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Sample records for achieve normal growth

  1. Neutral pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water achieves tumor-preferential clonal growth inhibition over normal cells and tumor invasion inhibition concurrently with intracellular oxidant repression.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Yasukazu; Okayasu, Hajime; Xiao, Li; Harata, Yoshikazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The properties and effects of neutral pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water (NHE water) on tumor cells were examined. NHE water diminished hydroxyl radicals as demonstrated by ESR in a cell-free system. Human tongue carcinoma cells HSC-4 were inhibited for either colony formation efficiencies or colony sizes by NHE water without significant inhibition to normal human tongue epithelial-like cells DOK. Furthermore, NHE water caused growth inhibition, cell degeneration, and inhibition of invasion through the reconstituted basement membrane to human fibrosarcoma cells HT-1080. Intracellular oxidants such as hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxides were scavenged in HSC-4 or HT-1080 cells by NHE water. In the human oral cavity, a dissolved hydrogen concentrations (DH) of NHE water was drastically declined from 1.1 to 0.5 ppm, but settled to 0.3-0.4 ppm until 180 s, upon static holding without gargling. Thus, NHE water was shown to achieve tumor-preferential growth inhibition and tumor invasion together with scavenging of intracellular oxidants, and is expected as a preventive material against tumor progression and invasion.

  2. Methods of Assessing and Achieving Normality Applied to Environmental Data

    PubMed

    Mateu

    1997-09-01

    / It has been recognized for a long time that data transformation methods capable of achieving normality of distributions could have a crucial role in statistical analysis, especially towards an efficient application of techniques such as analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. Normality is a basic assumption in many of the statistical methods used in the environmental sciences and is very often neglected. In this paper several techniques to test normality of distributions are proposed and analyzed. Confidence intervals and nonparametric tests are used and discussed. Basic and Box-Cox transformations are the suggested methods to achieve normal variables. Finally, we develop an application related to environmental data with atmospheric parameters and SO2 and particle concentrations. Results show that the analyzed transformations work well and are very useful to achieve normal distributions.KEY WORDS: Normal distribution; Kurtosis; Skewness; Confidence intervals; Box-Cox transformations; Nonparametric tests

  3. The Growth Patterns of General Medical Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    This longitudinal study investigates the growth of medical achievement as a multilevel process and emphasizes the structure of the growth. Subjects were students in all 15 U.S. osteopathic medical schools, a total of 1,060 (78 percent of the 1987 osteopathic cohort). Students took appropriate portions of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical…

  4. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  5. Student Achievement and National Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Luo, Xiaowei; Schofer, Evan; Meyer, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Educational policy around the world has increasingly focused on improving aggregate student achievement as a means to increase economic growth. In the last two decades, attention has focused especially on the importance of achievement in science and mathematics. Yet, the policy commitments involved have not been based on research evidence. The…

  6. 2002 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2002 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Bookletdisplays the winners of the 2002 Smart Growth Achievement Awards along with their projects and accomplishments that earned them this recognition.

  7. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-06-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence.

  8. 2007 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2007 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet displays the winners of the 2007 Smart Growth Report displays the winners of the 2007 Smart Growth Achievement Awards along with their projects and accomplishments that earned them this recognition.

  9. 2005 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2005 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet displays the winners of the 2005 Smart Growth Achievement Awards along with their projects and accomplishments that earned them this recognition.

  10. 2008 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2008 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet displays the winners of the 2008 Smart Growth Achievement Awards along with their projects and accomplishments that earned them this recognition.

  11. 2004 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2004 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet displays the winners of the 2004 Smart Growth Achievement Awards along with their projects and accomplishments that earned them this recognition.

  12. 2006 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2006 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet displays the winners of the 2006 Smart Growth Achievement Awards along with their projects and accomplishments that earned them this recognition.

  13. 2010 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2010 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet displays the winners of the 2010 Smart Growth Achievement Awards along with their projects and accomplishments that earned them this recognition.

  14. 2012 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    012 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet displays the winners of the 2012 Smart Growth Achievement Awards along with their projects and accomplishments that earned them this recognition.

  15. 2003 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2003 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet displays the winners of the 2003 Smart Growth Achievement Awards along with their projects and accomplishments that earned them this recognition.

  16. 2009 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2009 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet displays the winners of the 2009 Smart Growth Achievement Awards along with their projects and accomplishments that earned them this recognition.

  17. 2011 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet displays the winners of the 2011 Smart Growth Achievement Awards along with their projects and accomplishments that earned them this recognition.

  18. Reading Achievement Growth in Children with Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Little, Todd D.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the reading achievement growth of children with language impairments (LI) across the school grades. The authors sought to determine whether children with LI demonstrate a delayed, deficit, or cumulative pattern of reading achievement growth when compared with children with typical language (TL). Method: A group of 225…

  19. Grouping for Achievement Gains: For Whom Does Achievement Grouping Increase Kindergarten Reading Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelson, Jill L.; Carpenter, Brittany D.

    2011-01-01

    With ever-present budget cuts, teachers often use within-class achievement grouping to meet the needs of students of all ability levels but particularly high-ability students. Using a national database, this study examined the relationship between achievement grouping and the size of achievement groups on kindergarten reading growth. Additionally,…

  20. The Effects of Different Approaches to Reading Instruction on Letter Detection Tasks in Normally Achieving and Low Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Kandelshine-Waldman, Osnat

    2011-01-01

    The present study used two letter detection tasks, the classic missing letter effect paradigm and a single word versus familiar word compound version of this paradigm, to study bottom-up and top-down processes involved in reading in normally achieving as compared to low achieving elementary school readers. The research participants were children…

  1. Reasoning Abilities in Primary School: A Pilot Study on Poor Achievers vs. Normal Achievers in Computer Game Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnino, Francesca Maria; Ballauri, Margherita; Benigno, Vincenza; Caponetto, Ilaria; Pesenti, Elia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary research on the assessment of reasoning abilities in primary school poor achievers vs. normal achievers using computer game tasks. Subjects were evaluated by means of cognitive assessment on logical abilities and academic skills. The aim of this study is to better understand the relationship between…

  2. EPA Recognizes Three Communities for Smart Growth Achievement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today recognized projects in three communities as winners of the 2015 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement. Winners include a new public park on a formerly contaminated site along th

  3. 2015 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement Booklet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page linking to videos and booklet about the winners of the 2015 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement: Jackson Walk, Jackson, TN; City of Hamilton and Historic Developers Public-Private Partnership, Hamilton, OH; and Riverfront Park, Newark, NJ.

  4. Documenting Reading Achievement and Growth for Students Taking Alternate Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Farley, Dan; Saven, Jessica L.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been included in state accountability systems for more than a decade; however, only in the past few years have alternate assessments of alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) become stable enough to allow examination of these students' achievement growth. Using data from Oregon's AA-AAS in Reading during the…

  5. The Role of Academic Achievement Growth in School Track Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Lenkeit, Jenny; Lehmann, Rainer; Schwippert, Knut

    2009-01-01

    Students in Germany are tracked into different forms of secondary schooling based on teachers' recommendations. The literature shows that school tracking is largely affected by academic achievement levels, but neglects the influence of individual achievement growth. The authors used data from the Berlin study ELEMENT (N = 2242) to characterize…

  6. Defining Normal and Abnormal Fetal Growth: Promises and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Merialdi, Mario; Platt, Lawrence D.; Kramer, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Normal fetal growth is a critical component of a healthy pregnancy and influences the long-term health of the offspring. However, defining normal and abnormal fetal growth has been a long-standing challenge in clinical practice and research. The authors review various references and standards that are widely used to evaluate fetal growth, and discuss common pitfalls of current definitions of abnormal fetal growth. Pros and cons of different approaches to customize fetal growth standards are described. The authors further discuss recent advances towards an integrated definition for fetal growth restriction. Such a definition may incorporate fetal size with the status of placental health measured by maternal and fetal Doppler velocimetry and biomarkers, biophysical findings and genetics. Although the concept of an integrated definition appears promising, further development and testing are required. An improved definition of abnormal fetal growth should benefit both research and clinical practice. PMID:20074690

  7. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  8. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-08-02

    Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students' mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level.

  9. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students’ beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students’ mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level. PMID:27432947

  10. Guiding atypical facial growth back to normal. Part 1: Understanding facial growth.

    PubMed

    Galella, Steve; Chow, Daniel; Jones, Earl; Enlow, Donald; Masters, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Many practitioners find the complexity of facial growth overwhelming and thus merely observe and accept the clinical features of atypical growth and do not comprehend the long-term consequences. Facial growth and development is a strictly controlled biological process. Normal growth involves ongoing bone remodeling and positional displacement. Atypical growth begins when this biological balance is disturbed With the understanding of these processes, clinicians can adequately assess patients and determine the causes of these atypical facial growth patterns and design effective treatment plans. This is the first of a series of articles which addresses normal facial growth, atypical facial growth, patient assessment, causes of atypical facial growth, and guiding facial growth back to normal.

  11. Effects of Teacher Professional Learning Activities on Student Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. The…

  12. Differential negative air ion effects on learning disabled and normal-achieving children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.; Kershner, J. R.

    1990-03-01

    Forty normal-achieving and 33 learning disabled (LD) children were assigned randomly to either a negative ion or placebo test condition. On a dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel (CV) combinations, both groups showed an ioninduced increase in the normal right ear advantage (REA). However, the mechanisms for this effect were different for each group. The LDs showed the effect at the right ear/left hemisphere (enhancement). The normal achievers showed the effect at the left ear/right hemisphere (inhibition). The results are consistent with an activation-inhibition model of cerebral function and suggest a functional relationship between arousal, interhemispheric activation-inhibition, and learning disabilities. The LDs may have an interhemispheric dysfunction. Both groups showed superior right ear report and the normal achiever showed overall superiority. Normal achievers showed higher consonant intrusion scores, probably due to a greater cognitive capacity. Age was a significant covariate reflecting developmental capacity changes. Negative air ions are seen to be a tool with potential theoretical and remedial applications.

  13. Growth mixture modeling with non-normal distributions.

    PubMed

    Muthén, Bengt; Asparouhov, Tihomir

    2015-03-15

    A limiting feature of previous work on growth mixture modeling is the assumption of normally distributed variables within each latent class. With strongly non-normal outcomes, this means that several latent classes are required to capture the observed variable distributions. Being able to relax the assumption of within-class normality has the advantage that a non-normal observed distribution does not necessitate using more than one class to fit the distribution. It is valuable to add parameters representing the skewness and the thickness of the tails. A new growth mixture model of this kind is proposed drawing on recent work in a series of papers using the skew-t distribution. The new method is illustrated using the longitudinal development of body mass index in two data sets. The first data set is from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth covering ages 12-23 years. Here, the development is related to an antecedent measuring socioeconomic background. The second data set is from the Framingham Heart Study covering ages 25-65 years. Here, the development is related to the concurrent event of treatment for hypertension using a joint growth mixture-survival model.

  14. Choline pathways during normal and stimulated renal growth in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bean, G H; Lowenstein, L M

    1978-01-01

    Cellular membrane synthesis occurs during normal and stimulated renal growth. Choline in the kidney is utilized as a precursor for membrane synthesis via the choline kinase reaction. We investigated choline phosphorylation during normal and stimulated renal growth. Rapidly growing neonatal rat kidneys contained relatively high levels of choline kinase activity (61 pmol phosphorylcholine/min per mg protein). Choline kinase activity and phosphorylcholine production then fell gradually over the 1st mo of life; by 1 mo phosphorylcholine production was 34 pmol phosphorylcholine/min per mg protein. Choline kinase activity increased by 27% (P less than 0.001) in 28-day-old rats when renal growth was stimulated by contralateral nephrectomy; the increase occurred within 2 h after surgery. Thus, changes in the activity of this important enzyme in the initiation of membrane synthesis is associated both with normal renal development and with adaptation to nephron loss. The findings further suggest that the cell membrane may be involved in the initiation of compensatory renal growth. PMID:659614

  15. Increasing Metacomprehension in Learning Disabled and Normally Achieving Students through Self-Questioning Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Bernice Y. L.; Jones, Wayne

    1982-01-01

    Training to self-monitor reading comprehension was undertaken with 120 learning disabled eighth and ninth graders and normally achieving sixth graders. It was hypothesized that insufficient metacomprehension is one possible cause underlying learning disabled adolescents' comprehension problems. (Author/SEW)

  16. An analysis of science conceptual knowledge in journals of students with disabilities and normally achieving students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigg, Gail S.

    Science education reforms of the last two decades have focused on raising the bar for ALL students which includes students with mild to moderate disabilities. Formative assessment can be used to assess the progress of these students to inquire, understand scientific concepts, reason scientifically, make decisions, and communicate effectively in science. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of science journals as a formative assessment in a guided inquiry unit of study for students with learning disabilities. Two normally achieving students (NA) and five students with learning disabilities (SLD) participated in a study of mammals that utilized journals to record the development of student knowledge through the course of study. Students were interviewed after the lessons were complete using the same prompts required in the journals. Themes were developed from the student writings and their verbal discourse using Grounded Theory. Journals and verbal discourse were rated following the themes of Knowledge Telling (KT) and Knowledge Transformation (KTR). Concept maps were developed for the Pre and Post test lessons (written and verbal discourses) by the raters in an attempt to further explain the knowledge that the students conveyed. The results of this study suggest that SLD are able to demonstrate knowledge about mammals better through verbal discourse than written discourse. While the NA students wrote more and used more technical discourse than did their SLD peers, the conceptual understanding of the topic by the SLD was no less inclusive than their NA peers when accessed verbally. The journals demonstrated limited conceptual growth for the SLD. Further, while lexical density is important to the development of knowledge in science, this study suggests the "conceptual density" may be another important indicator to examine.

  17. A Comparison of Emotional-Motivational (A-R-D Theory) Personality Characteristics in Learning Disabled, Normal Achieving, and High Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufano, Linda D.

    The study examined emotional-motivational personality characteristics of 15 learning disabled, 15 normal achieving, and 15 high achieving students (grades 3-5). The study tested the hypothesis derived from the A-R-D (attitude-reinforcer-discriminative) theory of motivation that learning disabled (LD) children differ from normal and high achieving…

  18. Independence of sialic acid levels in normal and malignant growth.

    PubMed

    Khadapkar, S V; Sheth, N A; Bhide, S V

    1975-06-01

    Sialic acid content in breast or tumor tissue and serum of mouse strains that are either susceptible or resistant to breast cancer was measured at various age periods. Sialic acid content was also studied in normal lung tissue and in lung adenoma and hepatoma. Sialic acid levels during nonmalignant growth of a tissue were measured in breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation, and in regenerating liver, as well as in newborn and postnatal liver. The sialic acid content, when expressed per mg of protein, increased in mammary tumor, lung adenoma, and hepatoma. It also increased in nonmalignant growth of breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation and of regenerating liver and postnatal liver. Increase in sialic acid per mg DNA was observed only in lung tumors, regenerating liver, and postnatal liver. It appears that the changes in sialic acid level are independent of the normal or malignant growth of a tissue and that these changes might be the function of the parameter used to express the sialic acid values, i.e., either the DNA content or protein content of a given tissue.

  19. Growth hormone secretory dynamics in subjects with normal stature.

    PubMed

    Costin, G; Kaufman, F R; Brasel, J A

    1989-10-01

    To evaluate the dynamics of growth hormone (GH) secretion in subjects with normal stature and to determine whether a correlation exists between height and the quantity of GH secreted, we determined the 24-hour GH concentration by measuring GH levels every 30 minutes in 27 boys and 19 girls of normal height, 7 to 18 years of age, of whom 24 were prepubertal and 22 in various stages of puberty. Spontaneous GH secretion had wide variations, with values ranging from less than 1.0 to 67.0 micrograms/L. In prepubertal children the highest GH levels were usually noted during sleep; in pubertal subjects the highest values were distributed almost equally between sleep and wake hours. In all subjects, GH secretion appeared to decrease before meals, followed by an increase after meals. Most indexes of GH secretion and insulin-like growth factor I levels were significantly greater in pubertal than in prepubertal subjects (p less than 0.002), and in both groups the GH concentration was significantly greater during sleep (p less than 0.005). In all groups the 24-hour GH concentration correlated significantly with the area under the GH curve, 24-hour GH pulse amplitude, and GH concentration and peak GH level during sleep and wake hours (P less than 0.0001); 24-hour GH concentrations correlated with insulin-like growth factor I levels only when the entire group of 46 subjects was considered (p less than 0.01). There were no significant correlations between 24-hour GH concentration and the subjects' age, bone age, height (SD score), weight (SD score), or body mass index. We conclude that in subjects with normal stature, mean 24-hour GH concentrations vary considerably and in the low range overlap with values reported in hypopituitarism.

  20. The moderating effect of self-efficacy on normal-weight, overweight, and obese children's math achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell

    2015-03-01

    Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children.

  1. Intrinsic normalized emittance growth in laser-driven electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorati, M.; Bacci, A.; Benedetti, C.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Antici, P.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-based electron sources are attracting strong interest from the conventional accelerator community due to their unique characteristics in terms of high initial energy, low emittance, and significant beam current. Extremely strong electric fields (up to hundreds of GV/m) generated in the plasma allow accelerating gradients much higher than in conventional accelerators and set the basis for achieving very high final energies in a compact space. Generating laser-driven high-energy electron beam lines therefore represents an attractive challenge for novel particle accelerators. In this paper we show that laser-driven electrons generated by the nowadays consolidated TW laser systems, when leaving the interaction region, are subject to a very strong, normalized emittance worsening which makes them quickly unusable for any beam transport. Furthermore, due to their intrinsic beam characteristics, controlling and capturing the full beam current can only be achieved improving the source parameters.

  2. Differential Growth Trajectories for Achievement Among Children Retained in First Grade: A Growth Mixture Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the differential effect of retention on the development of academic achievement from grade one to five on children retained in first grade over six years. Growth Mixture Model (GMM) analyses supported the existence of two distinct trajectory groups of retained children for both reading and math among 125 ethnically and linguistically diverse retained children. For each achievement domain, a low intercept/higher growth group (Class 1) and a high intercept/slower growth group (Class 2) were identified. Furthermore, Class 1 children were found to score lower on several measures of learning related skills (LRS) variables and were characterized by having poorer self-regulation and less prosocial behaviors, compared to the other group. Findings suggest that some children appear to benefit more from retention, in terms of higher reading and math growth, than others. Study findings have implications for selecting children into retention intervention and early intervention. PMID:24771882

  3. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for enchondral bone growth and its disorders. I. Normal growth.

    PubMed

    Oestreich, Alan E

    2003-03-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the common effects on normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term "acrophysis" is proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the non-physeal ends of small tubular bones. The last layer of development of both physes and acrophysis is the cartilaginous zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). The enchondral bone abutting the ZPC shares similar properties at physes and acrophyses, including the relatively lucent metaphyseal bands of many normal infants at several weeks of age. The bone-in-bone pattern of the normal vertebral bodies and bands of demineralization of the tarsal bones just under the ZPC are the equivalent of those bands. The growth arrest/recovery lines of metaphyses similarly have equivalent lines in growth centers and other acrophyseal sites. Nearly the same effects can also be anticipated from the relatively similar growth plate at the cartilaginous cap of benign exostoses ("paraphysis"). The companion article will explore abnormalities at acrophyseal sites, including metabolic bone disease and dysplasias.

  4. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement Among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between EF and science achievement among normally developing 10 year olds. A sample of fifth grade students from a Northeastern suburban community participated in tests of EF, science, and intelligence. Consistent with adult models of EF, principal components analysis identified a three-factor model of EF organization in middle childhood, including cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function processes of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition were all predictive of science performance. Post hoc analyses revealed that high-performing science students differed significantly from low-performing students in both cognitive flexibility and working memory. These findings suggest that complex academic demands specific to science achievement rely on the emergence and maturation of EF components.

  5. In situ growth rate measurements by normal-incidence reflectance during MOVPE growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, H.Q.; Breiland, W.G.; Hammons, B.E.; Chui, H.C.

    1996-05-01

    We present an in situ technique for monitoring metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy growth by normal-incidence reflectance. This technique is used to calibrate the growth rate periodically and to monitor the growth process routinely. It is not only a precise tool to measure the growth rate, but also very useful in identifying unusal problems during a growth run, such as depletion of source material, deterioration of surface morphology, and problems associated with an improper growht procedure. We will also present an excellent reproducibility ({+-}0.3% over a course of more than 100 runs) of the cavity wavelength of vertical-cavity surface emitting laser structures with periodic calibration by this in situ technique.

  6. Achievement Gaps: An Examination of Differences in Student Achievement and Growth. The Full Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Martha S.; Hauser, Carl; Cronin, John; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Houser, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The difference between the academic performance of poor students and wealthier students and between minority students and their non-minority peers is commonly known as the achievement gap. The current study examines the achievement gap using a large sample of students from a wide variety of school districts across the United States. It examines…

  7. Sparc Protein Is Required for Normal Growth of Zebrafish Otoliths

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Young-Jin; Stevenson, Amy K.; Yau, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Otoliths and the homologous otoconia in the inner ear are essential for balance. Their morphogenesis is less understood than that of other biominerals, such as bone, and only a small number of their constituent proteins have been characterized. As a novel approach to identify unknown otolith proteins, we employed shotgun proteomics to analyze crude extracts from trout and catfish otoliths. We found three proteins that had not been associated previously with otolith or otoconia formation: ‘Secreted acidic cysteine rich glycoprotein’ (Sparc), an important bone protein that binds collagen and Ca2+; precerebellin-like protein, which contains a C1q domain and may associate with the collagenous otolin-1 during its assembly into a framework; and neuroserpin, a serine protease inhibitor that may regulate local protease activity during framework assembly. We then used the zebrafish to investigate whether Sparc plays a role in otolith morphogenesis. Immunodetection demonstrated that Sparc is a true constituent of otoliths. Knockdown of Sparc expression in morphant zebrafish resulted in four principal types of defective otoliths: smaller, extra and ectopic, missing and fused, or completely absent. Smaller size was the predominant phenotype and independent of the severity of otic-vesicle defects. These results suggested that Sparc is directly required for normal otolith growth. PMID:18784957

  8. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor levels in normal human gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, S. A.; Elder, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    Acid soluble proteins from 23 samples of normal human gastrointestinal mucosa derived from four normal adult organ donors were extracted and subjected to specific radiommunoassays for transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) and urogastrone epidermal growth factor (URO-EGF). All tissues were found to contain immunoreactive TGF alpha and levels ranged from 57 to 4,776 pg-1 wet weight of tissue. Although levels varied between tissue donors, the distribution of TGF alpha throughout the gastrointestinal tract appeared similar in all cases. URO-EGF levels were much lower (0-216 pg g-1 wet weight). TGF alpha levels in extracts of gastrointestinal mucosa from a 7-year-old female donor were higher and the observed distribution was markedly different from adult levels. URO-EGF was not detected in mucosal or submucosal tissue extracts from this patient. Further studies in juveniles are indicated. PMID:2803941

  9. Enhanced basal and disorderly growth hormone secretion distinguish acromegalic from normal pulsatile growth hormone release.

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, M L; Pincus, S M; Johnson, M L; Matthews, D H; Faunt, L M; Vance, M L; Thorner, M O; Veldhuis, J D

    1994-01-01

    Pulses of growth hormone (GH) release in acromegaly may arise from hypothalamic regulation or from random events intrinsic to adenomatous tissue. To distinguish between these possibilities, serum GH concentrations were measured at 5-min intervals for 24 h in acromegalic men and women with active (n = 19) and inactive (n = 9) disease and in normal young adults in the fed (n = 20) and fasted (n = 16) states. Daily GH secretion rates, calculated by deconvolution analysis, were greater in patients with active acromegaly than in fed (P < 0.05) but not fasted normal subjects. Significant basal (nonpulsatile) GH secretion was present in virtually all active acromegalics but not those in remission or in fed and fasted normal subjects. A recently introduced scale- and model-independent statistic, approximate entropy (ApEn), was used to test for regularity (orderliness) in the GH data. All but one acromegalic had ApEn values greater than the absolute range in normal subjects, indicating reduced orderliness of GH release; ApEn distinguished acromegalic from normal GH secretion (fed, P < 10(-12); fasted, P < 10(-7)) with high sensitivity (95%) and specificity (100%). Acromegalics in remission had ApEn scores larger than those of normal subjects (P < 0.0001) but smaller than those of active acromegalics (P < 0.001). The coefficient of variation of successive incremental changes in GH concentrations was significantly lower in acromegalics than in normal subjects (P < 0.001). Fourier analysis in acromegalics revealed reduced fractional amplitudes compared to normal subjects (P < 0.05). We conclude that GH secretion in acromegaly is highly irregular with disorderly release accompanying significant basal secretion. Images PMID:8083369

  10. Role of growth factors in the growth of normal and transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lokeshwar, V.B.

    1989-01-01

    Growth factors play an important role in the growth of normal cells. However, their untimely and/or excess production leads to neoplastic transformation. The role of growth factors in the growth of normal cells was studied by investigating the mechanism of transmodulation of the cell surface EGF receptor number by protamine. Protamine increased the EGF stimulated mitogenic response in Swiss mouse 3T3 cells and A431 cells by increasing the number of functionally active EGF receptors. Protamine also increased EGF receptor number in plasma membranes and solubilized membranes. This was evidenced by an increase in both {sup 125}I-EGF-EGF-receptor complex and EGF stimulated phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. The solubilized EGF receptor was retained on a protamine-agarose gel indicating that protamine might increase EGF receptor number by directly activating cryptic EGF receptors in the plasma membranes. The role of growth factors in neoplastic transformation was studied by investigating the role of the oncogene v-sis in the growth of Simian sarcoma virus (SSV) transformed cells. The product of the oncogene v-sis is 94% homologous to the B chain of PDGF. This study found that (i) v-sis gene product is synthesized as a 32 kDa unglycosylated monomer which is glycosylated, dimerized and proteolytically processed into p36, p72, p68, p58, p44 and p27 mol. wt. species respectively. (ii) p36, p72, p68 and p58 are very likely formed in the endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi complex. A fraction of newly synthesized p72, p68 and p58 is degraded intracellularly at a fast rate. (iii) p44 is a secretory product which remains tightly associated with the cell surface. p44 is recaptured by the cells through interaction with cell surface PDGF receptors and degraded into p27. (iv) During long term cultures p44 is extracellularly cleaved into a 27 kDa product.

  11. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  12. Reading and Math Achievement Profiles and Longitudinal Growth Trajectories of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Christiano, Elizabeth R. A.; Yu, Jennifer W.; Wagner, Mary; Spiker, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of a nationally representative sample of children ages 6 through 9 with an autism spectrum disorder. Four distinct achievement profiles were identified: higher-achieving (39%), hyperlexia (9%), hypercalculia (20%) and lower-achieving (32%). Children…

  13. Growth and gaps in mathematics achievement of students with and without disabilities on a statewide achievement test.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C; Elliott, Stephen N; Nese, Joseph F T; Tindal, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated mathematics achievement growth trajectories in a statewide sample of 92,045 students with and without disabilities over Grades 3 to 7. Students with disabilities (SWDs) were identified in seven exceptionality categories. Students without disabilities (SWoDs) were categorized as General Education (GE) or Academically/Intellectually Gifted (AIG). Students in all groups showed significant growth that decelerated over grades as well as significant variability in achievement by student group, both at the initial assessment in Grade 3 and in rates of growth over time. Race/ethnicity, gender, parental education, free/reduced lunch status, and English language proficiency were also significant predictors of achievement. Effect size estimates showed substantial year-to-year growth that decreased over grades. Sizeable achievement gaps that were relatively stable over grades were observed between SWoDs and students in specific exceptionality categories. Our study also demonstrated the importance of statistically controlling for variation related to student demographic characteristics. Additional research is needed that expands on these results with the same and additional exceptionality groups.

  14. Achieving and documenting closure in plant growth facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.; Sager, John C.; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    As NASA proceeds with its effort to develop a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) that will provide life support to crews during long duration space missions, it must address the question of facility and system closure. The concept of closure as it pertains to CELSS and engineering specifications, construction problems and monitoring procedures used in the development and operation of a closed plant growth facility for the CELSS program are described. A plant growth facility is one of several modules required for a CELSS. A prototype of this module at Kennedy Space Center is the large (7m tall x 3.5m diameter) Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), the central facility of the CELSS Breadboard Project. The BPC is atmospherically sealed to a leak rate of approximately 5 percent of its total volume per 24 hours. This paper will discuss the requirements for atmospheric closure in the facility, present CO2 and trace gas data from initial tests of the BPC with and without plants, and describe how the chamber was sealed atmospherically. Implications that research conducted in this type of facility will have for the CELSS program are discussed.

  15. Tracking Student Achievement in Music Performance: Developing Student Learning Objectives for Growth Model Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement growth data are increasingly used for assessing teacher effectiveness and tracking student achievement in the classroom. Guided by the student learning objective (SLO) framework, music teachers are now responsible for collecting, tracking, and reporting student growth data. Often, the reported data do not accurately reflect the…

  16. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  17. Summer Study: A Two Part Investigation of the Impact of Exposure to Schooling on Achievement Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jane Lisa

    This thesis is composed of two studies which look at the impact of exposure to schooling on achievement growth of children. Both use data from the National Follow Through Evaluation. The first study investigates the hypothesis that the difference in achievement growth between poor and non-poor children is greater during the summer months than…

  18. Exploring Gains in Reading and Mathematics Achievement among Regular and Exceptional Students Using Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tacksoo; Davison, Mark L.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Chan, Chi-Keung; Heistad, David

    2013-01-01

    Using four-wave longitudinal reading and mathematics data (4th to 7th grades) from a large urban school district, growth curve modeling was used as a tool for examining three research questions: Are achievement gaps closing in reading and mathematics? What are the associations between prior-achievement and growth across the reading and mathematics…

  19. High-Achieving and Average Students' Reading Growth: Contrasting School and Summer Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Much is unknown about how initially high-achieving students grow academically, especially given the measurement issues inherent in assessing growth for the highest performing students. This study compared initially high-achieving and average students' growth in reading (in a cohort of third-grade students from 2,000 schools) over 3 years.…

  20. Evaluating Longitudinal Mathematics Achievement Growth: Modeling and Measurement Considerations for Assessing Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring and modeling academic achievement growth is critical to support educational policy and practice. Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, this study compared various models of mathematics achievement growth on the basis of both practical utility and optimal statistical fit and explored relationships within and…

  1. Once, Sometimes, or Always in Special Education: Mathematics Growth and Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ann C.; Stevens, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a statewide longitudinal sample to examine mathematics achievement gaps and growth in students with and without disabilities and to examine the impact of different methods of determining disability group membership on achievement gaps and growth. When disability status was determined on the basis of special education placement each…

  2. Normalizing Stigmatized Practices: Achieving Co-membership by "Doing Being Ordinary".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Samuel G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the effect of the interactive accomplishment of conversational normalization. To illuminate this process, this article investigates how the parties to a news interview collaborate to normalize the interviewee's practices in operating a house of prostitution. The methodological impetus for this study involves a variant of conversation…

  3. The effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in 5th grade science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Pamela Mccrea

    2007-12-01

    At-risk students show consistent patterns of under achievement and social maladjustment in school which leads to their demise in high school (McMillian & Reed, 1994). Similarly, special education students are at increased risk of not completing high school and do not perform as well on national achievement tests than their nondisabled peers (Land & Legters, 2002). It is possible that students at-risk for academic failure will not meet graduation requirements unless interventions are put in place to alleviate this problem. It has been documented that science textbooks contain difficult vocabulary and high reading levels that are challenging for struggling students. Using approaches such as activities oriented instruction, which supports the cooperative learning/peer tutoring model is one approach that has been successful with normally achieving and special education students. This research examined the effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements with peer tutoring on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in science. A crossover design was implemented in three fifth grade inclusive classes, consisting of typically achieving students, students at-risk, and students with learning disabilities. The participants included 16 at-risk students, three special education students and 44 normally achieving students. The science review activities were implemented during two consecutive science units. One unit covered Earth and Space science. The other unit covered Light and Sound. Each curriculum enhancement had identification and production level activities. The identification level provided prompts; the production level did not provide prompts. Pretest and posttest were administered. Overall findings of the study revealed a significant interaction between experimental condition and treatment order, suggesting an advantage for students using differentiated curriculum enhancements. Main effects analysis suggested that students performed better on one

  4. A comparative study of the proteoglycan of growth cartilage of normal and rachitic chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, I R; Roughley, P J

    1978-01-01

    1. Proteoglycan was isolated from growth cartilage of normal and rachitic chicks. 2. The proteoglycan from normal cartilage showed differences in chemical composition and physical properties from a comparable fraction isolated from bovine nasal cartilage. 3. The proteoglycan from rachitic-chick cartilage was of smaller size than tis normal counterpart, though of similar average chemical composition. 4. Differences between proteoglycan from normal and rachitic cartilages can be explained in terms of limited proteolytic cleavage. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:666731

  5. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this…

  6. High frequency ultrasound imaging of the growth and development of the normal chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Schellpfeffer, Michael A; Bolender, David L; Kolesari, Gary L

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to delineate with high frequency ultrasound imaging the normal growth and development of the chick embryo throughout its incubation period. White Leghorn chick embryos were imaged through an opening in the egg air cell from incubation day 0-19 (Hamburger & Hamilton stage 1-45) using a 13 MHz clinical high frequency linear small parts transducer. Multiple anatomic growth parameters were measured. Normal growth was confirmed with Hamburger and Hamilton staging. A timeline was constructed showing when each anatomic growth parameter could be visualized. Means and standard deviations of each parameter were plotted against incubation days studied to create nomograms and numerical tables of normal growth and development of the chick embryo. With this set of data, abnormal growth and development of the chick embryo can now be assessed.

  7. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  8. Science and Mathematics Advanced Placement Exams: Growth and Achievement over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of Advanced Placement (AP) exams in the last 2 decades has been paralleled by national enthusiasm to promote availability and rigor of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Trends were examined in STEM AP to evaluate and compare growth and achievement. Analysis included individual STEM subjects and disaggregation…

  9. The Groove of Growth: How Early Gains in Math Ability Influence Adolescent Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…

  10. Cognitive Predictors of Achievement Growth in Mathematics: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.

    2011-01-01

    The study's goal was to identify the beginning of 1st grade quantitative competencies that predict mathematics achievement start point and growth through 5th grade. Measures of number, counting, and arithmetic competencies were administered in early 1st grade and used to predict mathematics achievement through 5th (n = 177), while controlling for…

  11. Promising Practices in Professional Growth & Support: "Case Study of Achievement First"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…

  12. Reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of children with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Christiano, Elizabeth R A; Yu, Jennifer W; Wagner, Mary; Spiker, Donna

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of a nationally representative sample of children ages 6 through 9 with an autism spectrum disorder. Four distinct achievement profiles were identified: higher-achieving (39%), hyperlexia (9%), hypercalculia (20%) and lower-achieving (32%). Children with hypercalculia and lower-achieving profiles were more likely to be from low socioeconomic families and had lower functional cognitive skills than the higher-achieving profile. All four profiles lost ground in passage comprehension over time. Slower improvement occurred for the higher-achieving group on letter-word identification, the hyperlexia group on conversation abilities and the hypercalculia group on calculation and functional cognitive skills relative to the lower-achieving group.

  13. Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students

    PubMed Central

    Castejón, Juan L.; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications. PMID:27729879

  14. Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students.

    PubMed

    Castejón, Juan L; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications.

  15. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P.; Acock, Alan C.; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics. PMID:25071619

  16. Effect of transforming growth factor-beta1 on embryonic and posthatch muscle growth and development in normal and low score normal chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Velleman, S G

    2009-02-01

    During skeletal muscle development, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent inhibitor of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The TGF-beta1 signal is carried by Smad proteins into the cell nucleus, inhibiting the expression of key myogenic regulatory factors including MyoD and myogenin. However, the molecular mechanism by which TGF-beta1 inhibits muscle cell proliferation and differentiation has not been well documented in vivo. The present study investigated the effect of TGF-beta1 on in vivo skeletal muscle growth and development. A chicken line, Low Score Normal (LSN) with reduced muscling and upregulated TGF-beta1 expression, was used and compared to a normal chicken line. The injection of TGF-beta1 at embryonic day (ED) 3 significantly reduced the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle weight in the normal birds at 1 wk posthatch, whereas no significant difference was observed in the LSN birds. The difference between normal and LSN birds in response to TGF-beta1 is likely due to different levels of endogenous TGF-beta1 where the LSN birds have increased TGF-beta1 expression in their p. major muscle at both 17 ED and 6 wk posthatch. Smad3 expression was reduced by TGF-beta1 from 10 ED to 1 wk posthatch in normal p. major muscle. Unlike Smad3, Smad7 expression was not significantly affected by TGF-beta1 until posthatch in both normal and LSN p. major muscle. Expression of MyoD was reduced 35% by TGF-beta1 during embryonic development in normal p. major muscle, whereas LSN p. major muscle showed a delayed decrease at 1 d posthatch in MyoD expression in response to the TGF-beta1 treatment. Myogenin expression was reduced 29% by TGF-beta1 after hatch in normal p. major muscle. In LSN p. major muscle, TGF-beta1 treatment significantly decreased myogenin expression by 43% at 1 d posthatch and 32% at 1 wk posthatch. These data suggested that TGF-beta1 reduced p. major muscle growth by inhibiting MyoD and myogenin expression during both embryonic

  17. Modeling stability of growth between mathematics and science achievement during middle and high school.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Ma, Lingling

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the authors introduced a multivariate multilevel model to estimate the consistency among students and schools in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement during the entire middle and high school years with data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY). There was no evident consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students, and this inconsistency was not much influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. However, there was evident consistency in the average rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among schools, and this consistency was influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. Major school-level variables associated with parental involvement did not show any significant impacts on consistency among either students or schools. Results call for educational policies that promote collaboration between mathematics and science departments or teachers.

  18. Incorporating Student Mobility in Achievement Growth Modeling: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Matthew W.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Multiple membership random effects models (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve…

  19. Role of polypeptide growth factors in phenotypic transformation of normal rat kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    van Zoelen, E.J.J.; van Oostwaard, T.M.J.; de Laat, S.W.

    1988-01-05

    A serum-free assay has been established for studying the role of polypeptide growth factors in inducing loss of density-dependent inhibition of growth of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. The process has been characterized by measuring the time course of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into confluent, quiescent NRK cultures stimulated by defined polypeptide growth factors, in combination with cell counting studies, increases in DNA content, and cell cycle analysis by means of a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. It is shown that none of the growth factors tested is able to induce loss of density-dependent inhibition of growth by itself, but strong synergism was observed when combinations of growth factors were tested. None of the above factors was found to be essential, however, since any combination of three of the above four growth factors strongly induced the process. Strong parallels were observed between the growth factor requirements for inducing loss of density-dependent inhibition of growth under serum-free conditions and the requirements for induction of anchorage-independent proliferation under growth factor-defined assay conditions. This indicates that most likely the same cellular processes underlie these two aspects of phenotypic transformation, although data indicate that anchorage-independent proliferation may be a more restricted property of phenotypic transformation than loss of density dependence of proliferation. It is concluded that phenotypic transformation of NRK cells does not require specific polypeptide growth factors, but reflects the ability of these cells to respond to multiple growth factors.

  20. In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis pathogens by bovine teat skin normal flora.

    PubMed

    Woodward, W D; Besser, T E; Ward, A C; Corbeil, L B

    1987-01-01

    One factor contributing to differences in the susceptibility of cows to mastitis may be differences in the teat skin normal flora, which could inhibit or enhance the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Using in vitro cross-streaking methods, we found that 25% of the isolates of teat normal flora of non-lactating heifers inhibited the growth of selected mastitis pathogens, but enhancers were not detected. Gram-positive pathogens were inhibited to a greater extent than Gram-negative pathogens. Inhibition was not a characteristic of specific genera or species of normal flora, but rather a property of certain variants within a species. This phenomenon of inhibition of mastitis pathogens in vitro by normal flora may be useful as an in vivo biological control method to reduce the incidence of mastitis.

  1. A Longitudinal Assessment of Early Acceleration of Students in Mathematics on Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, X.

    2005-01-01

    Early acceleration of students in mathematics (in the form of early access to formal abstract algebra) has been a controversial educational issue. The current study examined the rate of growth in mathematics achievement of accelerated gifted, honors, and regular students across the entire secondary years (Grades 7-12), in comparison to their…

  2. Growth in Reading Achievement of Students with Disabilities, Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Blackorby, Jose; Schiller, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SRI International, 2002), this study estimated reading growth trajectories in a nationally representative sample of 3,421 students with disabilities ages 7 to 17 representing 11 federal disability categories. Reading achievement in all disability categories increased with age,…

  3. EPA Recognizes Jackson Walk in Jackson, TN for Smart Growth Achievement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (09/16/15 - ATLANTA ) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today recognized the Jackson Walk Project in downtown Jackson, Tennessee as one of three winners of the 2015 National Award for Smart Growth Achievement. Other winners include a new pub

  4. Precollege science achievement growth: Racial-ethnic and gender differences in cognitive and psychosocial constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Patricia Ann

    The purpose of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the differences in science, mathematics and engineering education among racial-ethnic and gender subgroups by exploring factors related to precollege science achievement growth rates. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and multi-wave, longitudinal data from the first three waves of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988--1994 (NELS:88/94), this study examined precollege science achievement growth rates during the 8th to 10th grade period and the 10th to 12th grade period for African American males, African American females, Latino males, Latina females, Asian American males, Asian American females, White males and White females. For the 8th--10th grade period, previous grades were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups; and socio-economic status and high school program were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups except one (Latino males, and Asian American males respectively). For the 10th--12th grade period, the quantity of science courses completed (science units) was the only variable that was statistically significant for more than one racial-ethnic by gender subgroup. Science units taken were significantly and positively related to 10 th--12th grade growth rates for all racial-ethnic by gender subgroups except Latino males. Locus-of-control was the only cognitive or psychosocial factor included from Eccles, Adler, Futterman, Goff, Kaczala, Meece and Midgley's (1983) theoretical framework for achievement behaviors that appeared to exhibit any pattern across race-ethnicities. Locus-of-control was positively related to 8th--10 th grade science achievement growth for females across all racial-ethnic subgroups, as well as for African American males. However, for both the 8 th--10th grade and 10th--12 th grade periods, there was no consistency across racial-ethnic or gender subgroups in

  5. Morphometric Analysis of Vertebral Growth Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Normal Skeletally Immature Spine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Sucato, Daniel J; Nurenberg, Pamela; McClung, Anna

    2010-05-26

    STUDY DESIGN.: Morphometic analysis of the thoracic and lumbar pedicle, vertebral body, and spinal canal in the normal infantile and juvenile patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). OBJECTIVE.: To 3-dimensionally characterize the growth of the vertebral column in vivo and define the accurate dynamic growth rate of the normal immature spine. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: There is a relationship between growth of the spine and the development of spinal deformity. Currently available information regarding vertebral column growth is remarkably limited and poorly defined. The detailed morphologic research is needed to obtain accurate data with regard to growth of the vertebra, including coronal, sagittal, and axial growth information for normal states. METHODS.: A total of 34 pediatric patients with a normal straight spine who had MRI from thoracic vertebra 1 to lumbar vertebra 5 were assigned to 3 groups: infantile group (n = 11), 0 to 3 years of age; juvenile-young group (n = 16), 4 to 7 years of age; and juvenile-old group (n = 7), 8 to 10 years of age. True transverse and midsagittal MRI images were used for pedicle (width and length), vertebral body (height, depth and width), and spinal canal area measurements. RESULTS.: The mean increase of the pedicle width and length was 0.7 mm (16%) and 3.2 mm (18%) from the infantile to the juvenile-young, and was 0.9 mm (15%) and 2.2 mm (11%) through the juvenile-old group. The mean increase of the vertebra body width, depth, and height were 3.6 mm (15%), 4.5 mm (27%), and 3.1 mm (27%), respectively, from the infantile to the juvenile-young, and were 2.9 mm (10%), 1.9 mm (9%) and 2.1 mm (15%), respectively, through the juvenile-old group. The mean increase of the spinal canal area was 41 mm (19%) from the infantile to the juvenile-young and was only 1.8 mm (0.7%) through the juvenile-old group. CONCLUSION.: The current study established the growth of the pedicle, spinal canal, and vertebral body in vivo in a sample of

  6. Local tissue growth patterns underlying normal fetal human brain gyrification quantified in utero

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Corbett-Detig, James; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Existing knowledge of growth patterns in the living fetal human brain is based upon in utero imaging studies by MRI and ultrasound, which describe overall growth and provided mainly qualitative findings. However, formation of the complex folded cortical structure of the adult brain requires, in part, differential rates of regional tissue growth. To better understand these local tissue growth patterns, we applied recent advances in fetal MRI motion correction and computational image analysis techniques to 40 normal fetal human brains covering a period of primary sulcal formation (20-28 gestational weeks). Growth patterns were mapped by quantifying tissue locations that were expanding more or less quickly than the overall cerebral growth rate, which reveal increasing structural complexity. We detected increased local relative growth rates in the formation of the pre- and post-central gyri, right superior temporal gyrus and opercula, which differentiated between the constant growth rate in underlying cerebral mantle and the accelerating rate in the cortical plate undergoing folding. Analysis focused on the cortical plate revealed greater volume increases in parietal and occipital regions compared to the frontal lobe. Cortical plate growth patterns constrained to narrower age ranges showed that gyrification, reflected by greater growth rates, was more pronounced after 24 gestational weeks. Local hemispheric volume asymmetry was located in the posterior peri-Sylvian area associated with structural lateralization in the mature brain. These maps of fetal brain growth patterns construct a spatially specific baseline of developmental biomarkers with which to correlate abnormal development in the human. PMID:21414909

  7. Cognitive predictors of achievement growth in mathematics: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Geary, David C

    2011-11-01

    The study's goal was to identify the beginning of 1st grade quantitative competencies that predict mathematics achievement start point and growth through 5th grade. Measures of number, counting, and arithmetic competencies were administered in early 1st grade and used to predict mathematics achievement through 5th (n = 177), while controlling for intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. Multilevel models revealed intelligence and processing speed, and the central executive component of working memory predicted achievement or achievement growth in mathematics and, as a contrast domain, word reading. The phonological loop was uniquely predictive of word reading and the visuospatial sketch pad of mathematics. Early fluency in processing and manipulating numerical set size and Arabic numerals, accurate use of sophisticated counting procedures for solving addition problems, and accuracy in making placements on a mathematical number line were uniquely predictive of mathematics achievement. Use of memory-based processes to solve addition problems predicted mathematics and reading achievement but in different ways. The results identify the early quantitative competencies that uniquely contribute to mathematics learning.

  8. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in normal and dyschondroplastic articular growth cartilage of the young horse.

    PubMed

    Henson, F M; Schofield, P N; Jeffcott, L B

    1997-11-01

    This study describes the distribution pattern of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) mRNA and protein in normal pre- and post natal growth cartilage and alterations present in lesions of dyschondroplasia (osteochondrosis). TGF-beta 1 expression and immunoreactivity have been investigated by in situ hybridisation and immunolocalisation in the articular/epiphyseal growth cartilage of the lateral trochlear ridge of the distal femur. Cartilage was obtained from 19 normal Thoroughbred horses (5 prenatal and 14 post natal horses) and 15 post natal horses with dyschondroplasia (DCP). TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression and immunoreactivity were detected in the proliferative and upper hypertrophic zones in both pre- and post natal normal articular/epiphyseal cartilage. However, mRNA itself was only detected in the mid- and lower hypertrophic zones. Immunoreactivity was identified intracellularly with some nuclear staining observed. In focal lesions of DCP mRNA expression and immunoreactivity were reduced compared to normal cartilage, but strong mRNA expression was observed in the chondrocyte clusters immediately surrounding a lesion of DCP. The results described in this study demonstrate alterations in TGF-beta 1 dyschondroplastic lesions and indicate that it could be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition in the horse.

  9. Implementation of Combined Feather and Surface-Normal Ice Growth Models in LEWICE/X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velazquez, M. T.; Hansman, R. J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental observations have shown that discrete rime ice growths called feathers, which grow in approximately the direction of water droplet impingement, play an important role in the growth of ice on accreting surfaces for some thermodynamic conditions. An improved physical model of ice accretion has been implemented in the LEWICE 2D panel-based ice accretion code maintained by the NASA Lewis Research Center. The LEWICE/X model of ice accretion explicitly simulates regions of feather growth within the framework of the LEWICE model. Water droplets impinging on an accreting surface are withheld from the normal LEWICE mass/energy balance and handled in a separate routine; ice growth resulting from these droplets is performed with enhanced convective heat transfer approximately along droplet impingement directions. An independent underlying ice shape is grown along surface normals using the unmodified LEWICE method. The resulting dual-surface ice shape models roughness-induced feather growth observed in icing wind tunnel tests. Experiments indicate that the exact direction of feather growth is dependent on external conditions. Data is presented to support a linear variation of growth direction with temperature and cloud water content. Test runs of LEWICE/X indicate that the sizes of surface regions containing feathers are influenced by initial roughness element height. This suggests that a previous argument that feather region size is determined by boundary layer transition may be incorrect. Simulation results for two typical test cases give improved shape agreement over unmodified LEWICE.

  10. Normal birth weight piglets with impaired preweaning growth utilize alternative metabolic pathways in the liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine if normal weight pigs that grow poorly during the pre-weaning period have altered hepatic metabolism, as reported for intrauterine growth retarded pigs. Eight pairs of average birth weight pigs (1.57 +/- 0.05 kg) were identified that diverged in weight by...

  11. TEM annealing study of normal grain growth in silver thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dannenberg, Rand; Stach, Eric; Groza, Joanna R.; Dresser, Brian J.

    2000-07-15

    Normal grain growth in 80-nm-thick sputter-deposited Ag films was studied via in situ heating stage transmission electron microscopy. The as-deposited films with an initial grain size of 40-50 nm were held at a series of temperatures (one per specimen) below 250 C. A grain growth exponent n=3 from the law Dn-Don=k(T)t was calculated by minimizing the deviation in the fitting function to the experimental data. An activation energy for grain growth of 0.53 eV (53 kJ/mol) is found, which is close to surface diffusion. These findings are consistent with our previous work on abnormal grain growth in Ag: that grain growth in thin film nanocrystalline silver is dominated by surface diffusion mass transport.

