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Sample records for achieve numerical stability

  1. Stability and Change in Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, James W.; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The present research examined the nature of stability and change in achievement goal endorsement over time, using 4 complementary data-analytic approaches (differential continuity, mean-level change, individual-level change, and ipsative continuity). Three longitudinal studies were conducted in college classrooms; in each study, achievement goals…

  2. Numerical Tribute to Achievement of Euler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-Navarro, Carlos; Molinar-Tabares, Martín Eduardo; Castro-Arce, Lamberto; Campos-García, Julio Cesar

    2014-03-01

    This work aims to make a tribute to one of the world's brightest personalities as it was the mathematical physicist Leonhard Euler (1707-1783). Some results where the influence of Euler persists with the novelty of applying numerical analysis using Matlab are here exposed. A first analysis was done with the series that defines Euler numbers and polynomials of Frobenius-Euler; another result is the characterization of the functions that carry to Euler-Macheroni constant. In hydrodynamics is also feasible to evaluate graphically the relationship between dimensions in diameter and the exit angle of the height of Euler for turbomachines. In differential equations of Cauchy-Euler solutions for the cases of distinct real roots and complex roots are generated. Furthermore we report the generation of the Fourier series and the Fourier transform calculated by using Direct Commands of Matlab. In variational calculus it is possible to obtain plots from a problem of the Euler Lagrange equations. Finally, the Euler function is analyzed. Our purpose is to present a tribute to this giant of science also it could be an excuse to study his legacy by utilizing modern computational techniques.

  3. Numerical experiments on unstructured PIC stability.

    SciTech Connect

    Day, David Minot

    2011-04-01

    Particle-In-Cell (PIC) is a method for plasmas simulation. Particles are pushed with Verlet time integration. Fields are modeled using finite differences on a tensor product mesh (cells). The Unstructured PIC methods studied here use instead finite element discretizations on unstructured (simplicial) meshes. PIC is constrained by stability limits (upper bounds) on mesh and time step sizes. Numerical evidence (2D) and analysis will be presented showing that similar bounds constrain unstructured PIC.

  4. Numerical robust stability estimation in milling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Limin; Ding, Han; Xiong, Youlun

    2012-09-01

    The conventional prediction of milling stability has been extensively studied based on the assumptions that the milling process dynamics is time invariant. However, nominal cutting parameters cannot guarantee the stability of milling process at the shop floor level since there exists many uncertain factors in a practical manufacturing environment. This paper proposes a novel numerical method to estimate the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram, which is used to predict the milling stability in a robust way by taking into account the uncertain parameters of milling system. Time finite element method, a milling stability theory is adopted as the conventional deterministic model. The uncertain dynamics parameters are dealt with by the non-probabilistic model in which the parameters with uncertainties are assumed to be bounded and there is no need for probabilistic distribution densities functions. By doing so, interval instead of deterministic stability Lobe is obtained, which guarantees the stability of milling process in an uncertain milling environment. In the simulations, the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram obtained by the changes of modal parameters of spindle-tool system and cutting coefficients are given, respectively. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and can obtain satisfying bounds of Lobe diagrams. The proposed method is helpful for researchers at shop floor to making decision on machining parameters selection.

  5. Numerical stability in problems of linear algebra.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babuska, I.

    1972-01-01

    Mathematical problems are introduced as mappings from the space of input data to that of the desired output information. Then a numerical process is defined as a prescribed recurrence of elementary operations creating the mapping of the underlying mathematical problem. The ratio of the error committed by executing the operations of the numerical process (the roundoff errors) to the error introduced by perturbations of the input data (initial error) gives rise to the concept of lambda-stability. As examples, several processes are analyzed from this point of view, including, especially, old and new processes for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with tridiagonal matrices. In particular, it is shown how such a priori information can be utilized as, for instance, a knowledge of the row sums of the matrix. Information of this type is frequently available where the system arises in connection with the numerical solution of differential equations.

  6. RELAP-7 Numerical Stabilization: Entropy Viscosity Method

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Berry; M. O. Delchini; J. Ragusa

    2014-06-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL's modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5's capability and extends the analysis capability for all reactor system simulation scenarios. RELAP-7 utilizes a single phase and a novel seven-equation two-phase flow models as described in the RELAP-7 Theory Manual (INL/EXT-14-31366). The basic equation systems are hyperbolic, which generally require some type of stabilization (or artificial viscosity) to capture nonlinear discontinuities and to suppress advection-caused oscillations. This report documents one of the available options for this stabilization in RELAP-7 -- a new and novel approach known as the entropy viscosity method. Because the code is an ongoing development effort in which the physical sub models, numerics, and coding are evolving, so too must the specific details of the entropy viscosity stabilization method. Here the fundamentals of the method in their current state are presented.

  7. Mapping numerical magnitudes onto symbols: the numerical distance effect and individual differences in children's mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian D; Ansari, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Although it is often assumed that abilities that reflect basic numerical understanding, such as numerical comparison, are related to children's mathematical abilities, this relationship has not been tested rigorously. In addition, the extent to which symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing play differential roles in this relationship is not yet understood. To address these questions, we collected mathematics achievement measures from 6- to 8-year-olds as well as reaction times from a numerical comparison task. Using the reaction times, we calculated the size of the numerical distance effect exhibited by each child. In a correlational analysis, we found that the individual differences in the distance effect were related to mathematics achievement but not to reading achievement. This relationship was found to be specific to symbolic numerical comparison. Implications for the role of basic numerical competency and the role of accessing numerical magnitude information from Arabic numerals for the development of mathematical skills and their impairment are discussed.

  8. Numerical modeling of a vortex stabilized arcjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlas, Gary Edward

    Arcjet thrusters are being actively considered for use in Earth orbit maneuvering applications. Satellite station-keeping is an example of a maneuvering application requiring the low thrust, high specific impulse of an arcjet. Experimental studies are currently the chief means of determining an optimal thruster configuration. Earlier numerical studies have failed to include all of the effects found in typical arcjets including complex geometries, viscosity and swirling flow. Arcjet geometries are large area ratio converging-diverging nozzles with centerbodies in the subsonic portion of the nozzle. The nozzle walls serve as the anode while the centerbody functions as the cathode. Viscous effects are important because the Reynolds number, based on the throat radius, is typically less than 1,000. Experimental studies have shown a swirl or circumferential velocity component stabilizes a constricted arc. The equations are described which governs the flow through a constricted arcjet thruster. An assumption that the flowfield is in local thermodynamic equilibrium leads to a single fluid plasma temperature model. An order of magnitude analysis reveals the governing fluid mechanics equations are uncoupled from the electromagnetic field equations. A numerical method is developed to solve the governing fluid mechanics equations, the Thin Layer Navier-Stokes equations. A coordinate transformation is used in deriving the governing equations to simplify the application of boundary conditions in complex geometries. An axisymmetric formulation is employed to include the swirl velocity component as well as the axial and redial velocity components. The numerical method is an implicit finite-volume technique and allows for large time steps to reach a converged steady-state solution. The inviscid fluxes are flux-split and Gauss-Seidel line relaxation is used to accelerate convergence. 'Converging diverging' nozzles with exit-to-throat area ratios up to 100:1 and annual nozzles were

  9. Numerical modeling of a vortex stabilized arcjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlas, Gary E.

    1992-11-01

    Arcjet thrusters are being actively considered for use in Earth orbit maneuvering applications. Experimental studies are currently the chief means of determining an optimal thruster configuration. Earlier numerical studies have failed to include all of the effects found in typical arcjets including complex geometries, viscosity, and swirling flow. Arcjet geometries are large area ratio converging nozzles with centerbodies in the subsonic portion of the nozzle. The nozzle walls serve as the anode while the centerbody functions as the cathode. Viscous effects are important because the Reynolds number, based on the throat radius, is typically less than 1,000. Experimental studies have shown that a swirl or circumferential velocity component stabilizes a constricted arc. This dissertation describes the equations governing flow through a constricted arcjet thruster. An assumption that the flowfield is in local thermodynamic equilibrium leads to a single fluid plasma temperature model. An order of magnitude analysis reveals the governing fluid mechanics equations are uncoupled from the electromagnetic field equations. A numerical method is developed to solve the governing fluid mechanics equations, the Thin Layer Navier-Stokes equations. A coordinate transformation is employed in deriving the governing equations to simplify the application of boundary conditions in complex geometries. An axisymmetric formulation is employed to include the swirl velocity component as well as the axial and radial velocity components. The numerical method is an implicit finite-volume technique and allows for large time steps to reach a converged steady-state solution. The inviscid fluxes are flux-split, and Gauss-Seidel line relaxation is used to accelerate convergence. Converging-diverging nozzles with exit-to-throat area ratios up to 100:1 and annular nozzles were examined. Quantities examined included Mach number and static wall pressure distributions, and oblique shock structures. As

  10. Association between basic numerical abilities and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Sasanguie, Delphine; De Smedt, Bert; Defever, Emmy; Reynvoet, Bert

    2012-06-01

    Various measures have been used to investigate number processing in children, including a number comparison or a number line estimation task. The present study aimed to examine whether and to which extent these different measures of number representation are related to performance on a curriculum-based standardized mathematics achievement test in kindergarteners, first, second, and sixth graders. Children completed a number comparison task and a number line estimation task with a balanced set of symbolic (Arabic digits) and non-symbolic (dot patterns) stimuli. Associations with mathematics achievement were observed for the symbolic measures. Although the association with number line estimation was consistent over grades, the association with number comparison was much stronger in kindergarten compared to the other grades. The current data indicate that a good knowledge of the numerical meaning of Arabic digits is important for children's mathematical development and that particularly the access to the numerical meaning of symbolic digits rather than the representation of number per se is important.

  11. Numerical methods for hypersonic boundary layer stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Four different schemes for solving compressible boundary layer stability equations are developed and compared, considering both the temporal and spatial stability for a global eigenvalue spectrum and a local eigenvalue search. The discretizations considered encompass: (1) a second-order-staggered finite-difference scheme; (2) a fourth-order accurate, two-point compact scheme; (3) a single-domain Chebychev spectral collocation scheme; and (4) a multidomain spectral collocation scheme. As Mach number increases, the performance of the single-domain collocation scheme deteriorates due to the outward movement of the critical layer; a multidomain spectral method is accordingly designed to furnish superior resolution of the critical layer.

  12. Static friction, differential algebraic systems and numerical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Schinner, Alexander; Matuttis, Hans-Georg

    We show how Differential Algebraic Systems (Ordinary Differential Equations with algebraic constraints) in mechanics are affected by stability issues and we implement Lubich's projection method to reduce the error to practically zero. Then, we explain how the "numerically exact" implementation for static friction by Differential Algebraic Systems can be stabilized. We conclude by comparing the corresponding steps in the "Contact mechanics" introduced by Moreau.

  13. Numerical Stability In Hyperbolic Boundary-Value Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warming, Robert F.; Beam, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Technical memorandum discusses stability of numerical solutions involving semidiscrete approximations to hyperbolic partial differential equations in initial-and-boundary-value problems. Topic of practical significance because hyperbolic partial differential equations arise in mathematical modeling of waves and blasts. Solutions often needed over restricted regions of unbounded spaces. Outer boundaries artificial, introduced only to limit domains of numerical solutions. Conditions at such artificial boundaries cause numerical instabilities that degrade computed solutions.

  14. The numerical stability of transformation-based CT ventilation.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Edward; Castillo, Richard; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Guerrero, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT)-derived ventilation imaging utilizes deformable image registration (DIR) to recover respiratory-induced tissue volume changes from inhale/exhale 4DCT phases. While current strategies for validating CT ventilation rely on analyzing its correlation with existing functional imaging modalities, the numerical stability of the CT ventilation calculation has not been characterized.

  15. Busted Butte: Achieving the Objectives and Numerical Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    W.E. Soll; M. Kearney; P. Stauffer; P. Tseng; H.J. Turin; Z. Lu

    2002-10-07

    The Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT) at Busted Butte is a mesoscale field/laboratory/modeling investigation designed to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain. The UZTT test facility is located approximately 8 km southeast of the potential Yucca Mountain repository area. The UZTT was designed in two phases, to address five specific objectives in the UZ: the effect of heterogeneities, flow and transport (F&T) behavior at permeability contrast boundaries, migration of colloids , transport models of sorbing tracers, and scaling issues in moving from laboratory scale to field scale. Phase 1A was designed to assess the influence of permeability contrast boundaries in the hydrologic Calico Hills. Visualization of fluorescein movement , mineback rock analyses, and comparison with numerical models demonstrated that F&T are capillary dominated with permeability contrast boundaries distorting the capillary flow. Phase 1B was designed to assess the influence of fractures on F&T and colloid movement. The injector in Phase 1B was located at a fracture, while the collector, 30 cm below, was placed at what was assumed to be the same fracture. Numerical simulations of nonreactive (Br) and reactive (Li) tracers show the experimental data are best explained by a combination of molecular diffusion and advective flux. For Phase 2, a numerical model with homogeneous unit descriptions was able to qualitatively capture the general characteristics of the system. Numerical simulations and field observations revealed a capillary dominated flow field. Although the tracers showed heterogeneity in the test block, simulation using heterogeneous fields did not significantly improve the data fit over homogeneous field simulations. In terms of scaling, simulations of field tracer data indicate a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude higher than measured in the laboratory. Simulations of Li, a weakly sorbing tracer

  16. Determining the Numerical Stability of Quantum Chemistry Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Knizia, Gerald; Li, Wenbin; Simon, Sven; Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2011-08-09

    We present a simple, broadly applicable method for determining the numerical properties of quantum chemistry algorithms. The method deliberately introduces random numerical noise into computations, which is of the same order of magnitude as the floating point precision. Accordingly, repeated runs of an algorithm give slightly different results, which can be analyzed statistically to obtain precise estimates of its numerical stability. This noise is produced by automatic code injection into regular compiler output, so that no substantial programming effort is required, only a recompilation of the affected program sections. The method is applied to investigate: (i) the numerical stability of the three-center Obara-Saika integral evaluation scheme for high angular momenta, (ii) if coupled cluster perturbative triples can be evaluated with single precision arithmetic, (iii) how to implement the density fitting approximation in Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) most accurately, and (iv) which parts of density fitted MP2 can be safely evaluated with single precision arithmetic. In the integral case, we find a numerical instability in an equation that is used in almost all integral programs. Due to the results of (ii) and (iv), we conjecture that single precision arithmetic can be applied whenever a calculation is done in an orthogonal basis set and excessively long linear sums are avoided.

  17. Stability of numerical integration techniques for transient rotor dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    A finite element model of a rotor bearing system was analyzed to determine the stability limits of the forward, backward, and centered Euler; Runge-Kutta; Milne; and Adams numerical integration techniques. The analysis concludes that the highest frequency mode determines the maximum time step for a stable solution. Thus, the number of mass elements should be minimized. Increasing the damping can sometimes cause numerical instability. For a uniform shaft, with 10 mass elements, operating at approximately the first critical speed, the maximum time step for the Runge-Kutta, Milne, and Adams methods is that which corresponds to approximately 1 degree of shaft movement. This is independent of rotor dimensions.

  18. Stability of Numerical Interface Conditions for Fluid/Structure Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J W; Sjogreen, B

    2009-08-13

    In multi physics computations, where a compressible fluid is coupled with a linearly elastic solid, it is standard to enforce continuity of the normal velocities and of the normal stresses at the interface between the fluid and the solid. In a numerical scheme, there are many ways that the velocity- and stress-continuity can be enforced in the discrete approximation. This paper performs a normal mode analysis to investigate the stability of different numerical interface conditions for a model problem approximated by upwind type of finite difference schemes. The analysis shows that depending on the ratio of densities between the solid and the fluid, some numerical interface conditions are stable up to the maximal CFL-limit, while other numerical interface conditions suffer from a severe reduction of the stable CFL-limit. The paper also presents a new interface condition, obtained as a simplified charcteristic boundary condition, that is proved to not suffer from any reduction of the stable CFL-limit. Numerical experiments in one space dimension show that the new interface condition is stable also for computations with the non-linear Euler equations of compressible fluid flow coupled with a linearly elastic solid.

  19. Stability of Inviscid Flow over Airfoils Admitting Multiple Numerical Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya; Xiong, Juntao; Liu, Feng; Luo, Shijun

    2012-11-01

    Multiple numerical solutions at the same flight condition are found of inviscid transonic flow over certain airfoils (Jameson et al., AIAA 2011-3509) within some Mach number range. Both symmetric and asymmetric solutions exist for a symmetric airfoil at zero angle of attack. Global linear stability analysis of the multiple solutions is conducted. Linear perturbation equations of the Euler equations around a steady-state solution are formed and discretized numerically. An eigenvalue problem is then constructed using the modal analysis approach. Only a small portion of the eigen spectrum is needed and thus can be found efficiently by using Arnoldi's algorithm. The least stable or unstable mode corresponds to the eigenvalue with the largest real part. Analysis of the NACA 0012 airfoil indicates stability of symmetric solutions of the Euler equations at conditions where buffet is found from unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. Euler solutions of the same airfoil but modified to include the displacement thickness of the boundary layer computed from the Navier-Stokes equations, however, exhibit instability based on the present linear stability analysis. Graduate Student.

  20. Numerical studies on the geomechanical stability ofhydrate-bearing sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Moridis, George J.

    2007-05-01

    The thermal and mechanical loading of oceanicHydrate-Bearing Sediments (HBS) can result in hydrate dissociation and asignificant pressure increase, with potentially adverse consequences onthe integrity and stability of the wellbore assembly, the HBS, and thebounding formations. The perception of HBS instability, coupled withinsufficient knowledge of their geomechanical behavior and the absence ofpredictive capabilities, have resulted in a strategy of avoidance of HBSwhen locating offshore production platforms, and can impede thedevelopment of hydrate deposits as gas resources.In this study weinvestigate in three cases of coupled hydraulic, thermodynamic andgeomechanical behavior of oceanic hydrate-bearing sediments. The firstinvolves hydrate heating as warm fluids from deeper conventionalreservoirs ascend to the ocean floor through uninsulated pipesintersecting the HBS. The second case describes system response duringgas production from a hydrate deposit, and the third involves mechanicalloading caused by the weight of structures placed on the ocean flooroverlying hydrate-bearing sediments.For the analysis of the geomechanicalstability of HBS, we developed and used a numerical model that integratesa commercial geomechanical code and a simulator describing the coupledprocesses of fluid flow, heat transport and thermodynamic behavior in theHBS. Our simulation results indicate that the stability of HBS in thevicinity of warm pipes may be significantly affected, especially if thesediments are unconsolidated and more compressible. Gas production fromoceanic deposits may also affect the geomechanical stability of HBS underthe conditions that are deemed desirablefor production. Conversely, theincreased pressure caused by the weight of structures on the ocean floorincreases the stability of underlying hydrates.

  1. Stability constraints for oceanic numerical models: implications for the formulation of space-time discretizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarie, Florian; Debreu, Laurent; Madec, Gurvan

    2015-04-01

    Except for vertical diffusion (and possibly the external mode and bottom drag), oceanic models usually rely on explicit time-stepping algorithms subject to Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) stability criteria. Implicit methods could be unconditionally stable, but an algebraic system must be solved at each time step and other considerations such as accuracy and efficiency are less straightforward to achieve. Depending on the target application, the process limiting the maximum allowed time-step is generally different. In this study, we introduce offline diagnostics to predict stability limits associated with internal gravity waves, advection, diffusion, and rotation. This suite of diagnostics is applied to a set of global, regional and coastal numerical simulations with several horizontal/vertical resolutions and different numerical models. We show that, for resolutions finer that 1/2°, models with an eulerian vertical coordinate are generally constrained by vertical advection in a few hot spots and that numerics must be extremely robust to changes in Courant number. Based on those results, we review the stability and accuracy of existing numerical kernels in vogue in primitive equations oceanic models with a focus on advective processes and the dynamics of internal waves. We emphasize the additional value of studying the numerical kernel of oceanic models in the light of coupled space-time approaches instead of studying the time schemes independently from spatial discretizations. From this study, we suggest some guidelines for the development of temporal schemes in future generation multi-purpose oceanic models.

  2. Stability constraints for oceanic numerical models: implications for the formulation of time and space discretizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarié, F.; Debreu, L.; Madec, G.; Demange, J.; Molines, J. M.; Honnorat, M.

    2015-08-01

    Except for vertical diffusion (and possibly the external mode and bottom drag), oceanic models usually rely on explicit time-stepping algorithms subject to Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) stability criteria. Implicit methods could be unconditionally stable, but an algebraic system must be solved at each time step and other considerations such as accuracy and efficiency are less straightforward to achieve. Depending on the target application, the process limiting the maximum allowed time-step is generally different. In this paper, we introduce offline diagnostics to predict stability limits associated with internal gravity waves, advection, diffusion, and rotation. This suite of diagnostics is applied to a set of global, regional and coastal numerical simulations with several horizontal/vertical resolutions and different numerical models. We show that, for resolutions finer that 1/2°, models with an Eulerian vertical coordinate are generally constrained by vertical advection in a few hot spots and that numerics must be extremely robust to changes in Courant number. Based on those results, we review the stability and accuracy of existing numerical kernels in vogue in primitive equations oceanic models with a focus on advective processes and the dynamics of internal waves. We emphasize the additional value of studying the numerical kernel of oceanic models in the light of coupled space-time approaches instead of studying the time schemes independently from spatial discretizations. From this study, we suggest some guidelines for the development of temporal schemes in future generation multi-purpose oceanic models.

  3. Relations of Different Types of Numerical Magnitude Representations to Each Other and to Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Bailey, Drew H.; Thompson, Clarissa A.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined relations between symbolic and non-symbolic numerical magnitude representations, between whole number and fraction representations, and between these representations and overall mathematics achievement in fifth graders. Fraction and whole number symbolic and non-symbolic numerical magnitude understandings were measured using both…

  4. Problem-Based Instructional Strategy and Numerical Ability as Determinants of Senior Secondary Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badru, Ademola K.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated Problem-based Instructional Strategy and Numerical ability as determinants of Senior Secondary Achievement in Mathematics. This study used 4 x 2 x 2 non-randomised control group Pretest-Posttest Quasi-experimental Factorial design. It consisted of two independent variables (treatment and Numerical ability) and one moderating…

  5. Relations of different types of numerical magnitude representations to each other and to mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Lisa K; Bailey, Drew H; Thompson, Clarissa A; Siegler, Robert S

    2014-07-01

    We examined relations between symbolic and non-symbolic numerical magnitude representations, between whole number and fraction representations, and between these representations and overall mathematics achievement in fifth graders. Fraction and whole number symbolic and non-symbolic numerical magnitude understandings were measured using both magnitude comparison and number line estimation tasks. After controlling for non-mathematical cognitive proficiency, both symbolic and non-symbolic numerical magnitude understandings were uniquely related to mathematics achievement, but the relation was much stronger for symbolic numbers. A meta-analysis of 19 published studies indicated that relations between non-symbolic numerical magnitude knowledge and mathematics achievement are present but tend to be weak, especially beyond 6 years of age.

