beliefs about Intelligence, Effort Beliefs, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Academic Self-Efficacy of LD Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldridge, Mary Caufield

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…

  3. Native Language Proficiency, English Literacy, Academic Achievement, and Occupational Attainment in Limited-English-Proficient Students: A Latent Growth Modeling Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmi, R. Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that native language (L1) proficiency promotes English acquisition and overall academic achievement, a key theoretical assumption underlying bilingual education, was tested using latent growth modeling of data from 899 limited-English-proficient (LEP) eighth graders who were followed for 12 years in the National Education…

  4. Effect of source and amount of energy and rate of growth in the growing phase on performance and carcass characteristics of early- and normal-weaned steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Cecava, M J; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2004-01-01

    One hundred eighty-four Angus x Simmental steers (initial BW 161.7 +/- 3.4 kg) were used to determine whether different sources and amounts of energy in the growing phase could extend the growth curve and maintain high amounts of intramuscular fat deposition in early-weaned steers. Steers were allotted by source, age, and BW to one of four growing-phase (119 to 259 d of age) regimens. For three regimens, steers were weaned at 119 d of age and either 1) fed (DM basis) a 50% grain diet ad libitum (ALC); 2) limit-fed a 70% grain diet to achieve a gain of 0.8 kg/d from 119 to 192 d of age, and 1.2 kg/d from 193 to 259 d of age (LFC); or 3) fed a 60% haylage diet ad libitum from 119 to 192 d of age, and a 25% haylage diet ad libitum from 193 to 259 d of age (ALF). For the fourth regimen, steers were normal-weaned at 204 d of age and fed a silage diet from 205 to 259 d of age (NW). From 260 d of age to slaughter, all steers consumed a 70% grain (DM basis) diet. Limit-fed and ALF steers spent the most, and NW the least amount of time (P < 0.01) in the feedlot to achieve a target fat depth of 1.27 cm. Ad libitum-fed steers were the youngest (331 d), and NW the oldest (383 d) at slaughter (P < 0.01). Overall ADG was greatest for ALC and least for NW steers (P < 0.01). Overall, ALF steers consumed the most DM (P < 0.01). While in the feedlot, LFC and ALC steers were more efficient in converting feed to BW gain (P < 0.01) than ALF and NW steers. Normal-weaned had the least and ALC the greatest (P < 0.01) fat depth at 260 d of age. Consequently, NW steers produced the heaviest, and ALC the lightest (P < 0.01) carcasses at slaughter. Normal-weaned steers had the largest, and ALC and LFC steers had the smallest longissimus muscle area (P < 0.06). Growing phase dietary treatments did not affect (P > 0.20) yield grade. Marbling score did not differ (P > 0.35), but laboratory analysis revealed that ALC steers had the lowest percentage of fat (P < 0.02) in the longissimus muscle

  5. Supra-salt normal fault growth during the rise and fall of a diapir: Perspectives from 3D seismic reflection data, Norwegian North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvedt, Anette B. M.; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2016-10-01

    Normal faulting and the deep subsurface flow of salt are key processes controlling the structural development of many salt-bearing sedimentary basins. However, our detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal relationship between normal faulting and salt movement is poor due to a lack of natural examples constraining their geometric and kinematic relationship in three-dimensions. To improve our understanding of these processes, we here use 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway, to determine the structure and growth of a normal fault array formed during the birth, growth and decay of an array of salt structures. We show that the fault array and salt structures developed in response to: (i) Late Triassic-to-Middle Jurassic extension, which involved thick-skinned, sub-salt and thin-skinned supra-salt faulting with the latter driving reactive diapirism; (ii) Early Cretaceous extensional collapse of the walls; and (iii) Jurassic-to-Neogene, active and passive diapirism, which was at least partly coeval with and occurred along-strike from areas of reactive diapirism and wall collapse. Our study supports physical model predictions, showcasing a three-dimensional example of how protracted, multiphase salt diapirism can influence the structure and growth of normal fault arrays.

  6. Cell-type Selective Phototoxicity Achieved with Chlorophyll-a Derived Photosensitizers in a Co-culture System of Primary Human Tumor and Normal Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Erin C.; Bowman, Mary J.; Pandey, Ravindra K.; Henderson, Barbara W.; Baumann, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    The ATP-dependent transporter ABCG2 exports certain photosensitizers (PS) from cells, implying that the enhanced expression of ABCG2 by cancer cells may confer resistance to photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated by those PS. In 35 patient-derived primary cultures of lung epithelial and stromal cells, PS with different subcellular localization and affinity for ABCG2 displayed cell-type specific retention both independent and dependent on ABCG2. In the majority of cases, the ABCG2 substrate 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) was lost from fibroblastic cells more rapidly than from their epithelial counterparts, even in the absence of detectable ABCG2 expression, facilitating selective eradication by PDT of epithelial over fibroblastic cells in tumor/stroma co-cultures. Pairwise comparison of normal and transformed epithelial cells also identified tumor cells with elevated or reduced retention of HPPH, depending on ABCG2. Enhanced ABCG2 expression led to the selective PDT survival of tumor cells in tumor/stroma co-cultures. This survival pattern was reversible through HPPH derivatives that are not ABCG2 substrates or the ABCG2 inhibitor imatinib mesylate. PS retention, not differences in subcellular distribution or cell signaling responses, was determining cell type selective death by PDT. These data suggest that up-front knowledge of tumor characteristics, specifically ABCG2 status, could be helpful in individualized PDT treatment design. PMID:21883244

  7. Serum "big insulin-like growth factor II" from patients with tumor hypoglycemia lacks normal E-domain O-linked glycosylation, a possible determinant of normal propeptide processing.

    PubMed Central

    Daughaday, W H; Trivedi, B; Baxter, R C

    1993-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) gene is overexpressed in many mesenchymal tumors and can lead to non-islet-cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH). ProIGF-II consists of the 67 aa of IGF-II with a carboxyl 89-aa extension, the E domain. A derivative of proIGF-II containing only the first 21 aa of the E domain [proIGF-II-(E1-21)] has been isolated by others from normal serum and has O-linked glycosylation. We found that the "big IGF-II" of normal serum, as detected by an RIA directed against residues 1-21 of the E domain of proIGF-II, was reduced in size by treatment with neuraminidase and O-glycosidase. The big IGF-II, which is greatly increased in NICTH sera, was unaffected by neuraminidase and O-glycosidase treatment. We have also shown that big IGF-II from normal serum is retained by jacalin lectin columns and that big IGF-II from NICTH serum was not retained, indicating that it lacked O-glycosylation. Normal O-linked glycosylation may be required for proper peptidase processing of proIGF-II. The lack of normal O-linked glycosylation by tumors may explain the predominance of big IGF-II in NICTH sera. In normal serum, most of the IGF-II is present in a 150-kDa ternary complex with IGF-II binding protein (IGFBP) 3 and alpha subunit. In NICTH serum, however, the complexes carrying big IGF-II are < 50 kDa. We investigated whether big IGF-II of NICTH was responsible for this abnormality. Tumor big IGF-II and IGF-II were equally effective in forming the 150-kDa complex with purified IGFBP-3 and 125I-labeled alpha subunit. Both 125I-labeled IGF-II and 125I-labeled proIGF-II-(E1-21), when incubated with normal serum, formed the 150-kDa complex as detected by Superose 12 exclusion chromatography. We conclude that the nonglycosylated big IGF-II of NICTH serum can form normal complexes with serum IGFBPs. The defective binding in NICTH is attributable to defective IGFBP-3 binding. PMID:7685912

  8. Evidence of a Differential Effect of Ability Grouping on the Reading Achievement Growth of Language-Minority Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Ability grouping is sometimes thought to exacerbate inequality by increasing achievement gaps; however, ability grouping may in fact benefit a fast growing and often marginalized student population: children from non-English-speaking home environments. The level-appropriate, small-group instruction received in reading ability groups may be…

  9. Growth in Literacy and Numeracy Achievement: Evidence and Explanations of a Summer Slowdown in Low Socio-Economic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen; Weaven, Mary; Davies, Anne; Hooley, Neil; Davidson, Kristy; Loton, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of summer slide or setback has gained a great deal of attention in the USA. It is understood to account for as much as 80% of the difference in achievement for students between low and high socio-economic families over their elementary schooling. In a mixed method longitudinal study of reforms in low socio-economic school…

  10. Math and Science Achievement in English Language Learners: Multivariate Latent Growth Modeling of Predictors, Mediators, and Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmi, R. Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of various strategies for educating the growing U.S. population of English language learners (ELLs) has attracted a great deal of controversy. Bilingual education theory posits that retention and continued development of native language (L1) skills facilitate academic achievement through two mediating mechanisms. First, L1…

  11. Viewing How STEM Project-Based Learning Influences Students' Science Achievement through the Implementation Lens: A Latent Growth Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Niyazi; Navruz, Bilgin; Younes, Rayya; Capraro, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on professional development programs indicate these programs, when sustained, have a positive impact on student achievement; however, many of these studies have failed to use longitudinal data. The purpose of this study is to understand how one particular instructional practice (STEM PBL) used consistently influences student…

  12. Heterologous expression of ACC deaminase from Trichoderma asperellum improves the growth performance of Arabidopsis thaliana under normal and salt stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Zhang, Ju; Chen, Long; Shi, Xiaoying; Lui, Zhihua; Li, Chengwei

    2015-09-01

    Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene (ACCD) of Trichoderma asperellum ACCC30536 (TaACCD) were created and their growth performance was assessed under normal and salt stress conditions. In order to characterize their growth, root length, root number, fresh weight (FW), relative water content (RWC), seed production, and seed number were measured. Under normal growing condition, all growth parameters except for dry weight (DW) of the transgenic plants increased significantly compared to WT plants. Furthermore, the transgenic line also exhibited higher tolerance and faster growth than WT plants in the presence of 150 mM NaCl. The increased salt stress tolerance of the transgenic plants is attributed to a greater RWC, root weight, root length, root number and FW under salt stress, and to reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, cell death and electrolyte leakage compared to WT plants. The reduction in ROS levels could be explained by increased activity of several antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Thus, we propose that heterologous expression of TaACCD could be used to improve salt stress tolerance in plants. PMID:26004912

  13. Heterologous expression of ACC deaminase from Trichoderma asperellum improves the growth performance of Arabidopsis thaliana under normal and salt stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Zhang, Ju; Chen, Long; Shi, Xiaoying; Lui, Zhihua; Li, Chengwei

    2015-09-01

    Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene (ACCD) of Trichoderma asperellum ACCC30536 (TaACCD) were created and their growth performance was assessed under normal and salt stress conditions. In order to characterize their growth, root length, root number, fresh weight (FW), relative water content (RWC), seed production, and seed number were measured. Under normal growing condition, all growth parameters except for dry weight (DW) of the transgenic plants increased significantly compared to WT plants. Furthermore, the transgenic line also exhibited higher tolerance and faster growth than WT plants in the presence of 150 mM NaCl. The increased salt stress tolerance of the transgenic plants is attributed to a greater RWC, root weight, root length, root number and FW under salt stress, and to reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, cell death and electrolyte leakage compared to WT plants. The reduction in ROS levels could be explained by increased activity of several antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Thus, we propose that heterologous expression of TaACCD could be used to improve salt stress tolerance in plants.

  14. Third and Final Shuttle Mission of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment Conducted: Highest Supercooling Ever Recorded Achieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Malarik, Diane C.

    1999-01-01

    Dendrites describe the treelike crystal morphology commonly assumed in metals and alloys that freeze from supercooled or supersaturated melts. There remains a high level of engineering interest in dendritic solidification because the size, shape, and orientation of the dendrites determine the final microstructure of a material. It is the microstructure that then determines the physical properties of cast or welded products. Although it is well known that dendritic growth is controlled by the transport of latent heat from the moving solid-liquid interface, an accurate and predictive model has not yet been developed. The effects of gravity-induced convection on the transfer of heat from the interface have prevented adequate testing, under terrestrial conditions, of solidification models. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) constituted a series of three microgravity experiments flown aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The apparatus was used to grow and record dendrite solidification in the absence of gravity-induced convective heat transfer, thereby producing a wealth of benchmark-quality data for testing solidification models and theories.

  15. Fibrillarin, a nucleolar protein, is required for normal nuclear morphology and cellular growth in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Mohammed Abdullahel; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Ma, Nan; Takata, Hideaki; Yokoyama, Masami; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi . E-mail: kfukui@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-24

    Fibrillarin is a key small nucleolar protein in eukaryotes, which has an important role in pre-rRNA processing during ribosomal biogenesis. Though several functions of fibrillarin are known, its function during the cell cycle is still unknown. In this study, we confirmed the dynamic localization of fibrillarin during the cell cycle of HeLa cells and also performed functional studies by using a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and RNAi technique. We observed that depletion of fibrillarin has almost no effect on the nucleolar structure. However, fibrillarin-depleted cells showed abnormal nuclear morphology. Moreover, fibrillarin depletion resulted in the reduction of the cellular growth and modest accumulation of cells with 4n DNA content. Our data suggest that fibrillarin would play a critical role in the maintenance of nuclear shape and cellular growth.

  16. Hype, harmony and human factors: applying user-centered design to achieve sustainable telehealth program adoption and growth.

    PubMed

    Rossos, P G; St-Cyr, O; Purdy, B; Toenjes, C; Masino, C; Chmelnitsky, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of international experience with the use of information and communication technologies in healthcare delivery, widespread telehealth adoption remains limited and progress slow. Escalating health system challenges related to access, cost and quality currently coincide with rapid advancement of affordable and reliable internet based communication technologies creating unprecedented opportunities and incentives for telehealth. In this paper, we will describe how Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and user-centric elements have been incorporated into the establishment of telehealth within a large academic medical center to increase acceptance and sustainability. Through examples and lessons learned we wish to increase awareness of HFE and its importance in the successful implementation, innovation and growth of telehealth programs.

  17. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model

    PubMed Central

    FERRARIO, VIRGILIO F.; SFORZA, CHIARELLA; SCHMITZ, JOHANNES H.; CIUSA, VERONICA; COLOMBO, ANNA

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13–14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  18. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Schmitz, J H; Ciusa, V; Colombo, A

    2000-04-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13-14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  19. Tankyrase 2 Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Domain-Deleted Mice Exhibit Growth Defects but Have Normal Telomere Length and Capping

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Susan J; Poitras, Marc; Cook, Brandoch; Liu, Yie; Smith, Susan

    2006-03-01

    Regulation of telomere length maintenance and capping are a critical cell functions in both normal and tumor cells. Tankyrase 2 (Tnks2) is a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) that has been shown to modify itself and TRF1, a telomere-binding protein. We show here by overexpression studies that tankyrase 2, like its closely related homolog tankyrase 1, can function as a positive regulator of telomere length in human cells, dependent on its catalytic PARP activity. To study the role of Tnks2 in vivo, we generated mice with the Tnks2 PARP domain deleted. These mice are viable and fertile but display a growth retardation phenotype. Telomere analysis by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), flow-FISH, and restriction fragment analysis showed no change in telomere length or telomere capping in these mice. To determine the requirement foTnks2 in long-term maintenance of telomeres, we generated embryonic stem cells with the Tnks2 PARP domain deleted and observed no change, even upon prolonged growth, in telomere length or telomere capping. Together these results suggest that Tnkjs2 has a role in normal growth and development but is not essential for telomere length maintenance or telomere capping in mice.

  20. Short normal children and environmental disadvantage: a longitudinal study of growth and cognitive development from 4 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Dowdney, L; Skuse, D; Morris, K; Pickles, A

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to follow up a sample of exceptionally short but medically healthy children, and a normal comparison group, previously studied at 4 years of age. They lived in an inner-city area which was, on objective criteria, seriously disadvantaged in socioeconomic terms. When first seen at 4 years, cases were significantly impaired in cognitive abilities relative to comparisons, although firstborns were much less severely affected. Of the original 46 cases, 45 were assessed again at 11 years. Most continued to live in the same geographical area. Case children remained exceptionally short, even when parental stature was taken into account, although a degree of catch-up had occurred. One third had special educational needs, and a similar proportion had been referred for speech therapy. Verbal and nonverbal cognitive skills of both case and comparison children had, on the whole, changed little and group differences persisted. In conclusion, short normal children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds are at high risk of educational failure at elementary school. PMID:9804034

  1. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth while Limiting the Spread of Sensititive Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21st century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Nuclear states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions not to develop indigenous fuel cycle capabilities have been driven primarily by economics. However, additional incentives may be required to offset a nuclear state’s perceived loss of energy independence. This paper proposes alternative economic development incentives that could help countries decide to forgo development of sensitive nuclear technologies. The incentives are created through a nuclear-centered industrial complex with “symbiotic” links to indigenous economic opportunities. This paper also describes a practical tool called the “Nuclear Materials Exchange” for identifying these opportunities.

  2. Intravenously injected insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I/IGF binding protein-3 complex exerts insulin-like effects in hypophysectomized, but not in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Zapf, J; Hauri, C; Futo, E; Hussain, M; Rutishauser, J; Maack, C A; Froesch, E R

    1995-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) circulates in blood in two large molecular mass forms of 150 and 40 kD. Under normal conditions, most of the IGF is bound to the 150-kD complex by which it is retained in the circulation and therefore unable to exert acute insulin-like actions. The aim of this study was to answer the question whether or not IGF in the 40-kD complex is bioavailable to insulin target tissues and thus can cause acute insulin-like effects in vivo. Intravenously injected 1:1 molar recombinant human (rh) IGF I/rhIGF binding protein (BP)-3 complex lowered blood glucose and stimulated glycogen synthesis in diaphragm of hypophysectomized, but not of normal rats. The serum half-lives of the two components of the complex were similar to each other, but considerably shorter in hypox than in normal rats. On neutral gel filtration of serum both components of the injected complex appeared predominantly in the 150-kD region in normal rats. In hypox rats which lack the 150-kD complex they were found in the 40-kD region and disappeared rapidly from the circulation. We conclude that in the absence of the 150-kD complex, IGF associated with the 40-kD complex can rapidly leave the vascular compartment, reach insulin or type 1 IGF receptors and exert acute insulin-like effects. PMID:7529258

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor is constitutively expressed in normal human salivary glands and is secreted in the saliva of healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Pammer, J; Weninger, W; Mildner, M; Burian, M; Wojta, J; Tschachler, E

    1998-10-01

    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a specific mitogen for endothelial cells, was examined in salivary glands and in normal saliva. In normal salivary glands, VEGF mRNA and protein were strongly present in acinar cells, whereas little or no VEGF was found in ductal cells. In chronically inflamed glands, VEGF protein was in addition present in ductal elements and in infiltrating mononuclear cells. No difference of VEGF expression was observed between benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. By ELISA, whole saliva of 24 healthy individuals contained up to 2.5 ng/ml (mean 1.4 ng/ml; SD 0.77 ng/ml) of VEGF, confirming the constitutive secretion of this cytokine by human salivary glands. Western blot analysis of normal saliva under non-reducing conditions detected anti-VEGF reactive protein moieties of approximately 46 kD, corresponding to VEGF secreted by cells in tissue culture. Additional anti-VEGF reactive proteins of approximately 60 and 90 kD were detected in the saliva of some individuals. The presence of considerable quantities of VEGF in normal human saliva suggests an important role for this cytokine in the maintenance of the homeostasis of mucous membranes, with rapid induction of neoangiogenesis by salivary VEGF helping to accelerate wound healing within the oral cavity. Moreover, salivary VEGF may permeabilize intraglandular capillaries and thus participate in the regulation of saliva production itself.

  4. SGRL can regulate chlorophyll metabolism and contributes to normal plant growth and development in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew; Moreau, Carol; Chinoy, Catherine; Spanner, Rebecca; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Bendahmane, Abdel; Klenell, Markus; Domoney, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Among a set of genes in pea (Pisum sativum L.) that were induced under drought-stress growth conditions, one encoded a protein with significant similarity to a regulator of chlorophyll catabolism, SGR. This gene, SGRL, is distinct from SGR in genomic location, encoded carboxy-terminal motif, and expression through plant and seed development. Divergence of the two encoded proteins is associated with a loss of similarity in intron/exon gene structure. Transient expression of SGRL in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana promoted the degradation of chlorophyll, in a manner that was distinct from that shown by SGR. Removal of a predicted transmembrane domain from SGRL reduced its activity in transient expression assays, although variants with and without this domain reduced SGR-induced chlorophyll degradation, indicating that the effects of the two proteins are not additive. The combined data suggest that the function of SGRL during growth and development is in chlorophyll re-cycling, and its mode of action is distinct from that of SGR. Studies of pea sgrL mutants revealed that plants had significantly lower stature and yield, a likely consequence of reduced photosynthetic efficiencies in mutant compared with control plants under conditions of high light intensity.

  5. Differences in growth and mortality of juvenile plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L., following normal and extremely high settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modin, Johan; Pihl, Leif

    Abundance of juvenile plaice was quantified with a non-selective drop trap during two consecutive years (1991-1992) from time of settlement in late spring until start of emigration in late summer in a shallow (0-1 m) bay in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. Individual lengths were recorded and otolith sub-samples were examined to determine age distributions (days after metamorphosis). Peak abundance reached 1.4 ind·m -2 in 1991 and 10.0 ind·m -2 in 1992. Settlement in 1991 occurred later than usual, possibly due to offshore winds during spring. Mean lengths at approximately one month after settlements were similar in the two years. Later in the season, however, lengths at age were lower in 1992, implying density-dependent growth. In addition, analyses of individual cohorts demonstrated reduced growth of late settlers in 1992. Instantaneous mortality rates (d -1) did not differ between the two years. Control of population number in 1992 must have been governed by density-independent factors ( e.g. larval supply) shadowing or decoupling a density-dependent regulation. Biomass of one major epibenthic predator Crangon crangon was equal in the two years, but that of another Carcinus maenas was higher in 1992 than in 1991. Thus, a functional response and/or other sources of mortality must be assumed to account for the higher numbers of plaice eaten in 1992.

  6. Correction of Hypertension by Normalization of Endothelial Levels of Fibroblast Growth Factor and Nitric Oxide Synthase in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Pedro; Garcia-Calvo, Margarita; Carceller, Fernando; Reimers, Diana; Zazo, Mercedes; Cuevas, Begona; Munoz-Willery, Isabel; Martinez-Coso, Victoria; Lamas, Santiago; Gimenez-Gallego, Guillermo

    1996-10-01

    Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) share a wide range of diverse biological activities. To date, low levels of FGF have not been correlated with a pathophysiologic state. We report that blood vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats are shown to be associated with a marked decrement in endothelial basic FGF content. This decrement correlates both with hypertension and with a decrease in the endothelial content of nitric oxide synthase. restoration of FGF to physiological levels in the vascular wall, either by systemic administration or by in vivo gene transfer, significantly augmented the number of endothelial cells with positive immunostaining for nitric oxide synthase, corrected hypertension, and ameliorated endothelial-dependent responses to vasoconstrictors. These results suggest an important role for FGFs in blood pressure homeostasis and open new avenues for the understanding of the etiology and treatment of hypertension.