  12. Substrate flexibility regulates growth and apoptosis of normal but not transformed cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. B.; Dembo, M.; Wang, Y. L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of oncogenic transformation is anchorage-independent growth (27). Here we demonstrate that responses to substrate rigidity play a major role in distinguishing the growth behavior of normal cells from that of transformed cells. We cultured normal or H-ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells on flexible collagen-coated polyacrylamide substrates with similar chemical properties but different rigidity. Compared with cells cultured on stiff substrates, nontransformed cells on flexible substrates showed a decrease in the rate of DNA synthesis and an increase in the rate of apoptosis. These responses on flexible substrates are coupled to decreases in cell spreading area and traction forces. In contrast, transformed cells maintained their growth and apoptotic characteristics regardless of substrate flexibility. The responses in cell spreading area and traction forces to substrate flexibility were similarly diminished. Our results suggest that normal cells are capable of probing substrate rigidity and that proper mechanical feedback is required for regulating cell shape, cell growth, and survival. The loss of this response can explain the unregulated growth of transformed cells.

  13. Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Growth Factor/Diphtheria Toxin Receptor in Normal and Neoplastic Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Vinante, Fabrizio; Rigo, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) belongs to the EGF family of growth factors. It is biologically active either as a molecule anchored to the membrane or as a soluble form released by proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. HB-EGF is involved in relevant physiological and pathological processes spanning from proliferation and apoptosis to morphogenesis. We outline here the main activities of HB-EGF in connection with normal or neoplastic differentiative or proliferative events taking place primitively in the hematopoietic microenvironment. PMID:23888518

  14. Wavelength-normalized spectroscopic analysis of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth rates

    PubMed Central

    McBirney, Samantha E.; Trinh, Kristy; Wong-Beringer, Annie; Armani, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Optical density (OD) measurements are the standard approach used in microbiology for characterizing bacteria concentrations in culture media. OD is based on measuring the optical absorbance of a sample at a single wavelength, and any error will propagate through all calculations, leading to reproducibility issues. Here, we use the conventional OD technique to measure the growth rates of two different species of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The same samples are also analyzed over the entire UV-Vis wavelength spectrum, allowing a distinctly different strategy for data analysis to be performed. Specifically, instead of only analyzing a single wavelength, a multi-wavelength normalization process is implemented. When the OD method is used, the detected signal does not follow the log growth curve. In contrast, the multi-wavelength normalization process minimizes the impact of bacteria byproducts and environmental noise on the signal, thereby accurately quantifying growth rates with high fidelity at low concentrations. PMID:27867713

  15. Morphometry of the renal corpuscle during normal postnatal growth and compensatory hypertrophy. A light microscope study

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Renal corpuscles from the juxtamedullary and subcapsular regions of the renal cortex were morphometrically analyzed in young rats and in adult rats that had been unilaterally nephrectomized or sham-operated at an early age. Mean corpuscular volumes increased 4.5-fold during normal development, and 7.7-fold as a result of compensatory hypertrophy in both cortical regions. Relative and absolute volumes were determined for Bowman's space, the glomerular tuft, and five glomerular components: epithelial, endothelial, and mesangial cells, capillaries, and the filtration membrane. Normal and hypertrophic enlargement of Bowman's space was slightly greater than glomerular growth, and the growth response of subcapsular glomeruli was greater than that of juxtamedullary glomeruli. The ratio of mean glomerular volumes between outer and inner glomeruli was 1:2 in both adult groups. Both adult groups also developed nearly identical proportions of all glomerular component structures, representing a relative decrease of epithelial cells and increase of capillaries compared to the young animals. Normal and hypertrophic maturation involved absolute increases in all glomerular cell populations, the length of capillary loops and the surface area of the filtration membrane, all nearly in proportion to the respective four- and seven-fold increases in glomerular volume. Changes in the filtration surface area are consistent with published data for glomerular filtration rates in normal and hypertrophied kidneys. The mean cell size in epithelial and mesangial populations doubled during growth, but was not greater than normal in mononephrectomized rats. Hyperplasia among all populations of glomerular cells is indicated in normal growth, and to a greater extent in compensatory renal hypertrophy. PMID:264124

  16. IL-1RI participates in normal growth plate development and bone modeling.

    PubMed

    Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Zaretsky, Janna; Reich, Adi; Koren, Yoav; Shahar, Ron; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2013-07-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) signals through IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and induces osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption mainly during pathological conditions. Little is known about the effect of excess or absence of IL-1 signaling on the physiological development of the growth plate and bone. In this study, we examine growth plate morphology, bone structure, and mechanical properties as well as osteoclast number in IL-1RI knockout mice to evaluate the role of IL-1RI in the normal development of the growth plate and bone. We show for the first time that IL-1RI knockout mice have narrower growth plates due to a smaller hypertrophic zone, suggesting a role for this cytokine in hypertrophic differentiation, together with higher proteoglycan content. The bones of theses mice exhibit higher trabecular and cortical mass, increased mineral density, and superior mechanical properties. In addition, IL-1RI knockout mice have significantly reduced osteoclast numbers in the chondro-osseous junction, trabecular bone, and cortical bone. These results suggest that IL-1RI is involved in normal growth plate development and ECM homeostasis and that it is significant in the physiological process of bone modeling.

  17. Flow non-normality-induced transient growth in superposed Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid layers.

    PubMed

    Camporeale, C; Gatti, F; Ridolfi, L

    2009-09-01

    In recent years non-normality and transient growths have attracted much interest in fluid mechanics. Here, we investigate these topics with reference to the problem of interfacial instability in superposed Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid layers. Under the hypothesis of the lubrication theory, we demonstrate the existence of significant transient growths in the parameter space region where the dynamical system is asymptotically stable, and show how they depend on the main physical parameters. In particular, the key role of the density ratio is highlighted.

  18. Normal dendrite growth in Drosophila motor neurons requires the AP-1 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Cortnie L; Worrell, Jason; Levine, Richard B; Ramaswami, Mani; Sanyal, Subhabrata

    2008-09-01

    During learning and memory formation, information flow through networks is regulated significantly through structural alterations in neurons. Dendrites, sites of signal integration, are key targets of activity-mediated modifications. Although local mechanisms of dendritic growth ensure synapse-specific changes, global mechanisms linking neural activity to nuclear gene expression may have profound influences on neural function. Fos, being an immediate-early gene, is ideally suited to be an initial transducer of neural activity, but a precise role for the AP-1 transcription factor in dendrite growth remains to be elucidated. Here we measure changes in the dendritic fields of identified Drosophila motor neurons in vivo and in primary culture to investigate the role of the immediate-early transcription factor AP-1 in regulating endogenous and activity-induced dendrite growth. Our data indicate that (a) increased neural excitability or depolarization stimulates dendrite growth, (b) AP-1 (a Fos, Jun hetero-dimer) is required for normal motor neuron dendritic growth during development and in response to activity induction, and (c) neuronal Fos protein levels are rapidly but transiently induced in motor neurons following neural activity. Taken together, these results show that AP-1 mediated transcription is important for dendrite growth, and that neural activity influences global dendritic growth through a gene-expression dependent mechanism gated by AP-1.

  19. Normal fault growth above pre-existing structures: insights from discrete element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, Thilo; Finch, Emma; Bell, Rebecca; Jackson, Christopher; Gawthorpe, Robert; Phillips, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In extensional systems, pre-existing structures such as shear zones may affect the growth, geometry and location of normal faults. Recent seismic reflection-based observations from the North Sea suggest that shear zones not only localise deformation in the host rock, but also in the overlying sedimentary succession. While pre-existing weaknesses are known to localise deformation in the host rock, their effect on deformation in the overlying succession is less well understood. Here, we use 3-D discrete element modelling to determine if and how kilometre-scale shear zones affect normal fault growth in the overlying succession. Discrete element models use a large number of interacting particles to describe the dynamic evolution of complex systems. The technique has therefore been applied to describe fault and fracture growth in a variety of geological settings. We model normal faulting by extending a 60×60×30 km crustal rift-basin model including brittle and ductile interactions and gravitation and isostatic forces by 30%. An inclined plane of weakness which represents a pre-existing shear zone is introduced in the lower section of the upper brittle layer at the start of the experiment. The length, width, orientation and dip of the weak zone are systematically varied between experiments to test how these parameters control the geometric and kinematic development of overlying normal fault systems. Consistent with our seismic reflection-based observations, our results show that strain is indeed localised in and above these weak zones. In the lower brittle layer, normal faults nucleate, as expected, within the zone of weakness and control the initiation and propagation of neighbouring faults. Above this, normal faults nucleate throughout the overlying strata where their orientations are strongly influenced by the underlying zone of weakness. These results challenge the notion that overburden normal faults simply form due to reactivation and upwards propagation of pre

  20. Treatment-naïve Gaucher disease patients achieve therapeutic goals and normalization with velaglucerase alfa by 4years in phase 3 trials.

    PubMed

    Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah; Gonzalez, Derlis E; Lukina, Elena A; Qin, Yulin; Dinh, Quinn; Turkia, Hadhami Ben

    2016-10-21

    Gaucher disease is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency and commonly treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). The efficacy of ERT with velaglucerase alfa was assessed based on the achievement of published therapeutic goals and the normalization of disease parameters in 39 treatment-naïve patients with type 1 Gaucher disease, 6 to 62years of age, enrolled in phase 3 clinical trials. After 4years of ERT, therapeutic goals for thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly had been achieved in 100% of patients; goals for anemia and hepatomegaly had been achieved in 95% and 94% of patients, respectively. Consistent with the goal for bone mineral density, lumbar spine bone density improved in 87% of patients ≥18years of age. At year 4, compared with clinical ranges for healthy individuals, 86% of patients with a low baseline hemoglobin concentration had normalized, 60% with a low baseline platelet count had normalized, 67% with baseline splenomegaly had normalized, 58% with hepatomegaly had normalized, and lumbar spine bone density had normalized in 53% of adults. The decade-old therapeutic goals do not reflect the potential for normalization of clinical parameters in ERT-treated patients. Goals consistent with normalization or near-normalization should be considered. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00430625, NCT00553631, NCT00635427.

  1. Placental leptin in normal, diabetic and fetal growth-retarded pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Lea, R G; Howe, D; Hannah, L T; Bonneau, O; Hunter, L; Hoggard, N

    2000-08-01

    Leptin expression in third trimester placenta (p) and leptin concentrations in umbilical cord blood (cb) were investigated in normal pregnancies [n = 10 (p), 31 (cb)] and abnormal pregnancies complicated with (i) maternal insulin-dependent diabetes [IDDM: n = 3 (p), 13 (cb)], (ii) gestational diabetes [GD: n = 2 (p), 10 (cb)] and (iii) fetal growth retardation [FGR: n = 5 (p), 5 (cb)]. By in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, placental leptin mRNA and protein were co-localized to the syncytiotrophoblast and villous vascular endothelial cells. Leptin receptor was immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast. Relative to controls, the FGR group was characterized by low concentrations of placental and cord blood leptin. In a twin pregnancy, the normal-sized infant exhibited more placental and cord blood leptin than its growth-retarded twin. In contrast, both diabetic groups exhibited high concentrations of placental leptin mRNA and protein. The IDDM group exhibited the highest concentrations of leptin in cord blood. No change was observed in the expression of the leptin receptor in either the growth-retarded or diabetic pregnancies. In conclusion, the localization of placental leptin suggests that it may be released into both maternal and fetal blood. Furthermore, in fetal growth-retarded and diabetic pregnancies, the changes in leptin expression in the placenta and in leptin concentrations in umbilical cord blood appear to be related.

  2. Remodelling of bone and bones: growth of normal and transplanted caudal vertebrae.

    PubMed Central

    Feik, S A; Storey, E

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the rate of growth, shape and structure of the 8th, 16th and 22nd caudal vertebrae of 4 and 24-27 days old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in situ and in three different non-functional transplantation sites for 12 weeks. With increasing size, maturity and age the three vertebrae showed progressively decreasing growth, changes in shape and structural abnormalities. The smallest anlages grew faster and matured sooner than normal, so that their length equalled that of controls. Central endochondral necrosis in older bones was associated with decreased longitudinal growth but in some younger ones, despite a perforation of the cartilage and herniation of the nucleus pulposus into the marrow cavity of the shaft, growth proceeded at near normal rates. The free ends of older, larger transplants grew faster than the abutting ends joined by joint connective tissue, indicating that central necrosis of cartilage resulted from impaired nutrient diffusion. The results suggest that the cartilage model may possess an inherent capacity to produce a certain limited amount of bone tissue which may be distributed either in the form of long and thin or short and inwaisted bones, depending on the balance of forces between interstitial cartilage expansion and the restraining ensheathing periosteal-perichondrial tissues. This basic form may be modified further by functional forces. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 9 PMID:6339456

  3. Using hierarchical linear growth models to evaluate protective mechanisms that mediate science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Secker, Clare Elaine

    The study of students at risk is a major topic of science education policy and discussion. Much research has focused on describing conditions and problems associated with the statistical risk of low science achievement among individuals who are members of groups characterized by problems such as poverty and social disadvantage. But outcomes attributed to these factors do not explain the nature and extent of mechanisms that account for differences in performance among individuals at risk. There is ample theoretical and empirical evidence that demographic differences should be conceptualized as social contexts, or collections of variables, that alter the psychological significance and social demands of life events, and affect subsequent relationships between risk and resilience. The hierarchical linear growth models used in this dissertation provide greater specification of the role of social context and the protective effects of attitude, expectations, parenting practices, peer influences, and learning opportunities on science achievement. While the individual influences of these protective factors on science achievement were small, their cumulative effect was substantial. Meta-analysis conducted on the effects associated with psychological and environmental processes that mediate risk mechanisms in sixteen social contexts revealed twenty-two significant differences between groups of students. Positive attitudes, high expectations, and more intense science course-taking had positive effects on achievement of all students, although these factors were not equally protective in all social contexts. In general, effects associated with authoritative parenting and peer influences were negative, regardless of social context. An evaluation comparing the performance and stability of hierarchical linear growth models with traditional repeated measures models is included as well.

  4. Self-Growth of Centimeter-Scale Single Crystals by Normal Sintering Process in Modified Potassium Sodium Niobate Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Lee, Ho-Yong; Han, Guifang; Zhang, Shujun; Choi, Si-Young; Choi, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Park, Dong-Soo; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Ryu, Jungho

    2015-12-03

    In this manuscript, an interesting phenomenon is reported. That is the self-growth of single crystals in Pb-free piezoelectric ceramics. These crystals are several centimeters in size. They are grown without any seed addition through a normal sintering process in modified potassium sodium niobate ceramics. It has been achieved by the composition designed to compensate the Na(+) loss which occurs during the liquid phase sintering. The composition of the crystals is (K0.4925Na(0.4925-x)Ba(0.015+x/2))Nb(0.995+x)O3 [x is determined by the Na(+) loss, due to Na2O volatilization]. These crystals have high piezoelectric voltage coefficients (g33, 131 10(-3)Vm/N), indicating that they are good candidates for piezoelectric sensors and energy harvesting devices. We hope that this report can offer the opportunity for many researchers to have an interest in these crystals.

  5. Self-Growth of Centimeter-Scale Single Crystals by Normal Sintering Process in Modified Potassium Sodium Niobate Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Lee, Ho-Yong; Han, Guifang; Zhang, Shujun; Choi, Si-Young; Choi, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Park, Dong-Soo; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Ryu, Jungho

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, an interesting phenomenon is reported. That is the self-growth of single crystals in Pb-free piezoelectric ceramics. These crystals are several centimeters in size. They are grown without any seed addition through a normal sintering process in modified potassium sodium niobate ceramics. It has been achieved by the composition designed to compensate the Na+ loss which occurs during the liquid phase sintering. The composition of the crystals is (K0.4925Na0.4925−xBa0.015+x/2)Nb0.995+xO3 [x is determined by the Na+ loss, due to Na2O volatilization]. These crystals have high piezoelectric voltage coefficients (g33, 131 10−3Vm/N), indicating that they are good candidates for piezoelectric sensors and energy harvesting devices. We hope that this report can offer the opportunity for many researchers to have an interest in these crystals. PMID:26631973

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinases Are Not Essential for Aggrecan Turnover during Normal Skeletal Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Little, Christopher B.; Meeker, Clare T.; Hembry, Rosalind M.; Sims, Natalie A.; Lawlor, Kate E.; Golub, Sue B.; Last, Karena; Fosang, Amanda J.

    2005-01-01

    The growth plate is a transitional region of cartilage and highly diversified chondrocytes that controls long bone formation. The composition of growth plate cartilage changes markedly from the epiphysis to the metaphysis, notably with the loss of type II collagen, concomitant with an increase in MMP-13; type X collagen; and the C-propeptide of type II collagen. In contrast, the fate of aggrecan in the growth plate is not clear: there is biosynthesis and loss of aggrecan from hypertrophic cartilage, but the mechanism of loss is unknown. All matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cleave aggrecan between amino acids N341 and F342 in the proteinase-sensitive interglobular domain (IGD), and MMPs in the growth plate are thought to have a role in aggrecanolysis. We have generated mice with aggrecan resistant to proteolysis by MMPs in the IGD and found that the mice develop normally with no skeletal deformities. The mutant mice do not accumulate aggrecan, and there is no significant compensatory proteolysis occurring at alternate sites in the IGD. Our studies reveal that MMP cleavage in this key region is not a predominant mechanism for removing aggrecan from growth plate cartilage. PMID:15798221

  7. Detecting Brain Growth Patterns in Normal Children using Tensor-Based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Caplan, Rochelle; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric studies have shown age-related increases in the volume of total white matter and decreases in the volume of total gray matter of normal children. Recent adaptations of image analysis strategies enable the detection of human brain growth with improved spatial resolution. In this article, we further explore the spatio-temporal complexity of adolescent brain maturation with tensor-based morphometry. By utilizing a novel non-linear elastic intensity-based registration algorithm on the serial structural MRI scans of 13 healthy children, individual Jacobian growth maps are generated and then registered to a common anatomical space. Statistical analyses reveal significant tissue growth in cerebral white matter, contrasted with gray matter loss in parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. In addition, a linear regression with age and gender suggests a slowing down of the growth rate in regions with the greatest white matter growth. We demonstrate that a tensor-based Jacobian map is a sensitive and reliable method to detect regional tissue changes during development. PMID:18064588

  8. Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: the unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage  = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies.

  9. Sildenafil Citrate Increases Fetal Weight in a Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction with a Normal Vascular Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, Mark Robert; Andersson, Irene; Renshall, Lewis James; Cowley, Elizabeth; Baker, Philip; Greenwood, Susan; Sibley, Colin Peter; Wareing, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8%) in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml) via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056). Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. 14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity) per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR. PMID:24204949

  10. Growth of Normal Mouse Vaginal Epithelial Cells in and on Collagen Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Taisen; Uchima, Francis-Dean A.; Ostrander, Patricia L.; Bern, Howard A.

    1983-06-01

    Sustained growth in primary culture of vaginal epithelial cells from ovariectomized adult BALB/cCrg1 mice embedded within or seeded on collagen gel matrix was achieved in a serum-free medium composed of Ham's F-12 medium/Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, 1:1 (vol/vol), supplemented with insulin, bovine serum albumin fraction V, epidermal growth factor, cholera toxin, and transferrin. Three-dimensional growth of vaginal epithelial cells occurred inside the collagen gel matrix. Cell numbers increased 4- to 8-fold in collagen gel and about 4-fold on collagen gel after 9-10 days in culture. The effect of 17β -estradiol (0.00018-180 nM in gel or 0.018-180 nM on gel) and diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.0186-186 nM in gel) on the growth of vaginal epithelial cells was examined. The addition of estrogen did not enhance the growth of vaginal epithelial cells during this time period either in the complete medium or in a suboptimal medium. Cultures on floating collagen gels in the serum-free medium are composed of 1-3 cell layers with superficial cornification. Estrogen does not appear to be a direct mitogen for vaginal epithelial cells, at least in this system.

  11. Relationship of blood rheology to lipoprotein profile during normal pregnancies and those with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, A; Uberos, J; Molina, A; Valenzuela, A; Cano, D; Ruiz, C; Molina Font, J A

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--The effects on fetal growth of hyperlipidaemia in pregnancy are not well understood at present. In this study the different lipid fractions in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) were determined and related to changes in plasma and serum viscosity. METHODS--Two groups of pregnant women were studied. Group 1 consisted of 35 healthy pregnant women aged between 21 and 38 years with no previous pathology and a normal pregnancy to term. Group 1 patients were studied at four periods defined at the start of the study: (1) < or = 17 weeks; (2) 18-24 weeks; (3) 25-32 weeks, (4) > or = 33 weeks. Group 2 consisted of 24 pregnant women aged between 16 and 34 years with ultrasound diagnosed IUGR confirmed after birth. Plasma lipids and plasma and serum viscosity were measured. RESULTS--Plasma triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol increased progressively throughout pregnancy, with significantly higher values after week 25. Apolipoprotein A (ApoA) and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the normal group. The HDL/ApoA ratio was greater in the IUGR group than in the control group, as was the ApoB/ApoA ratio. There were no differences in the other lipids. Plasma and serum viscosity was higher in the IUGR group than in the normal group. CONCLUSIONS--Haemorheological modifications in the IUGR group are partly secondary to changes in high density lipoprotein metabolism and the competitive inhibition of fibrinolysis by ApoB, which is increased in pregnancies with IUGR. Changes in ApoA, and more specifically in the ApoB/ApoA ratio, could be good markers for the early detection of IUGR. PMID:7665704

  12. Barx2 is expressed in satellite cells and is required for normal muscle growth and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Meech, Robyn; Gonzalez, Katie N; Barro, Marietta; Gromova, Anastasia; Zhuang, Lizhe; Hulin, Julie-Ann; Makarenkova, Helen P

    2012-02-01

    Muscle growth and regeneration are regulated through a series of spatiotemporally dependent signaling and transcriptional cascades. Although the transcriptional program controlling myogenesis has been extensively investigated, the full repertoire of transcriptional regulators involved in this process is far from defined. Various homeodomain transcription factors have been shown to play important roles in both muscle development and muscle satellite cell-dependent repair. Here, we show that the homeodomain factor Barx2 is a new marker for embryonic and adult myoblasts and is required for normal postnatal muscle growth and repair. Barx2 is coexpressed with Pax7, which is the canonical marker of satellite cells, and is upregulated in satellite cells after muscle injury. Mice lacking the Barx2 gene show reduced postnatal muscle growth, muscle atrophy, and defective muscle repair. Moreover, loss of Barx2 delays the expression of genes that control proliferation and differentiation in regenerating muscle. Consistent with the in vivo observations, satellite cell-derived myoblasts cultured from Barx2(-/-) mice show decreased proliferation and ability to differentiate relative to those from wild-type or Barx2(+/-) mice. Barx2(-/-) myoblasts show reduced expression of the differentiation-associated factor myogenin as well as cell adhesion and matrix molecules. Finally, we find that mice lacking both Barx2 and dystrophin gene expression have severe early onset myopathy. Together, these data indicate that Barx2 is an important regulator of muscle growth and repair that acts via the control of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.

  13. Landscape response to normal fault growth and linkage in the Southern Apennines, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; Whittaker, Alex

    2016-04-01

    It is now well-established that landscape can record spatial and temporal variations in tectonic rates. However, decoding this information to extract detailed histories of fault growth is often a complex problem that requires careful integration of tectonic and geomorphic data sets. Here, we present new data addressing both normal fault evolution and coupled landscape response for two normal faults in the Southern Apennines: the Vallo di Diano and East Agri faults. By integrating published constraints with new data, we show that these faults have total throws of up to 2100 m, and Holocene throw rates of up to 1 mm/yr at their maximum. We demonstrate that geomorphology is effectively recording tectonics, with relief, channel and catchment slopes varying along fault strike as normal fault activity does. Therefore, valuable information about fault growth and interaction can be extracted from their geomorphic expression. We use the spatial distribution of knickpoints on the footwall channels to infer two episodes of base level change, which can be associated with distinct fault interaction events. From our detailed fault throw profiles, we reconstruct the amount of throw accumulated after each of these events, and the segments involved in each, and we use slip rate enhancement factors derived from fault interaction theory to estimate the magnitude of the tectonic perturbation in each case. From this approach, we are able to reconstruct pre-linkage throw rates, and we estimate that fault linkage events likely took place 0.7 ± 0.2 Ma and 1.9 ± 0.6 Ma in the Vallo di Diano fault, and 1.1 ± 0.1 and 2.3 ± 0.9 Ma in the East Agri fault. Our study suggests that both faults started their activity at 3.6 ± 0.5 Ma. These fault linkage scenarios are consistent with the knickpoint heights, and may relate to soft-linkage interaction with the Southern Apennines normal fault array, the existence of which has been the subject of considerable debate. Our combined geomorphic and

  14. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  15. Finite-time normal mode disturbances and error growth during Southern Hemisphere blocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mozheng; Frederiksen, Jorgen S.

    2005-01-01

    The structural organization of initially random errors evolving in a barotropic tangent linear model, with time-dependent basic states taken from analyses, is examined for cases of block development, maturation and decay in the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere during April, November, and December 1989. The statistics of 100 evolved errors are studied for six-day periods and compared with the growth and structures of fast growing normal modes and finite-time normal modes (FTNMs). The amplification factors of most initially random errors are slightly less than those of the fastest growing FTNM for the same time interval. During their evolution, the standard deviations of the error fields become concentrated in the regions of rapid dynamical development, particularly associated with developing and decaying blocks. We have calculated probability distributions and the mean and standard deviations of pattern correlations between each of the 100 evolved error fields and the five fastest growing FTNMs for the same time interval. The mean of the largest pattern correlation, taken over the five fastest growing FTNMs, increases with increasing time interval to a value close to 0.6 or larger after six days. FTNM 1 generally, but not always, gives the largest mean pattern correlation with error fields. Corresponding pattern correlations with the fast growing normal modes of the instantaneous basic state flow are significant but lower than with FTNMs. Mean pattern correlations with fast growing FTNMs increase further when the time interval is increased beyond six days.

  16. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is Required for Normal Follicle Development and Ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Takashi; Kim, Jaeyeon; Li, Qinglei; Lydon, John P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lyons, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich protein the synthesis and secretion of which are hypothesized to be selectively regulated by activins and other members of the TGF-β superfamily. To investigate the in vivo roles of CTGF in female reproduction, we generated Ctgf ovarian and uterine conditional knockout (cKO) mice. Ctgf cKO mice exhibit severe subfertility and multiple reproductive defects including disrupted follicle development, decreased ovulation rates, increased numbers of corpus luteum, and smaller but functionally normal uterine horns. Steroidogenesis is disrupted in the Ctgf cKO mice, leading to increased levels of serum progesterone. We show that disrupted follicle development is accompanied by a significant increase in granulosa cell apoptosis. Moreover, despite normal cumulus expansion, Ctgf cKO mice exhibit a significant decrease in oocytes ovulated, likely due to impaired ovulatory process. During analyses of mRNA expression, we discovered that Ctgf cKO granulosa cells show gene expression changes similar to our previously reported granulosa cell-specific knockouts of activin and Smad4, the common TGF-β family intracellular signaling protein. We also discovered a significant down-regulation of Adamts1, a progesterone-regulated gene that is critical for the remodeling of extracellular matrix surrounding granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles. These findings demonstrate that CTGF is a downstream mediator in TGF-β and progesterone signaling cascades and is necessary for normal follicle development and ovulation. PMID:21868453

  17. Connective tissue growth factor is required for normal follicle development and ovulation.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Kim, Jaeyeon; Li, Qinglei; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lyons, Karen M; Matzuk, Martin M

    2011-10-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich protein the synthesis and secretion of which are hypothesized to be selectively regulated by activins and other members of the TGF-β superfamily. To investigate the in vivo roles of CTGF in female reproduction, we generated Ctgf ovarian and uterine conditional knockout (cKO) mice. Ctgf cKO mice exhibit severe subfertility and multiple reproductive defects including disrupted follicle development, decreased ovulation rates, increased numbers of corpus luteum, and smaller but functionally normal uterine horns. Steroidogenesis is disrupted in the Ctgf cKO mice, leading to increased levels of serum progesterone. We show that disrupted follicle development is accompanied by a significant increase in granulosa cell apoptosis. Moreover, despite normal cumulus expansion, Ctgf cKO mice exhibit a significant decrease in oocytes ovulated, likely due to impaired ovulatory process. During analyses of mRNA expression, we discovered that Ctgf cKO granulosa cells show gene expression changes similar to our previously reported granulosa cell-specific knockouts of activin and Smad4, the common TGF-β family intracellular signaling protein. We also discovered a significant down-regulation of Adamts1, a progesterone-regulated gene that is critical for the remodeling of extracellular matrix surrounding granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles. These findings demonstrate that CTGF is a downstream mediator in TGF-β and progesterone signaling cascades and is necessary for normal follicle development and ovulation.

  18. Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Larson, Troy M; Kendra, David F; Busman, Mark; Brown, Daren W

    2011-06-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is both an endophyte and a pathogen of maize and is a health threat in many areas of the world because it can contaminate maize with fumonisins, a toxic secondary metabolite. We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F. verticillioides genomic sequence, and phylogenetic evidence shows that they group into seven established CHS gene classes. We targeted two CHSs (CHS5 and CHS7) for deletion analysis and found that both are required for normal hyphal growth and maximal disease of maize seedlings and ears. CHS5 and CHS7 encode a putative class V and class VII fungal chitin synthase, respectively; they are located adjacent to each other and are divergently transcribed. Fluorescent microscopy found that both CHS deficient strains produce balloon-shaped hyphae, while growth assays indicated that they were more sensitive to cell wall stressing compounds (e.g., the antifungal compound Nikkomycin Z) than wild type. Pathogenicity assays on maize seedlings and ears indicated that both strains were significantly reduced in their ability to cause disease. Our results demonstrate that both CHS5 and CHS7 are necessary for proper hyphal growth and pathogenicity of F. verticillioides on maize.

  19. A Longitudinal Analysis of Torque and its Relationship to Achievement and Educational Classification among Normal, Disturbed, and Learning-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Fred L.; Edwards, Ron P.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effect of the presence of torque (clockwise circlings with either hand on a visual-motor task) on academic achievement variables among normal, disturbed, and learning-disabled children (N=948). Results indicated no clear relationship between torque and the various academic variables. (LLL)

  20. Similarities and Differences in Domain-Specific and Global Self-Evaluations of Learning-Disabled, Behaviorally Disordered, and Normally Achieving Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Whitesell, Nancy R.; Junkin, Loretta J.

    1998-01-01

    Documented similarities and differences in the domain-specific and global self-evaluations of 235 normally achieving, 118 learning disabled, and 70 behaviorally disordered adolescents. Factor analysis revealed eight discrete self-concept domains for each group. Discusses similarities and differences and within-group processes. Contains 46…

  1. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Min-Su; Hwang, Geol; Han, Sanghoon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Young Don; Kang, Ki-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Guk Myung; Han, Kyoung Hee

    2016-07-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and < 13 years, kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders.

  2. Alix is required during development for normal growth of the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Marine H.; Chatellard, Christine; Vauchez, Victoria; Hemming, Fiona J.; Deloulme, Jean-Christophe; Vossier, Frédérique; Blot, Béatrice; Fraboulet, Sandrine; Sadoul, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Alix (ALG-2 interacting protein X) drives deformation and fission of endosomal and cell surface membranes and thereby intervenes in diverse biological processes including cell proliferation and apoptosis. Using embryonic fibroblasts of Alix knock-out mice, we recently demonstrated that Alix is required for clathrin-independent endocytosis. Here we show that mice lacking Alix suffer from severe reduction in the volume of the brain which affects equally all regions examined. The cerebral cortex of adult animals shows normal layering but is reduced in both medio-lateral length and thickness. Alix controls brain size by regulating its expansion during two distinct developmental stages. Indeed, embryonic surface expansion of the Alix ko cortex is reduced because of the loss of neural progenitors during a transient phase of apoptosis occurring between E11.5 and E12.5. Subsequent development of the Alix ko cortex occurs normally until birth, when Alix is again required for the post-natal radial expansion of the cortex through its capacity to allow proper neurite outgrowth. The need of Alix for both survival of neural progenitor cells and neurite outgrowth is correlated with its role in clathrin-independent endocytosis in neural progenitors and at growth cones. Thus Alix-dependent, clathrin independent endocytosis is essential for controlling brain size. PMID:28322231

  3. Changes in longitudinal craniofacial growth in subjects with normal occlusions using the Ricketts analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun-ju; Kwon, Hye-jin

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to define the Korean norm values for the Ricketts analysis. Methods In this longitudinal study, lateral cephalograms of 31 subjects with normal occlusion were taken biennially from ages 9-19 years. Cephalometric measurements were performed. Parameters for which the 10-year change did not exceed one standard deviation were defined as unchanged. The means and standard deviations for the measured parameters were determined for each age group. Results No significant changes in growth were observed in the molar relationship, incisor overjet, incisor overbite, mandibular incisor extrusion, interincisor angle, lower incisor tip (B1) to A point-Pogonion (A-PO) plane, upper incisor tip (A1) to A-PO plane, B1 inclination to A-PO, A1 inclination to A-PO, B1 inclination to Frankfurt plane (FH), convexity, lower facial height, facial axis, maxillary depth, maxillary height, palatal plane to FH, cranial deflection, ramus Xi position, or porion location. Continual changes over the 10 years of growth were observed in the maxillary first molar distal position to pterygoid true vertical plane, facial depth, mandibular plane to FH, anterior cranial length, mandibular arc, and corpus length. Conclusions Clinicians can apply the Korean norms at age 9 as determined in this study when using the Ricketts analysis. The patient's age at the beginning of treatment and their sex should be taken into consideration when drawing visual treatment objectives. PMID:24696824

  4. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R. )

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV.

  5. Arabidopsis light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy; Lima, Daniel; Mason, Mary E; Apel, Klaus; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2012-03-01

    During skotomorphogenesis in angiosperms, NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) forms an aggregate of photolabile NADPH-POR-protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) ternary complexes localized to the prolamellar bodies within etioplasts. During photomorphogenesis, POR catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of Pchlide a to chlorophyllide (Chlide) a, which is subsequently converted to chlorophyll (Chl). In Arabidopsis there are three structurally related POR genes, denoted PORA, PORB and PORC. The PORA and PORB proteins accumulate during skotomorphogenesis. During illumination, PORA is only transiently expressed, whereas PORB and PORC persist and are responsible for bulk Chl synthesis throughout plant development. Here we have tested whether PORA is important for skotomorphogenesis by assisting in etioplast development, and normal photomorphogenic development. Using reverse genetic approaches, we have identified the porA-1 null mutant, which contains an insertion of the maize Dissociation transposable element in the PORA gene. Additionally, we have characterized PORA RNAi lines. The porA-1 and PORA RNAi lines display severe photoautotrophic growth defects, which can be partially rescued on sucrose-supplemented growth media. Elimination of PORA during skotomorphogenesis results in reductions in the volume and frequency of prolamellar bodies, and in photoactive Pchlide conversion. The porA-1 mutant characterization thus establishes a quantitative requirement for PORA in etioplast development by demonstrating significant membrane ultrastructural and biochemical defects, in addition to suggesting PORA-specific functions in photomorphogenesis and plant development.

  6. White noise analysis of Phycomyces light growth response system. I. Normal intensity range.

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, E D

    1975-01-01

    The Wiener-Lee-Schetzen method for the identification of a nonlinear system through white gaussian noise stimulation was applied to the transient light growth response of the sporangiophore of Phycomyces. In order to cover a moderate dynamic range of light intensity I, the imput variable was defined to be log I. The experiments were performed in the normal range of light intensity, centered about I0 = 10(-6) W/cm2. The kernels of the Wierner functionals were computed up to second order. Within the range of a few decades the system is reasonably linear with log I. The main nonlinear feature of the second-order kernel corresponds to the property of rectification. Power spectral analysis reveals that the slow dynamics of the system are of at least fifth order. The system can be represented approximately by a linear transfer function, including a first-order high-pass (adaptation) filter with a 4 min time constant and an underdamped fourth-order low-pass filter. Accordingly a linear electronic circuit was constructed to simulate the small scale response characteristics. In terms of the adaptation model of Delbrück and Reichardt (1956, in Cellular Mechanisms in Differentiation and Growth, Princeton University Press), kernels were deduced for the dynamic dependence of the growth velocity (output) on the "subjective intensity", a presumed internal variable. Finally the linear electronic simulator above was generalized to accommodate the large scale nonlinearity of the adaptation model and to serve as a tool for deeper test of the model. PMID:1203444

  7. Human growth hormone (GH1) gene polymorphism map in a normal-statured adult population

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Cristina; Audí, Laura; Carrascosa, Antonio; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Pérez-Arroyo, Annalisa; Ulied, Angels; Andaluz, Pilar; Arjona, Rosa; Albisu, Marian; Clemente, María; Gussinyé, Miquel; Yeste, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Objective GH1 gene presents a complex map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire promoter, coding and noncoding regions. The aim of the study was to establish the complete map of GH1 gene SNPs in our control normal population and to analyse its association with adult height. Design, subjects and measurements A systematic GH1 gene analysis was designed in a control population of 307 adults of both sexes with height normally distributed within normal range for the same population: −2 standard deviation scores (SDS) to +2 SDS. An analysis was performed on individual and combined genotype associations with adult height. Results Twenty-five SNPs presented a frequency over 1%: 11 in the promoter (P1 to P11), three in the 5′UTR region (P12 to P14), one in exon 1 (P15), three in intron 1 (P16 to P18), two in intron 2 (P19 and P20), two in exon 4 (P21 and P22) and three in intron 4 (P23 to P25). Twenty-nine additional changes with frequencies under 1% were found in 29 subjects. P8, P19, P20 and P25 had not been previously described. P6, P12, P17 and P25 accounted for 6·2% of the variation in adult height (P = 0·0007) in this population with genotypes A/G at P6, G/G at P6 and A/G at P12 decreasing height SDS (−0·063 ± 0·031, −0·693 ± 0·350 and −0·489 ± 0·265, Mean ± SE) and genotypes A/T at P17 and T/G at P25 increasing height SDS (+1·094 ± 0·456 and +1·184 ± 0·432). Conclusions This study established the GH1 gene sequence variation map in a normal adult height control population confirming the high density of SNPs in a relatively small gene. Our study shows that the more frequent SNPs did not significantly contribute to height determination, while only one promoter and two intronic SNPs contributed significantly to it. Studies in larger populations will have to confirm the associations and in vitro functional studies will elucidate the mechanisms involved. Systematic GH1 gene analysis in patients with growth delay and suspected

  8. Growth Trajectories of Mathematics Achievement: Longitudinal Tracking of Student Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Zhu, Jinxin; Or, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of methods to investigate growth have been reported in the literature, including hierarchical linear modelling (HLM), latent growth modelling (LGM), and multidimensional scaling applied to longitudinal profile analysis (LPAMS). Aims: This study aimed at modelling the mathematics growth of students over a span of 6 years from…

  9. Radioimmunological determination of insulinlike growth factors I and II in normal subjects and in patients with growth disorders and extrapancreatic tumor hypoglycemia.

    PubMed Central

    Zapf, J; Walter, H; Froesch, E R

    1981-01-01

    Serum levels of immunoreactive insulinlike growth factors (IGF) I and II were determined by a modified IGF I and a new IGF II radioimmunoassay in normal children and adults, and in patients with acromegaly, isolated growth hormone deficiency, and extrapancreatic tumor hypoglycemia. Serum samples were gel filtered by a simple routine procedure at acidic pH to dissociate and separate IGF from the IGF carrier protein. Mean immunoreactive IGF I levels (+/- SD; corrected for crossreactivity of IGF II) were 193 +/- 58 ng/ml in normal adult subjects, 712 +/- 245 ng/ml in acromegalic patients and 24 +/- 14 ng/ml in patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency. The lack of growth hormone alone, irrespective of an otherwise normal hormonal status, appears to be responsible for the drastic decrease of IGF I levels. Oversecretion of growth hormone does not increase the levels of immunoreactive IGF II: mean levels (+/- SD; corrected for crossreactivity of IGF I) in normal and acromegalic subjects are virtually identical (647 +/- 126 and 641 +/- 189 ng/ml, respectively). Apparently, normal growth hormone levels stimulate IGF II production already maximally. However in growth hormone deficiency immunoreactive IGF II is significantly decreased (252 +/- 99 ng/ml). Thus, IGF II, like IGF I, is growth hormone dependent. But in contrast to IGF I, the growth hormone dependence of IGF II seems to become apparent only at subnormal growth hormone levels. In normal children IGF I is age dependent: it is low in newborn cord sera (51 +/- 20 ng/ml) and gradually rises into the adult range with increasing age. At the onset of and during puberty mean IGF I levels lie above prepubertal values. In contrast, IGF II levels in normal children are independent of age and pubertal stage beyond the first year of life, whereas newborns have significantly lower IGF II values. Hypoglycemia resulting from extrapancreatic tumors is not associated with increased immunoreactive IGF I or II levels. IGF I is

  10. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and < 13 years, kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders. PMID:27366007

  11. Vascular normalization induced by sinomenine hydrochloride results in suppressed mammary tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huimin; Ren, Yu; Tang, Xiaojiang; Wang, Ke; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Li; Li, Xiao; Liu, Peijun; Zhao, Changqi; He, Jianjun

    2015-03-09

    Solid tumor vasculature is characterized by structural and functional abnormality and results in a hostile tumor microenvironment that mediates several deleterious aspects of tumor behavior. Sinomenine is an alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant, Sinomenium acutum, which has been utilized to treat rheumatism in China for over 2000 years. Though sinomenine has been demonstrated to mediate a wide range of pharmacological actions, few studies have focused on its effect on tumor vasculature. We showed here that intraperitoneally administration of 100 mg/kg sinomenine hydrochloride (SH, the hydrochloride chemical form of sinomenine) in two orthotopic mouse breast cancer models for 14 days, delayed mammary tumor growth and decreased metastasis by inducing vascular maturity and enhancing tumor perfusion, while improving chemotherapy and tumor immunity. The effects of SH on tumor vessels were caused in part by its capability to restore the balance between pro-angiogenic factor (bFGF) and anti-angiogenic factor (PF4). However 200 mg/kg SH didn't exhibit the similar inhibitory effect on tumor progression due to the immunosuppressive microenvironment caused by excessive vessel pruning, G-CSF upregulation, and GM-CSF downregulation. Altogether, our findings suggest that SH induced vasculature normalization contributes to its anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effect on breast cancer at certain dosage.

  12. Vascular Normalization Induced by Sinomenine Hydrochloride Results in Suppressed Mammary Tumor Growth and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huimin; Ren, Yu; Tang, Xiaojiang; Wang, Ke; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Li; Li, Xiao; Liu, Peijun; Zhao, Changqi; He, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumor vasculature is characterized by structural and functional abnormality and results in a hostile tumor microenvironment that mediates several deleterious aspects of tumor behavior. Sinomenine is an alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant, Sinomenium acutum, which has been utilized to treat rheumatism in China for over 2000 years. Though sinomenine has been demonstrated to mediate a wide range of pharmacological actions, few studies have focused on its effect on tumor vasculature. We showed here that intraperitoneally administration of 100 mg/kg sinomenine hydrochloride (SH, the hydrochloride chemical form of sinomenine) in two orthotopic mouse breast cancer models for 14 days, delayed mammary tumor growth and decreased metastasis by inducing vascular maturity and enhancing tumor perfusion, while improving chemotherapy and tumor immunity. The effects of SH on tumor vessels were caused in part by its capability to restore the balance between pro-angiogenic factor (bFGF) and anti-angiogenic factor (PF4). However 200 mg/kg SH didn't exhibit the similar inhibitory effect on tumor progression due to the immunosuppressive microenvironment caused by excessive vessel pruning, G-CSF upregulation, and GM-CSF downregulation. Altogether, our findings suggest that SH induced vasculature normalization contributes to its anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effect on breast cancer at certain dosage. PMID:25749075

  13. Auditory normalization of French vowels synthesized by an articulatory model simulating growth from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Boë, Louis-Jean; Kandel, Sonia; Vallée, Nathalie

    2002-04-01

    The present article aims at exploring the invariant parameters involved in the perceptual normalization of French vowels. A set of 490 stimuli, including the ten French vowels /i y u e ø o E oe (inverted c) a/ produced by an articulatory model, simulating seven growth stages and seven fundamental frequency values, has been submitted as a perceptual identification test to 43 subjects. The results confirm the important effect of the tonality distance between F1 and f0 in perceived height. It does not seem, however, that height perception involves a binary organization determined by the 3-3.5-Bark critical distance. Regarding place of articulation, the tonotopic distance between F1 and F2 appears to be the best predictor of the perceived front-back dimension. Nevertheless, the role of the difference between F2 and F3 remains important. Roundedness is also examined and correlated to the effective second formant, involving spectral integration of higher formants within the 3.5-Bark critical distance. The results shed light on the issue of perceptual invariance, and can be interpreted as perceptual constraints imposed on speech production.

  14. Distinct 5′ UTRs regulate XIAP expression under normal growth conditions and during cellular stress

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Alura; Jordan, Lindsay E.; Holcik, Martin

    2010-01-01

    X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis, XIAP, is cellular caspase inhibitor and a key regulator of apoptosis. We and others have previously shown that XIAP expression is regulated primarily at the level of protein synthesis; the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of XIAP mRNA contains an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) that supports cap-independent expression of XIAP protein during conditions of pathophysiological stress, such as serum deprivation or gamma irradiation. Here, we show that XIAP is encoded by two distinct mRNAs that differ in their 5′ UTRs. We further show that the dominant, shorter, 5′ UTR promotes a basal level of XIAP expression under normal growth conditions. In contrast, the less abundant longer 5′ UTR contains an IRES and supports cap-independent translation during stress. Our data suggest that the combination of alternate regulatory regions and distinct translational initiation modes is critical in maintaining XIAP levels in response to cellular stress and may represent a general mechanism of cellular adaptation. PMID:20385593

  15. Auditory normalization of French vowels synthesized by an articulatory model simulating growth from birth to adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménard, Lucie; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Boë, Louis-Jean; Kandel, Sonia; Vallée, Nathalie

    2002-04-01

    The present article aims at exploring the invariant parameters involved in the perceptual normalization of French vowels. A set of 490 stimuli, including the ten French vowels eye, why, you, ee, ø oh, eh, oelig, openo, aye produced by an articulatory model, simulating seven growth stages and seven fundamental frequency values, has been submitted as a perceptual identification test to 43 subjects. The results confirm the important effect of the tonality distance between F1 and f0 in perceived height. It does not seem, however, that height perception involves a binary organization determined by the 3-3.5-Bark critical distance. Regarding place of articulation, the tonotopic distance between F1 and F2 appears to be the best predictor of the perceived front-back dimension. Nevertheless, the role of the difference between F2 and F3 remains important. Roundedness is also examined and correlated to the effective second formant, involving spectral integration of higher formants within the 3.5-Bark critical distance. The results shed light on the issue of perceptual invariance, and can be interpreted as perceptual constraints imposed on speech production.

  16. A dominant negative mutation suppresses the function of normal epidermal growth factor receptors by heterodimerization.

    PubMed Central

    Kashles, O; Yarden, Y; Fischer, R; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies provide evidence that defective receptors can function as a dominant negative mutation suppressing the action of wild-type receptors. This causes various diminished responses in cell culture and developmental disorders in murine embryogenesis. Here, we describe a model system and a potential mechanism underlying the dominant suppressing response caused by defective epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. We used cultured 3T3 cells coexpressing human wild-type receptors and an inactive deletion mutant lacking most of the cytoplasmic domain. When expressed alone, EGF was able to stimulate the dimerization of either wild-type or mutant receptors in living cells as revealed by chemical covalent cross-linking experiments. In response to EGF, heterodimers and homodimers of wild-type and mutant receptors were observed in cells coexpressing both receptor species. However, only homodimers of wild-type EGF receptors underwent EGF-induced tyrosine autophosphorylation in living cells. These results indicate that the integrity of both receptor moieties within receptor dimers is essential for kinase activation and autophosphorylation. Moreover, the presence of mutant receptors in cells expressing wild-type receptors diminished the number of high-affinity binding sites for EGF, reduced the rate of receptor endocytosis and degradation, and diminished biological signalling via EGF receptors. We propose that heterodimerization with defective EGF receptors functions as a dominant negative mutation suppressing the activation and response of normal receptors by formation of unproductive heterodimers. Images PMID:1705006

  17. EHD1 mediates vesicle trafficking required for normal muscle growth and transverse tubule development.

    PubMed

    Posey, Avery D; Swanson, Kaitlin E; Alvarez, Manuel G; Krishnan, Swathi; Earley, Judy U; Band, Hamid; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M; Demonbreun, Alexis R

    2014-03-15

    EHD proteins have been implicated in intracellular trafficking, especially endocytic recycling, where they mediate receptor and lipid recycling back to the plasma membrane. Additionally, EHDs help regulate cytoskeletal reorganization and induce tubule formation. It was previously shown that EHD proteins bind directly to the C2 domains in myoferlin, a protein that regulates myoblast fusion. Loss of myoferlin impairs normal myoblast fusion leading to smaller muscles in vivo but the intracellular pathways perturbed by loss of myoferlin function are not well known. We now characterized muscle development in EHD1-null mice. EHD1-null myoblasts display defective receptor recycling and mislocalization of key muscle proteins, including caveolin-3 and Fer1L5, a related ferlin protein homologous to myoferlin. Additionally, EHD1-null myoblast fusion is reduced. We found that loss of EHD1 leads to smaller muscles and myofibers in vivo. In wildtype skeletal muscle EHD1 localizes to the transverse tubule (T-tubule), and loss of EHD1 results in overgrowth of T-tubules with excess vesicle accumulation in skeletal muscle. We provide evidence that tubule formation in myoblasts relies on a functional EHD1 ATPase domain. Moreover, we extended our studies to show EHD1 regulates BIN1 induced tubule formation. These data, taken together and with the known interaction between EHD and ferlin proteins, suggests that the EHD proteins coordinate growth and development likely through mediating vesicle recycling and the ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton.

  18. EHD1 mediates vesicle trafficking required for normal muscle growth and tubule development

    PubMed Central

    Posey, Avery D.; Swanson, Kaitlin E.; Alvarez, Manuel G.; Krishnan, Swathi; Earley, Judy E.; Band, Hamid; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M.; Demonbreun, Alexis R.