  6. Achieving Agility and Stability in Large-Scale Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-16

    question Which software development process are you currently using? 1. Agile software development (e.g., using Scrum , XP practices, test-driven... Scrum teams, product development teams, component teams, feature teams) spend almost all of their time fixing defects, and new capability...architectural runway provides the degree of architectural stability to support the next n iterations of development. In a Scrum project environment

  7. Achieving Agility and Stability in Large-Scale Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-16

    question Which software development process are you currently using? 1. Agile software development (e.g., using Scrum , XP practices, test-driven... Scrum teams, product development teams, component teams, feature teams) spend almost all of their time fixing defects, and new capability...architectural runway provides the degree of architectural stability to support the next n iterations of development. In a Scrum project environment, the

  8. Sensitivity to general and specific numerical features in typical achievers and children with mathematics learning disability.

    PubMed

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    We examined the development of sensitivity to general and specific numerical features in typical achievers and in 6th and 8th graders with mathematics learning disability (MLD), using two effects in mental multiplication: operand-relatedness (i.e., difficulty in avoiding errors that are related to the operands via a shared multiplication row) and decade-consistency (i.e., difficulty in avoiding errors that are operand related and also share a decade with the true result). Responses to decade-consistent products were quick but erroneous. In line with the processing sequence in adults, children first became sensitive to the general numerical feature of operand-relatedness (typical achievers--from 3rd grade; children with MLD in 8th grade) and only later to the specific feature of decade-consistency (typical achievers--from 4th grade, but only from 6th grade in a mature pattern). Implications of the numerical sensitivity in children with MLD are discussed.

  9. Premenstrual Exacerbations: Achieving Stability All Month, Every Month.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Laura G

    2017-04-01

    Premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or premenstrual exacerbation of a psychiatric condition may disrupt 10 years of a woman's life over the course of her reproductive lifespan. As health care practitioners, nurses see women who experience these premenstrual symptom exacerbations in all treatment settings. Premenstrual exacerbation of psychiatric illness is a common phenomenon, and it is treatable; however, research is limited and evidence-based guidelines for treatment are sparse. The current article offers insights and an algorithm, extrapolated from the existing literature, into a lesser-known treatment strategy, semi-intermittent dosing, which will provide symptom stability all month, every month. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(4), 9-13.].

  10. Cumulative carbon as a policy framework for achieving climate stabilization.

    PubMed

    Matthews, H Damon; Solomon, Susan; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2012-09-13

    The primary objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will avoid dangerous climate impacts. However, greenhouse gas concentration stabilization is an awkward framework within which to assess dangerous climate change on account of the significant lag between a given concentration level and the eventual equilibrium temperature change. By contrast, recent research has shown that global temperature change can be well described by a given cumulative carbon emissions budget. Here, we propose that cumulative carbon emissions represent an alternative framework that is applicable both as a tool for climate mitigation as well as for the assessment of potential climate impacts. We show first that both atmospheric CO(2) concentration at a given year and the associated temperature change are generally associated with a unique cumulative carbon emissions budget that is largely independent of the emissions scenario. The rate of global temperature change can therefore be related to first order to the rate of increase of cumulative carbon emissions. However, transient warming over the next century will also be strongly affected by emissions of shorter lived forcing agents such as aerosols and methane. Non-CO(2) emissions therefore contribute to uncertainty in the cumulative carbon budget associated with near-term temperature targets, and may suggest the need for a mitigation approach that considers separately short- and long-lived gas emissions. By contrast, long-term temperature change remains primarily associated with total cumulative carbon emissions owing to the much longer atmospheric residence time of CO(2) relative to other major climate forcing agents.

  11. Cumulative carbon as a policy framework for achieving climate stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H. Damon; Solomon, Susan; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will avoid dangerous climate impacts. However, greenhouse gas concentration stabilization is an awkward framework within which to assess dangerous climate change on account of the significant lag between a given concentration level and the eventual equilibrium temperature change. By contrast, recent research has shown that global temperature change can be well described by a given cumulative carbon emissions budget. Here, we propose that cumulative carbon emissions represent an alternative framework that is applicable both as a tool for climate mitigation as well as for the assessment of potential climate impacts. We show first that both atmospheric CO2 concentration at a given year and the associated temperature change are generally associated with a unique cumulative carbon emissions budget that is largely independent of the emissions scenario. The rate of global temperature change can therefore be related to first order to the rate of increase of cumulative carbon emissions. However, transient warming over the next century will also be strongly affected by emissions of shorter lived forcing agents such as aerosols and methane. Non-CO2 emissions therefore contribute to uncertainty in the cumulative carbon budget associated with near-term temperature targets, and may suggest the need for a mitigation approach that considers separately short- and long-lived gas emissions. By contrast, long-term temperature change remains primarily associated with total cumulative carbon emissions owing to the much longer atmospheric residence time of CO2 relative to other major climate forcing agents. PMID:22869803

  12. Achieving nano-gold stability through rational design.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Dean H; Scurrell, Michael S; Rodella, Cristiane B; Diaz, Beatriz; Billing, David G; Franklyn, Paul J

    2016-11-18

    When Au is subdivided to the nanoscale its reactivity changes from an inert nature to one of incredible reactivity which is not replicated by other catalysts. When dispersed onto metal oxides such as TiO2, nano-Au has shown high reactivities for a multitude of reduction and oxidation reactions of industrial importance with potential and current uses such as, CO oxidation, NO x reduction, purification of hydrogen for fuel cells, water gas shift reactions, abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) as well as pollution and emission control systems such as autocatalysts. However, many industrially important reactions and applications operate under harsh conditions where the catalyst is exposed to high temperatures and further needs to operate for extended periods of time. These conditions cause Au nanoparticle sintering whereby small, highly active clusters form large clusters which are catalytically inactive. For this reason, research into stabilizing Au nanoparticles has abounded with a goal of producing durable, thermally stable catalysts for industrial applications. Here we show a durable, thermally stable Au-TiO2 catalyst which has been developed by rational design. The catalyst exhibits a 3-dimensional, radially aligned nanorod structure, already locked into the thermodynamically stable polymorph, via a scalable and facile synthesis, with Au nanoparticles isolated on the support structure. As the Au nanoparticles are highly stable the new catalyst is able to maintain light-off for CO oxidation below 115 °C even after multiple cycles at 800 °C. This ability of the catalyst to resist multiple thermal cycles to high temperature while remaining active at low temperatures shows promise for various industrial applications. The thermal stability of the catalyst is investigated and characterized through morphological and structural studies.

  13. Numerical Ability, Course of Study and Gender Differences in Students' Achievement in Practical Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falaye, F. V.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, course of study and numerical ability (independent variables) on secondary school students' achievement in Practical Geography (dependent variable). Purposive sampling was used to select four co-educational secondary schools established in the same year. A sample of 367 Geography students (157…

  14. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  15. Recommendations for Achieving Accurate Numerical Simulation of Tip Clearance Flows in Transonic Compressor Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Wood, Jerry R,; Hathaway, Michael D.; Okiishi, Theodore H.

    2000-01-01

    The tip clearance flows of transonic compressor rotors are important because they have a significant impact on rotor and stage performance. While numerical simulations of these flows are quite sophisticated. they are seldom verified through rigorous comparisons of numerical and measured data because these kinds of measurements are rare in the detail necessary to be useful in high-speed machines. In this paper we compare measured tip clearance flow details (e.g. trajectory and radial extent) with corresponding data obtained from a numerical simulation. Recommendations for achieving accurate numerical simulation of tip clearance flows are presented based on this comparison. Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements acquired in a transonic compressor rotor, NASA Rotor 35, are used. The tip clearance flow field of this transonic rotor was simulated using a Navier-Stokes turbomachinery solver that incorporates an advanced k-epsilon turbulence model derived for flows that are not in local equilibrium. Comparison between measured and simulated results indicates that simulation accuracy is primarily dependent upon the ability of the numerical code to resolve important details of a wall-bounded shear layer formed by the relative motion between the over-tip leakage flow and the shroud wall. A simple method is presented for determining the strength of this shear layer.

  16. An ACC Design Method for Achieving Both String Stability and Ride Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Yoshinori; Seto, Yoji; Nishira, Hikaru; Kawabe, Taketoshi

    An investigation was made of a method for designing adaptive cruise control (ACC) so as to achieve a headway distance response that feels natural to the driver while at the same time obtaining high levels of both string stability and ride comfort. With this design method, the H∞ norm is adopted as the index of string stability. Additionally, two norms are introduced for evaluating ride comfort and natural vehicle behavior. The relationship between these three norms and headway distance response characteristics was analyzed, and an evaluation method was established for achieving high levels of the various performance characteristics required of ACC. An ACC system designed with this method was evaluated in driving tests conducted on a proving ground course, and the results confirmed that it achieved the targeted levels of string stability, ride comfort and natural vehicle behavior.

  17. Boundary Conditions for Numerical Stability Analysis of Periodic Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashige, Sunao

    This paper considers numerical methods for stability analyses of periodic solutions of ordinary differential equations. Stability of a periodic solution can be determined by the corresponding monodromy matrix and its eigenvalues. Some commonly used numerical methods can produce inaccurate results of them in some cases, for example, near bifurcation points or when one of the eigenvalues is very large or very small. This work proposes a numerical method using a periodic boundary condition for vector fields, which preserves a critical property of the monodromy matrix. Numerical examples demonstrate effectiveness and a drawback of this method.

  18. Numerical stability maps of an optically injected semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fordell, T.; Lindberg, Å. M.

    2004-12-01

    Detailed experimental mappings of the dynamics of a Fabry-Pérot type semiconductor laser subjected to external optical injection along with parameters describing the injected laser have been published by Eriksson and Lindberg [J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 4 (2002) 149] and by Eriksson [Opt. Commun. 210 (2002) 343]. This paper reports on a numerical investigation of the injection experiments. By computing the largest Lyapunov exponent, the chaotic islands, periodic windows and locking ranges are compared in detail with the experimental results for three different operating points of the laser. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experiment once the linewidth enhancement factor is increased from the earlier reported value of 3.9 ± 0.5 to about 6.7. The new value is confirmed by a re-measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor using a current modulation technique.

  19. Wake Numerical Simulation Based on the Park-Gauss Model and Considering Atmospheric Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiangsheng; Zhao, Ning; Tian, Linlin; Zhu, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new Park-Gauss model based on the assumption of the Park model and the Eddy-viscosity model is investigated to conduct the wake numerical simulation for solving a single wind turbine problem. The initial wake radius has been modified to improve the model’s numerical accuracy. Then the impact of the atmospheric stability based on the Park-Gauss model has been studied in the wake region. By the comparisons and the analyses of the test results, it turns out that the new Park-Gauss model could achieve better effects of the wind velocity simulation in the wake region. The wind velocity in the wake region recovers quickly under the unstable atmospheric condition provided the wind velocity is closest to the test result, and recovers slowly under stable atmospheric condition in case of the wind velocity is lower than the test result. Meanwhile, the wind velocity recovery falls in between the unstable and stable neutral atmospheric conditions.

  20. The development of achievement goals throughout college: modeling stability and change.

    PubMed

    Corker, Katherine S; Donnellan, M Brent; Bowles, Ryan P

    2013-11-01

    Emerging adulthood, defined for many by the college years, is an active period of personality development; less is known about goal change during these years. We investigated stability and change in the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals over 4 years (N = 527). We evaluated rank-order stability and mean-level change, and tested goal coupling hypotheses--the idea that early changes in goals predict later change in other goals--using multivariate latent difference score models. Achievement goals showed moderate rank-order stability over 4 years. Three of four goals demonstrated small normative declines, excepting performance approach goals. A change in mastery approach goals was associated with levels of the other three goals; these goals jointly acted to slow the decline of mastery goals. Trajectories for the other three goals were largely independent. Results suggest that goals are relatively stable individual differences during the college years.

  1. Feedback Stabilization Methods for the Numerical Solution of Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karafyllis, Iasson; Grüne, Lars

    2009-09-01

    In this work we study the problem of step size selection for numerical schemes, which guarantees that the numerical solution presents the same qualitative behavior as the original system of ordinary differential equations, by means of tools from nonlinear control theory. Lyapunov-based stabilization methods are exploited.

  2. Stability of numerous novel potassium chlorides at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Zhu, Qiang; Lobanov, Sergey S.; Stavrou, Elissaios; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2016-05-01

    K-Cl is a simple system displaying all four main types of bonding, as it contains (i) metallic potassium, (ii) elemental chlorine made of covalently bonded Cl2 molecules held together by van der Waals forces, and (iii) an archetypal ionic compound KCl. The charge balance rule, assigning classical charges of “+1” to K and “‑1” to Cl, predicts that no compounds other than KCl are possible. However, our quantum-mechanical variable-composition evolutionary simulations predict an extremely complex phase diagram, with new thermodynamically stable compounds K3Cl, K2Cl, K3Cl2, K4Cl3, K5Cl4, K3Cl5, KCl3 and KCl7. Of particular interest are 2D-metallic homologs Kn+1Cln, the presence of positively charged Cl atoms in KCl7, and the predicted stability of KCl3 already at nearly ambient pressures at zero Kelvin. We have synthesized cubic -KCl3 at 40–70 GPa and trigonal -KCl3 at 20–40 GPa in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC) at temperature exceeding 2000 K from KCl and Cl2. These phases were identified using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Upon unloading to 10 GPa, -KCl3 transforms to a yet unknown structure before final decomposition to KCl and Cl2 at near-ambient conditions.

  3. Stability of numerous novel potassium chlorides at high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Zhu, Qiang; Lobanov, Sergey S.; Stavrou, Elissaios; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2016-01-01

    K-Cl is a simple system displaying all four main types of bonding, as it contains (i) metallic potassium, (ii) elemental chlorine made of covalently bonded Cl2 molecules held together by van der Waals forces, and (iii) an archetypal ionic compound KCl. The charge balance rule, assigning classical charges of “+1” to K and “−1” to Cl, predicts that no compounds other than KCl are possible. However, our quantum-mechanical variable-composition evolutionary simulations predict an extremely complex phase diagram, with new thermodynamically stable compounds K3Cl, K2Cl, K3Cl2, K4Cl3, K5Cl4, K3Cl5, KCl3 and KCl7. Of particular interest are 2D-metallic homologs Kn+1Cln, the presence of positively charged Cl atoms in KCl7, and the predicted stability of KCl3 already at nearly ambient pressures at zero Kelvin. We have synthesized cubic -KCl3 at 40–70 GPa and trigonal -KCl3 at 20–40 GPa in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC) at temperature exceeding 2000 K from KCl and Cl2. These phases were identified using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Upon unloading to 10 GPa, -KCl3 transforms to a yet unknown structure before final decomposition to KCl and Cl2 at near-ambient conditions. PMID:27211847

  4. Stability of numerous novel potassium chlorides at high pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Weiwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Lobanov, Sergey S.; ...

    2016-05-23

    K-Cl is a simple system displaying all four main types of bonding, as it contains (i) metallic potassium, (ii) elemental chlorine made of covalently bonded Cl2 molecules held together by van der Waals forces, and (iii) an archetypal ionic compound KCl. The charge balance rule, assigning classical charges of “+1” to K and “–1” to Cl, predicts that no compounds other than KCl are possible. However, our quantum-mechanical variable-composition evolutionary simulations predict an extremely complex phase diagram, with new thermodynamically stable compounds K3Cl, K2Cl, K3Cl2, K4Cl3, K5Cl4, K3Cl5, KCl3 and KCl7. Of particular interest are 2D-metallic homologs Kn+1Cln, the presencemore » of positively charged Cl atoms in KCl7, and the predicted stability of KCl3 already at nearly ambient pressures at zero Kelvin. We have synthesized cubic Pm3¯n -KCl3 at 40–70 GPa and trigonal P3¯cl -KCl3 at 20–40 GPa in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC) at temperature exceeding 2000 K from KCl and Cl2. These phases were identified using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Lastly, upon unloading to 10 GPa, P3¯cl -KCl3 transforms to a yet unknown structure before final decomposition to KCl and Cl2 at near-ambient conditions.« less

  5. Stability of numerous novel potassium chlorides at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Lobanov, Sergey S.; Stavrou, Elissaios; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Zhu, Qiang

    2016-05-23

    K-Cl is a simple system displaying all four main types of bonding, as it contains (i) metallic potassium, (ii) elemental chlorine made of covalently bonded Cl2 molecules held together by van der Waals forces, and (iii) an archetypal ionic compound KCl. The charge balance rule, assigning classical charges of “+1” to K and “–1” to Cl, predicts that no compounds other than KCl are possible. However, our quantum-mechanical variable-composition evolutionary simulations predict an extremely complex phase diagram, with new thermodynamically stable compounds K3Cl, K2Cl, K3Cl2, K4Cl3, K5Cl4, K3Cl5, KCl3 and KCl7. Of particular interest are 2D-metallic homologs Kn+1Cln, the presence of positively charged Cl atoms in KCl7, and the predicted stability of KCl3 already at nearly ambient pressures at zero Kelvin. We have synthesized cubic Pm3¯n -KCl3 at 40–70 GPa and trigonal P3¯cl -KCl3 at 20–40 GPa in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC) at temperature exceeding 2000 K from KCl and Cl2. These phases were identified using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Lastly, upon unloading to 10 GPa, P3¯cl -KCl3 transforms to a yet unknown structure before final decomposition to KCl and Cl2 at near-ambient conditions.

  6. How, and at what costs, can low-level stabilization be achieved? - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Metz; Detlef van Vuuren

    2006-02-15

    In order to prevent 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system', stabilization of greenhouse gases at low levels (at 550 ppmv CO{sub 2} equivalent or below) might be needed. This paper discusses some of the current literature on whether stabilization at such a low level is possible based on available technologies and on stabilisation scenarios (including their costs). Technology options considered were: energy efficiency improvement; renewable energy; nuclear power; CO{sub 2} capture and storage; biological sequestration; and non-CO{sub 2} gases reduction. The combined technical potential of different options as reported in the literature seems, in principle, to be sufficient to achieve low-level stabilization. Application of these technologies, however, is more uncertain as it requires further development, technology transfer, and widespread diffusion. Effective and efficient stabilization strategies use a portfolio of options (changing over time) to achieve a least cost approach. For low-level stabilization marginal costs will increase steadily as more and more expensive measures are required. Costs in terms of welfare loss, compared to a situation without climate policy measures, highly depend on the underlying socioeconomic development. If the most efficient implementation (including multi-gas strategies, maximum participation of countries in a global emission trading regime, optimal timing of reduction actions) is chosen, current studies estimate global costs in the order of a maximum of a few per cent GDP loss by the year 2050. Costs for individual countries may highly differ. By looking at mitigation/stabilization costs in a wider context we can help identify co-benefits of policies for achieving sustainable development, energy security or environmental goals, and so reduce costs. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Ponderomotive stabilization of flute modes in mirrors Feedback control and numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Similon, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    Ponderomotive stabilization of rigid plasma flute modes is numerically investigated by use of a variational principle, for a simple geometry, without eikonal approximation. While the near field of the studied antenna can be stabilizing, the far field has a small contribution only, because of large cancellation by quasi mode-coupling terms. The field energy for stabilization is evaluated and is a nonnegligible fraction of the plasma thermal energy. A new antenna design is proposed, and feedback stabilization is investigated. Their use drastically reduces power requirements.

  8. Achievement of thermal stability by varying metabolic heat production in flying honeybees.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J F; Fewell, J H; Roberts, S P; Hall, H G

    1996-10-04

    Thermoregulation of the thorax allows endothermic insects to achieve power outputs during flight that are among the highest in the animal kingdom. Flying endothermic insects, including the honeybee Apis mellifera, are believed to thermoregulate almost exclusively by varying heat loss. Here it is shown that a rise in air temperature from 20 degrees to 40 degrees C causes large decreases in metabolic heat production and wing-beat frequency in honeybees during hovering, agitated, or loaded flight. Thus, variation in heat production may be the primary mechanism for achieving thermal stability in flying honeybees, and this mechanism may occur commonly in endothermic insects.

  9. Numerical Stability and Accuracy of Temporally Coupled Multi-Physics Modules in Wind-Turbine CAE Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Gasmi, A.; Sprague, M. A.; Jonkman, J. M.; Jones, W. B.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we examine the stability and accuracy of numerical algorithms for coupling time-dependent multi-physics modules relevant to computer-aided engineering (CAE) of wind turbines. This work is motivated by an in-progress major revision of FAST, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) premier aero-elastic CAE simulation tool. We employ two simple examples as test systems, while algorithm descriptions are kept general. Coupled-system governing equations are framed in monolithic and partitioned representations as differential-algebraic equations. Explicit and implicit loose partition coupling is examined. In explicit coupling, partitions are advanced in time from known information. In implicit coupling, there is dependence on other-partition data at the next time step; coupling is accomplished through a predictor-corrector (PC) approach. Numerical time integration of coupled ordinary-differential equations (ODEs) is accomplished with one of three, fourth-order fixed-time-increment methods: Runge-Kutta (RK), Adams-Bashforth (AB), and Adams-Bashforth-Moulton (ABM). Through numerical experiments it is shown that explicit coupling can be dramatically less stable and less accurate than simulations performed with the monolithic system. However, PC implicit coupling restored stability and fourth-order accuracy for ABM; only second-order accuracy was achieved with RK integration. For systems without constraints, explicit time integration with AB and explicit loose coupling exhibited desired accuracy and stability.

  10. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Paul B; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Prigge, Molly B D; Cariello, Annahir N; Travers, Brittany G; Anderson, Jeffrey; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N = 31) were males ages 6-22 years (M = 15.2, SD = 4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M = 31.8 mo., SD = 4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT-3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time.

  11. Comparisons of numerical magnitudes in children with different levels of mathematical achievement. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola Reveca; Berumen, Gustavo; González-Garrido, Andrés Antonio

    2015-11-19

    The ability to map between non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude representations is crucial in the development of mathematics and this map is disturbed in children with math difficulties. In addition, positive parietal ERPs have been found to be sensitive to the number distance effect and skills solving arithmetic problems. Therefore we aimed to contrast the behavioral and ERP responses in children with different levels of mathematical achievement: low (LA), average (AA) and high (HA), while comparing symbolic and non-symbolic magnitudes. The results showed that LA children repeatedly failed when comparing magnitudes, particularly the symbolic ones. In addition, a positive correlation between correct responses while analyzing symbolic quantities and WRAT-4 scores emerged. The amplitude of N200 was significantly larger during non-symbolic comparisons. In addition, P2P amplitude was consistently smaller in LA children while comparing both symbolic and non-symbolic quantities, and correlated positively with the WRAT-4 scores. The latency of P3 seemed to be sensitive to the type of numerical comparison. The results suggest that math difficulties might be related to a more general magnitude representation problem, and that ERP are useful to study its timecourse in children with different mathematical skills.