  7. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    , molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) delivers high quality ZnMgO-ZnO quantum well structures. Other thin film techniques such as PLD or MOCVD are also widely used. The main problem at present is to consistently achieve reliable p-type doping. For this topic, see also Chap. 5. In the past years, there have been numerous publications on p-type doping of ZnO, as well as ZnO p-n junctions and light emitting diodes (LEDs). However, a lot of these reports are in one way or the other inconsistent or at least incomplete. It is quite clear from optical data that once a reliable hole injection can be achieved, high brightness ZnO LEDs should be possible. In contrast to that expectation, none of the LEDs reported so far shows efficient light emission, as would be expected from a reasonable quality ZnO-based LED. See also Chap. 13. As a matter of fact, there seems to be no generally accepted and reliable technique for p-type doping available at present. The reason for this is the unfavorable position of the band structure of ZnO relative to the vacuum level, with a very low lying valence band. See also Fig. 5.1. This makes the incorporation of electrically active acceptors difficult. Another difficulty is the huge defect density in ZnO. There are many indications that defects play a major role in transport and doping. In order to solve the doping problem, it is generally accepted that the quality of the ZnO material grown by the various techniques needs to be improved. Therefore, the optimization of ZnO epitaxy is thought to play a key role in the further development of this material system. Besides being used as an active material in optoelectronic devices, ZnO plays a major role as transparent contact material in thin film solar cells. Polycrystalline, heavily n-type doped ZnO is used for this, combining a high electrical conductivity with a good optical transparency. In this case, ZnO thin films are fabricated by large area growth techniques such as sputtering. For this and other

  8. The growth of non-colinear normal fault systems; What can we learn from 3D seismic reflection data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Matthew T.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Duffy, Oliver B.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Sansom, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Many rift zones exhibit a range of fault orientations, rather than simple colinear faults that strike orthogonal to the inferred least principal stress. The formation of non-colinear fault sets has implications for assessing rift-zone kinematics, as well as determining palaeo-stress state in extensional basins. Using 3D seismic reflection data, we deduce the likely mechanisms responsible for the formation of a population of non-colinear faults in the Måløy Slope area of the northern North Sea. Three basement-displacing fault populations exist on the Måløy Slope; (i) large (>1 km throw), N-S-striking faults, (ii) smaller (<250 m throw) N-S-striking faults and (iii) small (<250 m throw) NE-SW-striking faults. All were initiated in the Middle Jurassic. Coeval growth of these fault populations, and the apparent correlation between the NE-SW faults and a NE-SW-trending gravity and magnetic anomaly high lead us to suggest that the NE-SW faults are the result of deflection of the otherwise E-W-orientated least principal stress by NE-trending intrabasement weaknesses. Our study's results have implications for the large-scale kinematic evolution of the North Sea, arguing that major rotations in extension direction are not required to generate multiple fault sets locally or across the rift. This study also highlights the importance of using borehole-constrained 3D seismic data as a tool in understanding non-colinear fault growth, and its broader implications for regional tectonic history.

  9. Snf1-related protein kinase 1 is needed for growth in a normal day-night light cycle.

    PubMed

    Thelander, Mattias; Olsson, Tina; Ronne, Hans

    2004-04-21

    The yeast Snf1 protein kinase and its animal homologue, the AMP-activated protein kinase, play important roles in metabolic regulation, by serving as energy gauges that turn off energy-consuming processes and mobilize energy reserves during low-energy conditions. The closest homologue of these kinases in plants is Snf1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1). We have cloned two SnRK1-encoding genes, PpSNF1a and PpSNF1b, in the moss Physcomitrella patens, where gene function can be studied directly by gene targeting in the haploid gametophyte. A snf1a snf1b double knockout mutant is viable, but lacks all Snf1-like protein kinase activity. The mutant has a complex phenotype that includes developmental abnormalities, premature senescence and altered sensitivities to plant hormones. Remarkably, the double knockout mutant also requires continuous light, and is unable to grow in a normal day-night light cycle. This suggests that SnRK1 is needed for metabolic changes that help the plant cope with the dark hours of the night.

  10. Diachronous Growth of Normal Fault Systems in Multiphase Rift Basins: Structural Evolution of the East Shetland Basin, Northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claringbould, Johan S.; Bell, Rebecca E.; A-L. Jackson, Christopher; Gawthorpe, Robert L.; Odinsen, Tore

    2015-04-01

    ) Triassic syn-rift activity on west-dipping faults. Our analysis of regional 2D and basin-wide 3D 'mega-merge' seismic reflection data calibrated by wells allow us to re-evaluate the pre-Triassic-to-Cretaceous structural evolution of the ESB. Our results suggest that pre-Triassic extension was accommodated by diachronous growth of NW-SE-to-NE-SW-striking faults that dipped either to the east or the west. In the NW of the ESB, Triassic syn-rift deposits are observed along large (>20 km long), NE-SW-striking faults. Elsewhere in the basin, post-rift deposits gradually thicken eastward, suggesting differential Triassic post-rift thermal subsidence with its axis to the east of the ESB. Subsequent Early-to-Middle Jurassic deposits thicken eastward across large N-S striking faults, suggesting syn-depositional fault growth. Our observations suggest that, rather than forming in response to discrete periods of extension separated by periods of tectonic quiescence, the ESB witnessed diachronous fault system evolution with faults showing polyphase activity, cross-cutting relationships, and protracted growth from the pre-Triassic to Middle-Late Jurassic. The results of this work reveal the complex structural evolution of rifts, highlight the power of 3D mega-merge seismic reflection data, and demonstrate that the conventional rift package nomenclature of pre-, syn-, and post-rift is difficult to apply at the basin-scale.

  11. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors are required for normal expression of imprinted genes.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jeremie; Charalambous, Marika; Zarse, Kim; Mori, Marcelo A; Kleinridders, Andre; Ristow, Michael; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-10-01

    In addition to signaling through the classical tyrosine kinase pathway, recent studies indicate that insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors (IGF1Rs) can emit signals in the unoccupied state through some yet-to-be-defined noncanonical pathways. Here we show that cells lacking both IRs and IGF1Rs exhibit a major decrease in expression of multiple imprinted genes and microRNAs, which is partially mimicked by inactivation of IR alone in mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in vivo in brown fat in mice. This down-regulation is accompanied by changes in DNA methylation of differentially methylated regions related to these loci. Different from a loss of imprinting pattern, loss of IR and IGF1R causes down-regulated expression of both maternally and paternally expressed imprinted genes and microRNAs, including neighboring reciprocally imprinted genes. Thus, the unoccupied IR and IGF1R generate previously unidentified signals that control expression of imprinted genes and miRNAs through transcriptional mechanisms that are distinct from classical imprinting control. PMID:25246545

  12. Trypanosoma brucei Bloodstream Forms Depend upon Uptake of myo-Inositol for Golgi Complex Phosphatidylinositol Synthesis and Normal Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    González-Salgado, Amaia; Steinmann, Michael; Major, Louise L; Sigel, Erwin; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Smith, Terry K; Bütikofer, Peter

    2015-06-01

    myo-Inositol is a building block for all inositol-containing phospholipids in eukaryotes. It can be synthesized de novo from glucose-6-phosphate in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum. Alternatively, it can be taken up from the environment via Na(+)- or H(+)-linked myo-inositol transporters. While Na(+)-coupled myo-inositol transporters are found exclusively in the plasma membrane, H(+)-linked myo-inositol transporters are detected in intracellular organelles. In Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness, myo-inositol metabolism is compartmentalized. De novo-synthesized myo-inositol is used for glycosylphosphatidylinositol production in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the myo-inositol taken up from the environment is used for bulk phosphatidylinositol synthesis in the Golgi complex. We now provide evidence that the Golgi complex-localized T. brucei H(+)-linked myo-inositol transporter (TbHMIT) is essential in bloodstream-form T. brucei. Downregulation of TbHMIT expression by RNA interference blocked phosphatidylinositol production and inhibited growth of parasites in culture. Characterization of the transporter in a heterologous expression system demonstrated a remarkable selectivity of TbHMIT for myo-inositol. It tolerates only a single modification on the inositol ring, such as the removal of a hydroxyl group or the inversion of stereochemistry at a single hydroxyl group relative to myo-inositol.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus growth and survival during curding of Manchego type cheese produced with normal and subnormal starter activity.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lucia, E; Goyache, J; Blanco, J L; Vadillo, S; Garayzabal, J F; Suarez, G

    1987-04-01

    Manchego type cheese was manufactured from milk from cows, goats and ewes artificially contaminated with 2 X 10(4) S. aureus cells ml. Lactic starter culture was added to the milk at the rate of 1.0 or 0.1% (v/v). the industrial process of Manchego type cheese manufacture was imitated. Cheeses were analyzed for both staphylococcal and non-staphylococcal total aerobic counts, as well as for the pH and enterotoxin production. Growth differences in staphylococcal counts in cheeses prepared with both starter concentrations were seen only after the brine treatment, the counts were 10 times greater with the 0.1% starter. Nevertheless, with the 1% starter culture the staphylococcal counts did not decrease from the moment of inoculation remaining high after brine treatment. For a similar inoculum, the strains used responded in a different manner, the highest values corresponding to strains FRI-100, S6 and FRI-472, and the lowest to FRI-137 and FRI-361. No differences in pH were seen between batches prepared with both starter concentrations. PMID:3590995

  14. UPRT, a suicide-gene therapy candidate in higher eukaryotes, is required for Drosophila larval growth and normal adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arpan C.; Shimell, MaryJane; Leof, Emma R.; Haley, Macy J.; O’Connor, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) is a pyrimidine salvage pathway enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of uracil to uridine monophosphate (UMP). The enzyme is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans and yet phylogenetic evidence suggests that UPRT homologues from higher-eukaryotes, including Drosophila, are incapable of binding uracil. Purified human UPRT also do not show any enzymatic activity in vitro, making microbial UPRT an attractive candidate for anti-microbial drug development, suicide-gene therapy, and cell-specific mRNA labeling techniques. Nevertheless, the enzymatic site of UPRT remains conserved across the animal kingdom indicating an in vivo role for the enzyme. We find that the Drosophila UPRT homologue, krishah (kri), codes for an enzyme that is required for larval growth, pre-pupal/pupal viability and long-term adult lifespan. Our findings suggest that UPRT from all higher eukaryotes is likely enzymatically active in vivo and challenges the previous notion that the enzyme is non-essential in higher eukaryotes and cautions against targeting the enzyme for therapeutic purposes. Our findings also suggest that expression of the endogenous UPRT gene will likely cause background incorporation when using microbial UPRT as a cell-specific mRNA labeling reagent in higher eukaryotes. PMID:26271729

  15. Numerical investigation of heat-mass transfer of calcium phosphates at crystal growth for normal and microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyushkin, A. I.; Suvorova, E. I.

    Numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer at growth of crystals octacalcium phosphate Ca8H2(PO4)6 and hydroxyapatite Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6 from mixture CaCl2 and KH2PO4+ K2HPO4 in a solution KCl for terrestrial conditions and microgravity environment is devoted. Mathematical modeling is performed on the basis of a solution of nonstationary Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flows and heat/mass transfer equations. The results of mathematical modeling, showing possible convective mechanisms of transfer the components are submitted. The influence thermal convection and two mechanisms of concentration convection (separately and jointly) on carry a component and formation of calcium phosphates is considered. The results of parametric calculations for various values of thermal and solutes Grashof numbers are presented. The influences of gravitation on character of transfer the component of reaction and formation calcium phosphates are investigated. The influence of gravitational conditions on dynamics and character of formation of calcium phosphates for conditions of experiments before spent on the Earth and in space under the program EURECA (crystallization of octacalcium phosphate from solution is shown. Also the possible reasons of formation of different sizes of ground and space crystals are discussed.

  16. Trypanosoma brucei Bloodstream Forms Depend upon Uptake of myo-Inositol for Golgi Complex Phosphatidylinositol Synthesis and Normal Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    González-Salgado, Amaia; Steinmann, Michael; Major, Louise L.; Sigel, Erwin; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    myo-Inositol is a building block for all inositol-containing phospholipids in eukaryotes. It can be synthesized de novo from glucose-6-phosphate in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum. Alternatively, it can be taken up from the environment via Na+- or H+-linked myo-inositol transporters. While Na+-coupled myo-inositol transporters are found exclusively in the plasma membrane, H+-linked myo-inositol transporters are detected in intracellular organelles. In Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness, myo-inositol metabolism is compartmentalized. De novo-synthesized myo-inositol is used for glycosylphosphatidylinositol production in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the myo-inositol taken up from the environment is used for bulk phosphatidylinositol synthesis in the Golgi complex. We now provide evidence that the Golgi complex-localized T. brucei H+-linked myo-inositol transporter (TbHMIT) is essential in bloodstream-form T. brucei. Downregulation of TbHMIT expression by RNA interference blocked phosphatidylinositol production and inhibited growth of parasites in culture. Characterization of the transporter in a heterologous expression system demonstrated a remarkable selectivity of TbHMIT for myo-inositol. It tolerates only a single modification on the inositol ring, such as the removal of a hydroxyl group or the inversion of stereochemistry at a single hydroxyl group relative to myo-inositol. PMID:25888554

  17. Expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies--New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals: executive summary report.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Achadi, Endang L; Martorell, Reynaldo; Hadi, Hamam; Thaha, Razak; Jus'at, Idrus; Atmarita; Martianto, Drajat; Ridwan, Hardinsyah; Soekirman

    2009-01-01

    Undernutrition in early childhood has long-term physical and intellectual consequences. Improving child growth should start before the age of two years and be an integrated effort between all sectors, covering all aspects such as diet and nutrient intake, disease reduction, optimum child care, and improved environmental sanitation. To discuss these issues, the Indonesian Danone Institute Foundation organized an expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies: New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals. The objective of the meeting was to have a retrospective view on child growth: lessons learned from programs to overcome under-nutrition in the developed countries and to relate the situation to the Indonesian context, as well as to discuss implications for future programs. Recommendations derived from the meeting include focus intervention on the window of opportunity group, re-activation of the Integrated Health Post at the village level, improvement of infant and young child feeding, expand food fortification intervention programs, strengthen supplementation programs with multi-micronutrient, and strengthening public and private partnership on food related programs.

  18. Using a combined power law and log-normal distribution model to simulate particle formation and growth in a mobile aerosol chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olin, Miska; Anttila, Tatu; Dal Maso, Miikka

    2016-06-01

    We present the combined power law and log-normal distribution (PL+LN) model, a computationally efficient model to be used in simulations where the particle size distribution cannot be accurately represented by log-normal distributions, such as in simulations involving the initial steps of aerosol formation, where new particle formation and growth occur simultaneously, or in the case of inverse modeling. The model was evaluated against highly accurate sectional models using input parameter values that reflect conditions typical to particle formation occurring in the atmosphere and in vehicle exhaust. The model was tested in the simulation of a particle formation event performed in a mobile aerosol chamber at Mäkelänkatu street canyon measurement site in Helsinki, Finland. The number, surface area, and mass concentrations in the chamber simulation were conserved with the relative errors lower than 2 % using the PL+LN model, whereas a moment-based log-normal model and sectional models with the same computing time as with the PL+LN model caused relative errors up to 17 and 79 %, respectively.

  19. Expression of transforming growth factor beta-like molecules in normal and regenerating arms of the crinoid Antedon mediterranea: immunocytochemical and biochemical evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Patruno, M; Smertenko, A; Candia Carnevali, M D; Bonasoro, F; Beesley, P W; Thorndyke, M C

    2002-01-01

    The phylum Echinodermata is well known for its extensive regenerative capabilities. Although there are substantial data now available that describe the histological and cellular bases of this phenomenon, little is known about the regulatory molecules involved. Here, we use an immunochemical approach to explore the potential role played by putative members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family of secreted proteins in the arm regeneration process of the crinoid Antedon mediterranea. We show that a TGF-beta-like molecule is present in normal and regenerating arms both in a propeptide form and in a mature form. During regeneration, the expression of the mature form is increased and appears to be accompanied by the appearance of an additional isoform. Immunocytochemistry indicates that TGF-beta-like molecules are normally present in the nervous tissue and are specifically localized in both neural elements and non-neural migratory cells, mainly at the level of the brachial nerve. This pattern increases during regeneration, when the blastemal cells show a particularly striking expression of this molecule. Our data indicate that a TGF-beta-like molecule (or molecules) is normally present in the adult nervous tissues of A. mediterranea and is upregulated significantly during regeneration. We suggest that it can play an important part in the regenerative process. PMID:12350260

  20. Differential regulation of cell proliferation and protease secretion by epidermal growth factor and amphiregulin in tumoral versus normal breast epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Silvy, M; Giusti, C; Martin, P-M; Berthois, Y

    2001-01-01

    Amphiregulin (AR) is a heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related peptide that seems to play an important role in mammary epithelial cell growth regulation. We have investigated the regulation of AR-gene expression and -protein secretion by EGF in normal breast epithelial cells (HMECs), as well as in the tumoral breast epithelial cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. EGF induced a dose-dependent increase of AR mRNA level in both normal and tumoral cells. Thus, 10−8M EGF stimulated AR expression in HMECs to 140–300% of control. A similar EGF concentration increased AR mRNA level to 550% and 980% of control in MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells, respectively. This was accompanied by an accumulation of AR into conditioned culture media. However, HMECs secreted in response to EGF, 5–10 fold more AR than tumour cells. Furthermore, the potential participation of AR in the regulation of the plasminogen activator (PA)/plasmin system was investigated. Whereas HMEC-proliferation was stimulated by AR, the levels of secreted urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAi-1) remained unaffected. Conversely, AR failed to regulate the proliferation of tumoral cell lines but induced an accumulation of uPA and PAi-1 into culture media. This was accompanied by an increase of the number of tumoral cells that invaded matrigel in vitro. Moreover, the presence of a neutralizing anti-uPA receptor antibody reversed the increased invasiveness of MDA-MB231 cells induced by AR. These data reveal differential behaviour of normal versus tumoral breast epithelial cells in regard to the action of AR and demonstrate that, in a number of cases, AR might play a significant role in tumour progression through the regulation of the PA/plasmin system. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11286474

  1. Circulating non-22 kDa growth hormone isoforms after a repeated GHRH stimulus in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Coya, R; Algorta, J; Boguszewski, C L; Vela, A; Carlsson, L M S; Aniel-Quiroga, A; Busturia, M A; Martul, P

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of non-22 kDa GH isoforms in relation to total GH concentration after a repeated GHRH stimulus in healthy subjects. We studied 25 normal volunteers (12 males and 13 females, mean age 13.1 years, range 6-35), who received two GHRH bolus (1.5 mug/kg body weight, i.v.) administered separately by an interval of 120 minutes. The proportion of non-22 kDa GH was determined by the 22 kDa GH exclusion assay (GHEA), which is based on immunomagnetic extraction of monomeric and dimeric 22 kDa GH from serum, and quantitation of non-22 kDa GH isoforms using a polyclonal GH assay. Samples were collected at baseline and at 15-30 min intervals up to 240 min for total GH concentration. Non-22 kDa GH isoforms were measured in samples where peak GH after GHRH was observed. Total GH peaked after the first GHRH bolus in all subjects (median 37.2 ng/ml; range: 10.4-94.6). According to GH response to the second GHRH stimulus, the study group was divided in "non-responders" (n=7; 28%), with GH peak levels lower than 10 ng/ml (median GH: 8.7 ng/ml; range 7.3-9.6) and "responders" (n=18; 72%), who showed a GH response greater than 10 ng/ml (median 17 ng/ml; range 10.1-47.0). The median proportion of non-22 kDa GH on the peak of GH secretion after the first GHRH administration was similar in both groups ("responders" median: 8.6%, range 7-10.9%; "non-responders" median: 8.7%, range 6.7-10.3%), independently of the type of response after the second GHRH. In contrast, the median proportion of non-22 kDa GH was greater at time of GH peak after the second GHRH bolus in the "non-responders" (median 11.4%; range 9.1-14.3%) in comparison with the "responders" (median 9.1%; range 6.7-11.9%; p=0.003). A significant negative correlation between the total GH secreted and the percentage of non-22 kDa isoforms was seen in the "non-responders" (p=0.003). These differences in GH response to repeated GHRH stimulation and in the pattern of GH isoforms at GH

  2. Kinetics and regulation of human keratinocyte stem cell growth in short-term primary ex vivo culture. Cooperative growth factors from psoriatic lesional T lymphocytes stimulate proliferation among psoriatic uninvolved, but not normal, stem keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bata-Csorgo, Z; Hammerberg, C; Voorhees, J J; Cooper, K D

    1995-01-01

    Flow cytometric analysis of primary ex vivo keratinocyte cultures demonstrated that stem cells, (beta 1 integrin+, keratin 1/keratin 10 [K1/K10-], proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA-] [Bata-Csorgo, Zs., C. Hammerberg, J. J. Voorhees, and K. D. Cooper. 1993. J. Exp. Med. 178:1271-1281]) establish such cultures. This methodology also enabled the quantitation of synchronized recruitment of these cells from G0 into G1 of the cell cycle (PCNA expression), which preceded bright beta 1 integrin expression. (beta 1 integrinbright expression has been shown to be a characteristic feature of keratinocyte stem cells in culture (Jones, P. H., and F. M. Watt. 1993. Cell. 73:713-724). Using the above assay, we determined whether lesional T lymphocytes in psoriasis could be directly responsible for the induction of the stem cell hyperproliferation that is characteristic of this disease. Indeed, CD4+ T lymphocytes, cloned from lesional psoriatic skin and stimulated by immobilized anti-CD3 plus fibronectin, promoted psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte stem cell proliferation via soluble factors. This induction appeared to be through accelerated recruitment of stem cells from their quiescent state (G0) into cell cycle. By contrast, normal keratinocyte stem cells exhibited no such growth stimulation. Supernatants exhibiting growth induction all contained high levels of GM-CSF and gamma-IFN, low IL-3 and TNF-alpha, and variable IL-4. Only anti-gamma-IFN antibody was able to neutralize growth stimulatory activity of the supernatants on psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte stem cells. However, because recombinant gamma-IFN alone inhibited growth in this assay, these data suggest that, in psoriasis, gamma-IFN acts cooperatively with other growth factors in the immune induction of cell cycle progression by the normally quiescent stem cell keratinocytes. Images PMID:7529261

  3. YvcK of Bacillus subtilis is required for a normal cell shape and for growth on Krebs cycle intermediates and substrates of the pentose phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Görke, Boris; Foulquier, Elodie; Galinier, Anne

    2005-11-01

    The HPr-like protein Crh has so far been detected only in the bacillus group of bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, its gene is part of an operon composed of six ORFs, three of which exhibit strong similarity to genes of unknown function present in many bacteria. The promoter of the operon was determined and found to be constitutively active. A deletion analysis revealed that gene yvcK, encoded by this operon, is essential for growth on Krebs cycle intermediates and on carbon sources metabolized via the pentose phosphate pathway. In addition, cells lacking YvcK acquired media-dependent filamentous or L-shape-like aberrant morphologies. The presence of high magnesium concentrations restored normal growth and cell morphology. Furthermore, suppressor mutants cured from these growth defects appeared spontaneously with a high frequency. Such suppressing mutations were identified in a transposon mutagenesis screen and found to reside in seven different loci. Two of them mapped in genes of central carbon metabolism, including zwf, which encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and cggR, the product of which regulates the synthesis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. All these results suggest that YvcK has an important role in carbon metabolism, probably in gluconeogenesis required for the synthesis of cell wall precursor molecules. Interestingly, the Escherichia coli homologous protein, YbhK, can substitute for YvcK in B. subtilis, suggesting that the two proteins have been functionally conserved in these different bacteria.