    2014-01-01

    EHD proteins have been implicated in intracellular trafficking, especially endocytic recycling, where they mediate receptor and lipid recycling back to the plasma membrane. Additionally, EHDs help regulate cytoskeletal reorganization and induce tubule formation. It was previously shown that EHD proteins bind directly to the C2 domains in myoferlin, a protein that regulates myoblast fusion. Loss of myoferlin impairs normal myoblast fusion leading to smaller muscles in vivo but the intracellular pathways perturbed by loss of myoferlin function are not well known. We now characterized muscle development in EHD1-null mice. EHD1-null myoblasts display defective receptor recycling and mislocalization of key muscle proteins, including caveolin-3 and Fer1L5, a related ferlin protein homologous to myoferlin. Additionally, EHD1-null myoblast fusion is reduced. We found that loss of EHD1 leads to smaller muscles and myofibers in vivo. In wildtype skeletal muscle EHD1 localizes to the transverse tubule (T-tubule), and loss of EHD1 results in overgrowth of T-tubules with excess vesicle accumulation in skeletal muscle. We provide evidence that tubule formation in myoblasts relies on a functional EHD1 ATPase domain. Moreover, we extended our studies to show EHD1 regulates BIN1 induced tubule formation. These data, taken together and with the known interaction between EHD and ferlin proteins, suggests that the EHD proteins coordinate growth and development likely through mediating vesicle recycling and the ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PMID:24440153

  19. Balanced levels of nerve growth factor are required for normal pregnancy progression.

    PubMed

    Frank, Pierre; Barrientos, Gabriela; Tirado-González, Irene; Cohen, Marie; Moschansky, Petra; Peters, Eva M; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Tometten, Mareike; Blois, Sandra M

    2014-08-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF), the first identified member of the family of neurotrophins, is thought to play a critical role in the initiation of the decidual response in stress-challenged pregnant mice. However, the contribution of this pathway to physiological events during the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy remains largely elusive. Using NGF depletion and supplementation strategies alternatively, in this study, we demonstrated that a successful pregnancy is sensitive to disturbances in NGF levels in mice. Treatment with NGF further boosted fetal loss rates in the high-abortion rate CBA/J x DBA/2J mouse model by amplifying a local inflammatory response through recruitment of NGF-expressing immune cells, increased decidual innervation with substance P(+) nerve fibres and a Th1 cytokine shift. Similarly, treatment with a NGF-neutralising antibody in BALB/c-mated CBA/J mice, a normal-pregnancy model, also induced abortions associated with increased infiltration of tropomyosin kinase receptor A-expressing NK cells to the decidua. Importantly, in neither of the models, pregnancy loss was associated with defective ovarian function, angiogenesis or placental development. We further demonstrated that spontaneous abortion in humans is associated with up-regulated synthesis and an aberrant distribution of NGF in placental tissue. Thus, a local threshold of NGF expression seems to be necessary to ensure maternal tolerance in healthy pregnancies, but when surpassed may result in fetal rejection due to exacerbated inflammation.

  20. Measuring Opportunity to Learn and Achievement Growth: Key Research Issues with Implications for the Effective Education of All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The related constructs of opportunity to learn (OTL) and achievement growth are fundamental aspects of the current large-scale assessment and accountability system in operation in the United States. For purposes of this article, OTL is defined as the degree to which a teacher dedicates instructional time and content coverage to the intended…

  1. Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…

  2. Distorting Value Added: The Use of Longitudinal, Vertically Scaled Student Achievement Data for Growth-Based, Value-Added Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martineau, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal, student performance-based, value-added accountability models have become popular of late and continue to enjoy increasing popularity. Such models require student data to be vertically scaled across wide grade and developmental ranges so that the value added to student growth/achievement by teachers, schools, and districts may be…

  3. The Relationship of Selected Measures of Proprioception to Physical Growth, Motor Performance, and Academic Achievement in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubenstricker, John L.; Milne, D. Conrad

    This study investigates the relationship of selected measures of proprioception to measures of physical growth, motor performance, and academic achievement in young children. Measures were obtained from 321 boys and girls attending kindergarten and first and second grade. Sample correlation matrices were computed on all variables at each grade…

  4. Growth Mixture Modeling: Application to Reading Achievement Data from a Large-Scale Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilir, Mustafa Kuzey; Binici, Salih; Kamata, Akihito

    2008-01-01

    The popularity of growth modeling has increased in psychological and cognitive development research as a means to investigate patterns of changes and differences between observation units over time. Random coefficient modeling, such as multilevel modeling and latent growth curve modeling as a special application of structural equation modeling are…

  5. The Impact of SMART Board Technology on Growth in Mathematics Achievement of Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riska, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether SMART Board technology increased growth in mathematics performance of fourth grade gifted students. Gifted students in North Carolina were studied to determine if the use of SMART Board technology during mathematics instruction impacted their growth on standardized state tests. The sample consisted of 175 students from…

  6. The growth of facteted spurs at normal fault escarpments : Insights from analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strak, Vincent; Dominguez, Stéphane; Petit, Carole; Meyer, Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    In extensional tectonic contexts, interactions between crustal deformation, erosion and sedimentation often result in faceted spurs formation along active normal fault scarps. Those geomorphic markers are potentially of great interest to study active fault kinematics and the evolution of landscape morphology. Faceted spurs are generally observed in regions where rainfall rate is large enough to allow for the development of a mature drainage network (Basin and Range, Baikal Rift, Aegean region). Indeed, it seems that, in regions characterized by more arid climatic conditions, faceted spurs are very rare (e.g., several places of the East African Rift). To better constrain how facets arise and evolve depending on active deformation through time, we developed an approach based on experimental modeling. We constructed a mechanical device reproducing the growth of a single normal fault scarp. Erosion of the model was performed by using a rainfall system composed of 18 sprinklers. The experimental set-up includes a DEM acquisition system based on laser interferometry and allowed computing model topography and the erosion-sedimentation budget at several stages. A first set of experiments, designed with one rigid tray moving down along the fault plane, succeeded in reproducing the main morphologic features encountered in the field (faceted spurs, drainage basin, drainage network, alluvial fans). Facets grew and their number decreased with time during the experiment due to regressive erosion of the footwall and river valley capture processes. Nonetheless, the important falling of the base-level due to rigid block motion precluded a meaningful quantitative comparison with natural examples. Indeed, after a large fault offset, facets were sorely conserved because basin subsidence is too important. We performed, then, a second set of experiments including a flexure of the hanging-wall, which reduced the base level fall. This set of experiments showed more realistic facets

  7. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school.

  8. Transforming growth factor-β in normal nociceptive processing and pathological pain models.

    PubMed

    Lantero, Aquilino; Tramullas, Mónica; Díaz, Alvaro; Hurlé, María A

    2012-02-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily is a multifunctional, contextually acting family of cytokines that participate in the regulation of development, disease and tissue repair in the nervous system. The TGF-β family is composed of several members, including TGF-βs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and activins. In this review, we discuss recent findings that suggest TGF-β function as important pleiotropic modulators of nociceptive processing both physiologically and under pathological painful conditions. The strategy of increasing TGF-β signaling by deleting "BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor" (BAMBI), a TGF-β pseudoreceptor, has demonstrated the inhibitory role of TGF-β signaling pathways in normal nociception and in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. In particular, strong evidence suggests that TGF-β1 is a relevant mediator of nociception and has protective effects against the development of chronic neuropathic pain by inhibiting the neuroimmune responses of neurons and glia and promoting the expression of endogenous opioids within the spinal cord. In the peripheral nervous system, activins and BMPs function as target-derived differentiation factors that determine and maintain the phenotypic identity and circuit assembly of peptidergic nociceptors. In this context, activin is involved in the complex events of neuroinflammation that modulate the expression of pain during wound healing. These findings have provided new insights into the physiopathology of nociception. Moreover, specific members of the TGF-β family and their signaling effectors and modulator molecules may be promising molecular targets for novel therapeutic agents for pain management.

  9. Effect of sleep deprivation on the growth hormone response to the alpha-3 adrenergic receptor agonist, clonidine, in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Lal, S; Thavundayil, J X; Krishnan, B; Nair, N P; Schwartz, G; Kiely, M E; Guyda, H

    1997-01-01

    One night's sleep deprivation (SD) increased the growth hormone (GH) response to clonidine (20 ug/kg i.v.) in 11 normal men ( p < 0.005). This finding may indicate that SD enhances alpha-2 adrenergic receptor function or that the GH response to GH releasing factor in increased by SD.

  10. Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth and development in a patient with congenital chloride diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeglund, P.; de la Chapelle, A.; Kere, J.

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in an increasing number of patients, occasionally ascertained because of concomitant autosomal recessive disorders. In some cases, additional signs such as growth alteration, mental retardation or minor anomalies are present, suggesting an imprinting effect. For maternal chromosome 7, UPD has been described in three patients with recessive disorders. Severe growth retardation diagnosed in all these patients has been explained by the effect of imprinting of growth related genes on maternal chromosome 7. No cases of paternally derived disomy from chromosome 7 were previously known. Here we report paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth in a patient with a recessive disorder, congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; MIM 214700). Ten informative microsatellite markers on chromosome 7 demonstrated that the proband did not have any maternal contribution to her genotype for that chromosome. Maternal and paternal alleles could not be distinguished for another 10 markers tested for chromosome 7, but the proband was always homozygous. As most uniparental paternal disomies appear to have a postzygotic origin, the primary event might have been a maternal meiotic nondisjunction. A thorough clinical evaluation with a view to additional signs of imprinted genes localized in chromosome 7 was performed. The physical status and laboratory tests were normal except for a mild high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. As the patient has normal stature, it is likely that the paternal chromosome 7 lacks the suggested maternal imprinting effect on growth. The origin of the hearing loss remains speculative.

  11. Are short normal children at a disadvantage? The Wessex growth study.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, A. B.; Mulligan, J.; Stratford, R. J.; Betts, P. R.; Voss, L. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether short stature through childhood represents a disadvantage at around 12 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal non-intervention study of the physical and psychological development of children recruited from the community in 1986-7 after entry into primary school at age 5-6 years; this is the second psychometric assessment made in 1994-5 after entry into secondary school at age 11-13 years. SETTING: Southampton and Winchester health districts. SUBJECTS: 106 short normal children (< 3rd centile for height when recruited) and 119 controls of average stature (10th-90th centile). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychometric measures of cognitive development, self concept development, behaviour, and locus of control. RESULTS: The short children did not differ significantly from the control children on measures of self esteem (19.4 v 20.2), self perception (104.2 v 102.4), parents' perception (46.9 v 47.0), or behaviour (6.8 v 5.3). The short children achieved significantly lower scores on measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) (102.6 v 108.6; P < 0.005), reading attainment (44.3 v 47.9; P < 0.002), and basic number skills (40.2 v 43.5; P < 0.003) and displayed less internalisation of control (16.6 v 14.3; P < 0.001) and less satisfaction with their height (P < 0.0001). More short than control children, however, came from working class homes (P < 0.05). Social class was a better predictor than height of all measures except that of body satisfaction. Attainment scores were predicted by class and IQ together rather than by height. Height accounted for some of the variance in IQ and locus of control scores. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide only limited support for the hypothesis that short children are disadvantaged, at least up until 11-13 years old. Social class seems to have more influence than height on children's psychological development. PMID:9006466

  12. Entrepreneurship Education in Delta State Tertiary Institution as a Means of Achieving National Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osakwe, Regina N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined entrepreneurship education in Delta Sate tertiary institutions as a means of national growth and development. Two research questions were asked to guide the study. The population comprised all the 1,898 academic staff in eight tertiary institutions in the state. A sample of 800 lecturers was drawn through the multi stage and…

  13. Birth Weight, Math and Reading Achievement Growth: A Multilevel between-Sibling, between-Families Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2009-01-01

    We used multilevel covariance structure analysis to study the relationship between birth weight, family context and youth math and reading comprehension growth from approximately ages 5 through 14 within and between families. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Sample, we examined the relationship between birth weight…

  14. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  15. A General Multivariate Latent Growth Model with Applications to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianconcini, Silvia; Cagnone, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of the formative process in the University system has been assuming an ever increasing importance in the European countries. Within this context, the analysis of student performance and capabilities plays a fundamental role. In this work, the authors propose a multivariate latent growth model for studying the performances of a…

  16. DASEES: A Tripartite Decision Analysis Framework to Achieve Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society Growth and Management Goals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of Societies management and growth decisions are often made without a balanced consideration of pertinent factors from environmental, economic and societal perspectives. All three of these areas are key players in many of the decisions facing societies as they strive to ope...

  17. Time-of-day and attentional-order influences on dichotic processing of digits in learning disabled and normal achieving children.

    PubMed

    Morton, L L; Kershner, J R

    1993-01-01

    A heterogeneous group of 26 learning disabled (LD) and 30 normal achieving (NA) children, responded to a dichotic listening task using digits in morning and afternoon settings. Attentional order (i.e., right ear first versus left ear first) interacted with (1) Time-of-Day and (2) Group and Ear Attended. The first interaction revealed, as predicted, higher morning performance for subjects directed to attend right first. Subjects directed left first showed higher afternoon performance. These results are consistent with enhanced left hemisphere involvement after left hemisphere priming in the morning, and after right hemisphere priming in the afternoon. The second interaction indicated the LD had more difficulty than controls switching attention to the right ear when instructed to attend left first. The LD may activate the right hemisphere (via left hemispace attending) and have difficulty with subsequent right hemisphere inhibition, or left hemisphere activation, when shifting to right ear attending. Nonparametric tests revealed a greater incidence of lateralized responders in the morning for normal achievers attending left first. Findings are seen to augment previous research.

  18. Measurement Invariance of a Summative Achievement Assessment over Time: Is Status Really Ready for Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viger, Steven Guy

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigates the phenomenon of measurement invariance by examining the construct stability of a summative mathematics achievement instrument over time gleaned from an existing data set. In doing so, not only is the general question of measurement invariance of the particular instrument addressed, but also in the context of growth…

  19. Predictors of Early Growth in Academic Achievement: The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P.; Acock, Alan C.; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by…

  20. Perceived Social Support and Academic Achievement: Cross-Lagged Panel and Bivariate Growth Curve Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinnon, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    As students transition to post-secondary education, they experience considerable stress and declines in academic performance. Perceived social support is thought to improve academic achievement by reducing stress. Longitudinal designs with three or more waves are needed in this area because they permit stronger causal inferences and help…

  1. Measuring the Impact of Substance Abuse on Student Academic Achievement and Academic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattermann, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    This research presents data linking the impact of substance disorder to academic achievement, using data gathered at a recovery high school. Recovery schools provide recovery supports and a high-quality education to students with substance use disorders. The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs -- Short Screener and the Northwest Evaluation…

  2. Hydrodynamic Limb Vein Injection of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Vector Carrying Canine Myostatin Propeptide Gene into Normal Dogs Enhances Muscle Growth

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Chunping; Li, Juan; Zheng, Hui; Bogan, Janet; Li, Jianbin; Yuan, Zhenhua; Zhang, Cheng; Bogan, Dan; Kornegay, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Inhibition or blockade of myostatin, a negative growth factor of skeletal muscle, enhances muscle growth and therefore is considered a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases such as the muscular dystrophies. Previously, we showed that myostatin blockade in both normal and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice by systemic delivery of the myostatin propeptide (MPRO) gene by an adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) vector could enhance muscle growth and ameliorate dystrophic lesions. Here, we further investigate whether the muscle growth effect of myostatin blockade can be achieved in dogs by gene transfer. First, we cloned the canine MPRO gene, packaged it in the AAV8 vector, and showed robust muscle-enhancing effects after systemic delivery into neonatal mice. This vector was then further tested in two 3-month-old normal dogs (weighing 9.7 and 6.3 kg). The vector was delivered to one limb by hydrodynamic vein injection, and the contralateral limb served as a control. The delivery procedure was safe, without discernible adverse effects. AAV vector DNA and MPRO gene expression were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining of muscle biopsies. Overexpression of MPRO resulted in enhanced muscle growth without a cytotoxic T lymphocytic immune response, as evidenced by larger myofibers in multiple muscles, increased muscle volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging, and the lack of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration in the vector-injected limbs. Our preliminary study thus supports further investigation of this therapeutic strategy in the dystrophin-deficient golden retriever muscular dystrophy dog model. PMID:18828709

  3. 3D seismic analysis of gravity-driven and basement influenced normal fault growth in the deepwater Otway Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, A. G.; King, R. C.; Holford, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    We use three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data to analyse the structural style and growth of a normal fault array located at the present-day shelf-edge break and into the deepwater province of the Otway Basin, southern Australia. The Otway Basin is a Late Jurassic to Cenozoic, rift-to-passive margin basin. The seismic reflection data images a NW-SE (128-308) striking, normal fault array, located within Upper Cretaceous clastic sediments and which consists of ten fault segments. The fault array contains two hard-linked fault assemblages, separated by only 2 km in the dip direction. The gravity-driven, down-dip fault assemblage is entirely contained within the 3D seismic survey, is located over a basement plateau and displays growth commencing and terminating during the Campanian-Maastrichtian, with up to 1.45 km of accumulated throw (vertical displacement). The up-dip normal fault assemblage penetrates deeper than the base of the seismic survey, but is interpreted to be partially linked along strike at depth to major basement-involved normal faults that can be observed on regional 2D seismic lines. This fault assemblage displays growth initiating in the Turonian-Santonian and has accumulated up to 1.74 km of throw. Our detailed analysis of the 3D seismic data constraints post-Cenomanian fault growth of both fault assemblages into four evolutionary stages: [1] Turonian-Santonian basement reactivation during crustal extension between Australia and Antarctica. This either caused the upward propagation of basement-involved normal faults or the nucleation of a vertically isolated normal fault array in shallow cover sediments directly above the reactivated basement-involved faults; [2] continued Campanian-Maastrichtian crustal extension and sediment loading eventually created gravitational instability on the basement plateau, nucleating a second, vertically isolated normal fault array in the cover sediments; [3] eventual hard-linkage of fault segments in both fault

  4. Role of nerve growth factor and its TRKA receptor in normal ovarian and epithelial ovarian cancer angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vera, Carolina; Tapia, Verónica; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2014-08-10

    In normal ovarian function a controlled angiogenesis is essential. Several growth factors are involved in this process, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). The angiogenesis process in the normal ovary is a tightly controlled process that occurs in each ovarian cycle. Also, angiogenesis is critical for ovarian cancer development and it is responsible for tumor spread, metastasis and its peritoneal dissemination. Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women and it is distinguished as the most lethal gynecologic cancer. In recent years angiogenesis has been given considerable attention in order to identify targets for developing effective anti-tumor therapies. Several molecules have been reported to promote angiogenesis, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors, the angiopoietin/Tie ligand/receptor system and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Primarily, VEGF has been identified to play key roles in driving angiogenesis. The above-mentioned molecules are candidate drug targets. Used in combination with other treatments, anti-angiogenic therapies have managed to reduce disease progression. The present review is focused in NGF and its high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase A (TRKA). The expression of VEGF, proliferation and the angiogenesis process in ovarian cancer is importantly induced by NGF, among other molecules.

  5. Normal growth and normalization of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in atypical Turner syndrome (45,X/46,XX/47,XXX). Correlation of body height with distribution of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Partsch, C J; Pankau, R; Sippell, W G; Tolksdorf, M

    1994-06-01

    A comparison has been made of a case with 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX mosaicism with some 50 cases in the literature. A significant positive correlation was found between height standard deviation scores of mosaic patients from the literature and the frequency of cells with a normal chromosome constitution (n = 21, rs = 0.552, P < 0.01). In contrast, a significant negative correlation was seen between body height and the frequency of cells with a 45,X constitution (n = 21, rs = -0.594, P < 0.01). There was no significant correlation of height standard deviation score with the 47,XXX cell line (n = 21, rs = -0.353). A patient with a rare chromosomal mosaicism (45,X/46,XX/47,XXX) is described. The diagnosis was first made by chromosome analysis in amniotic cells. The patient showed no symptoms suggestive of Turner syndrome and growth followed the 75th height percentile. Basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulated gonadotropin levels normalized after age 4.8 years and did not subsequently return to hypergonadotropic levels. In blood lymphocytes, there was an increase in the frequency of cells with a normal chromosome constitution over 9 years. This in vivo cell selection is discussed. Chromosome analysis in skin fibroblasts showed the same triple mosaicism with a similar distribution of cell lines as in blood lymphocytes. In conclusion, statistical evidence was demonstrated that the severity of short stature is correlated with the distribution of cell lines in 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX mosaicism. This finding is of importance for the genetic counselling in cases of prenatal diagnosis of mosaic Turner syndrome.

  6. The pivotal role of insulin-like growth factor I in normal mammary development.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, David L; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2011-09-01

    Mammary development begins in puberty in response to an estrogen (E(2)) surge. E(2) does not act alone. It relies on pituitary growth hormone (GH) to induce insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) production in the mammary stromal compartment. In turn, IGF-I permits E(2) (and progesterone) action. During puberty, E(2) and IGF-I synergize for ductal morphogenesis. During pregnancy, progesterone joins IGF-I and E(2) to stimulate secretory differentiation necessary to produce milk. Prolactin stimulates milk production, while transforming growth factor-β inhibits proliferation. The orchestrated action of hormones, growth factors, and receptors necessary for mammary development and function are also critical in breast cancer.

  7. Assessment of Fetal Autonomic Nervous System Activity by Fetal Magnetocardiography: Comparison of Normal Pregnancy and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Akimune; Nakai, Kenji; Kanasugi, Tomonobu; Terata, Miyuki; Sugiyama, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To clarify the developmental activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the normal fetus and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) cases using fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG). Subjects and Methods. Normal pregnancy (n = 35) and IUGR (n = 12) cases at 28–39 and 32–37 weeks of gestation, respectively, were included in this study. The R-R interval variability was used to calculate the coefficient of variance (CVRR) and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio. Results. The value of CVRR in the normal pregnancy group displayed a slight increasing trend with gestational age. However, no such trend was observed in the IUGR group. In contrast, the LF/HF ratio in both the normal pregnancy group and the IUGR group clearly increased over the gestational period; the normal group showing statistical significance. Conclusion. The development of fetal ANS activity in IUGR cases might differ from that observed in the normal pregnancy group, and this may facilitate early detection of IUGR. PMID:21547087

  8. Failure of exogenous IGF-I to restore normal growth in rats submitted to dietary zinc deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ninh, N X; Maiter, D; Verniers, J; Lause, P; Ketelslegers, J M; Thissen, J P

    1998-11-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency in rats causes growth retardation associated with decreased circulating IGF-I concentrations. To investigate the potential role of low IGF-I in this condition, we attempted to reverse the growth failure by administration of exogenous IGF-I. Rats were fed for 4 weeks a zinc-deficient diet (ZD, Zn 0 ppm) or were pair-fed a zinc-normal diet (PF, Zn 75 ppm). We compared the anabolic action of recombinant human (rh) IGF-I infused at the dose of 120 microg/day for the last experimental week in ZD, PF and freely fed control (CTRL) rats. Zinc deficiency caused growth stunting (weight gain 47% of PF; P<0.001), decreased circulating IGF-I (52% of PF; P<0.01) and liver IGF-I mRNA (67% of PF; P<0.01). Serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) assessed by ligand blot was also reduced in ZD rats (65% of PF; P<0. 01). While exogenous IGF-I increased body weight in CTRL (+12 g; P<0. 01) and PF (+7 g; not significant) animals, growth was not stimulated in ZD rats (-1.5 g) in comparison with the corresponding untreated groups. However, circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels were restored by IGF-I infusion to levels similar to those in untreated CTRL rats. In conclusion, restoration of normal circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 by rhIGF-I infusion fails to reverse the growth retardation induced by zinc deficiency. These results suggest that growth retardation related to zinc deficiency is not only caused by low serum IGF-I concentrations, but also by inhibition of the anabolic actions of IGF-I.

  9. Proper division plane orientation and mitotic progression together allow normal growth of maize

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Anding; Sylvester, Anne

    2017-01-01

    How growth, microtubule dynamics, and cell-cycle progression are coordinated is one of the unsolved mysteries of cell biology. A maize mutant, tangled1, with known defects in growth and proper division plane orientation, and a recently characterized cell-cycle delay identified by time-lapse imaging, was used to clarify the relationship between growth, cell cycle, and proper division plane orientation. The tangled1 mutant was fully rescued by introduction of cortical division site localized TANGLED1-YFP. A CYCLIN1B destruction box was fused to TANGLED1-YFP to generate a line that mostly rescued the division plane defect but still showed cell-cycle delays when expressed in the tangled1 mutant. Although an intermediate growth phenotype between wild-type and the tangled1 mutant was expected, these partially rescued plants grew as well as wild-type siblings, indicating that mitotic progression delays alone do not alter overall growth. These data indicate that division plane orientation, together with proper cell-cycle progression, is critical for plant growth. PMID:28202734

  10. Dopamine induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages in rat C6 glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Tian; Wang, Chenlong; Chen, Xuewei; Duan, Chenfan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Tian; Chen, Honglei; Yue, Jiang; Li, Ying; Yang, Jing

    2015-07-15

    Dopamine (DA), a monoamine catecholamine neurotransmitter with antiangiogenic activity, stabilizes tumor vessels in colon, prostate and ovarian cancers, thus increases chemotherapeutic efficacy. Here, in the rat C6 glioma models, we investigated the vascular normalization effects of DA and its mechanisms of action. DA (25, 50 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth, while a precursor of DA (levodopa) prolonged the survival time of rats bearing orthotopic C6 glioma. DA improved tumor perfusion, with significant effects from day 3, and a higher level at days 5 to 7. In addition, DA decreased microvessel density and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in tumor tissues, while increasing the coverage of pericyte. Conversely, an antagonist of dopamine receptor 2 (DR2) (eticlopride) but not DR1 (butaclamol) abrogated DA-induced tumor regression and vascular normalization. Furthermore, DA improved the delivery and efficacy of temozolomide therapy. Importantly, DA increased representative M1 markers (iNOS, CXCL9, etc.), while decreasing M2 markers (CD206, arginase-1, etc.). Depletion of macrophages by clodronate or zoledronic acid attenuated the effects of DA. Notably, DA treatment induced M2-to-M1 polarization in RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages, and enhanced the migration of pericyte-like cells (10T1/2), which was reversed by eticlopride or DR2-siRNA. Such changes were accompanied by the downregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling. In summary, DA induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages. Thus, targeting the tumor microvasculature by DA represents a promising strategy for human glioma therapy. - Highlights: • Dopamine induces tumor growth inhibition and vascular normalization in rat C6 glioma. • Dopamine switches macrophage phenotype from M2 to M1. • Dopamine-induced vascular normalization is mediated by macrophage polarization. • Dopamine is a promising agent targeting the microvasculature in tumor

  11. Cellular growth and survival are mediated by beta 1 integrins in normal human breast epithelium but not in breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Howlett, Anthony R; Bailey, Nina; Damsky, Caroline; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    1994-11-28

    We previously established a rapid three-dimensional assay for discrimination of normal and malignant human breast epithelial cells using a laminin-rich reconstituted basement membrane. In this assay, normal epithelial cells differentiate into well-organized acinar structures whereas tumor cells fail to recapitulate this process and produce large, disordered colonies. The data suggest that breast acinar morphogenesis and differentiation is regulated by cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions and that these interactions are altered in malignancy. Here, we investigated the role of ECM receptors (integrins) in these processes and report on the expression and function of potential laminin receptors in normal and tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. Immmunocytochemical analysis showed that normal and carcinoma cells in a three-dimensional substratum express profiles of integrins similar to normal and malignant breast tissues in situ. Normal cells express {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}3, {alpha}6, {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin subunits, whereas breast carcinoma cells show variable losses, disordered expression, or down regulation of these subunits. Function-blocking experiments using inhibitory antiintegrin subunit antibodies showed a >5-fold inhibition of the formation of acinar structures by normal cells in the presence of either anti-{beta}1 or anti-{alpha}3 antibodies, whereas anti-{alpha}2 or -{alpha}6 had little or no effect. In experiments where collagen type I gels were used instead of basement membrane, acinar morphogenesis was blocked by anti-{beta}1 and -{alpha}2 antibodies but not by anti-{alpha}3. These data suggest a specificity of integrin utilization dependent on the ECM ligands encountered by the cell. The interruption of normal acinar morphogenesis by anti-integrin antibodies was associated with an inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Function-blocking antibodies had no inhibitory effect on the rate of tumor cell growth, survival or

  12. Preweaning GH Treatment Normalizes Body Growth Trajectory and Reverses Metabolic Dysregulation in Adult Offspring After Maternal Undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Li, Minglan; Reynolds, Clare M; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-09-01

    Maternal undernutrition (UN) results in growth disorders and metabolic dysfunction in offspring. Although dysregulation of the GH-IGF axis in offspring is a known consequence of maternal UN, little is known about the efficacy of GH treatment during the period of developmental plasticity on later growth and metabolic outcomes. The present study investigated the effect of preweaning GH treatment on growth, glucose metabolism, and the GH-IGF axis in adult male and female offspring after maternal UN. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a chow diet ad libitum (control [CON]) or 50% of ad libitum (UN) throughout pregnancy. From postnatal day 3, CON and UN pups received either saline (CON-S and UN-S) or GH (2.5 μg/g·d CON-GH and UN-GH) daily throughout lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring were randomly selected from each litter and fed a standard chow diet for the remainder of the study. Preweaning GH treatment normalized maternal UN-induced alterations in postweaning growth trajectory and concomitant adiposity in offspring. Plasma leptin concentrations were increased in UN-S offspring and normalized in the UN-GH group. Hepatic GH receptor expression was significantly elevated in UN-S offspring and normalized with GH treatment. Hepatic IGF binding protein-2 gene expression and plasma IGF-1 to IGF binding protein-3 ratio was reduced in UN-S offspring and elevated with GH treatment. GH treatment during a critical developmental window prevented maternal UN-induced changes in postnatal growth patterns and related adiposity, suggesting that manipulation of the GH-IGF-1 axis in early development may represent a promising avenue to prevent adverse developmental programming effects in adulthood.

  13. Hierarchically structured hematite architectures achieved by growth in a silica hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Asenath-Smith, Emily; Hovden, Robert; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Estroff, Lara A

    2015-04-22

    Biomineralization strategies include the use of hydrogels to direct the formation of composite, single-crystal-like structures with unique structure-property profiles. Application of similar synthetic approaches to transition-metal oxides has the promise to yield low-temperature routes to hierarchically structured crystals that are optimized for a range of applications. Here, growth of hematite (α-Fe2O3) within a silica hydrogel resulted in hierarchical, mosaic crystals preferentially expressing catalytically active {110} facets, which are absent in solution-grown controls. Quantitative structural and compositional analysis reveals architectural changes that begin with the incorporation of silicon into the hematite lattice and propagate through to the nanoscale domain structure and assembly, leading to microscale morphologies that show improved photocatalytic performance. This work demonstrates the potential of applying bioinspired crystallization techniques to design functional oxides with multiscale architectural features.

  14. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance.

    PubMed

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  15. HRG inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by inducing macrophage polarization and vessel normalization through downregulation of PlGF.

    PubMed

    Rolny, Charlotte; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Tugues, Sònia; Laoui, Damya; Johansson, Irja; Coulon, Cathy; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; Segura, Inmaculada; Li, Xiujuan; Knevels, Ellen; Costa, Sandra; Vinckier, Stefan; Dresselaer, Tom; Åkerud, Peter; De Mol, Maria; Salomäki, Henriikka; Phillipson, Mia; Wyns, Sabine; Larsson, Erik; Buysschaert, Ian; Botling, Johan; Himmelreich, Uwe; Van Ginderachter, Jo A; De Palma, Michele; Dewerchin, Mieke; Claesson-Welsh, Lena; Carmeliet, Peter

    2011-01-18

    Polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to a proangiogenic/immune-suppressive (M2-like) phenotype and abnormal, hypoperfused vessels are hallmarks of malignancy, but their molecular basis and interrelationship remains enigmatic. We report that the host-produced histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) inhibits tumor growth and metastasis, while improving chemotherapy. By skewing TAM polarization away from the M2- to a tumor-inhibiting M1-like phenotype, HRG promotes antitumor immune responses and vessel normalization, effects known to decrease tumor growth and metastasis and to enhance chemotherapy. Skewing of TAM polarization by HRG relies substantially on downregulation of placental growth factor (PlGF). Besides unveiling an important role for TAM polarization in tumor vessel abnormalization, and its regulation by HRG/PlGF, these findings offer therapeutic opportunities for anticancer and antiangiogenic treatment.

  16. Combination therapy with acipimox enhances the effect of growth hormone treatment on linear body growth in the normal and small-for-gestational-age rat.

    PubMed

    Vickers, M H; Hofman, P L; Gluckman, P D; Lobie, P E; Cutfield, W S

    2006-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) therapy is often associated with adverse side effects, including impaired insulin sensitivity. GH treatment of children with idiopathic short stature does not lead to an optimized final adult height. It has been demonstrated that FFA reduction induced by pharmacological antilipolysis can stimulate GH secretion per se in both normal subjects and those with GH deficiency. However, to date, no investigation has been undertaken to establish efficacy of combination treatment with GH and FFA regulators on linear body growth. Using a model of maternal undernutrition in the rat to induce growth-restricted offspring, we investigated the hypothesis that combination treatment with GH and FFA regulators can enhance linear body growth above that of GH alone. At postnatal day 28, male offspring of normally nourished mothers (controls) and offspring born with low birth weight [small for gestational age (SGA)] were treated with saline, GH, or GH (5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) in combination with acipimox (GH + acipimox, 20 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) or fenofibrate (GH + fenofibrate, 30 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) for 40 days. GH plus acipimox treatment significantly enhanced linear body growth in the control and SGA animals above that of GH, as quantified by tibial and total body length. Treatment with GH significantly increased fasting plasma insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio, and plasma volumes in control and SGA animals but was not significantly different between saline and GH-plus-acipimox-treated animals. GH-induced lipolysis was blocked by GH plus acipimox treatment in both control and SGA animals, concomitant with a significant reduction in fasting plasma FFA and insulin concentrations. This is the first study to show that GH plus acipimox combination therapy, via pharmacological blocking of lipolysis during GH exposure, can significantly enhance the efficacy of GH in linear growth promotion and ameliorate unwanted metabolic side effects.

  17. Metabolic Alterations Due to Caloric Restriction and Every Other Day Feeding in Normal and Growth Hormone Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mutations causing decreased somatotrophic signaling are known to increase insulin sensitivity and extend life span in mammals. Caloric restriction and every other day (EOD) dietary regimens are associated with similar improvements to insulin signaling and longevity in normal mice; however, these interventions fail to increase insulin sensitivity or life span in growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice. To investigate the interactions of the GHRKO mutation with caloric restriction and EOD dietary interventions, we measured changes in the metabolic parameters oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory quotient produced by either long-term caloric restriction or EOD in male GHRKO and normal mice. GHRKO mice had increased VO2, which was unaltered by diet. In normal mice, EOD diet caused a significant reduction in VO2 compared with ad libitum (AL) mice during fed and fasted conditions. In normal mice, caloric restriction increased both the range of VO2 and the difference in minimum VO2 between fed and fasted states, whereas EOD diet caused a relatively static VO2 pattern under fed and fasted states. No diet significantly altered the range of VO2 of GHRKO mice under fed conditions. This provides further evidence that longevity-conferring diets cause major metabolic changes in normal mice, but not in GHRKO mice. PMID:23833202

  18. Growth trajectories from conception through middle childhood and cognitive achievement at age 8 years: Evidence from four low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Crookston, Benjamin T; Duc, Le Thuc; Hermida, Priscila; Mani, Subha; Woldehanna, Tassew; Stein, Aryeh D; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-12-01

    Child chronic malnutrition is endemic in low- and middle-income countries and deleterious for child development. Studies investigating the relationship between nutrition at different periods of childhood, as measured by growth in these periods (growth trajectories), and cognitive development have produced mixed evidence. Although an explanation of this has been that different studies use different approaches to model growth trajectories, the differences across approaches are not well understood. Furthermore, little is known about the pathways linking growth trajectories and cognitive achievement. In this paper, we develop and estimate a general path model of the relationship between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement using data on four cohorts from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. The model is used to: a) compare two of the most common approaches of modelling growth trajectories in the literature, namely the lifecourse plot and the conditional body size model, and b) investigate the potential channels via which the association between growth in each period and cognitive achievement manifests. We show that the two approaches are expected to produce systematically different results that have distinct interpretations. Results suggest that growth from conception through age 1 year, between age 1 and 5 years, and between 5 and 8 years are each positively and significantly associated with cognitive achievement at age 8 years and that this may be partly explained by the fact that faster-growing children start school earlier. We also find that a significant share of the association between early growth and later cognitive achievement is mediated through growth in interim periods.

  19. Thymosin increases production of T-cell growth factor by normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zatz, M M; Oliver, J; Samuels, C; Skotnicki, A B; Sztein, M B; Goldstein, A L

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro incubation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes with thymosin results in a marked and reproducible increase in production of T-cell growth factor, which is dose dependent and most pronounced in the first 24 hr of culture. Incubation of lymphocytes with thymosin alone failed to induce any production of T-cell growth factor. The biological activity of thymosin fraction 5 cannot be attributed to the activity of thymosin alpha 1, one of the well-characterized peptide components of fraction 5. These data provide the basis for (i) a potential mechanism for the in vivo immunorestorative effects of thymosin in primary and secondary immunodeficiencies and (ii) identification of an additional, but as yet undefined, immunoregulatory component of thymosin fraction 5. PMID:6609371

  20. Microencapsulation of human cells: its effects on growth of normal and tumour cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, S. M.; Hopwood, D.; Newman, E. L.; Cuschieri, A.

    1991-01-01

    The growth kinetics of established human colorectal tumour cell lines (HT29, HT115 and COLO 320DM) and human diploid fibroblasts (Flow 2002) were studied in conventional culture and in microcapsules formed from alginate-poly(L-lysine)-alginate membranes. The tumour lines grew rapidly in microcapsules but, in the case of the substrate-adherent lines HT29 and HT115, only after a prolonged lag phase. This phase was reduced by serial passage in microcapsules. The anchorage-independent line COLO 320DM showed no lengthening in lag phase. Microencapsulated fibroblasts underwent negligible growth but remained viable. Some evidence for functional differentiation (microvilli, cell-cell junctions) of the tumour line HT115 within the microcapsules was observed. We conclude that the use of microcapsules provides an alternative system with some advantages for the study of human cancer and its metastases in vitro. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:2039691

  1. A GROWTH CURVE MODEL OF LEARNING ACQUISITION AMONG COGNITIVELY NORMAL OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Richard N.; Rosenberg, Adrienne L.; Morris, John N.; Allaire, Jason C.; McCoy, Karin J. M.; Marsiske, Michael; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rebok, George W.; Malloy, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model recall and learning on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test using latent growth curve techniques. Participants were older adults recruited for the ACTIVE cognitive intervention pilot. A series of nested models revealed that an approximately logarithmic growth curve model provided optimal fit to the data. Although recall and learning factors were statistically uncorrelated, a fitted multivariate model suggested that initial recall was significantly associated with demographic characteristics but unrelated to health factors and cognitive abilities. Individual differences in learning were related to race/ethnicity, speed of processing, verbal knowledge, and global cognitive function level. These results suggest that failing to recognize initial recall and learning as distinct constructs clouds the interpretation of supraspan memory tasks. PMID:16036723

  2. A putative APSES transcription factor is necessary for normal growth and development of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Lee-Han; Kim, Ha-Eun; Park, Jae-Sin; Han, Kap-Hoon; Han, Dong-Min

    2013-12-01

    The nsdD gene encoding a GATA type transcription factor positively controls sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. According to microarray data, 20 genes that were upregulated by deleting nsdD during various life cycle stages were randomly selected and deleted for functional analysis. None of the mutants showed apparent changes in growth or development compared with those of the wild-type except the AN3154 gene that encodes a putative APSES transcription factor and is an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae swi4. Deleting AN3154 resulted in retarded growth and development, and the gene was named rgdA (retared growth and development). The rgdA deletion mutant developed a reduced number of conidia even under favorable conditions for asexual development. The retarded growth and development was partially suppressed by the veA1 mutation. The conidial heads of the mutant aborted, showing reduced and irregular shaped phialides. Fruiting body development was delayed compared with that in the wild-type. The mutant did not respond to various nutritional or environmental factors that affected the development patterns. The rgdA gene was expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle and was not significantly affected by several regulators of sexual and asexual development such as nsdD, veA, stuA, or brlA. However, the rgdA gene affected brlA and abaA expression, which function as key regulators of asexual sporulation, suggesting that rgdA functions upstream of those genes.

  3. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-09

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment.

  4. Extracellular Vesicles from Metastatic Rat Prostate Tumors Prime the Normal Prostate Tissue to Facilitate Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Halin Bergström, Sofia; Hägglöf, Christina; Thysell, Elin; Bergh, Anders; Wikström, Pernilla; Lundholm, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data indicates that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are responsible for tumor-promoting effects. However, if tumor EVs also prepare the tumor-bearing organ for subsequent tumor growth, and if this effect is different in low and high malignant tumors is not thoroughly explored. Here we used orthotopic rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumors to compare the role of EVs from fast growing and metastatic MatLyLu (MLL) tumors with EVs from more indolent and non-metastatic Dunning G (G) tumors. Prostate tissue pre-conditioned with MLL-EVs in vivo facilitated G tumor establishment compared to G-EVs. MLL-EVs increased prostate epithelial proliferation and macrophage infiltration into the prostate compared to G-EVs. Both types of EVs increased macrophage endocytosis and the mRNA expression of genes associated with M2 polarization in vitro, with MLL-EVs giving the most pronounced effects. MLL-EVs also altered the mRNA expression of growth factors and cytokines in primary rat prostate fibroblasts compared to G-EVs, suggesting fibroblast activation. Our findings propose that EVs from metastatic tumors have the ability to prime the prostate tissue and enhance tumor growth to a higher extent than EVs from non-metastatic tumors. Identifying these differences could lead to novel therapeutic targets and potential prognostic markers for prostate cancer. PMID:27550147

  5. Comparative growth, cross stress resistance, transcriptomics of Streptococcus pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity and normal gravity

    PubMed Central

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Im, Chanki; Lee, Yang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly found on pharynx, mouth and rarely on skin, lower gastrointestinal tract. It is a potential pathogen causing tonsillitis, pneumonia, endocarditis. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of low shear modeled microgravity on growth, morphology, antibiotic resistance, cross-stress resistance to various stresses and alteration in gene expression of S. pyogenes. The growth analysis performed using UV–Visible spectroscopy indicated decrease in growth of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity. Morphological analysis by Bio-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Bio-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) did not reveal much difference between normal and low shear modeled microgravity grown S. pyogenes. The sensitivity of S. pyogenes to antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, hygromycin, rifampicin indicates that the bacterium is resistant to hygromycin. Further S. pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity was found to be more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin as compared with normal gravity grown S. pyogenes. The bacteria were tested for the acid, osmotic, temperature and oxidative cross stress resistances. The gene expression of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity analyzed by microarray revealed upregulation of 26 genes and down regulation of 22 genes by a fold change of 1.5. PMID:26858535

  6. Comparative growth, cross stress resistance, transcriptomics of Streptococcus pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity and normal gravity.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Im, Chanki; Lee, Yang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly found on pharynx, mouth and rarely on skin, lower gastrointestinal tract. It is a potential pathogen causing tonsillitis, pneumonia, endocarditis. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of low shear modeled microgravity on growth, morphology, antibiotic resistance, cross-stress resistance to various stresses and alteration in gene expression of S. pyogenes. The growth analysis performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy indicated decrease in growth of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity. Morphological analysis by Bio-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Bio-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) did not reveal much difference between normal and low shear modeled microgravity grown S. pyogenes. The sensitivity of S. pyogenes to antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, hygromycin, rifampicin indicates that the bacterium is resistant to hygromycin. Further S. pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity was found to be more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin as compared with normal gravity grown S. pyogenes. The bacteria were tested for the acid, osmotic, temperature and oxidative cross stress resistances. The gene expression of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity analyzed by microarray revealed upregulation of 26 genes and down regulation of 22 genes by a fold change of 1.5.

  7. Control of growth and squamous differentiation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells by chemical and biological modifiers and transferred genes.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, A M; Lechner, J F; Masui, T; Reddel, R R; Mark, G E; Harris, C C

    1989-01-01

    The majority of human lung cancers arise from bronchial epithelial cells. The normal pseudostratified bronchial epithelium is composed of basal, mucous, and ciliated cells. This multi-differentiated epithelium usually responds to xenobiotics and physical injury by undergoing basal cell hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia. One step of the multistage process of carcinogenesis is thought to involve aberrations in control of the squamous metaplastic processes. Decreased responsiveness to regulators of terminal squamous differentiation may confer a selective clonal expansion advantage to an initiated cell. We studied the effects of endogenous [e.g., transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and serum] and exogenous [e.g., 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol-acetate (TPA), tobacco smoke condensate, and aldehydes] modifiers of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell in a serum-free culture system. NHBE cells are growth inhibited by all of these compounds and induced to undergo squamous differentiation by TGF-beta 1 or TPA. In contrast, lung carcinoma cell lines are relatively resistant to inducers of terminal squamous differentiation which may provide them with a selective growth advantage. Chemical agents and activated protooncogenes (ras,raf,myc) altered the response to endogenous and exogenous inducers of squamous differentiation and caused extended cellular lifespan, aneuploidy, and/or tumorigenicity. The data suggest a close relationship between dysregulation of terminal differentiation pathways and neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:2538323

  8. The epidermal growth factor receptor/Erb-B/HER family in normal and malignant breast biology.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Suzanne A

    2011-01-01

    The EGFR/Erb-B receptor tyrosine kinases each play distinct and complementary roles in normal breast development. The four receptors form both homodimers and heterodimers in response to binding by ligands which show selectivity for one or more of the receptors (except Erb-B2). Together with the additional flexibility generated by the formation of different dimer pairs, these signalling networks play key roles in directing a variety of both autocrine and paracrine cellular responses. Complex two-way interactions between mammary epithelial cells and the surrounding stroma direct proliferation, duct formation, branching and terminal differentiation during puberty, pregnancy and lactation, with each receptor and ligand fulfilling distinct roles. Caricatures of the normal role of EGFR/Erb-B signalling resulting in aberrant cellular responses are seen in breast cancers, where over-expression and/or (less commonly) mutation of one or more of the receptors results in enhanced cell proliferation, motility, release of proteases and angiogenic factors. Given their importance in tumour progression, compared with most normal adult tissues and their links with resistance to chemotherapy and anti-endocrine therapy, Erb-B receptors (most notably Erb-B2) have been exploited as therapeutic targets. Monoclonal antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab, pertuzumab) and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (e.g. lapatinib, afatinib) have shown significant clinical responses in some breast cancer subtypes. Additional approaches include targeted toxins or drugs, peptide vaccines, immunRNase and chaperone inhibitors to deplete Erb-B2 protein levels. Greater understanding of the full spectrum of Erb-B-mediated signalling pathways and their misregulation in breast cancer will provide additional strategies to control malignant progression.

  9. The effects of the novel, reversible epidermal growth factor receptor/ErbB-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, GW2016, on the growth of human normal and tumor-derived cell lines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rusnak, D W; Lackey, K; Affleck, K; Wood, E R; Alligood, K J; Rhodes, N; Keith, B R; Murray, D M; Knight, W B; Mullin, R J; Gilmer, T M

    2001-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB-2 transmembrane tyrosine kinases are currently being targeted by various mechanisms in the treatment of cancer. GW2016 is a potent inhibitor of the ErbB-2 and EGFR tyrosine kinase domains with IC50 values against purified EGFR and ErbB-2 of 10.2 and 9.8 nM, respectively. This report describes the efficacy in cell growth assays of GW2016 on human tumor cell lines overexpressing either EGFR or ErbB-2: HN5 (head and neck), A-431 (vulva), BT474 (breast), CaLu-3 (lung), and N87 (gastric). Normal human foreskin fibroblasts, nontumorigenic epithelial cells (HB4a), and nonoverexpressing tumor cells (MCF-7 and T47D) were tested as negative controls. After 3 days of compound exposure, average IC50 values for growth inhibition in the EGFR- and ErbB-2-overexpressing tumor cell lines were < 0.16 microM. The average selectivity for the tumor cells versus the human foreskin fibroblast cell line was 100-fold. Inhibition of EGFR and ErbB-2 receptor autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the downstream modulator, AKT, was verified by Western blot analysis in the BT474 and HN5 cell lines. As a measure of cytotoxicity versus growth arrest, the HN5 and BT474 cells were assessed in an outgrowth assay after a transient exposure to GW2016. The cells were treated for 3 days in five concentrations of GW2016, and cell growth was monitored for an additional 12 days after removal of the compound. In each of these tumor cell lines, concentrations of GW2016 were reached where outgrowth did not occur. Furthermore, growth arrest and cell death were observed in parallel experiments, as determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and propidium iodide staining. GW2016 treatment inhibited tumor xenograft growth of the HN5 and BT474 cells in a dose-responsive manner at 30 and 100 mg/kg orally, twice daily, with complete inhibition of tumor growth at the higher dose. Together, these results indicate that GW2016 achieves excellent potency on

  10. Platelet-derived growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α expression in the normal human thymus and thymoma.

    PubMed

    Cimpean, Anca Maria; Ceauşu, Raluca; Encică, Svetlana; Gaje, Pusa Nela; Ribatti, Domenico; Raica, Marius

    2011-10-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors (PDGFRs) are strongly involved in the normal development of several organs, tumour angiogenesis and malignant progression and metastasis. Few studies concerning their expression, distribution and role in normal and pathological human thymus are available in the literature. The aim of this study has been to analyse the immunohistochemical expression of PDGF and PDGFR-α in prenatal and postnatal normal human thymus and thymomal biopsy specimens. The results demonstrated immunoreactivity to both PDGF and PDGFR-α in all specimens, but the intensity, distribution and number of positive cells were different in normal thymus and thymomas, and also among different tumour types. PDGF and PDGFR-α were weakly expressed in foetal and postnatal humans with a different distribution between cortex and medulla in both blood vessels and epithelial cells, whereas they were overexpressed in thymoma, especially in type B2 and B3, in the tumour epithelial cells. Overall, these data suggest that PDGF and PDGFR-α may be involved in the pathophysiology of the human thymus.

  11. The effect of Yohimbine, an alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the growth hormone response to apomorphine in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Lal, S; Thavundayil, J X; Krishnan, B; Nair, N P; Schwartz, G; Guyda, H

    1996-01-01

    Yohimbine HCl (16 mg po) administered 30 min before clonidine (CLON) (2 ug/kg infused over 10 min) (N = 5) or apomorphine HCl (Apo) (0.5 mg sc) (N = 10) antagonized the growth hormone (GH) response to CLON but had no effect on the GH response to Apo in normal men. This finding suggests that in humans, alpha2 adrenergic mechanisms do not modulate dopaminergic function, at least not in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and that the GH response to Apo is not mediated via an alpha2 adrenergic link. PMID:8820174

  12. Inhibition of L-dopa induced growth hormone release in normal and diabetic subjects by glucose administration.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Klimes, I; Jurcovicova, J; Kolesar, P; Repcekova-Jezova, D

    1977-12-01

    Administration of L-dopa 1 g induced an increase of plasma growth hormone (GH) levels in seven of ten healthy volunteers and in six of ten hyperglycemic insulin-dependent diabetic subjects; the maximal GH response was higher in normal subjects. Addition of 100 g glucose orally to the L-dopa completely abolished the GH response of both groups. The difference between the effect of endogenous hyperglycemia and the effect of a sudden increase of blood sugar after glucose administration on L-dopa induced GH release in diabetic subjects may be explain by the resetting of the hypothalamic control for pituitary GH release to higher levels of blood glucose.