  12. Stability property of numerical Cherenkov radiation and its application to relativistic shock simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeya, Naoki; Matsumoto, Yosuke

    2015-08-01

    We studied the stability property of numerical Cherenkov radiation in relativistic plasma flows employing particle-in-cell simulations. Using the implicit finite-difference time-domain method to solve the Maxwell equations, we found that nonphysical instability was greatly inhibited with a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number of 1.0. The present result contrasts with recently reported results (Vay et al. 2011, J. Comp. Phys., 230, 5908; Godfrey & Vay 2013, J. Comp. Phys., 248, 33; Xu et al. 2013, Comput. Phys. Commun., 184, 2503) in which magical CFL numbers in the range 0.5-0.7 were obtained with explicit field solvers. In addition, we found employing higher-order shape functions and an optimal implicitness factor further suppressed long-wavelength modes of the instability. The findings allowed the examination of the long-term evolution of a relativistic collisionless shock without the generation of nonphysical wave excitations in the upstream. This achievement will allow us to investigate particle accelerations in relativistic shocks associated with, for example, gamma-ray bursts.

  13. [Surgical stabilization of multiple rib fractures successfully achieved with the use of long metalic plates].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, A; Sato, T; Osawa, H; Koyanagi, T; Maekawa, K; Watanabe, N; Nakase, A; Sakata, J; Kamada, K

    1998-05-01

    Surgical stabilization of multiple rib fractures in 5 male patients was successfully achieved with the use of orthopedic A-O metalic plates, which are called reconstruction plates. In each patient, we prevented deformity of the rib cage and flail chest which frequently occurs after multiple rib fractures. Three of these patients received emergency operations because of severe hemopneumothorax and flail chest due to crushing injuries to the chest. They were treated by the standard thoracotomy, hemostasis of intrapleural bleeding, and stabilization of fractured ribs with reconstruction plates, in addition two of the patients underwent a single lobectomy to control the pulmonary hemorrhage. Another two patients were treated with mechanical ventilation and closed-tube thoracotomy following the chest trauma because their thoracic bleeding from drainage tubes was tolerable. But flail chest and respiratory insufficiency did not improve, in spite of positive controlled ventilation as a mode of internal pneumatic stabilization. Then surgical stabilization of the fractured ribs with these plates was carried out ten to twelve days after the accidents in each case. All patients tolerated the surgical procedures well and were successfully removed from the respirator, demonstrating complete stability of the chest wall. The long metal reconstruction plates with many perforations were very useful for the external fixation of segmentary fractured ribs as an external brace. This was because they were long enough to cover the whole length of the fractured ribs and moderately soft enough to be appropriately bent or twisted by hand at the time of operation. Moreover a number of holes in it allowed the suture to pass through the plate and rib, avoiding displacement of the prosthesis. This is the first report which describes the usefulness of orthopedic reconstruction plates for the stabilization of multiple rib fractures.

  14. Numerical study on the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by electron cyclotron current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wu, Bin; Zhu, Sizheng; Hu, Yemin

    2015-02-15

    It is well known that electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) around the o-point of magnetic island along the plasma current direction can stabilize neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) in tokamak devices. The effects of the radial misalignment between the island and the driven current, the phase misalignment, and the on-duty ratio for modulated current drive on NTM stabilization are studied numerically in this paper. A small radial misalignment is found to significantly decrease the stabilizing effect. When a sufficiently large phase misalignment occurs for the modulated ECCD, the stabilization effect is also reduced a lot. The optimal on-duty ratio of modulated ECCD to stabilize NTMs is found to be in the range of 60%–70%. A larger on-duty ratio than 50% could also mitigate the effect of phase misalignment if it is not too large. There is no benefit from modulation if the phase misalignment is larger than a threshold.

  15. On the stability of numerical integration routines for ordinary differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, K.; Willems, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Numerical integration methods for the solution of initial value problems for ordinary vector differential equations may be modelled as discrete time feedback systems. The stability criteria discovered in modern control theory are applied to these systems and criteria involving the routine, the step size and the differential equation are derived. Linear multistep, Runge-Kutta, and predictor-corrector methods are all investigated.

  16. The role of opacity and transparency in achieving strategic stability in South Asia.

    SciTech Connect

    Rajain, Arpit; Ashraf, Tariq Mahmud

    2005-08-01

    According to international relations theory, deterrence can be used as a tool to achieve stability between potentially hostile nations. India and Pakistan's long history of periodic crises raises the question of how they can achieve deterrence stability. 'Transparency' describes the flow of information between parties and plays a key role in establishing a deterrence relationship. This paper studies the balance needed between opacity and transparency in nuclear topics for the maintenance of deterrence stability between India and Pakistan. States with nuclear weapons are postulated to implement transparency in four categories: potential, capability, intent, and resolve. The study applies these categories to the nuclear components of the ongoing India-Pakistan Composite Dialogue Working Group for Peace and Security including CBMs. To focus our efforts, we defined four scenarios to characterize representative strategic/military/political conditions. The scenarios are combinations of these two sets of opposite poles: competition - cooperation; extremism - moderation (to be understood primarily in a religious/nationalistic sense). We describe each scenario in terms of select focal areas (nuclear doctrine, nuclear command and control, nuclear stockpile, nuclear delivery/defensive systems, and conventional force posture). The scenarios help frame the realm of possibilities, and have been described in terms of expected conditions for the focal areas. We then use the conditions in each scenario to prescribe a range of information-sharing actions that the two countries could take to increase stability. We also highlight the information that should not be shared. These actions can be political (e.g., declarations), procedural (e.g., advance notice of certain military activities), or technologically based (e.g., seismic monitoring of the nuclear test moratorium).

  17. The stability of numerical methods for second order ordinary differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gear, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    An important characterization of a numerical method for first order ODE's is the region of absolute stability. If all eigenvalues of the linear problem dy/dt = Ay are inside this region, the numerical method is stable. If the second order system d/dt(dy/dt) = 2Ady/dt - By is solved as a first order system, the same result applies to the eigenvalues of the generalized eigenvalue problem (lambda-squared)I 2(lambda)A + B. No such region exists for general methods for second order equations, but in some cases a region of absolute stability can be defined for methods for the single second order equation d/dt(dy/dt) = 2ady/dt - by. The absence of a region of absolute stability can occur when different members of a system of first order equations are solved by different methods.

  18. Achieving Vibration Stability of the NSLS-II Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Chu, Y. S.; Broadbent, A.; Nazaretski, E.; Margulies, L.; Dyling, O.; Shen, Q.; Fallier, M.

    2011-09-09

    The hard x-ray nanoprobe (HXN) beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) requires high levels of stability in order to achieve the desired instrument resolution. To ensure that the design of the endstation helps meet the stringent criteria and that natural and cultural vibration is mitigated both passively and actively, a comprehensive study complimentary to the design process has been undertaken. Vibration sources that have the potential to disrupt sensitive experiments such as wind, traffic, and NSLS II operating systems have been studied using state-of-the-art simulations and an array of field data. Further, final stage vibration isolation principles have been explored.

  19. Achieving Vibration Stability of the NSLS-II Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, N.; Chu, Y. S.; Broadbent, A.; Nazaretski, E.; Margulies, L.; Dyling, O.; Shen, Q.; Fallier, M.

    2011-09-01

    The hard x-ray nanoprobe (HXN) beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) requires high levels of stability in order to achieve the desired instrument resolution. To ensure that the design of the endstation helps meet the stringent criteria and that natural and cultural vibration is mitigated both passively and actively, a comprehensive study complimentary to the design process has been undertaken. Vibration sources that have the potential to disrupt sensitive experiments such as wind, traffic, and NSLS II operating systems have been studied using state-of-the-art simulations and an array of field data. Further, final stage vibration isolation principles have been explored.

  20. On the use of stability regions in the numerical analysis of initial value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenferink, H. W. J.; Spijker, M. N.

    1991-07-01

    This paper deals with the stability analysis of one-step methods in the numerical solution of initial (-boundary) value problems for linear, ordinary, and partial differential equations. Restrictions on the stepsize are derived which guarantee the rate of error growth in these methods to be of moderate size. These restrictions are related to the stability region of the method and to numerical ranges of matrices stemming from the differential equation under consideration. The errors in the one-step methods are measured in arbitrary norms (not necessarily generated by an inner product). The theory is illustrated in the numerical solution of the heat equation and some other differential equations, where the error growth is measured in the maximum norm.

  1. Numerical Study of Global Stability of Oblate Field-Reversed Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    E.V. Belova; S.C. Jardin; H. Ji; M. Yamada; R. Kulsrud

    2000-10-27

    Global stability of the oblate (small elongation, E < 1) Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) has been investigated numerically using both three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hybrid (fluid electrons and kinetic ions) simulations. For every non-zero value of the toroidal mode number n, there are three MHD modes that must be stabilized. For n = 1, these are the interchange, the tilt and the radial shift; while for n > 1 these are the interchange and two co-interchange modes with different polarization. It is shown that the n = 1 tilt mode becomes an external mode when E < 1, and it can be effectively stabilized by close-fitting conducting shells, even in the small Larmor radii (MHD) regime. The tilt mode stability improves with increasing oblateness, however at suffciently small elongations the radial shift mode becomes more unstable than the tilt mode. The interchange mode stability is strongly profile dependent, and all n * 1 interchange modes can be stabilized for a class of pressure profile with separatrix beta larger than 0.035. Our results show that all three n = 1 modes can be stabilized in the MHD regime, but the stabilization of the n > 1 co-interchange modes still remains an open question.

  2. Numerical stability analysis of the pseudo-spectral analytical time-domain PIC algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Brendan B.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2014-02-01

    The pseudo-spectral analytical time-domain (PSATD) particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm solves the vacuum Maxwell's equations exactly, has no Courant time-step limit (as conventionally defined), and offers substantial flexibility in plasma and particle beam simulations. It is, however, not free of the usual numerical instabilities, including the numerical Cherenkov instability, when applied to relativistic beam simulations. This paper derives and solves the numerical dispersion relation for the PSATD algorithm and compares the results with corresponding behavior of the more conventional pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) and finite difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithms. In general, PSATD offers superior stability properties over a reasonable range of time steps. More importantly, one version of the PSATD algorithm, when combined with digital filtering, is almost completely free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for time steps (scaled to the speed of light) comparable to or smaller than the axial cell size.

  3. Enhancement of numeric cognition in children with low achievement in mathematic after a non-instrumental musical training.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Santos, Flávia H

    2017-03-01

    Studies suggest that musical training enhances spatial-temporal reasoning and leads to greater learning of mathematical concepts. The aim of this prospective study was to verify the efficacy of a Non-Instrumental Musical Training (NIMT) on the Numerical Cognition systems in children with low achievement in math. For this purpose, we examined, with a cluster analysis, whether children with low scores on Numerical Cognition would be grouped in the same cluster at pre and post-NIMT. Participants were primary school children divided into two groups according to their scores on an Arithmetic test. Results with a specialized battery of Numerical Cognition revealed improvements for Cluster 2 (children with low achievement in math) especially for number production capacity compared to normative data. Besides, the number of children with low scores in Numerical Cognition decreased at post-NIMT. These findings suggest that NIMT enhances Numerical Cognition and seems to be a useful tool for rehabilitation of children with low achievement in math.

  4. Tailings dams stability analysis using numerical modelling of geotechnical and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, S.; Zlagnean, M.; Oancea, I.; Petrescu, A.

    2009-04-01

    dam's state of safety. This study considered the SSR (Shear Strength Reduction) technique for slope stability numerical modelling. In the SSR finite element technique, elasto-plastic strength is assumed for dam's materials and shear strengths are progressively reduced until collapse occurs. Numerical modelling was performed on the most critical profile choosed through analysis of geophysical and geotechnical informational volume achieved by insitu or in laboratory tests. Finite element analysis were considered in two situations: first, before geophysical investigations and second considering the whole informational of data achieved. Both situations were analysed in static and pseudo-static conditions. The factor of safety before geophysical investigations is high enough to describe a stable state of stability even for the seismic load. The total displacement distributions were modified by the presence of internal erosional element giving a high state of instability, especially for the pseudo-static case. These analysis using the finite element method prove the importance of structural disturbance elements that may occure inside the dam body produced by internal erosional processes.

  5. Numerical stability of the Z4c formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhoujian; Hilditch, David

    2012-06-01

    We study numerical stability of different approaches to the discretization of a conformal decomposition of the Z4 formulation of general relativity. We demonstrate that in the linear, constant coefficient regime a novel discretization for tensors is formally numerically stable with a method of lines time integrator. We then perform a full set of “apples with apples” tests on the nonlinear system, and thus present numerical evidence that both the new and standard discretizations are, in some sense, numerically stable in the nonlinear regime. The results of the Z4c numerical tests are compared with those of Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura-Oohara-Kojima (BSSNOK) evolutions. We typically do not employ the Z4c constraint damping scheme and find that in the robust stability and gauge wave tests the Z4c evolutions result in lower constraint violation at the same resolution as the BSSNOK evolutions. In the gauge wave tests, we find that the Z4c evolutions maintain the desired convergence factor over many more light-crossing times than the BSSNOK tests. The difference in the remaining tests is marginal.

  6. Numerical Simulations of Power Law Heating Functions for Quiescent Loops: Stability and Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, P. C.; Winter, H. D.; Munetsi-Mugomba, K.

    2007-12-01

    We present the numerical simulations of quiescent coronal loops with heating functions that are power law functions of pressure and temperature. These simulations are made using a time-dependent, 1D hydrodynamics code with heating functions that are treated as dynamic variables which are constantly re- evaluated during the loops' lifetimes. These numerical simulations provide a stability test for the analytical solutions formulated by Martens (2007, submitted) for the same heating functions. TRACE and XRT datasets are simulated to determine if present observables can provide adequate information to discriminate between power law heating functions.

  7. Equilibrium points, stability and numerical solutions of fractional-order predator-prey and rabies models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, E.; El-Sayed, A. M. A.; El-Saka, H. A. A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the fractional-order predator-prey model and the fractional-order rabies model. Existence and uniqueness of solutions are proved. The stability of equilibrium points are studied. Numerical solutions of these models are given. An example is given where the equilibrium point is a centre for the integer order system but locally asymptotically stable for its fractional-order counterpart.

  8. Partial implicitization. [numerical stability of Burger equation model for Navier-Stokes equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The steady-state solution to the full Navier-Stokes equations for complicated flows is generally difficult to obtain. The Burgers (1948) equation is used as a model of the Navier-Stokes equations. The steady-state solution is obtained by a one-step explicit technique resulting from a partial implicitization of the difference equation. Stability analysis shows that the technique is unconditionally stable, and numerical tests show the technique to be accurate.

  9. Achieving Vibration Stability of the NSLS-II Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Chu, Y. N.; Broadbent, A.; Nazaretski, E.; Margulies, L.; Dyling, O.; Shen, Q.; Fallier, M.

    2010-08-30

    The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (HXN) Beamline of National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-lI) requires high levels of stability in order to achieve the desired instrument resolution. To ensure that the design of the endstation helps meet the stringent criteria and that natural and cultural vibration is mitigated both passively and actively, a comprehensive study complimentary to the design process has been undertaken. Vibration sources that have the potential to disrupt sensitive experiments such as wind, traffic and NSLS II operating systems have been studied using state of the art simulations and an array of field data. Further, final stage vibration isolation principles have been explored in order to be utilized in supporting endstation instruments. This paper presents results of the various study aspects and their influence on the HXN design optimization.

  10. Numerical study on the stability of weakly collisional plasma in E×B fields

    SciTech Connect

    Horký, M.

    2015-02-15

    Plasma stability in weakly collisional plasmas in the presence of E×B fields is studied with numerical simulations. Different types of ion-neutral collisions are considered in a fully magnetized regime. We study the influence of ion-neutral collisions and the role of collision types on the stability of plasma. It is found that the stability of plasma depends on the type of ion-neutral collisions, with the plasma being unstable for charge exchange collisions, and stable for the elastic scattering. The analysis focuses on the temporal evolution of the velocity phase space, RMS values of the potential fluctuations, and coherent structures in potential densities. For the unstable case, we observe growth and propagation of electrostatic waves. Simulations are performed with a three-dimensional electrostatic particle in cell code.

  11. Impact of vegetation on stability of slopes subjected to rainfall - numerical aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switala, Barbara Maria; Tamagnini, Roberto; Sudan Acharya, Madhu; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Recent years brought a significant development of soil bioengineering methods, considered as an ecological and economically effective measure for slope stabilization. This work aims to show the advantages of the soil bioengineering solutions for a slope subjected to a heavy rainfall, with the help of a numerical model, which integrates most of the significant plant and slope features. There are basically two different ways in which vegetation can affect stability of a slope: root reinforcement (mechanical impact) and root water uptake (evapotranspiration). In the numerical model, the first factor is modelled using the Cam-Clay model extended for unsaturated conditions by Tamagnini (2004). The original formulation of a constitutive model is modified by introducing an additional constitutive parameter, which causes an expansion of the yield surface as a consequence of an increase in root mass in a representative soil element. The second factor is the root water uptake, which is defined as a volumetric sink term in the continuity equation of groundwater flow. Water removal from the soil mass causes an increase in suction in the vicinity of the root zone, which leads to an increase in the soil cohesion and provides additional strength to the soil-root composite. The developed numerical model takes into account the above mentioned effects of plants and thus considers the multi-phase nature of the soil-plant-water relationship. Using the developed method, stability of some vegetated and non-vegetated slopes subjected to rainfall are investigated. The performance of each slope is evaluated by the time at which slope failure occurs. Different slope geometries and soil mechanical and hydrological properties are considered. Comparison of the results obtained from the analyses of vegetated and non-vegetated slopes leads to the conclusion, that the use of soil bioengineering methods for slope stabilization can be effective and can significantly delay the occurrence of a

  12. Combined analytical and numerical approaches in Dynamic Stability analyses of engineering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Náprstek, Jiří

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic Stability is a widely studied area that has attracted many researchers from various disciplines. Although Dynamic Stability is usually associated with mechanics, theoretical physics or other natural and technical disciplines, it is also relevant to social, economic, and philosophical areas of our lives. Therefore, it is useful to occasionally highlight the general aspects of this amazing area, to present some relevant examples and to evaluate its position among the various branches of Rational Mechanics. From this perspective, the aim of this study is to present a brief review concerning the Dynamic Stability problem, its basic definitions and principles, important phenomena, research motivations and applications in engineering. The relationships with relevant systems that are prone to stability loss (encountered in other areas such as physics, other natural sciences and engineering) are also noted. The theoretical background, which is applicable to many disciplines, is presented. In this paper, the most frequently used Dynamic Stability analysis methods are presented in relation to individual dynamic systems that are widely discussed in various engineering branches. In particular, the Lyapunov function and exponent procedures, Routh-Hurwitz, Liénard, and other theorems are outlined together with demonstrations. The possibilities for analytical and numerical procedures are mentioned together with possible feedback from experimental research and testing. The strengths and shortcomings of these approaches are evaluated together with examples of their effective complementing of each other. The systems that are widely encountered in engineering are presented in the form of mathematical models. The analyses of their Dynamic Stability and post-critical behaviour are also presented. The stability limits, bifurcation points, quasi-periodic response processes and chaotic regimes are discussed. The limit cycle existence and stability are examined together with their

  13. Mathematical and numerical models to achieve high speed with special-purpose parallel processors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.; Mallen, A.N.

    1986-07-01

    One simulation facility that has been developed is the BNL Plant Analyzer, currently set up for BWR plant simulations at up to seven times faster than real-time process speeds. The principal hardware components of the BNL Plant Analyzer are two units of special-purpose parallel processors, the AD10 of Applied Dynamics International and a PDP-11/34 host computer. The AD10 is specifically designed for time-critical system simulations, utilizing the modern parallel processing technology with pipeline architecture. The simulator employs advanced modeling techniques and efficient integration techniques in conjunction with the parallel processors to achieve high speed performance.

  14. The Three-Dimensional (3D) Numerical Stability Analysis of Hyttemalmen Open-Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cała, Marek; Kowalski, Michał; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to perform the 3D numerical calculations allowing slope stability analysis of Hyttemalmen open pit (location Kirkenes, Finnmark Province, Norway). After a ramp rock slide, which took place in December 2010, as well as some other small-scale rock slope stability problems, it proved necessary to perform a serious stability analyses. The Hyttemalmen open pit was designed with a depth up to 100 m, a bench height of 24 m and a ramp width of 10 m. The rock formation in the iron mining district of Kirkenes is called the Bjornevaten Group. This is the most structurally complicated area connected with tectonic process such as folding, faults and metamorphosis. The Bjornevaten Group is a volcano-sedimentary sequence. Rock slope stability depends on the mechanical properties of the rock, hydro-geological conditions, slope topography, joint set systems and seismic activity. However, rock slope stability is mainly connected with joint sets. Joints, or general discontinuities, are regarded as weak planes within rock which have strength reducing consequences with regard to rock strength. Discontinuities within the rock mass lead to very low tensile strength. Several simulations were performed utilising the RocLab (2007) software to estimate the gneiss cohesion for slopes of different height. The RocLab code is dedicated to estimate rock mass strength using the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Utilising both the GSI index and the Hoek-Brown strength criterion the equivalent Mohr-Coulomb parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) can be calculated. The results of 3D numerical calculations (with FLA3D code) show that it is necessary to redesign the slope-bench system in the Hyttemalmen open pit. Changing slope inclination for lower stages is recommended. The minimum factor of safety should be equal 1.3. At the final planned stage of excavation, the factor of safety drops to 1.06 with failure surface ranging through all of the slopes. In the case

  15. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis for Posture Stability of Laser Propulsion Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2011-11-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamics code coupling equation of motion of a rigid body for analyzing posture stability of laser propulsion vehicle through numerical simulations of flowfield interacting with unsteady motion of the vehicle. Asymmetric energy distribution is initially added around the focal spot (ring) in order to examine posture stability against an asymmetric blast wave resulting from a laser offset for a lightcraft-type vehicle. The vehicle moves to cancel out the offset from initial offset. However, the Euler angle grows and never returns to zero in a time scale of laser pulse. Also, we found that the vehicle moves to cancel tipping angle when the laser is irradiated to the vehicle with initial tipping angle over the wide angle range, through the vehicle cannot get sufficient restoring force in particular angle, and the tipping angle does not decrease from the initial value for that case.

  16. The stability of the suggested planet in the ν Octantis system: a numerical and statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarles, Billy; Cuntz, Manfred; Musielak, Zdzislaw

    2012-03-01

    Exoplanets in binary systems have received heightened interest by the scientific community. Especially with the recent detection of a circumbinary planet of Kepler-16b (Doyle et al. 2011)[Science 333, 1602] planets in binary systems have warranted second and even third glances. The system of ν Octantis has been a system of great controversy since the suggested planet in this system (Ramm et al. 2009)[MNRAS 394, 1695] appears to be located beyond its theoretical stability limit. In order to resolve this controversy we seek to determine whether the proposed planet can exist in the context of current stability theory. We have performed detailed simulations by exploiting the uncertainty measurements to determine the short and long-term stability of a prograde starting configuration. However to follow up on the previous results by Eberle & Cuntz (2010)[ApJ 721, L168], we have investigated the hypothesis of a retrograde orbit in more detail by considering a larger set of possible initial conditions to determine the possibility of a retrograde configuration with respect to the motion of the binary system. We will show that a retrograde configuration is preferred by both stability considerations with respect to the maximum Lyapunov exponent and numerical statistical considerations.

  17. Time-resolved photoemission apparatus achieving sub-20-meV energy resolution and high stability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Y.; Togashi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kiss, T.; Otsu, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shin, S.