  4. HRE-type genes are regulated by growth-related changes in internal oxygen concentrations during the normal development of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of hypoxic conditions in plants not only represents a stress condition but is also associated with the normal development and growth of many organs, leading to adaptive changes in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow. In the present work, we identified three hypoxia-responsive ERF (StHRE) genes whose expression is regulated by the gradual decrease in oxygen tensions that occur when potato tubers grow larger. Increasing the external oxygen concentration counteracted the modification of StHRE expression during tuber growth, supporting the idea that the actual oxygen levels inside the organs, rather than development itself, are responsible for the regulation of StHRE genes. We identified several sugar metabolism-related genes co-regulated with StHRE genes during tuber development and possibly involved in starch accumulation. All together, our data suggest a possible role for low oxygen in the regulation of sugar metabolism in the potato tuber, similar to what happens in storage tissues during seed development.

  5. Prolactin promotes normal liver growth, survival, and regeneration in rodents: effects on hepatic IL-6, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3, and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Goya-Arce, Maite; Vega, Claudia; Adán, Norma; Triebel, Jakob; López-Barrera, Fernando; Quintanar-Stéphano, Andrés; Binart, Nadine; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2013-10-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a potent liver mitogen and proangiogenic hormone. Here, we used hyperprolactinemic rats and PRL receptor-null mice (PRLR(-/-)) to study the effect of PRL on liver growth and angiogenesis before and after partial hepatectomy (PH). Liver-to-body weight ratio (LBW), hepatocyte and sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) proliferation, and hepatic expression of VEGF were measured before and after PH in hyperprolactinemic rats, generated by placing two anterior pituitary glands (AP) under the kidney capsule. Also, LBW and hepatic expression of IL-6, as well as suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), were evaluated in wild-type and PRLR(-/-) mice before and after PH. Hyperprolactinemia increased the LBW, the proliferation of hepatocytes and SECs, and VEGF hepatic expression. Also, liver regeneration was increased in AP-grafted rats and was accompanied by elevated hepatocyte and SEC proliferation, and VEGF expression compared with nongrafted controls. Lowering circulating PRL levels with CB-154, an inhibitor of AP PRL secretion, prevented AP-induced stimulation of liver growth. Relative to wild-type animals, PRLR(-/-) mice had smaller livers, and soon after PH, they displayed an approximately twofold increased mortality and elevated and reduced hepatic IL-6 and SOCS-3 expression, respectively. However, liver regeneration was improved in surviving PRLR(-/-) mice. PRL stimulates normal liver growth, promotes survival, and regulates liver regeneration by mechanisms that may include hepatic downregulation of IL-6 and upregulation of SOCS-3, increased hepatocyte proliferation, and angiogenesis. PRL contributes to physiological liver growth and has potential clinical utility for ensuring survival and regulating liver mass in diseases, injuries, or surgery of the liver.

  6. Growth and linkage of the quaternary Ubrique Normal Fault Zone, Western Gibraltar Arc: role on the along-strike relief segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro; Balanya, Juan Carlos; Exposito, Inmaculada; Diaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Barcos, Leticia

    2015-04-01

    Strain partitioning modes within migrating orogenic arcs may result in arc-parallel stretching that produces along-strike structural and topographic discontinuities. In the Western Gibraltar Arc, arc-parallel stretching has operated from the Lower Miocene up to recent times. In this study, we have reviewed the Colmenar Fault, located at the SW end of the Subbetic ranges, previously interpreted as a Middle Miocene low-angle normal fault. Our results allow to identify younger normal fault segments, to analyse their kinematics, growth and segment linkage, and to discuss its role on the structural and relief drop at regional scale. The Colmenar Fault is folded by post-Serravallian NE-SW buckle folds. Both the SW-dipping fault surfaces and the SW-plunging fold axes contribute to the structural relief drop toward the SW. Nevertheless, at the NW tip of the Colmenar Fault, we have identified unfolded normal faults cutting quaternary soils. They are grouped into a N110˚E striking brittle deformation band 15km long and until 3km wide (hereafter Ubrique Normal Fault Zone; UNFZ). The UNFZ is divided into three sectors: (a) The western tip zone is formed by normal faults which usually dip to the SW and whose slip directions vary between N205˚E and N225˚E. These segments are linked to each other by left-lateral oblique faults interpreted as transfer faults. (b) The central part of the UNFZ is composed of a single N115˚E striking fault segment 2,4km long. Slip directions are around N190˚E and the estimated throw is 1,25km. The fault scarp is well-conserved reaching up to 400m in its central part and diminishing to 200m at both segment terminations. This fault segment is linked to the western tip by an overlap zone characterized by tilted blocks limited by high-angle NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE striking faults interpreted as "box faults" [1]. (c) The eastern tip zone is formed by fault segments with oblique slip which also contribute to the downthrown of the SW block. This kinematic

  7. Baseline, Trend, and Normalization of Carcinoembryonic Antigen as Prognostic Factors in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mutant Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With First-Line Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Mu; Lai, Chien-Hao; Chang, Huang-Chih; Chao, Tung-Ying; Tseng, Chia-Cheng; Fang, Wen-Feng; Wang, Chin-Chou; Chung, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Chen, Hung-Cheng; Chang, Ya-Chun; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status unknown nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, those with higher carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level are more likely to response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) because they tend to have mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, patients with higher CEA also have more tumor burden. With the above paradoxical evidence, it is prudent to understand the prognostic significance of baseline CEA in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC treated with first-line EGFR-TKIs. The clinical significance of the trend in CEA after treatment and the impact of CEA normalization during EGFR-TKI therapy are also unknown and potentially important. A total of 241 patients who received first-line EGFR-TKIs were included. As to baseline CEA, patients were divided into normal, low, and high baseline CEA by cut point determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. As to CEA responses, patients were divided into 3 groups accordingly to their amount of CEA change after taking TKIs. In group A, 1-month follow-up CEA level decreased more than 35% with nadir CEA normalization; in group B, 1-month follow-up CEA level decreased more than 35% without nadir CEA normalization; and in group C, 1-month follow-up CEA level decreased less than 35% or increased. Patients with higher baseline CEA levels had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (CEA > 32 vs 5–32 vs <5 ng/mL, PFS = 8.8 vs 11.3 vs 14.4 months, respectively, P < 0.001; OS = 17.8 vs 22.0 vs 27.9 months, respectively, P = 0.01). For trend and CEA normalization in groups A, B, and C, PFS was 14.3, 10.6, and 7.1 months, respectively (P < 0.001); OS was 29.7, 20.0, and 16.2 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Baseline, trend, and normalization of CEA levels are potential prognostic markers for patients with EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC treated with first line EGFR-TKIs. PMID:26683939

  8. In normal rat, intraventricularly administered insulin-like growth factor-1 is rapidly cleared from CSF with limited distribution into brain

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Patel, Padma; Gorski, Martin; Gorevic, Peter D; Patlak, Clifford S; Fenstermacher, Joseph D

    2005-01-01

    Background Putatively active drugs are often intraventricularly administered to gain direct access to brain and circumvent the blood-brain barrier. A few studies on the normal central nervous system (CNS) have shown, however, that the distribution of materials after intraventricular injections is much more limited than presumed and their exit from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is more rapid than generally believed. In this study, we report the intracranial distribution and the clearance from CSF and adjacent CNS tissue of radiolabeled insulin-like growth factor-1 after injection into one lateral ventricle of the normal rat brain. Methods Under barbiturate anesthesia, 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was injected into one lateral ventricle of normal Sprague-Dawley rats. The subsequent distribution of IGF-1 through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system and into brain, cerebral blood vessels, and systemic blood was measured over time by gamma counting and quantitative autoradiography (QAR). Results Within 5 min of infusion, IGF-1 had spread from the infused lateral ventricle into and through the third and fourth ventricles. At this time, 25% of the infused IGF-1 had disappeared from the CSF-brain-meningeal system; the half time of this loss was 12 min. The plasma concentration of cleared IGF-1 was, however, very low from 2 to 9 min and only began to rise markedly after 20 min. This delay between loss and gain plus the lack of radiotracer in the cortical subarachnoid space suggested that much of the IGF-1 was cleared into blood via the cranial and/or spinal nerve roots and their associated lymphatic systems rather than periventricular tissue and arachnoid villi. Less than 10% of the injected radioactivity remained in the CSF-brain system after 180 min. The CSF and arteries and arterioles within the subarachnoid cisterns were labeled with IGF-1 within 10 min. Between 60 and 180 min, most of the radioactivity within the cranium was retained within and around

  9. Suppressing Nitrite-oxidizing Bacteria Growth to Achieve Nitrogen Removal from Domestic Wastewater via Anammox Using Intermittent Aeration with Low Dissolved Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bin; Bao, Peng; Wei, Yan; Zhu, Guibing; Yuan, Zhiguo; Peng, Yongzhen

    2015-01-01

    Achieving nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater using anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has the potential to make wastewater treatment energy-neutral or even energy-positive. The challenge is to suppress the growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). This study presents a promising method based on intermittent aeration with low dissolved oxygen to limit NOB growth, thereby providing an advantage to anammox bacteria to form a partnership with the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The results showed that NOB was successfully suppressed using that method, with the relative abundance of NOB maintained between 2.0–2.6%, based on Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization. Nitrogen could be effectively removed from domestic wastewater with anammox at a temperature above 20 °C, with an effluent total nitrogen (TN) concentration of 6.6 ± 2.7 mg/L, while the influent TN and soluble chemical oxygen demand were 62.6 ± 3.1 mg/L and 88.0 ± 8.1 mg/L, respectively. PMID:26354321

  10. Generic along-strike segmentation of Afar normal faults, East Africa: Implications on fault growth and stress heterogeneity on seismogenic fault planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manighetti, I.; Caulet, C.; Barros, L.; Perrin, C.; Cappa, F.; Gaudemer, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding how natural faults are segmented along their length can provide useful insights into fault growth processes, stress distribution on fault planes, and earthquake dynamics. We use cumulative displacement profiles to analyze the two largest scales of segmentation of ˜900 normal faults in Afar, East Africa. We build upon a prior study by Manighetti et al. (2009) and develop a new signal processing method aimed at recovering the number, position, displacement, and length of both the major (i.e., longest) and the subordinate, secondary segments within the faults. Regardless of their length, age, geographic location, total displacement, and slip rate, 90% of the faults contain two to five major segments, whereas more than 70% of these major segments are divided into two to four secondary segments. In each hierarchical rank of fault segmentation, most segments have a similar proportional length, whereas the number of segments slightly decreases with fault structural maturity. The along-strike segmentation of the Afar faults is thus generic at its two largest scales. We summarize published fault segment data on 42 normal, reverse, and strike-slip faults worldwide, and find a similar number (two to five) of major and secondary segments across the population. We suggest a fault growth scenario that might account for the generic large-scale segmentation of faults. The observation of a generic segmentation suggests that seismogenic fault planes are punctuated with a deterministic number of large stress concentrations, which are likely to control the initiation, arrest and hence extent and magnitude of earthquake ruptures.

  11. Diurnal secretion of ghrelin, growth hormone, insulin binding proteins, and prolactin in normal weight and overweight subjects with and without the night eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Birketvedt, Grethe S; Geliebter, Allan; Kristiansen, Ingrid; Firgenschau, Yngve; Goll, Rasmus; Florholmen, Jon R

    2012-12-01

    The regulatory peptide ghrelin has been proposed to help mediate both hunger and sleep. The neuroendocrine circadian patterns in the night eating syndrome (NES) have been distinguished by an attenuated nocturnal rise in the plasma concentrations of melatonin and leptin and a greater increase in the concentrations of cortisol. In this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that night eaters have disturbances in the circadian levels of ghrelin, growth hormone (GH) and associated regulatory peptides. In 12 female night eaters (6 normal weight and 6 overweight), and 25 healthy controls (12 normal weight and 13 overweight), blood was sampled over a 24-hour period. Four meals were served from 8 AM to 8 PM, and blood samples were drawn every second hour for determination of plasma ghrelin concentrations and GH by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Analysis of serum GH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and prolactin were performed by ELISA. In healthy normal weight subjects there was a slight but non significant nocturnal increase of ghrelin, whereas a more or less flat curve was observed for healthy overweight, NES normal weight and NES overweight patients. The RMANOVA analysis showed a significant independent lowering effect of overweight on the grand mean of ghrelin. No direct effects on NES normal weight and overweight subjects were found, but a near-significant interaction was found between healthy overweight and overweight NES subjects. There were independent significant lowering effects of overweight and NES on the serum GH levels. During the time course no changes in the serum levels of IGF-1 or IGFB-3 were observed. Independent significant lowering effects of overweight and NES on the levels of IGF-1 were detected, whereas a near significant reduction in the global levels of IGFBP-3 was observed in both NES groups. Finally, significant nocturnal changes were observed for serum levels of prolactin in all four subgroups. Grand mean levels tended to be higher in NES subjects whereas the opposite

  12. Assessment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling in paired colorectal cancer and normal colon tissue samples using computer-aided immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Messersmith, Wells; Oppenheimer, Darin; Peralba, Josep; Sebastiani, Valeria; Amador, Maria; Jimeno, Antonio; Embuscado, Erlinda; Hidalgo, Manuel; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine

    2005-12-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) plays a role in multiple tumor cell processes and is targeted by several anticancer therapies. Although EGFR mutations may determine tumor susceptibility in a small proportion of patients, knowledge of the EGFR signaling pathway status in tumors may help guide further drug development and hypothesis-driven combination studies. We aimed to validate and apply a novel computer-aided immunohistochemical (IHC) technique to characterize the status of EGFR signaling in matched colorectal tumor and normal colon tissue samples. Tissue Microarrays (TMA)were made from both cancerous and normal colorectal tissue in 18 patients and stained with antibodies against EGFR, phospho-EGFR (pEGFR), Akt, pAkt, MAPK, and pMAPK. TMA's were quantitatively scored using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS II, Chromavision, Inc). ACIS was compared against cell line Western blotting, ELISA, and visual scoring (0-3+) by a pathologist. We found that ACIS analysis was highly reproducible and results were well correlated with other techniques. A post-scan "image microdissection" technique of analyzing heterogeneous human samples showed good correlation between paired human samples [Pearson correlation for tumors, 0.922 (p < .001)]. Cancer samples had markedly higher staining of pEGFR, Akt, pAkt, MAPK, and pMAPK. We conclude that ACIS IHC of human tissue samples is quantitative, reproducible, and correlates with Western blots and ELISA in cell line pellets as well as pathologist's scores of human samples. Colorectal tumors show higher staining of pEGFR and downstream effectors compared to matched normal colorectal tissues.

  13. TGF-β activates APC through Cdh1 binding for Cks1 and Skp2 proteasomal destruction stabilizing p27kip1 for normal endometrial growth.

    PubMed

    Pavlides, Savvas C; Lecanda, Jon; Daubriac, Julien; Pandya, Unnati M; Gama, Patricia; Blank, Stephanie; Mittal, Khushbakhat; Shukla, Pratibha; Gold, Leslie I

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that aberrant TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling in endometrial cancer (ECA) leads to continuous ubiquitylation of p27(kip1)(p27) by the E3 ligase SCF-Skp2/Cks1 causing its degradation, as a putative mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of this cancer. In contrast, normal intact TGF-β signaling prevents degradation of nuclear p27 by SCF-Skp2/Cks1 thereby accumulating p27 to block Cdk2 for growth arrest. Here we show that in ECA cell lines and normal primary endometrial epithelial cells, TGF-β increases Cdh1 and its binding to APC/C to form the E3 ligase complex that ubiquitylates Cks1 and Skp2 prompting their proteasomal degradation and thus, leaving p27 intact. Knocking-down Cdh1 in ECA cell lines increased Skp2/Cks1 E3 ligase activity, completely diminished nuclear and cytoplasmic p27, and obviated TGF-β-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Protein synthesis was not required for TGF-β-induced increase in nuclear p27 and decrease in Cks1 and Skp2. Moreover, half-lives of Cks1 and Skp2 were extended in the Cdh1-depleted cells. These results suggest that the levels of p27, Skp2 and Cks1 are strongly or solely regulated by proteasomal degradation. Finally, an inverse relationship of low p27 and high Cks1 in the nucleus was shown in patients in normal proliferative endometrium and grade I-III ECAs whereas differentiated secretory endometrium showed the reverse. These studies implicate Cdh1 as the master regulator of TGF-β-induced preservation of p27 tumor suppressor activity. Thus, Cdh1 is a potential therapeutic target for ECA and other human cancers showing an inverse relationship between Cks1/Skp2 and p27 and/or dysregulated TGF-β signaling.

  14. The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is an F-box protein required for normal patterning and growth in the floral meristem.

    PubMed

    Samach, A; Klenz, J E; Kohalmi, S E; Risseeuw, E; Haughn, G W; Crosby, W L

    1999-11-01

    Genetic and molecular studies have suggested that the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene, from Arabidopsis thaliana, is expressed in all shoot apical meristems, and is involved in the regulation of a complex set of developmental events during floral development, including floral meristem and floral organ identity. Results from in situ hybridization using genes expressed early in floral development as probes indicate that UFO controls growth of young floral primordia. Transgenic constructs were used to provide evidence that UFO regulates floral organ identity by activating or maintaining transcription of the class B organ-identity gene APETALA 3, but not PISTILLATA. In an attempt to understand the biochemical mode of action of the UFO gene product, we show here that UFO is an F-box protein that interacts with Arabidopsis SKP1-like proteins, both in the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro. In yeast and other organisms both F-box proteins and SKP1 homologues are subunits of specific ubiquitin E3 enzyme complexes that target specific proteins for degradation. The protein selected for degradation by the complex is specified by the F-box proteins. It is therefore possible that the role of UFO is to target for degradation specific proteins controlling normal growth patterns in the floral primordia, as well as proteins that negatively regulate APETALA 3 transcription.

  15. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P < 0.05) higher survival, higher activities of TAS, GSH-Px and CAT, as well as higher transcript levels of GPx and CAT gene in shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency.

  16. Putative PmrA and PmcA are important for normal growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity, but not for viability in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hechun; Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2014-11-01

    P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPases are Ca(2+) pumps, extruding cytosolic Ca(2+) to the extracellular environment or the intracellular Ca(2+) store lumens. In budding yeast, Pmr1 (plasma membrane ATPase related), and Pmc1 (plasma membrane calcium-ATPase) cannot be deleted simultaneously for it to survive in standard medium. Here, we deleted two putative Ca(2+) pumps, designated AnPmrA and AnPmcA, from Aspergillus nidulans, and obtained the mutants ΔanpmrA and ΔanpmcA, respectively. Then, using ΔanpmrA as the starting strain, the promoter of its anpmcA was replaced with the alcA promoter to secure the mutant ΔanpmrAalcApmcA or its anpmcA was deleted completely to produce the mutant ΔanpmrAΔpmcA. Different from the case in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double deletion of anpmrA and anpmcA was not lethal in A. nidulans. In addition, deletion of anpmrA and/or anpmcA had produced growth defects, although overexpression of AnPmc1 in ΔanpmrAalcApmcA could not restore the growth defects that resulted from the loss of AnPmrA. Moreover, we found AnPmrA was indispensable for maintenance of normal morphogenesis, especially in low-Ca(2+)/Mn(2+) environments. Thus, our findings suggest AnPmrA and AnPmcA might play important roles in growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity in A. nidulans in a different way from that in yeasts.

  17. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  18. 1,25(OH)2D3 Alters Growth Plate Maturation and Bone Architecture in Young Rats with Normal Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Idelevich, Anna; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Shahar, Ron; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    Whereas detrimental effects of vitamin D deficiency are known over century, the effects of vitamin D receptor activation by 1,25(OH)2D3, the principal hormonal form of vitamin D, on the growing bone and its growth plate are less clear. Currently, 1,25(OH)2D3 is used in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease and mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and is strongly associated with growth retardation. Here, we investigate the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment on bone development in normal young rats, unrelated to renal insufficiency. Young rats received daily i.p. injections of 1 µg/kg 1,25(OH)2D3 for one week, or intermittent 3 µg/kg 1,25(OH)2D3 for one month. Histological analysis revealed narrower tibial growth plates, predominantly in the hypertrophic zone of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated animals in both experimental protocols. This phenotype was supported by narrower distribution of aggrecan, collagens II and X mRNA, shown by in situ hybridization. Concomitant with altered chondrocyte maturation, 1,25(OH)2D3 increased chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis in terminal hypertrophic cells. In vitro treatment of the chondrocytic cell line ATDC5 with 1,25(OH)2D3 lowered differentiation and increased proliferation dose and time-dependently. Micro-CT analysis of femurs from 1-week 1,25(OH)2D3-treated group revealed reduced cortical thickness, elevated cortical porosity, and higher trabecular number and thickness. 1-month administration resulted in a similar cortical phenotype but without effect on trabecular bone. Evaluation of fluorochrome binding with confocal microscopy revealed inhibiting effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on intracortical bone formation. This study shows negative effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on growth plate and bone which may contribute to the exacerbation of MBD in the CKD pediatric patients. PMID:21695192

  19. Action of antithymocyte globulin on normal human erythroid progenitor cell proliferation in vitro: erythropoietic growth-enhancing factors are released from marrow accessory cells.

    PubMed

    Mangan, K F; D'Alessandro, L; Mullaney, M T

    1986-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the mechanism of action of a horse antithymocyte globulin preparation (ATGAM) (HATG) and its control preparation of horse gamma globulin (HIgG) on the proliferation of normal human marrow and blood erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E, BFU-E) in vitro. In preincubation studies with marrow mononuclear cells and complement, HATG did not significantly augment CFU-E or BFU-E growth greater than that expected because of removal of marrow T cells by this agent. However, direct addition of HATG but not HIgG to marrow cultures significantly stimulated CFU-E and BFU-E up to two to four times that of media or HIgG controls (P less than 0.05). The peak effect was observed at 10 to 100 micrograms/ml HATG; HATG was toxic at 1000 micrograms/ml. By contrast, the OKT3 monoclonal antibody was less stimulatory than HATG. The in vitro erythropoietic stimulatory effect of HATG was dependent on the presence of accessory cells because removal of T cells or monocytes (less than 2% to 5%) or adsorptions of HATG with T cells or monocytes reduced its stimulatory effect, highly purified BFU-E nearly devoid of accessory cells required irradiated accessory cells for demonstration of the HATG stimulatory effect, and an erythroid burst-promoting activity was released from T cells or unseparated mononuclear cells in the presence of HATG but not HIgG. The HATG enhancing effect was optimal in the first 96 hours of cultures in the presence of erythropoietin, and was reproducible with three separate lots of HATG. Up to 16% of HATG-stimulated erythroid colonies expressed nonerythroid lineage cells. Iron 59 incorporation into heme of CFU-E- or BFU-E-derived colonies was augmented equally by HATG or HIgG at 10 micrograms/ml. Erythropoietin dose-response curves and studies with antierythropoietin sera suggested that HATG also increased the sensitivity of erythroid progenitor cells to very low concentrations of erythropoietin. We conclude that HATG but not HIgG control

  20. Twenty-four-hour osteocalcin, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen rhythms in normal and growth-retarded children.