  13. Asymmetrical Growth of Footwall Topography in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: Implications for Normal Fault Control on Landscape Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanni, M. K.; Horton, B. K.

    2007-12-01

    Morphometric parameters and hypsometry of the >5-km-high Cordillera Blanca in Peru provide insights into the topographic evolution of the uplifted footwall of an active, high-magnitude-slip, low-angle normal fault within a contractional orogenic belt. The modern tectonic activity, mappable fault trace, high relief, and uniform footwall lithology make the Cordillera Blanca an ideal locality to test models for the evolution of topography related to normal faulting. Most models for normal fault growth suggest a tectonic and geomorphic symmetry in which maximum slip and maximum surface uplift occur along the central segments of the fault, with net slip, footwall uplift, and hangingwall subsidence diminishing along strike toward the fault tips. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the Cordillera Blanca permits extraction of important geomorphic metrics for footwall transverse drainages and the hanging-wall axial river, including hypsometry, drainage area, drainage length, relief, channel gradient, surface slope, aspect ratio, and longitudinal profile. These data reveal a pronounced asymmetry in which footwall relief, exposed fault relief, channel gradient, and surface slope are greatest along the northern fault segment and become systematically lower southward along strike. In contrast to most models for normal fault growth, largely based on late Cenozoic systems in the Basin and Range province of the western United States, the Cordillera Blanca demonstrates that abrupt and significant along-strike variations in displacement and footwall uplift are possible in major normal fault systems. The causes of an asymmetric distribution of fault slip and footwall topography in the Cordillera Blanca may be related to: (a) mechanical coupling between the subducting flat Nazca slab and the overriding South American plate; (b) gravitational collapse of overthickened crust along reactivated thrust faults; (c) climatic processes linked to the effect of glacial erosion in the footwall

  14. Achieving pH control in microalgal cultures through fed-batch addition of stoichiometrically-balanced growth media

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of accounting for proton uptake and secretion has confounded interpretation of the stoichiometry of photosynthetic growth of algae. This is also problematic for achieving growth of microalgae to high cell concentrations which is necessary to improve productivity and the economic feasibility of commercial-scale chemical production systems. Since microalgae are capable of consuming both nitrate and ammonium, this represents an opportunity to balance culture pH based on a nitrogen feeding strategy that does not utilize gas-phase CO2 buffering. Stoichiometry suggests that approximately 36 weight%N-NH4+ (balance nitrogen as NO3-) would minimize the proton imbalance and permit high-density photoautotrophic growth as it does in higher plant tissue culture. However, algal media almost exclusively utilize nitrate, and ammonium is often viewed as ‘toxic’ to algae. Results The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exclusively utilize ammonium when both ammonium and nitrate are provided during growth on excess CO2. The resulting proton imbalance from preferential ammonium utilization causes the pH to drop too low to sustain further growth when ammonium was only 9% of the total nitrogen (0.027 gN-NH4+/L). However, providing smaller amounts of ammonium sequentially in the presence of nitrate maintained the pH of a Chlorella vulgaris culture for improved growth on 0.3 gN/L to 5 gDW/L under 5% CO2 gas-phase supplementation. Bioreactor pH dynamics are shown to be predictable based on simple nitrogen assimilation as long as there is sufficient CO2 availability. Conclusions This work provides both a media formulation and a feeding strategy with a focus on nitrogen metabolism and regulation to support high-density algal culture without buffering. The instability in culture pH that is observed in microalgal cultures in the absence of buffers can be overcome through alternating utilization of ammonium and nitrate. Despite the highly regulated

  15. Arabidopsis thaliana Glyoxalase 2-1 Is Required during Abiotic Stress but Is Not Essential under Normal Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Devanathan, Sriram; Erban, Alexander; Perez-Torres, Rodolfo; Kopka, Joachim; Makaroff, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The glyoxalase pathway, which consists of the two enzymes, GLYOXALASE 1 (GLX 1) (E.C.: 4.4.1.5) and 2 (E.C.3.1.2.6), has a vital role in chemical detoxification. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are at least four different isoforms of glyoxalase 2, two of which, GLX2-1 and GLX2-4 have not been characterized in detail. Here, the functional role of Arabidopsis thaliana GLX2-1 is investigated. Glx2-1 loss-of-function mutants and plants that constitutively over-express GLX2-1 resemble wild-type plants under normal growth conditions. Insilico analysis of publicly available microarray datasets with ATTEDII, Mapman and Genevestigator indicate potential role(s) in stress response and acclimation. Results presented here demonstrate that GLX2-1 gene expression is up-regulated in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana by salt and anoxia stress, and by excess L-Threonine. Additionally, a mutation in GLX2-1 inhibits growth and survival during abiotic stresses. Metabolic profiling studies show alterations in the levels of sugars and amino acids during threonine stress in the plants. Elevated levels of polyamines, which are known stress markers, are also observed. Overall our results suggest that Arabidopsis thaliana GLX2-1 is not essential during normal plant life, but is required during specific stress conditions. PMID:24760003

  16. Growth regulation, imprinting, and epigenetic transcription-related gene expression differs in lung of deceased transgenic cloned and normal goats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Li; Jia, Ruo-Xin; Sun, Yan-Yan; Wang, Zi-Yu; Wan, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zhong, Bu-Shuai; Wang, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a promising technique to produce mammalian transgenic clones. Only a small proportion of manipulated embryos, however, can develop into viable offspring. The abnormal growth and development of cloned animals, furthermore, are accompanied by aberrant lung development. Our objective was to investigate molecular background of lung developmental problems in transgenic (random insertion of exogenous DNA) cloned goats. We examined expression of 15 genes involved in growth regulation, imprinting, and epigenetic transcription in lung tissue of deceased transgenic cloned and normal goats of various ages. Compared with normal goats of the same age from conventional reproduction, expression of 13 genes (BMP4, FGF10, GHR, HGFR, PDGFR, RABP, VEGF, H19, CDKNIC, PCAF, MeCP2, HDAC1, and Dnmt3b) decreased in transgenic cloned goats that died at or shortly after birth; Expression of eight genes (FGF10, PDGFR, RABP, VEGF, PCAF, HDAC1, MeCP2, and Dnmt3b) decreased in fetal death of transgenic cloned goats. Expression of two epigenetic transcription genes (PCAF and Dnmt3b) decreased in disease death of transgenic cloned goats (1-4 months old). Disruptions in gene expression might be associated with the high neonatal mortality in transgenic cloned animals. These findings have implications in understanding the low efficiency of transgenic cloning.

  17. Growth of large size diamond single crystals by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition: Recent achievements and remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallaire, Alexandre; Achard, Jocelyn; Silva, François; Brinza, Ovidiu; Gicquel, Alix

    2013-02-01

    Diamond is a material with outstanding properties making it particularly suited for high added-value applications such as optical windows, power electronics, radiation detection, quantum information, bio-sensing and many others. Tremendous progresses in its synthesis by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition have allowed obtaining single crystal optical-grade material with thicknesses of up to a few millimetres. However the requirements in terms of size, purity and crystalline quality are getting more and more difficult to achieve with respect to the forecasted applications, thus pushing the synthesis method to its scientific and technological limits. In this paper, after a short description of the operating principles of the growth technique, the challenges of increasing crystal dimensions both laterally and vertically, decreasing and controlling point and extended defects as well as modulating crystal conductivity by an efficient doping will be detailed before offering some insights into ways to overcome them.

  18. Testosterone and growth hormone normalization: a retrospective study of health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, Enrique; Lin, Alvin; Sigler, Michael; Olsen, Denise; Klimas, Nancy; Mintz, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Background Age-related declines in testosterone and growth hormone (GH) are associated with increased adiposity and decreases in lean mass and bone mineral density (BMD). A long-term retrospective study examined the effects of testosterone and/or GH supplementation on body composition and quality of life (QoL). Methods A database survey assessed the records of 91 men and 97 women (ages 25–82) in treatment groups based on their hormonal status: dehydroepiandrosterone but no hormonal supplementation (control); testosterone only (Tes); GH only (GH); and testosterone plus GH (Tes+GH). Pre-and post-treatment assessments recorded changes in fat and lean mass, BMD, and QoL. Results After an average of 3 years of treatment, weight decreased in women in the control and Tes+GH groups but remained stable in men in all groups. Tes and Tes+GH produced statistically significant increases in lean mass, reductions in fat mass, and improvements in BMD in both sexes; GH produced similar changes in women. QoL and mood improved in all groups. Treatments were generally safe and well tolerated. Conclusions In this retrospective survey, treatment with testosterone and/or GH was associated with favorable effects in men and women across a wide age range. PMID:21197337

  19. Regulatory effects of heat on normal human melanocyte growth and melanogenesis: comparative study with UVB.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, K; Sahuc, F; Damour, O; Collombel, C; Nakazawa, H

    1998-06-01

    Although energy-rich ultraviolet B (UVB) is considered to be primarily responsible for most of the effects associated with solar radiation, small energy recorded as heat appears to contribute to the biologic effects of solar radiation on the skin. We compared the effects of heat and UVB on normal human melanocyte functions. In monolayer culture the following was found. (i) Heat-treated melanocytes showed an increased dendricity and exhibited a larger cell body compared with nontreated melanocytes. (ii) After multiple treatments with UVB (20 mJ per cm2, 312 nm) or heat (42 degrees C for 1 h) for 3 d, melanocytes had a lower survival than nontreated melanocytes, but they resumed proliferation within 6 d in the same manner as seen in control. (iii) The expression levels of cell cycle regulators, p53 and p21 proteins, were increased after multiple treatments with UVB or heat. (iv) The tyrosinase (dopa-oxidase) activity per cell was increased after the multiple treatments with UVB or heat. (v) The number of dopa-positive melanocytes in coculture with keratinocytes in epithelial sheets was greatly increased by UVB or heat treatments. (vi) Similarly, the increased number of tyrosinase-related protein 1 positive melanocytes was seen in skin equivalents after UVB (100 mJ per cm2) or heat (42 degrees C for 1 h) treatments for 7 d. These results suggest that heat shares significant biologic activities with UVB in melanocyte functions. These results could be considered as one of the protective or adaptive responses of the skin pigmentary system to the environment.

  20. Von Hippel-Lindau protein in the RPE is essential for normal ocular growth and vascular development.

    PubMed

    Lange, Clemens A K; Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Mowat, Freya M; Georgiadis, Anastasios; West, Emma L; Abrahams, Sabu; Sayed, Haroon; Powner, Michael B; Fruttiger, Marcus; Smith, Alexander J; Sowden, Jane C; Maxwell, Patrick H; Ali, Robin R; Bainbridge, James W B

    2012-07-01

    Molecular oxygen is essential for the development, growth and survival of multicellular organisms. Hypoxic microenvironments and oxygen gradients are generated physiologically during embryogenesis and organogenesis. In the eye, oxygen plays a crucial role in both physiological vascular development and common blinding diseases. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cells essential for normal ocular development and in the mature retina provides support for overlying photoreceptors and their vascular supply. Hypoxia at the level of the RPE is closely implicated in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Adaptive tissue responses to hypoxia are orchestrated by sophisticated oxygen sensing mechanisms. In particular, the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor protein (pVhl) controls hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-mediated adaptation. However, the role of Vhl/Hif1a in the RPE in the development of the eye and its vasculature is unknown. In this study we explored the function of Vhl and Hif1a in the developing RPE using a tissue-specific conditional-knockout approach. We found that deletion of Vhl in the RPE results in RPE apoptosis, aniridia and microphthalmia. Increased levels of Hif1a, Hif2a, Epo and Vegf are associated with a highly disorganised retinal vasculature, chorioretinal anastomoses and the persistence of embryonic vascular structures into adulthood. Additional inactivation of Hif1a in the RPE rescues the RPE morphology, aniridia, microphthalmia and anterior vasoproliferation, but does not rescue retinal vasoproliferation. These data demonstrate that Vhl-dependent regulation of Hif1a in the RPE is essential for normal RPE and iris development, ocular growth and vascular development in the anterior chamber, whereas Vhl-dependent regulation of other downstream pathways is crucial for normal development and maintenance of the retinal vasculature.

  1. Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor-{beta} Signaling in Normal Lung Epithelial Cells Confers Resistance to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Anna; Zagurovskaya, Marianna; Gupta, Seema; Shareef, Mohammed M.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Ahmed, Mansoor M. . E-mail: mmahmed@geisinger.edu

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To address the functional role of radiation-induced transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) signaling in a normal epithelial background, we selected a spontaneously immortalized lung epithelial cell line derived from the normal lung tissue of a dominant-negative mutant of the TGF-{beta} RII ({delta}RII) transgenic mouse that conditionally expressed {delta}RII under the control of the metallothionein promoter (MT-1), and assessed this cell line's response to radiation. Methods and Materials: A spontaneously immortalized lung epithelial cell culture (SILECC) was established and all analyses were performed within 50 passages. Colony-forming and terminal transferase dUPT nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to assess clonogenic inhibition and apoptosis, respectively. Western-blot analysis was performed to assess the kinetics of p21, bax, and RII proteins. Transforming growth factor-{beta}-responsive promoter activity was measured using dual-luciferase reporter assay. Results: Exposure to ZnSO{sub 4} inhibited TGF-{beta} signaling induced either by recombinant TGF-{beta}1 or ionizing radiation. The SILECC, treated with either ZnSO{sub 4} or neutralizing antibody against TGF-{beta}, showed a significant increase in radio-resistance compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, the expression of {delta}RII inhibited the radiation-induced up-regulation of the TGF-{beta} effector gene p21{sup waf1/cip1}. Conclusions: Our findings imply that inhibition of radiation-induced TGF-{beta} signaling via abrogation of the RII function enhances the radio-resistance of normal lung epithelial cells, and this can be directly attributed to the loss of TGF-{beta} signaling function.

  2. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for normal mammary gland development and stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Pond, Adam C; Bin, Xue; Batts, Torey; Roarty, Kevin; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling plays an important role in embryonic stem cells and adult tissue homeostasis, but the function of FGFs in mammary gland stem cells is less well defined. Both FGFR1 and FGFR2 are expressed in basal and luminal mammary epithelial cells (MECs), suggesting that together they might play a role in mammary gland development and stem cell dynamics. Previous studies have demonstrated that the deletion of FGFR2 resulted only in transient developmental defects in branching morphogenesis. Using a conditional deletion strategy, we investigated the consequences of FGFR1 deletion alone and then the simultaneous deletion of both FGFR1 and FGFR2 in the mammary epithelium. FGFR1 deletion using a keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre-recombinase resulted in an early, yet transient delay in development. However, no reduction in functional outgrowth potential was observed following limiting dilution transplantation analysis. In contrast, a significant reduction in outgrowth potential was observed upon the deletion of both FGFR1 and FGFR2 in MECs using adenovirus-Cre. Additionally, using a fluorescent reporter mouse model to monitor Cre-mediated recombination, we observed a competitive disadvantage following transplantation of both FGFR1/R2-null MECs, most prominently in the basal epithelial cells. This correlated with the complete loss of the mammary stem cell repopulating population in the FGFR1/R2-attenuated epithelium. FGFR1/R2-null MECs were partially rescued in chimeric outgrowths containing wild-type MECs, suggesting the potential importance of paracrine mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the basal epithelial stem cells. These studies document the requirement for functional FGFR signaling in mammary stem cells during development.

  3. Arabidopsis ACT11 modifies actin turnover to promote pollen germination and maintain the normal rate of tube growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming; Huang, Shanjin

    2015-08-01

    Actin is an ancient conserved protein that is encoded by multiple isovariants in multicellular organisms. There are eight functional actin genes in the Arabidopsis genome, and the precise function and mechanism of action of each isovariant remain poorly understood. Here, we report the characterization of ACT11, a reproductive actin isovariant. Our studies reveal that loss of function of ACT11 causes a delay in pollen germination, but enhances pollen tube growth. Cytological analysis revealed that the amount of filamentous actin decreased, and the rate of actin turnover increased in act11 pollen. Convergence of actin filaments upon the germination aperture was impaired in act11 pollen, consistent with the observed delay of germination. Reduction of actin dynamics with jasplakinolide suppressed the germination and tube growth phenotypes in act11 pollen, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms involve an increase in actin dynamics. Thus, we demonstrate that ACT11 is required to maintain the rate of actin turnover in order to promote pollen germination and maintain the normal rate of pollen tube growth.

  4. Dscam1 is required for normal dendrite growth and branching but not for dendritic spacing in Drosophila motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Katie M; Vonhoff, Fernando; Duch, Carsten

    2014-01-29

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, Dscam, serves diverse neurodevelopmental functions, including axon guidance and synaptic adhesion, as well as self-recognition and self-avoidance, depending on the neuron type, brain region, or species under investigation. In Drosophila, the extensive molecular diversity that results from alternative splicing of Dscam1 into >38,000 isoforms provides neurons with a unique molecular code for self-recognition in the nervous system. Each neuron produces only a small subset of Dscam1 isoforms, and distinct Dscam1 isoforms mediate homophilic interactions, which in turn, result in repulsion and even spacing of self-processes, while allowing contact with neighboring cells. While these mechanisms have been shown to underlie mushroom body development and spacing of mechanosensory neuron dendrites, here we report that Dscam1 plays no role in adult Drosophila motoneuron dendrite spacing, but is required for motoneuron dendritic growth. Targeted expression of Dscam-RNAi in an identified flight motoneuron did not impact dendrite spacing, but instead produced overgrowth. Increasing the knockdown strength severely reduced dendritic growth and branching. Similarly, Dscam mutant motoneurons in an otherwise control background (MARCM) were completely devoid of mature dendrites. These data suggest that Dscam1 is required cell autonomously for normal adult motoneuron dendrite growth in Drosophila. This demonstrates a previously unreported role of Drosophila Dscam1 in central neuron development, and expands the current understanding that Dscam1 operates as a cell adhesion molecule that mediates homophilic repulsion.

  5. Normal calves produced after transfer of embryos cultured in a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization in Japanese black cows.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Nobutada; Umeki, Hidenobu; Nishino, Osamu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether high concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) would have a beneficial effect on bovine embryo development in vitro and to obtain normal calves by using an ovum pick up method and embryo culture in a chemically defined medium. When compared with controls, EGF (100 or 200 ng/ml) or IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the rate of embryos that developed into blastocysts during an 8-day culture after the in vitro fertilization of oocytes obtained from ovaries from a slaughterhouse. IGF-I induced a dose-dependent increase in cell number in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, whereas EGF stimulated proliferation only in the inner cell mass. A combination of EGF (100 ng/ml) and IGF-I (50 ng/ml) produced an additive effect, and embryos developed into blastocysts at a comparatively high rate (27.9%) compared with controls (12.0%). A similar rate of development was achieved using a combination of EGF and IGF-I in the culture of embryos following ovum pick up by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration and in vitro fertilization, and 5 blastocysts that developed after the culture were transferred into uteri; two embryos implanted, and normal calves were born. These results suggest that the combined use of EGF and IGF-I makes bovine embryo culture in a chemically defined medium a practical and useful procedure for producing blastocysts, and its application to embryo culture following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization could be useful for producing normal calves.

  6. Assessing the Effects of a School-Wide Data-Based Decision-Making Intervention on Student Achievement Growth in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Geel, Marieke; Keuning, Trynke; Visscher, Adrie J.; Fox, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing international interest in the use of data to improve education, few studies examining the effects on student achievement are yet available. In the present study, the effects of a two-year data-based decision-making intervention on student achievement growth were investigated. Fifty-three primary schools participated in the project,…

  7. Platelet-derived growth-factor requirements for in vitro proliferation of normal and malignant mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Currie, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum obtained by clotting whole blood contains a potent mitogen with apparent specificity for mesenchymal cells. This peptide wound-healing hormone, derived from platelets, is known as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Serum obtained by clotting plasma contains no detectable growth-promoting activity for fibroblasts, and is therefore a valuable additive to culture medium for an examination of the autonomy of cells from exogenous PDGF. Fibroblasts from man, mouse and hamster remain mitotically quiescent in plasma-derived serum and proliferate only when a source of PDGF is added. Normal human kidney epithelial cells and human T-cells proliferate normally in plasma-derived serum, and are unaffected by the addition of PDGF. A range of virally transformed cells and malignant cells from chemically induced rodent sarcomas was tested for their proliferative capacity in plasma-derived serum and their response to exogenous PDGF. A complete spectrum of PDGF-dependence was revealed. Polyoma-transformed BHK21 cells and SV40-transformed 3T3 cells showed complete PDGF independence. Cells from 7 chemically induced rat or mouse sarcomas provided results which ranged from the FS6 (a C57BL Cbi mouse sarcoma which was completely PDGF dependent) to MC28 (a hooded rat sarcoma) which was completely PDGF independent. The dependence of proliferation of these cells on PDGF showed a close correlation with several features of their in vivo behaviour. Tumours which were non-immunogenic in syngeneic hosts, contained few host macrophages and produced a high incidence of spontaneous distant metastases provided PDGF-independent cells. Cells from highly immunogenic, macrophage-rich "non-metastasizing" tumours were on the other hand PDGF dependent and tumours of intermediate "malignancy" provided cells with partial autonomy from PDGF. An assay for anchorage-independent growth provided data which also correlated with autonomy from PDGF. However, daily addition of large amounts of PDGF to BHK21

  8. Two-Year Comparison of Growth Indices of Twins with Dissimilar Weight at Birth (Low Birth Weight vs. Normal Twin)

    PubMed Central

    ATOOF, Fatemeh; ESHRAGHIAN, Mohammad Reza; MOHAMMAD, Kazem; MORAVVEJI, Alireza; SHARIF, Mohammad Reza; MAHMOODI, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Twin pregnancies are commonly associated with low birth weight (LBW) infants. Most studies focus on growth of LBW compared with normal infants in singleton. However, there has not been any study on twins to compare LBW with normal birth weight (NBW) infants as a match control of the same twin. Methods: This cohort study was conducted at Healthcare centers of Kashan, in 2013. Twins differing in birth weight (one with LBW and the other with NBW) were assessed using the care charts in Well Care program in regard to weight, height and head circumference measurements at birth and after 6, 12, 24 months of age and were compared separately between all matched pairs and in four sex-twin subgroups which was defined according to the sex of each twin in pairs; SF (Same-sex: Female), SM (Same-sex: Male), LF (LBW: Female) and LM (LBW: Male). Results: Incidence of dissimilar twins in birth weight was 28.4%. The weight of LBW was significantly lower than the NBW cohort in SF and LF subgroups up to 24 months. The height of LBW was not significantly different from NBW cohort in SM and LM subgroups up to 24 month. Head circumference was significantly higher in LBW compared to NBW cohort in LM subgroup up to 24 month. However, these indices were significantly lower in LBW compared to NBW cohort in all pairs. Conclusion: Although LBW cohort was significantly lower than the NBW in growth indices at birth to 2 years old in all twins, however, highly variable results was observed in four subgroups of sex-twin. PMID:26576375

  9. A numerical modelling approach to investigate the surface processes response to normal fault growth in multi-rift settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechlivanidou, Sofia; Cowie, Patience; Finch, Emma; Gawthorpe, Robert; Attal, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    This study uses a numerical modelling approach to explore structural controls on erosional/depositional systems within rifts that are characterized by complex multiphase extensional histories. Multiphase-rift related topography is generated by a 3D discrete element model (Finch et al., Basin Res., 2004) of normal fault growth and is used to drive the landscape evolution model CHILD (Tucker et al., Comput. Geosci., 2001). Fault populations develop spontaneously in the discrete element model and grow by both tip propagation and segment linkage. We conduct a series of experiments to simulate the evolution of the landscape (55x40 km) produced by two extensional phases that differ in the direction and in the amount of extension. In order to isolate the effects of fault propagation on the drainage network development, we conduct experiments where uplift/subsidence rates vary both in space and time as the fault array evolves and compare these results with experiments using a fixed fault array geometry with uplift rate/subsidence rates that vary only spatially. In many cases, areas of sediment deposition become uplifted and vise-versa due to complex elevation changes with respect to sea level as the fault array develops. These changes from subaerial (erosional) to submarine (depositional) processes have implications for sediment volumes and sediment caliber as well as for the sediment routing systems across the rift. We also explore the consequences of changing the angle between the two phases of extension on the depositional systems and we make a comparison with single-phase rift systems. Finally, we discuss the controls of different erodibilities on sediment supply and detachment-limited versus transport-limited end-member models for river erosion. Our results provide insights into the nature and distribution of sediment source areas and the sediment routing in rift systems where pre-existing rift topography and normal fault growth exert a fundamental control on

  10. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    PubMed

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.01), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05) were more likely to achieve puberty by 251 days of age. Thirty-six percent of the lambs conceived and, at the estimated date of conception, the average live weight was 46.9 ± 0.6 kg and average age was 273 days. Fertility, fecundity and reproductive rate were positively related to PWT (P < 0.05) and thus live weight at the start of mating (P < 0.001). Reproductive performance was not correlated with blood concentrations of ghrelin, leptin or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Many ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable.

  11. Tumor-promoting phorbol diesters cause the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors in normal human fibroblasts at threonine-654.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R J; Czech, M P

    1985-01-01

    The effect of tumor-promoting phorbol diesters to potentiate the action of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on cell proliferation is associated with phosphorylation of EGF receptors, acute depression of EGF binding, and inhibition of EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity. In the present studies, normal human fibroblasts and A431 carcinoma cells were labeled with [32P]phosphate and treated with and without 10 nM 4 beta-phorbol 12 beta-myristate 13 alpha-acetate (PMA). The EGF receptors then were isolated by immunoprecipitation and digested with trypsin. Analysis of the labeled receptor phosphopeptides by reversed-phase HPLC revealed that PMA induces the phosphorylation of a unique phosphopeptide containing [32P]phosphothreonine. Comparison of several chemical and physical properties of the 32P-labeled phosphopeptide with the primary structure of the EGF receptor suggested the identify Lys-Arg-Thr(P)-Leu-Arg. This was confirmed by direct demonstration that a synthetic peptide of this structure comigrates during HPLC and electrophoresis with the 32P-labeled phosphopeptide isolated from the EGF receptors of normal human fibroblasts. The phosphorylated site on the peptide corresponds to threonine-654 of the EGF receptor, which is located on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane nine residues distant from the transmembrane domain. These data indicate that phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in human fibroblasts and A431 cells at threonine-654 may regulate the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity and the binding of EGF. Images PMID:2984676

  12. Hepatic protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase. Dephosphorylation of insulin and epidermal growth factor receptors in normal and alloxan diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gruppuso, P A; Boylan, J M; Posner, B I; Faure, R; Brautigan, D L

    1990-01-01

    Polypeptide hormone signal transmission by receptor tyrosine kinases requires the rapid reversal of tyrosine phosphorylation by protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PPTPases). We studied hepatic PPTPases in the rat with emphasis on acute and chronic regulation by insulin. PPTPase activity with artificial substrates ([32P]Tyr-reduced, carboxyamidomethylated, and maleylated lysozyme and [32P]Tyr-poly[glutamic acid:tyrosine] 4:1) was present in distinct membrane, cytoskeletal, and cytosolic fractions. These PPTPase activities were unaffected by alloxan diabetes. Acute administration of insulin to normal animals also did not change PPTPase activity in liver plasma membranes or endosomal membranes. Although alloxan diabetes did not affect PPTPase activity measured with artificial substrates or with epidermal growth factor receptors, a decrease in insulin receptor dephosphorylation was noted. Dephosphorylation of hepatic receptors from normal and diabetic rats by membrane PPTPase from control rats was similar. These results indicate that alloxan diabetes does not lead to a generalized effect on hepatic PPTPase activity, although a substrate-specific decrease in activity with the insulin receptor may occur. Images PMID:2161429

  13. Color Doppler monitoring of changes of utero-placental-fetal circulation in normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Wen, L; Ma, T; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Q; Gao, S; Zhao, M; Wu, H; Hu, J

    1997-01-01

    The utero-placental-fetal circulation (UPFC) of 150 subjects during second and third trimester was examined by using color Doppler. Of them 89 were normal woman and 58 were patients with intrauterine growth retardation IUGR). Our results showed that UPFC was increased gradually during normal pregnant period. In IUGR patients it was revealed that TAV and Q of UmA, UmV and UtA decreased at 20th week of gestation, especially after 30th week. PI, RI and S/D ratio of UmA were increased, but TAV, Q of UmA and UmV were markly reduced, so was UtA. PI were increased, but the changes of RI, S/D ratio in UtA were not significant. Hemodynamical findings of UmA, UmV and UtA were abnormal in 92.53% of IUGR patients. Only 81.03% present abnormal S/D ratio of UmA (P < 0.01) and the difference was statistically significant. Maternal serum E3, HPL level in IUGR were significantly lower than that of the normal. 6KP level was reduced, TXB2/6KP ratio was significantly increased. TXB2/6KP ratio was markedly related with TAV, Q of UmA, UmV and UtA. Our results suggested that using color doppler ultrasound for examination of hemodynamical changes of UmA, UmV and UtA could revealed UPFC function directly. It is one of the best methods for monitoring IUGR and might be used for early diagnosis of IUGR. The main pathophysiological changes of IUGR were UPFC obstruction and placental disfunction.

  14. Rapid Copper Acquisition by Developing Murine Mesothelioma: Decreasing Bioavailable Copper Slows Tumor Growth, Normalizes Vessels and Promotes T Cell Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Andrew; Jackaman, Connie; Beddoes, Katie M.; Ricciardo, Belinda; Nelson, Delia J.

    2013-01-01

    Copper, an essential trace element acquired through nutrition, is an important co-factor for pro-angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Decreasing bioavailable copper has been used as an anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer strategy with promising results. However, the role of copper and its potential as a therapy in mesothelioma is not yet well understood. Therefore, we monitored copper levels in progressing murine mesothelioma tumors and analyzed the effects of lowering bioavailable copper. Copper levels in tumors and organs were assayed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mesothelioma tumors rapidly sequestered copper at early stages of development, the copper was then dispersed throughout growing tumor tissues. These data imply that copper uptake may play an important role in early tumor development. Lowering bioavailable copper using the copper chelators, penicillamine, trientine or tetrathiomolybdate, slowed in vivo mesothelioma growth but did not provide any cures similar to using cisplatin chemotherapy or anti-VEGF receptor antibody therapy. The impact of copper lowering on tumor blood vessels and tumor infiltrating T cells was measured using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Copper lowering was associated with reduced tumor vessel diameter, reduced endothelial cell proliferation (reduced Ki67 expression) and lower surface ICAM/CD54 expression implying reduced endothelial cell activation, in a process similar to endothelial normalization. Copper lowering was also associated with a CD4+ T cell infiltrate. In conclusion, these data suggest copper lowering is a potentially useful anti-mesothelioma treatment strategy that slows tumor growth to provide a window of opportunity for inclusion of other treatment modalities to improve patient outcomes. PMID:24013775

  15. A Longitudinal Study on State Mathematics and Reading Assessments: Comparisons of Growth Models on Students' Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Pui Chi

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student growth on mathematics and reading assessments across academic years (Spring 2006 through Spring 2009) using three different growth models: hierarchical linear model (HLM), value-added model (VAM), and student growth percentile model (SGP). Comparisons across these three growth models were conducted to investigate the…

  16. Normal growth and development

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely to get sick and miss school. Breakfast is very important. Children may feel tired and unmotivated if they do not eat a good breakfast. The relationship between breakfast and improved learning has ...

  17. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in normal human liver and during active hepatic fibrogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Pinzani, M.; Milani, S.; Herbst, H.; DeFranco, R.; Grappone, C.; Gentilini, A.; Caligiuri, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Ngo, D. V.; Romanelli, R. G.; Gentilini, P.

    1996-01-01

    Expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor (R) subunits was evaluated in normal human liver and in cirrhotic liver tissue by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In normal liver, PDGF and PDGF-R subunit expression was limited to a few mesenchymal cells of the portal tract stroma and vessels. In cirrhotic liver, PDGF-A and -B chain mRNA expression was markedly increased and was co-distributed with immunoreactivity for PDGF-AA and -BB in infiltrating inflammatory cells and along vascular structures within fibrous septa. These aspects were paralleled by a marked overexpression of PDGF-R alpha- and beta-subunit mRNAs and of the relative immunoreactivities in a wide range of mesenchymal cells in fibrous septa and in perisinusoidal alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-positive cells. In general expression and distribution of PDGF-R subunits appeared to be related to the activation of different mesenchymal cell types involved in the fibroproliferative process. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of PDGF-R subunits in liver tissue specimens with increasing degrees of necroinflammatory activity. The results of this additional study confirmed that expression of PDGF-R subunits is highly correlated with the severity of histological lesions and collagen deposition. Our results, providing evidence for a functional involvement of PDGF/PDGF-R in liver fibrogenesis, greatly support the results of previous in vitro studies and direct attention toward pharmacological strategies able to affect the series of signaling events arising from the autophosphorylation of PDGF-R subunits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8774134

  18. Regulation of cell growth by Notch signaling and its differential requirement in normal vs. tumor-forming stem cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Lu, Bingwei

    2011-12-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are postulated to be a small subset of tumor cells with tumor-initiating ability that shares features with normal tissue-specific stem cells. The origin of CSCs and the mechanisms underlying their genesis are poorly understood, and it is uncertain whether it is possible to obliterate CSCs without inadvertently damaging normal stem cells. Here we show that a functional reduction of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in Drosophila specifically eliminates CSC-like cells in the brain and ovary without having discernable effects on normal stem cells. Brain CSC-like cells can arise from dedifferentiation of transit-amplifying progenitors upon Notch hyperactivation. eIF4E is up-regulated in these dedifferentiating progenitors, where it forms a feedback regulatory loop with the growth regulator dMyc to promote cell growth, particularly nucleolar growth, and subsequent ectopic neural stem cell (NSC) formation. Cell growth regulation is also a critical component of the mechanism by which Notch signaling regulates the self-renewal of normal NSCs. Our findings highlight the importance of Notch-regulated cell growth in stem cell maintenance and reveal a stronger dependence on eIF4E function and cell growth by CSCs, which might be exploited therapeutically.

  19. Ectopic norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and restores normal retinal angiogenesis in Norrie disease mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Ohlmann, Andreas; Scholz, Michael; Goldwich, Andreas; Chauhan, Bharesh K; Hudl, Kristiane; Ohlmann, Anne V; Zrenner, Eberhart; Berger, Wolfgang; Cvekl, Ales; Seeliger, Mathias W; Tamm, Ernst R

    2005-02-16

    Norrie disease is an X-linked retinal dysplasia that presents with congenital blindness, sensorineural deafness, and mental retardation. Norrin, the protein product of the Norrie disease gene (NDP), is a secreted protein of unknown biochemical function. Norrie disease (Ndp(y/-)) mutant mice that are deficient in norrin develop blindness, show a distinct failure in retinal angiogenesis, and completely lack the deep capillary layers of the retina. We show here that the transgenic expression of ectopic norrin under control of a lens-specific promoter restores the formation of a normal retinal vascular network in Ndp(y/-) mutant mice. The improvement in structure correlates with restoration of neuronal function in the retina. In addition, lenses of transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show significantly more capillaries in the hyaloid vasculature that surrounds the lens during development. In vitro, lenses of transgenic mice in coculture with microvascular endothelial cells induce proliferation of the cells. Transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show more bromodeoxyuridine-labeled retinal progenitor cells at embryonic day 14.5 and thicker retinas at postnatal life than wild-type littermates, indicating a putative direct neurotrophic effect of norrin. These data provide direct evidence that norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and that pharmacologic modulation of norrin might be used for treatment of the vascular abnormalities associated with Norrie disease or other vascular disorders of the retina.

  20. The essentiality and involvement of Streptococcus intermedius histone-like DNA-binding protein in bacterial viability and normal growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dali; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Murakami, Keiji; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Ono, Tsuneko; Nagamune, Hideaki; Kayama, Shizuo; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro

    2008-06-01

    Streptococcus intermedius histone-like DNA-binding protein (Si-HLP) is a homodimeric protein and, conserved with Escherichia coli HU, a well-documented nucleoid-associated protein (NAP). In E. coli, HU plays important roles as both structural and regulatory factors, but it is not essential for E. coli viability. Streptococcal HLP has been found to bind host cells and induce cytokine production, but its physiological role remains poorly defined. In the present study, using gene insertion knockout and tetracycline-regulated antisense RNA expression techniques, we determined whether Si-HLP is essential for bacterial viability and normal growth in S. intermedius. The Si-HLP-downregulated S. intermedius strain showed alterations in its morphology and surface properties. Downregulation of Si-HLP led to an expanded nucleoid to fill the intracellular space. Transcription levels of several genes, including virulence-associated factors, were found to be activated or repressed in the antisense Si-hlp RNA-expressing strain by real-time PCR and reverse-transcription PCR. Collectively, these data suggest that Si-HLP serves as an essential NAP governing the nucleoid architecture and controlling the gene transcription profile in S. intermedius.

  1. Arabidopsis light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development: an addendum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanhong; Apel, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Recently the porA-1 null mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has been identified, which contains an insertion of the Dissociation (Ds) element in the PORA gene (Paddock et al. in Plant Mol Biol 78:447-460, 2012). Light-grown porA-1 seedlings suffer from a drastically reduced chlorophyll content and a developmental arrest beyond the cotyledon stage, suggesting that PORA is not only transiently involved in initiating chlorophyll synthesis during illumination of etiolated seedlings but is also essential for normal growth and plant development. Here we report the presence of a second Ds element in this porA-1 mutant line that inactivates the Speechless gene required for stomata formation. Similar to porA-1, speechless seedlings are severely impaired in their development. Our results suggest that the lack of stomata in porA-1 may contribute to the dwarfed phenotype of the mutant and thus emphasizes the need to re-address the proposed role of PORA during plant development by studying a porA mutant that retains its stomata formation.

  2. Requirements of blue, UV-A, and UV-B light for normal growth of higher plants, as assessed by action spectra for growth and related phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Artificial lighting is very important for experimental purposes, as well as for the practical use of plants when not enough sunlight is available. To grow green higher plants in their normal forms under artificial lighting constructing efficient and economically reasonable lighting systems is not an easy task. One possible approach would be to simulate sunlight in intensity and the radiation spectrum, but its high construction and running costs are not likely to allow its use in practice. Sunlight may be excessive in irradiance in some or all portions of the spectrum. Reducing irradiance and removing unnecessary wavebands might lead to an economically feasible light source. However, removing or reducing a particular waveband from sunlight for testing is not easy. Another approach might be to find the wavebands required for respective aspects of plant growth and to combine them in a proper ratio and intensity. The latter approach seems more practical and economical, and the aim of this Workshop lies in advancing this approach. I summarize our present knowledge on the waveband requirements of higher plants for the regions of blue, UV-A and UV-B.

  3. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on the Beliefs about Intelligence, Effort Beliefs, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Academic Self-Efficacy of LD Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldridge, Mary Caufield

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…

  4. Native Language Proficiency, English Literacy, Academic Achievement, and Occupational Attainment in Limited-English-Proficient Students: A Latent Growth Modeling Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmi, R. Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that native language (L1) proficiency promotes English acquisition and overall academic achievement, a key theoretical assumption underlying bilingual education, was tested using latent growth modeling of data from 899 limited-English-proficient (LEP) eighth graders who were followed for 12 years in the National Education…

  5. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in the transition from normal mammary development to preneoplastic mammary lesions.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, David L; Wood, Teresa L; Furth, Priscilla A; Lee, Adrian V

    2009-02-01

    Adult female mammary development starts at puberty and is controlled by tightly regulated cross-talk between a group of hormones and growth factors. Although estrogen is the initial driving force and is joined by luteal phase progesterone, both of these hormones require GH-induced IGF-I in the mammary gland in order to act. The same group of hormones, when experimentally perturbed, can lead to development of hyperplastic lesions and increase the chances, or be precursors, of mammary carcinoma. For example, systemic administration of GH or IGF-I causes mammary hyperplasia, and overproduction of IGF-I in transgenic animals can cause the development of usual or atypical hyperplasias and sometimes carcinoma. Although studies have clearly demonstrated the transforming potential of both GH and IGF-I receptor in cell culture and in animals, debate remains as to whether their main role is actually instructive or permissive in progression to cancer in vivo. Genetic imprinting has been shown to occur in precursor lesions as early as atypical hyperplasia in women. Thus, the concept of progression from normal development to cancer through precursor lesions sensitive to hormones and growth factors discussed above is gaining support in humans as well as in animal models. Indeed, elevation of estrogen receptor, GH, IGF-I, and IGF-I receptor during progression suggests a role for these pathways in this process. New agents targeting the GH/IGF-I axis may provide a novel means to block formation and progression of precursor lesions to overt carcinoma. A novel somatostatin analog has recently been shown to prevent mammary development in rats via targeted IGF-I action inhibition at the mammary gland. Similarly, pegvisomant, a GH antagonist, and other IGF-I antagonists such as IGF binding proteins 1 and 5 also block mammary gland development. It is, therefore, possible that inhibition of IGF-I action, or perhaps GH, in the mammary gland may eventually play a role in breast cancer

  6. A CD4+ T cell line-secreted factor, growth promoting for normal and leukemic B cells, identified as thioredoxin.

    PubMed

    Rosen, A; Lundman, P; Carlsson, M; Bhavani, K; Srinivasa, B R; Kjellström, G; Nilsson, K; Holmgren, A

    1995-04-01

    In this study, a B cell growth stimulatory factor, constitutively secreted by a human CD4+ T cell hybridoma clone, MP6, has been purified and characterized. Serum-free 24 h culture media from MP6 cells were collected, concentrated by ultrafiltration and separated by gel chromatography. Fractions were analyzed for stimulatory activity using [3H]thymidine incorporation in normal and leukemic (B-CLL) B cells as target cells. Activity was present in a 12 kDa protein peak. Upon storage this lost activity indicating that the factor was sensitive to air oxidation, a well-known property of mammalian thioredoxins (Trxs). Treatment of the inactive fraction with dithiothreitol restored full activity. When culture medium was analyzed with a radioimmunoassay for human placenta Trx, the MP6 clone was shown to release 30-50 ng/ml per million cells during 24 h. The B cell stimulatory activity of the MP6 medium was removed by Sepharose-bound anti-human placenta Trx IgG and activity was recovered by elution from the antibodies. Furthermore, MP6 medium showed Trx activity with NADPH and Trx reductase using an insulin disulfide reduction assay. Starting from 5 l of serum-free MP6 conditioned medium, the Trx was purified approximately 100,000-fold. After gel electrophoresis banding, the material was analyzed by peptide sequencing and a full length sequence of an 104 amino acid long protein was obtained. This Trx sequence was identical to the previously published sequence of human Trx from HTLV-1 transformed T cells, adult T cell leukemia-derived factor/Trx.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Normal Human Lung Epithelial Cells Inhibit Transforming Growth Factor-β Induced Myofibroblast Differentiation via Prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    Epa, Amali P.; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Wahl, Lindsay A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Kottmann, R. M.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive disease with very few effective treatments. The key effector cells in fibrosis are believed to be fibroblasts, which differentiate to a contractile myofibroblast phenotype with enhanced capacity to proliferate and produce extracellular matrix. The role of the lung epithelium in fibrosis is unclear. While there is evidence that the epithelium is disrupted in IPF, it is not known whether this is a cause or a result of the fibroblast pathology. We hypothesized that healthy epithelial cells are required to maintain normal lung homeostasis and can inhibit the activation and differentiation of lung fibroblasts to the myofibroblast phenotype. To investigate this hypothesis, we employed a novel co-culture model with primary human lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts to investigate whether epithelial cells inhibit myofibroblast differentiation. Measurements and Main Results In the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, fibroblasts co-cultured with epithelial cells expressed significantly less α-smooth muscle actin and collagen and showed marked reduction in cell migration, collagen gel contraction, and cell proliferation compared to fibroblasts grown without epithelial cells. Epithelial cells from non-matching tissue origins were capable of inhibiting TGF-β induced myofibroblast differentiation in lung, keloid and Graves’ orbital fibroblasts. TGF-β promoted production of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in lung epithelial cells, and a PGE2 neutralizing antibody blocked the protective effect of epithelial cell co-culture. Conclusions We provide the first direct experimental evidence that lung epithelial cells inhibit TGF-β induced myofibroblast differentiation and pro-fibrotic phenotypes in fibroblasts. This effect is not restricted by tissue origin, and is mediated, at least in part, by PGE2. Our data support the hypothesis that the epithelium plays a crucial role in maintaining lung homeostasis

  8. Influence of Student Engagement, Moods and Completed Assignments with on Normalized Gains and Growth in Reading Literature Using iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how engagement, mood and number of assignments completed on computerized differentiated homework using an iPad in a one-to-one mobile device environment influenced the growth index and normalized gain in reading literature benchmark assessments of students in grades five, six, and seven. Furthermore,…

  9. Supra-salt normal fault growth during the rise and fall of a diapir: Perspectives from 3D seismic reflection data, Norwegian North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvedt, Anette B. M.; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2016-10-01

    Normal faulting and the deep subsurface flow of salt are key processes controlling the structural development of many salt-bearing sedimentary basins. However, our detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal relationship between normal faulting and salt movement is poor due to a lack of natural examples constraining their geometric and kinematic relationship in three-dimensions. To improve our understanding of these processes, we here use 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway, to determine the structure and growth of a normal fault array formed during the birth, growth and decay of an array of salt structures. We show that the fault array and salt structures developed in response to: (i) Late Triassic-to-Middle Jurassic extension, which involved thick-skinned, sub-salt and thin-skinned supra-salt faulting with the latter driving reactive diapirism; (ii) Early Cretaceous extensional collapse of the walls; and (iii) Jurassic-to-Neogene, active and passive diapirism, which was at least partly coeval with and occurred along-strike from areas of reactive diapirism and wall collapse. Our study supports physical model predictions, showcasing a three-dimensional example of how protracted, multiphase salt diapirism can influence the structure and growth of normal fault arrays.

  10. Fat-soluble vitamin and micromineral concentrations in preruminant dairy calves fed to achieve different growth rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calf nutrition programs often limit nutrient intake from milk replacer during the first few weeks of life to promote dry-feed intake and early weaning. Recent studies indicate that feeding increased amounts of milk replacer with higher protein concentration improves growth performance and feed effi...

  11. Divergent effect of endogenous and exogenous sex steroids on the insulin-like growth factor I response to growth hormone in short normal adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coutant, Régis; de Casson, Florence Boux; Rouleau, Stéphanie; Douay, Olivier; Mathieu, Elisabeth; Gatelais, Frédérique; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Voinot, Christelle; Audran, Maurice; Limal, Jean Marie

    2004-12-01

    The lower responsiveness to GH in women than in men is probably due to a divergent effect of gonadal steroids. It is unknown, however, how the progressive increase in sex steroid production that occurs during puberty affects this responsiveness. To compare the effects of puberty and sex steroid administration on responsiveness to GH, we used the IGF-I generation test, in which the peak IGF-I level 24 h after a single injection of GH (2 mg/m2) was studied in 117 healthy short subjects (56 females and 61 males). The subjects, aged 8-16 yr, were divided into four groups: prepuberty, early puberty, midpuberty, or pubertal delay. In the latter group, the IGF-I response was determined before and after priming with oral 17beta-estradiol in girls and im testosterone in boys. We also tested for an association between body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and the IGF-I response to GH. The IGF-I increment in response to GH (change in IGF-I from baseline) was correlated with the growth velocity sd score (P < 0.05). Progression throughout puberty was associated with an increase in both baseline IGF-I (P < 0.05) and the IGF-I increment in response to GH (P < 0.05), with no gender difference. Pubertal category (pre-, early, and midpuberty; P < 0.05) and fat percentage (P < 0.05) were the main positive predictors of the IGF-I increment in response to GH, expressed as micrograms per liter as well as sd score, independently of baseline IGF-I. After sex steroid priming, both the GH peak in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and baseline IGF-I were increased (P < 0.05, after vs. before sex steroid). However, the IGF-I increment in response to GH decreased after oral 17beta-estradiol (P < 0.05), whereas it was unchanged after testosterone administration. Endogenous gonadal steroid secretion appears to result in increased responsiveness to GH in peripubertal girls and boys. By contrast, exogenous estrogen and testosterone, respectively, produce a relative decrease

  12. Growth in Literacy and Numeracy Achievement: Evidence and Explanations of a Summer Slowdown in Low Socio-Economic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen; Weaven, Mary; Davies, Anne; Hooley, Neil; Davidson, Kristy; Loton, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of summer slide or setback has gained a great deal of attention in the USA. It is understood to account for as much as 80% of the difference in achievement for students between low and high socio-economic families over their elementary schooling. In a mixed method longitudinal study of reforms in low socio-economic school…

  13. Loss of imprinting of the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) gene in esophageal normal and adenocarcinoma tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ronghua; DeCoteau, John F; Geyer, C Ronald; Gao, Mei; Cui, Hengmi; Casson, Alan G

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate loss of imprinting (LOI) and expression of the IGF2 gene in matched esophageal normal and adenocarcinoma tissues, we studied a prospective cohort of 77 patients who underwent esophageal resection between 1998 and 2003. IGF2 imprinting status was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) following ApaI digestion, and quantitative PCR was used to evaluate IGF2 expression, which was correlated with clinicopathologic findings, disease-free and overall survival. In total, 32% (14/44) of informative tissues showed loss of IGF2 imprinting, with a strong correlation between the tumor and normal esophageal epithelia (Kappa = 0.89, P < 0.01). Normal epithelia with LOI had increased expression of IGF2 [median: 2.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-5.06] compared with imprinted normal epithelia (median: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.85-1.39) (P = 0.03). In contrast, tumors with LOI had significantly reduced IGF2 expression (median: 1.87, 95% CI: 0.53-5.21) compared with normally imprinted tumors (median: 6.79, 95% CI: 3.39-15.89) (P = 0.016). Patients below the age of 65 years with normally imprinted tumors had significantly reduced 5 year disease-free survival (DFS) (24%) compared with patients whose tumors had LOI for IGF2 (55%) (P = 0.03). Cox regression analysis showed that IGF2 overexpression was associated with significantly reduced disease-free survival (P = 0.04). We conclude that in a subgroup of younger patients, loss of IGF2 imprinting was associated with improved outcome following esophageal resection. Expression of IGF2 in esophageal adenocarcinoma and normal esophageal epithelia depended on imprinting status and tissue type, suggesting novel molecular regulatory mechanisms in esophageal tumorigenesis.