    2014-12-15

    The paper describes a time- and angle-resolved photoemission apparatus consisting of a hemispherical analyzer and a pulsed laser source. We demonstrate 1.48-eV pump and 5.92-eV probe measurements at the ⩾10.5-meV and ⩾240-fs resolutions by use of fairly monochromatic 170-fs pulses delivered from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system operating typically at 250 kHz. The apparatus is capable to resolve the optically filled superconducting peak in the unoccupied states of a cuprate superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. A dataset recorded on Bi(111) surface is also presented. Technical descriptions include the followings: A simple procedure to fine-tune the spatio-temporal overlap of the pump-and-probe beams and their diameters; achieving a long-term stability of the system that enables a normalization-free dataset acquisition; changing the repetition rate by utilizing acoustic optical modulator and frequency-division circuit.

  18. Stability analysis and numerical simulation of 1 prey - 2 predator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savitri, D.; Abadi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we study an ecological system that consists of 1 prey and 2 predators populations. The prey population grows logistically while Holling type II functional response is applied for both predators . The first predator preys on the prey and the second predator preys on the first one. The study starts with the stability analysis of critical points of the systems. Then, by using normal form and centre manifold method the information about other nontrivial solutions due to bifurcation including possible limit cycles appearance is obtained. The results are confirmed by numerical simulation using MatCont and biological interpretation of the results is also presented.

  19. A new free-surface stabilization algorithm for geodynamical modelling: Theory and numerical tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés-Martínez, Miguel; Morgan, Jason P.; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Rüpke, Lars

    2015-09-01

    The surface of the solid Earth is effectively stress free in its subaerial portions, and hydrostatic beneath the oceans. Unfortunately, this type of boundary condition is difficult to treat computationally, and for computational convenience, numerical models have often used simpler approximations that do not involve a normal stress-loaded, shear-stress free top surface that is free to move. Viscous flow models with a computational free surface typically confront stability problems when the time step is bigger than the viscous relaxation time. The small time step required for stability (< 2 Kyr) makes this type of model computationally intensive, so there remains a need to develop strategies that mitigate the stability problem by making larger (at least ∼10 Kyr) time steps stable and accurate. Here we present a new free-surface stabilization algorithm for finite element codes which solves the stability problem by adding to the Stokes formulation an intrinsic penalization term equivalent to a portion of the future load at the surface nodes. Our algorithm is straightforward to implement and can be used with both Eulerian or Lagrangian grids. It includes α and β parameters to respectively control both the vertical and the horizontal slope-dependent penalization terms, and uses Uzawa-like iterations to solve the resulting system at a cost comparable to a non-stress free surface formulation. Four tests were carried out in order to study the accuracy and the stability of the algorithm: (1) a decaying first-order sinusoidal topography test, (2) a decaying high-order sinusoidal topography test, (3) a Rayleigh-Taylor instability test, and (4) a steep-slope test. For these tests, we investigate which α and β parameters give the best results in terms of both accuracy and stability. We also compare the accuracy and the stability of our algorithm with a similar implicit approach recently developed by Kaus et al. (2010). We find that our algorithm is slightly more accurate

  20. Numerical Study of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Receptivity and Stability with Freestream Hotspot Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuet

    This dissertation presents a numerical simulation study of linear hypersonic boundary-layer receptivity and stability over blunt compression cones with freestream hotspot perturbations. This study is conducted for freestream disturbances with broad, continuous frequency spectra over cones that have nose radii of 1, 0.5 and 0.1 mm under freestream conditions of Mach 6, 10 and 15. The simulations are carried out using the high-order shock-fitting finite-difference scheme developed by Zhong (1998), the results of which are shown to agree well with linear stability theory (LST) and experiments. The general receptivity mechanism is then studied by the simulation-LST comparisons under two parametric effects: nose bluntness and freestream Mach number. Among the new findings of the current study, the mechanisms of the receptivity process are found to be mainly caused by the fast acoustic waves that are generated behind the bow shock from the hotspot/shock interaction in the nose region. It is these fast acoustic waves that substantially enter the boundary layer and generate mode F through the synchronization of fast acoustic waves and mode F in the upstream part of the cone. Subsequently, the synchronization of modes F and S generates mode S, or the second mode, which eventually grows into a dominant level at the downstream part of the cone. Additionally, we have obtained the receptivity coefficients of mode S along the Branch-I neutral stability curve using a method that combines LST predicted N-factors and simulated disturbance amplitudes. These receptivity coefficients agree well with those obtained from the theoretical modal decomposition method. In addition to obtaining the general receptivity mechanism and receptivity coefficients, we have also studied the parametric effects of nose bluntness and freestream Mach number on boundary-layer receptivity and stability over cones. Specifically, our results have shown that nose bluntness reduces the boundary

  1. Peaks, plateaus, numerical instabilities, and achievable accuracy in Galerkin and norm minimizing procedures for solving Ax=b

    SciTech Connect

    Cullum, J.

    1994-12-31

    Plots of the residual norms generated by Galerkin procedures for solving Ax = b often exhibit strings of irregular peaks. At seemingly erratic stages in the iterations, peaks appear in the residual norm plot, intervals of iterations over which the norms initially increase and then decrease. Plots of the residual norms generated by related norm minimizing procedures often exhibit long plateaus, sequences of iterations over which reductions in the size of the residual norm are unacceptably small. In an earlier paper the author discussed and derived relationships between such peaks and plateaus within corresponding Galerkin/Norm Minimizing pairs of such methods. In this paper, through a set of numerical experiments, the author examines connections between peaks, plateaus, numerical instabilities, and the achievable accuracy for such pairs of iterative methods. Three pairs of methods, GMRES/Arnoldi, QMR/BCG, and two bidiagonalization methods are studied.

  2. A numerical study of wind turbine wakes under various atmospheric stability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shengbai

    The goal of this research is to investigate the properties of wind turbine wakes and their interactions with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) via large-eddy simulations (LES) with special emphasis on the effects of atmospheric stability. The ABL is considered stable when the ground surface is cooler than the air, unstable when the opposite happens, and neutral when the temperature effect is negligible. In the literature, neutral conditions have been studied extensively, whereas the effects of stability have not. A new LES code, named Wind Turbine and Turbulence Simulator (WiTTS), was developed based on finite-difference (FD) schemes. First, the code's sensitivity to numerous aspects of the FD LES, such as the subgrid-scale (SGS) model, resolution, numerical treatment of the convective term, and filter types, was analyzed by simulating a neutral ABL. It was found that the Lagrangian-averaged scale-dependent (LASD) SGS model performs better than other scale-invariant Smagorinsky-type models. Second, the WiTTS was used to study the wakes from a miniature wind turbine inside a wind tunnel, following the setup of past experimental and numerical studies. It was found that those wakes are spatially anisotropic, with lateral growth faster than the vertical. Based on this, a new wake model is proposed and the Gaussian-type self-similarity is obtained for this simplified scenario. Third, to study a more realistic ABL, the stability conditions have been considered by the Boussinesq approximation and by varying thermal conditions on the ground surface, together with a constant Coriolis force. The LES results indicate that the properties of utility-scale wind turbine wakes are strongly correlated to the stability conditions. The wake recovery is enhanced by the increased turbulence due to buoyant convection in the unstable ABL, while in the stable ABL the spreading of the wake is significantly larger in the lateral direction than in the vertical direction. The stability

  3. Direct Numerical Simulation of a Cavity-Stabilized Ethylene/Air Premixed Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jacqueline; Konduri, Aditya; Kolla, Hemanth; Rauch, Andreas; Chelliah, Harsha

    2016-11-01

    Cavity flame holders have been shown to be important for flame stabilization in scramjet combustors. In the present study the stabilization of a lean premixed ethylene/air flame in a rectangular cavity at thermo-chemical conditions relevant to scramjet combustors is simulated using a compressible reacting multi-block direct numerical simulation solver, S3D, incorporating a 22 species ethylene-air reduced chemical model. The fuel is premixed with air to an equivalence ratio of 0.4 and enters the computational domain at Mach numbers between 0.3 and 0.6. An auxiliary inert channel flow simulation is used to provide the turbulent velocity profile at the inlet for the reacting flow simulation. The detailed interaction between intense turbulence, nonequilibrium concentrations of radical species formed in the cavity and mixing with the premixed main stream under density variations due to heat release rate and compressibility effects is quantified. The mechanism for flame stabilization is quantified in terms of relevant non-dimensional parameters, and detailed analysis of the flame and turbulence structure will be presented. We acknowledge the sponsorship of the AFOSR-NSF Joint Effort on Turbulent Combustion Model Assumptions and the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  4. Algebraic Stabilization of Explicit Numerical Integration for Extremely Stiff Reaction Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Guidry, Mike W

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the prevailing view in the literature, it is shown that even extremely stiff sets of ordinary differential equations may be solved efficiently by explicit methods if limiting algebraic solutions are used to stabilize the numerical integration. The stabilizing algebra differs essentially for systems well removed from equilibrium and those near equilibrium. Explicit asymptotic and quasi-steady-state methods that are appropriate when the system is only weakly equilibrated are examined first. These methods are then extended to the case of close approach to equilibrium through a new implementation of partial equilibrium approximations. Using stringent tests with astrophysical thermonuclear networks, evidence is provided that these methods can deal with the stiffest networks, even in the approach to equilibrium, with accuracy and integration timestepping comparable to that of implicit methods. Because explicit methods can execute a timestep faster and scale more favorably with network size than implicit algorithms, our results suggest that algebraically stabilized explicit methods might enable integration of larger reaction networks coupled to fluid dynamics than has been feasible previously for a variety of disciplines.

  5. Numerical study of tilt stability of prolate field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect

    E. V. Belova; S. C. Jardin; H. Ji, M. Yamada; R. Kulsrud

    2000-06-21

    Global stability of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) has been investigated numerically using both 3D MHD and hybrid (fluid electron and delta f particle ion) simulations. The stabilizing effects of velocity shear and large ion orbits on the n = 1 internal tilt mode in the prolate FRCs have been studied. Sheared rotation is found to reduce the growth rate, however a large rotation rate with Mach number of M greater than or approximately equal to 1 is required in order for significant reduction in the instability growth rate to occur. Kinetic effects associated with large thermal ion orbits have been studied for different kinetic equilibria. These simulations show that there is a reduction in the tilt mode growth rate due to finite ion Larmor radius (FLR) effects, but complete linear stability has not been found, even when the thermal ion gyroradius is comparable to the distance between the field null and the separatrix. The instability existing beyond the FLR theory threshold could be due to the resonant interaction of the wave with ions whose Doppler shifted frequency matches the betatron frequency.

  6. A numerical investigation into the aerodynamic characteristics and aeroelastic stability of a footbridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, I. J.; Vezza, M.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a numerical investigation into the aerodynamic characteristics and aeroelastic stability of a proposed footbridge across a highway in the north of England are presented. The longer than usual span, along with the unusual nature of the pedestrian barriers, indicated that the deck configuration was likely to be beyond the reliable limits of the British design code BD 49/01. The calculations were performed using the discrete vortex method, DIVEX, developed at the Universities of Glasgow and Strathclyde. DIVEX has been successfully validated on a wide range of problems, including the aeroelastic response of bridge deck sections. In particular, the investigation focussed on the effects of non-standard pedestrian barriers on the structural integrity of the bridge. The proposed deck configuration incorporated a barrier comprised of angled flat plates, and the bridge was found to be unstable at low wind speeds, with the plates having a strong turning effect on the flow at the leading edge of the deck. These effects are highlighted in both a static and dynamic analysis of the bridge deck, along with modifications to the design that aim to improve the aeroelastic stability of the deck. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was also used to investigate the unsteady pressure field on the upper surface of the static bridge deck. The results of the flutter investigation and the POD analysis highlight the strong influence of the pedestrian barriers on the overall aerodynamic characteristics and aeroelastic stability of the bridge.

  7. Numerical solvers to the stabilizing solution of perturbed algebraic Riccati equations in LQ zero-sum games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. G.; Netov, N. C.; Bogdanova, B. C.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of solving a generalized algebraic Riccati equation with an indefinite sign of its quadratic term. We extend the approach introduced by Lanzon, Feng, Anderson and Rotkowitz (2008) for solving similar Riccati equations. We numerically investigate two types of iterative methods for computing the stabilizing solution. The first type of iterative methods constructs two matrix sequences, where the sum of them converges to the stabilizing solution. The second type of methods defines one matrix sequence which converges to the stabilizing solution. Computer realizations of the presented methods are numerically tested and compared on the test of family examples. Based on the experiments some conclusions are derived.

  8. Numerical stability of relativistic beam multidimensional PIC simulations employing the Esirkepov algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Brendan B.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly growing numerical instabilities routinely occur in multidimensional particle-in-cell computer simulations of plasma-based particle accelerators, astrophysical phenomena, and relativistic charged particle beams. Reducing instability growth to acceptable levels has necessitated higher resolution grids, high-order field solvers, current filtering, etc. except for certain ratios of the time step to the axial cell size, for which numerical growth rates and saturation levels are reduced substantially. This paper derives and solves the cold beam dispersion relation for numerical instabilities in multidimensional, relativistic, electromagnetic particle-in-cell programs employing either the standard or the Cole–Karkkainnen finite difference field solver on a staggered mesh and the common Esirkepov current-gathering algorithm. Good overall agreement is achieved with previously reported results of the WARP code. In particular, the existence of select time steps for which instabilities are minimized is explained. Additionally, an alternative field interpolation algorithm is proposed for which instabilities are almost completely eliminated for a particular time step in ultra-relativistic simulations.

  9. Is Cu involved in prion oligopeptide stability? Experiments and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minicozzi, V.; Morante, S.

    The high-sociological impact of neurodegenerative diseases (like Alzheimer disease, Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies, Parkinson disease, etc.) has renewed the interest of researchers in the study of misfolding processes and in particular of the rôle played by metals in plaque formation as their unbalanced concentration can be regarded as a possible concurrent cause of protein aggregation. Metals are essential players in many of the fundamental activities of cells. Storing, metabolism, and trafficking of metals through the cellular membrane and within the cytoplasm are mediated by many proteins via well-tuned mechanisms because of the toxicity of free ions. In this review article, we summarize the results of the most recent experimental and numerical investigations aimed at understanding the possible rôle of Cu in stabilizing the Prion protein structure and in the formation of protein polymers.

  10. Experimental and numerical studies of a microfluidic device with compliant chambers for flow stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, V.; Raj, A.; Annabattula, R. K.; Sen, A. K.

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports experimental and numerical studies of a passive microfluidic device that stabilizes a pulsating incoming flow and delivers a steady flow at the outlet. The device employs a series of chambers along the flow direction with a thin polymeric membrane (of thickness 75-250 µm) serving as the compliant boundary. The deformation of the membrane allows accumulation of fluid during an overflow and discharge of fluid during an underflow for flow stabilization. Coupled fluid-structure simulations are performed using Mooney-Rivlin formulations to account for a thin hyperelastic membrane material undergoing large deformations to accurately predict the device performance. The device was fabricated with PDMS as the substrate material and thin PDMS membrane as the compliant boundary. The performance of the device is defined in terms of a parameter called ‘Attenuation Factor (AF)’. The effect of various design parameters including membrane thickness, elastic modulus, chamber size and number of chambers in series as well as operating conditions including the outlet pressure, mean input flow rate, fluctuation amplitude and frequency on the device performance were studied using experiments and simulations. The simulation results successfully confront the experimental data (within 10%) which validates the numerical simulations. The device was used at the exit of a PZT actuated valveless micropump to take pulsating flow at the upstream and deliver steady flow downstream. The amplitude of the pulsating flow delivered by the micropump was significantly reduced (AF = 0.05 for a device with three 4 mm chambers) but at the expense of a reduction in the pressure capability (<20%). The proposed device could potentially be used for reducing flow pulsations in practical microfluidic circuits.

  11. Linear stability analysis in the numerical solution of initial value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dorsselaer, J. L. M.; Kraaijevanger, J. F. B. M.; Spijker, M. N.

    This article addresses the general problem of establishing upper bounds for the norms of the nth powers of square matrices. The focus is on upper bounds that grow only moderately (or stay constant) where n, or the order of the matrices, increases. The so-called resolvant condition, occuring in the famous Kreiss matrix theorem, is a classical tool for deriving such bounds.Recently the classical upper bounds known to be valid under Kreiss's resolvant condition have been improved. Moreover, generalizations of this resolvant condition have been considered so as to widen the range of applications. The main purpose of this article is to review and extend some of these new developments.The upper bounds for the powers of matrices discussed in this article are intimately connected with the stability analysis of numerical processes for solving initial(-boundary) value problems in ordinary and partial linear differential equations. The article highlights this connection.The article concludes with numerical illustrations in the solution of a simple initial-boundary value problem for a partial differential equation.

  12. A numerical experiment on the equilibrium and stability of a rotating galactic bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Vandervoort, P. O.; Welty, D. E.; Smith, B. F.

    1982-01-01

    A self-consistent, three-dimensional numerical experiment is performed on an N-body system whose initial state is a realization of a certain theoretical model of a rotating triaxial galaxy. The model is a stellar-dynamical counterpart of a uniformly rotating polytrope of index equal to 0.5. The aim of the experiment is to study the equilibrium of the system and, in particular, to test its stability. The experimental system behaves in the mean like a realization of the theoretical model for at least seven crossing times. The principal departure of the system from equilibrium is an oscillation which is identified as a radial pulsation. There is no indication in its behavior that the system is unstable with respect to anu mode with an e-folding time shorter than or of the order of two crossing times. Certain changes that occur in the state of the system are interpreted, with the aid of the theoretical model, as secular changes which result from a slight failure of our numerical methods to conserve the mass, energy, and angular momentum of the system; these effects are small enough that they do not vitiate the experiment on a dynamical time scale.

  13. Impact of hydrothermal alteration on lava dome stability: a numerical modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detienne, Marie; Delmelle, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Lava domes are a common feature of many volcanoes worldwide. They represent a serious volcanic hazard as they are prone to repeated collapses, generating devastating debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows. While it has long been known that hydrothermal alteration degrades rock properties and weakens rock mass cohesion and strength, there is still little quantitative information allowing the description of this effect and its consequences for assessing the stability of a volcanic rock mass such as a lava dome. In this study, we use the finite difference numerical model FLAC 3D to investigate the impact of hydrothermal alteration on the stability of a volcanic dome lying on a flat surface. Different hydrothermal alteration distributions were tested to encompass the variability observed in natural lava domes. Rock shear strength parameters (minimum, maximum and mean cohesion "c" and friction angle "φ" values) representative of various degrees of hydrothermal rock alteration were used in the simulations. The model predicts that reduction of the basement rock's shear strength decreases the factor of safety significantly. A similar result is found by increasing the vertical and horizontal extension of hydrothermal alteration in the basement rocks. In addition, pervasive hydrothermal alteration within the lava dome is predicted to exert a strong negative influence on the factor of safety. Through reduction of rock porosity and permeability, hydrothermal alteration may also affect pore fluid pressure within a lava dome. The results of new FLAC 3D runs which simulate the effect of hydrothermal alteration-induced pore pressure changes on lava dome stability will be presented.

  14. All-numerical noise filtering of fluorescence signals for achieving ultra-low limit of detection in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Dongre, Chaitanya; Pollnau, Markus; Hoekstra, Hugo J W M

    2011-03-21

    We present an all-numerical method for post-processing of the fluorescent signal as obtained from labeled molecules by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in an optofluidic chip, on the basis of data filtering in the Fourier domain. It is shown that the method outperforms the well-known lock-in amplification during experiments in the reduction of noise by a factor of (square root)2. The method is illustrated using experimental data obtained during CE separation of molecules from a commercial DNA ladder with 17 fluorescently labeled molecules having different base-pair sizes. An improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of ∼10 is achieved, resulting in a record-low limit of detection of 210 fM.

  15. School Stability: Improving Academic Achievement for NJ Foster Children. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard-Rance, Kourtney; Parello, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Children in New Jersey's foster care system are more likely to remain in their home school when they enter foster care, thanks to a law passed in 2010, giving these fragile children improved educational stability. The law allows children to remain in their "school of origin" when they are placed in foster care, even if the foster home is…

  16. Direct numerical simulation and global stability analysis of three-dimensional instabilities in a lid-driven cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicheportiche, Jérèmie; Merle, Xavier; Gloerfelt, Xavier; Robinet, Jean-Christophe

    2008-07-01

    The first bifurcation in a lid-driven cavity characterized by three-dimensional Taylor-Görtler-Like instabilities is investigated for a cubical cavity with spanwise periodic boundary conditions at Re=1000. The modes predicted by a global linear stability analysis are compared to the results of a direct numerical simulation. The amplification rate, and the shape of the three-dimensional perturbation fields from the direct numerical simulation are in very good agreement with the characteristics of the steady S1 mode from the stability analysis, showing that this mode dominates the other unstable unsteady modes. To cite this article: J. Chicheportiche et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  17. Modeling stability of growth between mathematics and science achievement during middle and high school.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Ma, Lingling

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the authors introduced a multivariate multilevel model to estimate the consistency among students and schools in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement during the entire middle and high school years with data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY). There was no evident consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students, and this inconsistency was not much influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. However, there was evident consistency in the average rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among schools, and this consistency was influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. Major school-level variables associated with parental involvement did not show any significant impacts on consistency among either students or schools. Results call for educational policies that promote collaboration between mathematics and science departments or teachers.

  18. Investigating motion and stability of particles in flows using numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, Nidhi

    The phenomenon of transport of particles in a fluid is ubiquitous in nature and a detailed understanding of its mechanism continues to remain a fundamental question for physicists. In this thesis, we use numerical methods to study the dynamics and stability of particles advected in flows. First, we investigate the dynamics of a single, motile particle advected in a two-dimensional chaotic flow. The particle can be either spherical or ellipsoidal. Particle activity is modeled as a constant intrinsic swimming velocity and stochastic fluctuations in both the translational and rotational motions are also taken into account. Our results indicate that interaction of swimming with flow structures causes a reduction in long-term transport at low speeds. Swimmers can get trapped at the transport barriers of the flow. We show that elongated swimmers respond more strongly to the dynamical structures of the flow field. At low speeds, their macroscopic transport is reduced even further than in the case of spherical swimmers. However, at high speeds these elongated swimmers tend to get attracted to the stable manifolds of hyperbolic fixed points, leading to increased transport. We then investigate the collective dynamics of a system of particles. The particles may interact both with each other and with the background flow. We focus on two different cases. In the fist case, we examine the stability of aggregation models in a turbulent-like flow. We use a simple aggregation model in which a point-like particle moves with a constant intrinsic speed while its velocity vector is reoriented according to the average direction of motion of its neighbors. We generate a strongly fluctuating, spatially correlated background flow using Kinematic Simulation, and show that flocks are highly sensitive to this background flow and break into smaller clusters. Our results indicate that such environmental perturbations must be taken into account for models which aim to capture the collective

  19. The role of intrinsic muscle properties for stable hopping--stability is achieved by the force-velocity relation.

    PubMed

    Haeufle, D F B; Grimmer, S; Seyfarth, A

    2010-03-01

    A reductionist approach was presented to investigate which level of detail of the physiological muscle is required for stable locomotion. Periodic movements of a simplified one-dimensional hopping model with a Hill-type muscle (one contractile element, neither serial nor parallel elastic elements) were analyzed. Force-length and force-velocity relations of the muscle were varied in three levels of approximation (constant, linear and Hill-shaped nonlinear) resulting in nine different hopping models of different complexity. Stability of these models was evaluated by return map analysis and the performance by the maximum hopping height. The simplest model (constant force-length and constant force-velocity relations) outperformed all others in the maximum hopping height but was unstable. Stable hopping was achieved with linear and Hill-shaped nonlinear characteristic of the force-velocity relation. The characteristics of the force-length relation marginally influenced hopping stability. The results of this approach indicate that the intrinsic properties of the contractile element are responsible for stabilization of periodic movements. This connotes that (a) complex movements like legged locomotion could benefit from stabilizing effects of muscle properties, and (b) technical systems could benefit from the emerging stability when implementing biological characteristics into artificial muscles.