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Baroncelli, G I; Bertelloni, S; Cinquanta, L; DiNero, G

    1994-04-01

    The relationships between spontaneous variations in serum 24-h osteocalcin (OC), carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) concentrations and GH secretion, measured as GH response to provocative pharmacologic stimuli and spontaneous GH secretion during 24 h, were evaluated in prepubertal normal children and in GH-deficient and GH-secreting short normal children (SNC). All the subjects showed a circadian rhythm in smoothed 24-h OC and PICP mean data with higher nocturnal values in comparison with diurnal values. Conversely, serum PIINP concentrations did not vary throughout the day. In children with classic GH deficiency and nonclassic GH deficiency, mean 24-h serum levels and smoothed 24-h mean data for OC, PICP, and PIIINP were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) with respect to age-matched controls. SNC showed mean 24-h OC concentrations similar (p = NS) to those we found in age-matched controls, but they had significantly lower (p < 0.001) diurnal 12-h mean data in comparison with controls. SNC also showed both 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data and smoothed 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data significantly lower (from p < 0.02 to p < 0.001) at all the time points of measurement in comparison with controls. Twenty-four-hour PICP and PIIINP mean data were positively related to spontaneous 24-h GH concentrations (r = 0.77, p < 0.005 and r = 0.69, p < 0.005, respectively) and growth velocity (r = 0.85, p < 0.005, and r = 0.70, p < 0.005, respectively), whereas 24-h OC mean data were not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8047377

  1. The Application of Various Nonlinear Models to Describe Academic Growth Trajectories: An Empirical Analysis Using Four-Wave Longitudinal Achievement Data from a Large Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tacksoo

    2012-01-01

    This study introduced various nonlinear growth models, including the quadratic conventional polynomial model, the fractional polynomial model, the Sigmoid model, the growth model with negative exponential functions, the multidimensional scaling technique, and the unstructured growth curve model. It investigated which growth models effectively…

  2. Expression of a bacterial, phenylpropanoid-metabolizing enzyme in tobacco reveals essential roles of phenolic precursors in normal leaf development and growth.

    PubMed

    Merali, Zara; Mayer, Melinda J; Parker, Mary L; Michael, Anthony J; Smith, Andrew C; Waldron, Keith W

    2012-06-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv XHFD 8) were genetically modified to express a bacterial 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase/lyase (HCHL) enzyme which is active with intermediates of the phenylpropanoid pathway. We have previously shown that HCHL expression in tobacco stem resulted in various pleiotropic effects, indicative of a reduction in the carbon flux through the phenylpropanoid pathway, accompanied by an abnormal phenotype. Here, we report that in addition to the reduction in lignin and phenolic biosynthesis, HCHL expression also resulted in several gross morphological changes in poorly lignified tissue, such as abnormal mesophyll and palisade. The effect of HCHL expression was also noted in lignin-free single cells, with suspension cultures displaying an altered shape and different growth patterns. Poorly/non-lignified cell walls also exhibited a greater ease of alkaline extractability of simple phenolics and increased levels of incorporation of vanillin and vanillic acid. However, HCHL expression had no significant effect on the cell wall carbohydrate chemistry of these tissues. Evidence from this study suggests that changes in the transgenic lines result from a reduction in phenolic intermediates which have an essential role in maintaining structural integrity of low-lignin or lignin-deprived cell walls. These results emphasize the importance of the intermediates and products of phenylpropanoid pathway in modulating aspects of normal growth and development of tobacco. Analysis of these transgenic plants also shows the plasticity of the lignification process and reveals the potential to bioengineer plants with reduced phenolics (without deleterious effects) which could enhance the bioconversion of lignocellulose for industrial applications.

  3. Conversion of Androgen Receptor Signaling From a Growth Suppressor in Normal Prostate Epithelial Cells to an Oncogene in Prostate Cancer Cells Involves a Gain of Function in c-Myc Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vander Griend, Donald J.; Litvinov, Ivan V.; Isaacs, John T.

    2014-01-01

    In normal prostate, androgen-dependent androgen receptor (AR) signaling within prostate stromal cells induces their secretion of paracrine factors, termed “andromedins” which stimulate growth of the epithelial cells. The present studies demonstrate that androgen-dependent andromedin-driven growth stimulation is counter-balanced by androgen-induced AR signaling within normal adult prostate epithelial cells resulting in terminal G0 growth arrest coupled with terminal differentiation into ΔNp63-negative, PSA-expressing secretory luminal cells. This cell autonomous AR-driven terminal differentiation requires DNA-binding of the AR protein, is associated with decreases in c-Myc m-RNA and protein, are coupled with increases in p21, p27, and SKP-2 protein expression, and does not require functional p53. These changes result in down-regulation of Cyclin D1 protein and RB phosphoryation. shRNA knockdown documents that neither RB, p21, p27 alone or in combination are required for such AR-induced G0 growth arrest. Transgenic expression of a constitutive vector to prevent c-Myc down-regulation overrides AR-mediated growth arrest in normal prostate epithelial cells, which documents that AR-induced c-Myc down-regulation is critical in terminal growth arrest of normal prostate epithelial cells. In contrast, in prostate cancer cells, androgen-induced AR signaling paradoxically up-regulates c-Myc expression and stimulates growth as documented by inhibition of both of these responses following exposure to the AR antagonist, bicalutamide. These data document that AR signaling is converted from a growth suppressor in normal prostate epithelial cells to an oncogene in prostate cancer cells during prostatic carcinogenesis and that this conversion involves a gain of function for regulation of c-Myc expression. PMID:24948876

  4. Plerocercoid growth factor (PGF), a human growth hormone (hGH) analogue produced by the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides, has direct insulin-like action in adipose tissue of normal rats in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, M.A.M.; Phares, C.K.

    1986-03-01

    The metabolic actions of GH can be divided into acute (insulin-like) and chronic (lipolytic/anti-insulin). The insulin-like actions of GH are most readily elicited in GH-deficient animals as GH induces resistance to its own insulin-like action. Like GH, PGF stimulates growth and cross-reacts with anti-hGH antibodies. Independent experiments were conducted comparing the direct actions of PGF to insulin or hGH in vitro. Insulin-like effects were determined by the ability of PGF, insulin or hGH to stimulate (U-/sup 14/C)glucose metabolism in epidydimal fat pads from normal rats and by inhibition of epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis. Direct stimulation of lipolysis was used as anti-insulin activity. To determine if PGF competes for insulin or GH receptors, adipocytes (3 x 10/sup 5/ cells/ml) were incubated with either (/sup 125/I)insulin or (/sup 125/I)hGH +/- PGF, +/- insulin or +/- hGH. PGF stimulated glucose oxidation and /sup 14/C-incorporation into lipids. Insulin, hGH and PGF inhibited lipolysis (33%, 29% and 34%, respectively). Adipose tissue was very sensitive to the lipolytic effect of hGH but PGF was neither lipolytic nor did it confer refractoriness to its insulin-like action. PGF bound to GH but not to insulin receptors. Therefore, PGF had direct insulin-like effects but did not stimulate lipolysis in tissue from normal rats in vitro.

  5. Characterization of a compensatory mutant of Leishmania major that lacks ether lipids but exhibits normal growth, and G418 and hygromycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Zufferey, Rachel; Bibis, Stergios S; Zhu, Tongtong; Dhalladoo, Subbhalakshmi

    2012-03-01

    Ether glycerolipid biosynthesis in Leishmania major initiates with the acylation of dihydroxyacetonephosphate by the glycosomal dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase LmDAT. We previously reported that a null mutant of LmDAT is severely affected in logarithmic growth, survival during stationary phase, and in virulence in mice. In addition, it lacks all ether glycerolipids, produces altered forms of the ether-lipid based virulence factors lipophosphoglycan and increased levels of GPI-anchored protein gp63. Here, we describe the characterization of a compensatory mutant of a null strain of LmDAT, Δlmdat/Δlmdat(rev). Similarly to the null mutant, the Δlmdat/Δlmdat(rev) strain formed altered forms of lipophosphoglycan and increased levels of gp63, and was avirulent in mice infection. Further, dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase activity was absent in the revertant clone, indicating that a mutation in another acyltransferase gene did not confer dihydroxyacetonephosphate specificity. In contrast, the revertant grew normally but still exhibited poor survival during stationary phase. In addition, agarose gel analysis of its genomic DNA failed to detect any amplified DNA. Surprisingly, its sensitivity to aminoglycoside based antibiotics G418 and hygromycin was lower than that of the null mutant, wild type and complemented line. PMID:22306069

  6. Specific combinations of the chromatin-modifying enzyme modulators significantly attenuate glioblastoma cell proliferation and viability while exerting minimal effect on normal adult stem cells growth.

    PubMed

    Alexanian, Arshak R; Huang, Yi-Wen

    2015-11-01

    The discoveries of recent decade showed that all critical changes in cancer cells, such as silencing of tumor-suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes, are caused not only by genetic but also by epigenetic mechanisms. Although epigenetic changes are somatically heritable, in contrast to genetic changes, they are potentially reversible, making them good targets for therapeutic intervention. Covalent modifications of chromatin such as methylation and acetylation of histones and methylation of DNA are the important components of epigenetic machinery. In this study, we investigated the effect of different modulators of DNA and histone covalent-modifying enzymes on the proliferation and viability of normal adult stem cells, such as human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), and on malignant tumor cells, such as glioblastoma (GB) D54 cells. Results demonstrated that specific combinations of histone methyltransferases and deacetylases inhibitors significantly attenuated D54 cells viability but having only a small effect on hMSCs growth. Taken together, these studies suggest that specific combinations of histone covalent modifiers could be an effective treatment option for the most aggressive type of primary brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme.

  7. Monocytes and T cells cooperate to favor normal and follicular lymphoma B-cell growth: role of IL-15 and CD40L signaling.

    PubMed

    Epron, G; Ame-Thomas, P; Le Priol, J; Pangault, C; Dulong, J; Lamy, T; Fest, T; Tarte, K

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) has been extensively studied for its role in the survival and proliferation of NK and T cells through a unique mechanism of trans-presentation by producer cells. Conversely, whereas activated B cells have been described as IL-15-responding cells, the cellular and molecular context sustaining this effect remains unexplored. In this study, we found that, whereas human B cells could not respond to soluble IL-15, monocytes and lymphoid tissue-derived macrophages but not stromal cells efficiently trans-present IL-15 to normal B cells and cooperate with T-cell-derived CD40L to promote IL-15-dependent B-cell proliferation. Furthermore, CD40L signaling triggers a Src-independent upregulation of STAT5 expression and favors a Src-dependent phosphorylation of STAT5 in response to IL-15. In follicular lymphoma (FL), immunohistochemical studies reported a strong relationship between malignant B cells, infiltrating macrophages and T cells. We show here an overexpression of IL-15 in purified tumor-associated macrophages, and STAT5A in purified tumor B cells. Moreover, FL B cells respond to IL-15 trans-presented by monocytes/macrophages, in particular, in the presence of CD40L-mediated signaling. This cooperation between IL-15 and CD40L reinforces the importance of tumor microenvironment and unravels a mechanism of FL growth that should be considered if using IL-15 as a drug in this disease.

  8. Characterization of a compensatory mutant of Leishmania major that lacks ether lipids but exhibits normal growth, and G418 and hygromycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Zufferey, Rachel; Bibis, Stergios S; Zhu, Tongtong; Dhalladoo, Subbhalakshmi

    2012-03-01

    Ether glycerolipid biosynthesis in Leishmania major initiates with the acylation of dihydroxyacetonephosphate by the glycosomal dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase LmDAT. We previously reported that a null mutant of LmDAT is severely affected in logarithmic growth, survival during stationary phase, and in virulence in mice. In addition, it lacks all ether glycerolipids, produces altered forms of the ether-lipid based virulence factors lipophosphoglycan and increased levels of GPI-anchored protein gp63. Here, we describe the characterization of a compensatory mutant of a null strain of LmDAT, Δlmdat/Δlmdat(rev). Similarly to the null mutant, the Δlmdat/Δlmdat(rev) strain formed altered forms of lipophosphoglycan and increased levels of gp63, and was avirulent in mice infection. Further, dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase activity was absent in the revertant clone, indicating that a mutation in another acyltransferase gene did not confer dihydroxyacetonephosphate specificity. In contrast, the revertant grew normally but still exhibited poor survival during stationary phase. In addition, agarose gel analysis of its genomic DNA failed to detect any amplified DNA. Surprisingly, its sensitivity to aminoglycoside based antibiotics G418 and hygromycin was lower than that of the null mutant, wild type and complemented line.

  9. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Panax ginseng at Different Stages of Growth and in Different Organs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Qun; Sun, Minying; Zhu, Linlin; Yang, Michael; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has become a widely used method for gene expression analysis; however, its data interpretation largely depends on the stability of reference genes. The transcriptomics of Panax ginseng, one of the most popular and traditional ingredients used in Chinese medicines, is increasingly being studied. Furthermore, it is vital to establish a series of reliable reference genes when qRT-PCR is used to assess the gene expression profile of ginseng. In this study, we screened out candidate reference genes for ginseng using gene expression data generated by a high-throughput sequencing platform. Based on the statistical tests, 20 reference genes (10 traditional housekeeping genes and 10 novel genes) were selected. These genes were tested for the normalization of expression levels in five growth stages and three distinct plant organs of ginseng by qPCR. These genes were subsequently ranked and compared according to the stability of their expressions using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper computational programs. Although the best reference genes were found to vary across different samples, CYP and EF-1α were the most stable genes amongst all samples. GAPDH/30S RPS20, CYP/60S RPL13 and CYP/QCR were the optimum pair of reference genes in the roots, stems, and leaves. CYP/60S RPL13, CYP/eIF-5A, aTUB/V-ATP, eIF-5A/SAR1, and aTUB/pol IIa were the most stably expressed combinations in each of the five developmental stages. Our study serves as a foundation for developing an accurate method of qRT-PCR and will benefit future studies on gene expression profiles of Panax Ginseng. PMID:25393243

  10. Normalization of similarity-based individual brain networks from gray matter MRI and its association with neurodevelopment in infants with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Batalle, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Figueras, Francesc; Bargallo, Nuria; Eixarch, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-12-01

    Obtaining individual biomarkers for the prediction of altered neurological outcome is a challenge of modern medicine and neuroscience. Connectomics based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) stands as a good candidate to exhaustively extract information from MRI by integrating the information obtained in a few network features that can be used as individual biomarkers of neurological outcome. However, this approach typically requires the use of diffusion and/or functional MRI to extract individual brain networks, which require high acquisition times and present an extreme sensitivity to motion artifacts, critical problems when scanning fetuses and infants. Extraction of individual networks based on morphological similarity from gray matter is a new approach that benefits from the power of graph theory analysis to describe gray matter morphology as a large-scale morphological network from a typical clinical anatomic acquisition such as T1-weighted MRI. In the present paper we propose a methodology to normalize these large-scale morphological networks to a brain network with standardized size based on a parcellation scheme. The proposed methodology was applied to reconstruct individual brain networks of 63 one-year-old infants, 41 infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and 22 controls, showing altered network features in the IUGR group, and their association with neurodevelopmental outcome at two years of age by means of ordinal regression analysis of the network features obtained with Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. Although it must be more widely assessed, this methodology stands as a good candidate for the development of biomarkers for altered neurodevelopment in the pediatric population.

  11. Comparison of growth-related traits and gene expression profiles between the offspring of neomale (XX) and normal male (XY) rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Kocmarek, Andrea L; Ferguson, Moira M; Danzmann, Roy G

    2015-04-01

    All-female lines of fish are created by crossing sex reversed (XX genotype) males with normal females. All-female lines avoid the deleterious phenotypic effects that are typical of precocious maturation in males. To determine whether all-female and mixed sex populations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) differ in performance, we compared the growth and gene expression profiles in progeny groups produced by crossing a XX male and a XY male to the same five females. Body weight and length were measured in the resulting all-female (XX) and mixed sex (XX/XY) offspring groups. Microarray experiments with liver and white muscle were used to determine if the gene expression profiles of large and small XX offspring differ from those in large and small XX/XY offspring. We detected no significant differences in body length and weight between offspring groups but XX offspring were significantly less variable in the value of these traits. A large number of upregulated genes were shared between the large XX and large XX/XY offspring; the small XX and small XX/XY offspring also shared similar expression profiles. No GO category differences were seen in the liver or between the large XX and large XX/XY offspring in the muscle. The greatest differences between the small XX and small XX/XY offspring were in the genes assigned to the "small molecule metabolic process" and "cellular metabolic process" GO level 3 categories. Similarly, genes within these categories as well as the category "macromolecule metabolic process" were more highly expressed in small compared to large XX fish.

  12. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Panax ginseng at different stages of growth and in different organs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Qun; Sun, Minying; Zhu, Linlin; Yang, Michael; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has become a widely used method for gene expression analysis; however, its data interpretation largely depends on the stability of reference genes. The transcriptomics of Panax ginseng, one of the most popular and traditional ingredients used in Chinese medicines, is increasingly being studied. Furthermore, it is vital to establish a series of reliable reference genes when qRT-PCR is used to assess the gene expression profile of ginseng. In this study, we screened out candidate reference genes for ginseng using gene expression data generated by a high-throughput sequencing platform. Based on the statistical tests, 20 reference genes (10 traditional housekeeping genes and 10 novel genes) were selected. These genes were tested for the normalization of expression levels in five growth stages and three distinct plant organs of ginseng by qPCR. These genes were subsequently ranked and compared according to the stability of their expressions using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper computational programs. Although the best reference genes were found to vary across different samples, CYP and EF-1α were the most stable genes amongst all samples. GAPDH/30S RPS20, CYP/60S RPL13 and CYP/QCR were the optimum pair of reference genes in the roots, stems, and leaves. CYP/60S RPL13, CYP/eIF-5A, aTUB/V-ATP, eIF-5A/SAR1, and aTUB/pol IIa were the most stably expressed combinations in each of the five developmental stages. Our study serves as a foundation for developing an accurate method of qRT-PCR and will benefit future studies on gene expression profiles of Panax Ginseng.

  13. Medium-chain TAG improve energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the liver of intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Hou, Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that medium-chain TAG (MCT) could alleviate hepatic oxidative damage in weanling piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). There is a relationship between oxidative status and energy metabolism, a process involved in substrate availability and glucose flux. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IUGR and MCT on hepatic energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets. Twenty-four IUGR piglets and twenty-four normal-birth-weight (NBW) piglets were fed a diet of either soyabean oil (SO) or MCT from 21 d of postnatal age to 49 d of postnatal age. Then, the piglets' biochemical parameters and gene expressions related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were determined (n 4). Compared with NBW, IUGR decreased the ATP contents and succinate oxidation rates in the liver of piglets, and reduced hepatic mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS) activity (P<0·05). IUGR piglets exhibited reductions in hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents and gene expressions related to mitochondrial biogenesis compared with NBW piglets (P<0·05). The MCT diet increased plasma ghrelin concentration and hepatic CS and succinate dehydrogenase activities, but decreased hepatic pyruvate kinase activity compared with the SO diet (P<0·05). The MCT-fed piglets showed improved mtDNA contents and PPARγ coactivator-1α expression in the liver (P<0·05). The MCT diet alleviated decreased mRNA abundance of the hepatic PPARα induced by IUGR (P<0·05). It can therefore be postulated that MCT may have beneficial effects in improving energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets.

  14. Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

  15. The Effects of Middle School Bullying and Victimization on Adjustment through High School: Growth Modeling of Achievement, School Attendance, and Disciplinary Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marissa A.; Ojanen, Tiina; Gesten, Ellis L.; Smith-Schrandt, Heather; Brannick, Michael; Wienke Totura, Christine M.; Alexander, Lizette; Scanga, David; Brown, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The current 5-year longitudinal study examined the effects of middle school bullying and victimization on adolescent academic achievement, disciplinary referrals, and school attendance through high school (N = 2030; 1016 both boys and girls). Greater engagement in bullying behaviors was concurrently associated with lower achievement and school…

  16. Soft-tissue profile changes during widening and protraction of the maxilla in patients with cleft lip and palate compared with normal growth and development.

    PubMed

    Tindlund, R S; Rygh, P

    1993-09-01

    During the last 15 years, cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients with maxillary deficiency in the care of the Bergen CLP team have undergone an interceptive orthopedic treatment phase during the deciduous and mixed dentition period. The present study includes 68 patients who received maxillary transverse expansion by use of a modified quad-helix appliance and 98 cases given maxillary protraction by a facial mask. All cases were treated until an acceptable normal occlusion was attained. Lateral cephalograms were taken immediately before and after the active treatment periods. Sagittal changes of the soft-tissue profile during transverse expansion and protraction were analyzed separately for unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients and bilateral complete cleft lip and palate (BCLP) patients. The soft-tissue profiles of the groups were compared to growth changes of noncleft age-matched children (NORM group). During the short period of maxillary transverse expansion (mean period, 3.5 months) no significant change of the soft-tissue profile was found, except in the protrusion of the lower lip in the BCLP group. During the period of maxillary protraction (mean periods, 12 months in the UCLP group and 15 months in the BCLP group) the soft-tissue profile improved significantly by reducing the characteristic tendency towards a concave profile in CLP patients with maxillary deficiency. Significant increases of the sagittal maxillomandibular lip relation (angle SS-N-SM: mean increase, 2.5 degrees) and the Holdaway-angle (H-angle: mean increase, 3.0 degrees) were found to be similar in the UCLP and BCLP groups. However, the use of different reference lines for evaluation of treatment effects upon the soft-tissue profile resulted in conflicting findings suggesting that anteriorly situated reference lines are more suitable for the evaluation of CLP patients. Thus, the esthetic line (E.line) indicated a favorable position of the lips after treatment; the subspinale

  17. Fatty acid as structure directing agent for controlled secondary growth of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to achieve mesoscale assemblies: A facile approach for developing hierarchical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, K.; Kaushik, S. D.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Deb, P.

    2016-08-01

    Mesoscale hierarchical assemblies have emerged out as a new class of structures between fine dimension nanoparticles and bulk structures, having distinctly different physical properties from either side. Controlling the self-assembly process of primary nanoparticles and subsequent secondary growth mechanism is the key aspect for achieving such ordered structures. In this work, we introduce a new insight on achieving hierarchical assemblies of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles based on the temporal stability of the primary nanoparticles, where, the growth and stability of the primary particles are controlled by using oleic acid. It is found that the developed particles, at a critical concentration of oleic acid, prefer a secondary growth process, rather than promoting their individual growth. Domination of the attractive hydrophobic interaction over steric repulsion among the primary particles at this critical concentration of oleic acid is found to be the key factor for the initial aggregation of the primary particles, which eventually leads to the formation of spherical hierarchical assemblies via oriented attachment. It is also realized that the extremely well or poor stability conditions of the primary particles do not allow this secondary growth process. Estimated values of Co2+ distribution factor show that the cation distribution factor of CoFe2O4 system is not affected by the nature of dominant growth processes, when these are controlled. Interestingly, magnetic measurements reflect the stronger interparticle interaction in the hierarchical system and high magnetic moment values at low magnetic field.

  18. Slow release of growth factors and thrombospondin-1 in Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a gold standard to achieve for all surgical platelet concentrates technologies.

    PubMed

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; de Peppo, Giuseppe M; Doglioli, Pierre; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2009-02-01

    Platelet concentrates for surgical topical applications are nowadays often used, but quantification of the long-term growth factor release from these preparations in most cases is impossible. Indeed, in most protocols, platelets are massively activated and there is no significant fibrin matrix to support growth factor release and cell migration. Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a second generation platelet concentrate, is a leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin biomaterial. Here, we show that this dense fibrin membrane releases high quantities of three main growth factors (Transforming Growth Factor b-1 (TGFbeta-1), platelet derived growth factor AB, PDGF-AB; vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF) and an important coagulation matricellular glycoprotein (thrombospondin-1, TSP-1) during 7 days. Moreover, the comparison between the final released amounts and the initial content of the membrane (after forcible extraction) allows us to consider that the leucocytes trapped in the fibrin matrix continue to produce high quantities of TGFbeta-1 and VEGF during the whole experimental time.