  14. Vitamin E inhibition of normal mammary epithelial cell growth is associated with a reduction in protein kinase C(alpha) activation.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, P W; McIntyre, B S; Gapor, A; Briski, K P

    2001-12-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols represent the two subclasses within the vitamin E family of compounds. However, tocotrienols are significantly more potent than tocopherols in suppressing epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent normal mammary epithelial cell growth. EGF is a potent mitogen for normal mammary epithelial cells and an initial event in EGF-receptor mitogenic-signalling is protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Studies were conducted to determine if the antiproliferative effects of specific tocopherol and tocotrienol isoforms are associated with a reduction in EGF-receptor mitogenic signalling and/or PKC activation. Normal mammary epithelial cells isolated from midpregnant BALB/c mice were grown in primary culture, and maintained on serum-free media containing 10 ng/mL EGF as a mitogen, and treated with various doses (0-250 microm) of alpha-, gamma-, or delta-tocopherol or alpha-, gamma-, or delta-tocotrienol. Treatment with growth inhibitory doses of delta-tocopherol (100 microm), alpha-tocotrienol (50 microm), or gamma- or delta-tocotrienol (10 microm) did not affect EGF-receptor levels, EGF-induced EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase activity, or total intracellular levels of PKC(alpha). However, these treatments were found to inhibit EGF-induced PKC(alpha) activation as determined by its translocation from the cytosolic to membrane fraction. Treatment with 250 microm alpha- or gamma-tocopherol had no affect on EGF-receptor mitogenic signalling or cell growth. These findings demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of specific tocopherol and tocotrienol isoforms on EGF-dependent normal mammary epithelial cell mitogenesis occurs downstream from the EGF-receptor and appears to be mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in PKC(alpha) activation.

  15. Sources of variation in growth, form, and survival in dwarf and normal-stature pitch pines (Pinus rigida, Pinaceae) in long-term transplant experiments.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Taub, Daniel R; Fox, Gordon A; Landis, R Matthew; Natali, Susan; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2006-08-01

    Determining the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to phenotypic variation is critical for understanding the evolutionary ecology of plant species, but few studies have examined the sources of phenotypic differentiation between nearby populations of woody plants. We conducted reciprocal transplant experiments to examine sources of variation in growth rate, form, survival, and maturation in a globally rare dwarf population of pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and in surrounding populations of normal-stature pitch pines on Long Island, New York. Transplants were monitored over a 6-yr period. The influence of seedling origin on height, growth rate, survival, and form (single-stemmed vs. multi-stemmed growth habit) was much smaller than the effect of transplanting location. Both planting site and seed origin were important factors in determining time to reproduction; seedlings originating from dwarf populations and seedlings planted at the normal-stature site reproduced earliest. These results suggest that many of the differences between dwarf and normal-stature pitch pines may be due more to plastic responses to environmental factors than to genetic differentiation among populations. Therefore, preservation of the dwarf pine habitat is essential for preserving dwarf pine communities; the dwarf pines cannot be preserved ex situ.

  16. p53 is preferentially recruited to the promoters of growth arrest genes p21 and GADD45 during replicative senescence of normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jackson, James G; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M

    2006-09-01

    Replicative senescence is the terminal growth arrest that most normal human cells enter into after a fixed number of divisions in vitro, limiting the proliferative potential of a cell and preventing genomic instability caused by critically short telomeres. Thus, senescence presents a tumor-suppressive mechanism and a barrier to tumor formation. However, senescent cells are inherently resistant to apoptosis and, as they accumulate in aging tissues, may contribute to organ dysfunction and promote tumor progression as part of the stromal environment. Replicative life span in normal human cells can be extended by inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 or its direct target, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, suggesting a direct role for this pathway in senescence. However, p53 recruitment to promoters of target genes during replicative senescence has not been shown in live cells. In this study, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation to determine that p53 preferentially occupied the promoters of growth arrest genes p21 and GADD45 in senescent normal human diploid fibroblasts but not the promoters of other target genes that recruited p53 following doxorubicin-induced DNA damage, such as apoptosis regulators TNFRSF10b, TNFRSF6, and PUMA. This differential recruitment of p53 in senescent versus doxorubicin-treated fibroblasts was accompanied by differences in post-translational modification of p53. These data provide mechanisms for both the growth arrest mediated by p53 and the resistant nature of senescent cells to apoptosis despite p53 activity.

  17. The Effects of Imatinib Mesylate on Cellular Viability, Platelet Derived Growth Factor and Stem Cell Factor in Mouse Testicular Normal Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Hashemnia, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Valizadeh, Nasim; Roshan-Milani, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growth factors play an essential role in the development of tumor and normal cells like testicular leydig cells. Treatment of cancer with anti-cancer agents like imatinib mesylate may interfere with normal leydig cell activity, growth and fertility through failure in growth factors’ production or their signaling pathways. The purpose of the study was to determine cellular viability and the levels of, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) in normal mouse leydig cells exposed to imatinib, and addressing the effect of imatinib on fertility potential. Methods: The mouse TM3 leydig cells were treated with 0 (control), 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 μM imatinib for 2, 4 and 6 days. Each experiment was repeated three times (15 experiments in each day).The cellular viability and growth factors levels were assessed by MTT and ELISA methods, respectively. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: With increasing drug concentration, cellular viability decreased significantly (p<0.05) and in contrast, PDGF levels increased (p<0.05). Different imatinib concentrations had no significant effect on SCF level. Increasing the duration of treatment from 2 to 6 days had no obvious effect on cellular viability, PDGF and SCF levels. Conclusion: Imatinib may reduce fertility potential especially at higher concentrations in patients treated with this drug by decreasing cellular viability. The effect of imatinib on leydig cells is associated with PDGF stimulation. Of course future studies can be helpful in exploring the long term effects of this drug. PMID:27141462

  18. Third and Final Shuttle Mission of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment Conducted: Highest Supercooling Ever Recorded Achieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Malarik, Diane C.

    1999-01-01

    Dendrites describe the treelike crystal morphology commonly assumed in metals and alloys that freeze from supercooled or supersaturated melts. There remains a high level of engineering interest in dendritic solidification because the size, shape, and orientation of the dendrites determine the final microstructure of a material. It is the microstructure that then determines the physical properties of cast or welded products. Although it is well known that dendritic growth is controlled by the transport of latent heat from the moving solid-liquid interface, an accurate and predictive model has not yet been developed. The effects of gravity-induced convection on the transfer of heat from the interface have prevented adequate testing, under terrestrial conditions, of solidification models. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) constituted a series of three microgravity experiments flown aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The apparatus was used to grow and record dendrite solidification in the absence of gravity-induced convective heat transfer, thereby producing a wealth of benchmark-quality data for testing solidification models and theories.

  19. Normal radiological unossified hip joint space and femoral head size development during growth in 675 children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Veronika; Jorysz, Gabriele; Arnoldi, Andreas; Utzschneider, Sandra; Wegener, Bernd; Jansson, Volkmar; Heimkes, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of hip joint space width during child growth is important to aid in the early diagnosis of hip pathology in children. We established reference values for hip joint space and femoral head size for each age. Hip joint space development during growth was retrospectively investigated medial and cranial in 1350 hip joints of children using standard anteroposterior supine plain pelvic radiographs. Maximum capital femoral epiphysis diameter and femoral radii were further more investigated. Hip joint space values show a slow decline during growth. Joint space was statistically significantly (p < 0.006) larger in boys than girls. Our hip joint space measurements on supine subjects seem slightly larger than those reported by Hughes on standing subjects. Evaluation of the femoral head diameter and the radii showed a size curve quite parallel to the known body growth charts. Radii medial and perpendicular to the physis are not statistically significantly different. We recommend to compare measurements of hip joint space at two locations to age dependent charts using the same imaging technique. During growth, a divergence in femoral head size from the expected values or loss of the spherical shape should raise the question of hip disorder. Clin. Anat. 30:267-275, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hype, harmony and human factors: applying user-centered design to achieve sustainable telehealth program adoption and growth.

    PubMed

    Rossos, P G; St-Cyr, O; Purdy, B; Toenjes, C; Masino, C; Chmelnitsky, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of international experience with the use of information and communication technologies in healthcare delivery, widespread telehealth adoption remains limited and progress slow. Escalating health system challenges related to access, cost and quality currently coincide with rapid advancement of affordable and reliable internet based communication technologies creating unprecedented opportunities and incentives for telehealth. In this paper, we will describe how Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and user-centric elements have been incorporated into the establishment of telehealth within a large academic medical center to increase acceptance and sustainability. Through examples and lessons learned we wish to increase awareness of HFE and its importance in the successful implementation, innovation and growth of telehealth programs.

  1. Ping-pong amplification of a retroviral vector achieves high-level gene expression: human growth hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, S L; Kabat, D

    1990-01-01

    Retroviral vectors offer major advantages for gene transfer studies but have not been useful for producing proteins in large quantities. This deficiency has resulted in part from interference to superinfection, which limits the numbers of active proviruses in cells. Recently, we found that these vectors amplify when they are added as calcium phosphate precipitates to cocultures of cells that package retroviruses into ecotropic and amphotropic host range envelopes. Helper-free virions from either cell type can infect the other without interference, resulting in theoretically limitless back-and-forth (ping-pong) vector replication. In initial studies, however, amplifications of a vector that contained the human growth hormone gene ceased when the hormone produced was 0.3% or less of cellular protein synthesis. This limit was caused by two factors. First, recombinant shutoff viruses that are replication defective and encode envelope glycoproteins form at a low probability during any round of the vector replication cycle and these spread in cocultures, thereby establishing interference. Single cells in shutoff cocultures therefore synthesize both ecotropic and amphotropic envelope glycoproteins, and they release promiscuous (presumably hybrid) virions. The probability of forming shutoff viruses before the vector had amplified to a high multiplicity was reduced by using small cocultures. Second, cells with large numbers of proviruses are unhealthy and their proviral expression can be unstable. Stable expresser cell clones were obtained by selection. Thereby, cell lines were readily obtained that stably produce human growth hormone as 4 to 6% of the total protein synthesis. A ping-pong retroviral vector can be used for high-level protein production in vertebrate cells. Images PMID:2352330

  2. Normal bone growth requires optimal estrogen levels: negative effects of both high and low dose estrogen on the number of growth plate chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hiroyuki; Aizawa, Toshimi; Irie, Taichi; Itoi, Eiji; Kokubun, Shoichi; Roach, Helmtrud I

    2008-03-01

    Endochondral bone formation at epiphyseal growth plate consists of the synchronized processes of chondrogenesis and cartilage ossification. Estrogen, the major female sex hormone, plays an important role in this process, particularly during the pubertal growth spurt. However, its effects on the growth plate are not completely understood. The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of estrogen on the kinetics of chondrocytes in the growth plates of 10- to 25-week-old female rabbits by studying the effects of ovariectomy or high-dose administration of estrogen on the balance between cell proliferation and death. Forty-eight Japanese white rabbits were divided into three groups: sham operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized with subsequent weekly injection of high dose estrogen from 10 weeks. The chondrocyte kinetics was investigated by histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry, using antibodies for caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, and for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Both ovariectomized and estrogen-injected rabbits showed a declination of the chondrocyte number although the latter animals indicated a more dramatic effect. Estrogen-injected rabbits showed a decrease in the cell proliferating ability together with an increase in chondrocytes undergoing apoptosis while ovariectomy mainly reduced the cell proliferating ability. Given the known importance of estrogen for bone growth, one would expect that ovariectomy and high-dose administration of estrogen would have opposite effects. However, the present study indicated that both low and high concentration had a similar effect: a decrease in the chondrocyte number compared with control, suggesting that estrogen has to be maintained within a narrow range for optimal bone growth.

  3. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth while Limiting the Spread of Sensititive Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21st century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Nuclear states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions not to develop indigenous fuel cycle capabilities have been driven primarily by economics. However, additional incentives may be required to offset a nuclear state’s perceived loss of energy independence. This paper proposes alternative economic development incentives that could help countries decide to forgo development of sensitive nuclear technologies. The incentives are created through a nuclear-centered industrial complex with “symbiotic” links to indigenous economic opportunities. This paper also describes a practical tool called the “Nuclear Materials Exchange” for identifying these opportunities.

  4. Serotonin derivative, N-(p-Coumaroyl)serotonin, isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) oil cake augments the proliferation of normal human and mouse fibroblasts in synergy with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF).

    PubMed

    Takii, T; Hayashi, M; Hiroma, H; Chiba, T; Kawashima, S; Zhang, H L; Nagatsu, A; Sakakibara, J; Onozaki, K

    1999-05-01

    N-(p-Coumaroyl)serotonin (CS) with antioxidative activity is present in safflower oil. We have reported that CS inhibits proinflammatory cytokine generation from human monocytes in vitro. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) affect cell proliferation, in this study the effect of CS on the proliferation of various cell types was examined. CS augments the proliferation of normal human and mouse fibroblast cells. The cells continue to proliferate in the presence of CS and form a transformed cell-like focus without transformation. CS, however, does not augment the proliferation of other cell types, either normal or tumor cells. CS augments the proliferation of fibroblasts in synergy with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF), but not with acidic FGF(aFGF) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). This study using synthesized derivatives of CS reveals that the growth-promoting activity is not due to antioxidative activity. These findings indicate that CS is a natural compound with unique growth-promoting activity for fibroblasts.

  5. Fibrillarin, a nucleolar protein, is required for normal nuclear morphology and cellular growth in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Mohammed Abdullahel; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Ma, Nan; Takata, Hideaki; Yokoyama, Masami; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi . E-mail: kfukui@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-24

    Fibrillarin is a key small nucleolar protein in eukaryotes, which has an important role in pre-rRNA processing during ribosomal biogenesis. Though several functions of fibrillarin are known, its function during the cell cycle is still unknown. In this study, we confirmed the dynamic localization of fibrillarin during the cell cycle of HeLa cells and also performed functional studies by using a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and RNAi technique. We observed that depletion of fibrillarin has almost no effect on the nucleolar structure. However, fibrillarin-depleted cells showed abnormal nuclear morphology. Moreover, fibrillarin depletion resulted in the reduction of the cellular growth and modest accumulation of cells with 4n DNA content. Our data suggest that fibrillarin would play a critical role in the maintenance of nuclear shape and cellular growth.

  6. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model

    PubMed Central

    FERRARIO, VIRGILIO F.; SFORZA, CHIARELLA; SCHMITZ, JOHANNES H.; CIUSA, VERONICA; COLOMBO, ANNA

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13–14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  7. Three zinc-finger RNA-binding proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) play diverse roles in seed germination and plant growth under normal and abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Ye Rin; Choi, Min Ji; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing understanding of the stress-responsive roles of zinc-finger RNA-binding proteins (RZs) in several plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa), the functions of RZs in cabbage (Brassica rapa) have not yet been elucidated. In this study, the functional roles of the three RZ family members present in the cabbage genome, designated as BrRZ1, BrRZ2 and BrRZ3, were investigated in transgenic Arabidopsis under normal and environmental stress conditions. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that all BrRZ proteins were exclusively localized in the nucleus. The expression levels of each BrRZ were markedly increased by cold, drought or salt stress and by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Expression of BrRZ3 in Arabidopsis retarded seed germination and stem growth and reduced seed yield of Arabidopsis plants under normal growth conditions. Germination of BrRZ2- or BrRZ3-expressing Arabidopsis seeds was delayed compared with that of wild-type seeds under dehydration or salt stress conditions and cold stress conditions, respectively. Seedling growth of BrRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants was significantly inhibited under salt, dehydration or cold stress conditions. Notably, seedling growth of all three BrRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants was inhibited upon ABA treatment. Importantly, all BrRZs possessed RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results indicate that the three cabbage BrRZs harboring RNA chaperone activity play diverse roles in seed germination and seedling growth of plants under abiotic stress conditions as well as in the presence of ABA.

  8. Two-dimensional distinct element modeling of the structure and growth of normal faults in multilayer sequences: 1. Model calibration, boundary conditions, and selected results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SchöPfer, Martin P. J.; Childs, Conrad; Walsh, John J.

    2007-10-01

    The distinct element method is used for modeling the growth of normal faults in layered sequences. The models consist of circular particles that can be bonded together with breakable cement. Size effects of the model mechanical properties were studied for a constant average particle size and various sample widths. The study revealed that the bulk strength of the model material decreases with increasing sample size. Consequently, numerical lab tests and the associated construction of failure envelopes were performed for the specific layer width to particle diameter ratios used in the multilayer models. The normal faulting models are composed of strong layers (bonded particles) and weak layers (nonbonded particles) that are deformed in response to movement on a predefined fault at the base of the sequence. The modeling reproduces many of the geometries observed in natural faults, including (1) changes in fault dip due to different modes of failure in the strong and weak layers, (2) fault bifurcation (splaying), (3) the flexure of strong layers and the rotation of associated blocks to form normal drag, and (4) the progressive linkage of fault segments. The model fault zone geometries and their growth are compared to natural faults from Kilve foreshore (Somerset, United Kingdom). Both the model and natural faults provide support for the well-known general trend that fault zone width increases with increasing displacement.

  9. Hormonal regulation of reproductive growth under normal and heat-stress conditions in legume and other model crop species.

    PubMed

    Ozga, Jocelyn A; Kaur, Harleen; Savada, Raghavendra P; Reinecke, Dennis M

    2016-12-23

    Legume crops are grown throughout the world and provide an excellent food source of digestible protein and starch, as well as dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals, and flavonoids. Fruit and seeds from legumes are also an important source of vegetables for a well-balanced diet. A trend in elevated temperature as a result of climate change increases the risk of a heat stress-induced reduction in legume crop yield. High temperatures during the crop reproductive development phase are particularly detrimental to fruit/seed production because the growth and development of the reproductive tissues are sensitive to small changes in temperature. Hormones are signalling molecules that play important roles in a plant's ability to integrate different environmental inputs and modify their developmental processes to optimize growth, survival, and reproduction. This review focuses on the hormonal regulation of reproductive development and heat stress-induced alteration of this regulation during (i) pollination, (ii) early fruit set, and (iii) seed development that affects fruit/seed yield in legume and other model crops. Further understanding of hormone-regulated reproductive growth under non-stress and heat-stress conditions can aid in trait selection and the development of gene modification strategies and cultural practices to improve heat tolerance in legume crops contributing to improved food security.

  10. Effects of epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor on c-fos and c-myc mRNA levels in normal human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, Y.; Bywater, M.; Westermark, B. ); Heldin, C.H. )

    1987-07-01

    The mRNA levels of two proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, were determined in human foreskin fibroblasts exposed to epidermal growth factor (EGF) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in a serum-free, defined medium (MCDB 104). Untreated, quiescent cells were found to have low or undetectable levels of c-fos and c-myc mRNA. Within 10 min after the addition of EGF or PDGF the c-fos mRNA level increased, reached a peak at 30 min, and then declined to the control level after 60 min. The level of c-myc mRNA increased somewhat later and peaked after 8 h in cultures treated with either of the growth factors. The c-myc mRNA level remained elevated throughout the 24 h of investigation. The concentrations of EGF and PDGF required for a maximal effect on c-fos or c-myc expression were found to be similar to those that give maximal effect on cell proliferation. Both c-fos and c-myc mRNA expression were superinduced by the addition of cycloheximide. The present results conform to the view that the c-fos and c-myc proto-oncogenes may be important (or necessary) but not sufficient for the initiation of DNA synthesis. Moreover, the finding that both EGF and PDGF increase c-fos and c-myc expression supports the previous suggestion that these two growth factors may in part act via a common intracellular pathway in the prereplicative phase of human fibroblasts.

  11. Factor-dependent in vitro growth of human normal bone marrow-derived basophil-like cells

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    A factor(s) present in supernatants from lectin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells promoted the production of basophil-like cells in liquid cultures of normal human bone marrow cells. The cultured basophil-like cells had lobulated or round nuclei, and the cytoplasmic granules stained metachromatically with toluidine blue and azurophilic with Giemsa. 20% of the metachromatically staining cells were peroxidase positive but not positive for nonspecific esterase. The histamine content was 0.5-2 pg/cell. The basophil-like cells released histamine upon challenge with calcium ionophore A23187 but not with compound 48/80. They also released histamine with anti-IgE when passively sensitized with human myeloma IgE. The development of basophil-like cells was promoted in a dose-dependent fashion by a factor(s) in the conditioned medium. Blocking of cell proliferation with hydroxyurea or X irradiation inhibited the development of basophil- like cells. The production of the factor was dependent on the presence of T cells. The factor was different from interleukin 2 and its molecular weight was estimated to be 25,000-40,000 by gel filtration on a Sephacryl S-200 column. Thus, human basophil-like cells derived from normal bone marrow cells can grow and differentiate in vitro under the regulation of T cells. PMID:6193237

  12. Genetic polymorphisms, growth performance, hematological parameters, serum enzymes, and reproductive characteristics in phenotypically normal Landrace boars produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Chen, C H; Jiang, B H; Huang, S Y; Yang, T S; Lee, K H; Tu, C F; Wu, S C

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the performances of cloned pigs and their offspring is critical to evaluate the practical applications of somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, genetic polymorphism, growth performance, hematological parameters, and reproduction characteristics of cloned Landrace boars were compared with those of controls. In addition, the growth performance of clone offspring was also evaluated. A total of 479 reconstructed embryos were transferred to five recipient pigs and resulted in the delivery of 14 piglets (overall cloning of 2.9%) from two litters. Analyses of microsatellite markers and polymorphisms of the specific genes confirmed that the 14 clones were genetically identical to the nuclear donor and maintained the desirable genotypes. Growth performance of five healthy, phenotypically normal cloned boars from one litter and eight of their male offspring did not differ from age, breed, and management-matched controls. Although some significant differences were observed between cloned and control boars in hematological and serum enzymes, most of these parameters were within the normal range. Cloned boars had less (P < 0.05) normal sperm in the ejaculated boars than in control boars (71.4% vs. 77.9%, respectively), but sperm production (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, and total sperm) did not differ between these groups. In addition, use of frozen-thawed semen from cloned boars for insemination produced results that seemed comparable to a control. In conclusion, the present study reported that somatic cell nuclear transfer is effective in reproducing preferred genetic traits and has potential applications to conserve elite bloodlines in a routine pig breeding program.

  13. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    , molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) delivers high quality ZnMgO-ZnO quantum well structures. Other thin film techniques such as PLD or MOCVD are also widely used. The main problem at present is to consistently achieve reliable p-type doping. For this topic, see also Chap. 5. In the past years, there have been numerous publications on p-type doping of ZnO, as well as ZnO p-n junctions and light emitting diodes (LEDs). However, a lot of these reports are in one way or the other inconsistent or at least incomplete. It is quite clear from optical data that once a reliable hole injection can be achieved, high brightness ZnO LEDs should be possible. In contrast to that expectation, none of the LEDs reported so far shows efficient light emission, as would be expected from a reasonable quality ZnO-based LED. See also Chap. 13. As a matter of fact, there seems to be no generally accepted and reliable technique for p-type doping available at present. The reason for this is the unfavorable position of the band structure of ZnO relative to the vacuum level, with a very low lying valence band. See also Fig. 5.1. This makes the incorporation of electrically active acceptors difficult. Another difficulty is the huge defect density in ZnO. There are many indications that defects play a major role in transport and doping. In order to solve the doping problem, it is generally accepted that the quality of the ZnO material grown by the various techniques needs to be improved. Therefore, the optimization of ZnO epitaxy is thought to play a key role in the further development of this material system. Besides being used as an active material in optoelectronic devices, ZnO plays a major role as transparent contact material in thin film solar cells. Polycrystalline, heavily n-type doped ZnO is used for this, combining a high electrical conductivity with a good optical transparency. In this case, ZnO thin films are fabricated by large area growth techniques such as sputtering. For this and other

  14. SGRL can regulate chlorophyll metabolism and contributes to normal plant growth and development in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew; Moreau, Carol; Chinoy, Catherine; Spanner, Rebecca; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Bendahmane, Abdel; Klenell, Markus; Domoney, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Among a set of genes in pea (Pisum sativum L.) that were induced under drought-stress growth conditions, one encoded a protein with significant similarity to a regulator of chlorophyll catabolism, SGR. This gene, SGRL, is distinct from SGR in genomic location, encoded carboxy-terminal motif, and expression through plant and seed development. Divergence of the two encoded proteins is associated with a loss of similarity in intron/exon gene structure. Transient expression of SGRL in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana promoted the degradation of chlorophyll, in a manner that was distinct from that shown by SGR. Removal of a predicted transmembrane domain from SGRL reduced its activity in transient expression assays, although variants with and without this domain reduced SGR-induced chlorophyll degradation, indicating that the effects of the two proteins are not additive. The combined data suggest that the function of SGRL during growth and development is in chlorophyll re-cycling, and its mode of action is distinct from that of SGR. Studies of pea sgrL mutants revealed that plants had significantly lower stature and yield, a likely consequence of reduced photosynthetic efficiencies in mutant compared with control plants under conditions of high light intensity.

  15. Impact of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on pituitary gonadotrophin gene expression and ovarian development in growth-restricted and normally grown late gestation sheep fetuses.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, P; Aitken, R P; Rhind, S M; Racey, P A; Wallace, J M

    2002-06-01

    The influence of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on anterior pituitary gonadotrophin gene expression and ovarian development in sheep fetuses during late gestation was investigated. Embryos recovered from superovulated adult ewes that had been inseminated by a single sire were transferred, singly, into the uteri of adolescent recipients. After embryo transfer, adolescent ewes were offered a high or moderate amount of a complete diet. Pregnancies were terminated at day 131 +/- 0.6 of gestation and the fetal brain, anterior pituitary gland and gonads were collected. Gonadotrophin gene expression (LHbeta and FSHbeta subunits) in the fetal pituitary gland was examined using in situ hybridization. Ovarian follicular development was quantified in haematoxylin- and eosin-stained ovarian sections embedded in paraffin wax. Six dams that were offered a high nutrient intake carried normal-sized fetuses (weight within +/- 2 SD of mean weight for control fetuses from dams fed a moderate level of complete diet) and 13 dams carried growth-restricted fetuses (weight Growth-restricted fetuses from dams offered a high nutrient intake showed higher pituitary LHbeta mRNA expression (P < 0.05) than normal-sized fetuses from dams offered a moderate nutrient intake (252 +/- 21.6 and 172 +/- 23.6 nCi g(-1), respectively). FSHbeta mRNA expression was not influenced by growth status. Fewer follicles (primarily in the resting pool) were observed in the ovaries of both growth-restricted (P < 0.002) and normal-sized fetuses from dams offered a high nutrient intake (P < 0.01) compared with normal-sized fetuses from dams offered a moderate nutrient intake. Irrespective of nutritional treatment, the total number

  16. Genetic ablation of Ptprj, a mouse cancer susceptibility gene, results in normal growth and development and does not predispose to spontaneous tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Trapasso, Francesco; Drusco, Alessandra; Costinean, Stefan; Alder, Hansjuerg; Aqeilan, Rami I; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Raso, Cinzia; Zanesi, Nicola; Croce, Carlo M; Fusco, Alfredo

    2006-06-01

    Ptprj is a ubiquitously expressed murine gene encoding a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase, which has recently been proposed as a candidate gene on the locus Scc1 for colon cancer susceptibility. It has been demonstrated that PTPRJ, the human homologue of Ptprj, is involved in the control of cell growth and adhesion, being furthermore altered in several types of cancer including mammary, thyroid, lung, colon, and pancreatic cancers. To investigate the biological functions of Ptprj, we have generated mice deficient in this receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase. Ptprj-deficient mice are viable, fertile, and show no gross anatomical alterations. Furthermore, neither changes in life span nor spontaneous tumor appearance were observed in Ptprj-null mice. Our results indicate that Ptprj is dispensable for normal growth and development in mice.

  17. Expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies--New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals: executive summary report.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Achadi, Endang L; Martorell, Reynaldo; Hadi, Hamam; Thaha, Razak; Jus'at, Idrus; Atmarita; Martianto, Drajat; Ridwan, Hardinsyah; Soekirman

    2009-01-01

    Undernutrition in early childhood has long-term physical and intellectual consequences. Improving child growth should start before the age of two years and be an integrated effort between all sectors, covering all aspects such as diet and nutrient intake, disease reduction, optimum child care, and improved environmental sanitation. To discuss these issues, the Indonesian Danone Institute Foundation organized an expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies: New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals. The objective of the meeting was to have a retrospective view on child growth: lessons learned from programs to overcome under-nutrition in the developed countries and to relate the situation to the Indonesian context, as well as to discuss implications for future programs. Recommendations derived from the meeting include focus intervention on the window of opportunity group, re-activation of the Integrated Health Post at the village level, improvement of infant and young child feeding, expand food fortification intervention programs, strengthen supplementation programs with multi-micronutrient, and strengthening public and private partnership on food related programs.

  18. Correction of hypertension by normalization of endothelial levels of fibroblast growth factor and nitric oxide synthase in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, P; García-Calvo, M; Carceller, F; Reimers, D; Zazo, M; Cuevas, B; Muñoz-Willery, I; Martínez-Coso, V; Lamas, S; Giménez-Gallego, G

    1996-10-15

    Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) share a wide range of diverse biological activities. To date, low levels of FGF have not been correlated with a pathophysiologic state. We report that blood vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats are shown to be associated with a marked decrement in endothelial basic FGF content. This decrement correlates both with hypertension and with a decrease in the endothelial content of nitric oxide synthase. Restoration of FGF to physiological levels in the vascular wall, either by systemic administration or by in vivo gene transfer, significantly augmented the number of endothelial cells with positive immunostaining for nitric oxide synthase, corrected hypertension, and ameliorated endothelial-dependent responses to vasoconstrictors. These results suggest an important role for FGFs in blood pressure homeostasis and open new avenues for the understanding of the etiology and treatment of hypertension.

  19. Three redundant brassinosteroid early response genes encode putative bHLH transcription factors required for normal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Friedrichsen, Danielle M; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Muramitsu, Takamichi; Maloof, Julin N; Alonso, José; Ecker, Joseph R; Furuya, Masaki; Chory, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of polyhydroxylated steroids that are important regulators of plant growth and development. We have identified three closely related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, BEE1, BEE2, and BEE3, as products of early response genes required for full BR response. Comparison of the phenotypes of plants that overexpress BEE1 with bee1 bee2 bee3 triple-knockout mutant plants suggests that BEE1, BEE2, and BEE3 are functionally redundant positive regulators of BR signaling. Expression of BEE1, BEE2, and BEE3 is also regulated by other hormones, notably abscisic acid (ABA), a known antagonist of BR signaling. Reduced ABA response in plants overexpressing BEE1 suggests that BEE proteins may function as signaling intermediates in multiple pathways. PMID:12454087

  20. Correction of Hypertension by Normalization of Endothelial Levels of Fibroblast Growth Factor and Nitric Oxide Synthase in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Pedro; Garcia-Calvo, Margarita; Carceller, Fernando; Reimers, Diana; Zazo, Mercedes; Cuevas, Begona; Munoz-Willery, Isabel; Martinez-Coso, Victoria; Lamas, Santiago; Gimenez-Gallego, Guillermo

    1996-10-01

    Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) share a wide range of diverse biological activities. To date, low levels of FGF have not been correlated with a pathophysiologic state. We report that blood vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats are shown to be associated with a marked decrement in endothelial basic FGF content. This decrement correlates both with hypertension and with a decrease in the endothelial content of nitric oxide synthase. restoration of FGF to physiological levels in the vascular wall, either by systemic administration or by in vivo gene transfer, significantly augmented the number of endothelial cells with positive immunostaining for nitric oxide synthase, corrected hypertension, and ameliorated endothelial-dependent responses to vasoconstrictors. These results suggest an important role for FGFs in blood pressure homeostasis and open new avenues for the understanding of the etiology and treatment of hypertension.

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) transcript: A-to-I editing events in normal and cancerous human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Malka; Gilead, Leon; Markel, Gal; Nemlich, Yael; Feiler, Yulia; Enk, Claes David; Denichenko, Polina; Karni, Rotem; Ingber, Arieh

    2013-08-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common malignancies in caucasians worldwide. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) was suggested to function as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancers, and to play a role in the proliferation of keratinocytes. A-to-I RNA editing is a post-transcriptional mechanism frequently used to expand and diversify transcriptome and proteome repertoire in eukaryotic cells. A-to-I RNA editing can alter codons, substitute amino acids and affect protein sequence, structure, and function. Two editing sites were identified within the IGFBP7 transcript. To evaluate the expression and editing of IGFBP7 mRNA in NMSC compared to normal epidermis. We examined the expression and mRNA editing level of IGFBP7 in 22 basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 15 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 18 normal epidermis samples that were surgically removed from patients by the Mohs Micrographic Surgery procedure. We studied the effect of IGFBP7 editing on an immortalized HaCaT keratinocyte cell model. IGFBP7 mRNA is over expressed in BCC and SCC compared to normal epidermis. Moreover, the IGFBP7 transcript is highly edited in normal epidermis, but its editing is significantly reduced in BCC and SCC. The edited form of IGFBP7 can inhibit proliferation and induce senescence in cultured keratinocytes. This study describes for the first time A-to-I editing in the coding sequence of a tumor suppressor gene in humans, and suggests that IGFBP7 editing serves as a fine-tuning mechanism to maintain the equilibrium between proliferation and senescence in normal skin.

  2. Preliminary evaluation and experimentation of the push-slip method for achieving micrometer and submicrometer step sizes with a miniature piezoactuated three-legged robot operating under high normal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Sylvain M.; Saraswat, Anant; Michel, Arthur; Hunter, Ian W.

    2000-10-01

    The NanoWalker is a miniature autonomous wireless robot under development. The robot is designed to accomplish complex tasks at the molecular and atomic scales. One concern is the total mass of the robot. With all the components including the mechanical structure and the complex electronic system necessary to embed the required functionality of throughput for such tasks, the mass of such a robot is estimated to be in the range of 100-200 grams depending on tradeoffs in the final design. With such a mass and limitations on the maximum voltage and current outputs that can be generated in a small form factor to deflect the piezo-ceramic legs with high-precision, a preliminary evaluation and experimentation phase of the motion behavior is essential prior to completing the final desing. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that adequate motions are possible under such high normal forces. This was achieved through a new walking strategy referred to here as the push-slip method. The method uses the high normal forces combined with the resulting coefficient of friction between the termination of each leg and the walking surface to create initial opposite forces to the bending forces of each leg. These opposite forces, bounded by the maximum static force of friction, can be used for pushing or slipping through additional torque if the bending forces are applied reciprocal or in the direction of intended motions respectively. With the right parameters combined with tight and proper synchronizations of the legs, very effective motions can be achieved.

  3. Neutrophils with protumor potential could efficiently suppress tumor growth after cytokine priming and in presence of normal NK cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui; Luo, Jing; Li, Dong; Shu, Yu; Luo, Chao; Wang, Shan-Shan; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2014-12-30

    In tumor-bearing state, the function of neutrophils is converted from tumor-suppressing to tumor-promoting. Here we report that priming with IFN-γ and TNF-α could convert the potential of neutrophils from tumor-promoting to tumor-suppressing. The neutrophils with protumor potential have not lost their responsiveness to IFN-γ and TNF-α. After priming with IFN-γ and TNF-α, the potential of the neutrophils to express Bv8 and Mmp9 genes was reduced. Conversely, the tumor-promotional neutrophils recovered the expression of Rab27a and Trail, resumed the activation levels of PI3K and p38 MAPK pathways in response to stimuli, and expressed higher levels of IL-18 and NK-activating ligands such as RAE-1, MULT-1, and H60. Therefore, the anti-tumor function of the neutrophils was augmented, including the cytotoxicity to tumor cells, the capability of degranulation, and the capacity to activate NK cells. Since the function of NK cells is impaired in tumor-bearing state, the administration of normal NK cells could significantly augment the efficiency of tumor therapy based on neutrophil priming. These findings highlight the reversibility of neutrophil function in tumor-bearing state, and suggest that neutrophil priming by IFN-γ/TNF-α might be a potential approach to eliminate residual tumor cells in comprehensive strategy for tumor therapy.

  4. Growth of normally-immiscible materials (NIMs), binary alloys, and metallic fibers by hyperbaric laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, J. L.; Black, M. R.; Chavez, C. A.; Maskaly, K. R.; Espinoza, M.; Boman, M.; Landstrom, L.

    2008-06-01

    This work demonstrates that two or more elements of negligible solubility (and no known phase diagram) can be co-deposited in fiber form by hyperbaric-pressure laser chemical vapor deposition (HP-LCVD). For the first time, Hg-W alloys were grown as fibers from mixtures of tungsten hexafluoride, mercury vapor, and hydrogen. This new class of materials is termed normally-immiscible materials (NIMs), and includes not only immiscible materials, but also those elemental combinations that have liquid states at exclusive temperatures. This work also demonstrates that a wide variety of other binary and ternary alloys, intermetallics, and mixtures can be grown as fibers, e.g. silicon-tungsten, aluminum-silicon, boron-carbon-silicon, and titanium-carbon-nitride. In addition, pure metallic fibers of aluminum, titanium, and tungsten were deposited, demonstrating that materials of high thermal conductivity can indeed be grown in three-dimensions, provided sufficient vapor pressures are employed. A wide variety of fiber properties and microstructures resulted depending on process conditions; for example, single crystals, fine-grained alloys, and glassy metals could be deposited.

  5. Diachronous Growth of Normal Fault Systems in Multiphase Rift Basins: Structural Evolution of the East Shetland Basin, Northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claringbould, Johan S.; Bell, Rebecca E.; A-L. Jackson, Christopher; Gawthorpe, Robert L.; Odinsen, Tore

    2015-04-01

    ) Triassic syn-rift activity on west-dipping faults. Our analysis of regional 2D and basin-wide 3D 'mega-merge' seismic reflection data calibrated by wells allow us to re-evaluate the pre-Triassic-to-Cretaceous structural evolution of the ESB. Our results suggest that pre-Triassic extension was accommodated by diachronous growth of NW-SE-to-NE-SW-striking faults that dipped either to the east or the west. In the NW of the ESB, Triassic syn-rift deposits are observed along large (>20 km long), NE-SW-striking faults. Elsewhere in the basin, post-rift deposits gradually thicken eastward, suggesting differential Triassic post-rift thermal subsidence with its axis to the east of the ESB. Subsequent Early-to-Middle Jurassic deposits thicken eastward across large N-S striking faults, suggesting syn-depositional fault growth. Our observations suggest that, rather than forming in response to discrete periods of extension separated by periods of tectonic quiescence, the ESB witnessed diachronous fault system evolution with faults showing polyphase activity, cross-cutting relationships, and protracted growth from the pre-Triassic to Middle-Late Jurassic. The results of this work reveal the complex structural evolution of rifts, highlight the power of 3D mega-merge seismic reflection data, and demonstrate that the conventional rift package nomenclature of pre-, syn-, and post-rift is difficult to apply at the basin-scale.

  6. UPRT, a suicide-gene therapy candidate in higher eukaryotes, is required for Drosophila larval growth and normal adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arpan C.; Shimell, MaryJane; Leof, Emma R.; Haley, Macy J.; O’Connor, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) is a pyrimidine salvage pathway enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of uracil to uridine monophosphate (UMP). The enzyme is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans and yet phylogenetic evidence suggests that UPRT homologues from higher-eukaryotes, including Drosophila, are incapable of binding uracil. Purified human UPRT also do not show any enzymatic activity in vitro, making microbial UPRT an attractive candidate for anti-microbial drug development, suicide-gene therapy, and cell-specific mRNA labeling techniques. Nevertheless, the enzymatic site of UPRT remains conserved across the animal kingdom indicating an in vivo role for the enzyme. We find that the Drosophila UPRT homologue, krishah (kri), codes for an enzyme that is required for larval growth, pre-pupal/pupal viability and long-term adult lifespan. Our findings suggest that UPRT from all higher eukaryotes is likely enzymatically active in vivo and challenges the previous notion that the enzyme is non-essential in higher eukaryotes and cautions against targeting the enzyme for therapeutic purposes. Our findings also suggest that expression of the endogenous UPRT gene will likely cause background incorporation when using microbial UPRT as a cell-specific mRNA labeling reagent in higher eukaryotes. PMID:26271729

  7. Normalization of Tumor Microenvironment by Neem Leaf Glycoprotein Potentiates Effector T Cell Functions and Therapeutically Intervenes in the Growth of Mouse Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Subhasis; Banerjee, Saptak; Mallick, Atanu; Goswami, Kuntal Kanti; Roy, Soumyabrata; Bose, Anamika; Baral, Rathindranath

    2013-01-01

    We have observed restriction of the murine sarcoma growth by therapeutic intervention of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP). In order to evaluate the mechanism of tumor growth restriction, here, we have analyzed tumor microenvironment (TME) from sarcoma bearing mice with NLGP therapy (NLGP-TME, in comparison to PBS-TME). Analysis of cytokine milieu within TME revealed IL-10, TGFβ, IL-6 rich type 2 characters was switched to type 1 microenvironment with dominance of IFNγ secretion within NLGP-TME. Proportion of CD8+ T cells was increased within NLGP-TME and these T cells were protected from TME-induced anergy by NLGP, as indicated by higher expression of pNFAT and inhibit related downstream signaling. Moreover, low expression of FasR+ cells within CD8+ T cell population denotes prevention from activation induced cell death. Using CFSE as a probe, better migration of T cells was noted within TME from NLGP treated mice than PBS cohort. CD8+ T cells isolated from NLGP-TME exhibited greater cytotoxicity to sarcoma cells in vitro and these cells show higher expression of cytotoxicity related molecules, perforin and granzyme B. Adoptive transfer of NLGP-TME exposed T cells, but not PBS-TME exposed cells in mice, is able to significantly inhibit the growth of sarcoma in vivo. Such tumor growth inhibition by NLGP-TME exposed T cells was not observed when mice were depleted for CD8+ T cells. Accumulated evidences strongly suggest NLGP mediated normalization of TME allows T cells to perform optimally to inhibit the tumor growth. PMID:23785504

  8. Recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), but not rat HGF, elicits glomerular injury and albuminuria in normal rats via an immune complex-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Shinya; Ikebuchi, Fumie; Fukuta, Kazuhiro; Kato, Takashi; Matsumoto, Kunio; Adachi, Kiichi; Abe, Tetsushi; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    1. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has the therapeutic potential to improve renal fibrosis and proteinuria in rodents with chronic kidney disease. In contrast, long-term administration of human HGF to normal rats reportedly elicits proteinuria. Thus, the role of HGF during proteinuria remains contentious. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that human HGF is antigenic to rodents and that immune complex formation causes proteinuria. 2. We administered either human or rat HGF to normal rats for 28 days. Albuminuria was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The renal phenotypes of the two HGF treatments were examined using histological techniques. 3. Administration of human HGF (1 mg/kg per day, i.v.) to rats led to severe albuminuria and glomerular hypertrophy in association with increased blood levels of anti-human HGF IgG and IgG deposition in mesangial areas. Furthermore, an immune complex between human HGF and anti-human HGF IgG stimulated the production of proteinuric cytokines (including transforming growth factor-β) in rat cultured mesangial cells. In contrast, treatment of healthy rats with rat HGF for 4 weeks caused neither mesangial IgG deposition nor elevated anti-HGF IgG in the blood. Overall, rat HGF did not provoke albuminuria. 4. We conclude that human HGF produces pseudotoxic effects in normal rat kidneys via an immune complex-mediated pathway, whereas syngenic HGF is safe due to less deposition of glomerular IgG. Our results affirm the safety of the repeated use of syngenic HGF for the treatment of chronic organ diseases, such as renal fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.

  9. Structural and molecular regulation of lung maturation by intratracheal vascular endothelial growth factor administration in the normally grown and placentally restricted fetus.

    PubMed

    McGillick, Erin V; Orgeig, Sandra; Morrison, Janna L

    2016-03-01

    Inhibition of hypoxia signalling leads to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), whereas administration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the most widely characterized hypoxia responsive factor, protects from RDS. In the lung of the chronically hypoxaemic placentally restricted (PR) fetus, there is altered regulation of hypoxia signalling. This leads to reduced surfactant maturation in late gestation and provides evidence for the increased risk of RDS in growth restricted neonates at birth. We evaluated the effect of recombinant human VEGF administration with respect to bypassing the endogenous regulation of hypoxia signalling in the lung of the normally grown and PR sheep fetus. There was no effect of VEGF administration on fetal blood pressure or fetal breathing movements. We examined the effect on the expression of genes regulating VEGF signalling (FLT1 and KDR), angiogenesis (ANGPT1, AQP1, ADM), alveolarization (MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, COL1A1, ELN), proliferation (IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, MKI67, PCNA), inflammation (CCL2, CCL4, IL1B, TNFA, TGFB1, IL10) and surfactant maturation (SFTP-A, SFTP-B, SFTP-C, SFTP-D, PCYT1A, LPCAT, LAMP3, ABCA3). Despite the effects of PR on the expression of genes regulating airway remodelling, inflammatory signalling and surfactant maturation, there were very few effects of VEGF administration on gene expression in the lung of both the normally grown and PR fetus. There were, however, positive effects of VEGF administration on percentage tissue, air space and numerical density of SFTP-B positive alveolar epithelial cells in fetal lung tissue. These results provide evidence for the stimulatory effects of VEGF administration on structural maturation in the lung of both the normally grown and PR fetus.

  10. Comparative Investigation of Indicators of Growth and Behavioral Disorders in Children with Normal, Low, and Very Low Birth Weight at Pre-school Age in Isfahan during 2015

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Marzieh; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI)] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight) at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents’ and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009) and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10). The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49). Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children. PMID:28382052

  11. Transplant of polymer-encapsulated cells genetically engineered to release nerve growth factor allows a normal functional development of the visual cortex in dark-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Pizzorusso, T; Porciatti, V; Tseng, J L; Aebischer, P; Maffei, L

    1997-09-01

    Visual experience is necessary for the normal development of the visual system. Dark-reared mammals show abnormal vision when reintroduced into a normal environment. The absence of visual experience during the critical period results in reduced and/or inappropriate neural responses in visual cortical neurons. The change in electrical activity induced by dark rearing is probably reflected by the modulation of specific unknown molecules. Neurotrophins are present in the developing visual cortex and their production depends on visually driven electrical activity. Recent findings support the possibility that an important link between electrical activity in the visual pathway and correct development of visual properties is represented by neurotrophins. We advance the hypothesis that the visual abnormalities present in dark-reared animals could be due to a decreased production of a neurotrophin secondary to the lack of visual stimulation. We report that some properties of visual cortical response such as receptive field size, orientation selectivity, adaptation to repeated stimulation, response latency and visual acuity are virtually normal in dark-reared rats transplanted with polymer-encapsulated baby hamster kidney cells genetically engineered to release nerve growth factor.

  12. Expression of transforming growth factor beta-like molecules in normal and regenerating arms of the crinoid Antedon mediterranea: immunocytochemical and biochemical evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Patruno, M; Smertenko, A; Candia Carnevali, M D; Bonasoro, F; Beesley, P W; Thorndyke, M C

    2002-01-01

    The phylum Echinodermata is well known for its extensive regenerative capabilities. Although there are substantial data now available that describe the histological and cellular bases of this phenomenon, little is known about the regulatory molecules involved. Here, we use an immunochemical approach to explore the potential role played by putative members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family of secreted proteins in the arm regeneration process of the crinoid Antedon mediterranea. We show that a TGF-beta-like molecule is present in normal and regenerating arms both in a propeptide form and in a mature form. During regeneration, the expression of the mature form is increased and appears to be accompanied by the appearance of an additional isoform. Immunocytochemistry indicates that TGF-beta-like molecules are normally present in the nervous tissue and are specifically localized in both neural elements and non-neural migratory cells, mainly at the level of the brachial nerve. This pattern increases during regeneration, when the blastemal cells show a particularly striking expression of this molecule. Our data indicate that a TGF-beta-like molecule (or molecules) is normally present in the adult nervous tissues of A. mediterranea and is upregulated significantly during regeneration. We suggest that it can play an important part in the regenerative process. PMID:12350260

  13. Kinetics and regulation of human keratinocyte stem cell growth in short-term primary ex vivo culture. Cooperative growth factors from psoriatic lesional T lymphocytes stimulate proliferation among psoriatic uninvolved, but not normal, stem keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bata-Csorgo, Z; Hammerberg, C; Voorhees, J J; Cooper, K D

    1995-01-01

    Flow cytometric analysis of primary ex vivo keratinocyte cultures demonstrated that stem cells, (beta 1 integrin+, keratin 1/keratin 10 [K1/K10-], proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA-] [Bata-Csorgo, Zs., C. Hammerberg, J. J. Voorhees, and K. D. Cooper. 1993. J. Exp. Med. 178:1271-1281]) establish such cultures. This methodology also enabled the quantitation of synchronized recruitment of these cells from G0 into G1 of the cell cycle (PCNA expression), which preceded bright beta 1 integrin expression. (beta 1 integrinbright expression has been shown to be a characteristic feature of keratinocyte stem cells in culture (Jones, P. H., and F. M. Watt. 1993. Cell. 73:713-724). Using the above assay, we determined whether lesional T lymphocytes in psoriasis could be directly responsible for the induction of the stem cell hyperproliferation that is characteristic of this disease. Indeed, CD4+ T lymphocytes, cloned from lesional psoriatic skin and stimulated by immobilized anti-CD3 plus fibronectin, promoted psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte stem cell proliferation via soluble factors. This induction appeared to be through accelerated recruitment of stem cells from their quiescent state (G0) into cell cycle. By contrast, normal keratinocyte stem cells exhibited no such growth stimulation. Supernatants exhibiting growth induction all contained high levels of GM-CSF and gamma-IFN, low IL-3 and TNF-alpha, and variable IL-4. Only anti-gamma-IFN antibody was able to neutralize growth stimulatory activity of the supernatants on psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte stem cells. However, because recombinant gamma-IFN alone inhibited growth in this assay, these data suggest that, in psoriasis, gamma-IFN acts cooperatively with other growth factors in the immune induction of cell cycle progression by the normally quiescent stem cell keratinocytes. Images PMID:7529261

  14. HRE-type genes are regulated by growth-related changes in internal oxygen concentrations during the normal development of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of hypoxic conditions in plants not only represents a stress condition but is also associated with the normal development and growth of many organs, leading to adaptive changes in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow. In the present work, we identified three hypoxia-responsive ERF (StHRE) genes whose expression is regulated by the gradual decrease in oxygen tensions that occur when potato tubers grow larger. Increasing the external oxygen concentration counteracted the modification of StHRE expression during tuber growth, supporting the idea that the actual oxygen levels inside the organs, rather than development itself, are responsible for the regulation of StHRE genes. We identified several sugar metabolism-related genes co-regulated with StHRE genes during tuber development and possibly involved in starch accumulation. All together, our data suggest a possible role for low oxygen in the regulation of sugar metabolism in the potato tuber, similar to what happens in storage tissues during seed development.