  20. Numerical Modeling of a Vortex Stabilized Arcjet. Ph.D. Thesis, 1991 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlas, Gary E.

    1992-01-01

    Arcjet thrusters are being actively considered for use in Earth orbit maneuvering applications. Experimental studies are currently the chief means of determining an optimal thruster configuration. Earlier numerical studies have failed to include all of the effects found in typical arcjets including complex geometries, viscosity, and swirling flow. Arcjet geometries are large area ratio converging nozzles with centerbodies in the subsonic portion of the nozzle. The nozzle walls serve as the anode while the centerbody functions as the cathode. Viscous effects are important because the Reynolds number, based on the throat radius, is typically less than 1,000. Experimental studies have shown that a swirl or circumferential velocity component stabilizes a constricted arc. This dissertation describes the equations governing flow through a constricted arcjet thruster. An assumption that the flowfield is in local thermodynamic equilibrium leads to a single fluid plasma temperature model. An order of magnitude analysis reveals the governing fluid mechanics equations are uncoupled from the electromagnetic field equations. A numerical method is developed to solve the governing fluid mechanics equations, the Thin Layer Navier-Stokes equations. A coordinate transformation is employed in deriving the governing equations to simplify the application of boundary conditions in complex geometries. An axisymmetric formulation is employed to include the swirl velocity component as well as the axial and radial velocity components. The numerical method is an implicit finite-volume technique and allows for large time steps to reach a converged steady-state solution. The inviscid fluxes are flux-split, and Gauss-Seidel line relaxation is used to accelerate convergence. Converging-diverging nozzles with exit-to-throat area ratios up to 100:1 and annular nozzles were examined. Quantities examined included Mach number and static wall pressure distributions, and oblique shock structures. As

  1. A numerical study of the stability of one-dimensional laminar premixed flames in inert porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, M.A.A.; Pereira, J.M.C.; Pereira, J.C.F.

    2008-06-15

    This work presents a numerical study of the stabilization diagram of methane/air premixed flames in a finite porous media foam with a uniform ambient temperature. A set of steady computations are considered, using a 1D numerical model that takes into account solid and gas energy equations as well as chemistry and radiation models. The present results show that both stable and unstable solutions, for upper and lower flames, exist either at the surface or submerged in the porous matrix. The influence of the 1D computational domain, boundary conditions, and gas/solid interface treatment on the stability of the calculated flames is also discussed. A linearized version of the discrete-ordinates radiation model is included in the linear stability analysis to discuss the influence of radiation on the stability of the flames. The full stabilization diagram and the linear stability analysis provide information on the stability of the flames, pointing to the existence of unstable upstream surface flames as well as unstable submerged flames on the downstream part of the porous media. (author)

  2. Numerical Modeling of the Stability of Face-Centered Cubic Metals with High Vacancy Concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Brian P. Somerday; M. I. Baskes

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the possibility of forming an atomically porous structure in a low-density metal, e.g., Al with vacancies up to 0.20/lattice site; and to examine the effects of hydrogen and vacancy concentration on the stability of an atomically porous structure that has been experimentally produced in nickel. The approach involves numerical modeling using the Embedded-Atom Method (EAM). High vacancy concentrations cause the Al lattice to disorder at 300K. In contrast, Ni retains the face-centered-cubic structure at 300K for vacancy concentrations up to 0.15 Vac/lattice site. Unexpectedly, the lattice with 0.15 Vac/lattice site is more stable than the lattice with 0.10 or 0.20 Vac/lattice site. The Ni systems with 0.10 and 0.15 Vac/lattice site exhibit domains consisting of uniform lattice rotations. The Ni lattice with 0.15 Vac/lattice site is more stable with an initial distribution of random vacancies compared to ordered vacancies. The equilibrium lattice structures of Ni a d Al containing vacancies and H are less ordered to structures with vacancies only at 300K.

  3. Enhanced erythrocyte suspension layer stability achieved by surface tension lowering additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omenyi, S. N.; Snyder, R. S.; Absolom, D. R.; Van Oss, C. J.; Neumann, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a fractionation procedure involving the separation of particles, a dilute suspension of these particles in a liquid is carefully layered on a dense liquid. Under ideal conditions, the suspension forms a zone of finite thickness with a 'sharp' interface between the suspension layer and the supporting liquid. Under an applied field, e.g., gravitational or electrical, the particles in the suspension layer migrate to form different layers according to their size and/or density or according to their electrophoretic mobilities. However, in many cases the ideal conditions necessary for the fractionation process are not obtained. Many studies have been conducted to explore the reasons for suspension layer 'instability'. The present investigation represents an extension of a study conducted by Omenyi et al. (1981). An electrostatic repulsion-van der Waals mechanism was used to study the stability of fixed erythrocyte suspensions layered on a D2O cushion.

  4. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a "dream" display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays.

  5. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a “dream” display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  6. Photo-induced electrochemical anodization of p-type silicon: achievement and demonstration of long term surface stability.

    PubMed

    Dhanekar, Saakshi; Islam, S S; Harsh

    2012-06-15

    Surface stability is achieved and demonstrated by porous silicon (PS) fabricated using a wavelength-dependent photo-electrochemical (PEC) anodization technique. During anodization, the photon flux for all wavelengths was kept constant while only the effect of light wavelength on the surface morphology of PS was investigated. PS optical sensors were realized, characterized and tested using a photoluminescence (PL) quenching technique. An aliphatic chain of alcohols (methanol to n-octanol) was detected in the range of 10-200 ppm. Long term surface stability was observed from samples prepared under red (750-620 nm) and green illumination (570-495 nm), where the PL quenching cycles evoke the possibility of using PS for stable sensor device applications. This study provides a route for preparing highly sensitive organic vapour sensors with a precise selection of the fabrication parameters and demonstrating their prolonged performance.

  7. Virus-Inspired Membrane Encapsulation of DNA Nanostructures To Achieve In Vivo Stability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology enables engineering of molecular-scale devices with exquisite control over geometry and site-specific functionalization. This capability promises compelling advantages in advancing nanomedicine; nevertheless, instability in biological environments and innate immune activation remain as obstacles for in vivo application. Natural particle systems (i.e., viruses) have evolved mechanisms to maintain structural integrity and avoid immune recognition during infection, including encapsulation of their genome and protein capsid shell in a lipid envelope. Here we introduce virus-inspired enveloped DNA nanostructures as a design strategy for biomedical applications. Achieving a high yield of tightly wrapped unilamellar nanostructures, mimicking the morphology of enveloped virus particles, required precise control over the density of attached lipid conjugates and was achieved at 1 per ∼180 nm2. Envelopment of DNA nanostructures in PEGylated lipid bilayers conferred protection against nuclease digestion. Immune activation was decreased 2 orders of magnitude below controls, and pharmacokinetic bioavailability improved by a factor of 17. By establishing a design strategy suitable for biomedical applications, we have provided a platform for the engineering of sophisticated, translation-ready DNA nanodevices. PMID:24694301

  8. Achieving equilibrium within a culture of stability? Cultural knowing in nursing care on psychiatric intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin; L Tz N, Kim; Ivarsson, Ann-Britt; Eriksson, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This article presents intensive psychiatric nurses' work and nursing care. The aim of the study was to describe expressions of cultural knowing in nursing care in psychiatric intensive care units (PICU). Spradley's ethnographic methodology was applied. Six themes emerged as frames for nursing care in psychiatric intensive care: providing surveillance, soothing, being present, trading information, maintaining security and reducing. These themes are used to strike a balance between turbulence and stability and to achieve equilibrium. As the nursing care intervenes when turbulence emerges, the PICU becomes a sanctuary that offers tranquility, peace and rest.

  9. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses.

  10. Achieving synergy between chemical oxidation and stabilization in a contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vipul J; Hudson, Jeffrey Michael; Cassidy, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Eight in situ solidification/stabilization (ISS) amendments were tested to promote in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with activated persulfate (PS) in a contaminated soil. A 3% (by weight) dose of all ISS amendments selected for this study completely activated a 1.5% dose of PS within 3 h by raising temperatures above 30 °C (heat activation) and/or increasing pH above 10.5 (alkaline activation). Heat is released by the reaction of CaO with water, and pH increases because this reaction produces Ca(OH)2. Heat activation is preferred because it generates 2 mol of oxidizing radicals per mole of PS, whereas alkaline activation releases only 1. The relative contribution of heat vs. alkaline activation increased with CaO content of the ISS amendment, which was reflected by enhanced contaminant oxidation with increasing CaO content, and was confirmed by comparing to controls promoting purely heat or alkaline (NaOH) activation. The test soil was contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly naphthalene (NAP). ISS-activated PS oxidized between 47% and 84% of the BTEX & NAP, and between 13% and 33% of the higher molecular weight PAH. ISS-activated PS reduced the leachability of BTEX & NAP by 76%-91% and of the 17 PAH by 83%-96%. Combined ISCO/ISS reduced contaminant leachability far than ISCO or ISS treatments alone, demonstrating the synergy that is possible with combined remedies.

  11. Phosphate removal by lead-exhausted bioadsorbents simultaneously achieving lead stabilization.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shunli; Wu, Jiayu; He, Feng; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Rui; Gao, Bin; Chen, Jianmeng

    2017-02-01

    Low-cost adsorbents have been continuously developed for heavy metal removal, but little information is available concerning the follow-up treatment of the toxic metal-laden adsorbents. In this study, an optional strategy was provided for the further treatment of heavy metal-impregnated low-cost adsorbents through employing them for phosphate retention. The enhancement of phosphate adsorption by the sorbed lead was first validated using several types of raw or modified waste biomass. Tea waste-supported hydrated manganese dioxide (HMO-TW) with the highest Pb sorption capability was then chosen to systematically evaluate phosphate retention. Phosphate adsorption onto lead-laden HMO-TW (HMO-TW(Pb)) was pH-insensitive with only slight decline at pH > 8.5, and was barely affected by competing anions owing to the specific surface precipitation mechanism. Moreover, no signs of lead leakage from HMO-TW(Pb) were observed during phosphate adsorption at a wide pH range (4.2-11.3) and high ion strength (0-250 mg L(-1) NaNO3). The lead on HMO-TW(Pb) was greatly stabilized through phosphate retention, which also reduced the environmental risks of their following treatment such as solidification and landfill. Additionally, the phosphate adsorption onto HMO-TW(Pb) was quick (with equilibrium time <60 min) and barely affected by temperature. Fixed-bed column test further suggested that HMO-TW(Pb) has practical applicability in efficient removal of phosphate from water.

  12. A Numerical Study of the Stability of Solitary Waves of the Bona-Smith Family of Boussinesq Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougalis, V. A.; Durán, A.; López-Marcos, M. A.; Mitsotakis, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we study, from a numerical point of view, some aspects of stability of solitary-wave solutions of the Bona-Smith systems of equations. These systems are a family of Boussinesq-type equations and were originally proposed for modelling the two-way propagation of one-dimensional long waves of small amplitude in an open channel of water of constant depth. We study numerically the behavior of solitary waves of these systems under small and large perturbations with the aim of illuminating their long-time asymptotic stability properties and, in the case of large perturbations, examining, among other, phenomena of possible blow-up of the perturbed solutions in finite time.

  13. Simultaneous stability and sensitivity in model cortical networks is achieved through anti-correlations between the in- and out-degree of connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Juan C.; Houweling, Arthur R.; Tiesinga, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal networks in rodent barrel cortex are characterized by stable low baseline firing rates. However, they are sensitive to the action potentials of single neurons as suggested by recent single-cell stimulation experiments that reported quantifiable behavioral responses in response to short spike trains elicited in single neurons. Hence, these networks are stable against internally generated fluctuations in firing rate but at the same time remain sensitive to similarly-sized externally induced perturbations. We investigated stability and sensitivity in a simple recurrent network of stochastic binary neurons and determined numerically the effects of correlation between the number of afferent (“in-degree”) and efferent (“out-degree”) connections in neurons. The key advance reported in this work is that anti-correlation between in-/out-degree distributions increased the stability of the network in comparison to networks with no correlation or positive correlations, while being able to achieve the same level of sensitivity. The experimental characterization of degree distributions is difficult because all pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons have to be identified and counted. We explored whether the statistics of network motifs, which requires the characterization of connections between small subsets of neurons, could be used to detect evidence for degree anti-correlations. We find that the sample frequency of the 3-neuron “ring” motif (1→2→3→1), can be used to detect degree anti-correlation for sub-networks of size 30 using about 50 samples, which is of significance because the necessary measurements are achievable experimentally in the near future. Taken together, we hypothesize that barrel cortex networks exhibit degree anti-correlations and specific network motif statistics. PMID:24223550

  14. Analysis of numerical stability and amplification matrices: Fourth-order Runge-Kutta methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    Amplification matrices, numerical kernels, stable, and exponentially stable numerical solutions are examined. The various techniques involved in these concepts are applied to certain systems that have Jordan forms, which are nondiagonal, with particular interest in the case of imaginary or zero eigenvalues.

  15. Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic FSI Response and Stability of a Flapping Foil in a Dense Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Eun Jung; Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Young, Yin Lu

    2012-11-01

    To advance the understanding of fish locomotion, improve the design biological devices or marine propulsions or turbines, or to explore innovative ocean energy harvesting ideas, it is important to be able accurately predict the dynamic fluid structure interaction (FSI) response and stability of flexible structures in a dense fluid. The objectives of this research are to (1) present an efficient and stable algorithm for numerical modeling of the dynamic FSI response and stability of a flapping foil in dense fluid, and (2) investigate the influence of fluid-to-solid density ratio on the FSI response and stability of a flapping foil. The numerical model involves coupling an unsteady RANS solver with a 2DOF structural model using a new hybrid coupling approach. The results show that the new hybrid coupling approach converge much faster than traditional loosely and tightly coupled approaches, and is able to avoid numerical instability issues due to virtual added mass effects for light, flexible structures in incompressible flow. The influence of density ratio on the FSI response, divergence and flutter speeds are presented, along with comparisons between viscous and inviscid FSI computations.

  16. Numerical simulation of PMM tests for a ship in close proximity to sidewall and maneuvering stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Han; Ma, Ning; Gu, Xie-chong

    2016-12-01

    As the maneuverability of a ship navigating close to a bank is influenced by the sidewall, the assessment of ship maneuvering stability is important. The hydrodynamic derivatives measured by the planar motion mechanism (PMM) test provide a way to predict the change of ship maneuverability. This paper presents a numerical simulation of PMM model tests with variant distances to a vertical bank by using unsteady RANS equations. A hybrid dynamic mesh technique is developed to realize the mesh configuration and remeshing of dynamic PMM tests when the ship is close to the bank. The proposed method is validated by comparing numerical results with results of PMM tests in a circulating water channel. The first-order hydrodynamic derivatives of the ship are analyzed from the time history of lateral force and yaw moment according to the multiple-run simulating procedure and the variations of hydrodynamic derivatives with the ship-sidewall distance are given. The straight line stability and directional stability are also discussed and stable or unstable zone of proportional-derivative (PD) controller parameters for directional stability is shown, which can be a reference for course keeping operation when sailing near a bank.

  17. Dynamics of a rolling and sliding disk in a plane. Asymptotic solutions, stability and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylska, Maria; Rauch-Wojciechowski, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    We present a qualitative analysis of the dynamics of a rolling and sliding disk in a horizontal plane. It is based on using three classes of asymptotic solutions: straight-line rolling, spinning about a vertical diameter and tumbling solutions. Their linear stability analysis is given and it is complemented with computer simulations of solutions starting in the vicinity of the asymptotic solutions. The results on asymptotic solutions and their linear stability apply also to an annulus and to a hoop.

  18. Stability analysis of Western flank of Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma) using numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bru, Guadalupe; Gonzalez, Pablo J.; Fernandez-Merodo, Jose A.; Fernandez, Jose

    2016-04-01

    La Palma volcanic island is one of the youngest of the Canary archipelago, being a composite volcano formed by three overlapping volcanic centers. There are clear onshore and offshore evidences of past giant landslides that have occurred during its evolution. Currently, the active Cumbre Vieja volcano is in an early development state (Carracedo et al., 2001). The study of flank instability processes aim to assess, among other hazards, catastrophic collapse and potential tsunami generation. Early studies of the potential instability of Cumbre Vieja volcano western flank have focused on the use of sparse geodetic networks (Moss et al. 1999), surface geological mapping techniques (Day et al. 1999) and offshore bathymetry (Urgeles et al. 1999). Recently, a dense GNSS network and satellite radar interferometry results indicate ground motion consistent with deep-seated creeping processes (Prieto et al. 2009, Gonzalez et al. 2010). In this work, we present a geomechanical advanced numerical model that captures the ongoing deformation processes at Cumbre Vieja. We choose the Finite Elements Method (FEM) which is based in continuum mechanics and is the most used for geotechnical applications. FEM has the ability of using arbitrary geometry, heterogeneities, irregular boundaries and different constitutive models representative of the geotechnical units involved. Our main contribution is the introduction of an inverse approach to constrain the geomechanical parameters using satellite radar interferometry displacements. This is the first application of such approach on a large volcano flank study. We suggest that the use of surface displacements and inverse methods to rigorously constrain the geomechanical model parameter space is a powerful tool to understand volcano flank instability. A particular important result of the studied case is the estimation of displaced rock volume, which is a parameter of critical importance for simulations of Cumbre Vieja tsunamigenic hazard

  19. Numerical Hermitian Yang-Mills connections and vector bundle stability in heterotic theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lara B.; Braun, Volker; Karp, Robert L.; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2010-06-01

    A numerical algorithm is presented for explicitly computing the gauge connection on slope-stable holomorphic vector bundles on Calabi-Yau manifolds. To illustrate this algorithm, we calculate the connections on stable monad bundles defined on the K3 twofold and Quintic threefold. An error measure is introduced to determine how closely our algorithmic connection approximates a solution to the Hermitian Yang-Mills equations. We then extend our results by investigating the behavior of non slope-stable bundles. In a variety of examples, it is shown that the failure of these bundles to satisfy the Hermitian Yang-Mills equations, including field-strength singularities, can be accurately reproduced numerically. These results make it possible to numerically determine whether or not a vector bundle is slope-stable, thus providing an important new tool in the exploration of heterotic vacua.

  20. Numerical investigation of stability of breather-type solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calini, A.; Schober, C. M.

    2014-06-01

    In this article we conduct a broad numerical investigation of stability of breather-type solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, a widely used model of rogue wave generation and dynamics in deep water. NLS breathers rising over an unstable background state are frequently used to model rogue waves. However, the issue of whether these solutions are robust with respect to the kind of random perturbations occurring in physical settings and laboratory experiments has just recently begun to be addressed. Numerical experiments for spatially periodic breathers with one or two modes involving large ensembles of perturbed initial data for six typical random perturbations suggest interesting conclusions. Breathers over an unstable background with N unstable modes are generally unstable to small perturbations in the initial data unless they are "maximal breathers" (i.e., they have N spatial modes). Additionally, among the maximal breathers with two spatial modes, the one of highest amplitude due to coalescence of the modes appears to be the most robust. The numerical observations support and extend to more realistic settings the results of our previous stability analysis, which we hope will provide a useful tool for identifying physically realizable wave forms in experimental and observational studies of rogue waves.

  1. Numerical Study of Equilibrium, Stability, and Advanced Resistive Wall Mode Feedback Algorithms on KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuro-Hopkins, Oksana; Sabbagh, S. A.; Bialek, J. M.; Park, H. K.; Kim, J. Y.; You, K.-I.; Glasser, A. H.; Lao, L. L.

    2007-11-01

    Stability to ideal MHD kink/ballooning modes and the resistive wall mode (RWM) is investigated for the KSTAR tokamak. Free-boundary equilibria that comply with magnetic field coil current constraints are computed for monotonic and reversed shear safety factor profiles and H-mode tokamak pressure profiles. Advanced tokamak operation at moderate to low plasma internal inductance shows that a factor of two improvement in the plasma beta limit over the no-wall beta limit is possible for toroidal mode number of unity. The KSTAR conducting structure, passive stabilizers, and in-vessel control coils are modeled by the VALEN-3D code and the active RWM stabilization performance of the device is evaluated using both standard and advanced feedback algorithms. Steady-state power and voltage requirements for the system are estimated based on the expected noise on the RWM sensor signals. Using NSTX experimental RWM sensors noise data as input, a reduced VALEN state-space LQG controller is designed to realistically assess KSTAR stabilization system performance.

  2. Individual differences in children's mathematics achievement: The roles of symbolic numerical magnitude processing and domain-general cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Vanbinst, K; De Smedt, B

    2016-01-01

    This contribution reviewed the available evidence on the domain-specific and domain-general neurocognitive determinants of children's arithmetic development, other than nonsymbolic numerical magnitude processing, which might have been overemphasized as a core factor of individual differences in mathematics and dyscalculia. We focused on symbolic numerical magnitude processing, working memory, and phonological processing, as these determinants have been most researched and their roles in arithmetic can be predicted against the background of brain imaging data. Our review indicates that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is a major determinant of individual differences in arithmetic. Working memory, particularly the central executive, also plays a role in learning arithmetic, but its influence appears to be dependent on the learning stage and experience of children. The available evidence on phonological processing suggests that it plays a more subtle role in children's acquisition of arithmetic facts. Future longitudinal studies should investigate these factors in concert to understand their relative contribution as well as their mediating and moderating roles in children's arithmetic development.

  3. Numerical computation of the linear stability of the diffusion model for crystal growth simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Sorensen, D.C.; Meiron, D.I.; Wedeman, B.

    1996-12-31

    We consider a computational scheme for determining the linear stability of a diffusion model arising from the simulation of crystal growth. The process of a needle crystal solidifying into some undercooled liquid can be described by the dual diffusion equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Here U{sub t} and U{sub a} denote the temperature of the liquid and solid respectively, and {alpha} represents the thermal diffusivity. At the solid-liquid interface, the motion of the interface denoted by r and the temperature field are related by the conservation relation where n is the unit outward pointing normal to the interface. A basic stationary solution to this free boundary problem can be obtained by writing the equations of motion in a moving frame and transforming the problem to parabolic coordinates. This is known as the Ivantsov parabola solution. Linear stability theory applied to this stationary solution gives rise to an eigenvalue problem of the form.