  19. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  20. Telomere attrition and restoration in the normal teleost Oryzias latipes are linked to growth rate and telomerase activity at each life stage

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Hitoshi; Yamazaki, Hiromi; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Aida, Junko; Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Takubo, Kaiyo; Ishikawa, Naoshi

    2016-01-01

    Telomere shortening occurs when cells divide, both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, telomerase is able to maintain telomere length in cells by adding TTAGGG repeats to the ends of telomeres. However, the interrelationships existing among telomere length, telomerase activity and growth in vertebrates remain to be clarified. In the present study we measured telomere length (terminal restriction fragment length), telomerase activity and body growth of Oryzias latipes from the embryo stage until senescence. During the rapid growth stage (age 0–7 months), telomeres shortened in parallel with decreasing telomerase activity. Then, during adolescence (age 7 months – 1 year), telomeres lengthened quickly as growth slowed and telomerase activity increased. In the adult stage (age 1–4 years) characterized by little growth, telomerase activity decreased gradually and telomeres shortened. Our data indicate that telomere attrition and restoration are linked to growth and telomerase activity, and suggest that critical loss of telomere homeostasis is associated with mortality in this animal. PMID:26789258

  1. Family and Contextual Socioeconomic Effects across Seasons: When Do They Matter for the Achievement Growth of Young Children? WCER Working Paper No. 2007-5, August 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, James G.; Borman, Geoffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have disagreed about the extent to which differences in achievement based on socioeconomic status (SES) accumulate during the school year as compared to the summer, and the literature has not fully assessed the contributions of social contexts--in the form of both school and neighborhood poverty concentration and racial and ethnic…

  2. 1 + 1 Is Not Always 2: Variation in the Relations between Mathematics Self-Efficacy Development and Longitudinal Mathematics Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Preparing every student to be college and career ready by the time they graduate from high school has become a national policy priority. Although a variety of academic skills are required for postsecondary success, mathematics achievement is a particularly influential factor in college and career readiness (Pellegrino & Hilton, 2012). Research…

  3. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  4. The Relationship of Leadership Styles, Gender and Years of Experience of Middle School Principals in North Carolina on Achievement and Growth Trends on the End of Grade Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Morris, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is an ever changing process and principals play a key role in the instructional focus of a school which often times created success in instruction (Riordan, 2003). Principals face different challenges today while improving schools and student academic achievement. The perceptions of an effective school leader has changed over the years…

  5. Linking Student Achievement Growth to Professional Development Participation and Changes in Instruction: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Students and Teachers in Title I Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura; Smith, Thomas M.; Phillips, Kristie J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Most reforms in elementary education rely on teacher learning and improved instruction to increase student learning. This study increases our understanding of which types of professional development effectively change teaching practice in ways that boost student achievement. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study:…

  6. Growth hormone and growth?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steve

    2013-09-01

    Pituitary GH is obligatory for normal growth in mammals, but the importance of pituitary GH in avian growth is less certain. In birds, pituitary GH is biologically active and has growth promoting actions in the tibia-test bioassay. Its importance in normal growth is indicated by the growth suppression following the surgical removal of the pituitary gland or after the immunoneutralization of endogenous pituitary GH. The partial restoration of growth in some studies with GH-treated hypophysectomized birds also suggests GH dependency in avian growth, as does the dwarfism that occurs in some strains with GHR dysfunctions. Circulating GH concentrations are also correlated with body weight gain, being high in young, rapidly growing birds and low in slower growing older birds. Nevertheless, despite these observations, there is an extensive literature that concludes pituitary GH is not important in avian growth. This is based on numerous studies with hypophysectomized and intact birds that show only slight, transitory or absent growth responses to exogenous GH-treatment. Moreover, while circulating GH levels correlate with weight gain in young birds, this may merely reflect changes in the control of pituitary GH secretion during aging, as numerous studies involving experimental alterations in growth rate fail to show positive correlations between plasma GH concentrations and the alterations in growth rate. Furthermore, growth is known to occur in the absence of pituitary GH, as most embryonic development occurs prior to the ontogenetic appearance of pituitary somatotrophs and the appearance of GH in embryonic circulation. Early embryonic growth is also independent of the endocrine actions of pituitary GH, since removal of the presumptive pituitary gland does not impair early growth. Embryonic growth does, however, occur in the presence of extrapituitary GH, which is produced by most tissues and has autocrine or paracrine roles that locally promote growth and development

  7. Inhibition of growth of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B in sous vide cooked meat products is achieved by using thermal processing but not nisin.

    PubMed

    Lindström, M; Mokkila, M; Skyttä, E; Hyytiä-Trees, E; Lähteenmäki, L; Hielm, S; Ahvenainen, R; Korkeala, H

    2001-06-01

    The safety of refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFEDs) with respect to nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum is under continuous evaluation. In the present study, mild (P7.0(85.0) values 0 to 2 min [P, pasteurization value; z-value 7.0 degrees C; reference temperature 85.0 degrees C]) and increased (P7.0(85.0) values 67 to 515 min) heat treatments were evaluated in relation to survival of nonproteolytic C. botulinum type B spores in sous vide processed ground beef and pork cubes. The use of two concentrations of nisin in inhibition of growth and toxin production by nonproteolytic C. botulinum in the same products was also evaluated. A total of 96 samples were heat processed and analyzed for C. botulinum by BoNT/B gene-specific polmerase chain reaction and for botulinum toxin by a mouse bioassay after storage of 14 to 28 days at 4 and 8 degrees C. Predictably, after mild processing all samples of both products showed botulinal growth, and one ground beef sample became toxic at 8 degrees C. The increased heat processing, equivalent to 67 min at 85 degrees C. resulted in growth but not toxin production of C. botulinum in one ground beef sample in 21 days at 8 degrees C: in the pork cube samples no growth was detected. The increased heating of both products resulted in higher sensory quality than the milder heat treatment. Nisin did not inhibit the growth of nonproteolytic C. botulinum in either product; growth was detected in both products at 4 and 8 degrees C, and ground beef became toxic with all nisin levels within 21 to 28 days at 8 degrees C. Aerobic and lactic acid bacterial counts were reduced by the addition of nisin at 4 degrees C. The study demonstrates that the mild processing temperatures commonly employed in sous vide technology do not eliminate nonproteolytic C. botulinum type B spores. The intensity of each heat treatment needs to be carefully evaluated individually for each product to ensure product safety in relation to

  8. Septins AspA and AspC are important for normal development and limit the emergence of new growth foci in the multicellular fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septins are cytoskeletal proteins found in fungi, animals and microsporidia where they form multi-septin heteropolymeric complexes that act as scaffolds recruiting and organizing other proteins to ensure normal cell division and development. Here we characterize AspA and AspC, two of the five septin...

  9. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), environment, exposome and epigenetics: a molecular perspective of postnatal normal spinal growth and the etiopathogenesis of AIS with consideration of a network approach and possible implications for medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Discordant findings for monozygotic (MZ) twins with AIS show that environmental factors including different intrauterine environments are important in etiology, but what these environmental factors may be is unknown. Recent evidence for common chronic non-communicable diseases suggests epigenetic differences may underlie MZ twin discordance, and be the link between environmental factors and phenotypic differences. DNA methylation is one important epigenetic mechanism operating at the interface between genome and environment to regulate phenotypic plasticity with a complex regulation across the genome during the first decade of life. The word exposome refers to the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards, comprising factors in external and internal environments. The word exposome is used here also in relation to physiologic and etiopathogenetic factors that affect normal spinal growth and may induce the deformity of AIS. In normal postnatal spinal growth we propose a new term and concept, physiologic growth-plate exposome for the normal processes particularly of the internal environments that may have epigenetic effects on growth plates of vertebrae. In AIS, we propose a new term and concept pathophysiologic scoliogenic exposome for the abnormal processes in molecular pathways particularly of the internal environment currently expressed as etiopathogenetic hypotheses; these are suggested to have deforming effects on the growth plates of vertebrae at cell, tissue, structure and/or organ levels that are considered to be epigenetic. New research is required for chromatin modifications including DNA methylation in AIS subjects and vertebral growth plates excised at surgery. In addition, consideration is needed for a possible network approach to etiopathogenesis by constructing AIS diseasomes. These approaches may lead through screening

  10. Importance of growth temperature on achieving lattice-matched and strained InAlN/GaN heterostructure by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeganathan, K.; Shimizu, M.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the role of growth temperature on the optimization of lattice-matched In0.17Al0.83N/GaN heterostructure and its structural evolutions along with electrical transport studies. The indium content gradually reduces with the increase of growth temperature and approaches lattice-matched with GaN having very smooth and high structural quality at 450°C. The InAlN layers grown at high growth temperature (480°C) retain very low Indium content of ˜ 4 % in which cracks are mushroomed due to tensile strain while above lattice matched (>17%) layers maintain crack-free compressive strain nature. The near lattice-matched heterostructure demonstrate a strong carrier confinement with very high two-dimensional sheet carrier density of ˜2.9 × 1013 cm-2 with the sheet resistance of ˜450 Ω/□ at room temperature as due to the manifestation of spontaneous polarization charge differences between InAlN and GaN layers.

  11. Importance of growth temperature on achieving lattice-matched and strained InAlN/GaN heterostructure by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Jeganathan, K.; Shimizu, M.

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the role of growth temperature on the optimization of lattice-matched In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN heterostructure and its structural evolutions along with electrical transport studies. The indium content gradually reduces with the increase of growth temperature and approaches lattice-matched with GaN having very smooth and high structural quality at 450ºC. The InAlN layers grown at high growth temperature (480ºC) retain very low Indium content of ∼ 4 % in which cracks are mushroomed due to tensile strain while above lattice matched (>17%) layers maintain crack-free compressive strain nature. The near lattice-matched heterostructure demonstrate a strong carrier confinement with very high two-dimensional sheet carrier density of ∼2.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} with the sheet resistance of ∼450 Ω/□ at room temperature as due to the manifestation of spontaneous polarization charge differences between InAlN and GaN layers.

  12. Class XI Myosins Move Specific Organelles in Pollen Tubes and Are Required for Normal Fertility and Pollen Tube Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Madison, Stephanie L; Buchanan, Matthew L; Glass, Jeremiah D; McClain, Tarah F; Park, Eunsook; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Pollen tube growth is an essential aspect of plant reproduction because it is the mechanism through which nonmotile sperm cells are delivered to ovules, thus allowing fertilization to occur. A pollen tube is a single cell that only grows at the tip, and this tip growth has been shown to depend on actin filaments. It is generally assumed that myosin-driven movements along these actin filaments are required to sustain the high growth rates of pollen tubes. We tested this conjecture by examining seed set, pollen fitness, and pollen tube growth for knockout mutants of five of the six myosin XI genes expressed in pollen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Single mutants had little or no reduction in overall fertility, whereas double mutants of highly similar pollen myosins had greater defects in pollen tube growth. In particular, myo11c1 myo11c2 pollen tubes grew more slowly than wild-type pollen tubes, which resulted in reduced fitness compared with the wild type and a drastic reduction in seed set. Golgi stack and peroxisome movements were also significantly reduced, and actin filaments were less organized in myo11c1 myo11c2 pollen tubes. Interestingly, the movement of yellow fluorescent protein-RabA4d-labeled vesicles and their accumulation at pollen tube tips were not affected in the myo11c1 myo11c2 double mutant, demonstrating functional specialization among myosin isoforms. We conclude that class XI myosins are required for organelle motility, actin organization, and optimal growth of pollen tubes.

  13. Class XI Myosins Move Specific Organelles in Pollen Tubes and Are Required for Normal Fertility and Pollen Tube Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Madison, Stephanie L; Buchanan, Matthew L; Glass, Jeremiah D; McClain, Tarah F; Park, Eunsook; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Pollen tube growth is an essential aspect of plant reproduction because it is the mechanism through which nonmotile sperm cells are delivered to ovules, thus allowing fertilization to occur. A pollen tube is a single cell that only grows at the tip, and this tip growth has been shown to depend on actin filaments. It is generally assumed that myosin-driven movements along these actin filaments are required to sustain the high growth rates of pollen tubes. We tested this conjecture by examining seed set, pollen fitness, and pollen tube growth for knockout mutants of five of the six myosin XI genes expressed in pollen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Single mutants had little or no reduction in overall fertility, whereas double mutants of highly similar pollen myosins had greater defects in pollen tube growth. In particular, myo11c1 myo11c2 pollen tubes grew more slowly than wild-type pollen tubes, which resulted in reduced fitness compared with the wild type and a drastic reduction in seed set. Golgi stack and peroxisome movements were also significantly reduced, and actin filaments were less organized in myo11c1 myo11c2 pollen tubes. Interestingly, the movement of yellow fluorescent protein-RabA4d-labeled vesicles and their accumulation at pollen tube tips were not affected in the myo11c1 myo11c2 double mutant, demonstrating functional specialization among myosin isoforms. We conclude that class XI myosins are required for organelle motility, actin organization, and optimal growth of pollen tubes. PMID:26358416

  14. Class XI Myosins Move Specific Organelles in Pollen Tubes and Are Required for Normal Fertility and Pollen Tube Growth in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Stephanie L.; Buchanan, Matthew L.; Glass, Jeremiah D.; McClain, Tarah F.; Park, Eunsook; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tube growth is an essential aspect of plant reproduction because it is the mechanism through which nonmotile sperm cells are delivered to ovules, thus allowing fertilization to occur. A pollen tube is a single cell that only grows at the tip, and this tip growth has been shown to depend on actin filaments. It is generally assumed that myosin-driven movements along these actin filaments are required to sustain the high growth rates of pollen tubes. We tested this conjecture by examining seed set, pollen fitness, and pollen tube growth for knockout mutants of five of the six myosin XI genes expressed in pollen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Single mutants had little or no reduction in overall fertility, whereas double mutants of highly similar pollen myosins had greater defects in pollen tube growth. In particular, myo11c1 myo11c2 pollen tubes grew more slowly than wild-type pollen tubes, which resulted in reduced fitness compared with the wild type and a drastic reduction in seed set. Golgi stack and peroxisome movements were also significantly reduced, and actin filaments were less organized in myo11c1 myo11c2 pollen tubes. Interestingly, the movement of yellow fluorescent protein-RabA4d-labeled vesicles and their accumulation at pollen tube tips were not affected in the myo11c1 myo11c2 double mutant, demonstrating functional specialization among myosin isoforms. We conclude that class XI myosins are required for organelle motility, actin organization, and optimal growth of pollen tubes. PMID:26358416

  15. Differential binding of fibroblast growth factor-2 and -7 to basement membrane heparan sulfate: comparison of normal and abnormal human tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, A.; Chang, Z.; Tierney, A.; Rapraeger, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play multiple roles during development and in adult tissues as paracrine regulators of growth and differentiation. FGFs signal through transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases, but heparan sulfate is also required for signaling by members of the FGF family. In addition, heparan sulfate may be involved in determining tissue distribution of FGFs. Using biotinylated FGF-2 and FGF-7 (KGF) as probes, we have identified specific interactions between FGFs and heparan sulfates in human tissues. Both FGF species bind to tissue mast cells and to epithelial cell membranes. Binding to basement membrane heparan sulfate is tissue source dependent and specific. Although FGF-2 strongly binds to basement membrane heparan sulfate in skin and most other tissue sites examined, FGF-7 fails to bind to basement membrane heparan sulfate in most locations. However, in subendothelial matrix in blood vessels and in the basement membrane of a papillary renal cell carcinoma, strong FGF-7 binding is seen. In summary, distinct and specific affinities of heparan sulfates for different FGFs were identified that may affect growth factor activation and local distribution. Heparan sulfate may have a gatekeeper function to either restrict or permit diffusion of heparin-binding growth factors across the basement membrane. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9094999

  16. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  17. Normal development.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine; Koob, Meriam; Brunel, Herv

    2016-01-01

    Numerous events are involved in brain development, some of which are detected by neuroimaging. Major changes in brain morphology are depicted by brain imaging during the fetal period while changes in brain composition can be demonstrated in both pre- and postnatal periods. Although ultrasonography and computed tomography can show changes in brain morphology, these techniques are insensitive to myelination that is one of the most important events occurring during brain maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is therefore the method of choice to evaluate brain maturation. MRI also gives insight into the microstructure of brain tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Metabolic changes are also part of brain maturation and are assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Understanding and knowledge of the different steps in brain development are required to be able to detect morphologic and structural changes on neuroimaging. Consequently alterations in normal development can be depicted. PMID:27430460

  18. Generation of fibrosarcomas in vivo by a retrovirus that expresses the normal B chain of platelet-derived growth factor and mimics the alternative splice pattern of the v-sis oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Pech, M; Gazit, A; Arnstein, P; Aaronson, S A

    1989-01-01

    A retrovirus containing the entire human platelet-derived growth factor B-chain (PDGF-B) gene was constructed in order to investigate the in vivo biological activity of its encoded growth factor. When this virus was introduced into newborn mice, it reproducibly generated fibrosarcomas at the site of inoculation. Proviruses in each fibrosarcoma analyzed had lost 149 nucleotides downstream of the PDGF-B coding region. This deletion originated from an alternative or aberrant splice event that occurred within exon 7 of the PDGF-B gene and mimicked the v-sis oncogene. Thus, deletion of this region may be necessary for efficient retrovirus replication or for more potent transforming function. Evidence that the normal growth factor coding sequence was unaltered derived from RNase protection studies and immunoprecipitation analysis. Tumors were generally polyclonal but demonstrated clonal subpopulations. Moreover, tumor-derived cell lines became monoclonal within a few tissue culture passages and rapidly formed tumors in vivo. These findings argue that overexpression of the normal human PDGF-B gene product under retrovirus control can induce the fully malignant phenotype. Images PMID:2649890

  19. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR−/−) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Kenneth A.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; DiStefano, Peter S.; Geddes, Brad J.; Kopchick, John

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR −/− mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (Mb) changes and physical activity in 17 month-old female GHR −/− mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR −/− mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit Mb, had greater EE per unit Mb and had an increase in 24-h EE/Mb that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR −/− mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, Mb and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for Mb and LMA, the GHR −/− mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR −/− mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR −/− mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final three hours of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR −/− mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable Mb. Relative to wild type mice, the GHR −/− mice consumed more calories per unit Mb, which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR −/− mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. PMID:19747867

  20. Achieving scale strategies for sustained competitive performance.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mark E; Gish, Ryan S; Tkach, Sasha N

    2008-05-01

    Growth to achieve scale requires the following strategic initiatives: Having a clear understanding of what the organization is and what it wants to become. Ensuring a structured and rigorous growth process. Leveraging size to achieve benefits of scale. Recognizing the importance of physicians, ambulatory care, and primary care. Establishing and maintaining accountability as growth occurs.

  1. Chronic growth hormone treatment in normal rats reduces post-prandial skeletal muscle plasma membrane GLUT1 content, but not glucose transport or GLUT4 expression and localization.

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, R; Cittadini, A; Chow, J C; Hirshman, M F; Smith, R J; Douglas, P S; Horton, E S

    1996-01-01

    Whether skeletal muscle glucose transport system is impaired in the basal, post-prandial state during chronic growth hormone treatment is unknown. The current study was designed to determine whether 4 weeks of human growth hormone (hGH) treatment (3.5 mg/kg per day) would impair glucose transport and/or the number of glucose transporters in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from hindlimb skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats under basal, post-prandial conditions. hGH treatment was shown to have no effect on glucose influx (Vmax or K(m)) determined under equilibrium exchange conditions in isolated plasma membrane vesicles. Plasma membrane glucose transporter number (Ro) measured by cytochalasin B binding was also unchanged by hGH treatment. Consequently, glucose transporter turnover number (Vmax/Ro), a measure of average glucose transporter intrinsic activity, was similar in hGH-treated and control rats. hGH did not change GLUT4 protein content in whole muscle or in the plasma membrane, and muscle content of GLUT4 mRNA also was unchanged. In contrast, GLUT1 protein content in the plasma membrane fraction was significantly reduced by hGH treatment. This was associated with a modest, although not significant, decrease in muscle content of GLUT1 mRNA. In conclusion, high-dose hGH treatment for 4 weeks did not alter post-prandial skeletal muscle glucose transport activity. Neither the muscle level nor the intracellular localization of GLUT4 was changed by the hormone treatment. On the contrary, the basal post-prandial level of GLUT1 in the plasma membrane was reduced by hGH. The mRNA data suggest that this reduction might result from a decrease in the synthesis of GLUT1. PMID:8645183

  2. Chondrogenesis of periodontal ligament stem cells by transforming growth factor-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a normal healthy impacted third molar.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunyoung; Cho, Tae-Jun; Kwon, Soon-Keun; Lee, Gene; Cho, Jaejin

    2013-03-01

    The periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cell is regarded as a source of adult stem cells due to its multipotency. However, the proof of chondrogenic potential of the cells is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the chondrogenic differentiation capacity of periodontal ligament derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6. After isolation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from human periodontal ligament, the cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). A mechanical force initiated chondrogenic differentiation of the cells. For chondrogenic differentiation, 10 µg·L⁻¹ TGF-β3 or 100 µg∙L⁻¹ BMP-6 and the combination treating group for synergistic effect of the growth factors. We analyzed the PDLSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and chondrogenesis were evaluated by glycosaminoglycans assay, histology, immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell properties proved by FACS analysis. Glycosaminoglycans contents were increased 217% by TGF-β3 and 220% by BMP-6. The synergetic effect of TGF-β3 and BMP-6 were shown up to 281% compared to control. The combination treatment increased Sox9, aggrecan and collagen II expression compared with not only controls, but also TGF-β3 or BMP-6 single treatment dramatically. The histological analysis also indicated the chondrogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in our conditions. The results of the present study demonstrate the potential of the dental stem cell as a valuable cell source for chondrogenesis, which may be applicable for regeneration of cartilage and bone fracture in the field of cell therapy.

  3. WMAP normalization of inflationary cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Mukherjee, Pia; Leach, Samuel M.

    2006-10-15

    We use the three-year WMAP observations to determine the normalization of the matter power spectrum in inflationary cosmologies. In this context, the quantity of interest is not the normalization marginalized over all parameters, but rather the normalization as a function of the inflationary parameters n{sub S} and r with marginalization over the remaining cosmological parameters. We compute this normalization and provide an accurate fitting function. The statistical uncertainty in the normalization is 3%, roughly half that achieved by COBE. We use the k-l relation for the standard cosmological model to identify the pivot scale for the WMAP normalization. We also quote the inflationary energy scale corresponding to the WMAP normalization.

  4. Characterization of six small HSP genes from Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae): Differential expression under conditions of normal growth and heat-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; de la Fuente, Mercedes; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2015-10-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most numerous, structurally diverse, and functionally uncharacterized family of heat shock proteins. Several Hsp genes (Hsp 90, 70, 40, and 27) from the insect Chironomus riparius are widely used in aquatic toxicology as biomarkers for environmental toxins. Here, we conducted a comparative study and characterized secondary structure of the six newly identified sHsp genes Hsp17, Hsp21, Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34. A characteristic α-crystallin domain is predicted in all the new proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a strong relation to other sHSPs from insects and interesting evidence regarding evolutionary origin and duplication events. Comparative analysis of transcription profiles for Hsp27, Hsp70, and the six newly identified genes revealed that Hsp17, Hsp21, and Hsp22 are constitutively expressed under normal conditions, while under two different heat shock conditions these genes are either not activated or are even repressed (Hsp22). In contrast, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34 are significantly activated along with Hsp27 and Hsp70 during heat stress. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the small HSP subfamily and provide new data to help understand the coping mechanisms induced by stressful environmental stimuli.