  15. YvcK of Bacillus subtilis is required for a normal cell shape and for growth on Krebs cycle intermediates and substrates of the pentose phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Görke, Boris; Foulquier, Elodie; Galinier, Anne

    2005-11-01

    The HPr-like protein Crh has so far been detected only in the bacillus group of bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, its gene is part of an operon composed of six ORFs, three of which exhibit strong similarity to genes of unknown function present in many bacteria. The promoter of the operon was determined and found to be constitutively active. A deletion analysis revealed that gene yvcK, encoded by this operon, is essential for growth on Krebs cycle intermediates and on carbon sources metabolized via the pentose phosphate pathway. In addition, cells lacking YvcK acquired media-dependent filamentous or L-shape-like aberrant morphologies. The presence of high magnesium concentrations restored normal growth and cell morphology. Furthermore, suppressor mutants cured from these growth defects appeared spontaneously with a high frequency. Such suppressing mutations were identified in a transposon mutagenesis screen and found to reside in seven different loci. Two of them mapped in genes of central carbon metabolism, including zwf, which encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and cggR, the product of which regulates the synthesis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. All these results suggest that YvcK has an important role in carbon metabolism, probably in gluconeogenesis required for the synthesis of cell wall precursor molecules. Interestingly, the Escherichia coli homologous protein, YbhK, can substitute for YvcK in B. subtilis, suggesting that the two proteins have been functionally conserved in these different bacteria.

  16. Antitransforming growth factor-{beta} antibody 1D11 ameliorates normal tissue damage caused by high-dose radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Anscher, Mitchell S. . E-mail: ansch001@notes.duke.edu; Thrasher, Bradley; Rabbani, Zahid; Teicher, Beverly; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2006-07-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether a neutralizing transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) antibody can prevent radiation (RT) induced lung injury. Methods and Materials Fractionated and sham right lung irradiation in Fischer 344 rats was delivered to assess the radioprotective effect of the antibodies. Animals were divided into the following groups: (1) control (sham RT, control antibody 13C4); (2) RT (800cGy x 5)+13C4); (3) RT + 0.1 mg/kg 1D11 anti-TGF{beta} antibody; and (4) RT + 1 mg/kg 1D11 antibody. Antibodies were intraperitoneally administered immediately after the last fraction of RT. Animals were sacrificed at 6 and 26 weeks after irradiation. Lungs were assessed for histologic changes, activation of macrophages, expression/activation of TGF{beta} and its signal transduction pathway. Results At 6 weeks post-RT, there was a significant reduction in macrophage accumulation (p = 0.041), alveolar wall thickness (p = 0.0003), and TGF-{beta} activation (p = 0.032) in animals receiving 1.0 mg/kg 1D11 vs. in the control group. However, at 6 weeks, the low dose of 1D11 antibody (0.1 mg/kg) failed to produce any significant changes. At 6 months post-RT, radioprotection is apparent for the group receiving 1.0 mg/kg 1D11, with activated macrophages (p = 0.037), alveolar wall thickness (p = 0.0002), TGF{beta} activation (p = 0.002) and its signal transduction proteins (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Conclusions Administration of a single dose of 1.0 mg/kg of the anti-TGF{beta} antibody 1D11 resulted in decreased morphologic changes, inflammatory response, and reduced expression and activation of TGF{beta} 6 weeks and 6 months after 40 Gy to the right hemithorax. Targeting the TGF{beta} pathway may be a useful strategy to prevent radiation-induced lung injury.

  17. Suppressing Nitrite-oxidizing Bacteria Growth to Achieve Nitrogen Removal from Domestic Wastewater via Anammox Using Intermittent Aeration with Low Dissolved Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bin; Bao, Peng; Wei, Yan; Zhu, Guibing; Yuan, Zhiguo; Peng, Yongzhen

    2015-01-01

    Achieving nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater using anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has the potential to make wastewater treatment energy-neutral or even energy-positive. The challenge is to suppress the growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). This study presents a promising method based on intermittent aeration with low dissolved oxygen to limit NOB growth, thereby providing an advantage to anammox bacteria to form a partnership with the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The results showed that NOB was successfully suppressed using that method, with the relative abundance of NOB maintained between 2.0–2.6%, based on Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization. Nitrogen could be effectively removed from domestic wastewater with anammox at a temperature above 20 °C, with an effluent total nitrogen (TN) concentration of 6.6 ± 2.7 mg/L, while the influent TN and soluble chemical oxygen demand were 62.6 ± 3.1 mg/L and 88.0 ± 8.1 mg/L, respectively. PMID:26354321

  18. Evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in normal and breast tumor tissues and their link with breast cancer prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Daniela; Lemieux, Julie; Côté, Marc-André; Provencher, Louise; Laflamme, Christian; Barabé, Frédéric; Jacob, Simon; Michaud, Annick; Diorio, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene is associated with worse prognosis and decreased overall survival in breast cancer patients. The HER2 gene contains several polymorphisms; two of the best-characterized HER2 polymorphisms are Ile655Val and Ala1170Pro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between these two HER2 polymorphisms in normal breast and breast cancer tissues and known breast cancer prognostic factors in a retrospective cohort study of 73 women with non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. HER2 polymorphisms were assessed in breast cancer tissue and normal breast tissue using TaqMan assay. Ala1170Pro polymorphism in normal breast tissue was associated with age at diagnosis (p = 0.007), tumor size (p = 0.004) and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.06). Similar significant associations in cancer tissues were observed. No association between the Ile655Val polymorphism and prognostic factors were observed. However, we found significant differences in the distribution of Ile655Val (p = 0.03) and Ala1170Pro (p = 0.01) genotypes between normal breast and breast tumor tissues. This study demonstrates that only the Ala1170Pro polymorphism is associated with prognostic factors in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Moreover, our results suggest that both HER2 polymorphisms could play a significant role in carcinogenesis in non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer women.

  19. Growth and linkage of the quaternary Ubrique Normal Fault Zone, Western Gibraltar Arc: role on the along-strike relief segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro; Balanya, Juan Carlos; Exposito, Inmaculada; Diaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Barcos, Leticia

    2015-04-01

    Strain partitioning modes within migrating orogenic arcs may result in arc-parallel stretching that produces along-strike structural and topographic discontinuities. In the Western Gibraltar Arc, arc-parallel stretching has operated from the Lower Miocene up to recent times. In this study, we have reviewed the Colmenar Fault, located at the SW end of the Subbetic ranges, previously interpreted as a Middle Miocene low-angle normal fault. Our results allow to identify younger normal fault segments, to analyse their kinematics, growth and segment linkage, and to discuss its role on the structural and relief drop at regional scale. The Colmenar Fault is folded by post-Serravallian NE-SW buckle folds. Both the SW-dipping fault surfaces and the SW-plunging fold axes contribute to the structural relief drop toward the SW. Nevertheless, at the NW tip of the Colmenar Fault, we have identified unfolded normal faults cutting quaternary soils. They are grouped into a N110˚E striking brittle deformation band 15km long and until 3km wide (hereafter Ubrique Normal Fault Zone; UNFZ). The UNFZ is divided into three sectors: (a) The western tip zone is formed by normal faults which usually dip to the SW and whose slip directions vary between N205˚E and N225˚E. These segments are linked to each other by left-lateral oblique faults interpreted as transfer faults. (b) The central part of the UNFZ is composed of a single N115˚E striking fault segment 2,4km long. Slip directions are around N190˚E and the estimated throw is 1,25km. The fault scarp is well-conserved reaching up to 400m in its central part and diminishing to 200m at both segment terminations. This fault segment is linked to the western tip by an overlap zone characterized by tilted blocks limited by high-angle NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE striking faults interpreted as "box faults" [1]. (c) The eastern tip zone is formed by fault segments with oblique slip which also contribute to the downthrown of the SW block. This kinematic

  20. The brain-specific RasGEF very-KIND is required for normal dendritic growth in cerebellar granule cells and proper motor coordination

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Kanehiro; Furuya, Asako; Sakamaki, Yuriko; Akagi, Takumi; Shinoda, Yo; Sadakata, Tetsushi; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Kazuki; Minami, Haruka; Sano, Yoshitake; Nakayama, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    Very-KIND/Kndc1/KIAA1768 (v-KIND) is a brain-specific Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor carrying two sets of the kinase non-catalytic C-lobe domain (KIND), and is predominantly expressed in cerebellar granule cells. Here, we report the impact of v-KIND deficiency on dendritic and synaptic growth in cerebellar granule cells in v-KIND knockout (KO) mice. Furthermore, we evaluate motor function in these animals. The gross anatomy of the cerebellum, including the cerebellar lobules, layered cerebellar cortex and densely-packed granule cell layer, in KO mice appeared normal, and was similar to wild-type (WT) mice. However, KO mice displayed an overgrowth of cerebellar granule cell dendrites, compared with WT mice, resulting in an increased number of dendrites, dendritic branches and terminals. Immunoreactivity for vGluT2 (a marker for excitatory presynapses of mossy fiber terminals) was increased in the cerebellar glomeruli of KO mice, compared with WT mice. The postsynaptic density around the terminals of mossy fibers was also increased in KO mice. Although there were no significant differences in locomotor ability between KO and WT animals in their home cages or in the open field, young adult KO mice had an increased grip strength and a tendency to exhibit better motor performance in balance-related tests compared with WT animals. Taken together, our results suggest that v-KIND is required for compact dendritic growth and proper excitatory synaptic connections in cerebellar granule cells, which are necessary for normal motor coordination and balance. PMID:28264072

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice.

    PubMed

    Busby, Ellen R; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2017-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15-28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups.

  2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice

    PubMed Central

    Busby, Ellen R.; Sherwood, Nancy M.

    2017-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15–28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups. PMID:28346489

  3. Generic along-strike segmentation of Afar normal faults, East Africa: Implications on fault growth and stress heterogeneity on seismogenic fault planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manighetti, I.; Caulet, C.; Barros, L.; Perrin, C.; Cappa, F.; Gaudemer, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding how natural faults are segmented along their length can provide useful insights into fault growth processes, stress distribution on fault planes, and earthquake dynamics. We use cumulative displacement profiles to analyze the two largest scales of segmentation of ˜900 normal faults in Afar, East Africa. We build upon a prior study by Manighetti et al. (2009) and develop a new signal processing method aimed at recovering the number, position, displacement, and length of both the major (i.e., longest) and the subordinate, secondary segments within the faults. Regardless of their length, age, geographic location, total displacement, and slip rate, 90% of the faults contain two to five major segments, whereas more than 70% of these major segments are divided into two to four secondary segments. In each hierarchical rank of fault segmentation, most segments have a similar proportional length, whereas the number of segments slightly decreases with fault structural maturity. The along-strike segmentation of the Afar faults is thus generic at its two largest scales. We summarize published fault segment data on 42 normal, reverse, and strike-slip faults worldwide, and find a similar number (two to five) of major and secondary segments across the population. We suggest a fault growth scenario that might account for the generic large-scale segmentation of faults. The observation of a generic segmentation suggests that seismogenic fault planes are punctuated with a deterministic number of large stress concentrations, which are likely to control the initiation, arrest and hence extent and magnitude of earthquake ruptures.

  4. Diurnal secretion of ghrelin, growth hormone, insulin binding proteins, and prolactin in normal weight and overweight subjects with and without the night eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Birketvedt, Grethe S; Geliebter, Allan; Kristiansen, Ingrid; Firgenschau, Yngve; Goll, Rasmus; Florholmen, Jon R

    2012-12-01

    The regulatory peptide ghrelin has been proposed to help mediate both hunger and sleep. The neuroendocrine circadian patterns in the night eating syndrome (NES) have been distinguished by an attenuated nocturnal rise in the plasma concentrations of melatonin and leptin and a greater increase in the concentrations of cortisol. In this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that night eaters have disturbances in the circadian levels of ghrelin, growth hormone (GH) and associated regulatory peptides. In 12 female night eaters (6 normal weight and 6 overweight), and 25 healthy controls (12 normal weight and 13 overweight), blood was sampled over a 24-hour period. Four meals were served from 8 AM to 8 PM, and blood samples were drawn every second hour for determination of plasma ghrelin concentrations and GH by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Analysis of serum GH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and prolactin were performed by ELISA. In healthy normal weight subjects there was a slight but non significant nocturnal increase of ghrelin, whereas a more or less flat curve was observed for healthy overweight, NES normal weight and NES overweight patients. The RMANOVA analysis showed a significant independent lowering effect of overweight on the grand mean of ghrelin. No direct effects on NES normal weight and overweight subjects were found, but a near-significant interaction was found between healthy overweight and overweight NES subjects. There were independent significant lowering effects of overweight and NES on the serum GH levels. During the time course no changes in the serum levels of IGF-1 or IGFB-3 were observed. Independent significant lowering effects of overweight and NES on the levels of IGF-1 were detected, whereas a near significant reduction in the global levels of IGFBP-3 was observed in both NES groups. Finally, significant nocturnal changes were observed for serum levels of prolactin in all four subgroups. Grand mean levels tended to be higher in NES subjects whereas the opposite

  5. TGF-β activates APC through Cdh1 binding for Cks1 and Skp2 proteasomal destruction stabilizing p27kip1 for normal endometrial growth.

    PubMed

    Pavlides, Savvas C; Lecanda, Jon; Daubriac, Julien; Pandya, Unnati M; Gama, Patricia; Blank, Stephanie; Mittal, Khushbakhat; Shukla, Pratibha; Gold, Leslie I

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that aberrant TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling in endometrial cancer (ECA) leads to continuous ubiquitylation of p27(kip1)(p27) by the E3 ligase SCF-Skp2/Cks1 causing its degradation, as a putative mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of this cancer. In contrast, normal intact TGF-β signaling prevents degradation of nuclear p27 by SCF-Skp2/Cks1 thereby accumulating p27 to block Cdk2 for growth arrest. Here we show that in ECA cell lines and normal primary endometrial epithelial cells, TGF-β increases Cdh1 and its binding to APC/C to form the E3 ligase complex that ubiquitylates Cks1 and Skp2 prompting their proteasomal degradation and thus, leaving p27 intact. Knocking-down Cdh1 in ECA cell lines increased Skp2/Cks1 E3 ligase activity, completely diminished nuclear and cytoplasmic p27, and obviated TGF-β-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Protein synthesis was not required for TGF-β-induced increase in nuclear p27 and decrease in Cks1 and Skp2. Moreover, half-lives of Cks1 and Skp2 were extended in the Cdh1-depleted cells. These results suggest that the levels of p27, Skp2 and Cks1 are strongly or solely regulated by proteasomal degradation. Finally, an inverse relationship of low p27 and high Cks1 in the nucleus was shown in patients in normal proliferative endometrium and grade I-III ECAs whereas differentiated secretory endometrium showed the reverse. These studies implicate Cdh1 as the master regulator of TGF-β-induced preservation of p27 tumor suppressor activity. Thus, Cdh1 is a potential therapeutic target for ECA and other human cancers showing an inverse relationship between Cks1/Skp2 and p27 and/or dysregulated TGF-β signaling.

  6. The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is an F-box protein required for normal patterning and growth in the floral meristem.

    PubMed

    Samach, A; Klenz, J E; Kohalmi, S E; Risseeuw, E; Haughn, G W; Crosby, W L

    1999-11-01

    Genetic and molecular studies have suggested that the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene, from Arabidopsis thaliana, is expressed in all shoot apical meristems, and is involved in the regulation of a complex set of developmental events during floral development, including floral meristem and floral organ identity. Results from in situ hybridization using genes expressed early in floral development as probes indicate that UFO controls growth of young floral primordia. Transgenic constructs were used to provide evidence that UFO regulates floral organ identity by activating or maintaining transcription of the class B organ-identity gene APETALA 3, but not PISTILLATA. In an attempt to understand the biochemical mode of action of the UFO gene product, we show here that UFO is an F-box protein that interacts with Arabidopsis SKP1-like proteins, both in the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro. In yeast and other organisms both F-box proteins and SKP1 homologues are subunits of specific ubiquitin E3 enzyme complexes that target specific proteins for degradation. The protein selected for degradation by the complex is specified by the F-box proteins. It is therefore possible that the role of UFO is to target for degradation specific proteins controlling normal growth patterns in the floral primordia, as well as proteins that negatively regulate APETALA 3 transcription.

  7. Achievement of normally-off AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor with p-NiOx capping layer by sputtering and post-annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shyh-Jer; Chou, Cheng-Wei; Su, Yan-Kuin; Lin, Jyun-Hao; Yu, Hsin-Chieh; Chen, De-Long; Ruan, Jian-Long

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present a technique to fabricate normally off GaN-based high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) by sputtering and post-annealing p-NiOx capping layer. The p-NiOx layer is produced by sputtering at room temperature and post-annealing at 500 °C for 30 min in pure O2 environment to achieve high hole concentration. The Vth shifts from -3 V in the conventional transistor to 0.33 V, and on/off current ratio became 107. The forward and reverse gate breakdown increase from 3.5 V and -78 V to 10 V and -198 V, respectively. The reverse gate leakage current is 10-9 A/mm, and the off-state drain-leakage current is 10-8 A/mm. The Vth hysteresis is extremely small at about 33 mV. We also investigate the mechanism that increases hole concentration of p-NiOx after annealing in oxygen environment resulted from the change of Ni2+ to Ni3+ and the surge of (111)-orientation.

  8. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  9. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P < 0.05) higher survival, higher activities of TAS, GSH-Px and CAT, as well as higher transcript levels of GPx and CAT gene in shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency.

  10. The Application of Various Nonlinear Models to Describe Academic Growth Trajectories: An Empirical Analysis Using Four-Wave Longitudinal Achievement Data from a Large Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tacksoo

    2012-01-01

    This study introduced various nonlinear growth models, including the quadratic conventional polynomial model, the fractional polynomial model, the Sigmoid model, the growth model with negative exponential functions, the multidimensional scaling technique, and the unstructured growth curve model. It investigated which growth models effectively…

  11. Twenty-four-hour osteocalcin, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen rhythms in normal and growth-retarded children.

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Baroncelli, G I; Bertelloni, S; Cinquanta, L; DiNero, G

    1994-04-01

    The relationships between spontaneous variations in serum 24-h osteocalcin (OC), carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) concentrations and GH secretion, measured as GH response to provocative pharmacologic stimuli and spontaneous GH secretion during 24 h, were evaluated in prepubertal normal children and in GH-deficient and GH-secreting short normal children (SNC). All the subjects showed a circadian rhythm in smoothed 24-h OC and PICP mean data with higher nocturnal values in comparison with diurnal values. Conversely, serum PIINP concentrations did not vary throughout the day. In children with classic GH deficiency and nonclassic GH deficiency, mean 24-h serum levels and smoothed 24-h mean data for OC, PICP, and PIIINP were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) with respect to age-matched controls. SNC showed mean 24-h OC concentrations similar (p = NS) to those we found in age-matched controls, but they had significantly lower (p < 0.001) diurnal 12-h mean data in comparison with controls. SNC also showed both 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data and smoothed 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data significantly lower (from p < 0.02 to p < 0.001) at all the time points of measurement in comparison with controls. Twenty-four-hour PICP and PIIINP mean data were positively related to spontaneous 24-h GH concentrations (r = 0.77, p < 0.005 and r = 0.69, p < 0.005, respectively) and growth velocity (r = 0.85, p < 0.005, and r = 0.70, p < 0.005, respectively), whereas 24-h OC mean data were not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Effect of type and timing of oil supplements to sows during pregnancy on the growth performance and endocrine profile of low and normal birth weight offspring.

    PubMed

    Laws, John; Litten, Jennie C; Laws, Alison; Lean, Ian J; Dodds, Peter F; Clarke, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-eight multiparous sows were used to evaluate whether type and timing of oil supplementation during gestation influences the incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Sows were allocated (eight per treatment) commercial sow pellets (3 kg/d; control diet) or an experimental diet consisting of control diet plus 10 % extra energy in the form of excess pellets, palm oil, olive oil (OO), sunflower oil (SO) or fish oil; experimental diets were fed during either the first half (G1) or second half (G2) of gestation. Growth performance and endocrine profile of LBW (<1.09 kg) and normal birth weight (NBW; 1.46-1.64 kg) offspring were compared. Maternal dietary supplementation altered the distribution curve for piglet birth weight. SOG1 sows had a greater proportion of LBW piglets (P<0.05), whilst it was reduced in the OOG1 group (P<0.05). Growth rate of LBW piglets was lower compared with their NBW siblings (P<0.05) when dietary supplementation was offered in G2 but were similar for G1. At birth, LBW offspring of supplemented animals possessed more fat compared with the control group (P<0.05); LBW offspring of control animals exhibited a more rapid decline in fat free mass/kg prior to weaning. Plasma metabolites and insulin concentrations were influenced by maternal diet and birth weight. In conclusion, maternal dietary supplementation altered the distribution of piglet birth weights and improved the energy status of LBW piglets. Supplementation with MUFA during G1 reduced the incidence of LBW, whereas PUFA had the reverse effect.

  13. Pups of dams fed low-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation showed strong preference for high-fat diet to achieve optimal growth.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoko; Sato, Akie

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the causes why pups of dams fed a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet (LFD) showed a strong preference for fat, three groups of dams were fed one of three diets during pregnancy and lactation: the LFD, a control diet (CTD) or a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet (HFD). After weaning, pups of each of the three groups were divided into two equal subgroups (Pair 1 and Pair 2), for a total of six pup subgroups. Each subgroup was placed on a two-choice diet program of the LFD and the HFD (Pair 1), or the LFD and a HFDLE (with cellulose added to maintain the same energy concentration as the LFD) (Pair 2), for 3 wk. Although the energy intake of dams fed the LFD during the nursing period was lower than that of the HFD group, no significant difference in body weight was observed among the three groups. At weaning, the body weight of pups nursed by dams fed the LFD was lower than that of the other groups. In Pair 1, the HFD intake ratio of the LFD and the HFD groups during the self-selection period was higher than that of the CTD group. In Pair 2, the HFDLE intake ratio of the LFD and the CTD groups was lower than that of the HFD group. At the end of the self-selection period, no significant difference in body weight was observed among the three groups of Pair 1. However, in Pair 2, the body weight of the LFD group was lower than that of the other groups. Therefore, it was supposed that pups of dams fed the LFD showed strong preference for the HFD containing high energy in order to achieve optimal growth.

  14. Inequality in Language Achievement Growth? An Investigation into the Impact of Pupil Socio-Ethnic Background and School Socio-Ethnic Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfi, Barbara; Goos, Mieke; Pinxten, Maarten; Verhaeghe, Jean Pierre; Gielen, Sarah; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how pupils' growth trajectories in three language domains (reading fluency, spelling, and reading comprehension) are related to their own socioeconomic and ethnic background and to the socioeconomic and ethnic composition of their primary school. Using multilevel piecewise growth curve analysis, the growth trajectories…

  15. Plerocercoid growth factor (PGF), a human growth hormone (hGH) analogue produced by the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides, has direct insulin-like action in adipose tissue of normal rats in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, M.A.M.; Phares, C.K.

    1986-03-01

    The metabolic actions of GH can be divided into acute (insulin-like) and chronic (lipolytic/anti-insulin). The insulin-like actions of GH are most readily elicited in GH-deficient animals as GH induces resistance to its own insulin-like action. Like GH, PGF stimulates growth and cross-reacts with anti-hGH antibodies. Independent experiments were conducted comparing the direct actions of PGF to insulin or hGH in vitro. Insulin-like effects were determined by the ability of PGF, insulin or hGH to stimulate (U-/sup 14/C)glucose metabolism in epidydimal fat pads from normal rats and by inhibition of epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis. Direct stimulation of lipolysis was used as anti-insulin activity. To determine if PGF competes for insulin or GH receptors, adipocytes (3 x 10/sup 5/ cells/ml) were incubated with either (/sup 125/I)insulin or (/sup 125/I)hGH +/- PGF, +/- insulin or +/- hGH. PGF stimulated glucose oxidation and /sup 14/C-incorporation into lipids. Insulin, hGH and PGF inhibited lipolysis (33%, 29% and 34%, respectively). Adipose tissue was very sensitive to the lipolytic effect of hGH but PGF was neither lipolytic nor did it confer refractoriness to its insulin-like action. PGF bound to GH but not to insulin receptors. Therefore, PGF had direct insulin-like effects but did not stimulate lipolysis in tissue from normal rats in vitro.

  16. Normal and abnormal grain growth in fine-grained Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets prepared from He jet milled powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, F.; Woodcock, T. G.; Schultz, L.; Schwöbel, C.; Gutfleisch, O.; Zickler, G. A.; Fidler, J.; Üstüner, K.; Katter, M.

    2017-03-01

    Fine-grained, heavy rare earth free Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets were prepared from He jet milled powders with an average particle size of 1.5 μm by low temperature sintering at 920 °C or 980 °C. A coercivity of >1600 kA/m was achieved for an average grain size of 1.68 μm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the distribution and composition of intergranular and grain boundary junction phases was similar to that in conventionally processed magnets. Microstructural analysis on different length scales revealed the occurrence of abnormal grain growth, which is unexpected for sintering temperatures below 1000 °C. A larger area fraction of abnormal grains was observed in the sample sintered at 920 °C compared to that sintered at 980 °C. Microtexture investigation showed a better crystallographic alignment of the abnormal grains compared to the fine-grained matrix, which is explained by a size dependent alignment of the powder particles during magnetic field alignment prior to sintering. Slightly larger particles in the initial powder show a better alignment and will act as nucleation sites for abnormal grain growth. Magneto-optical Kerr investigations confirmed the lower switching field of the abnormal grains compared to the fine-grained matrix. The demagnetisation curve of the sample sintered at 920 °C showed reduced rectangularity and this was attributed to a cooperative effect of the larger fraction of abnormal grains with low switching field and, as a minor effect, a reduced degree of crystallographic texture in this sample compared to the material sintered at 980 °C, which did not show the reduced rectangularity of the demagnetisation curve.

  17. Effect of Oral Glucose Administration on Rebound Growth Hormone Release in Normal and Obese Women: The Role of Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity and Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Garcia-Buela, Jesus; Tovar, Sulay; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Dieguez, Carlos; Cordido, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Context Metabolic substrates and nutritional status play a major role in growth hormone (GH) secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms involved in GH secretion following oral glucose (OG) administration in normal and obese patients is a pending issue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate GH after OG in relation with adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion in obese and healthy women, to further elucidate the mechanism of GH secretion after OG and the altered GH secretion in obesity. Participants and Methods We included 64 healthy and obese women. After an overnight fast, 75 g of OG were administered; GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin were obtained during 300 minutes. Insulin secretion and action indices and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were employed. Results The AUC of GH (μg/L•min) was lower in obese (249.8±41.8) than in healthy women (490.4±74.6), P=0.001. The AUC of total ghrelin (pg/mL•min) was lower in obese (240995.5±11094.2) than in healthy women (340797.5±37757.5), P=0.042. There were significant correlations between GH secretion and the different adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion indices. After multivariate analysis only ghrelin AUC remained a significant predictor for fasting and peak GH. PMID:25782001

  18. Characterisation and distribution of epidermal growth factor receptors in equine hoof wall laminar tissue: comparison of normal horses and horses affected with chronic laminitis.

    PubMed

    Grosenbaugh, D A; Hood, D M; Amoss, M S; Williams, J D

    1991-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors were detected in plasma membrane preparations of equine hoof wall laminar tissue at concentrations comparable to that of equine liver. Scatchard analysis of the equilibrium binding data suggested the presence of two classes of EGF binding sites in most of the controls (plasma membranes from clinically normal horses); a high-affinity class and a more numerous low-affinity class. The dissociation constant of the low-affinity class of EGF-specific receptors (KD = 1 x 10(-9)M) is in reasonable agreement with other values established for the EGF receptor. The variability between individual estimates for the KD of the high-affinity receptor class precluded an accurate estimate for those sites. A possible explanation is discussed. The high-affinity binding sites were uniformly absent in plasma membranes prepared from horses affected by chronic laminitis. Autoradiographic analysis localised the EGF receptors primarily to the secondary epidermal laminae, with an apparent greater density over the proliferative basal keratinocytes. Little label was associated with the dermal or the keratinised primary epidermal laminae. Tissue from horses with chronic laminitis had EGF receptors located uniformly over the hyperplastic epidermal keratinocytes. These data suggest that an EGF-mediated response may be involved in the hyperproliferative response that is characteristic of chronic laminitis.

  19. Enhancement of erythroid colony growth by triiodothyronine in cell cultures from bone marrow of normal and anemic rats with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Malgor, L A; Valsecia, M E; Verges, E G; de Markowsky, E E

    1995-01-01

    In order to make a contribution in clarifying the role of thyroid hormones on modulation of erythropoiesis and to gain a further insight on the effects of these hormones in the anemia of chronic renal failure (CRF), we studied the action of triiodo-1-thyronine (LT3) and DT3, a dextrorotary non-calorigenic isomer of T3 on late (CFU-E) and early (BFU-E) committed erythroid precursor cells from bone marrow of normal and anemic uremic rats. Cultures were prepared using the methylcellulose technique containing a standard dose (182 mU/ml) of erythropoietin (Ep), LT3 and DT3 in doses of 0.5 and 1.5 micrograms/ml. Thyroid hormones were added to cultures in the absence of Ep. Our results demonstrated that LT3 and DT3 produced a direct and significant stimulation of CFU-E formation and a moderate increase of BFU-E. A dose-correlation was apparent in cultures containing thyroid hormones. DT3 was somewhat less active than LT3. As expected, Ep also produced a significant increase in erythroid colony formation, mainly CFU-E. It is notheworthy that the effects of LT3, DT3 and Ep on erythroid colony growth were significantly higher in marrow cultures from anemic rats with CRF, indicating an increased proliferative cell kinetics of committed erythroid cells in response to these drugs.

  20. Vascular-endothelial growth factor and its high affinity receptor VEGFR-2 in the normal versus destructive lesions human forebrain during development: an immuno-histochemical comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sentilhes, Loïc; Marret, Stéphane; Leroux, Philippe; Gonzalez, Bruno José; Laquerrière, Annie

    2011-04-18

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic inducer and neurotrophic factor both in adult and neonatal animal models. In the destructive lesions of the developing human brain, the role and expression of VEGF and of its mitogenic receptor VEGFR-2 have been hardly studied. The aim of the present work was to determine the immunohistochemical distribution of VEGF and VEGFR-2 in premature and full-term infants presenting with hypoxic/ischemic lesions, and to compare results with normal infant brains at similar developmental stages. Paraffin embedded brain tissue samples were assessed using anti-human VEGF and VEGFR-2 antibodies. In all undamaged forebrain areas, VEGF and VEGFR-2 displayed same expression patterns in control and pathologic brains, whatever the destructive lesion occurrence's time (before 25 weeks of gestation (WG), between 25 and 34WG, perinatal period and infancy). In the destructive lesions, VEGF was always expressed in neurons, astrocytes and in neovessel walls, contrary to VEGFR-2 which was only expressed in dispersed astrocytes. VEGF was expressed in oligodendrocytes of prenatally damaged brains, whereas VEGF was expressed in these cells in undamaged areas from birth only, similarly to control brains. These data suggest that VEGF plays specific roles and may not be mediated by VEGFR-2 in human forebrain structures exposed to ischemia.

  1. Growth Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... function and also play a role in growth. Hypothyroidism can cause slow growth because the thyroid gland ... to support normal growth. A major symptom of hypothyroidism is feeling tired or sluggish. A blood test ...

  2. Effects of Supplemental Chromium Source and Concentration on Growth, Carcass Characteristics, and Serum Lipid Parameters of Broilers Reared Under Normal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cancai; Huang, Yanling; Xiao, Fang; Lin, Xi; Lloyd, Karen

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chromium (Cr) source and concentration on growth performance, carcass traits, and some serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions for 42 days. A total of 252 1-day-old Cobb 500 commercial female broilers were randomly allotted by body weight (BW) to one of six replicate cages (six broilers per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involved in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three Cr sources (Cr propionate (CrPro), Cr picolinate (CrPic), Cr chloride (CrCl3)) and two concentrations of added Cr (0.4 and 2.0 mg of Cr/kg) plus a Cr-unsupplemented control diet. The results showed that dietary Cr supplementation tended to increase the breast muscle percentage compared with the Cr-unsupplemented control group (P = 0.0784), while Cr from CrPic tended to have higher breast muscle percentage compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0881). Chromium from CrPic also tended to increase the breast intramuscular fat (IMF) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0648). In addition, supplementation of 0.4 mg/kg Cr tended to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.0614). Compared with the control group, broilers fed Cr-supplemented diets had higher triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.0129) regardless of Cr source and Cr concentration. Chromium from CrPro and CrPic had lower total cholesterol (TC) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0220). These results indicate that dietary supplementation of Cr has effects on carcass characteristics and serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions, while supplementation of organic Cr can improve carcass characteristics and reduce the cholesterol content in serum.

  3. Pregnant growth restricted female rats have bone gains during late gestation which contributes to second generation adolescent and adult offspring having normal bone health.

    PubMed

    Anevska, Kristina; Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Jefferies, Andrew J; Wark, John D; Wlodek, Mary E; Romano, Tania

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight, due to uteroplacental insufficiency, results in programmed bone deficits in the first generation (F1). These deficits may be passed onto subsequent generations. We characterized the effects of being born small on maternal bone health during pregnancy; and aimed to characterize the contribution of the maternal environment and germ line effects to bone health in F2 offspring from mothers born small. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation (or sham) surgery was performed on female F0 WKY rats on gestational day 18 (term 22days) to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. Control and Restricted F1 female offspring were allocated to a non-pregnant or pregnant group. To generate F2 offspring, F1 females were allocated to either non-embryo or embryo transfer groups. Embryo transfer was performed on gestational day 1, where second generation (F2) embryos were gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a Control (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) or Restricted (Control-in-Restricted, Restricted-in-Restricted) mother. Restricted F1 females were born 10-15% lighter than Controls. Restricted non-pregnant females had shorter femurs, reduced trabecular and cortical bone mineral contents, trabecular density and bone geometry measures determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) compared to non-pregnant Controls. Pregnancy restored the bone deficits that were present in F1 Restricted females. F2 non-embryo transfer male and female offspring were born of normal weight, while F2 embryo transfer males and females gestated in a Control mother (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) were heavier at birth compared to offspring gestated in a Restricted mother (Restricted-in-Restricted, Control-in-Restricted). Male F2 Restricted embryo groups (Restricted-in-Control and Restricted-in-Restricted) had accelerated postnatal growth. There was no transmission of bone deficits present at 35days or 6months in F2 offspring. Embryo

  4. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on the hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in normal birth weight and intrauterine growth-retarded weanling piglets

    PubMed Central

    Su, Weipeng; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Hao; Ying, Zhixiong; Zhou, Le; Zhang, Lili

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in the liver of normal birth weight (NBW) and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) weanling piglets. MATERIALS/METHODS A total of sixteen pairs of NBW and IUGR piglets from sixteen sows were selected according to their birth weight. At postnatal day 14, all piglets were weaned and fed either a control diet or a leucine-supplemented diet for 21 d. Thereafter, a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design was used. Each treatment consisted of eight replications with one piglet per replication. RESULTS Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had a decreased (P < 0.05) hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. Also, IUGR piglets exhibited reductions (P < 0.05) in the activities of hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), citrate synthase (CS), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and complexes I and V, along with decreases (P < 0.05) in the concentration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the protein expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α). Dietary leucine supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the content of ATP, and the activities of CS, α-KGDH, MDH, and complex V in the liver of piglets. Furthermore, compared to those fed a control diet, piglets given a leucine-supplemented diet exhibited increases (P < 0.05) in the mtDNA content and in the mRNA expressions of sirtuin 1, PGC-1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, β polypeptide in liver. CONCLUSIONS Dietary leucine supplementation may exert beneficial effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in NBW and IUGR weanling piglets. PMID:28386385

  5. Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

  6. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Panax ginseng at different stages of growth and in different organs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Qun; Sun, Minying; Zhu, Linlin; Yang, Michael; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has become a widely used method for gene expression analysis; however, its data interpretation largely depends on the stability of reference genes. The transcriptomics of Panax ginseng, one of the most popular and traditional ingredients used in Chinese medicines, is increasingly being studied. Furthermore, it is vital to establish a series of reliable reference genes when qRT-PCR is used to assess the gene expression profile of ginseng. In this study, we screened out candidate reference genes for ginseng using gene expression data generated by a high-throughput sequencing platform. Based on the statistical tests, 20 reference genes (10 traditional housekeeping genes and 10 novel genes) were selected. These genes were tested for the normalization of expression levels in five growth stages and three distinct plant organs of ginseng by qPCR. These genes were subsequently ranked and compared according to the stability of their expressions using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper computational programs. Although the best reference genes were found to vary across different samples, CYP and EF-1α were the most stable genes amongst all samples. GAPDH/30S RPS20, CYP/60S RPL13 and CYP/QCR were the optimum pair of reference genes in the roots, stems, and leaves. CYP/60S RPL13, CYP/eIF-5A, aTUB/V-ATP, eIF-5A/SAR1, and aTUB/pol IIa were the most stably expressed combinations in each of the five developmental stages. Our study serves as a foundation for developing an accurate method of qRT-PCR and will benefit future studies on gene expression profiles of Panax Ginseng.

  7. The Effects of Middle School Bullying and Victimization on Adjustment through High School: Growth Modeling of Achievement, School Attendance, and Disciplinary Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marissa A.; Ojanen, Tiina; Gesten, Ellis L.; Smith-Schrandt, Heather; Brannick, Michael; Wienke Totura, Christine M.; Alexander, Lizette; Scanga, David; Brown, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The current 5-year longitudinal study examined the effects of middle school bullying and victimization on adolescent academic achievement, disciplinary referrals, and school attendance through high school (N = 2030; 1016 both boys and girls). Greater engagement in bullying behaviors was concurrently associated with lower achievement and school…

  8. Examining the Effects of General Level Course Elimination and Tracking on Student Growth and Achievement in a Suburban High School Mathematics Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a decade of reform driven by the NCLB legislation, there continues to be a significant gap in mathematics achievement between race/ethnicity and socioeconomic groupings of students. This study examines the practice of tracking and an effort to improve mathematics achievement by eliminating the general level mathematics track. The suburban…

  9. Fatty acid as structure directing agent for controlled secondary growth of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to achieve mesoscale assemblies: A facile approach for developing hierarchical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, K.; Kaushik, S. D.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Deb, P.

    2016-08-01

    Mesoscale hierarchical assemblies have emerged out as a new class of structures between fine dimension nanoparticles and bulk structures, having distinctly different physical properties from either side. Controlling the self-assembly process of primary nanoparticles and subsequent secondary growth mechanism is the key aspect for achieving such ordered structures. In this work, we introduce a new insight on achieving hierarchical assemblies of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles based on the temporal stability of the primary nanoparticles, where, the growth and stability of the primary particles are controlled by using oleic acid. It is found that the developed particles, at a critical concentration of oleic acid, prefer a secondary growth process, rather than promoting their individual growth. Domination of the attractive hydrophobic interaction over steric repulsion among the primary particles at this critical concentration of oleic acid is found to be the key factor for the initial aggregation of the primary particles, which eventually leads to the formation of spherical hierarchical assemblies via oriented attachment. It is also realized that the extremely well or poor stability conditions of the primary particles do not allow this secondary growth process. Estimated values of Co2+ distribution factor show that the cation distribution factor of CoFe2O4 system is not affected by the nature of dominant growth processes, when these are controlled. Interestingly, magnetic measurements reflect the stronger interparticle interaction in the hierarchical system and high magnetic moment values at low magnetic field.

  10. River profile response to normal fault growth and linkage: an example from the Hellenic forearc of south-central Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, Sean F.; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2017-02-01

    Topography is a reflection of the tectonic and geodynamic processes that act to uplift the Earth's surface and the erosional processes that work to return it to base level. Numerous studies have shown that topography is a sensitive recorder of tectonic signals. A quasi-physical understanding of the relationship between river incision and rock uplift has made the analysis of fluvial topography a popular technique for deciphering relative, and some argue absolute, histories of rock uplift. Here we present results from a study of the fluvial topography from south-central Crete, demonstrating that river longitudinal profiles indeed record the relative history of uplift, but several other processes make it difficult to recover quantitative uplift histories. Prior research demonstrates that the south-central coastline of Crete is bound by a large ( ˜ 100 km long) E-W striking composite normal fault system. Marine terraces reveal that it is uplifting between 0.1 and 1.0 mm yr-1. These studies suggest that two normal fault systems, the offshore Ptolemy and onshore South-Central Crete faults, linked together in the recent geologic past (ca. 0.4-1 My BP). Fault mechanics predict that when adjacent faults link into a single fault the uplift rate in footwalls of the linkage zone will increase rapidly. We use this natural experiment to assess the response of river profiles to a temporal jump in uplift rate and to assess the applicability of the stream power incision model to this setting. Using river profile analysis we show that rivers in south-central Crete record the relative uplift history of fault growth and linkage as theory predicts that they should. Calibration of the commonly used stream power incision model shows that the slope exponent, n, is ˜ 0.5, contrary to most studies that find n ≥ 1. Analysis of fluvial knickpoints shows that migration distances are not proportional to upstream contributing drainage area, as predicted by the stream power incision model

  11. Telomere attrition and restoration in the normal teleost Oryzias latipes are linked to growth rate and telomerase activity at each life stage.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Hitoshi; Yamazaki, Hiromi; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Aida, Junko; Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Takubo, Kaiyo; Ishikawa, Naoshi

    2016-01-01

    Telomere shortening occurs when cells divide, both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, telomerase is able to maintain telomere length in cells by adding TTAGGG repeats to the ends of telomeres. However, the interrelationships existing among telomere length, telomerase activity and growth in vertebrates remain to be clarified. In the present study we measured telomere length (terminal restriction fragment length), telomerase activity and body growth of Oryzias latipes from the embryo stage until senescence. During the rapid growth stage (age 0-7 months), telomeres shortened in parallel with decreasing telomerase activity. Then, during adolescence (age 7 months - 1 year), telomeres lengthened quickly as growth slowed and telomerase activity increased. In the adult stage (age 1-4 years) characterized by little growth, telomerase activity decreased gradually and telomeres shortened. Our data indicate that telomere attrition and restoration are linked to growth and telomerase activity, and suggest that critical loss of telomere homeostasis is associated with mortality in this animal.

  12. All-trans retinoic acid converts E2F into a transcriptional suppressor and inhibits the growth of normal human bronchial epithelial cells through a retinoic acid receptor- dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H Y; Dohi, D F; Kim, Y H; Walsh, G L; Consoli, U; Andreeff, M; Dawson, M I; Hong, W K; Kurie, J M

    1998-01-01

    Retinoids, including retinol and retinoic acid derivatives, maintain the normal growth and differentiation of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and are under investigation as agents for lung cancer prevention. In this study, we examined the biologic effects of retinoids on normal HBE cells and the molecular mechanisms of retinoid actions. At a dose of 10(-6) M, all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) suppressed the proliferation of normal HBE cells, which accumulated in the G0 phase. No evidence of programmed cell death was observed. The class of retinoid nuclear receptor that mediated the growth arrest was explored. Normal HBE cell growth was suppressed by a retinoid that selectively activates retinoic acid receptors but not by one that activates retinoid X receptors. The E2F transcription factor has demonstrated a role in G0 entry through transcriptional suppression of genes that induce cell cycle progression. To investigate the role of E2F in retinoid signaling, transient transfection assays were performed using reporter plasmids containing E2F-binding sites. Findings from these experiments suggested that t-RA treatment converted E2F into a transcriptional suppressor. Supporting this possibility, t-RA inhibited the expression of the E2F target genes B-myb, cyclin A, and cyclin E. Further, t-RA increased the levels of nuclear E2F-4, p107, and p130 and enhanced the binding of E2F-4 to p107, which have been associated with the conversion of E2F into a transcriptional suppressor in other cells. These findings point to retinoic acid receptor- and E2F-dependent pathways as potential mediators of retinoid-induced growth arrest in normal HBE cells and have implications for the use of retinoids in clinical trials on the prevention of lung cancer. PMID:9486971

  13. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  14. The Effects of a Schoolwide Data-Based Decision Making Intervention on Elementary Schools' Student Achievement Growth for Mathematics and Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keuning, Trynke; van Geel, Marieke; Visscher, Adrie; Fox, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Around the world during the last decade, policymakers increasingly emphasize the use of data in education to enhance student achievement. As a result, the number of reform initiatives to promote "data-based decision making" (DBDM) or "data-driven decision making" (DDDM) has increased rapidly. At the University of Twente in the…

  15. The Relationship of Leadership Styles, Gender and Years of Experience of Middle School Principals in North Carolina on Achievement and Growth Trends on the End of Grade Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Morris, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is an ever changing process and principals play a key role in the instructional focus of a school which often times created success in instruction (Riordan, 2003). Principals face different challenges today while improving schools and student academic achievement. The perceptions of an effective school leader has changed over the years…

  16. Growth hormone and growth?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steve

    2013-09-01

    Pituitary GH is obligatory for normal growth in mammals, but the importance of pituitary GH in avian growth is less certain. In birds, pituitary GH is biologically active and has growth promoting actions in the tibia-test bioassay. Its importance in normal growth is indicated by the growth suppression following the surgical removal of the pituitary gland or after the immunoneutralization of endogenous pituitary GH. The partial restoration of growth in some studies with GH-treated hypophysectomized birds also suggests GH dependency in avian growth, as does the dwarfism that occurs in some strains with GHR dysfunctions. Circulating GH concentrations are also correlated with body weight gain, being high in young, rapidly growing birds and low in slower growing older birds. Nevertheless, despite these observations, there is an extensive literature that concludes pituitary GH is not important in avian growth. This is based on numerous studies with hypophysectomized and intact birds that show only slight, transitory or absent growth responses to exogenous GH-treatment. Moreover, while circulating GH levels correlate with weight gain in young birds, this may merely reflect changes in the control of pituitary GH secretion during aging, as numerous studies involving experimental alterations in growth rate fail to show positive correlations between plasma GH concentrations and the alterations in growth rate. Furthermore, growth is known to occur in the absence of pituitary GH, as most embryonic development occurs prior to the ontogenetic appearance of pituitary somatotrophs and the appearance of GH in embryonic circulation. Early embryonic growth is also independent of the endocrine actions of pituitary GH, since removal of the presumptive pituitary gland does not impair early growth. Embryonic growth does, however, occur in the presence of extrapituitary GH, which is produced by most tissues and has autocrine or paracrine roles that locally promote growth and development

  17. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  18. c-Kit-kinase induces a cascade of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in normal human melanocytes in response to mast cell growth factor and stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase but is down-regulated in melanomas.

    PubMed Central

    Funasaka, Y; Boulton, T; Cobb, M; Yarden, Y; Fan, B; Lyman, S D; Williams, D E; Anderson, D M; Zakut, R; Mishima, Y

    1992-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Kit, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is an important regulator of cell growth whose constitutively active oncogenic counterpart, v-kit, induces sarcomas in cats. Mutations in murine c-kit that reduce the receptor tyrosine kinase activity cause deficiencies in the migration and proliferation of melanoblasts, hematopoietic stem cells, and primordial germ cells. We therefore investigated whether c-Kit regulates normal human melanocyte proliferation and plays a role in melanomas. We show that normal human melanocytes respond to mast cell growth factor (MGF), the Kit-ligand that stimulates phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in c-Kit and induces sequential phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in several other proteins. One of the phosphorylated intermediates in the signal transduction pathway was identified as an early response kinase (mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase). Dephosphorylation of a prominent 180-kDa protein suggests that MGF also activates a phosphotyrosine phosphatase. In contrast, MGF did not induce proliferation, the cascade of protein phosphorylations, or MAP kinase activation in the majority of cells cultured from primary nodular and metastatic melanomas that grow independently of exogenous factors. In the five out of eight human melanoma lines expressing c-kit mRNAs, c-Kit was not constitutively activated. Therefore, although c-Kit-kinase is a potent growth regulator of normal human melanocytes, its activity is not positively associated with malignant transformation. Images PMID:1372524

  19. Fibroblast migration and proliferation during in vitro wound healing. A quantitative comparison between various growth factors and a low molecular weight blood dialysate used in the clinic to normalize impaired wound healing.

    PubMed

    Schreier, T; Degen, E; Baschong, W

    1993-01-01

    During the formation of granulation tissue in a dermal wound, platelets, monocytes and other cellular blood constituents release various peptide growth factors to stimulate fibroblasts to migrate into the wound site and proliferate, in order to reconstitute the various connective tissue components. The effect on fibroblast migration and proliferation of these growth factors, and of Solcoseryl (HD), a deproteinized fraction of calf blood used to normalize wound granulation and scar tissue formation, was quantified in vitro. The presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and hemodialysate (HD) increased the number of cells in the denuded area, i.e., in the "wound space" of an artificially ruptured monolayer of LM-fibroblasts (mouse lung fibroblasts). When cell proliferation was blocked with Mitomycin C, in the first 24 h all factors, i.e., bFGF, PDGF, TGF-beta and HD, promoted cell migration, whereas after 48 h it became obvious that each factor stimulated both migration and proliferation, each in a characteristic way. The effects were significant and more distinct after 48 h, following the order: PDGF (46%) approximately bFGF (87%) > HD (45%) approximately TGF-beta (40%) > control (62%). The relative contributions of migration after inhibiting proliferation are given in brackets. The modulatory activity of HD was localized in its hydrophilic fraction. It was destroyed by acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, this activity could be blocked by protamine sulfate, an inhibitor blocking peptide growth factor receptor binding.