  4. Numerical analysis of the Magnus moment on a spin-stabilized projectile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremins, Michael; Rodebaugh, Gregory; Verhulst, Claire; Benson, Michael; van Poppel, Bret

    2016-11-01

    The Magnus moment is a result of an uneven pressure distribution that occurs when an object rotates in a crossflow. Unlike the Magnus force, which is often small for spin-stabilized projectiles, the Magnus moment can have a strong detrimental effect on flight stability. According to one source, most transonic and subsonic flight instabilities are caused by the Magnus moment [Modern Exterior Ballistics, McCoy], and yet simulations often fail to accurately predict the Magnus moment in the subsonic regime. In this study, we present hybrid Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) predictions of the Magnus moment for a spin-stabilized projectile. Velocity, pressure, and Magnus moment predictions are presented for multiple Reynolds numbers and spin rates. We also consider the effect of a sting mount, which is commonly used when conducting flow measurements in a wind tunnel or water channel. Finally, we present the initial designs for a novel Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) experiment to measure three-dimensional flow around a spinning projectile. This work was supported by the Department of Defense High Performance Computing Modernization Program (DoD HPCMP).

  5. Numerical Investigations of the Aerodynamics and the Aeroelastic Stability of Oscillating Annular Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipfer, A.

    1999-02-01

    The nacelles of modern aeroengines are constantly increasing in size. Thus, engine air-loads are becoming more powerful and their importance for the aeroelastic stability is becoming more significant. The principal goal of this study is to answer the question of how unsteady airloads vary while shifting to transonic Mach numbers. The investigations are carried out by applying a finite volume Euler method to a harmonically oscillating annular wing. The results show that transonic effects in the case of an annular wing are essentially weaker than in the case of an airfoil. The order of magnitude of the variations is around 10%. Possible consequences for the aeroelastic stability are examined with the example of an elastically mounted annular wing in transonic flow. The shifts of the stability curves also remain within a range of 10%. In addition, an actuator disk method, which is frequently used for the simulation of the fan jet, is expanded in such a way that unsteady flows can be treated. Some unsteady air-loads are strongly dependent on the pressure jump across the fan.

  6. Stability of Low Embankments on Soft Clay. Part 3. Centrifuge Tests and Numerical Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    findings of these two workers and others (notably Naylor, 1975), Zytynski(1976) developed CRISTINA (Critical State Numerical Algorithm). Basset et al (1981...Preliminary tests, October 1981 - March 1982 - Report to the Department of Environment, University of Cambridge. Magnan, J.P., Humbert , P., Belkeziz, A. and...strain Models, Proc. IV Int. Conf. on Num. Met. in Geomechanics, Edmonton, Canada, June 1982, pp.327-336. Magnan, J.P., Humbert , P. and Mouratidis, A

  7. Children's mapping between non-symbolic and symbolic numerical magnitudes and its association with timed and untimed tests of mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The ability to map between non-symbolic numerical magnitudes and Arabic numerals has been put forward as a key factor in children's mathematical development. This mapping ability has been mainly examined indirectly by looking at children's performance on a symbolic magnitude comparison task. The present study investigated mapping in a more direct way by using a task in which children had to choose which of two choice quantities (Arabic digits or dot arrays) matched the target quantity (dot array or Arabic digit), thereby focusing on small quantities ranging from 1 to 9. We aimed to determine the development of mapping over time and its relation to mathematics achievement. Participants were 36 first graders (M = 6 years 8 months) and 46 third graders (M = 8 years 8 months) who all completed mapping tasks, symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison tasks and standardized timed and untimed tests of mathematics achievement. Findings revealed that children are able to map between non-symbolic and symbolic representations and that this mapping ability develops over time. Moreover, we found that children's mapping ability is related to timed and untimed measures of mathematics achievement, over and above the variance accounted for by their numerical magnitude comparison skills.

  8. Slope stability analysis for Valles Marineris, Mars: a numerical analysis of controlling conditions and failure types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, G.; Castellanza, R.; De Blasio, F.; Utili, S.

    2012-04-01

    Valles Marineris (VM hereafter) in the equatorial area of Mars exhibits several gravitative failures often involving the whole 6-8 km thickness of the valley walls. The failures have resulted in a series of long-runout landslides up to several hundred cubic kilometres in volume (Quantin et al., 2004), and the formation of sub-circular alcoves perched on the top. Several questions arise as to forces at play in the stability of the walls of VM, the geometrical shape of the alcoves and the shape and long-runout of the landslides (see for example Lucas et al., 2011). In this work, we concentrate on the stability analysis of the walls of VM with two precise questions in mind starting from past studies (Bigot-Cormier and Montgomery, 2006; Neuffer and Schultz, 2006, Schultz, 2002). The first concerns the properties of the materials that give origin to instability. We performed several finite element and discrete element calculations tailored to slope stability analysis based on the genuine shape of the walls of VM taken from the MOLA topographic data. We considered stratified and differently altered/degraded materials to define the range of physical mechanical properties required for failure to occur and to explain the discrete distribution of failures along the VM valley flanks. A second question addressed in this work is the geometrical shape of the sub-circular alcoves. Normally, these shapes are commonplace for slopes made of uniform and isotropic properties, and are also observed in subaqueous environment. We performed calculations taking into consideration the progressive failure in the slope showing the final results in terms of surface failure geometry. Bigot-Cormier, F., Montgomery, D.R. (2007) Valles Marineris landslides: Evidence for a strength limit to Martian relief? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 260, 1-2, 15, 179-186 Lucas, A., Mangeney, A., Mège, D., and Bouchut, F., 2011. Influence of the scar geometry on landslide dynamics and deposits

  9. Theoretical-Numerical Analysis of Boundary-Layer Stability with Combined Injection and Acoustic Absorptive Coating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    stabilization of the boundary-layer flow. The foregoing model assumes that: • The number of pores per the instability wavelength ( porn ) is large...calculated ( ) porn x using the wavelength distribution ( )xλ∗ for the most unstable (vs. frequency) waves. Figure 45 shows that 100porn > downstream...instability wavelength ( ) porn x . Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 37 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 R e

  10. A numerical study of the thermal stability of low-lying coronal loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Antiochos, S. K.; Mariska, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of loops that are subjected to a variety of small but finite perturbations was studied. Only the low-lying loops are considered. The analysis was performed numerically using a one-dimensional hydrodynamical model developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The computer codes solve the time-dependent equations for mass, momentum, and energy transport. The primary interest is the active region filaments, hence a geometry appropriate to those structures was considered. The static solutions were subjected to a moderate sized perturbation and allowed to evolve. The results suggest that both hot and cool loops of the geometry considered are thermally stable against amplitude perturbations of all kinds.

  11. Development and stability of bed forms: a numerical analysis of dune pattern coarsening and giant dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clement; Rozier, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the development and stability of transverse dunes for ranges of flow depths and velocities using a cellular automaton dune model. Subsequent to the initial bed instability, dune pattern coarsening is driven by bed form interactions. Collisions lead to two types of coalescence associated with upstream or downstream dominant dunes. In addition, a single collision-ejection mechanism enhances the exchange of mass between two consecutive bed forms (through-passing dunes). The power-law increases in wavelength and amplitude exhibit the same exponents, which are independent of flow properties. Contrary to the wavelength, dune height is not only limited by flow depth but also by the strength of the flow. Superimposed bedforms may propagate and continuously destabilize the largest dunes. Then, we identify three classes of steady-state transverse dune fields according to the periodicity in crest-to-crest spacing and the mechanism of size limitation. In all cases, the steady state is reached when the bed shear stress in the dune trough regions is close to its critical value for motion inception. Such a critical shear stress value is reached and maintained through the dynamic equilibrium between flow strength and dune aspect ratio. Comparisons with natural dune fields show that many of them may have reached such a steady state. Finally, we infer that the sedimentary patterns in the model may be used to bring new constraints on the stability of modern and ancient dune fields.

  12. Numerical prediction of turbulent flame stability in premixed/prevaporized (HSCT) combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winowich, Nicholas S.

    1990-01-01

    A numerical analysis of combustion instabilities that induce flashback in a lean, premixed, prevaporized dump combustor is performed. KIVA-II, a finite volume CFD code for the modeling of transient, multidimensional, chemically reactive flows, serves as the principal analytical tool. The experiment of Proctor and T'ien is used as a reference for developing the computational model. An experimentally derived combustion instability mechanism is presented on the basis of the observations of Proctor and T'ien and other investigators of instabilities in low speed (M less than 0.1) dump combustors. The analysis comprises two independent procedures that begin from a calculated stable flame: The first is a linear increase of the equivalence ratio and the second is the linear decrease of the inflow velocity. The objective is to observe changes in the aerothermochemical features of the flow field prior to flashback. It was found that only the linear increase of the equivalence ratio elicits a calculated flashback result. Though this result did not exhibit large scale coherent vortices in the turbulent shear layer coincident with a flame flickering mode as was observed experimentally, there were interesting acoustic effects which were resolved quite well in the calculation. A discussion of the k-e turbulence model used by KIVA-II is prompted by the absence of combustion instabilities in the model as the inflow velocity is linearly decreased. Finally, recommendations are made for further numerical analysis that may improve correlation with experimentally observed combustion instabilities.

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation on the motorcycle front frame flexibility and its effect on stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossalter, V.; Doria, A.; Massaro, M.; Taraborrelli, L.

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that front fork flexibility may have a significant effect on motorcycle stability. This work addresses the problem of developing lumped element models of the front fork from experimental results. The front forks of an enduro motorcycle and of a super sport motorcycle are characterized performing static, dynamic and modal tests by means of specific testing equipment. The concept of wheel twisting axis is proposed to characterize static and dynamic deformability of the front fork. Modal analysis results show the presence of two important modes of vibration of the front assembly in the low frequency range: the lateral mode and the longitudinal mode. Different lumped models are discussed and a new model that takes into account information obtained from static and dynamic tests is proposed. Simulations are carried out by means of a multibody code and show the effect of the front assembly deformability on the weave and wobble vibration modes.

  14. Operating conditions and stability of spin torque majority gates: Analytical understanding and numerical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaysset, Adrien; Manfrini, Mauricio; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.; Radu, Iuliana P.; Thean, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    The functionality of a cross-shaped Spin Torque Majority Gate (STMG) is primarily limited by the pinning of a domain wall (DW) at the center of the device. Here, an analytical model is built to calculate the conditions for such a pinning and to deduce the operating range. The assumptions of the model and the conclusions are validated by micromagnetic simulations. The total magnetic energy of the DW state is derived. By minimizing this energy with respect to two degrees of freedom, the DW stability condition is obtained. We find that the lateral length of the STMG is the critical dimension: it must be smaller than about five times the DW width. This result is confirmed by micromagnetic simulations with a high accuracy. In process, we solved a more fundamental problem: the macrospin limit of a finite ferromagnet containing one pinning site. We found the correction of the usual DW width expression due to finite length of wires.

  15. A numerical study of the stability of radiative shocks. [in accretion flows onto white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, J. N.; Wolff, M. T.; Durisen, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to the oscillatory instability of optically thin radiative shocks in time-dependent numerical calculations of accretion flows onto degenerate dwarfs. The present nonlinear calculations yield good quantitative agreement with the linear results obtained for oscillation frequencies, damping rates, and critical alpha-values. The fundamental mode and the first overtone in the shock radius and luminosity variations can be clearly identified, and evidence is sometimes seen for the second overtone. Time-dependent calculations are also performed which include additional physics relevant to degenerate dwarf accretion, such as electron thermal conduction, unequal electron and ion temperatures, Compton cooling, and relativistic corrections to the bremsstrahlung cooling law. All oscillatory modes are found to be damped, and hence stable, in the case of a 1-solar mass white dwarf accreting in spherical symmetry.

  16. Theoretical Hill-type muscle and stability: numerical model and application.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, S; Günther, M; Rupp, T; Bayer, A; Häufle, D

    2013-01-01

    The construction of artificial muscles is one of the most challenging developments in today's biomedical science. The application of artificial muscles is focused both on the construction of orthotics and prosthetics for rehabilitation and prevention purposes and on building humanoid walking machines for robotics research. Research in biomechanics tries to explain the functioning and design of real biological muscles and therefore lays the fundament for the development of functional artificial muscles. Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from simple mechanical components. In this contribution, this theoretical yet biomechanical model is transferred to a numerical model and applied for presenting a proof-of-concept of a functional artificial muscle. Additionally, this validated theoretical model is used to determine force-velocity relations of different animal species that are based on the literature data from biological experiments. Moreover, it is shown that an antagonistic muscle actuator can help in stabilising a single inverted pendulum model in favour of a control approach using a linear torque generator.

  17. Theoretical Hill-Type Muscle and Stability: Numerical Model and Application

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, S.; Günther, M.; Rupp, T.; Bayer, A.; Häufle, D.

    2013-01-01

    The construction of artificial muscles is one of the most challenging developments in today's biomedical science. The application of artificial muscles is focused both on the construction of orthotics and prosthetics for rehabilitation and prevention purposes and on building humanoid walking machines for robotics research. Research in biomechanics tries to explain the functioning and design of real biological muscles and therefore lays the fundament for the development of functional artificial muscles. Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from simple mechanical components. In this contribution, this theoretical yet biomechanical model is transferred to a numerical model and applied for presenting a proof-of-concept of a functional artificial muscle. Additionally, this validated theoretical model is used to determine force-velocity relations of different animal species that are based on the literature data from biological experiments. Moreover, it is shown that an antagonistic muscle actuator can help in stabilising a single inverted pendulum model in favour of a control approach using a linear torque generator. PMID:24319495

  18. Numerical studies on convective stability and flow pattern in three-dimensional spherical mantle of terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Takatoshi; Kameyama, Masanori; Ogawa, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    We explore thermal convection of a fluid with a temperature-dependent viscosity in a basally heated 3-D spherical shell using linear stability analyses and numerical experiments, while considering the application of our results to terrestrial planets. The inner to outer radius ratio of the shell f assumed in the linear stability analyses is in the range of 0.11-0.88. The critical Rayleigh number Rc for the onset of thermal convection decreases by two orders of magnitude as f increases from 0.11 to 0.88, when the viscosity depends sensitively on the temperature, as is the case for real mantle materials. Numerical simulations carried out in the range of f = 0.11-0.55 show that a thermal boundary layer (TBL) develops both along the surface and bottom boundaries to induce cold and hot plumes, respectively, when f is 0.33 or larger. However, for smaller f values, a TBL develops only on the bottom boundary. Convection occurs in the stagnant-lid regime where the root mean square velocity on the surface boundary is less than 1 per cent of its maximum at depth, when the ratio of the viscosity at the surface boundary to that at the bottom boundary exceeds a threshold that depends on f. The threshold decreases from 106.5 at f = 0.11 to 104 at f = 0.55. If the viscosity at the base of the convecting mantle is 1020-1021 Pa s, the Rayleigh number exceeds Rc for Mars, Venus and the Earth, but does not for the Moon and Mercury; convection is unlikely to occur in the latter planets unless the mantle viscosity is much lower than 1020 Pa s and/or the mantle contains a strong internal heat source.

  19. Stability Assessment of the Gökgöl Karstic Cave (Zonguldak, Turkey) by Analytical and Numerical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geniş, Melih; Çolak, Berdan

    2015-11-01

    Turkey has many cave formations and some caves are important tourist attractions. Theses caves have natural and historical characteristics that need to be investigated and protected. An important rock engineering topic is the identification of possible rock falls and collapses in caves that are open to the public and planning preventive measures. In this study, the locations and types of instability problems were identified along a section of 875 m of the Gökgöl cave in Zonguldak, Turkey. The main instabilities were identified as block falls controlled by discontinuities, rock block sliding, and flexural toppling. To obtain the intact rock and rock mass properties of the stratified limestone which is the host rock of the cave, field and laboratory studies were conducted. Stability assessments for four different sections inside the cave were carried out using numerical and analytical methods, and the results were compared. The results of the analyses revealed that some countermeasures and precautions must be implemented to increase the stability in some areas of the Gökgöl cave, especially those which have potential for regional failure.

  20. Do biodegradable magnesium alloy intramedullary interlocking nails prematurely lose fixation stability in the treatment of tibial fracture? A numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haosen; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu

    2017-01-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective technique used to treat long bone fractures. Recently, biodegradable metals have drawn increased attention as an intramedullary interlocking nailing material. In this study, numerical simulations were implemented to determine whether the degradation rate of magnesium alloy makes it a suitable material for manufacturing biodegradable intramedullary interlocking nails. Mechano-regulatory and bone-remodeling models were used to simulate the fracture healing process, and a surface corrosion model was used to simulate intramedullary rod degradation. The results showed that magnesium alloy intramedullary rods exhibited a satisfactory degradation rate; the fracture healed and callus enhancement was observed before complete dissolution of the intramedullary rod. Delayed magnesium degradation (using surface coating techniques) did not confer a significant advantage over the non-delayed degradation process; immediate degradation also achieved satisfactory healing outcomes. However, delayed degradation had no negative effect on callus enhancement, as it did not cause signs of stress shielding. To avoid risks of individual differences such as delayed union, delayed degradation is recommended. Although the magnesium intramedullary rod did not demonstrate rapid degradation, its ability to provide high fixation stiffness to achieve earlier load bearing was inferior to that of the conventional titanium alloy and stainless steel rods. Therefore, light physiological loads should be ensured during the early stages of healing to achieve bony healing; otherwise, with increased loading and degraded intramedullary rods, the fracture may ultimately fail to heal.

  1. Stability and convergence of an implicit numerical method for the space and time fractional Bloch-Torrey equation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Liu, Fawang; Turner, Ian; Burrage, Kevin

    2013-05-13

    Fractional-order dynamics in physics, particularly when applied to diffusion, leads to an extension of the concept of Brownian motion through a generalization of the Gaussian probability function to what is termed anomalous diffusion. As magnetic resonance imaging is applied with increasing temporal and spatial resolution, the spin dynamics is being examined more closely; such examinations extend our knowledge of biological materials through a detailed analysis of relaxation time distribution and water diffusion heterogeneity. Here, the dynamic models become more complex as they attempt to correlate new data with a multiplicity of tissue compartments, where processes are often anisotropic. Anomalous diffusion in the human brain using fractional-order calculus has been investigated. Recently, a new diffusion model was proposed by solving the Bloch-Torrey equation using fractional-order calculus with respect to time and space. However, effective numerical methods and supporting error analyses for the fractional Bloch-Torrey equation are still limited. In this paper, the space and time fractional Bloch-Torrey equation (ST-FBTE) in both fractional Laplacian and Riesz derivative form is considered. The time and space derivatives in the ST-FBTE are replaced by the Caputo and the sequential Riesz fractional derivatives, respectively. Firstly, we derive an analytical solution for the ST-FBTE in fractional Laplacian form with initial and boundary conditions on a finite domain. Secondly, we propose an implicit numerical method (INM) for the ST-FBTE based on the Riesz form, and the stability and convergence of the INM are investigated. We prove that the INM for the ST-FBTE is unconditionally stable and convergent. Finally, we present some numerical results that support our theoretical analysis.

  2. Numerical slope stability simulations of chasma walls in Valles Marineris/Mars using a distinct element method (dem).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, B.

    2003-04-01

    NUMERICAL SLOPE STABILITY SIMULATIONS OF CHASMA WALLS IN VALLES MARINERIS/MARS USING A DISTINCT ELEMENT METHOD (DEM). B. Imre (1) (1) German Aerospace Center, Berlin Adlershof, bernd.imre@gmx.net The 8- to 10-km depths of Valles Marineris (VM) offer excellent views into the upper Martian crust. Layering, fracturing, lithology, stratigraphy and the content of volatiles have influenced the evolution of the Valles Marineris wallslopes. But these parameters also reflect the development of VM and its wall slopes. The scope of this work is to gain understanding in these parameters by back-simulating the development of wall slopes. For that purpose, the two dimensional Particle Flow Code PFC2D has been chosen (ITASCA, version 2.00-103). PFC2D is a distinct element code for numerical modelling of movements and interactions of assemblies of arbitrarily sized circular particles. Particles may be bonded together to represent a solid material. Movements of particles are unlimited. That is of importance because results of open systems with numerous unknown variables are non-unique and therefore highly path dependent. This DEM allows the simulation of whole development paths of VM walls what makes confirmation of the model more complete (e.g. Oreskes et al., Science 263, 1994). To reduce the number of unknown variables a proper (that means as simple as possible) field-site had to be selected. The northern wall of eastern Candor Chasma has been chosen. This wall is up to 8-km high and represents a significant outcrop of the upper Martian crust. It is quite uncomplex, well-aligned and of simple morphology. Currently the work on the model is at the stage of performing the parameter study. Results will be presented via poster by the EGS-Meeting.

  3. A Combined Remote Sensing-Numerical Modelling Approach to the Stability Analysis of Delabole Slate Quarry, Cornwall, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havaej, Mohsen; Coggan, John; Stead, Doug; Elmo, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Rock slope geometry and discontinuity properties are among the most important factors in realistic rock slope analysis yet they are often oversimplified in numerical simulations. This is primarily due to the difficulties in obtaining accurate structural and geometrical data as well as the stochastic representation of discontinuities. Recent improvements in both digital data acquisition and incorporation of discrete fracture network data into numerical modelling software have provided better tools to capture rock mass characteristics, slope geometries and digital terrain models allowing more effective modelling of rock slopes. Advantages of using improved data acquisition technology include safer and faster data collection, greater areal coverage, and accurate data geo-referencing far exceed limitations due to orientation bias and occlusion. A key benefit of a detailed point cloud dataset is the ability to measure and evaluate discontinuity characteristics such as orientation, spacing/intensity and persistence. This data can be used to develop a discrete fracture network which can be imported into the numerical simulations to study the influence of the stochastic nature of the discontinuities on the failure mechanism. We demonstrate the application of digital terrestrial photogrammetry in discontinuity characterization and distinct element simulations within a slate quarry. An accurately geo-referenced photogrammetry model is used to derive the slope geometry and to characterize geological structures. We first show how a discontinuity dataset, obtained from a photogrammetry model can be used to characterize discontinuities and to develop discrete fracture networks. A deterministic three-dimensional distinct element model is then used to investigate the effect of some key input parameters (friction angle, spacing and persistence) on the stability of the quarry slope model. Finally, adopting a stochastic approach, discrete fracture networks are used as input for 3D

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Reading Comprehension Achievement from Grades 3 to 10: Investigating Models of Stability, Cumulative Growth, and Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiatkowska-White, Bozena; Kirby, John R.; Lee, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 78 Canadian English-speaking students examined the applicability of the stability, cumulative, and compensatory models in reading comprehension development. Archival government-mandated assessments of reading comprehension at Grades 3, 6, and 10, and the Canadian Test of Basic Skills measure of reading comprehension…

  5. Achieving long-term stability of lipid nanoparticles: examining the effect of pH, temperature, and lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Ball, Rebecca L; Bajaj, Palak; Whitehead, Kathryn A

    2017-01-01

    The broadest clinical application of siRNA therapeutics will be facilitated by drug-loaded delivery systems that maintain stability and potency for long times under ambient conditions. In the present study, we seek to better understand the stability and effect of storage conditions on lipidoid nanoparticles (LNPs), which have been previously shown by our group and others to potently deliver RNA to various cell and organ targets both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, this study evaluates the influence of pH, temperature, and lyophilization on LNP efficacy in HeLa cells. When stored under aqueous conditions, we found that refrigeration (2°C) kept LNPs the most stable over 150 days compared to storage in the -20°C freezer or at room temperature. Because the pH of the storage buffer was not found to influence stability, it is suggested that the LNPs be stored under physiologically appropriate conditions (pH 7) for ease of use. Although aggregation and loss of efficacy were observed when LNPs were subjected to freeze-thaw cycles, their stability was retained with the use of the cryoprotectants, trehalose, and sucrose. Initially, lyophilization of the LNPs followed by reconstitution in aqueous buffer also led to reductions in efficacy, most likely due to aggregation upon reconstitution. Although the addition of ethanol to the reconstitution buffer restored efficacy, this approach is not ideal, as LNP solutions would require dialysis prior to use. Fortunately, we found that the addition of trehalose or sucrose to LNP solutions prior to lyophilization facilitated room temperature storage and reconstitution in aqueous buffer without diminishing delivery potency.