  5. Characterization of six small HSP genes from Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae): Differential expression under conditions of normal growth and heat-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; de la Fuente, Mercedes; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2015-10-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most numerous, structurally diverse, and functionally uncharacterized family of heat shock proteins. Several Hsp genes (Hsp 90, 70, 40, and 27) from the insect Chironomus riparius are widely used in aquatic toxicology as biomarkers for environmental toxins. Here, we conducted a comparative study and characterized secondary structure of the six newly identified sHsp genes Hsp17, Hsp21, Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34. A characteristic α-crystallin domain is predicted in all the new proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a strong relation to other sHSPs from insects and interesting evidence regarding evolutionary origin and duplication events. Comparative analysis of transcription profiles for Hsp27, Hsp70, and the six newly identified genes revealed that Hsp17, Hsp21, and Hsp22 are constitutively expressed under normal conditions, while under two different heat shock conditions these genes are either not activated or are even repressed (Hsp22). In contrast, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34 are significantly activated along with Hsp27 and Hsp70 during heat stress. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the small HSP subfamily and provide new data to help understand the coping mechanisms induced by stressful environmental stimuli. PMID:26129721

  6. Arabidopsis ACTIN-DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR7 Severs Actin Filaments and Regulates Actin Cable Turnover to Promote Normal Pollen Tube Growth[W

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yiyan; Xie, Yurong; Jiang, Yuxiang; Qu, Xiaolu; Huang, Shanjin

    2013-01-01

    Actin filaments are often arranged into higher-order structures, such as the longitudinal actin cables that generate the reverse fountain cytoplasmic streaming pattern present in pollen tubes. While several actin binding proteins have been implicated in the generation of these cables, the mechanisms that regulate their dynamic turnover remain largely unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana ACTIN-DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR7 (ADF7) is required for turnover of longitudinal actin cables. In vitro biochemical analyses revealed that ADF7 is a typical ADF that prefers ADP-G-actin over ATP-G-actin. ADF7 inhibits nucleotide exchange on actin and severs filaments, but its filament severing and depolymerizing activities are less potent than those of the vegetative ADF1. ADF7 primarily decorates longitudinal actin cables in the shanks of pollen tubes. Consistent with this localization pattern, the severing frequency and depolymerization rate of filaments significantly decreased, while their maximum lifetime significantly increased, in adf7 pollen tube shanks. Furthermore, an ADF7–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion with defective severing activity but normal G-actin binding activity could not complement adf7, providing compelling evidence that the severing activity of ADF7 is vital for its in vivo functions. These observations suggest that ADF7 evolved to promote turnover of longitudinal actin cables by severing actin filaments in pollen tubes. PMID:24058157

  7. Green Light-emitting Diodes Light Stimuli during Incubation Enhances Posthatch Growth without Disrupting Normal Eye Development of Broiler Embryos and Hatchlings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, X. D.; Wang, X. F.; Li, J. L.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Monochromatic green light-emitting diodes (LED) light stimuli influences the posthatch growth performance of chicks. This study was undertaken with the following objectives: i) to examine whether the green LED light stimuli induces an overheating effect by determining weight loss rate of fertile eggs during incubation period; ii) to look for the development of eyes and other primary organs at different ages of embryos and newly hatched chicks. Arbor Acres fertile broiler eggs (n = 480) were randomly assigned to 3 incubation groups and exposed to continuous white light, green light, or a dark environment (control) from the first day to 19 d of incubation. The light sourced from LED lamps with the intensity of 30 lx at eggshell level. The results showed that either green or white light stimuli during incubation did not significantly affect the weight loss rate of fertile eggs, hatching time, hatchability, chick embryo, or body weight (BW), the weight percentage of heart, liver, and eyes, as well as obvious systematic abnormalities in eye weight, side-to-side, back-to-front, or corneal diameter from 15 d of embryogenesis to 6 d of posthatch (p>0.05). Compared with the dark condition, green light stimuli during incubation tended to increase feed intake (p = 0.080), improved the BW gain of chicks during 0 to 6 day posthatch (p<0.05), and increased the percentage of pectoral muscle to the BW on 3- and 6-day-old chicks. In addition, embryos or chicks in green light had lower weight percentage of yolk retention on 19 d of embryogenesis and 1 d of posthatch in comparison to those in dark or white group (p<0.05). These results suggest that providing 30 lx green LED light stimuli during incubation has no detrimental effect on the development of eyes, heart and liver of embryos and hatchlings, but does have potential benefits in terms of enhancement of the chick growth during the early posthatch stages. In addition, the fertile broiler eggs stimulated with 30 lx green LED

  8. Association of adult height and leg length with fasting plasma cortisol concentrations: evidence for an effect of normal variation in adrenocortical activity on growth.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D I W; Syddall, Holly E; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    We have evaluated the relationship between activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and adult height in adults recruited from the UK Hertfordshire Cohort Study. In a sample of 1,354 individuals, we found that height fell by 0.67 cm (95% CI 0.34-1.0) per SD (114 nmol/l) increase in fasting plasma cortisol concentrations. The association was continuous across the range of cortisol concentrations and was independent of the levels of corticosteroid binding globulin. It was of similar magnitude in men and women. In a subsample of the study available data on standing and sitting height was used to estimate trunk and leg length. Fasting plasma cortisol concentrations were found to have a much greater impact on leg length than trunk length. These findings suggest that physiological variations in adrenocortical glucocorticoid secretion in humans affect adult height. They also raise the possibility that the HPA axis may be involved in mediating resource allocation decisions and trade-offs during development perhaps by limiting physical growth to enable other competing processes.

  9. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of RluD, the only rRNA pseudouridine synthase required for normal growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Mark; Ofengand, James; Malhotra, Arun

    2004-02-01

    Escherichia coli pseudouridine synthase RluD makes pseudouridines 1911, 1915, and 1917 in the loop of helix 69 in 23S RNA. These are the most highly conserved ribosomal pseudouridines known. Of 11 pseudouridine synthases in E. coli, only cells lacking RluD have severe growth defects and abnormal ribosomes. We have determined the 2.0 A structure of the catalytic domain of RluD (residues 77-326), the first structure of an RluA family member. The catalytic domain folds into a mainly antiparallel beta-sheet flanked by several loops and helices. A positively charged cleft that presumably binds RNA leads to the conserved Asp 139. The RluD N-terminal S4 domain, connected by a flexible linker, is disordered in our structure. RluD is very similar in both catalytic domain structure and active site arrangement to the pseudouridine synthases RsuA, TruB, and TruA. We identify five sequence motifs, two of which are novel, in the RluA, RsuA, TruB, and TruA families, uniting them as one superfamily. These results strongly suggest that four of the five families of pseudouridine synthases arose by divergent evolution. The RluD structure also provides insight into its multisite specificity.

  10. Constant and changing photoperiods in the laying period for broiler breeders allowed [corrected] normal or accelerated growth during the rearing period.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Gous, R M

    2006-02-01

    Broiler breeder pullets were grown on 8-h photoperiods to 2.23 or 2.42 kg of BW at 20 wk, and then transferred abruptly to 11- or 16-h photoperiods. Subsequently, some of the 11-h photoperiod birds were given 15-min increases in day length weekly or a 1-h increase every 4 wk to reach 16 h of light at 54 wk. The birds transferred abruptly to a 16-h photoperiod at 20 wk matured 4 d earlier than 11-h photoperiod birds, required 500 g less feed to reach 50% lay, but, because of a 3% lower rate of lay after peak, produced 5 fewer eggs to 60 wk. However, the number of settable eggs was similar for the 2 groups because the 11-h photoperiod birds laid more eggs on the floor, resulting in more cracked and dirty eggs. The 11-h photoperiod birds converted feed into egg more efficiently, and were 100 g heavier at end of lay. Increasing the photoperiod in 15-min or 1-h increments from 11 to 16 h during the laying cycle depressed egg production. Mean egg weight and mortality were similar for all lighting groups. The heavier BW birds at 20 wk reached maturity 1 d earlier, but used 1 kg more feed to reach maturity, laid 5 fewer total eggs (because of a 3% lower rate of lay after peak), produced 7 more unsettable eggs (because more eggs were laid on the floor), and converted feed into egg less efficiently than did the lighter BW birds. Mean egg weight, BW at 57 wk, and mortality were similar for both groups. There was no significant light x growth interaction for any performance parameter. It is concluded that there is no benefit to egg production from extending the photoperiod to 16 h when broiler breeders are kept in light-proofed housing, especially if they have access to illuminated nest boxes.

  11. Growth in Sotos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agwu, J C; Shaw, N J; Kirk, J; Chapman, S; Ravine, D; Cole, T R

    1999-04-01

    Although there are several reports on infant and childhood growth in patients with Sotos syndrome, there is little information on the final height achieved and puberty. Growth data on 40 patients (20 female and 20 male) aged 2-31 years were collected. These showed that patients with Sotos syndrome are excessively tall at birth, during infancy, and during childhood. Disproportionately long limbs constitute much of the increase in stature. However, the combination of advanced bone age and early onset of menarche led to a mean (SD) final height of 172.9 (5.7) cm in women. This is within the normal range for the population. Most of the men also attained a final height (mean, 184.3 cm; SD, 6.0) within the normal range, although exceptions were more likely in men than in women. Therefore, these results show that most patients with Sotos syndrome do not require intervention to limit their adult height. PMID:10086939

  12. Expression of csp genes in E. coli K-12 in defined rich and defined minimal media during normal growth, and after cold-shock.

    PubMed

    Czapski, Tiffaney R; Trun, Nancy

    2014-08-15

    Cold-shock proteins (Csps) are a family of small nucleic acid-binding proteins found in 72% of sequenced bacterial genomes. Where it has been examined, at least one csp gene is required for cell viability. In Escherichia coli K-12, there are nine homologous csp genes named A-I. Regulation studies performed on individual members of this family have suggested that cspA, cspB, cspG, and cspI are cold-induced, cspC and cspE are constitutively expressed, cspD is stationary phase induced, and the induction patterns for cspF and cspH have yet to be determined. Aside from microarray studies, transcript levels from all nine csp genes have never been assayed using the same technique or in the same cells. The purpose of this study was to use quantitative RT-PCR to establish csp expression patterns for all nine csp genes at 37°C in defined rich and defined minimal media, and after a shift to 15°C for either 1h or 4h. We found that transcript levels for each of the csp genes changed throughout the growth curve. Transcripts for cspA, -B, and -E were more abundant than those detected for the other csp genes in defined rich medium. cspE mRNA levels in defined minimal medium were drastically higher than mRNA for the other csp genes. Of the nine csp genes, only cspI showed a significant increase in mRNA accumulation after cold-shock in defined rich medium. When mRNA accumulation was compared across the nine csp genes, there were more cspE transcripts in the cell than cspA, -B, -G, or -I transcripts after 1h cold-shock in either defined rich or defined minimal media. In defined minimal medium, transcription of cspA, -B, -G, and -I was induced after cold-shock.

  13. Growth hormone secretory characteristics of sex-linked dwarf and normal-sized chickens reared on a control or on a 3,3',5-triiodothyronine-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Buyse, J; Tixier-Biochard, M; Berghman, L R; Huybrechts, L M; Decuypere, E

    1994-03-01

    This study examined the pulsatile presence of growth hormone (GH) in the plasma--which reflects its pulsatile release--of 8-week-old male sex-linked dwarf (dwdw) or normal-sized (Dwdw) chickens from a brown-egg layer strain reared on a control or on a 0.5 ppm triiodothyronine(T3)-supplemented diet. The overall GH mean, amplitude, and baseline levels of control dw chickens were significantly higher than those of control Dw chickens. No differences in peak length or peak frequency between genotypes were observed. Dietary T3 supplementation abolished the pulsatile GH release in both genotypes. T3 treatment depressed the mean GH levels of Dw but not of dw chickens.

  14. Initial contact of glioblastoma cells with existing normal brain endothelial cells strengthen the barrier function via fibroblast growth factor 2 secretion: a new in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nakagawa, Shinsuke; Thuy, Dinh Ha Duy; Ujifuku, Kenta; Kamada, Kensaku; Hayashi, Kentaro; Matsuo, Takayuki; Nagata, Izumi; Niwa, Masami

    2013-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells invade along the existing normal capillaries in brain. Normal capillary endothelial cells function as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that limits permeability of chemicals into the brain. To investigate whether GBM cells modulate the BBB function of normal endothelial cells, we developed a new in vitro BBB model with primary cultures of rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs), pericytes, and astrocytes. Cells were plated on a membrane with 8 μm pores, either as a monolayer or as a BBB model with triple layer culture. The BBB model consisted of RBEC on the luminal side as a bottom, and pericytes and astrocytes on the abluminal side as a top of the chamber. Human GBM cell line, LN-18 cells, or lung cancer cell line, NCI-H1299 cells, placed on either the RBEC monolayer or the BBB model increased the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) values against the model, which peaked within 72 h after the tumor cell application. The TEER value gradually returned to baseline with LN-18 cells, whereas the value quickly dropped to the baseline in 24 h with NCI-H1299 cells. NCI-H1299 cells invaded into the RBEC layer through the membrane, but LN-18 cells did not. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) strengthens the endothelial cell BBB function by increased occludin and ZO-1 expression. In our model, LN-18 and NCI-H1299 cells secreted FGF-2, and a neutralization antibody to FGF-2 inhibited LN-18 cells enhanced BBB function. These results suggest that FGF-2 would be a novel therapeutic target for GBM in the perivascular invasive front.

  15. Managing incontinence: women's normalizing strategies.

    PubMed

    Skoner, M M; Haylor, M J

    1993-01-01

    Women's strategies for managing urinary incontinence were examined in a grounded-theory study. The women's basic social concern was dealing with incontinence in a manner that enabled them to feel normal. Feeling normal meant being able to do what they wanted to do and needed to do to have a normal life-style as they perceived it. This goal was accomplished by normalizing incontinence and its management. Normalization was achieved by directing its course through self-management, accounting for it in terms of personal history and life experiences, and delaying medical counsel. These strategies are described. The findings provide fresh insights about women's response to incontinence and their practice of self-managing its consequences. PMID:8138472

  16. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  17. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  18. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  19. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  20. Normalization of masticatory function of a scissors-bite child with primary dentition: a case report.

    PubMed

    Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Ishitani, Norihito; Iwase, Yoko; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2008-04-01

    Normalization of mandibular function in children is important for normal orofacial development because their function is not still matured. This case report examined jaw movement during chewing in a young patient with unilateral scissors-bite. He could hardly chew on the affected side, preferring to chew only on the unaffected side, and his minimum opening position was initially unstable, i.e., he had two positions before active treatment. Retention did not stabilize his minimal opening position and his dual-bite was not corrected. His minimal opening position was stabilized after equipping his upper canines with a resin cap. Although orthodontic treatment morphologically improved the patient's malocclusion, his function did not improve. Normal jaw movement on both sides was achieved after interfering with his old chewing pattern. Because normalization is needed for acquisition of normal function in children, long-term observations of their growth and functional changes are necessary after orthodontic treatment.

  1. Chondroitin sulfate chains on syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 from normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells are structurally and functionally distinct and cooperate with heparan sulfate chains to bind growth factors. A novel function to control binding of midkine, pleiotrophin, and basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Deepa, Sarama Sathyaseelan; Yamada, Shuhei; Zako, Masahiro; Goldberger, Olga; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2004-09-01

    A comparative analysis was carried out of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains of the ectodomains of hybrid type transmembrane proteoglycans, syndecan-1 and -4, synthesized simultaneously by normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells. Although the HS chains were structurally indistinguishable, intriguingly the CS chains were structurally and functionally distinct, probably reflecting the differential regulation of sulfotransferases involved in the synthesis of HS and CS. The CS chains of the two syndecans comprised nonsulfated, 4-O-, 6-O-, and 4,6-O-disulfated N-acetylgalactosamine-containing disaccharide units and were significantly different, with a higher degree of sulfation for syndecan-4. Functional analysis using a BIAcore system showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) specifically bound only to the HS chains of both syndecans, whereas midkine (MK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) bound not only to the HS but also to the CS chains. Stronger binding of MK and PTN to the CS chains of syndecan-4 than those of syndecan-1 was revealed, supporting the structural and functional differences. Intriguingly, removal of the CS chains decreased the association and dissociation rate constants of MK, PTN, and bFGF for both syndecans, suggesting the simultaneous binding of these growth factors to both types of chains, producing a ternary complex that transfers the growth factors to the corresponding cell surface receptors more efficiently compared with the HS chains alone. The involvement of the core protein was also shown in the binding of MK and PTN to syndecan-1, suggesting the possibility of cooperation with the HS and/or CS chains in the binding of these growth factors and their delivery to the cell surface receptors.

  2. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Information Page Synonym(s): Hydrocephalus - Normal Pressure Table ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus? Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an abnormal ...

  3. Utero-placental vascularisation in normal and preeclamptic and intra-uterine growth restriction pregnancies: third trimester quantification using 3D power Doppler with comparison to placental vascular morphology (EVUPA): a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jie; Chabot-Lecoanet, Anne-Claire; Perdriolle-Galet, Estelle; Christov, Christophe; Hossu, Gabriela; Cherifi, Aboubaker; Morel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are two major pregnancy complications related to chronic utero-placental hypoperfusion. Three-dimensional power Doppler (3DPD) angiography has been used for the evaluation of utero-placental vascularisation and three vascular indices have been calculated: the vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-FI (VFI). However, several technical endpoints hinder the clinical use of 3DPD as physical characteristics and machine settings may affect 3DPD indices, and so its clinical significance is not yet clear. Objectives The primary objective is to better understand the clinical significance of 3DPD indices by evaluating the relationship between these indices and placental morphometry. Secondary objectives are (i) to determine the impact of machine settings and physical characteristics on 3DPD indices, and (ii) to evaluate physio-pathological placental vascularisation patterns. Methods and analysis This is a prospective controlled study. We expect to include 112 women: 84 with normal pregnancies and 28 with PE and/or IUGR (based on our former cohort study on 3DPD indices for PE and/or IUGR prediction (unpublished data)). Within 72 h before planned or semi-urgent caesarean section, utero-placental 3DPD images with five different machine settings will be acquired. Placentas will be collected and examined after surgery and stereological indices (volume density, surface density, length density) calculated. The 3DPD indices (VI, FI and VFI) of the placenta and adjacent myometrium will be calculated. Correlation between Doppler and morphological indices will be evaluated by Pearson or Spearman tests. Agreement between 3DPD indices and morphological indices will be assessed by Bland and Altman plots. The impact of Doppler settings and maternal characteristics on 3DPD indices will be evaluated with a multivariate linear regression model. Ethics The study and related consent forms have

  4. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same age. The child will have normal intelligence in most cases. In older children, puberty may ... hormones cause the body to make. Tests can measure these growth factors. Accurate growth hormone deficiency testing ...

  5. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  6. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  7. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from human skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.

  8. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... many reasons for slow growth and below-average height in children. At times, slow growth is normal ... same age Signs of GHD • Slowed growth in height in infants, children, or adolescents (teenagers) • A young- ...

  9. Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,…

  10. Normalization method for video images

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoe, G.W.; Hush, D.R.

    1992-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for automatically and adaptively normalizing analog signals representative of video images in object detection systems. Such normalization maximizes the average information content of the video images and, thereby, provides optimal digitized images for object detection and identification. The present invention manipulates two system control signals -- gain control signal and offset control signal -- to convert an analog image signal into a transformed analog image signal, such that the corresponding digitized image contains the maximum amount of information achievable with a conventional object detection system. In some embodiments of the present invention, information content is measured using parameters selected from image entropy, image mean, and image variance.

  11. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  9. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  10. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  11. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  12. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  13. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  14. The C3H-type zinc finger protein GDS1/C3H42 is a nuclear-speckle-localized protein that is essential for normal growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Won; Jeon, Su Jeong; Hwang, Sung Min; Hong, Jong Chan; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic C3H-type zinc finger proteins (Znfs) comprise a large family of regulatory proteins involved in many aspects of plant stress response, growth and development. However, compared to mammalian, only a few plant Znfs have been functionally characterized. Here, T-DNA inserted gds1 (growth, development and splicing 1) mutant, displayed abnormal growth throughout the lifecycle owing to the reduction of cell size and number. Inverse PCR analysis revealed that the abnormal growth was caused by the disruption of At3g47120, which encodes a C3H42 protein belonging to the C-X7-C-X5-C-X3-H class of the Znf family. GDS1 was ubiquitously transcribed, but shows high levels of expression in young seedling and unexpanded new leaves. In gds1, the transcripts of many growth- and development-related genes were down-regulated, and the auxin response was dramatically reduced. A fluorescence-based assay revealed that the GDS1 protein was localized to the nucleus, prominently in the speckle compartments. Its arginine/serine dipeptide-rich-like (RS-like) domain was essential for nuclear localization. In addition, the SR1, SRm102 and U1-70K components of the U1 spliceosome interacted with GDS1 in the nuclear speckle compartments. Taken together, these suggest that GDS1, a nuclear-speckle-associated Znf, might play a significant role in splicing during plant growth and development.

  15. The C3H-type zinc finger protein GDS1/C3H42 is a nuclear-speckle-localized protein that is essential for normal growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Won; Jeon, Su Jeong; Hwang, Sung Min; Hong, Jong Chan; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic C3H-type zinc finger proteins (Znfs) comprise a large family of regulatory proteins involved in many aspects of plant stress response, growth and development. However, compared to mammalian, only a few plant Znfs have been functionally characterized. Here, T-DNA inserted gds1 (growth, development and splicing 1) mutant, displayed abnormal growth throughout the lifecycle owing to the reduction of cell size and number. Inverse PCR analysis revealed that the abnormal growth was caused by the disruption of At3g47120, which encodes a C3H42 protein belonging to the C-X7-C-X5-C-X3-H class of the Znf family. GDS1 was ubiquitously transcribed, but shows high levels of expression in young seedling and unexpanded new leaves. In gds1, the transcripts of many growth- and development-related genes were down-regulated, and the auxin response was dramatically reduced. A fluorescence-based assay revealed that the GDS1 protein was localized to the nucleus, prominently in the speckle compartments. Its arginine/serine dipeptide-rich-like (RS-like) domain was essential for nuclear localization. In addition, the SR1, SRm102 and U1-70K components of the U1 spliceosome interacted with GDS1 in the nuclear speckle compartments. Taken together, these suggest that GDS1, a nuclear-speckle-associated Znf, might play a significant role in splicing during plant growth and development. PMID:27457991

  16. The Normalized Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Kathleen H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the normalized child, the ultimate goal of Montessori education. First outlines children's basic needs, then describes traits of the normalized child, including love of order, work, silence and working alone; mutual aid and cooperation; profound spontaneous concentration; obedience; independence and initiative;…

  17. Treatment of congenital thyroid dysfunction: Achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Krude, Heiko; Kühnen, Peter; Biebermann, Heike

    2015-06-01

    The active thyroid hormone tri-iodothyronine (T3) is essential for a normal development of children. Especially within the first years of life, thyroid hormone is pivotal in enabling maturation of complex brain function and somatic growth. The most compelling example for a life without thyroid hormone are those historical cases of children who came to birth without a thyroid gland - as shown in autopsy-studies- and who suffered from untreated hypothyroidism, at that time initially called "sporadic congenital hypothyroidism" (CH). In the last decades huge achievements resulted in a normal development of these children based on newborn screening programs that enable an early onset of a high dose LT4-treatment. Further progress will be necessary to further tailor an individualized thyroid hormone substitution approach and to identify those more complex patients with congenital hypothyroidism and associated defects, who will not benefit from an even optimized LT4 therapy. Besides the primary production of thyroid hormone a variety of further mechanisms are necessary to mediate the function of T3 on normal development that are located downstream of thyroid hormone production. Abnormalities of these mechanisms include the MCT8-transport defect, deiodinase-insufficiency and thyroid hormone receptor alpha-and beta defects. These thyroid hormone resistant diseases can not be treated with classical LT4 substitution alone. The development of new treatment options for those rare cases of thyroid hormone resistance is one of the most challenging tasks in the field of congenital thyroid diseases today. PMID:26051299

  18. Our Lady of Hungary Catholic School, Indiana. School Achieves Double-Digit Growth with the Help of Interim and Classroom Formative Assessment Data. Case Study: Measures of Academic Progress & Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, South Bend's Our Lady of Hungary Catholic School welcomed its third principal in four years: Kevin Goralczyk, an Indiana native and seasoned educator. Together with the parish's pastor, Reverend Kevin Bauman, Principal Goralczyk began exploring how OLH could raise its pre-K-8 student achievement and better support teachers and staff…

  19. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  20. [Growth hormone treatment update].