  20. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), environment, exposome and epigenetics: a molecular perspective of postnatal normal spinal growth and the etiopathogenesis of AIS with consideration of a network approach and possible implications for medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Discordant findings for monozygotic (MZ) twins with AIS show that environmental factors including different intrauterine environments are important in etiology, but what these environmental factors may be is unknown. Recent evidence for common chronic non-communicable diseases suggests epigenetic differences may underlie MZ twin discordance, and be the link between environmental factors and phenotypic differences. DNA methylation is one important epigenetic mechanism operating at the interface between genome and environment to regulate phenotypic plasticity with a complex regulation across the genome during the first decade of life. The word exposome refers to the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards, comprising factors in external and internal environments. The word exposome is used here also in relation to physiologic and etiopathogenetic factors that affect normal spinal growth and may induce the deformity of AIS. In normal postnatal spinal growth we propose a new term and concept, physiologic growth-plate exposome for the normal processes particularly of the internal environments that may have epigenetic effects on growth plates of vertebrae. In AIS, we propose a new term and concept pathophysiologic scoliogenic exposome for the abnormal processes in molecular pathways particularly of the internal environment currently expressed as etiopathogenetic hypotheses; these are suggested to have deforming effects on the growth plates of vertebrae at cell, tissue, structure and/or organ levels that are considered to be epigenetic. New research is required for chromatin modifications including DNA methylation in AIS subjects and vertebral growth plates excised at surgery. In addition, consideration is needed for a possible network approach to etiopathogenesis by constructing AIS diseasomes. These approaches may lead through screening

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel collagen/cellulose nanocrystals scaffold for achieving the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Li, Weichang; Lan, Yong; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Yuanming

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered dermis is thought to be the best treatment for skin defects; however, slow vascularization of these biomaterial scaffolds limits their clinical application. Exogenous administration of angiogenic growth factors is highly desirable for tissue regeneration. In this study, biodegradable gelatin microspheres (GMs) containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were fabricated and incorporated into a porous collagen/cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) scaffold, as a platform for long-term release and consequent angiogenic boosting. The physicochemical properties of these scaffolds were examined and the in vitro release pattern of bFGF from scaffolds was measured by ELISA. Collagen/CNCs scaffolds with and without bFGF-GMs were incubated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells for 1 week, results showed that the scaffolds with bFGF-GMs significantly augmented cell proliferation. Then, four different groups of scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into Sprague-Dawley rats to study angiogenesis in vivo via macroscopic observation, and hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining. The results suggested that the collagen/CNCs/bFGF-GMs scaffolds had a significantly higher number of newly formed and mature blood vessels, and the fastest degradation rate. This study demonstrated that collagen/CNCs/bFGF-GMs scaffolds have great potential in skin tissue engineering.

  2. Septins AspA and AspC are important for normal development and limit the emergence of new growth foci in the multicellular fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septins are cytoskeletal proteins found in fungi, animals and microsporidia where they form multi-septin heteropolymeric complexes that act as scaffolds recruiting and organizing other proteins to ensure normal cell division and development. Here we characterize AspA and AspC, two of the five septin...

  3. Class XI Myosins Move Specific Organelles in Pollen Tubes and Are Required for Normal Fertility and Pollen Tube Growth in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Stephanie L.; Buchanan, Matthew L.; Glass, Jeremiah D.; McClain, Tarah F.; Park, Eunsook; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tube growth is an essential aspect of plant reproduction because it is the mechanism through which nonmotile sperm cells are delivered to ovules, thus allowing fertilization to occur. A pollen tube is a single cell that only grows at the tip, and this tip growth has been shown to depend on actin filaments. It is generally assumed that myosin-driven movements along these actin filaments are required to sustain the high growth rates of pollen tubes. We tested this conjecture by examining seed set, pollen fitness, and pollen tube growth for knockout mutants of five of the six myosin XI genes expressed in pollen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Single mutants had little or no reduction in overall fertility, whereas double mutants of highly similar pollen myosins had greater defects in pollen tube growth. In particular, myo11c1 myo11c2 pollen tubes grew more slowly than wild-type pollen tubes, which resulted in reduced fitness compared with the wild type and a drastic reduction in seed set. Golgi stack and peroxisome movements were also significantly reduced, and actin filaments were less organized in myo11c1 myo11c2 pollen tubes. Interestingly, the movement of yellow fluorescent protein-RabA4d-labeled vesicles and their accumulation at pollen tube tips were not affected in the myo11c1 myo11c2 double mutant, demonstrating functional specialization among myosin isoforms. We conclude that class XI myosins are required for organelle motility, actin organization, and optimal growth of pollen tubes. PMID:26358416

  4. Lipid metabolism during bacterial growth, sporulation, and germination: differential synthesis of individual branched- and normal-chain fatty acids during spore germination and outgrowth of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, K W; Bulla, L A; Mounts, T L

    1975-12-01

    The biosynthesis of individual branched- and normal-chain fatty acids during Bacillus thuringiensis spore germination and outgrowth was studied by comparing pulsed and continuous labeling of these fatty acids with [U-14C]acetate. The relative specific activity of each fatty acid varies with time as the cell progresses through outgrowth. However, fatty acid synthesis does occur in two distinct phases. Upon germination, acetate is incorporated only into the iso-isomers i-C13, i-C14, and i-C16; no normal or anteiso synthesis occurs. Subsequent to T30, the full complement of branched- and normal-chain homologues is formed and there is a dramatic enhancement in the overall rate of fatty acid synthesis. Significantly, this rate increase coincides with a marked shift from the synthesis of short-chain to long-chain fatty acids. These findings illustrate a dichotomy in synthesis that may result from initial fatty acid formation by preexisting spore fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. Elucidation of the timing and kinetics of individual fatty acid formation provides a biochemical profile of activities directly related to membrane differentiation and cellular development.

  5. Role of Stroma-Derived Extracellular Matrix in Regulation of Growth and Hormonal Responsiveness of Normal and Cancerous Human Breast Epithelium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    by residual estrogen or more likely by growth factor pathways ( Ignar -Trowbridge et al., 1996), have masked estrogen-induced proliferation in serum...an ERE- CAT construct independent of estrogen, but this was blocked by the anti-estrogen ICI 164,384 ( Ignar -Trowbridge et al., 1996). Again, these...modulates hormonal responsiveness of mammary epithelium in vivo in the mouse. Endocrinology, 129:2017-2023. Ignar -Trowbridge, D.M., M. Pimentel, M.G

  6. Caulobacter crescentus CdnL is a non-essential RNA polymerase-binding protein whose depletion impairs normal growth and rRNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Gallego-García, Aránzazu; Iniesta, Antonio A; González, Diego; Collier, Justine; Padmanabhan, S; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2017-02-24

    CdnL is an essential RNA polymerase (RNAP)-binding activator of rRNA transcription in mycobacteria and myxobacteria but reportedly not in Bacillus. Whether its function and mode of action are conserved in other bacteria thus remains unclear. Because virtually all alphaproteobacteria have a CdnL homolog and none of these have been characterized, we studied the homolog (CdnLCc) of the model alphaproteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. We show that CdnLCc is not essential for viability but that its absence or depletion causes slow growth and cell filamentation. CdnLCc is degraded in vivo in a manner dependent on its C-terminus, yet excess CdnLCc resulting from its stabilization did not adversely affect growth. We find that CdnLCc interacts with itself and with the RNAP β subunit, and localizes to at least one rRNA promoter in vivo, whose activity diminishes upon depletion of CdnLCc. Interestingly, cells expressing CdnLCc mutants unable to interact with the RNAP were cold-sensitive, suggesting that CdnLCc interaction with RNAP is especially required at lower than standard growth temperatures in C. crescentus. Our study indicates that despite limited sequence similarities and regulatory differences compared to its myco/myxobacterial homologs, CdnLCc may share similar biological functions, since it affects rRNA synthesis, probably by stabilizing open promoter-RNAP complexes.

  7. Caulobacter crescentus CdnL is a non-essential RNA polymerase-binding protein whose depletion impairs normal growth and rRNA transcription

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-García, Aránzazu; Iniesta, Antonio A.; González, Diego; Collier, Justine; Padmanabhan, S.; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    CdnL is an essential RNA polymerase (RNAP)-binding activator of rRNA transcription in mycobacteria and myxobacteria but reportedly not in Bacillus. Whether its function and mode of action are conserved in other bacteria thus remains unclear. Because virtually all alphaproteobacteria have a CdnL homolog and none of these have been characterized, we studied the homolog (CdnLCc) of the model alphaproteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. We show that CdnLCc is not essential for viability but that its absence or depletion causes slow growth and cell filamentation. CdnLCc is degraded in vivo in a manner dependent on its C-terminus, yet excess CdnLCc resulting from its stabilization did not adversely affect growth. We find that CdnLCc interacts with itself and with the RNAP β subunit, and localizes to at least one rRNA promoter in vivo, whose activity diminishes upon depletion of CdnLCc. Interestingly, cells expressing CdnLCc mutants unable to interact with the RNAP were cold-sensitive, suggesting that CdnLCc interaction with RNAP is especially required at lower than standard growth temperatures in C. crescentus. Our study indicates that despite limited sequence similarities and regulatory differences compared to its myco/myxobacterial homologs, CdnLCc may share similar biological functions, since it affects rRNA synthesis, probably by stabilizing open promoter-RNAP complexes. PMID:28233804

  8. Generation of fibrosarcomas in vivo by a retrovirus that expresses the normal B chain of platelet-derived growth factor and mimics the alternative splice pattern of the v-sis oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Pech, M.; Gazit, A.; Arnstein, P.; Aaronson, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    A retrovirus containing the entire human platelet-derived growth factor B-chain (PDGF-B) gene was constructed in order to investigate the in vivo biological activity of its encoded growth factor. When this virus was introduced into newborn mice, it reproducibly generated fibrosarcomas at the site of inoculation. Proviruses in each fibrosarcoma analyzed had lost 149 nucleotides downstream of the PDGF-B coding region. This deletion originated from an alternative or aberrant splice event that occurred within exon 7 of the PDGF-B gene and mimicked the v-sis oncogene. Thus, deletion of this region may be necessary for efficient retrovirus replication or for more potent transforming function. Evidence that the normal growth factor coding sequence was unaltered derived from RNase protection studies and immunoprecipitation analysis. Tumors were generally polyclonal but demonstrated clonal subpopulations. Moreover, tumor-derived cell lines became monoclonal within a few tissue culture passages and rapidly formed tumors in vivo. These findings argue that overexpression of the normal human PDGF-B gene product under retrovirus control can induce the fully malignant phenotype.

  9. Amelioration of the salt-stressed root growth of rice and normalization of the Na+ distribution between the shoot and root by (S)-alpha-methylbenzyl-2-fluoro-4-methylphenylurea.

    PubMed

    Omokawa, Hiroyoshi; Aonuma, Shin-ichi

    2002-02-01

    Optically active alpha-methylbenzyl phenyl ureas (MBPUs) show diverse plant physiological properties. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the salt-stress response of just-germinated rice seedlings supplemented with the S-enantiomer of MBPUs by assessing the growth and Na+ content. This study indicates that S-MBPUs served as a unique stress reliever for just-germinated young seedlings of rice injured by salinity. NaCl severely affected the root growth of rice seedlings. Concomitant treatment with S-MBPUs effectively ameliorated the growth inhibition of rice by NaCl. Glycine betaine (GB) did not act as a reliever of the NaCl stress. The addition of S-alpha-methylbenzyl 2-fluoro-4-methylphenyl urea (7, denoted as S-FM) to the saline medium ameliorated not only the root growth but also the protein content and dry weight of roots depending upon its concentration. The protein content, Na+ content and growth rate were correlated to each other with a positive relationship. The Na+ distribution ratio (S/R(Na+)) between the shoot and root increased with increasing concentration of NaCl when added alone, viz. with increasing growth reduction. A concomitant treatment with S-FM (7), however, resulted in the S/R(Na+) value becoming smaller with growth amelioration. This indicates that S-FM (7) controlled the translation of Na+ from the roots to shoots. S-FM (7) would have influenced some inherent functions connected with the Na+ behavior in the rice plant, although details of the mechanism for normalization of the S/R(Na+) ratio are still not clear.

  10. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR -/-) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Longo, Kenneth A; Berryman, Darlene E; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Distefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J; Kopchick, John J

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR -/- mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (M(b)) changes and physical activity in 17month-old female GHR -/- mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR -/- mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit M(b), had greater EE per unit M(b) and had an increase in 24-h EE/M(b) that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR -/- mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, M(b) and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for M(b) and LMA, the GHR -/- mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR -/- mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR -/- mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final 3h of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR -/- mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable M(b). Relative to wild type mice, the GHR -/- mice consumed more calories per unit M(b), which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR -/- mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA.

  11. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR−/−) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Kenneth A.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; DiStefano, Peter S.; Geddes, Brad J.; Kopchick, John

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR −/− mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (Mb) changes and physical activity in 17 month-old female GHR −/− mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR −/− mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit Mb, had greater EE per unit Mb and had an increase in 24-h EE/Mb that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR −/− mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, Mb and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for Mb and LMA, the GHR −/− mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR −/− mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR −/− mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final three hours of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR −/− mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable Mb. Relative to wild type mice, the GHR −/− mice consumed more calories per unit Mb, which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR −/− mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. PMID:19747867

  12. Different effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) and somatostatin on growth hormone and stable metabolite of prostaglandin E2, 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2-M) in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Zacharieva, S; Muchá, I; Popova, J; Andonova, K

    1992-01-01

    Twenty four healthy subjects were placed in two treatment groups: 1. The first group consisted of twelve subjects in whom growth releasing hormone (GRH) (1 microgram/kg.BW) resulted in a marked and sustained elevation of serum growth hormone (GH) and a slight and delayed increase in plasma prostaglandin E2-M. In the second group, consisting also of twelve subjects, somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/250 ml) was initiated and maintained for 60 min. Serum GH significantly decreased at 30 and 60 min during infusion and 15 min thereafter. We did not observe any changes in plasma prostaglandin E2-M during or after somatostatin infusion. The results obtained confirm previous in vitro studies and suggest a possible link between growth releasing hormone and prostaglandin E2 in their action on growth hormone secretion. It seems that somatostatin does not play a role in the control of prostaglandin E2 release.

  13. Differential effects of transforming growth factor-beta on the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins by normal fetal rat calvarial bone cell populations

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    To determine the effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on the different cell types that exist in bone, cell populations (I- IV), progressively enriched in osteoblastic cells relative to fibroblastic cells, were prepared from fetal rat calvaria using timed collagenase digestions. TGF-beta did not induce anchorage-independent growth of these cells, nor was anchorage-dependent growth stimulated in most populations studied, despite a two- to threefold increase in the synthesis of cellular proteins. In all populations the synthesis of secreted proteins increased 2-3.5-fold. In particular, collagen, fibronectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor synthesis was stimulated. However, different degrees of stimulation of individual proteins were observed both within and between cell populations. A marked preferential stimulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor was observed in each population, together with a slight preferential stimulation of collagen; the effect on collagen expression being directed primarily at type I collagen. In contrast, the synthesis of SPARC (secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine/osteonectin was stimulated approximately two-fold by TGF-beta, but only in fibroblastic populations. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TGF-beta stimulates matrix production by bone cells and, through differential effects on individual matrix components, may also influence the nature of the matrix formed by different bone cell populations. In the presence of TGF-beta, osteoblastic cells lost their polygonal morphology and alkaline phosphatase activity was decreased, reflecting a suppression of osteoblastic features. The differential effects of TGF- beta on bone cell populations are likely to be important in bone remodeling and fracture repair. PMID:3162238

  14. Two adults with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome with mild mental retardation, glaucoma, normal growth and skull circumference, and camptodactyly of third fingers.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Dagmar; Bartsch, Oliver; Lechno, Stanislav; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Peters, Dorien J M; Dauwerse, Hans; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Passarge, Eberhard

    2009-12-01

    The Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS; OMIM 180849) is a well-defined mental retardation/multiple congenital anomalies (MR/MCA) syndrome characterized by postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, specific facial features, broad thumbs and halluces, and MR of variable degree. Ten percent of patients with RTS have a microdeletion 16p13.3, 40-50% carry a mutation of the CREBBP gene and another 3% have a mutation in the EP300 gene. In the remaining patients with clinically suspected RTS no mutation can be detected. Here we describe two patients with an RTS phenotype, one with a mutation in the CREBBP gene and the other without a detectable CREBBP or EP300 mutation and without a chromosomal imbalance on high-resolution arrays. Both patients present with the characteristic facial RTS phenotype, broad thumbs and big toes, mild MR, formation of keloids and glaucoma, but without postnatal growth retardation or microcephaly. In addition, they have both congenital camptodactyly of third (and fourth) fingers, which has not reported in RTS previously. We suggest that they represent a clinical subtype of RTS.

  15. "Spontaneous Growth of ZnCO3 Nanowires on ZnO Nanostructures in Normal Ambient Environment: Unstable ZnO Nanostructures:

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zhengwei; Tao, Jing; Zhu, Yimei; Huang, Jing-Fang; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanowires, one of the most investigated nanostructures that promise numerous applications in nanophotonics, opto-electronics, and energy, are generally thought to be highly stable under ambient conditions because of their oxide nature. Here, we report that ZnO nanowires are actually extremely unstable even in normal ambient environment (70% RH, and 350 ppm CO2) because of atmospheric corrosion.When placed on an oxide substrate (e.g., glass slide) and exposed in air, ZnO nanowires tend to react with airborne moisture and CO2 to form amorphous ZnCO3 thin films and nanowires. The factors that specially affect the corrosion of ZnO nanowires in a laboratory environment include CO2, humidity, and substrates. Our results suggest that a CO2- and/or moisture-free environment are required in order for optimal applications of ZnO nanowires.

  16. Spontaneous Growth of ZnCO3 Nanowires on ZnO Nanostructures in Normal Ambient Environment: Unstable ZnO Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Z.; Tao, J.; Zhu, Y.; Huang, J.-F.; Paranthaman, M.P.

    2009-12-09

    ZnO nanowires, one of the most investigated nanostructures that promise numerous applications in nanophotonics, opto-electronics, and energy, are generally thought to be highly stable under ambient conditions because of their oxide nature. Here, we report that ZnO nanowires are actually extremely unstable even in normal ambient environment (70% RH, and {approx}350 ppm CO{sub 2}) because of atmospheric corrosion. When placed on an oxide substrate (e.g., glass slide) and exposed in air, ZnO nanowires tend to react with airborne moisture and CO{sub 2} to form amorphous ZnCO{sub 3} thin films and nanowires. The factors that specially affect the corrosion of ZnO nanowires in a laboratory environment include CO{sub 2}, humidity, and substrates. Our results suggest that a CO{sub 2}{sup -} and/or moisture-free environment are required in order for optimal applications of ZnO nanowires.

  17. [The effect of x-ray radiation and hypoxia on the proteolytic activity of the normal rat spleen and during tumor growth].

    PubMed

    Likholat, E A; Reva, A D; Sokolov, I I; Chernaia, V I

    1991-01-01

    The influence of X-radiation on activity of lysosomal enzymes (D, L, H cathepsins) in rat spleen tissue and in inoculated rat sarcoma 45 has been investigated. Intact rats and rats with tumors were subjected to whole-body and sarcoma 45 to local irradiation with doses of 0.155 C/kg and 0.31 C/kg in conditions of breathing gas hypoxic mixture containing 90% of nitrogen and 10% of oxygen (GHM-10). The combined exposure to radiation and GHM-10 was shown to produce a certain protective action (e.g. normalized cathepsin activity) in the spleen. In the tumor tissue the protective effect of GHM-10 was absent.

  18. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  19. Characterization of six small HSP genes from Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae): Differential expression under conditions of normal growth and heat-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; de la Fuente, Mercedes; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2015-10-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most numerous, structurally diverse, and functionally uncharacterized family of heat shock proteins. Several Hsp genes (Hsp 90, 70, 40, and 27) from the insect Chironomus riparius are widely used in aquatic toxicology as biomarkers for environmental toxins. Here, we conducted a comparative study and characterized secondary structure of the six newly identified sHsp genes Hsp17, Hsp21, Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34. A characteristic α-crystallin domain is predicted in all the new proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a strong relation to other sHSPs from insects and interesting evidence regarding evolutionary origin and duplication events. Comparative analysis of transcription profiles for Hsp27, Hsp70, and the six newly identified genes revealed that Hsp17, Hsp21, and Hsp22 are constitutively expressed under normal conditions, while under two different heat shock conditions these genes are either not activated or are even repressed (Hsp22). In contrast, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34 are significantly activated along with Hsp27 and Hsp70 during heat stress. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the small HSP subfamily and provide new data to help understand the coping mechanisms induced by stressful environmental stimuli.

  20. Arabidopsis ACTIN-DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR7 Severs Actin Filaments and Regulates Actin Cable Turnover to Promote Normal Pollen Tube Growth[W

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yiyan; Xie, Yurong; Jiang, Yuxiang; Qu, Xiaolu; Huang, Shanjin

    2013-01-01

    Actin filaments are often arranged into higher-order structures, such as the longitudinal actin cables that generate the reverse fountain cytoplasmic streaming pattern present in pollen tubes. While several actin binding proteins have been implicated in the generation of these cables, the mechanisms that regulate their dynamic turnover remain largely unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana ACTIN-DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR7 (ADF7) is required for turnover of longitudinal actin cables. In vitro biochemical analyses revealed that ADF7 is a typical ADF that prefers ADP-G-actin over ATP-G-actin. ADF7 inhibits nucleotide exchange on actin and severs filaments, but its filament severing and depolymerizing activities are less potent than those of the vegetative ADF1. ADF7 primarily decorates longitudinal actin cables in the shanks of pollen tubes. Consistent with this localization pattern, the severing frequency and depolymerization rate of filaments significantly decreased, while their maximum lifetime significantly increased, in adf7 pollen tube shanks. Furthermore, an ADF7–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion with defective severing activity but normal G-actin binding activity could not complement adf7, providing compelling evidence that the severing activity of ADF7 is vital for its in vivo functions. These observations suggest that ADF7 evolved to promote turnover of longitudinal actin cables by severing actin filaments in pollen tubes. PMID:24058157

  1. WMAP normalization of inflationary cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Mukherjee, Pia; Leach, Samuel M.

    2006-10-15

    We use the three-year WMAP observations to determine the normalization of the matter power spectrum in inflationary cosmologies. In this context, the quantity of interest is not the normalization marginalized over all parameters, but rather the normalization as a function of the inflationary parameters n{sub S} and r with marginalization over the remaining cosmological parameters. We compute this normalization and provide an accurate fitting function. The statistical uncertainty in the normalization is 3%, roughly half that achieved by COBE. We use the k-l relation for the standard cosmological model to identify the pivot scale for the WMAP normalization. We also quote the inflationary energy scale corresponding to the WMAP normalization.

  2. Green Light-emitting Diodes Light Stimuli during Incubation Enhances Posthatch Growth without Disrupting Normal Eye Development of Broiler Embryos and Hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Zhu, X D; Wang, X F; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2016-11-01

    Monochromatic green light-emitting diodes (LED) light stimuli influences the posthatch growth performance of chicks. This study was undertaken with the following objectives: i) to examine whether the green LED light stimuli induces an overheating effect by determining weight loss rate of fertile eggs during incubation period; ii) to look for the development of eyes and other primary organs at different ages of embryos and newly hatched chicks. Arbor Acres fertile broiler eggs (n = 480) were randomly assigned to 3 incubation groups and exposed to continuous white light, green light, or a dark environment (control) from the first day to 19 d of incubation. The light sourced from LED lamps with the intensity of 30 lx at eggshell level. The results showed that either green or white light stimuli during incubation did not significantly affect the weight loss rate of fertile eggs, hatching time, hatchability, chick embryo, or body weight (BW), the weight percentage of heart, liver, and eyes, as well as obvious systematic abnormalities in eye weight, side-to-side, back-to-front, or corneal diameter from 15 d of embryogenesis to 6 d of posthatch (p>0.05). Compared with the dark condition, green light stimuli during incubation tended to increase feed intake (p = 0.080), improved the BW gain of chicks during 0 to 6 day posthatch (p<0.05), and increased the percentage of pectoral muscle to the BW on 3- and 6-day-old chicks. In addition, embryos or chicks in green light had lower weight percentage of yolk retention on 19 d of embryogenesis and 1 d of posthatch in comparison to those in dark or white group (p<0.05). These results suggest that providing 30 lx green LED light stimuli during incubation has no detrimental effect on the development of eyes, heart and liver of embryos and hatchlings, but does have potential benefits in terms of enhancement of the chick growth during the early posthatch stages. In addition, the fertile broiler eggs stimulated with 30 lx green LED

  3. Constitutive expression of hyaluronan binding protein 1 (HABP1/p32/gC1qR) in normal fibroblast cells perturbs its growth characteristics and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, J; Anupama; Goswami, S K; Datta, K

    2003-01-17

    Hyaluronan binding protein 1 (HABP1) is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional phospho-protein that interacts with a wide range of ligands and is implicated in cell signalling. Recently, we have reported that HABP1 is an endogenous substrate for MAP kinase and upon mitogenic stimulation it is translocated to the nucleus in a MAP kinase-dependent manner (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 291(4) (2002) 829-837). This prompted us to investigate the role of HABP1 in cell growth or otherwise in low MAP kinase background. We demonstrate that HABP1, when overexpressed in normal rat skin fibroblasts, remained in the cytosol, primarily concentrated around the nuclear periphery. However, HABP1 overexpressing cells showed extensive vacuolation and reduced growth rate, which was corrected by frequent medium replenishment. Further investigation revealed that HABP1 overexpressing cells undergo apoptosis, as detected by TUNEL assay, induction of Bax expression, and FACS analysis, and they failed to enter into the S-phase. Periodic medium supplementation prevented these cells from undergoing apoptotic death. We also demonstrate that upon induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by cisplatin, HABP1 level is upregulated, indicating a correlation between HABP1 and cell death in a normal cellular environment.

  4. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of RluD, the only rRNA pseudouridine synthase required for normal growth of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    DEL CAMPO, MARK; OFENGAND, JAMES; MALHOTRA, ARUN

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli pseudouridine synthase RluD makes pseudouridines 1911, 1915, and 1917 in the loop of helix 69 in 23S RNA. These are the most highly conserved ribosomal pseudouridines known. Of 11 pseudouridine synthases in E. coli, only cells lacking RluD have severe growth defects and abnormal ribosomes. We have determined the 2.0 Å structure of the catalytic domain of RluD (residues 77–326), the first structure of an RluA family member. The catalytic domain folds into a mainly antiparallel β-sheet flanked by several loops and helices. A positively charged cleft that presumably binds RNA leads to the conserved Asp 139. The RluD N-terminal S4 domain, connected by a flexible linker, is disordered in our structure. RluD is very similar in both catalytic domain structure and active site arrangement to the pseudouridine synthases RsuA, TruB, and TruA. We identify five sequence motifs, two of which are novel, in the RluA, RsuA, TruB, and TruA families, uniting them as one superfamily. These results strongly suggest that four of the five families of pseudouridine synthases arose by divergent evolution. The RluD structure also provides insight into its multisite specificity. PMID:14730022

  5. The small subunit 1 of the Arabidopsis isopropylmalate isomerase is required for normal growth and development and the early stages of glucosinolate formation.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Janet; Huber, Florian; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wiegreffe, Christoph; Lächler, Kurt; Binder, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana the evolutionary and functional relationship between Leu biosynthesis and the Met chain elongation pathway, the first part of glucosinolate formation, is well documented. Nevertheless the exact functions of some pathway components are still unclear. Isopropylmalate isomerase (IPMI), an enzyme usually involved in Leu biosynthesis, is a heterodimer consisting of a large and a small subunit. While the large protein is encoded by a single gene (isopropylmalate isomerase large subunit1), three genes encode small subunits (isopropylmalate isomerase small subunit1 to 3). We have now analyzed small subunit 1 (isopropylmalate isomerase small subunit1) employing artificial microRNA for a targeted knockdown of the encoding gene. Strong reduction of corresponding mRNA levels to less than 5% of wild-type levels resulted in a severe phenotype with stunted growth, narrow pale leaf blades with green vasculature and abnormal adaxial-abaxial patterning as well as anomalous flower morphology. Supplementation of the knockdown plants with leucine could only partially compensate for the morphological and developmental abnormalities. Detailed metabolite profiling of the knockdown plants revealed changes in the steady state levels of isopropylmalate and glucosinolates as well as their intermediates demonstrating a function of IPMI SSU1 in both leucine biosynthesis and the first cycle of Met chain elongation. Surprisingly the levels of free leucine slightly increased suggesting an imbalanced distribution of leucine within cells and/or within plant tissues.

  6. Effects of oral Bt-maize (MON810) exposure on growth and health parameters in normal and sensitised Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jinni; Krogdahl, Åshild; Sissener, Nini H; Kortner, Trond M; Gelencser, Eva; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2013-04-28

    Responses to GM maize Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in diets for both normal and immune-sensitised (with soyabean meal (SBM)-induced enteropathy) post-smolt Atlantic salmon were investigated following 33 and 97 d of exposure. Triplicate tanks of salmon were fed one of four diets, all containing 20% whole-kernel meal maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line, without or with 15% extracted SBM inclusion. The fish fed Bt-maize utilised the feed less efficiently, as revealed by lower protein and mineral digestibilities and lower lipid and energy retention efficiencies. Higher intestinal weight, as well as increased interferon-γ and decreased sodium-glucose co-transporter mRNA expression, and a transient increase in T-helper cell presence, as measured by cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) protein in the distal intestine (DI), may partly explain the lower nutrient digestibilities and retentions. The Bt-maize seemed to potentiate oxidative cellular stress in the DI of immune-sensitised fish, as indicated by increases in superoxide dismutase and heat shock protein 70 mRNA expression. The data suggest that Cry1Ab protein or other antigens in Bt-maize have local immunogenic effects in salmon DI. No systemic immune responses could be detected, as indicated by haematology, differential leucocyte counts, plasma clinical chemistry, as well as absence of Cry1Ab-specific antibodies and Cry1Ab protein in plasma. The responses to Bt-maize observed in the present study differed from results from earlier studies in salmon and other animals fed the same event Bt-maize. Longer-term experiments and more in-depth studies on intestinal physiology and immune responses are needed to evaluate health implications.

  7. Isolation and selection of suitable reference genes for real-time PCR analyses in the skeletal muscle of the fine flounder in response to nutritional status: assessment and normalization of gene expression of growth-related genes.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Safian, Diego; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, different reference genes were isolated, and their stability in the skeletal muscle of fine flounder subjected to different nutritional states was assessed using geNorm and NormFinder. The combinations between 18S and ActB; Fau and 18S; and Fau and Tubb were chosen as the most stable gene combinations in feeding, long-term fasting and refeeding, and short-term refeeding conditions, respectively. In all periods, ActB was identified as the single least stable gene. Subsequently, the expression of the myosin heavy chain (MYH) and the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) was assessed. A large variation in MYH and IGF-IR expression was found depending on the reference gene that was chosen for normalizing the expression of both genes. Using the most stable reference genes, mRNA levels of MYH decreased and IGF-IR increased during fasting, with both returning to basal levels during refeeding. However, the drop in mRNA levels for IGF-IR occurred during short-term refeeding, in contrast with the observed events in the expression of MYH, which occurred during long-term refeeding. The present study highlights the vast differences incurred when using unsuitable versus suitable reference genes for normalizing gene expression, pointing out that normalization without proper validation could result in a bias of gene expression.

  8. Group III-A XTH Genes of Arabidopsis Encode Predominant Xyloglucan Endohydrolases That Are Dispensable for Normal Growth1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaewthai, Nomchit; Gendre, Delphine; Eklöf, Jens M.; Ibatullin, Farid M.; Ezcurra, Ines; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Brumer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The molecular basis of primary wall extension endures as one of the central enigmas in plant cell morphogenesis. Classical cell wall models suggest that xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase activity is the primary catalyst (together with expansins) of controlled cell wall loosening through the transient cleavage and religation of xyloglucan-cellulose cross links. The genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains 33 phylogenetically diverse XYLOGLUCAN ENDO-TRANSGLYCOSYLASE/HYDROLASE (XTH) gene products, two of which were predicted to be predominant xyloglucan endohydrolases due to clustering into group III-A. Enzyme kinetic analysis of recombinant AtXTH31 confirmed this prediction and indicated that this enzyme had similar catalytic properties to the nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) xyloglucanase1 responsible for storage xyloglucan hydrolysis during germination. Global analysis of Genevestigator data indicated that AtXTH31 and the paralogous AtXTH32 were abundantly expressed in expanding tissues. Microscopy analysis, utilizing the resorufin β-glycoside of the xyloglucan oligosaccharide XXXG as an in situ probe, indicated significant xyloglucan endohydrolase activity in specific regions of both roots and hypocotyls, in good correlation with transcriptomic data. Moreover, this hydrolytic activity was essentially completely eliminated in AtXTH31/AtXTH32 double knockout lines. However, single and double knockout lines, as well as individual overexpressing lines, of AtXTH31 and AtXTH32 did not demonstrate significant growth or developmental phenotypes. These results suggest that although xyloglucan polysaccharide hydrolysis occurs in parallel with primary wall expansion, morphological effects are subtle or may be compensated by other mechanisms. We hypothesize that there is likely to be an interplay between these xyloglucan endohydrolases and recently discovered apoplastic exo-glycosidases in the hydrolytic modification of matrix xyloglucans. PMID:23104861

  9. Auditory Word Identification in Dyslexic and Normally Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Jennifer L.; Manis, Franklin R.; Keating, Patricia; Sperling, Anne J.; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The integrity of phonological representation/processing in dyslexic children was explored with a gating task in which children listened to successively longer segments (gates) of a word. At each gate, the task was to decide what the entire word was. Responses were scored for overall accuracy as well as the children's sensitivity to coarticulation…

  10. Long-term effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I on serum IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 and acid labile subunit in Laron syndrome patients with normal growth hormone binding protein.

    PubMed

    Kanety, H; Silbergeld, A; Klinger, B; Karasik, A; Baxter, R C; Laron, Z

    1997-12-01

    A minority of patients with Laron syndrome have normal serum GH binding protein (GHBP), indicating that the defect is elsewhere than in the extracellular domain of the GH receptor. We have evaluated the effect of long-term IGF-I treatment on serum IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and the acid-labile subunit (ALS) in three sibling with Laron syndrome caused by a GH post-receptor defect and with normal GHBP. The children (a boy aged 3 years, a girl aged 4 years and a boy aged 10 years) were treated by daily s.c. injection of IGF-I in a dose of 150 micrograms/kg. IGFBP-3 was measured by RIA and Western ligand blotting, ALS by RIA. Based values of IGFBP-3 and ALS were low. During IGF-I treatment, the IGFBP-3 concentrations in the girl gradually increased, whereas in the boys there was a 60% decrease during the first week, followed by gradual increase towards baseline. The ALS concentrations followed a similar pattern. We conclude that IGF-I treatment induces and initial suppression and then an increase in the IGFBP-3 and ALS concentrations, confirming data from animal experiments that IGFBP-3 synthesis is not solely under GH control. The differences in responsiveness between the female and male siblings may reflect genetic differences, or lower circulating concentrations of IGF-I in the boys compared with the girl.

  11. Studies of normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Catlin, F I

    1984-01-01

    Auditory function changes continually from birth to old age. A variety of methods to assess hearing have evolved since the invention of the audiometer. Types of measurement include: electrical response in the central nervous system, cochlear acuity and speech responses. While some of these tests correlate fairly well with each other, their ability to represent overall hearing function is questionable. Other attempts to improve the assessment of hearing have been made in the area of self-appraisal, but these, too, have significant limitations. Most self-report and peer appraisal questionnaires have been established by studies of hearing-impaired populations. Norms for these techniques in normal-hearing populations need to be established. There is still room for valid tests of everyday communication. What we have in measurement procedures does not achieve this goal. Research studies of today will hopefully produce better definition of normal auditory function.

  12. A longitudinal study of angiogenic (placental growth factor) and anti-angiogenic (soluble endoglin and soluble VEGF receptor-1) factors in normal pregnancy and patients destined to develop preeclampsia and deliver a small-for-gestational-age neonate

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Roberto; Nien, Jyh Kae; Espinoza, Jimmy; Todem, David; Fu, Wenjiang; Chung, Hwan; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-tovi, Shali; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Sam; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Levine, Richard J.; Karumanchi, Ananth

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that an imbalance between pro-angiogenic [i.e. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF)] and anti-angiogenic factors [i.e. soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1, also referred to as sFlt1) is involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE). Endoglin is a protein that regulates the pro-angiogenic effects of transforming growth factor β, and its soluble form has been recently implicated in the pathophysiology of PE. The objective of this study was to determine if changes in maternal plasma concentration of these angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors differ prior to development of disease among patients with normal pregnancies, and those destined to develop PE (preterm and term) or to deliver an SGA neonate. Methods This longitudinal nested case-control study included 144 singleton pregnancies in the following groups: 1) patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who delivered appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates (n=46); 2) patients who delivered an SGA neonate but did not develop PE (n=56); and 3) patients who developed PE (n=42). Longitudinal samples were collected at each prenatal visit, which was scheduled at four-week intervals from the first or early second trimester until delivery. Plasma concentrations of soluble endoglin (s-Eng), sVEGFR-1 and PlGF were determined by specific and sensitive ELISA. Results 1) Patients destined to deliver an SGA neonate had higher plasma concentrations of s-Eng throughout gestation than those with normal pregnancies; 2) patients destined to develop preterm PE and term PE had significantly higher concentrations of s-Eng than those with normal pregnancies at 23 and 30 weeks, respectively (for preterm PE: p<0.036 and for term PE: 0=0.002); 3) patients destined to develop PE (term or preterm) and those who delivered an SGA neonate had lower plasma concentrations of PlGF than those with normal pregnancy throughout gestation, and the maternal

  13. Modern Elementary Science Curricula and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ben Afton

    Comparisons of the growth in science achievement of 2,000 elementary science students in six elementary science programs used in Southwestern Michigan were made. Relationships between students' ranking in class, the type of school, sex and growth in achievement were sought, as well as relationships among teacher variables (pre-service science…

  14. Maternal growth factor regulation of human placental development and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Karen; Westwood, Melissa

    2010-10-01

    Normal development and function of the placenta is critical to achieving a successful pregnancy, as normal fetal growth depends directly on the transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus via this organ. Recently, it has become apparent from both animal and human studies that growth factors within the maternal circulation, for example the IGFs, are important regulators of placental development and function. Although these factors act via distinct receptors to exert their effects, the downstream molecules activated upon ligand/receptor interaction are common to many growth factors. The expression of numerous signaling molecules is altered in the placentas from pregnancies affected by the fetal growth complications, fetal growth restriction, and macrosomia. Thus, targeting these molecules may lead to more effective treatments for complications of pregnancy associated with altered placental development. Here, we review the maternal growth factors required for placental development and discuss their mechanism of action.

  15. Growth hormone secretory characteristics of sex-linked dwarf and normal-sized chickens reared on a control or on a 3,3',5-triiodothyronine-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Buyse, J; Tixier-Biochard, M; Berghman, L R; Huybrechts, L M; Decuypere, E

    1994-03-01

    This study examined the pulsatile presence of growth hormone (GH) in the plasma--which reflects its pulsatile release--of 8-week-old male sex-linked dwarf (dwdw) or normal-sized (Dwdw) chickens from a brown-egg layer strain reared on a control or on a 0.5 ppm triiodothyronine(T3)-supplemented diet. The overall GH mean, amplitude, and baseline levels of control dw chickens were significantly higher than those of control Dw chickens. No differences in peak length or peak frequency between genotypes were observed. Dietary T3 supplementation abolished the pulsatile GH release in both genotypes. T3 treatment depressed the mean GH levels of Dw but not of dw chickens.

  16. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  17. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) causes a persistent increase in steady-state amounts of type I and type III collagen and fibronectin mRNAs in normal human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J; Rosenbloom, J; Jimenez, S A

    1987-01-01

    It has been previously shown that transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is capable of stimulating fibroblast collagen and fibronectin biosynthesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms involved in TGF beta stimulation of fibroblast biosynthetic activity. Our results indicate that TGF beta causes a marked enhancement of the production of types I and III collagens and fibronectin by cultured normal human dermal fibroblasts. The rate of collagen production by fibroblasts exposed to TGF beta was 2-3-fold greater than that of control cells. These effects were associated with a 2-3-fold increase in the steady-state amounts of types I and III collagen mRNAs and a 5-8-fold increase in the amounts of fibronectin mRNAs as determined by dot-blot hybridization with specific cloned cDNA probes. In addition, the increased production of collagen and fibronectin and the increased amounts of their corresponding mRNAs remained elevated for at least 72 h after removal of TGF beta. These findings suggest that TGF beta may play a major role in the normal regulation of extracellular matrix production in vivo and may contribute to the development of pathological states of fibrosis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:3501287

  18. Managing incontinence: women's normalizing strategies.

    PubMed

    Skoner, M M; Haylor, M J

    1993-01-01

    Women's strategies for managing urinary incontinence were examined in a grounded-theory study. The women's basic social concern was dealing with incontinence in a manner that enabled them to feel normal. Feeling normal meant being able to do what they wanted to do and needed to do to have a normal life-style as they perceived it. This goal was accomplished by normalizing incontinence and its management. Normalization was achieved by directing its course through self-management, accounting for it in terms of personal history and life experiences, and delaying medical counsel. These strategies are described. The findings provide fresh insights about women's response to incontinence and their practice of self-managing its consequences.

  19. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  20. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum in different treatments on growth performance and immune gene expression of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and stress of acute low salinity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoting; Duan, Yafei; Dong, Hongbiao; Zhang, Jiasong

    2017-03-01

    A 45-day feeding trial followed by an acute stress test of low salinity was done to evaluate effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance and anti-stress capability of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp were randomly allocated in 15 tanks (100 shrimp per tank) and divided into 5 treatments with 3 replicates. Triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different treatments of L. plantarum (fermentation supernatant (FS), live bacteria (LB), dead bacteria (DB) and cell-free extract (CE) of L. plantarum) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were determined after feeding 45 days. Anti-stress capacity was evaluated by determining the gene expression of ProPO, SOD and Lys in gut of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at 96 h post-stress test. Results indicated that supplementation of L. plantarum into diet had significantly improved growth performance of L. vannamei. On the other hand, L. plantarum supplementation had no significant effects on the gene expression of SOD and Lys in gut of shrimp cultured under normal condition for 45 days. Supplementation of L. plantarum had increased survivability of L. vannamei having higher survival rates compared to the control group. However, statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the control group and treatments. Compared with the control group, supplementation of L. plantarum significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the stress of acute low salinity, as indicated by higher survival rate as well as higher transcript levels of ProPo, SOD and Lys gene. Our findings suggested that L. plantarum, especially cell-free extract of L. plantarum has improved the anti-stress capacity of L. vannamei and could serve as a potential feed additive that helps shrimp to overcome environmental stresses.

  1. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  2. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  3. Growth following solid organ transplantation in childhood.

    PubMed

    Laster, M L; Fine, R N

    2014-03-01

    One of the ultimate goals of successful transplantation in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients is the attainment of optimal final adult height. This manuscript will discuss the attainment of height following solid organ transplantation in pediatric recipients of kidney, liver, heart, lung, and small bowel transplantation. Age is a primary factor with younger recipients exhibiting the greatest immediate catch up growth. Graft function is a significant contributory factor with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate correlating with poor growth in kidney recipients and the need for re-transplantation with impaired growth in liver recipients. The known adverse impact of steroids on growth has led to modification of steroid dosage and even to steroid withdrawal and steroid avoidance. In kidney and liver recipients, this has been associated with the development on occasion of acute rejection episodes. In infant heart transplantation, avoidance of maintenance corticosteroid immunosuppression is associated with normal growth velocity in the majority of patients. With marked improvement in patient and graft survival rates in pediatric organ graft recipients, it is timely that the quality of life issues, such as normal adult height, receive paramount attention. In general, normal growth post-transplantation should be an achievable goal that results in normal adult height for many solid organ transplantation recipients.

  4. Six Motivational Reasons for Low School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Reiss ("The normal personality: a new way of thinking about people." Cambridge University Press, New York, 2008) empirically derived a reliable and valid taxonomy of 16 life motives ("psychological needs"). The model suggests six motivational reasons for low achievement in school. Low achievement may be motivated by fear of failure (high need for…

  5. Effect of graded levels of iron, zinc, and copper supplementation in diets with low-phytate or normal barley on growth performance, bone characteristics, hematocrit volume, and zinc and copper balance of young swine1.

    PubMed

    Veum, T L; Ledoux, D R; Shannon, M C; Raboy, V

    2009-08-01

    Fifty crossbred barrows with an average initial age of 31 d and BW of 9.94 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the effect of a low-phytic acid (LPA) barley mutant (M) M955, a near-isogenic progeny of the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington with about 90% less phytate than NB, to increase the utilization of Fe, Zn, and Cu compared with diets containing NB. The response criteria were growth performance, hematocrit volume, metacarpal bone characteristics, and the apparent absorption, retention, and excretion of Zn and Cu. The 2 barley cultivars (NB and M955) and the 5 trace mineral (TM) treatment concentrations of Fe and Zn (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the requirement as FeSO(4) and ZnSO(4)) and Cu (0, 40, 80, 120, and 160% of the requirement as CuSO(4)) made 10 treatments in a factorial arrangement. Available P was equalized at 0.33% in all diets by adding monosodium phosphate to the basal diet containing NB, and all diets contained 0.65% Ca. Diets were adequate in all other nutrients. Barley and soybean meal were the only sources of phytate in the practical diets that also contained spray-dried whey. The barrows were fed the diets to appetite in meal form twice daily in individual metabolism crates. There were no barley cultivar x TM treatment interactions, and there were no differences between the NB and M955 barley cultivars for any of the response criteria measured. However, for the TM treatments, there were linear increases (P < or = 0.05) in ADFI, ADG, hematocrit volume, metacarpal bone breaking strength and ash weight, and the apparent absorption, retention, and excretion (mg/d) of Zn and Cu. In conclusion, the LPA barley had no effect on the response criteria in this experiment, apparently because of the small increase in the availability of the endogenous trace minerals in the practical diets containing M955 compared with NB. However, increasing the supplementation of Fe and Zn from 0 to 100% (160% for Cu) of the requirement resulted in linear

  6. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  7. Defective chloroplast development inhibits maintenance of normal levels of abscisic acid in a mutant of the Arabidopsis RH3 DEAD-box protein during early post-germination growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jiyoung; Williams, Donna S; Xiong, Yuqing; Hwang, Inhwan; Kang, Byung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    The plastid has its own translation system, and its ribosomes are assembled through a complex process in which rRNA precursors are processed and ribosomal proteins are inserted into the rRNA backbone. DEAD-box proteins have been shown to play roles in multiple steps in ribosome biogenesis. To investigate the cellular and physiological roles of an Arabidopsis DEAD-box protein, RH3, we examined its expression and localization and the phenotypes of rh3-4, a T-DNA insertion mutant allele of RH3. The promoter activity of RH3 is strongest in the greening tissues of 3-day and 1-week-old seedlings but reduced afterwards. Cotyledons were pale and seedling growth was retarded in the mutant. The most obvious abnormality in the mutant chloroplasts was their lack of normal ribosomes. Electron tomography analysis indicated that ribosome density in the 3-day-old mutant chloroplasts is only 20% that of wild-type chloroplasts, and the ribosomes in the mutant are smaller. These chloroplast defects in rh3-4 were alleviated in 2-week-old cotyledons and true leaves. Interestingly, rh3-4 seedlings have lower amounts of abscisic acid prior to recovery of their chloroplasts, and were more sensitive to abiotic stresses. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that nuclear genes for chloroplast proteins are down-regulated, and proteins mediating chloroplast-localized steps of abscisic acid biosynthesis are expressed to a lower extent in 1-week-old rh3-4 seedlings. Taken together, these results suggest that conversion of eoplasts into chloroplasts in young seedlings is critical for the seedlings to start carbon fixation as well as for maintenance of abscisic acid levels for responding to environmental challenges.

  8. Utero-placental vascularisation in normal and preeclamptic and intra-uterine growth restriction pregnancies: third trimester quantification using 3D power Doppler with comparison to placental vascular morphology (EVUPA): a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jie; Chabot-Lecoanet, Anne-Claire; Perdriolle-Galet, Estelle; Christov, Christophe; Hossu, Gabriela; Cherifi, Aboubaker; Morel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are two major pregnancy complications related to chronic utero-placental hypoperfusion. Three-dimensional power Doppler (3DPD) angiography has been used for the evaluation of utero-placental vascularisation and three vascular indices have been calculated: the vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-FI (VFI). However, several technical endpoints hinder the clinical use of 3DPD as physical characteristics and machine settings may affect 3DPD indices, and so its clinical significance is not yet clear. Objectives The primary objective is to better understand the clinical significance of 3DPD indices by evaluating the relationship between these indices and placental morphometry. Secondary objectives are (i) to determine the impact of machine settings and physical characteristics on 3DPD indices, and (ii) to evaluate physio-pathological placental vascularisation patterns. Methods and analysis This is a prospective controlled study. We expect to include 112 women: 84 with normal pregnancies and 28 with PE and/or IUGR (based on our former cohort study on 3DPD indices for PE and/or IUGR prediction (unpublished data)). Within 72 h before planned or semi-urgent caesarean section, utero-placental 3DPD images with five different machine settings will be acquired. Placentas will be collected and examined after surgery and stereological indices (volume density, surface density, length density) calculated. The 3DPD indices (VI, FI and VFI) of the placenta and adjacent myometrium will be calculated. Correlation between Doppler and morphological indices will be evaluated by Pearson or Spearman tests. Agreement between 3DPD indices and morphological indices will be assessed by Bland and Altman plots. The impact of Doppler settings and maternal characteristics on 3DPD indices will be evaluated with a multivariate linear regression model. Ethics The study and related consent forms have

  9. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 modulates beta 1 and beta 5 integrin receptors and induces the de novo expression of the alpha v beta 6 heterodimer in normal human keratinocytes: implications for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying the promotion of wound healing by TGF-beta 1 is incompletely understood. We report that TGF-beta 1 regulates the regenerative/migratory phenotype of normal human keratinocytes by modulating their integrin receptor repertoire. In growing keratinocyte colonies but not in fully stratified cultured epidermis, TGF-beta 1: (a) strongly upregulates the expression of the fibronectin receptor alpha 5 beta 1, the vitronectin receptor alpha v beta 5, and the collagen receptor alpha 2 beta 1 by differentially modulating the synthesis of their alpha and beta subunits; (b) downregulates the multifunctional alpha 3 beta 1 heterodimer; (c) induces the de novo expression and surface exposure of the alpha v beta 6 fibronectin receptor; (d) stimulates keratinocyte migration toward fibronectin and vitronectin; (e) induces a marked perturbation of the general mechanism of polarized domain sorting of both beta 1 and beta 4 dimers; and (f) causes a pericellular redistribution of alpha v beta 5. These data suggest that alpha 5 beta 1, alpha v beta 6, and alpha v beta 5, not routinely used by keratinocytes resting on an intact basement membrane, act as "emergency" receptors, and uncover at least one of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the peculiar integrin expression in healing human wounds. Indeed, TGF-beta 1 reproduces the integrin expression pattern of keratinocytes located at the injury site, particularly of cells in the migrating epithelial tongue at the leading edge of the wound. Since these keratinocytes are inhibited in their proliferative capacity, these data might account for the apparent paradox of a TGF-beta 1-dependent stimulation of epidermal wound healing associated with a growth inhibitory effect on epithelial cells. PMID:7537276

  10. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  11. Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,…

  12. Exploring Students' Conception and Expectations of Achievement in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe

    2013-01-01

    Achievement in a domain is normally defined by the experts within the curricula. This exploratory study reported student conception of achievement in physical education, attempting to address two questions: (1) what do students expect to achieve and (2) how do students view the achievement in physical education. Students (N = 48) purposefully…

  13. Chemokines mRNA expression in relation to the Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) mRNA and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) mRNA expression in the microenvironment of endometrial cancer tissue and normal endometrium: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Giannice, Raffaella; Erreni, Marco; Allavena, Paola; Buscaglia, Mauro; Tozzi, Roberto

    2013-11-01

    Tumor microenvironment inflammatory cells play a major role in cancer progression. Among these, the Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs) infiltration depends on the kind of chemokine, cytokines and growth factors secreted by the tumor cells and by the stroma in response to the cancer invasion. TAMs have been found to promote anti-tumor response in early stages and to stimulate neovascularization and metastases in advanced disease. In the microenvironment chemo-attractants of many human cancers, MIF and VEGF correlate with an increased TAMs recruitment. In addition, MIF enhances tumor cells metastases by modulating the immune responses and by promoting the angiogenesis related to VEGF. On the contrary the inhibition of MIF can lead to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Some chemokines (e.g. CXCL12, CXCL11, CXCL8) and their receptors, thanks to their ability to modulate migration and proliferation, are involved in the angiogenetic process. In this study we compared the expression of MIF mRNA with VEGF mRNA expression and with mRNA expression of other chemokines related to neo-angiogenesis, such as CXCL12, CXCL11, CXCL8 and CXCR4, in human endometrial cancer tissue (EC) and normal endometrium (NE). Fresh samples of EC tissue and NE were extracted from 15 patients with FIGO stage I-III undergoing primary surgery. Some of the tissue was sent for histology and part of it was treated with RNA later and stored at -80°C. Four patients dropped out. A significant up-regulation of MIF mRNA in EC tissue versus NE samples (P=0.01) was observed in all 11 patients. The MIF mRNA over-expression was coincident with a VEGF mRNA overexpression in 54% of patients (P=NS). MIF mRNA was inversely related to CXCL12 mRNA expression (P=0.01). MIF over-expression was significantly related to low grading G1-2 (P=0.01), endometrial type I (P=0.05), no lymphovascular spaces invasion (P=0.01) and 3years DFS (P=0.01). As reported in previous studies on patients with breast cancer, our data suggest

  14. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from human skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.