  6. Achieving long-term stability of lipid nanoparticles: examining the effect of pH, temperature, and lyophilization

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Rebecca L; Bajaj, Palak; Whitehead, Kathryn A

    2017-01-01

    The broadest clinical application of siRNA therapeutics will be facilitated by drug-loaded delivery systems that maintain stability and potency for long times under ambient conditions. In the present study, we seek to better understand the stability and effect of storage conditions on lipidoid nanoparticles (LNPs), which have been previously shown by our group and others to potently deliver RNA to various cell and organ targets both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, this study evaluates the influence of pH, temperature, and lyophilization on LNP efficacy in HeLa cells. When stored under aqueous conditions, we found that refrigeration (2°C) kept LNPs the most stable over 150 days compared to storage in the −20°C freezer or at room temperature. Because the pH of the storage buffer was not found to influence stability, it is suggested that the LNPs be stored under physiologically appropriate conditions (pH 7) for ease of use. Although aggregation and loss of efficacy were observed when LNPs were subjected to freeze–thaw cycles, their stability was retained with the use of the cryoprotectants, trehalose, and sucrose. Initially, lyophilization of the LNPs followed by reconstitution in aqueous buffer also led to reductions in efficacy, most likely due to aggregation upon reconstitution. Although the addition of ethanol to the reconstitution buffer restored efficacy, this approach is not ideal, as LNP solutions would require dialysis prior to use. Fortunately, we found that the addition of trehalose or sucrose to LNP solutions prior to lyophilization facilitated room temperature storage and reconstitution in aqueous buffer without diminishing delivery potency. PMID:28115848

  7. Item Calibration Samples and the Stability of Achievement Estimates and System Rankings: Another Look at the PISA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Using an empirically-based simulation study, we show that typically used methods of choosing an item calibration sample have significant impacts on achievement bias and system rankings. We examine whether recent PISA accommodations, especially for lower performing participants, can mitigate some of this bias. Our findings indicate that standard…

  8. Prediction of soil stability and erosion in semiarid regions using numerical hydrological model (MCAT) and airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    promising models is the MCAT, which is a MATLAB library of visual and numerical analysis tools for the evaluation of hydrological and environmental models. The model applied in this paper presents an innovative infrastructural system for predicting soil stability and erosion impacts. This integrated model is applicable to mixed areas with spatially varying soil properties, landscape, and land-cover characteristics. Data from a semiarid site in southern Israel was used to evaluate the model and analyze fundamental erosion mechanisms. The findings estimate the sensitivity of the suggested model to the physical parameters and encourage the use of hyperspectral remote sensing imagery (HSI). The proposed model is integrated according to the following stages: 1. The soil texture, aggregation, soil moisture estimated via airborne HSI data, including soil surface clay and calcium carbonate erosions; 2. The mechanical stability of soil assessed via pedo-transfer function corresponding to load dependent changes in soil physical properties due to pre-compression stress (set of equations study shear strength parameters take into account soil texture, aggregation, soil moisture and ecological soil variables); 3. The precipitation-related runoff model program (RMP) satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of surface runoff for the current climate simulation; 4. The Monte Carlo Analysis Toolbox (MCAT), a library of visual and numerical analysis tools for the evaluation of hydrological and environmental models, is proposed as a tool for integrate all the approaches to an applicable model. The presented model overcomes the limitations of existing modeling methods by integrating physical data produced via HSI and yet stays generic in terms of space and time independency.

  9. Using interlayer step-wise triplet transfer to achieve an efficient white organic light-emitting diode with high color-stability

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qi; Ma, Dongge Ding, Junqiao; Wang, Lixiang; Leo, Karl; Qiao, Qiquan; Jia, Huiping; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2014-05-12

    An efficient phosphorescent white organic light emitting-diode with a red-green-blue tri-emitting-layer structure is reported. The host of the red dopant possesses a lower triplet-energy than the green dye. An interlayer step-wise triplet transfer via blue dye → green dye → red host → red dye is achieved. This mechanism allows an efficient triplet harvesting by the three dopants, thus maintaining a balanced white light and reducing energy loss. Moreover, the color stability of the device is improved significantly. The white device not only achieves a peak external quantum efficiency of 21.1 ± 0.8% and power efficiency of 37.5 ± 1.4 lm/W but shows no color shift over a wide range of voltages.

  10. Enhanced thermal stability achieved without increased conformational rigidity at physiological temperatures: spatial propagation of differential flexibility in rubredoxin hybrids.

    PubMed

    LeMaster, David M; Tang, Jianzhong; Paredes, Diana I; Hernández, Griselda

    2005-11-15

    The extreme thermal stability of proteins from hyperthermophilic organisms is widely believed to arise from an increased conformational rigidity in the native state. In apparent contrast to this paradigm, both Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf) rubredoxin, the most thermostable protein characterized to date, and its Clostridium pasteurianum (Cp) mesophile homolog undergo a transient conformational opening of their multi-turn segments, which is more favorable in hyperthermophile proteins below room temperature. Substitution of the hyperthermophile multi-turn sequence into the mesophile protein sequence yields a hybrid, (14-33(Pf)) Cp, that exhibits a 12 degrees increase in its reversible thermal unfolding transition midpoint. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnetization transfer-based hydrogen exchange was used to monitor backbone conformational dynamics in the subsecond time regime. Despite the substantially increased thermostability, flexibility throughout the entire main chain of the more thermostable hybrid is equal to or greater than that of the wild type mesophile rubredoxin near its normal growth temperature. In comparison to the identical core residues of the (14-33(Pf)) Cp rubredoxin hybrid, six spatially clustered residues in the parental mesophile protein exhibit a substantially larger temperature dependence of exchange. The exchange behavior of these six residues closely matches that observed in the multi-turn segment, consistent with a more extensive conformational process. These six core residues exhibit a much weaker temperature dependence of exchange in the (14-33(Pf)) Cp hybrid, similar to that observed for the multi-turn segment in its parental Pf rubredoxin. These results suggest that differential temperature dependence of flexibility can underlie variations in thermostability observed for mesophile versus hyperthermophile homologs.

  11. A Long-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injury Therapy Using Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (Sk-SCs): An Achievement of Significant Morphological, Numerical and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Maki; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Soeda, Shuichi; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs) to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents. The Sk-SCs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34) and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN/29+) cells. Cells were separately cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks, then injected into the athymic nude mice sciatic nerve long-gap model (7-mm) bridging an acellular conduit. After 8–12 weeks, active cell engraftment was observed only in the Sk-34 cell transplanted group, showing preferential differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as formation of the myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium surrounding regenerated axons, resulted in 87% of numerical recovery. Differentiation into vascular cell lineage (pericyte and endothelial cells) were also observed. A significant tetanic tension recovery (over 90%) of downstream muscles following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (at upper portion of the gap) was also achieved. In contrast, Sk-DN/29+ cells were completely eliminated during the first 4 weeks, but relatively higher numerical (83% vs. 41% in axon) and functional (80% vs. 60% in tetanus) recovery than control were observed. Noteworthy, significant increase in the formation of vascular networks in the conduit during the early stage (first 2 weeks) of recovery was observed in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels), suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the human Sk

  12. Numerical stability of an explicit finite difference scheme for the solution of transient conduction in composite media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical evaluation of the stability of an explicit finite difference solution of the transient temperature field in a composite medium is presented. The grid points of the field are assumed uniformly spaced, and media interfaces are either vertical or horizontal and pass through grid points. In addition, perfect contact between different media (infinite interfacial conductance) is assumed. A finite difference form of the conduction equation is not valid at media interfaces; therefore, heat balance forms are derived. These equations were subjected to stability analysis, and a computer graphics code was developed that permitted determination of a maximum time step for a given grid spacing.

  13. Application of Energy Function as a Measure of Error in the Numerical Solution for Online Transient Stability Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarojkumar, K.; Krishna, S.

    2016-08-01

    Online dynamic security assessment (DSA) is a computationally intensive task. In order to reduce the amount of computation, screening of contingencies is performed. Screening involves analyzing the contingencies with the system described by a simpler model so that computation requirement is reduced. Screening identifies those contingencies which are sure to not cause instability and hence can be eliminated from further scrutiny. The numerical method and the step size used for screening should be chosen with a compromise between speed and accuracy. This paper proposes use of energy function as a measure of error in the numerical solution used for screening contingencies. The proposed measure of error can be used to determine the most accurate numerical method satisfying the time constraint of online DSA. Case studies on 17 generator system are reported.

  14. 3D numerical test objects for the evaluation of a software used for an automatic analysis of a linear accelerator mechanical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torfeh, Tarraf; Beaumont, Stéphane; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Benhdech, Yassine

    2010-04-01

    Mechanical stability of a medical LINear ACcelerator (LINAC), particularly the quality of the gantry, collimator and table rotations and the accuracy of the isocenter position, are crucial for the radiation therapy process, especially in stereotactic radio surgery and in Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) where this mechanical stability is perturbed due to the additional weight the kV x-ray tube and detector. In this paper, we present a new method to evaluate a software which is used to perform an automatic measurement of the "size" (flex map) and the location of the kV and the MV isocenters of the linear accelerator. The method consists of developing a complete numerical 3D simulation of a LINAC and physical phantoms in order to produce Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) images including calibrated distortions of the mechanical movement of the gantry and isocenter misalignments.

  15. Numerical investigation of CO{sub 2} emission and thermal stability of a convective and radiative stockpile of reactive material in a cylindrical pipe of variable thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lebelo, Ramoshweu Solomon

    2014-10-24

    In this paper the CO{sub 2} emission and thermal stability in a long cylindrical pipe of combustible reactive material with variable thermal conductivity are investigated. It is assumed that the cylindrical pipe loses heat by both convection and radiation at the surface. The nonlinear differential equations governing the problem are tackled numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method coupled with shooting technique method. The effects of various thermophysical parameters on the temperature and carbon dioxide fields, together with critical conditions for thermal ignition are illustrated and discussed quantitatively.

  16. Numerical stabilization of entanglement computation in auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo simulations of interacting many-fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Peter; Trebst, Simon

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of a fermion sign problem, auxiliary-field (or determinantal) quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) approaches have long been the numerical method of choice for unbiased, large-scale simulations of interacting many-fermion systems. More recently, the conceptual scope of this approach has been expanded by introducing ingenious schemes to compute entanglement entropies within its framework. On a practical level, these approaches, however, suffer from a variety of numerical instabilities that have largely impeded their applicability. Here we report on a number of algorithmic advances to overcome many of these numerical instabilities and significantly improve the calculation of entanglement measures in the zero-temperature projective DQMC approach, ultimately allowing us to reach similar system sizes as for the computation of conventional observables. We demonstrate the applicability of this improved DQMC approach by providing an entanglement perspective on the quantum phase transition from a magnetically ordered Mott insulator to a band insulator in the bilayer square lattice Hubbard model at half filling.

  17. Numerical stabilization of entanglement computation in auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo simulations of interacting many-fermion systems.

    PubMed

    Broecker, Peter; Trebst, Simon

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of a fermion sign problem, auxiliary-field (or determinantal) quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) approaches have long been the numerical method of choice for unbiased, large-scale simulations of interacting many-fermion systems. More recently, the conceptual scope of this approach has been expanded by introducing ingenious schemes to compute entanglement entropies within its framework. On a practical level, these approaches, however, suffer from a variety of numerical instabilities that have largely impeded their applicability. Here we report on a number of algorithmic advances to overcome many of these numerical instabilities and significantly improve the calculation of entanglement measures in the zero-temperature projective DQMC approach, ultimately allowing us to reach similar system sizes as for the computation of conventional observables. We demonstrate the applicability of this improved DQMC approach by providing an entanglement perspective on the quantum phase transition from a magnetically ordered Mott insulator to a band insulator in the bilayer square lattice Hubbard model at half filling.

  18. Recent Experimental and Numerical Results on Turbulence, Flows and Global Stability Under Biasing in a Magnetized Linear Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M.; Desjardins, T. R.; Fisher, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    Ongoing experiments and numerical modeling on the effects of flow shear on electrostatic turbulence in the presence of electrode biasing are being conducted in helicon plasmas in the linear HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) device. It is found that changes in flow shear, affected by electrode biasing through Er x Bz rotation, can strongly affect fluctuation dynamics, including fully suppressing the fluctuations or inducing chaos. The fundamental underlying instability, at least in the case of low magnetic field, is identified as a hybrid resistive drift-Kelvin-Helmholtz mode. At higher magnetic fields, multiple modes (resistive drift, rotation-driven interchange and/or Kelvin-Helmholtz) are present, and interact nonlinearly. At high positive electrode bias (V >10Te), a large amplitude, global instability, identified as the potential relaxation instability is observed. Numerical modeling is also being conducted, using a 3 fluid global Braginskii solver for no or moderate bias cases, and a 1D PIC code for high bias cases. Recent experimental and numerical results will be presented. Supported by U.S. National Science Foundation Award 1500423.

  19. Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of an actively stabilized beam-column with circular cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffner, Maximilian; Enss, Georg C.; Platz, Roland

    2014-04-01

    Buckling of axially loaded beam-columns represents a critical design constraint for light-weight structures. Besides passive solutions to increase the critical buckling load, active buckling control provides a possibility to stabilize slender elements in structures. So far, buckling control by active forces or bending moments has been mostly investigated for beam-columns with rectangular cross-section and with a preferred direction of buckling. The proposed approach investigates active buckling control of a beam-column with circular solid cross-section which is fixed at its base and pinned at its upper end. Three controlled active lateral forces are applied near the fixed base with angles of 120° to each other to stabilize the beam-column and allow higher critical axial loads. The beam-column is subject to supercritical static axial loads and lateral disturbance forces with varying directions and offsets. Two independent modal state space systems are derived for the bending planes in the lateral y- and z-directions of the circular cross-section. These are used to design two linear-quadratic regulators (LQR) that determine the necessary control forces which are transformed into the directions of the active lateral forces. The system behavior is simulated with a finite element model using one-dimensional beam elements with six degrees of freedom at each node. With the implemented control, it is possible to actively stabilize a beam-column with circular cross-section in arbitrary buckling direction for axial loads significantly above the critical axial buckling load.

  20. Evaluation of Rainfall Impacts on Groundwater Flow and Land Deformation in an Unsaturated Heterogeneous Slope and Slope Stability Using a Fully Coupled Hydrogeomechanical Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, J.; Kim, J.

    2006-12-01

    A series of numerical simulations using a fully coupled hydrogeomechanical numerical model, which is named COWADE123D, is performed to analyze groundwater flow and land deformation in an unsaturated heterogeneous slope and its stability under various rainfall rates. The slope is located along a dam lake in Republic of Korea. The slope consists of the Cretaceous granodiorite and can be subdivided into the four layers such as weathered soil, weathered rock, intermediate rock, and hard rock from its ground surface due to weathering process. The numerical simulation results show that both rainfall rate and heterogeneity play important roles in controlling groundwater flow and land deformation in the unsaturated slope. The slope becomes more saturated, and thus its overall hydrogeomechanical stability deteriorates, especially in the weathered rock and weathered soil layers, as the rainfall increases up to the maximum daily rainfall rate in the return period of one year. However, the slope becomes fully saturated, and thus its hydrogeomechanical responses are almost identical under more than such a critical rainfall rate. From the viewpoint of hydrogeology, the pressure head, and hence the hydraulic head increase as the rainfall rate increases. As a result, the groundwater table rises, the unsaturated zone reduces, the seepage face expands from the slope toe toward the slope crest, and the groundwater flow velocity increases along the seepage face. Particularly, the groundwater flow velocity increases significantly in the weathered soil and weathered rock layers as the rainfall rate increases. This is because their hydraulic conductivity is relatively higher than that of the intermediate rock and hard rock layers. From the viewpoint of geomechanics, the horizontal displacement increases, while the vertical displacement decreases toward the slope toe as the rainfall rate increases. This may result from the buoyancy effect associated with the groundwater table rise as the

  1. Analysis of control system responses for aircraft stability and efficient numerical techniques for real-time simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroe, Gabriela; Andrei, Irina-Carmen; Frunzulica, Florin

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are the study and the implementation of both aerodynamic and propulsion models, as linear interpolations using look-up tables in a database. The aerodynamic and propulsion dependencies on state and control variable have been described by analytic polynomial models. Some simplifying hypotheses were made in the development of the nonlinear aircraft simulations. The choice of a certain technique to use depends on the desired accuracy of the solution and the computational effort to be expended. Each nonlinear simulation includes the full nonlinear dynamics of the bare airframe, with a scaled direct connection from pilot inputs to control surface deflections to provide adequate pilot control. The engine power dynamic response was modeled with an additional state equation as first order lag in the actual power level response to commanded power level was computed as a function of throttle position. The number of control inputs and engine power states varied depending on the number of control surfaces and aircraft engines. The set of coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations that comprise the simulation model can be represented by the vector differential equation. A linear time-invariant (LTI) system representing aircraft dynamics for small perturbations about a reference trim condition is given by the state and output equations present. The gradients are obtained numerically by perturbing each state and control input independently and recording the changes in the trimmed state and output equations. This is done using the numerical technique of central finite differences, including the perturbations of the state and control variables. For a reference trim condition of straight and level flight, linearization results in two decoupled sets of linear, constant-coefficient differential equations for longitudinal and lateral / directional motion. The linearization is valid for small perturbations about the reference trim

  2. Dynamic influence of pinning points on marine ice-sheet stability: a numerical study in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Lionel; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Drews, Reinhard

    2016-11-01

    The East Antarctic ice sheet is likely more stable than its West Antarctic counterpart because its bed is largely lying above sea level. However, the ice sheet in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, contains marine sectors that are in contact with the ocean through overdeepened marine basins interspersed by grounded ice promontories and ice rises, pinning and stabilising the ice shelves. In this paper, we use the ice-sheet model BISICLES to investigate the effect of sub-ice-shelf melting, using a series of scenarios compliant with current values, on the ice-dynamic stability of the outlet glaciers between the Lazarev and Roi Baudouin ice shelves over the next millennium. Overall, the sub-ice-shelf melting substantially impacts the sea-level contribution. Locally, we predict a short-term rapid grounding-line retreat of the overdeepened outlet glacier Hansenbreen, which further induces the transition of the bordering ice promontories into ice rises. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrated that the onset of the marine ice-sheet retreat and subsequent promontory transition into ice rise is controlled by small pinning points, mostly uncharted in pan-Antarctic datasets. Pinning points have a twofold impact on marine ice sheets. They decrease the ice discharge by buttressing effect, and they play a crucial role in initialising marine ice sheets through data assimilation, leading to errors in ice-shelf rheology when omitted. Our results show that unpinning increases the sea-level rise by 10 %, while omitting the same pinning point in data assimilation decreases it by 10 %, but the more striking effect is in the promontory transition time, advanced by two centuries for unpinning and delayed by almost half a millennium when the pinning point is missing in data assimilation. Pinning points exert a subtle influence on ice dynamics at the kilometre scale, which calls for a better knowledge of the Antarctic margins.

  3. Spreading of a surfactant-laden droplet down an inclined and pre-wetted plane - Numerics, Asymptotics and Linear Stability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    Non-uniformities in surfactant concentration result in a surface shear stress, known as the Marangoni stress. This stress, if sufficiently large, can influence the flow at the interface. Naturally occurring surfactants in the mammalian lung reduce the surface tension within the liquid lining the airways and help to prevent collapse of smaller airways. Premature infants produce insufficient surfactant because the lungs are under developed. Resulting Respiratory Distress Syndrome is treated by Surfactant Replacement Therapy. Motivated by this medical application we theoretically investigate a model problem involving the spreading of a drop laden with an insoluble surfactant down an inclined and pre-wetted plane. Our focus is on understanding the mechanisms behind a ``fingering'' instability observed experimentally by high-resolution numerics revealing a multi-region asymptotic structure of the spreading droplet. Approximate solutions for each region are then derived using asymptotic analysis. In particular, a quasi-steady similarity solution is obtained for the leading edge of the droplet and a linear stability analysis shows that the base state is linearly unstable to long-wavelength perturbations for all inclination angles. The Marangoni effect is shown to be behind this instability at small inclination angles. A stability criterion is derived at small wave number and it's implication in the onset of the instability will be discussed.

  4. A numerical approach based on the fourier-spectral element method for a linear stability analysis on thermal convection in rotating axisymmetric containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Larcher, Thomas; Fournier, Alexandre; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    We present the application of a fourier-spectral element code [1, 2] to perform a linear stability analysis of non-axisymmetric thermal driven flows in a rotating cylindrical gap with (a) a flat bottom and (b) an inclined bottom topography. The model of the differentially heated, rotating cylindrical gap filled with a fluid is since more than four decades extensively used for laboratory experiments as well as for numerical simulation of baroclinic wave instabilities. While a number of experiments are performed in set-ups with a flat bottom topography, the β- effect is considered in models with an inclined bottom. Linearisation about a basic state is the natural way to go to determine stability curves. If performed about an axisymmetric basic state, linearisation decouples the modes in ?, the azimuthal coordinate, and breaks an original 3D problem in 2D ones which can be studied independently, i.e. one can then test each Fourier mode m, the azimuthal wave number, individually. [1] Fournier, A., Bunge, H.-P., Hollerbach, R., and Vilotte, J.-P, 2004, Application of the spectral-element method to the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equation, Geophys. J. Int., 156(3), 682-700 [2] Fournier, A., Bunge, H.-P., Hollerbach, R., and Vilotte, J.-P, 2005, A Fourier-spectral element algorithm for thermal convection in rotating axisymmetric containers, Journal of Computational Physics, 204(2)

  5. Validation of three-dimensional incompressible spatial direct numerical simulation code: A comparison with linear stability and parabolic stability equation theories for boundary-layer transition on a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    1992-01-01

    Spatially evolving instabilities in a boundary layer on a flat plate are computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In a truncated physical domain, a nonstaggered mesh is used for the grid. A Chebyshev-collocation method is used normal to the wall; finite difference and compact difference methods are used in the streamwise direction; and a Fourier series is used in the spanwise direction. For time stepping, implicit Crank-Nicolson and explicit Runge-Kutta schemes are used to the time-splitting method. The influence-matrix technique is used to solve the pressure equation. At the outflow boundary, the buffer-domain technique is used to prevent convective wave reflection or upstream propagation of information from the boundary. Results of the DNS are compared with those from both linear stability theory (LST) and parabolized stability equation (PSE) theory. Computed disturbance amplitudes and phases are in very good agreement with those of LST (for small inflow disturbance amplitudes). A measure of the sensitivity of the inflow condition is demonstrated with both LST and PSE theory used to approximate inflows. Although the DNS numerics are very different than those of PSE theory, the results are in good agreement. A small discrepancy in the results that does occur is likely a result of the variation in PSE boundary condition treatment in the far field. Finally, a small-amplitude wave triad is forced at the inflow, and simulation results are compared with those of LST. Again, very good agreement is found between DNS and LST results for the 3-D simulations, the implication being that the disturbance amplitudes are sufficiently small that nonlinear interactions are negligible.