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Short stature in children is a common cause for referral to pediatric endocrinologists, corresponding most times to normal variants of growth. Initially growth hormone therapy was circumscribed to children presenting growth hormone deficiency. Since the production of recombinant human hormone its use had spread to other pathologies.

  1. Parathyroid hormone and growth in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Waller, Simon

    2011-02-01

    Growth failure is common in children with chronic kidney disease, and successful treatment is a major challenge in the management of these children. The aetiology is multi-factorial with "chronic kidney disease-metabolic bone disorder" being a key component that is particularly difficult to manage. Parathyroid hormone is at the centre of this mineral imbalance, consequent skeletal disease and, ultimately, growth failure. When other aetiologies are treated, good growth can be achieved throughout the course of the disease when parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are in the normal range or slightly elevated. A direct correlation between PTH levels and growth has not been convincingly established, and the direct effect of PTH on growth has not been adequately described; furthermore, direct actions of PTH on the growth plate are unproven. The effects of PTH on growth stem from the pivotal role that PTH plays in the development of renal osteodystrophy. In severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, the growth plate is altered and growth is affected. At the other end of the spectrum, with an over-suppressed parathyroid gland, the rate of bone turnover and remodelling is markedly diminished, and some data suggest this is associated with poor growth. Most of the data available suggests that avoiding the development of significant bone disease through the strict control of PTH levels permits good growth. Absolute optimal ranges for PTH that maximise growth or minimise growth failure are not yet established.

  2. Normality in analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  3. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  4. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  5. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  6. Normal Variants in Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Daniel R; Bryg, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Echocardiography is a powerful and convenient tool used routinely in the cardiac evaluation of many patients. Improved resolution and visualization of cardiac anatomy has led to the discovery of many normal variant structures that have no known pathologic consequence. Importantly, these findings may masquerade as pathology prompting unnecessary further evaluation at the expense of anxiety, cost, or potential harm. This review provides an updated and comprehensive collection of normal anatomic variants on both transthoracic and transesophageal imaging. PMID:27612473

  7. A second function for pseudouridine synthases: A point mutant of RluD unable to form pseudouridines 1911, 1915, and 1917 in Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA restores normal growth to an RluD-minus strain.

    PubMed

    Gutgsell, N S; Del Campo, M; Raychaudhuri, S; Ofengand, J

    2001-07-01

    This laboratory previously showed that truncation of the gene for RluD, the Escherichia coli pseudouridine synthase responsible for synthesis of 23S rRNA pseudouridines 1911, 1915, and 1917, blocks pseudouridine formation and inhibits growth. We now show that RluD mutants at the essential aspartate 139 allow these two functions of RluD to be separated. In vitro, RluD with aspartate 139 replaced by threonine or asparagine is completely inactive. In vivo, the growth defect could be completely restored by transformation of an RluD-inactive strain with plasmids carrying genes for RluD with aspartate 139 replaced by threonine or asparagine. Pseudouridine sequencing of the 23S rRNA from these transformed strains demonstrated the lack of these pseudouridines. Pseudoreversion, which has previously been shown to restore growth without pseudouridine formation by mutation at a distant position on the chromosome, was not responsible because transformation with empty vector under identical conditions did not alter the growth rate.

  8. Normalization of brain morphology after surgery in sagittal craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Eric D; Yang, Jenny; Beckett, Joel S; Lacadie, Cheryl; Scheinost, Dustin; Persing, Sarah; Zellner, Elizabeth G; Oosting, Devon; Keifer, Cara; Friedman, Hannah E; Wyk, Brent Vander; Jou, Roger J; Sun, Haosi; Gary, Cyril; Duncan, Charles C; Constable, R Todd; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Persing, John A

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (NSC) is associated with significant learning disability later in life. Surgical reconstruction is typically performed before 1 year of age to correct the cranial vault morphology and to allow for normalized brain growth with the goal of improving cognitive function. Yet, no studies have assessed to what extent normalized brain growth is actually achieved. Recent advances in MRI have allowed for automated methods of objectively assessing subtle and pronounced brain morphological differences. The authors used one such technique, deformation-based morphometry (DBM) Jacobian mapping, to determine how previously treated adolescents with sagittal NSC (sNSC) significantly differ in brain anatomy compared with healthy matched controls up to 11.5 years after surgery. METHODS Eight adolescent patients with sNSC, previously treated via whole-vault cranioplasty at a mean age of 7 months, and 8 age- and IQ-matched control subjects without craniosynostosis (mean age for both groups = 12.3 years), underwent functional 3-T MRI. Statistically significant group tissue-volume differences were assessed using DBM, a whole-brain technique that estimates morphological differences between 2 groups at each voxel (p < 0.01). Group-wise Jacobian volume maps were generated using a spacing of 1.5 mm and a resolution of 1.05 × 1.05 × 1.05 mm(3). RESULTS There were no significant areas of volume reduction or expansion in any brain areas in adolescents with sNSC compared with controls at a significance level of p < 0.01. At the more liberal threshold of p < 0.05, two areas of brain expansion extending anteroposteriorly in the right temporooccipital and left frontoparietal regions appeared in patients with sNSC compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Compared with previous reports on untreated infants with sNSC, adolescents with sNSC in this cohort had few areas of brain dysmorphology many years after surgery. This result suggests that comprehensive cranioplasty

  9. Normal peer models and autistic children's learning.

    PubMed Central

    Egel, A L; Richman, G S; Koegel, R L

    1981-01-01

    Present research and legislation regarding mainstreaming autistic children into normal classrooms have raised the importance of studying whether autistic children can benefit from observing normal peer models. The present investigation systematically assessed whether autistic children's learning of discrimination tasks could be improved if they observed normal children perform the tasks correctly. In the context of a multiple baseline design, four autistic children worked on five discrimination tasks that their teachers reported were posing difficulty. Throughout the baseline condition the children evidenced very low levels of correct responding on all five tasks. In the subsequent treatment condition, when normal peers modeled correct responses, the autistic children's correct responding increased dramatically. In each case, the peer modeling procedure produced rapid achievement of the acquisition which was maintained after the peer models were removed. These results are discussed in relation to issues concerning observational learning and in relation to the implications for mainstreaming autistic children into normal classrooms. PMID:7216930

  10. Pyrazine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 3-ethylpyridine are cigarette smoke components that alter the growth of normal and malignant human lung cells, and play a role in multidrug resistance development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Poo, Wak-Kim; Lin, Yu-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Lung cancer is one of the few human diseases for which the primary etiological agent, cigarette smoke (CS), has been described; however, the precise role of individual cigarette smoke toxicant in tumor development and progression remains to be elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess in vitro the effects of previously identified cigarette smoke components, pyrazine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 3-ethylpyridine, on non-tumorigenic (MRC5) and adenocarcinomic (A549) human lung cell lines. Our data showed that the administration of three cigarette smoke components in combination perturbed the proliferation of both normal and adenocarcinomic cells. Study of malignant cells revealed that CS components were cytotoxic at high concentration (10(-6) M) and stimulatory in a dose-dependent manner at lower concentrations (10(-8) M to 10(-10) M). This adverse effect was enhanced when adenocarcinomic cells were maintained in hypoxia resembling intratumoral environment. Furthermore, exposure to pyrazine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 3-ethylpyridine induced oxidative stress in both normal and malignant cells. Finally, assessment of P-gp activity revealed that multidrug resistance was induced in CS component exposed adenocarcinomic lung cells and the induction was augmented in hypoxia. Taken together, pyrazine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 3-ethylpyridine adversely altered both normal and diseased lung cells in vitro and data collected from this study may help lung cancer patients to understand the importance of quitting smoking during lung cancer treatment.

  11. Longitudinal Outcomes for Mathematics Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sharon; Watson, Silvana M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the first 6 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the authors examined mathematics achievement and growth trajectories by learning disability (LD) subgroups. The 2-level (time-student) growth curve model showed that lower levels of mathematics achievement were already evident at…

  12. Achieving Zero Net Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Donald

    1984-01-01

    Unemployment in the United States can only be made worse by continued high levels of legal immigration. Especially serious is the threat from Latin America. We must help developing countries halt their population growth and impose a ceiling of 100,000 a year for total immigration to the United States. (RM)

  13. Bilingualism and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in…

  14. Expression of TGF-beta superfamily growth factors, their receptors, the associated SMADs and antagonists in five isolated size-matched populations of pre-antral follicles from normal human ovaries.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Andersen, Kasper; Clement, Christian Alexandro; Franks, Stephen; Hardy, Kate; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2014-04-01

    In mammals, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily are known to have key roles in the regulation of follicular growth and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-β superfamily growth factors, their receptors, downstream SMAD signalling molecules and TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists during early human folliculogenesis. Human pre-antral follicles were enzymatically isolated from surplus ovarian tissue obtained from women having ovarian cortical tissue frozen for fertility preservation. A total of 348 human pre-antral follicles, ranging from 40 to 200 µm in diameter, were isolated from ovarian tissue obtained from 15 women, aged 24-34 years. Isolated pre-antral follicles were grouped according to diameter in five size-matched populations spanning the primordial, primary and secondary stage follicles and analysed by whole-genome microarray analysis. Selected proteins/genes were analysed by immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. TGF-β superfamily genes with overall highest mRNA expressions levels included growth differentiation factors 9 (GDF9), BMP15, BMP6, BMP-receptor-2 (BMPR2), anti-Müllerian hormone receptor 2 (AMHR2), TGFβR3, inhibin-α (INHA) and intracellular SMAD3 and SMAD4. Moreover, genes which were differentially expressed from the primordial to the late secondary stage follicles included GDF9, BMP15, AMH, INHBB, TGFβR3, SMAD4 and antagonists Follistatin (FST) and GREM1. Collectively, these data indicate that the active TGF-β superfamily pathways in early human folliculogenesis consist of primarily GDF9 combined with possible synergistic effects of BMP15 through the BMPR2 and intracellular activation of SMAD3 and SMAD4, and that AMH and INHBB are engaged in intrafollicular events from the onset of follicular growth. Moreover, the presence of multiple TGF-β/BMP antagonists imply that certain growth factors are subjected to local regulation on different levels that

  15. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  16. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  17. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  18. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  19. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  20. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  1. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  2. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  3. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  4. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  5. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  6. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  7. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  8. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  9. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  10. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  11. The integration of geophysical and enhanced Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data into a rule-based, piecewise regression-tree model to estimate cheatgrass beginning of spring growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyte, Stephen P.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Major, Donald J.; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2015-01-01

    Cheatgrass exhibits spatial and temporal phenological variability across the Great Basin as described by ecological models formed using remote sensing and other spatial data-sets. We developed a rule-based, piecewise regression-tree model trained on 99 points that used three data-sets – latitude, elevation, and start of season time based on remote sensing input data – to estimate cheatgrass beginning of spring growth (BOSG) in the northern Great Basin. The model was then applied to map the location and timing of cheatgrass spring growth for the entire area. The model was strong (R2 = 0.85) and predicted an average cheatgrass BOSG across the study area of 29 March–4 April. Of early cheatgrass BOSG areas, 65% occurred at elevations below 1452 m. The highest proportion of cheatgrass BOSG occurred between mid-April and late May. Predicted cheatgrass BOSG in this study matched well with previous Great Basin cheatgrass green-up studies.

  12. Normal Child Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... age. Development can be uneven, too, with a child's social development lagging behind his intellectual growth, or vice versa. ... members, and others. They may interfere with the child's intellectual development. They may be forbidden by law, ethics, religion, ...

  13. How do normal faults grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Tvedt, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Normal faulting accommodates stretching of the Earth's crust, and it is arguably the most fundamental tectonic process leading to continent rupture and oceanic crust emplacement. Furthermore, the incremental and finite geometries associated with normal faulting dictate landscape evolution, sediment dispersal and hydrocarbon systems development in rifts. Displacement-length scaling relationships compiled from global datasets suggest normal faults grow via a sympathetic increase in these two parameters (the 'isolated fault model'). This model has dominated the structural geology literature for >20 years and underpins the structural and tectono-stratigraphic models developed for active rifts. However, relatively recent analysis of high-quality 3D seismic reflection data suggests faults may grow by rapid establishment of their near-final length prior to significant displacement accumulation (the 'coherent fault model'). The isolated and coherent fault models make very different predictions regarding the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of rift basin, thus assessing their applicability is important. To-date, however, very few studies have explicitly set out to critically test the coherent fault model thus, it may be argued, it has yet to be widely accepted in the structural geology community. Displacement backstripping is a simple graphical technique typically used to determine how faults lengthen and accumulate displacement; this technique should therefore allow us to test the competing fault models. However, in this talk we use several subsurface case studies to show that the most commonly used backstripping methods (the 'original' and 'modified' methods) are, however, of limited value, because application of one over the other requires an a priori assumption of the model most applicable to any given fault; we argue this is illogical given that the style of growth is exactly what the analysis is attempting to determine. We then revisit our case studies and demonstrate

  14. Force normalization in paraplegics.

    PubMed

    Serra-Añó, P; García-Massó, X; Pellicer, M; González, L-M; López-Pascual, J; Giner-Pascual, M; Toca-Herrera, J L

    2012-06-01

    The principal aim of our study was the determination of the effectiveness of a standardized ratio, allometric scaling model and a gamma function model in normalizing the isometric torque data of spinal cord patients and healthy subjects. For this purpose we studied a sample of 21 healthy males and 23 spinal cord injury males. The experiment consisted of the measurement of the force of the upper limb movement executed by all the subjects. We also determined anthropometric variables with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The experimental data were analyzed with 3 force normalization methods. Our results indicate that the most important confounding variable was the fat free mass of the dominant upper limb (r>0.36, p<0.05). With the standardization by body mass and allometric scaling model, the normalized torque was influenced by body size variables. However, the normalized torque by the gamma function model was independent of body size measures. Paraplegics were weaker (p<0.05) in extension movements when the data were normalized by the gamma function model. In summary, this study shows that the gamma function model with fat free mass of the dominant upper limb was more effective than the standardized ratio in removing the influence of body size variables. PMID:22377940

  15. Physical Development: What's Normal? What's Not?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Normal? What’s Not? Page Content Article Body ​Two boys or girls exactly the same age can start or end ... in Girls: What to Expect . Growth in both boys and girls slows considerably soon after puberty is complete. Having ...

  16. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  17. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  18. A Novel Method to Achieve Grain Refinement in Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kui; Jiang, Haiyan; Wang, QuDong; Ye, Bing; Ding, Wenjiang

    2016-10-01

    A significant grain refinement of pure aluminum is achieved upon addition of TiCN nanoparticles (NPs). Unlike the conventional inoculation, NPs can induce the physical growth restriction through the formation of NP layer on the growing grain surface. An analytical model is developed to quantitatively account for the NP effects on grain growth. The NP-induced growth control can overcome the inherent limitations of inoculation and shed light on a potential method to achieve grain refinement.

  19. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  20. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein induces an autophagy-related process and sensitizes normal human keratinocytes to cell death in response to growth factor deprivation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiaobo; Muenger, Karl

    2009-03-01

    Expression of oncogenes, such as the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein, promotes aberrant cell proliferation. In the absence of concurrent mitogenic stimuli, this triggers a cell-intrinsic defense mechanism, the 'trophic sentinel response', which eliminates such aberrant cells. The molecular pathways that elicit this response, however, remain obscure. We set up an experimental system to investigate the trophic sentinel pathway triggered by HPV16 E7 expression in normal human keratinocytes, the natural host cells of HPVs. Keratinocytes expressing HPV16 E7 cultured in E-medium undergo cell death and show increased sub-G1 DNA content when grown to confluence or under conditions of serum deprivation. Moreover, HPV16 E7 expressing human keratinocytes express higher levels of the autophagy marker, LC3-II, which can be abrogated by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These findings indicate that even under normal culture conditions, HPV16 E7 expression triggers metabolic stress that may result in autophagy, a pathway implicated in carcinogenesis.

  1. Normals to a Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

  2. Normal Psychosexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Normal sexual development is reviewed with respect to physical maturation, sexual interests, sex drive", psychosexual competence and maturity, gender role, object choice, children's concepts of sexual differences, sex role preference and standards, and psychosexual stages. Biologic, psychoanalytic and psychosocial theories are briefly considered.…

  3. Normal Birth Crossword Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    In this column, readers are introduced to Dawn Kersula and a crossword puzzle she designed to refresh and empower Lamaze childbirth education class participants with normal-birth information. The column's author goes on to demonstrate several ways crossword puzzles can be used in Lamaze classes. PMID:17322944

  4. Sustaining School Achievement in California's Elementary Schools after State Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Molly

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Academic Performance Index (API) and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) achievement trends between 2004 and 2006 of 58 California public elementary schools after exiting state monitoring and investigated practices for sustaining consistent achievement growth. Statistical methods were used to analyze statewide achievement trends…

  5. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  6. Quantification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 immunohistochemistry using the Ventana Image Analysis System: correlation with gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization: the importance of instrument validation for achieving high (>95%) concordance rate.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jake; Parsa, Rezvaneh; Chau, Donnie; Koduru, Prasad; Peng, Yan; Fang, Yisheng; Sarode, Venetia Rumnong

    2015-05-01

    The use of computer-based image analysis for scoring human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry (IHC) has gained a lot of interest recently. We investigated the performance of the Ventana Image Analysis System (VIAS) in HER2 quantification by IHC and its correlation with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We specifically compared the 3+ IHC results using the manufacturer's machine score cutoffs versus laboratory-defined cutoffs with the FISH assay. Using the manufacturer's 3+ cutoff (VIAS score; 2.51 to 3.5), 181/536 (33.7%) were scored 3+, and FISH was positive in 147/181 (81.2%), 2 (1.1%) were equivocal, and 32 (17.6%) were FISH (-). Using the laboratory-defined 3+ cutoff (VIAS score 3.5), 52 (28.7%) cases were downgraded to 2+, of which 29 (55.7%) were FISH (-), and 23 (44.2%) were FISH (+). With the revised cutoff, there were improvements in the concordance rate from 89.1% to 97.0% and in the positive predictive value from 82.1% to 97.6%. The false-positive rate for 3+ decreased from 9.0% to 0.8%. Six of 175 (3.4%) IHC (-) cases were FISH (+). Three cases with a VIAS score 3.5 showed polysomy of chromosome 17. In conclusion, the VIAS may be a valuable tool for assisting pathologists in HER2 scoring; however, the positive cutoff defined by the manufacturer is associated with a high false-positive rate. This study highlights the importance of instrument validation/calibration to reduce false-positive results.

  7. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    the exponential growth of population as the source of several complications for economic growth and human welfare. Stabilization of population by reducing fertility is conducive for improving the quality of population and also advances the longterm management of the population growth and work force utilization. The perspective of longterm economic management involves populatio n planning, control of environmental pollution, conservation of scarce resources, exploration of resources, realization of technological possibilities in agriculture and industry and in farm and factory, and achievement of economic growth and its equitable distribution.

  8. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    the exponential growth of population as the source of several complications for economic growth and human welfare. Stabilization of population by reducing fertility is conducive for improving the quality of population and also advances the longterm management of the population growth and work force utilization. The perspective of longterm economic management involves populatio n planning, control of environmental pollution, conservation of scarce resources, exploration of resources, realization of technological possibilities in agriculture and industry and in farm and factory, and achievement of economic growth and its equitable distribution. PMID:12314595

  9. CIDE-A gene expression is decreased in white adipose tissue of growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene disrupted mice and with high-fat feeding of normal mice.

    PubMed

    Kelder, Bruce; Berryman, Darlene E; Clark, Ryan; Li, Aiyun; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2007-08-01

    Growth hormone's (GH) lipolytic activity in white adipose tissue (WAT) results in decreased body fat in giant GH transgenic mice and increased subcutaneous fat in dwarf growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene-disrupted mice (GHR -/-). We therefore hypothesized that GH action would affect expression of CIDE-A (cell-death-inducing DFF45-like effector-A), a protein found in white adipose tissue (WAT) and involved in lipid metabolism. CIDE-A RNA levels were determined in subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue isolated from wild-type and GHR -/- mice. The adipose tissue was also analyzed for adipocyte size. We determined that the lack of GH action has depot-specific effects on the levels of CIDE-A RNA and affected adipocyte cell size. CIDE-A expression is significantly reduced in GHR -/- subcutaneous fat compared to wild-type but is not altered in retroperitoneal or epididymal fat. Likewise, adipocytes are significantly enlarged in GHR -/- subcutaneous adipose tissue relative wild-type mice. A high-fat diet also influenced the level of CIDE-A RNA in mouse adipose tissue. The high-fat diet significantly reduced CIDE-A expression in wild-type subcutaneous fat but did not alter CIDE-A expression in subcutaneous fat of GHR -/- mice. The diet also reduced CIDE-A expression in wild-type retroperitoneal fat but the levels of CIDE-A in epididymal fat were unchanged. In contrast, the high-fat diet reduced CIDE-A expression in both retroperitoneal and epididymal fat of GHR -/- mice. These data demonstrate that CIDE-A levels are reduced in two different mouse models of obesity and this reduction may contribute to altered lipid metabolism. PMID:17544797

  10. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  11. Advancing Normal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lothian, Judith

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this column, the associate editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education provides an overview of research on the benefits of promoting and protecting the normal, physiologic processes of childbirth and the risks of interfering with those processes without clear medical indication. The associate editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth.

  12. Teaching Normal Birth Interactively

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    In this column, the author provides examples of teaching strategies that childbirth educators may utilize to illustrate each of the six care practices supported by Lamaze International to promote normal birth: labor begins on its own, freedom of movement throughout labor, continuous labor support, no routine interventions, non-supine (e.g., upright or side-lying) positions for birth, and no separation of mother and baby with unlimited opportunity for breastfeeding. PMID:17273389

  13. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  14. Disturbances of bone growth and development

    SciTech Connect

    Ledesma-Medina, J.; Newman, B.; Oh, K.S.

    1988-03-01

    ''What is growth anyway. Can one talk about positive growth in childhood, neutral growth in maturity, and negative growth in old age. Our goal is to help promote normal positive growth in infants and children. To achieve this, we must be cognizant of the morphologic changes of both normal and abnormal bone formation as they are reflected in the radiographic image of the skeleton. The knowledge of the various causes and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disturbances of bone growth and development allows us to recognize the early radiographic manifestations. Endocrine and metabolic disorders affect the whole skeleton, but the early changes are best seen in the distal ends of the femurs, where growth rate is most rapid. In skeletal infections and in some vascular injuries two-or three-phase bone scintigraphy supercedes radiography early in the course of the disease. MRI has proved to be very helpful in the early detection of avascular bone necrosis, osteomyelitis, and tumor. Some benign bone tumors and many bone dysplasias have distinct and diagnostic radiographic findings that may preclude further studies. In constitutional diseases of bone, including chromosomal aberrations, skeletal surveys of the patient and all family members together with biochemical and cytogenetic studies are essential for both diagnosis and genetic counseling. Our role is to perform the least invasive and most informative diagnostic imaging modalities that corroborate the biochemical and histologic findings to establish the definitive diagnosis. Unrecognized, misdiagnosed, or improperly treated disturbance of bone growth can result in permanent deformity usually associated with disability. 116 references.