  15. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  16. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  17. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  18. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  19. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  20. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  1. Advocating for Normal Birth With Normal Clothes

    PubMed Central

    Waller-Wise, Renece

    2007-01-01

    Childbirth educators need to be aware that the clothes they wear when teaching classes send a nonverbal message to class participants. Regardless of who wears the clothing or what is worn, clothes send a message; thus, both the advantages and disadvantages related to clothing choice should be considered. Ultimately, the message should reflect the values of supporting normal birth. For childbirth educators who are allowed to choose their own apparel to wear in their classes, street clothes may be the benchmark for which to strive. This article discusses the many nonverbal messages that clothes convey and provides support for the choice of street clothes as the dress for the professional childbirth educator; thus, “normal clothes to promote normal birth.” PMID:18408807

  2. Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms, Cognitive Processes, School Achievement, and Intelligence-Achievement Relationship in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malakar, Partha; Basu, Jayanti

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the general intelligence, cognitive processes, school achievement, and intelligence-achievement relationship of adolescents with subclinical levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms differed from those of their normal counterparts. From an initial large pool of 14-year-old Bengali students in eighth…

  3. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  4. Acute and Impaired Wound Healing: Pathophysiology and Current Methods for Drug Delivery, Part 2: Role of Growth Factors in Normal and Pathological Wound Healing: Therapeutic Potential and Methods of Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, reviewing the role that growth factors play in this process and describing the current methods for growth factor delivery into the wound bed. PMID:22820962

  5. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  6. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  7. Indivisible. Good Schools=Health Economy. Poor Academic Achievement=Increased Unemployment. A Longitudinal Pilot Study on the Relationship between Job Growth and School Performance in 15 of Illinois' Largest Counties. A Report to Cook County Assessor Thomas Hynes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Charles L.; Sufritz, Erica

    This longitudinal study indicates that educational reform and economic performance are indivisible. The first part of the study examines job growth or decline by type of job between 1972 and 1985 by county and ranks the counties based on their performance during the 13-year period. The second part of the study examines the relationship between the…

  8. Our Lady of Hungary Catholic School, Indiana. School Achieves Double-Digit Growth with the Help of Interim and Classroom Formative Assessment Data. Case Study: Measures of Academic Progress & Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, South Bend's Our Lady of Hungary Catholic School welcomed its third principal in four years: Kevin Goralczyk, an Indiana native and seasoned educator. Together with the parish's pastor, Reverend Kevin Bauman, Principal Goralczyk began exploring how OLH could raise its pre-K-8 student achievement and better support teachers and staff…

  9. Back to the Basics: In Defense of Achievement (and Achievement Tests) in College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Saul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the growth and acceptance of achievement tests, such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), over the past century, advocating that many SAT claims of equity, uniformity, technical reliability, and prediction, over traditional measures of academic achievement have been found to be illusory. Summarizing a series…

  10. Normalization method for video images

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoe, G.W.; Hush, D.R.

    1992-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for automatically and adaptively normalizing analog signals representative of video images in object detection systems. Such normalization maximizes the average information content of the video images and, thereby, provides optimal digitized images for object detection and identification. The present invention manipulates two system control signals -- gain control signal and offset control signal -- to convert an analog image signal into a transformed analog image signal, such that the corresponding digitized image contains the maximum amount of information achievable with a conventional object detection system. In some embodiments of the present invention, information content is measured using parameters selected from image entropy, image mean, and image variance.

  11. Normal language in abnormal brains.

    PubMed

    Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo

    2017-02-27

    There is little doubt that, in the adult, specific brain lesions cause specific language deficits. Yet, brain localizations of linguistic functions are made problematic by several reported cases of normal language in spite of major brain anomalies, mostly, but not exclusively, occurring early in life. The signal cases are hydrocephaly, spina bifida and hemispherectomy. These cases are discussed and possible solutions are suggested: namely a vast redundancy of neurons and/or the role of microtubules as neuron-internal processors and key factors in signaling and guiding the growth and reconfiguration of the brain.

  12. The C3H-type zinc finger protein GDS1/C3H42 is a nuclear-speckle-localized protein that is essential for normal growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Won; Jeon, Su Jeong; Hwang, Sung Min; Hong, Jong Chan; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic C3H-type zinc finger proteins (Znfs) comprise a large family of regulatory proteins involved in many aspects of plant stress response, growth and development. However, compared to mammalian, only a few plant Znfs have been functionally characterized. Here, T-DNA inserted gds1 (growth, development and splicing 1) mutant, displayed abnormal growth throughout the lifecycle owing to the reduction of cell size and number. Inverse PCR analysis revealed that the abnormal growth was caused by the disruption of At3g47120, which encodes a C3H42 protein belonging to the C-X7-C-X5-C-X3-H class of the Znf family. GDS1 was ubiquitously transcribed, but shows high levels of expression in young seedling and unexpanded new leaves. In gds1, the transcripts of many growth- and development-related genes were down-regulated, and the auxin response was dramatically reduced. A fluorescence-based assay revealed that the GDS1 protein was localized to the nucleus, prominently in the speckle compartments. Its arginine/serine dipeptide-rich-like (RS-like) domain was essential for nuclear localization. In addition, the SR1, SRm102 and U1-70K components of the U1 spliceosome interacted with GDS1 in the nuclear speckle compartments. Taken together, these suggest that GDS1, a nuclear-speckle-associated Znf, might play a significant role in splicing during plant growth and development.

  13. [Growth hormone treatment update].

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Short stature in children is a common cause for referral to pediatric endocrinologists, corresponding most times to normal variants of growth. Initially growth hormone therapy was circumscribed to children presenting growth hormone deficiency. Since the production of recombinant human hormone its use had spread to other pathologies.

  14. Normalized medical information visualization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  15. Normal Shock Vortex Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Figure 9: Breakdown map for normal-shock vortex-interaction. References [1] O. Thomer, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Numerical Simulation of Normal...and Oblique-Shock Vortex Interaction, ZAMM Band 80, Sub. 1, pp. 181-184, 2000. [2] O. Thomer, E. Krause, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Computational

  16. Longitudinal Outcomes for Mathematics Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sharon; Watson, Silvana M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the first 6 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the authors examined mathematics achievement and growth trajectories by learning disability (LD) subgroups. The 2-level (time-student) growth curve model showed that lower levels of mathematics achievement were already evident at…

  17. Apoptosis or senescence-like growth arrest: influence of cell-cycle position, p53, p21 and bax in H2O2 response of normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Q M; Liu, J; Merrett, J B

    2000-01-01

    Early-passage human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo senescence-like growth arrest in response to sublethal concentrations of H(2)O(2) [Chen and Ames (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95, 4130-4134]. We determine here whether H(2)O(2) can cause apoptosis in HDFs and the molecular changes that differ between apoptosis and senescence-like growth arrest. When exponentially growing early-passage IMR-90 cells were treated for 2 h with 50-200 microM (or 0.25-1 pmol/cell) H(2)O(2), a fraction of cells detached at 16-32 h after the treatment. The cells remaining attached were growth-arrested and developed features of senescence in 1 week. The detached cells showed caspase-3 activation and typical morphological changes associated with apoptosis. Caspase-3 activation was H(2)O(2) dose-dependent and preceded nuclear condensation or plasma membrane leakage. Apoptotic cells were mainly distributed in the S-phase of the cell cycle, while growth-arrested cells exhibited predominantly G1- and G2/M-phase distributions. H(2)O(2) pretreatment induced G1 arrest and prohibited induction of apoptosis by a subsequent H(2)O(2) challenge. The p53 protein showed an average 6.1-fold elevation in apoptotic cells and a 3.5-fold elevation in growth-arrested cells. Reduction of p53 levels with human papillomavirus E6 protein prohibited the activation of caspase-3 and decreased the proportion of apoptotic cells. Growth-arrested cells had elevated p21, while p21 was absent in apoptotic cells. Bcl-2 was elevated in both growth-arrested and apoptotic cells. Finally, although the overall level of bax did not change in growth-arrested or apoptotic cells, the solubility of bax protein increased in apoptotic cells. Our data suggest that in contrast with growth-arrested cells, apoptotic cells show an S-phase cell cycle distribution, a higher degree of p53 elevation, an absence of p21 protein and increased solubility of bax protein. PMID:10749685

  18. Bilingualism and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in…

  19. Achieving Zero Net Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Donald

    1984-01-01

    Unemployment in the United States can only be made worse by continued high levels of legal immigration. Especially serious is the threat from Latin America. We must help developing countries halt their population growth and impose a ceiling of 100,000 a year for total immigration to the United States. (RM)

  20. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  1. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  2. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  3. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  4. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  5. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  6. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  7. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  8. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  9. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  10. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  11. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  12. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  13. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  14. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  15. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  16. Effect of graded levels of iron, zinc, and copper supplementation in diets with low-phytate or normal barley on growth performance, bone characteristics, hematocrit volume, and zinc and copper balance of young swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty crossbred barrows with an average initial age of 31 d and BW of 9.94 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the effect of a low-phytic acid (LPA) barley mutant (M) M955, a near-isogenic progeny of the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington with about 90% less phytate than NB, to increas...

  17. Achieving a competitive advantage in managed care.

    PubMed

    Stahl, D A

    1998-02-01

    When building a competitive advantage to thrive in the managed care arena, subacute care providers are urged to be revolutionary rather than reactionary, proactive rather than passive, optimistic rather than pessimistic and growth-oriented rather than cost-reduction oriented. Weaknesses must be addressed aggressively. To achieve a competitive edge, assess the facility's strengths, understand the marketplace and comprehend key payment methods.

  18. Normalization of brain morphology after surgery in sagittal craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Eric D; Yang, Jenny; Beckett, Joel S; Lacadie, Cheryl; Scheinost, Dustin; Persing, Sarah; Zellner, Elizabeth G; Oosting, Devon; Keifer, Cara; Friedman, Hannah E; Wyk, Brent Vander; Jou, Roger J; Sun, Haosi; Gary, Cyril; Duncan, Charles C; Constable, R Todd; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Persing, John A

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (NSC) is associated with significant learning disability later in life. Surgical reconstruction is typically performed before 1 year of age to correct the cranial vault morphology and to allow for normalized brain growth with the goal of improving cognitive function. Yet, no studies have assessed to what extent normalized brain growth is actually achieved. Recent advances in MRI have allowed for automated methods of objectively assessing subtle and pronounced brain morphological differences. The authors used one such technique, deformation-based morphometry (DBM) Jacobian mapping, to determine how previously treated adolescents with sagittal NSC (sNSC) significantly differ in brain anatomy compared with healthy matched controls up to 11.5 years after surgery. METHODS Eight adolescent patients with sNSC, previously treated via whole-vault cranioplasty at a mean age of 7 months, and 8 age- and IQ-matched control subjects without craniosynostosis (mean age for both groups = 12.3 years), underwent functional 3-T MRI. Statistically significant group tissue-volume differences were assessed using DBM, a whole-brain technique that estimates morphological differences between 2 groups at each voxel (p < 0.01). Group-wise Jacobian volume maps were generated using a spacing of 1.5 mm and a resolution of 1.05 × 1.05 × 1.05 mm(3). RESULTS There were no significant areas of volume reduction or expansion in any brain areas in adolescents with sNSC compared with controls at a significance level of p < 0.01. At the more liberal threshold of p < 0.05, two areas of brain expansion extending anteroposteriorly in the right temporooccipital and left frontoparietal regions appeared in patients with sNSC compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Compared with previous reports on untreated infants with sNSC, adolescents with sNSC in this cohort had few areas of brain dysmorphology many years after surgery. This result suggests that comprehensive cranioplasty

  19. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  20. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  1. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  2. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... techniques and neuroimaging, and finding improved treatments and preventions. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus × What research is being ...

  3. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  4. Pyrazine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 3-ethylpyridine are cigarette smoke components that alter the growth of normal and malignant human lung cells, and play a role in multidrug resistance development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Poo, Wak-Kim; Lin, Yu-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Lung cancer is one of the few human diseases for which the primary etiological agent, cigarette smoke (CS), has been described; however, the precise role of individual cigarette smoke toxicant in tumor development and progression remains to be elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess in vitro the effects of previously identified cigarette smoke components, pyrazine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 3-ethylpyridine, on non-tumorigenic (MRC5) and adenocarcinomic (A549) human lung cell lines. Our data showed that the administration of three cigarette smoke components in combination perturbed the proliferation of both normal and adenocarcinomic cells. Study of malignant cells revealed that CS components were cytotoxic at high concentration (10(-6) M) and stimulatory in a dose-dependent manner at lower concentrations (10(-8) M to 10(-10) M). This adverse effect was enhanced when adenocarcinomic cells were maintained in hypoxia resembling intratumoral environment. Furthermore, exposure to pyrazine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 3-ethylpyridine induced oxidative stress in both normal and malignant cells. Finally, assessment of P-gp activity revealed that multidrug resistance was induced in CS component exposed adenocarcinomic lung cells and the induction was augmented in hypoxia. Taken together, pyrazine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 3-ethylpyridine adversely altered both normal and diseased lung cells in vitro and data collected from this study may help lung cancer patients to understand the importance of quitting smoking during lung cancer treatment.

  5. Sustaining School Achievement in California's Elementary Schools after State Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Molly

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Academic Performance Index (API) and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) achievement trends between 2004 and 2006 of 58 California public elementary schools after exiting state monitoring and investigated practices for sustaining consistent achievement growth. Statistical methods were used to analyze statewide achievement trends…

  6. Apparent diffusion coefficient normalization of normal liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Jia-Yin; Li, Jin-Ning; Yang, Da-Wei; Chen, Min; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Zheng-Han

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been reported to be a helpful biomarker for detection and characterization of lesion. In view of the importance of ADC measurement reproducibility, the aim of this study was to probe the variability of the healthy hepatic ADC values measured at 3 MR scanners from different vendors and with different field strengths, and to investigate the reproducibility of normalized ADC (nADC) value with the spleen as the reference organ. Thirty enrolled healthy volunteers received DWI with GE 1.5T, Siemens 1.5T, and Philips 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) systems on liver and spleen (session 1) and were imaged again after 10 to 14 days using only GE 1.5T MR and Philips 3.0T MR systems (session 2). Interscan agreement and reproducibility of ADC measurements of liver and the calculated nADC values (ADCliver/ADCspleen) were statistically evaluated between 2 sessions. In session 1, ADC and nADC values of liver were evaluated for the scanner-related variability by 2-way analysis of variance and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Coefficients of variation (CVs) of ADCs and nADCs of liver were calculated for both 1.5 and 3.0-T MR system. Interscan agreement and reproducibility of ADC measurements of liver and related nADCs between 2 sessions were found to be satisfactory with ICC values of 0.773 to 0.905. In session 1, the liver nADCs obtained from different scanners were consistent (P = 0.112) without any significant difference in multiple comparison (P = 0.117 to >0.99) by using 2-way analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis of Bonferroni method, although the liver ADCs varied significantly (P < 0.001). nADCs measured by 3 scanners were in good interscanner agreements with ICCs of 0.685 to 0.776. The mean CV of nADCs of both 1.5T MR scanners (9.6%) was similar to that of 3.0T MR scanner (8.9%). ADCs measured at 3 MR scanners with different field strengths and vendors

  7. The integration of geophysical and enhanced Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data into a rule-based, piecewise regression-tree model to estimate cheatgrass beginning of spring growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyte, Stephen P.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Major, Donald J.; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2015-01-01

    Cheatgrass exhibits spatial and temporal phenological variability across the Great Basin as described by ecological models formed using remote sensing and other spatial data-sets. We developed a rule-based, piecewise regression-tree model trained on 99 points that used three data-sets – latitude, elevation, and start of season time based on remote sensing input data – to estimate cheatgrass beginning of spring growth (BOSG) in the northern Great Basin. The model was then applied to map the location and timing of cheatgrass spring growth for the entire area. The model was strong (R2 = 0.85) and predicted an average cheatgrass BOSG across the study area of 29 March–4 April. Of early cheatgrass BOSG areas, 65% occurred at elevations below 1452 m. The highest proportion of cheatgrass BOSG occurred between mid-April and late May. Predicted cheatgrass BOSG in this study matched well with previous Great Basin cheatgrass green-up studies.

  8. Quantifying surface normal estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert B.; Oxley, Mark E.; Eismann, Michael T.; Goda, Matthew E.

    2006-05-01

    An inverse algorithm for surface normal estimation from thermal polarimetric imagery was developed and used to quantify the requirements on a priori information. Building on existing knowledge that calculates the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and the angle of polarization (AOP) for a given surface normal in a forward model (from an object's characteristics to calculation of the DOLP and AOP), this research quantifies the impact of a priori information with the development of an inverse algorithm to estimate surface normals from thermal polarimetric emissions in long-wave infrared (LWIR). The inverse algorithm assumes a polarized infrared focal plane array capturing LWIR intensity images which are then converted to Stokes vectors. Next, the DOLP and AOP are calculated from the Stokes vectors. Last, the viewing angles, θ v, to the surface normals are estimated assuming perfect material information about the imaged scene. A sensitivity analysis is presented to quantitatively describe the a priori information's impact on the amount of error in the estimation of surface normals, and a bound is determined given perfect information about an object. Simulations explored the impact of surface roughness (σ) and the real component (n) of a dielectric's complex index of refraction across a range of viewing angles (θ v) for a given wavelength of observation.

  9. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein induces an autophagy-related process and sensitizes normal human keratinocytes to cell death in response to growth factor deprivation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiaobo; Muenger, Karl

    2009-03-01

    Expression of oncogenes, such as the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein, promotes aberrant cell proliferation. In the absence of concurrent mitogenic stimuli, this triggers a cell-intrinsic defense mechanism, the 'trophic sentinel response', which eliminates such aberrant cells. The molecular pathways that elicit this response, however, remain obscure. We set up an experimental system to investigate the trophic sentinel pathway triggered by HPV16 E7 expression in normal human keratinocytes, the natural host cells of HPVs. Keratinocytes expressing HPV16 E7 cultured in E-medium undergo cell death and show increased sub-G1 DNA content when grown to confluence or under conditions of serum deprivation. Moreover, HPV16 E7 expressing human keratinocytes express higher levels of the autophagy marker, LC3-II, which can be abrogated by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These findings indicate that even under normal culture conditions, HPV16 E7 expression triggers metabolic stress that may result in autophagy, a pathway implicated in carcinogenesis.

  10. Are Children "Normal"?

    PubMed

    Black, Dan A; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2013-03-01

    We examine Becker's (1960) contention that children are "normal." For the cross section of non-Hispanic white married couples in the U.S., we show that when we restrict comparisons to similarly-educated women living in similarly-expensive locations, completed fertility is positively correlated with the husband's income. The empirical evidence is consistent with children being "normal." In an effort to show causal effects, we analyze the localized impact on fertility of the mid-1970s increase in world energy prices - an exogenous shock that substantially increased men's incomes in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Empirical evidence for that population indicates that fertility increases in men's income.

  11. Bilingualism and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in kindergarten, Mixed Bilingual children fully closed the math gap with their White English Monolingual peers by fifth grade. However, because non-English-Dominant Bilinguals and non-English Monolinguals started kindergarten with significantly lower reading and math scores compared to their English Monolingual peers, by fifth grade the former groups still had significantly lower scores. School-level factors explained about one third of the reductions in the differences in children's academic performance.

  12. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  13. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  14. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    the exponential growth of population as the source of several complications for economic growth and human welfare. Stabilization of population by reducing fertility is conducive for improving the quality of population and also advances the longterm management of the population growth and work force utilization. The perspective of longterm economic management involves populatio n planning, control of environmental pollution, conservation of scarce resources, exploration of resources, realization of technological possibilities in agriculture and industry and in farm and factory, and achievement of economic growth and its equitable distribution.

  15. Normals to a Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

  16. Effect of silver/copper and copper oxide nanoparticle powder on growth of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their toxicity against the normal human dermal fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peszke, Jerzy; Nowak, Anna; Szade, Jacek; Szurko, Agnieszka; Zygadło, Dorota; Michałowska, Marlena; Krzyściak, Paweł; Zygoń, Patrycja; Ratuszna, Alicja; Ostafin, Marek M.

    2016-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials, especially metallic nanoparticles, are the most popular system applied in daily life products. The study of their biological and toxicity properties seems to be indispensable. In this paper, we present results of biological activity of Ag/Cu nanoparticles. These nanoparticles show more promising killing/inhibiting properties on Gram-negative bacteria than for Gram-positive ones. The Gram-negative bacteria show strong effect already at the concentration of 1 ppm after 15 min of incubation. Moreover, in vitro tests of toxicity made on normal human dermal fibroblast cultures showed that after 72 h of incubation with Ag/Cu nanoparticles, they are less toxic then Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles.

  17. Statokinesigram normalization method.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José Magalhães

    2017-02-01

    Stabilometry is a technique that aims to study the body sway of human subjects, employing a force platform. The signal obtained from this technique refers to the position of the foot base ground-reaction vector, known as the center of pressure (CoP). The parameters calculated from the signal are used to quantify the displacement of the CoP over time; there is a large variability, both between and within subjects, which prevents the definition of normative values. The intersubject variability is related to differences between subjects in terms of their anthropometry, in conjunction with their muscle activation patterns (biomechanics); and the intrasubject variability can be caused by a learning effect or fatigue. Age and foot placement on the platform are also known to influence variability. Normalization is the main method used to decrease this variability and to bring distributions of adjusted values into alignment. In 1996, O'Malley proposed three normalization techniques to eliminate the effect of age and anthropometric factors from temporal-distance parameters of gait. These techniques were adopted to normalize the stabilometric signal by some authors. This paper proposes a new method of normalization of stabilometric signals to be applied in balance studies. The method was applied to a data set collected in a previous study, and the results of normalized and nonnormalized signals were compared. The results showed that the new method, if used in a well-designed experiment, can eliminate undesirable correlations between the analyzed parameters and the subjects' characteristics and show only the experimental conditions' effects.

  18. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi restore normal growth in a white poplar clone grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil, and this is associated with upregulation of foliar metallothionein and polyamine biosynthetic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cicatelli, Angela; Lingua, Guido; Todeschini, Valeria; Biondi, Stefania; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims It is increasingly evident that plant tolerance to stress is improved by mycorrhiza. Thus, suitable plant–fungus combinations may also contribute to the success of phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM)-polluted soil. Metallothioneins (MTs) and polyamines (PAs) are implicated in the response to HM stress in several plant species, but whether the response is modulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to check whether colonization by AMF could modify growth, metal uptake/translocation, and MT and PA gene expression levels in white poplar cuttings grown on HM-contaminated soil, and to compare this with plants grown on non-contaminated soil. Methods In this greenhouse study, plants of a Populus alba clone were pre-inoculated, or not, with either Glomus mosseae or G. intraradices and then grown in pots containing either soil collected from a multimetal- (Cu and Zn) polluted site or non-polluted soil. The expression of MT and PA biosynthetic genes was analysed in leaves using quantitative reverse transcription–PCR. Free and conjugated foliar PA concentrations were determined in parallel. Results On polluted soil, AMF restored plant biomass despite higher Cu and Zn accumulation in plant organs, especially roots. Inoculation with the AMF caused an overall induction of PaMT1, PaMT2, PaMT3, PaSPDS1, PaSPDS2 and PaADC gene expression, together with increased free and conjugated PA levels, in plants grown on polluted soil, but not in those grown on non-polluted soil. Conclusions Mycorrhizal plants of P. alba clone AL35 exhibit increased capacity for stabilization of soil HMs, together with improved growth. Their enhanced stress tolerance may derive from the transcriptional upregulation of several stress-related genes, and the protective role of PAs. PMID:20810743

  20. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Basant R.; Lippa, Carol F.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH. PMID:28138494

  1. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  2. Growth Charts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... indicate that there's a growth problem because the child is not following ... certain points in development, when it's normal for growth rates to vary ...

  3. Neuroethics beyond Normal.

    PubMed

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James

    2016-01-01

    An integrated and principled neuroethics offers ethical guidelines able to transcend conventional and medical reliance on normality standards. Elsewhere we have proposed four principles for wise guidance on human transformations. Principles like these are already urgently needed, as bio- and cyberenhancements are rapidly emerging. Context matters. Neither "treatments" nor "enhancements" are objectively identifiable apart from performance expectations, social contexts, and civic orders. Lessons learned from disability studies about enablement and inclusion suggest a fresh way to categorize modifications to the body and its performance. The term "enhancement" should be broken apart to permit recognition of enablements and augmentations, and kinds of radical augmentation for specialized performance. Augmentations affecting the self, self-worth, and self-identity of persons require heightened ethical scrutiny. Reversibility becomes the core problem, not the easy answer, as augmented persons may not cooperate with either decommissioning or displacement into unaccommodating societies. We conclude by indicating how our four principles of self-creativity, nonobsolescence, empowerment, and citizenship establish a neuroethics beyond normal that is better prepared for a future in which humans and their societies are going so far beyond normal.

  4. Longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on adolescents' academic achievements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih

    2009-01-01

    This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.

  5. Role of macrophages in normal wound healing: an overview.

    PubMed

    Adamson, R

    2009-08-01

    Macrophages play an essential role during inflammation in normal wound healing. They promote the recruitment and proliferation of fibroblasts, and express some of the key growth factors that stimulate angiogenesis.

  6. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  7. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  8. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  9. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  10. Image Analysis of Geo-Induced Inhibition, Compression, and Promotion of Growth in an Inverted Helianthus annuus L. Seedling.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D C; Macdonald, I R; Hart, J W; Berg, A

    1984-11-01

    The growth responses of a sunflower seedling (Helianthus annuus L.), subjected to repeated inversion, were characterized by time-lapse recording in conjunction with video image analysis. The investigation revealed a characteristic response pattern and established that the directional movement of the seedling is achieved by both inhibition and stimulation of growth in the normal growing regions. The complex growth changes in contiguous regions of the hypocotyl are such as seem to be inexplicable in terms of an environmentally imposed gradient of a single growth substance.

  11. Bender-Gestalt developmental scores: predicting reading and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Nielson, S; Sapp, G L

    1991-08-01

    This study examined the relative importance of perceptual-motor processes and intelligence in predicting reading and mathematics achievement of children of low birthweight. Subjects were two groups of 153 children, ages 6 to 12 years, of either low (3 lb. or below, n = 72) or normal birthweight (n = 81) who participated in a comparative study on sequelae of children of low birthweight. To examine the utility of the Bender-Gestalt test in predicting academic achievement, Bender developmental scores, WRAT reading and mathematics scores, and WISC-R Full Scale IQs from both groups were compared and then intercorrelated separately. The mean comparisons indicated that children of low birthweight scored significantly lower on both Bender scores and reading achievement and had lower IQs than those of normal birthweight. Bender scores also appeared to have more utility for predicting reading and mathematics achievement for children of low birthweight than for those of normal birthweight.

  12. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  13. Longitudinal Growth of Academic Achievement among Subgroups Using NWEA's MAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Considerable government-funded efforts in school districts to train veteran teachers in the science of reading have been formed in response to the continuing difficulties and failure of nearly 40 percent of all American children (Walsh, Glaser, & Wilcox, 2006). A high percentage of the population of poor readers in this country is comprised of…

  14. Excellence in Social Achievement, Affective Learning, Academic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Nietos Elementary School District, CA.

    The Los Nietos Basic Skills Program was the first program of computer assisted instruction funded by the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA). The system initially supported 17 typewriter-style terminals, but the number was later increased to 24. Because of software problems, the system changed companies and the courses changed to the following:…

  15. Privatization in Education: A Growth Curve Analysis of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Sally A.; Gomez, Joseph J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the students who attended one elementary school in Miami-Dade County, Florida, run by The Edison Project (Edison Schools, Inc.) made greater academic progress than comparable students who attended other district schools. The paper provides a longitudinal examination of the students' academic…

  16. Gene expression during normal and malignant differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, L.C.; Gahmberg, C.G.; Ekblom, P.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: Exploring Carcinogenesis with Retroviral and Cellular Oncogenes; Retroviruses, Oncogenes and Evolution; HTLV and Human Neoplasi; Modes of Activation of cMyc Oncogene in B and T Lymphoid Tumors; The Structure and Function of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor: Its Relationship to the Protein Product of the V-ERB-B Oncogene; and Expression of Human Retrovirus Genes in Normal and Neoplastic Epithelial Cells.

  17. Longitudinal Analyses of Achievement Data from Durham County (NC) Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Gary L.; And Others

    A longitudinal study of achievement data from public schools in Durham County, North Carolina, was undertaken to examine individual growth curves as well as to chart the progress of educational institutions and the effects of aggregation on the study of growth. A two-level hierarchical linear model was used in the study to specify individual…

  18. Teacher Collaboration and Latinos/as' Mathematics Achievement Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottia, Martha Cecilia; Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Valentino, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Latino/a students' low mathematics achievement is a pressing issue given their increasing numbers in the United States. This study explores the relationship between teacher collaboration and Latino students' math achievement, taking into account the great diversity of Latinos/as in America. Using multilevel growth models, we analyze Early…

  19. Achievement Motivation Development Project. Final Report. Appendix IV, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.; Alschuler, Alfred S.

    The Achievement Motivation Development Project is described. The Project has culminated in the development of course materials designed explicitly to promote aspects of psychological growth. As such, it is viewed as but one thrust in an emerging psychological education movement. Achievement motivation is defined as a way of planning, a set of…

  20. Growth hormone and the transition from puberty into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Andrea F; Shalet, Stephen M

    2007-03-01

    With modern growth hormone (GH) replacement algorithms, children with a diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency achieve at the end of pediatric GH treatment an adult height that is on the average in the normal range. Recent experience with GH replacement in young adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency, however, has shown that these patients present with variable degrees of somatic immaturity. As childhood GH treatment is discontinued when final height is attained, attention moves to the phase of somatic development that follows the end of longitudinal growth, called ''transition'', which had been excluded previously from consideration for either pediatric or adult GH replacement. This article reviews the changes taking place during this phase of development and their relevance for the attainment of adult body maturation. The critical role of GH in this process is described.

  1. Normal osteoid tissue

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Vinita

    1972-01-01

    The results of a histological study of normal osteoid tissue in man, the monkey, the dog, and the rat, using thin microtome sections of plastic-embedded undecalcified bone, are described. Osteoid tissue covers the entire bone surface, except for areas of active resorption, although the thickness of the layer of osteoid tissue varies at different sites and in different species of animals. The histological features of osteoid tissue, apart from its amount, are the same in the different species studied. Distinct bands or zones are recognizable in some layers of osteoid tissue, particularly those of greatest thickness, and their significance is discussed. Some of the histological features of the calcification front are described. Images PMID:4111820

  2. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  3. Pornography, normalization, and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Martin S; Williams, Colin J; Kleiner, Sibyl; Irizarry, Yasmiyn

    2010-12-01

    Opponents and proponents of erotic representations (referred to hereafter as "pornography") have described the effects of pornography from their perspective. Little, however, has been done in the way of research to investigate these claims from the consumer's point of view. This especially has been so regarding the positive impact of such consumption on a person's sex life. Using a study group of 245 college students, we examined this question in a framework of scripting theory. We wanted to see whether viewing pornography appeared to expand sexual horizons through normalization and facilitate a willingness to explore new sexual behaviors and sexual relationships through empowerment. The data supported this viewpoint and further showed the effects to be mediated by gender and sexual preference identity. They suggested, however, that established scripts were extended rather than abandoned. We conclude with connections between our findings and the widespread viewing of pornography in contemporary society.

  4. Cumulative achievement testing: progress testing in reverse.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D B; Holtzman, K Z; Butler, A

    2010-01-01

    This collaborative project between the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) School of Medicine explored the design and use of cumulative achievement tests in basic science education. In cumulative achievement testing, integrative end-of-unit tests are deliberately constructed to systematically retest topics covered in previous units as well as material from the just-completed unit. CWRU faculty developed and administered a series of six web-based cumulative achievement tests using retired United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 test material and tools provided by NBME's Customized Assessment Services, and trends in student performance were examined as the new CWRU basic science curriculum unfolded. This article provides the background information about test design and administration, as well as samples of score reporting information for students and faculty. While firm conclusions about the effectiveness of cumulative achievement testing are not warranted after a pilot test at a single school, preliminary results suggest that cumulative achievement testing may be an effective complement to progress testing, with the former used to encourage retention of already-covered material and the latter used to assess growth toward the knowledge and skills expected of a graduating student.

  5. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  6. The recognition and treatment of growth disorders - a 50-year retrospective.

    PubMed

    Zemel, Babette

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen great progress in the understanding and treatment of classic growth disorders. Advances such as the recognition of hormone receptor defects, the development of recombinant growth hormone, and the expanding awareness of epigenetic phenomena affecting growth are among these great achievements. Yet growth failure remains a pervasive problem among children with complex health conditions, such as survivors of childhood cancers, premature infants, organ transplant recipients, and children with cystic fibrosis. The significant increases in life expectancy among these groups underscores the potential consequences of poor growth, whether due to the underlying conditions or medical treatments, as they may have long-lasting effects into adulthood. The ongoing contributions of human biologists to the study of human growth remain essential in the recognition and treatment of growth disorders, by defining normal patterns of growth and body composition, the interplay of growth and maturation, the role of environmental, behavioral and genetic factors, and the long-term consequences of growth patterns. Examples will be given based on two common genetic disorders, cystic fibrosis and sickle-cell anemia, to highlight the relationships between growth failure, survival, and malnutrition. Also, a study of bone mineral accretion in children with cystic fibrosis will illustrate the importance of understanding patterns of growth in healthy children, and their application in the diagnosis and management of children with chronic disease. These examples accentuate the need for continued participation of human biologists in the study of growth and development and the care of children.

  7. Growth in Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, R; Leisti, S; Perheentupa, J

    1985-07-01

    Pre- and post-operative growth was analysed in eight children with Cushing syndrome. Six children had Cushing's disease; three of them were treated by bilateral adrenalectomy and three by transphenoidal pituitary adenectomy. One child had an adrenocortical adenoma and another primary adrenocortical nodular dysplasia. The typical cushingoid habitus was not always present during hypercortisolism. In contrast, abnormal deceleration of longitudinal growth and increase in relative weight were constant. The slowing of growth started 0.2-5.1 years before diagnosis. In four children these changes concurred. In three others the excessive weight gain preceded the slowing of growth, by 2.5-7.0 years. In one patient the deceleration appeared first; this was a girl with concomitant coeliac disease. This pattern of growth change occurring before (normal slowing of growth in) late puberty should raise the possibility of hypercortisolism. There was a suggestion of a better growth recovery in Cushing disease after pituitary adenectomy than after bilateral adrenalectomy.

  8. Achieving modulated oscillations by feedback control.

    PubMed

    Ge, Tian; Tian, Xiaoying; Kurths, Jürgen; Feng, Jianfeng; Lin, Wei

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to achieve either frequency or amplitude modulation of an oscillator merely through feedback control. We present and implement a unified theory of our approach for any finite-dimensional continuous dynamical system that exhibits oscillatory behavior. The approach is illustrated not only for the normal forms of dynamical systems but also for representative biological models, such as the isolated and coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of our approach to uncover the mechanisms of frequency and amplitude modulations experimentally observed in a wide range of real systems.

  9. Achieving modulated oscillations by feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Tian; Tian, Xiaoying; Kurths, Jürgen; Feng, Jianfeng; Lin, Wei

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to achieve either frequency or amplitude modulation of an oscillator merely through feedback control. We present and implement a unified theory of our approach for any finite-dimensional continuous dynamical system that exhibits oscillatory behavior. The approach is illustrated not only for the normal forms of dynamical systems but also for representative biological models, such as the isolated and coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of our approach to uncover the mechanisms of frequency and amplitude modulations experimentally observed in a wide range of real systems.

  10. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle.

  11. Regional sulfur dioxide emissions: shall we achieve the goal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.; Shi, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, JY

    2017-01-01

    Although economic growth is slowing down in the new normal period, air pollution is still a very serious problem in China. The 15% binding goal of sulfur dioxide emission reduction from 2016 to 2020, as stipulated in the 13th Five-Year Plan, has been an ambitious target for the Chinese government. This paper studies the synthetic evaluation and forecasting analysis of sulfur dioxide in China by means of a “grey model” approach combined with the grey relational analysis methods, with the panel data of 31 provinces from 2005 to 2015. Grey analysis used to analyse a system with imperfect information, such that a variety of available solutions is reviewed, and the optimal solution is identified. Some encouraging results show that national emissions and a majority of provinces will achieve the target. Over time, the gap of regional differences is rapidly closing. According to the results of grey relational analysis, we find industrial structure and energy consumption have a more significant impact on sulfur dioxide emissions than GDP. Atmospheric treatment investment and environmental protection manpower play a more important role in emissions variation. Based on the findings, we should distinguish different factors and take different measures to protect the environment.

  12. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  13. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  14. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-03

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  15. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  16. Induction of VEGF by tepoxalin does not lead to increased tumour growth in a canine osteosarcoma xenograft.

    PubMed

    Sottnik, J L; Hansen, R J; Gustafson, D L; Dow, S W; Thamm, D H

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug tepoxalin on canine tumour cell growth and describe the changes associated with tepoxalin treatment. In vitro experiments were performed to assess tepoxalin-associated alterations in tumour cell growth. Clinically achievable tepoxalin concentrations did not significantly alter tumour cell growth in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α dose-dependently increased in vitro in the presence of tepoxalin. A canine osteosarcoma xenograft was used to determine in vivo effects of tepoxalin on tumour growth and angiogenesis. Despite increased VEGF in vitro, there was a significant growth delay associated with tepoxalin treatment. Normal dogs were administered tepoxalin to assess effects on systemic VEGF production, but not found to have significantly increased VEGF. These data suggest that tepoxalin may moderately inhibit tumour growth and may be administered as an analgesic to tumour-bearing dogs.

  17. Partial percutaneous epiphyseodesis in patients with congenital abnormalities of the growth plates.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Mohammad; Fischer, Jochen; Paton, Robin W

    2004-01-01

    We present a rare series of a small cohort of seven patients with 12 valgus knees. This is the largest series of children with underlying growth plate disorders published so far. Prediction of remaining growth in these children is difficult as most existing methods of growth prediction focus on normal patients. These methods of growth prediction in otherwise normal children are only 86-94% accurate at best. Hence we chose to use an educated guess based on the method by Menelaus to predict the right timing for surgery in our patients. Partial percutaneous epiphyseodesis has been shown to be an effective and minimally invasive method in the treatment of angular deformities of the knee. The successful partial ablation of the physes through a percutaneous approach was achieved in all of our patients. However, due to difficulties in the accurate assessment of remaining growth the results were not ideal. The mean preoperative deformity was 23 degrees of valgus and an average correction of 18 degress was achieved. Five patients with five knees (41.6%) had overcorrection or undercorrection of 10 degrees or more. Four of them required further surgical intervention. Difficulty arose mainly with the correct prediction of growth arrest in patients with abnormal physes. We review and discuss the current literature on partial epiphyseodesis and methods for the prediction of remaining growth.

  18. "Having an ovary this big is not normal": physicians' use of normal to assess wellness and sickness during oncology interviews.

    PubMed

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Beach, Wayne A

    2015-01-01

    During oncology interviews, physicians and patients routinely employ the term normal to describe patients' condition and overall health status. Surprisingly prevalent but little understood, normal is recruited to achieve an array of social actions comprising a primal aspect of patient-provider interactions: determining, assessing, and treating patients' health status as well and/or sick. Utilizing conversation analysis (CA) to examine a collection of 136 normal references across 61 oncology interviews, this article draws from a subsample of 101 instances to examine how physicians use normal to perform four specific sets of social actions: (a) invoking normal as a preferred range, (b) utilizing normal as evidence that does not explicitly label patients' conditions, (c) treating the absence of normal as indicative of sickness, and (d) providing reassurance to patients in the presence of normal and not normal circumstances. Special attention is given to how oncologists make the case for wellness and/or sickness by identifying patients as normal or not normal/abnormal. Future research is needed to understand how patients employ normal to characterize their symptoms and negotiate health status, to explore how or if alternative orientations to normal are based on gender and/or varying ethnicities, and to develop a more precise understanding of alternative practices for describing and categorizing test results (e.g., common/uncommon).

  19. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT AND THE NAVAJO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAAS, JOHN; MELVILLE, ROBERT

    A STUDY WAS DEVISED TO APPRAISE THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF NAVAJO STUDENTS LIVING IN DORMITORIES AWAY FROM THE INDIAN RESERVATION. THE FOLLOWING SEVEN FACTORS WERE CHOSEN TO BE INVESTIGATED AS BEING DIRECTLY RELATED TO ACHIEVEMENT--(1) INTELLIGENCE, (2) READING ABILITY, (3) ANXIETY, (4) SELF-CONCEPT, (5) MOTIVATION, (6) VERBAL DEVELOPMENT, (7)…

  20. Sociocultural Origins of Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theoretical review of work on sociocultural influences on achievement, focusing on a critical evaluation of the work of David McClellan. Offers an alternative conception of achievement motivation which stresses the role of contextual and situational factors in addition to personality factors. Available from: Transaction Periodicals…

  1. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do…

  2. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  3. Early Intervention and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hormes, Mridula T.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Education has been rigorous in holding all states accountable with regard to student achievement. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 clearly laid out federal mandates for all schools to follow. K-12 leaders of public schools are very aware of the fact that results in terms of student achievement need to improve…

  4. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  5. Asperger Syndrome and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…

  6. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  7. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  8. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  9. Growth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland problem or disease. The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other ... of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth. People can also have too ...

  10. Growth of breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2009-10-01

    Understanding normal growth for the healthy breastfed infant is an important component of promoting and supporting child health in general and breastfeeding in particular. In this article, we summarize what is known regarding differences in growth between breastfed and formula-fed infants; we describe the development and use of infant growth references and growth standards; we introduce the new World Health Organization growth velocity standards for early infancy (which provide standards for gain in g/day during the first weeks of life); and, in closing, we present a snapshot of recent data from a cohort of breastfed newborns in Sacramento, CA, and examine how their early weight gain compares to the new growth velocity standards.

  11. Growth plate senescence and catch-up growth

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Julian C.; Nilsson, Ola; Baron, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal bone growth is rapid in prenatal and early postnatal life, but then slows with age and eventually ceases. This growth deceleration is caused primarily by a decrease in chondrocyte proliferation, and is associated with other structural, functional, and molecular changes collectively termed growth plate senescence. Current evidence suggests that growth plate senescence occurs because the progenitor chondrocytes in the resting zone have a limited replicative capacity which is gradually exhausted with increasing cell division. In addition, recent experimental findings from laboratory and clinical studies suggest that growth plate senescence explains the phenomenon of catch-up growth. Growth-inhibiting conditions such as glucocorticoid excess and hypothyroidism delay the program of growth plate senescence. Consequently, growth plates are less senescent after these conditions resolve and therefore grow more rapidly than is normal for age, resulting in catch-up growth. PMID:21865751

  12. Unsaturated fatty acids from food and in the growth medium improve growth of Bacillus cereus under cold and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    de Sarrau, Benoît; Clavel, Thierry; Zwickel, Nicolas; Despres, Jordane; Dupont, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Tourdot-Maréchal, Raphaëlle; Nguyen-The, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    In a chemically defined medium and in Luria broth, cold strongly reduced maximal population density of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in anaerobiosis and caused formation of filaments. In cooked spinach, maximal population density of B. cereus in anaerobiosis was the same at cold and optimal temperatures, with normal cell divisions. The lipid containing fraction of spinach, but not the hydrophilic fraction, restored growth of B. cereus under cold and anaerobiosis when added to the chemically defined medium. This fraction was rich in unsaturated, low melting point fatty acids. Addition of phosphatidylcholine containing unsaturated, low melting point, fatty acids similarly improved B. cereus anaerobic growth at cold temperature. Addition of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine containing saturated, high melting point, fatty acids did not modify growth. Fatty acids from phospholipids, from spinach and from hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine, although normally very rare in B. cereus, were inserted in the bacterium membrane. Addition of phospholipids rich in unsaturated fatty acids to cold and anaerobic cultures, increased fluidity of B. cereus membrane lipids, to the same level as those from B. cereus normally cold adapted, i.e. grown aerobically at 15 °C. B. cereus is therefore able to use external fatty acids from foods or from the growth medium to adapt its membrane to cold temperature under anaerobiosis, and to recover the maximal population density achieved at optimal temperature.

  13. Growth and growth hormone: An overview.

    PubMed

    Teran, Enrique; Chesner, Jaclyn; Rapaport, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Growth is a good indicator of a child's health. Growth disturbances, including short stature or growth failure, could be indications of illnesses such as chronic disease, nutritional deficits, celiac disease or hormonal abnormalities. Therefore, a careful assessment of the various requirements for normal growth needs to be done by history, physical examination, and screening laboratory tests. More details will be reviewed about the GH-IGF axis, its abnormalities with special emphasis on GH deficiency, its diagnosis and treatment. GH treatment indications in the US will be reviewed and a few only will be highlighted. They will include GH deficiency, as well as the treatment of children born SGA, including the results of a US study using FDA approved dose of 0.48mg/kg/week. GH deficiency in adults will also be briefly reviewed. Treatment of patients with SHOX deficiency will also be discussed. Possible side effects of GH treatment and the importance of monitoring safety will be highlighted.

  14. A bipolar population counter using wave pipelining to achieve 2.5 x normal clock frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Derek C.; De Micheli, Giovanni; Flynn, Michael J.; Huston, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Wave pipelining is a technique for pipelining digital systems that can increase clock frequency in practical circuits without increasing the number of storage elements. In wave pipelining, multiple coherent waves of data are sent through a block of combinational logic by applying new inputs faster than the delay through the logic. The throughput of a 63-b CML population counter was increased from 97 to 250 MHz using wave pipelining. The internal circuit is flowthrough combinational logic. Novel CAD methods have balanced all input-to-output paths to about the same delay. This allows multiple data waves to propagate in sequence when the circuit is clocked faster than its propagation delay.

  15. Achieving reuse of computable guideline systems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P; Tu, S; Jones, N

    2001-01-01

    We describe an architecture for reusing computable guidelines and the programs used to interpret them across varied legacy clinical systems. Developed for the PRODIGY 3 project, our architecture aims to support interactive, point of care use of guidelines in primary care. Legacy medical record systems in UK primary care are diverse, using different terminologies, different data models, and varying user-interface philosophies. However, our goal is to provide common guideline knowledge bases and system components, while achieving full integration with the host medical record system, and a user interface tailored to that system. In conjunction with system suppliers, we identified areas of standardization required to achieve this goal. Firstly, standardized interfaces were created for mediation with the legacy system medical record and for act management. Secondly, a standard interface was developed for communication with the User Interface for guideline interaction. Thirdly, a terminology mapping knowledge base and system component was provided. Lastly, we developed a numeric unit conversion knowledge base and system component. The standardization of this architecture was achieved by close collaboration with existing vendors of Primary Care computing systems in the UK. The work has been verified by two suppliers successfully building and deploying systems with User Interfaces which mirror their normal look and feel, communicating fully with existing medical records, while using identical Guideline Interpreter components and knowledge bases. Encouragingly further experiments in other areas of clinical decision support have not required extension of our interfaces.

  16. Normalizing the causality between time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X. San

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula was derived to evaluate information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing a Lyapunov exponent-like, one-dimensional phase-space stretching rate and a noise-to-signal ratio from the rate of information flow in the balance of the marginal entropy evolution of the flow recipient. It is verified with autoregressive models and applied to a real financial analysis problem. An unusually strong one-way causality is identified from IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) to GE (General Electric Company) in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a giant for the mainframe computer market.

  17. Normal vibration frequencies of the vocal ligament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titze, Ingo R.; Hunter, Eric J.

    2004-05-01

    The vocal ligament is the tension-bearing element in the vocal folds at high pitches. It has traditionally been treated as a vibrating string, with only length and longitudinal stress governing its normal mode frequencies. Results of this investigation show that, when bending stiffness and variable cross section are included, the lowest normal mode frequency can more than double, depending on the strain of the ligament. This suggests that much higher phonation frequencies may be achievable than heretofore thought for a given vocal fold length (e.g., nearly 1000 Hz at 50% elongation over cadaveric resting length). It also brings back into the discussion the concept of ``damping,'' an old misnomer for a reduction of the effective length of vibration of the vocal folds by relatively stiff boundary segments known as macula flavae. A formula is given for correcting the ideal string equation for the lowest mode frequency to include bending stiffness and macula flavae effects.

  18. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  19. Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34" ’■■"■" 1 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations by Richard Fliss Col. Richard M. Meinhart Project...government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES IN ARMY INSTALLATIONS BY RICHARD FLISS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved...for public release. Distribution is unlimited. DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED & USAWC CLASS OF 1998 U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050

  20. Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.

    2013-04-25

    IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.