  15. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  16. DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL SHAPE MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Nisha; Mesadi, Fitsum; Cetin, Mujdat; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    A novel implicit parametric shape model is proposed for segmentation and analysis of medical images. Functions representing the shape of an object can be approximated as a union of N polytopes. Each polytope is obtained by the intersection of M half-spaces. The shape function can be approximated as a disjunction of conjunctions, using the disjunctive normal form. The shape model is initialized using seed points defined by the user. We define a cost function based on the Chan-Vese energy functional. The model is differentiable, hence, gradient based optimization algorithms are used to find the model parameters. PMID:27403233

  17. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  18. Epitaxial growth of single crystal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, M. D.; Kroes, R. L.; Immorlica, A. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment in gallium arsenide liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on a flight of the SPAR 6 is described. A general purpose LPE processor suitable for either SPAR or Space Transportation System flights was designed and built. The process was started before the launch, and only the final step, in which the epitaxial film is grown, was performed during the flight. The experiment achieved its objectives; epitaxial films of reasonably good quality and very nearly the thickness predicted for convection free diffusion limited growth were produced. The films were examined by conventional analytical techniques and compared with films grown in normal gravity.

  19. [Normal and disordered sleep].

    PubMed

    Arnulf, I

    2007-07-01

    Normal sleep is a complex and reversible state of brain functioning, including reduced inputs and outputs, blunted reflexes, and metabolic and cognitive changes. Evidence supports a role for sleep in the consolidation of an array of learning and memory tasks. Sleep deprivation and fragmentation result in executive dysfunction, increased appetite/weight and cellular stress. Sleep is a vital, complex but plastic function that can be modulated depending on individual heritage and motivation. The major role of sleep in attention and memory raises about concern the reduction in sleep duration recently pointed in teenagers and young adults. Sleep disorders are numerous and various. Their mechanism is not always identified, but may result from a central dysfunction in sleep-wake (e.g. narcolepsy) or circadian (e.g. advanced sleep phase syndrome) systems, from the sleep-related loss of compensation of reflexes normally effective during wakefulness (breathing is the most vulnerable function during sleep), or from other diseases preventing sleep (e.g. psychiatric insomnia, restless legs syndrome). PMID:17652992

  20. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  1. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  2. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  3. Longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on adolescents' academic achievements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih

    2009-01-01

    This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.

  4. Pornography, normalization, and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Martin S; Williams, Colin J; Kleiner, Sibyl; Irizarry, Yasmiyn

    2010-12-01

    Opponents and proponents of erotic representations (referred to hereafter as "pornography") have described the effects of pornography from their perspective. Little, however, has been done in the way of research to investigate these claims from the consumer's point of view. This especially has been so regarding the positive impact of such consumption on a person's sex life. Using a study group of 245 college students, we examined this question in a framework of scripting theory. We wanted to see whether viewing pornography appeared to expand sexual horizons through normalization and facilitate a willingness to explore new sexual behaviors and sexual relationships through empowerment. The data supported this viewpoint and further showed the effects to be mediated by gender and sexual preference identity. They suggested, however, that established scripts were extended rather than abandoned. We conclude with connections between our findings and the widespread viewing of pornography in contemporary society. PMID:20127507

  5. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  6. Growth retardation in early-onset inflammatory bowel disease: should we monitor and treat these patients differently?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    Growth impairment and associated pubertal delay are common complications of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly Crohn's disease (CD). Chronic undernutrition (related primarily to inadequate intake) and pro-inflammatory cytokines are the two major and interrelated contributory factors. Pathogenic mechanisms include interference with growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, with gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion patterns, and direct cytokine effects on growing bone. Chronic corticosteroid therapy compounds disease-related causes of growth impairment. The influence on growth of polymorphisms in IBD susceptibility or modifier genes is under study. Accurate recognition of impaired growth requires appreciation of normal growth. Pre-illness standard deviation scores (SDS) for height should be obtained and compared with height SDS at diagnosis, so that the impact of disease on growth can be fully appreciated. The greater the deficit prior to recognition of IBD, the greater is the demand for catch-up growth. Height velocity should be regularly monitored and its adequacy for age and pubertal stage assessed. Restoration and maintenance of pre-illness growth pattern indicate success of therapy. Current treatment regimens limit use of corticosteroids, via optimization of immunomodulatory drugs, use of enteral nutrition in CD, and, if necessary, surgery for ulcerative colitis and for intestinal complications of localized CD. Biologic agents with the potential for mucosal healing hold promise of growth enhancement even among children, whose growth with previously available therapies remained compromised. For all therapies, there is a window of opportunity to achieve normal growth before puberty is too advanced.

  7. Growth, growth hormone and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Sartorio, A; Conti, A; Molinari, E; Riva, G; Morabito, F; Faglia, G

    1996-01-01

    The interactions among short stature, growth hormone (GH) and cognitive functions have been extensively studied so far. However, although it seems well established that short stature is associated with cognitive problems, little effort has been made to point out the presence of specific psychological effects related to the different forms of short stature. In 'short normal' children, the presence of a scholastic underachievement seems to suggest that short stature 'itself' might predispose these patients to some of their psychosocial difficulties. The higher incidence of academic failure, in presence of a normal intellectual functioning, has been attributed to environmental and psychosocial factors, including over-protective parents and low self-esteem resulting from the impact of short stature. These problems appear to be common also to other forms of short stature (such as Turner's syndrome) where, however, they are frequently associated with other specific deficits. The in vivo model which might allow, at least in part, better understanding of GH (per se)-dependent effects is represented by GH deficiency (GHD), in which, however, the specific role of GH on psychological functioning is frequently masked by the presence of associated hormonal deficiencies. Children with isolated GHD are reported to have specific educational deficits, in particular learning disability and attention-deficit disorders, which have been tentatively attributed to a compromised intellectual potential. The psychological effects of long-term GH treatment in children with GHD still remain controversial, with some retrospective studies describing a generally beneficial outcome. Since early experiences in school are closely related to success in adult life, the possible implications that GHD during childhood holds during adulthood have been recently considered. Although regional differences have been observed in subgroups of adults with GHD, it seems that these patients have normal cognitive

  8. Parental Perceptions of the Outcome and Meaning of Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Knafl, Kathleen A.; Darney, Blair G.; Gallo, Agatha M.; Angst, Denise B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis was to identify the meaning of normalization for parents of a child with a chronic genetic condition. The sample was comprised of 28 families (48 parents), selected to reflect two groups: Normalization Present (NP) and Normalization Absent (NA). Constant comparison analysis was used to identify themes characterizing parents' perceptions of the meaning of normalization. The meanings parents attributed to normalization reflected their evaluation of condition management, parenting role, and condition impact, with parents in the NP and NA groups demonstrating distinct patterns of meaning. These meaning patterns are discussed as an outcome of normalization. Providers can play a pivotal role in helping families achieve normalization by providing guidance on how to balance condition management with normal family life. PMID:20108258

  9. Effective electron microrefrigeration by superconductor insulator normal metal tunnel junctions with advanced geometry of electrodes and normal metal traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper Agulo, Ian; Kuzmin, Leonid; Fominsky, Michael; Tarasov, Michael

    2004-04-01

    We demonstrate effective electron cooling of the normal metal strip by superconductor-insulator-normal metal (SIN) tunnel junctions. The improvement was achieved by two methods: first, by using an advanced geometry of the superconducting electrodes for more effective removal of the quasiparticles; and second, by adding a normal metal trap just near the cooling junctions. With simple cross geometry and without normal metal traps, the decrease in electron temperature is 56 mK. With the advanced geometry of the superconducting electrodes, the decrease in electron temperature is 129 mK. With the addition of the normal metal traps, the decrease in electron temperature is 197 mK.

  10. [Growth charts and intrauterine growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Gouyon, J-B; Ferdynus, C; Quantin, C

    2013-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction indicates that a fetus is unable to achieve its growth potential. The individual growth potential is approximated by customization of growth charts. Neonatal growth charts rely on body weight measures at birth while fetal growth charts rely on body weight estimated from biometric measurements of the fetus. The neonatal and fetal growth charts are not equivalent and have different meanings for epidemiologists and clinicians. Fetal growth charts also assess fetal growth velocity, but individual assessment of fetal weight may be flawed by lack of precision. Neonatal charts are constructed based on data obtained in the whole population or in a subgroup without gestational diseases. The two types of neonatal charts markedly differ at low gestational ages as 30% of preterm infants present intrauterine growth restriction, usually due to maternal diseases. Even if intrauterine growth restriction is a risk factor of fetal mortality, neonatal mortality, and short- and long-term morbidity, the predictive value of the charts (whether or not they are customized) at an individual level is low and may be improved by additional investigations.

  11. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  12. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  13. Adolescence. What is normal?

    PubMed

    Offer, D; Ostrov, E; Howard, K I

    1989-06-01

    We present in some detail what constitutes normal behavior, or mental health, among teenagers. Our data are based on the results of a specially devised psychological questionnaire by one of us (D.O.). This questionnaire has been shown to reliably distinguish mentally healthy from psychiatrically disturbed populations. Results are presented across three decades (1960s, 1970s, and 1980s), across genders, and across the high school years. A conceptual framework is presented to help the clinician working with adolescents to understand the fluctuation in psychopathology among youth. Adolescent density in the total population is shown to be a significant factor in determining the rate of disturbance among teenagers. Our research findings demonstrate that the rate of behavioral disturbance among adolescents is the same as in other parts of the life cycle. The clinician working with adolescents tends to underestimate the severity of adolescent problems because of the near-universal belief that all adolescents undergo "adolescent turmoil." We have found that adolescents who are experiencing turmoil need professional help.

  14. Brain spatial normalization.

    PubMed

    Bug, William; Gustafson, Carl; Shahar, Allon; Gefen, Smadar; Fan, Yingli; Bertrand, Louise; Nissanov, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Neuroanatomical informatics, a subspecialty of neuroinformatics, focuses on technological solutions to neuroimage database access. Its current main goal is an image-based query system that is able to retrieve imagery based on anatomical location. Here, we describe a set of tools that collectively form such a solution for sectional material and that are available to investigators to use on their own data sets. The system accepts slide images as input and yields a matrix of transformation parameters that map each point on the input image to a standardized 3D brain atlas. In essence, this spatial normalization makes the atlas a spatial indexer from which queries can be issued simply by specifying a location on the reference atlas. Our objective here is to familiarize potential users of the system with the steps required of them as well as steps that take place behind the scene. We detail the capabilities and the limitations of the current implementation and briefly describe the enhancements planned for the near future.

  15. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  16. The normal antireflux mechanism.

    PubMed

    Paterson, W G

    2001-08-01

    The normal antireflux mechanism consists of several components, any one of which may malfunction and render an individual prone to the development of GERD. The LES is clearly the most important component because gastroesophageal reflux almost always occurs when the sphincter pressure equals that of the stomach. Usually, an LES pressure of just 2 to 3 mm Hg above intragastric pressure is sufficient to prevent reflux. Other factors certainly play significant ancillary roles in preventing reflux. In the absence of a hiatal hernia, the crural fibers of the diaphragm serve as an "extrinsic" sphincter. Furthermore, the unique anatomy of the proximal stomach (e.g., the angle of His, mucosal flap valve, posterolateral location of the fundus) serves to keep gastric contents away from the gastroesophageal junction, making it less likely for reflux to occur when the LES relaxes. When a hiatal hernia is present, these factors are lost, and the hernia sac provides a reservoir for gastric juices with ready access to the LES. Finally, some degree of reflux occurs in all individuals, but esophageal clearance and acid neutralization provide an important last line of defense.

  17. Institutionalizing Normal: Rethinking Composition's Precedence in Normal Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinnell, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Composition historians have recently worked to recover histories of composition in normal schools. This essay argues, however, that historians have inadvertently misconstrued the role of normal schools in American education by inaccurately comparing rhetorical education in normal schools to rhetorical education in colleges and universities.…

  18. Longitudinal Analyses of Achievement Data from Durham County (NC) Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Gary L.; And Others

    A longitudinal study of achievement data from public schools in Durham County, North Carolina, was undertaken to examine individual growth curves as well as to chart the progress of educational institutions and the effects of aggregation on the study of growth. A two-level hierarchical linear model was used in the study to specify individual…

  19. The Relationship of Classroom Quality to Kindergarten Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study focuses on the relationship between classroom quality and children's academic achievement. Specifically, it examines how classroom quality in three broad domains-- emotional climate, classroom management and instructional support--impact kindergarten achievement growth in mathematics and reading. The researcher collected…

  20. Relationships among Projective and Direct Verbal Measures of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satvir

    1979-01-01

    The ways in which projective and nonprojective verbal measures of achievement motivation elicit comparable and dissimilar responses in a "Third World" sample of entrepreneurs and farmers were explored as a test of McClelland's theory of economic growth. Results were generally consistent with the theory of achievement motivation. (Author/JKS)

  1. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  2. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  3. Growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, Martin; Strasburger, Christian J

    2010-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a proteohormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It acts through binding to the hGH receptor, inducing either direct effects or initiating the production of insulin-like growth-factor I (IGF-I), the most important mediator of hGH effects. Growth hormone is primarily known to promote longitudinal growth in children and adolescents, but has also various important metabolic functions throughout adult life. Effects of hGH on the adult organism are well established from studies with recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in growth hormone deficient subjects. In this particular group of patients, replacement of hGH leads to increased lipolysis and lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvements in VO(2max), and maximal power output. Although extrapolation from these findings to the situation in well trained healthy subjects is impossible, and controlled studies in healthy subjects are scarce, abuse of hGH seems to be popular among athletes trying to enhance physical performance. Detection of the application of rhGH is difficult, especially because the amino acid sequence of rhGH is identical to the major 22,000 Da isoform of hGH normally secreted by the pituitary. Furthermore, some physiological properties of hGH secretion also hindered the development of a doping test: secreted in a pulsatile manner, it has a very short half-life in circulation, which leads to highly variable serum levels. Concentration alone therefore cannot prove the exogenous administration of hGH.Two approaches have independently been developed for the detection of hGH doping: The so-called "marker approach" investigates changes in hGH-dependent parameters like IGF-I or components of bone and collagen metabolism, which are increased after hGH injection. In contrast, the so-called "isoform approach" directly analyses the spectrum of molecular isoforms in circulation: the pituitary gland secretes a spectrum of homo- and heterodimers and - multimers of a variable

  4. Achieving success: moving beyond the comfort level.

    PubMed

    Manji, I

    1993-11-01

    Understanding the stages of growth, saturation and transition is the first step to setting meaningful career goals. While this concept is fairly new in dentistry, it is not new in other commercial enterprises. Business managers and owners have known for decades that growth stagnates after a period of time. At that point, a new infusion of energy and a reformation of the business's objectives and methods are needed to launch forward into the next phase of growth. Transition management in dentistry represents periods of growth that are followed by saturation and a comparatively rapid changeover to a new practice form. Saturation occurs when the clinical capacity of a practice is exceeded by the needs of a growing patient base. The key transitions in the career of a dentist are those from school to practising, and practising to retirement. A great number of dentists (due to low motivation, the comfort level or poor management skills) never reach the saturation point during their practising career. For these dentists, starting out and retirement are the only transitions that will ever apply to them. Dentists evaluating transition options must first identify which career stage they belong to since their objectives will be different at each stage. Dentists in the growth phase should focus on practice management and achieving saturation before attempting a transition. Since transitions like start-up, retirement, partnerships, associateships and buy-ins have pivotal roles in the life cycle of a practice, transitions must be managed carefully to achieve successful results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Use of growth hormone in children.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Peter C; Dattani, Mehul T

    2006-05-01

    The introduction of recombinant DNA-derived human growth hormone (rhGH) in the mid-1980s allowed studies to be undertaken in a number of growth disorders other than the classic indication--growth-hormone deficiency (GHD). In patients with GHD, optimizing the dose and frequency of rhGH administration, and early instigation of therapy, has led to near-normalization of final height. The use of rhGH in the treatment of Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, intrauterine growth restriction, and chronic renal failure demonstrated the efficacy of therapy, although the increase in final height (5-7 cm) is less than that achieved in GHD. Cost-benefit implications need to be considered in the next phases of evaluating the role of rhGH therapy in these indications. To date, rhGH has only received approval for the management of idiopathic short stature in the US; as with the other wider growth indications, the lack of formal randomized, controlled trials hampers the full evaluation of efficacy, and a cautious approach should, therefore, be adopted for this particular indication. rhGH has a good safety record, although there are current concerns about the possible long-term increased risk of colonic and lymphatic malignancy, which will require monitoring through national cancer registries. PMID:16932297

  6. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  7. CONTROLLING ANTLER GROWTH IN A CASTRATED INDOCHINESE SIKA DEER CERVUS NIPPON PSEUDAXIS USING A COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TRENBOLONE ACETATE AND ESTRADIOL IMPLANT.

    PubMed

    Raines, Janis A; Storms, Timothy

    2015-12-01

    A captive Indochinese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) was castrated at the age of 5 yr. The resultant abnormal antler growth over the next few years became difficult to manage from both the veterinary and husbandry standpoints. Using a commercially available trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant marketed for domestic cattle heifers, normal mineralization of the abnormal antlers was achieved along with the expected normal casting. The deer was then maintained for 6 yr using an annual implant regimen. PMID:26667563

  8. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  9. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  10. Growth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland problem or disease. The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other ... of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth. People can also have too ...

  11. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  12. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  13. Growth hormone in musculoskeletal pain states.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Robert

    2004-08-01

    Growth hormone is essential for normal linear growth and the attainment of an adult mature height. It also plays an important role in cartilage growth and the attainment of normal bone mass. There is only one rheumatic disorder, namely acromegaly, in which abnormalities of growth hormone production play a major etiologic role. However, there is increasing appreciation that suboptimal growth hormone secretion, leading to a state of adult growth hormone deficiency, may occur in the setting of chronic inflammatory disease, chronic corticosteroid use, and fibromyalgia. Therefore, the evaluation and effective management of growth hormone oversecretion and undersecretion is relevant to practicing rheumatologists. PMID:15251074

  14. Normalizing the causality between time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X. San

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula was derived to evaluate information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing a Lyapunov exponent-like, one-dimensional phase-space stretching rate and a noise-to-signal ratio from the rate of information flow in the balance of the marginal entropy evolution of the flow recipient. It is verified with autoregressive models and applied to a real financial analysis problem. An unusually strong one-way causality is identified from IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) to GE (General Electric Company) in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a giant for the mainframe computer market.

  15. Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth. PMID:24147251

  16. Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; Wagoner, Robert V.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-07

    This paper studies the hydrodynamical problem of normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks around black holes (and compact weakly magnetic neutron stars). Employing WKB techniques, we obtain the eigen frequencies and eigenfunctions of the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. We discuss the properties of the various types of modes and examine the role of viscosity, as it appears to render some of the modes unstable to rapid growth.

  17. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  18. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  19. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  20. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  1. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  3. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  4. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  6. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  7. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  8. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  9. Normalized Compression Distance of Multisets with Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrew R.; Vitányi, Paul M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Pairwise normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free, feature-free, alignment-free, similarity metric based on compression. We propose an NCD of multisets that is also metric. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. For classification purposes it is superior to the pairwise NCD in accuracy and implementation complexity. We cover the entire trajectory from theoretical underpinning to feasible practice. It is applied to biological (stem cell, organelle transport) and OCR classification questions that were earlier treated with the pairwise NCD. With the new method we achieved significantly better results. The theoretic foundation is Kolmogorov complexity. PMID:26352998

  10. Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth

    2013-04-25

    IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.

  11. Amazing growth of helium crystal facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsymbalenko, V. L.

    2015-11-01

    This review systematizes experimental data from the study of two unusual phenomena: the superslow growth of a perfect, growth-defect-free crystal facet, and the abrupt transition of a crystal facet to an anomalous state with a growth rate greater by two to three orders of magnitude than the normal value (the 'burstlike growth effect').

  12. Hormones and the growth of plants in response to gravity.

    PubMed

    Osborne, D J

    1976-01-01

    Plants are remarkable amongst living things in that all their parts (leaves, stems, roots and flowers) can orientate their position in response to gravity. Roots normally grow downwards towards the stimulus, shoots upwards away from the stimulus, while leaves and special kinds of stems like underground rhizomes or aerial runners have adaptations to grow horizontally, approximately at right angles to the gravitational field. This directional positioning of the organ in relation to gravity is achieved by a regulation of the growth of enlarging cells below the meristems or within the organ. Mature tissues in which further cell growth is precluded are therefore unable to reorientate if their position in the field is changed. Under conditions of zero gravity, roots and shoots continue to grow in opposite directions and the orientation of laterals with respect to the apex is essentially normal. This demonstrates the inherent polarity of plant cells and the internal correlative growth regulation that each organ exerts upon its neighbours. The perception of gravity, involving statoliths, membranes and "wound" ethylene, is discussed, together with the mechanisms by which the subsequent growth responses can be mediated by changes in endogenous hormones. Evidence for how such hormonal changes can lead to modifications of the rate, extent and reorientation of cell growth is reviewed for several geotropically responding systems.

  13. Normalizing Catastrophe: An Educational Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Processes of normalizing assumptions and values have been the subjects of theoretical framing and critique for several decades now. Critique has often been tied to issues of environmental sustainability and social justice. Now, in an era of global warming, there is a rising concern that the results of normalizing of present values could be…

  14. Rational Normalization of Concentration Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonckaert, P.; Egghe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses normalization features of good concentration measures and extends the range of values of concentration measures that are population-size-independent. Rational normalization is described, and mathematical formulas for the coefficient of variation, Pratt's measure, the Gini index, Theil's measure, and Atkinson's indices are explained. (14…

  15. Current Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: Growth, Cardiovascular, and Neurocognitive Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Larry A.; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Linear growth and neurocognitive development are two of the most important differences between adults and children, in terms of clinical issues that must be addressed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Correction of metabolic acidosis, nutritional deficiency, and renal osteodystrophy improve linear growth, but many children require administration of growth hormone to achieve normal growth. A variety of neurocognitive deficits occur in children with CKD, although there has been an improvement in outcome via improved dialysis, correction of malnutrition, and decreased aluminum exposure. While growth and neurocognitive development are delayed, cardiovascular complications are accelerated in children with CKD, and are reflected in a dramatic increase in cardiovascular mortality compared to healthy children. Other early cardiovascular complications in children with CKD include left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction, and vascular calcifications. PMID:19615563

  16. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  17. Reduced growth factor requirement of keloid-derived fibroblasts may account for tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, S.B.; Trupin, K.M.; Rodriguez-Eaton, S.; Russell, J.D.; Trupin, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloid fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ..beta... Whereas transforming growth factor ..beta.. reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated.

  18. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  19. Mastery Achievement of Intellectual Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, Richard J.; White, Richard T.

    1979-01-01

    Mastery learning techniques were improved through mathematics instruction based on a validated learning hierarchy, presenting tasks in a sequence consistent with the requirements of the hierarchy, and requiring learners to demonstrate achievement before being allowed to proceed. (Author/GDC)

  20. Achieving Standards through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Most states do not have the time or resources to develop environmental education standards from scratch. Highlights the role that environmental education and its interdisciplinary nature can play in helping students achieve. (DDR)