  6. A comparison between stabilization and post-stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. F.; Wu, X.

    2006-07-01

    A discussion and a comparison between Baumgarte's stabilization method and Chin's post-stabilization one are given in detail. It is shown that classical numerical methods with the two stabilization ways can achieve higher accuracy and improve numerical stability. As an emphasis, the former is not equivalent to the latter in general even if the best stabilizing parameter can be found. In addition, it is ambiguous to deduce whether the former is or not superior to the latter from the accuracy point of view for various problems. On the other hand, it is clear that the stabilization leads to the appearance of a complicated right function so that the computation of the right function becomes more expensive. Above all, there is a difficulty in choosing the best stabilizing parameter. In view of these factors, the post-stabilization is worth recommending in many cases. However, a noticeable problem should be mentioned that for the post-stabilization employing larger time step size is inadvisable but for the traditional integrator the use of time step size has allowance of appropriate expanding.

  7. Symbolic generation of elastic rotor blade equations using a FORTRAN processor and numerical study on dynamic inflow effects on the stability of helicopter rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The process of performing an automated stability analysis for an elastic-bladed helicopter rotor is discussed. A symbolic manipulation program, written in FORTRAN, is used to aid in the derivation of the governing equations of motion for the rotor. The blades undergo coupled bending and torsional deformations. Two-dimensional quasi-steady aerodynamics below stall are used. Although reversed flow effects are neglected, unsteady effects, modeled as dynamic inflow are included. Using a Lagrangian approach, the governing equations are derived in generalized coordinates using the symbolic program. The program generates the steady and perturbed equations and writes into subroutines to be called by numerical routines. The symbolic program can operate on both expressions and matrices. For the case of hovering flight, the blade and dynamic inflow equations are converted to equations in a multiblade coordinate system by rearranging the coefficients of the equations. For the case of forward flight, the multiblade equations are obtained through the symbolic program. The final multiblade equations are capable of accommodating any number of elastic blade modes. The computer implementation of this procedure consists of three stages: (1) the symbolic derivation of equations; (2) the coding of the equations into subroutines; and (3) the numerical study after identifying mass, damping, and stiffness coefficients. Damping results are presented in hover and in forward flight with and without dynamic inflow effects for various rotor blade models, including rigid blade lag-flap, elastic flap-lag, flap-lag-torsion, and quasi-static torsion. Results from dynamic inflow effects which are obtained from a lift deficiency function for a quasi-static inflow model in hover are also presented.

  8. Deep-water seamounts in the NE Atlantic, sources of landslides-induced tsunamis: Slope stability analysis and tsunami numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Omira, R.; Ramalho, I.; Vales, D.; Matias, L. M.; Terrinha, P.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine mass failures (SMFs) present one of the significant marine Geo-hazards. Their importance as contributors to tsunami hazard has been recognized over the last 20-30 years, but they are seldom considered in the evaluation of quantitative tsunami impact or in the design of warning strategies. This study aims to investigate the slope stability of the SMFs in the NE Atlantic, their companion tsunami and the associated hazard at the target coasts. It focuses on two major deep-water seamounts of the NE Atlantic, the Gorringe Bank and the Hirondelle, where evidences of large SMFs have been found. Slope stability analysis is often based on relationships between landslides and earthquakes. Here, within each considered seamount, slope failure potential is investigated through the pseudo-static method. This analysis allows establishing a relationship between the size of the SMF and the critical earthquake peak ground acceleration necessary to initiate it and therefore define the possible SMF scenarios. Numerical modelling of SMF-induced tsunami generation is then employed to test the tsunamigenic potential of each defined scenario. It is performed using a multi-layers viscous shallow-water model, where the lower layer represents the deformable slide that is assumed to be a viscous-incompressible fluid, and bounded by the upper layer of seawater assumed to be inviscid and incompressible. The propagation of tsunami waves is simulated employing non-linear shallow water equations. Results are presented in terms of: 1) slope stability curves that establish the relationship between the probable earthquake magnitudes and the possible sizes of SMFs, 2) possible SMF scenarios within each seamount, 3) potential of tsunami generation for each SMF, 4) tsunami coastal impact at target coasts. Results show that SMFs in the NE Atlantic have the potential of generating large tsunamis with significant impact along the surrounding coasts. Therefore, more attention must be accorded to

  9. Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.

  10. The Effect of Personnel Stability on Organizational Performance: Do Battalions with Stable Command Groups Achieve Higher Training Proficiency at the National Training Center?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    As chief, one of Meyer’s first edicts was to declare that the length of command tours would rise from an average of two years to a minimum of...B. Tiggle, and Lynn M. Milan , “The Effects of Battalion Staff Stabilization on Individual and Unit Performance: A Preliminary Investigation”, ARI

  11. A conceptual model of pore-space blockage in mixed sediments using a new numerical approach, with implications for sediment bed stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartzke, Gerhard; Huhn, Katrin

    2015-06-01

    In mixed sediment beds, erosion resistance can change relative to that of beds composed of a uniform sediment because of varying textural and/or other grain-size parameters, with effects on pore water flow that are difficult to quantify by means of analogue techniques. To overcome this difficulty, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed using a finite difference method (FDM) flow model coupled with a distinct element method (DEM) particle model. The main aim was to investigate, at a high spatial resolution, the physical processes occurring during the initiation of motion of single grains at the sediment-water interface and in the shallow subsurface of simplified sediment beds under different flow velocities. Increasing proportions of very fine sand (D50=0.08 mm) were mixed into a coarse sand matrix (D50=0.6 mm) to simulate mixed sediment beds, starting with a pure coarse sand bed in experiment 1 (0 wt% fines), and proceeding through experiment 2 (6.5 wt% fines), experiment 3 (10.5 wt% fines), and experiment 4 (28.7 wt% fines). All mixed beds were tested for their erosion behavior at predefined flow velocities varying in the range of U 1-5=10-30 cm/s. The experiments show that, with increasing fine content, the smaller particles increasingly fill the spaces between the larger particles. As a consequence, pore water inflow into the sediment is increasingly blocked, i.e., there is a decrease in pore water flow velocity and, hence, in the flow momentum available to entrain particles. These findings are portrayed in a new conceptual model of enhanced sediment bed stabilization.

  12. Achieving extremely concentrated aqueous dispersions of graphene flakes and catalytically efficient graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids with flavin mononucleotide as a high-performance stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Ayán-Varela, M; Paredes, J I; Guardia, L; Villar-Rodil, S; Munuera, J M; Díaz-González, M; Fernández-Sánchez, C; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2015-05-20

    The stable dispersion of graphene flakes in an aqueous medium is highly desirable for the development of materials based on this two-dimensional carbon structure, but current production protocols that make use of a number of surfactants typically suffer from limitations regarding graphene concentration or the amount of surfactant required to colloidally stabilize the sheets. Here, we demonstrate that an innocuous and readily available derivative of vitamin B2, namely the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide (FMNS), is a highly efficient dispersant in the preparation of aqueous dispersions of defect-free, few-layer graphene flakes. Most notably, graphene concentrations in water as high as ∼50 mg mL(-1) using low amounts of FMNS (FMNS/graphene mass ratios of about 0.04) could be attained, which facilitated the formation of free-standing graphene films displaying high electrical conductivity (∼52000 S m(-1)) without the need of carrying out thermal annealing or other types of post-treatment. The excellent performance of FMNS as a graphene dispersant could be attributed to the combined effect of strong adsorption on the sheets through the isoalloxazine moiety of the molecule and efficient colloidal stabilization provided by its negatively charged phosphate group. The FMNS-stabilized graphene sheets could be decorated with nanoparticles of several noble metals (Ag, Pd, and Pt), and the resulting hybrids exhibited a high catalytic activity in the reduction of nitroarenes and electroreduction of oxygen. Overall, the present results should expedite the processing and implementation of graphene in, e.g., conductive inks, composites, and hybrid materials with practical utility in a wide range of applications.

  13. Flight Control System Design by Quadratic Stabilization with Partial Pole Placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Kenji

    The most fundamental requirements for flight control system are ensuring robust stability and improving flying quality. Quadratic stabilization is a powerful technique ensuring robust stability against parameter change of aircraft due to flight condition. Furthermore, flying quality requirements are regarded as eigenstructure assignment specifications. This paper proposes a new design method of feedback gain which simultaneously achieves quadratic stabilization and partial pole placement. This design method is reduced to a numerical optimization problem including linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints.

  14. Numerical Stability and Control Analysis Towards Falling-Leaf Prediction Capabilities of Splitflow for Two Generic High-Performance Aircraft Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Eric F.

    1998-01-01

    Aerodynamic analysis are performed using the Lockheed-Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS) Splitflow computational fluid dynamics code to investigate the computational prediction capabilities for vortex-dominated flow fields of two different tailless aircraft models at large angles of attack and sideslip. These computations are performed with the goal of providing useful stability and control data to designers of high performance aircraft. Appropriate metrics for accuracy, time, and ease of use are determined in consultations with both the LMTAS Advanced Design and Stability and Control groups. Results are obtained and compared to wind-tunnel data for all six components of forces and moments. Moment data is combined to form a "falling leaf" stability analysis. Finally, a handful of viscous simulations were also performed to further investigate nonlinearities and possible viscous effects in the differences between the accumulated inviscid computational and experimental data.

  15. Numerical accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerstoel, J. W.

    1988-12-01

    A framework is provided for numerical accuracy assessment. The purpose of numerical flow simulations is formulated. This formulation concerns the classes of aeronautical configurations (boundaries), the desired flow physics (flow equations and their properties), the classes of flow conditions on flow boundaries (boundary conditions), and the initial flow conditions. Next, accuracy and economical performance requirements are defined; the final numerical flow simulation results of interest should have a guaranteed accuracy, and be produced for an acceptable FLOP-price. Within this context, the validation of numerical processes with respect to the well known topics of consistency, stability, and convergence when the mesh is refined must be done by numerical experimentation because theory gives only partial answers. This requires careful design of text cases for numerical experimentation. Finally, the results of a few recent evaluation exercises of numerical experiments with a large number of codes on a few test cases are summarized.

  16. Numerical Study of Velocity Shear Stabilization of 3D and Theoretical Considerations for Centrifugally Confined Plasmas and Other Interchange-Limited Fusion Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Hassam, Adil

    2015-09-21

    We studied the feasibility of resonantly driving GAMs in tokamaks. A numerical simulation was carried out and showed the essential features and limitations. It was shown further that GAMs can damp by phase-mixing, from temperature gradients, or nonlinear detuning, thus broadening the resonance. Experimental implications of this were quantified. Theoretical support was provided for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, funded in a separate grant by DOE. Plasma diamagnetism from supersonic rotation was established. A theoretical model was built to match the data. Additional support to the experiment in terms of numerical simulation of the interchange turbulence was provided. Spectra from residual turbulence on account of velocity shear suppression were obtained and compared favorably to experiment. A new drift wave, driven solely by the thermal force, was identified.

  17. Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjoegreen, B.

    2012-01-01

    In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities as a function of stiffness of the source term and the grid spacing.

  18. Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjogreen, B.

    2011-01-01

    In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities for two representative stiff detonation wave problems.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Optimization of a High-Lift System to Improve Low-Speed Performance, Stability, and Control of an Arrow-Wing Supersonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation was performed to evaluate leading-and trailing-edge flap deflections for optimal aerodynamic performance of a High-Speed Civil Transport concept during takeoff and approach-to-landing conditions. The configuration used for this study was designed by the Douglas Aircraft Company during the 1970's. A 0.1-scale model of this configuration was tested in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel with both the original leading-edge flap system and a new leading-edge flap system, which was designed with modem computational flow analysis and optimization tools. Leading-and trailing-edge flap deflections were generated for the original and modified leading-edge flap systems with the computational flow analysis and optimization tools. Although wind tunnel data indicated improvements in aerodynamic performance for the analytically derived flap deflections for both leading-edge flap systems, perturbations of the analytically derived leading-edge flap deflections yielded significant additional improvements in aerodynamic performance. In addition to the aerodynamic performance optimization testing, stability and control data were also obtained. An evaluation of the crosswind landing capability of the aircraft configuration revealed that insufficient lateral control existed as a result of high levels of lateral stability. Deflection of the leading-and trailing-edge flaps improved the crosswind landing capability of the vehicle considerably; however, additional improvements are required.

  20. Concurrent processing in nonlinear structural stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darbhamulla, S. P.; Razzaq, Z.; Storaasli, O. O.

    1986-01-01

    A concurrent processing algorithm is developed for materially nonlinear stability analysis of imperfect columns with biaxial partial rotational end restraints. The algorithm for solving the governing nonlinear ordinary differential equations is implemented on a multiprocessor computer called the 'Finite Element Machine', developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Numerical results are obtained on up to nine concurrent processors. A substantial computational gain is achieved in using the parallel processing approach.

  1. Asperger Syndrome and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…

  2. An updated numerical simulation of the ground-water flow system for the Castle Lake debris dam, Mount St. Helens, Washington, and implications for dam stability against heave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn A.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the ground-water flow system in the Castle Lake debris dam, calibrated to data from the 1991 and 1992 water years, was used to estimate factors of safety against heave and internal erosion. The Castle Lake debris dam, 5 miles northwest of the summit of Mount St. Helens, impounds 19,000 acre-ft of water that could pose a flood hazard in the event of a lake breakout. A new topographic map of the Castle Lake area prior to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was prepared and used to calculate the thickness of the debris avalanche deposits that compose the dam. Water levels in 22 piezometers and discharges from seeps on the dam face measured several times per year beginning in 1990 supplemented measurements in 11 piezometers and less frequent seep discharge measurements made since 1983. Observations in one group of piezometers reveal heads above the land surface and head gradients favoring upward flow that correspond to factors of safety only slightly greater than 2. The steady-state ground-water flow system in the debris dam was simulated using a threedimensional finite difference computer program. A uniform, isotropic model having the same shape as the dam and a hydraulic conductivity of 1.55 ft/day simulates the correct water level at half the observation points, but is in error by 10 ft or more at other points. Spatial variations of hydraulic conductivity were required to calibrate the model. The model analysis suggests that ground water flows in both directions between the debris dam and Castle Lake. Factors of safety against heave and internal erosion were calculated where the model simulated upward flow of ground water. A critical gradient analysis yields factors of safety as low as 2 near the piezometers where water level observations indicate low factors of safety. Low safety factors are also computed near Castle Creek where slumping was caused by a storm in January, 1990. If hydraulic property contrasts are present in areas of the

  3. Investigation on the Influence of Abutment Pressure on the Stability of Rock Bolt Reinforced Roof Strata Through Physical and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hongpu; Li, Jianzhong; Yang, Jinghe; Gao, Fuqiang

    2017-02-01

    In underground coal mining, high abutment loads caused by the extraction of coal can be a major contributor to many rock mechanic issues. In this paper, a large-scale physical modeling of a 2.6 × 2.0 × 1.0 m entry roof has been conducted to investigate the fundamentals of the fracture mechanics of entry roof strata subjected to high abutment loads. Two different types of roof, massive roof and laminated roof, are considered. Rock bolt system has been taken into consideration. A distinct element analyses based on the physical modeling conditions have been performed, and the results are compared with the physical results. The physical and numerical models suggest that under the condition of high abutment loads, the massive roof and the laminated roof fail in a similar pattern which is characterized as vertical tensile fracturing in the middle of the roof and inclined shear fracturing initiated at the roof and rib intersections and propagated deeper into the roof. Both the massive roof and the laminated roof collapse in a shear sliding mode shortly after shear fractures are observed from the roof surface. It is found that shear sliding is a combination of tensile cracking of intact rock and sliding on bedding planes and cross joints. Shear sliding occurs when the abutment load is much less than the compressive strength of roof.

  4. Numerical investigation on the stabilization of the deceleration phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to alpha particle heating in ignition target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Zhu, Shaoping; Pei, Wenbing; Ye, Wenhua; Li, Meng; Xu, Xiaowen; Wu, Junfeng; Dai, Zhensheng; Wang, Lifeng

    2012-09-01

    Tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) target is adopted in order to experimentally diagnose the properties of the ignition hot spot and the highly compressed main fusion fuel (Edwards M. J. et al., Phys. Plasmas, 18 (2011) 051003). As compared with deuterium-tritium (DT) target, the thermonuclear alpha particles which are needed to heat the fusion fuel, are much less in the THD target. In the present paper, the effect of alpha particle heating on the deceleration phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability (dp-RTI), which is one of the key problems in hot spot formation, is investigated systematically through numerical simulations. It is found that the mass ablation at the hot spot boundary is greatly increased due to the direct alpha particle heating. As a result, the dp-RTI growth rates are greatly reduced and the cut-off mode number decreases greatly from about 33 to 17. This explains why the hydrodynamic instability in the THD target grows more severely than in the DT ignition target.

  5. Numerical methods in control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrmann, Volker; Xu, Hongguo

    2000-11-01

    We study classical control problems like pole assignment, stabilization, linear quadratic control and H[infinity] control from a numerical analysis point of view. We present several examples that show the difficulties with classical approaches and suggest reformulations of the problems in a more general framework. We also discuss some new algorithmic approaches.

  6. Characterization of Jupiter's Deep Circulation and Static Stability through Wide Channel Numerical Simulations of the Dynamics and Interactions of Southern Midlatitudes Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Juberias, Raul; Dowling, T. E.

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the observed features and dynamics of Jovian vortices are sensitive to the underlying environmental structure of Jupiter’s atmosphere, in particular to the vertical wind shear and the static stability, and that forward modeling techniques can be successfully used to eliminate a large range of possibilities in a self-consistent manner and hence constrain the atmospheric structure below the cloud regions (Youseff and Marcus 2003, Morales-Juberias et al. 2005). However, these studies have generally been done on a narrow latitude-band basis (˜15°). Here we present wide channel simulations (˜40°) of two major meteorological events observed in the southern atmosphere of Jupiter involving the interaction of the Great Red Spot (GRS) with other nearby vortices. Namely, the spots associated with the recirculation of the South Tropical Disturbance of 1979 (Smith et al. 1979) and the White Ovals (WOS) in 2000 when ovals BE and FA merged to form BA (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 2001). By studying these two events using wide channel simulations, not unlike the strategy used in terrestrial synoptic meteorology, we show that we can gain new insights into the patterns governing Jupiter's global circulations, drawing a coherent picture of the vertical structure of the atmosphere for the whole southern mid-latitudinal regions of Jupiter over time. In particular, we find that the model output best captures the dynamics of the individual vortices and the morphology of their interactions when the deformation length in this region is like that derived by Read et al. 2006 and the deep winds vary following a dependence like that derived by Dowling 1995 in which the westward jets remain constant with depth but the eastward jets increase with depth. Computational resources were provided by the New Mexico Computing Applications Center and NMT. This work was supported by PATM grants NNX08AE91G and NNX08AE64G.

  7. Limits to Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The author reflects briefly on what limited degree of global ecological stability and human cultural stability may be achieved, provided that humanity retains hope and does not give way to despair or hide in denial. These thoughts were triggered by a recent conference on International Stability and Systems Engineering. (Contains 5 notes.)

  8. Stability of underwater periodic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu; Kanso, Eva

    2013-07-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching in potential flow. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping.We obtain closedform solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping amplitudes, and numerical results for finite flapping amplitudes. This efficiency analysis results in optimal parameter values that are in agreement with values reported for some carangiform fish. We then study the stability of the (finite amplitude flapping) periodic locomotion using Floquet theory. We find that stability depends nonlinearly on all parameters. Interesting trends of switching between stable and unstable motions emerge and evolve as we continuously vary the parameter values. This suggests that, for live organisms that control their flapping motion, maneuverability and stability need not be thought of as disjoint properties, rather the organism may manipulate its motion in favor of one or the other depending on the task at hand.

  9. Influence of Hydraulic Design on Stability and on Pressure Pulsations in Francis Turbines at Overload, Part Load and Deep Part Load based on Numerical Simulations and Experimental Model Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnoli, M. V.; Maiwald, M.

    2014-03-01

    Francis turbines have been running more and more frequently in part load conditions, in order to satisfy the new market requirements for more dynamic and flexible energy generation, ancillary services and grid regulation. The turbines should be able to be operated for longer durations with flows below the optimum point, going from part load to deep part load and even speed-no-load. These operating conditions are characterised by important unsteady flow phenomena taking place at the draft tube cone and in the runner channels, in the respective cases of part load and deep part load. The current expectations are that new Francis turbines present appropriate hydraulic stability and moderate pressure pulsations at overload, part load, deep part load and speed-no-load with high efficiency levels at normal operating range. This study presents series of investigations performed by Voith Hydro with the objective to improve the hydraulic stability of Francis turbines at overload, part load and deep part load, reduce pressure pulsations and enlarge the know-how about the transient fluid flow through the turbine at these challenging conditions. Model test measurements showed that distinct runner designs were able to influence the pressure pulsation level in the machine. Extensive experimental investigations focused on the runner deflector geometry, on runner features and how they could reduce the pressure oscillation level. The impact of design variants and machine configurations on the vortex rope at the draft tube cone at overload and part load and on the runner channel vortex at deep part load were experimentally observed and evaluated based on the measured pressure pulsation amplitudes. Numerical investigations were employed for improving the understanding of such dynamic fluid flow effects. As example for the design and experimental investigations, model test observations and pressure pulsation curves for Francis machines in mid specific speed range, around nqopt = 50 min

  10. Higher order accurate partial implicitization: An unconditionally stable fourth-order-accurate explicit numerical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The previously obtained second-order-accurate partial implicitization numerical technique used in the solution of fluid dynamic problems was modified with little complication to achieve fourth-order accuracy. The Von Neumann stability analysis demonstrated the unconditional linear stability of the technique. The order of the truncation error was deduced from the Taylor series expansions of the linearized difference equations and was verified by numerical solutions to Burger's equation. For comparison, results were also obtained for Burger's equation using a second-order-accurate partial-implicitization scheme, as well as the fourth-order scheme of Kreiss.

  11. Hyperbolic heat conduction problems involving non-Fourier effects - Numerical simulations via explicit Lax-Wendroff/Taylor-Galerkin finite element formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Namburu, Raju R.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations are presented for hyperbolic heat-conduction problems that involve non-Fourier effects, using explicit, Lax-Wendroff/Taylor-Galerkin FEM formulations as the principal computational tool. Also employed are smoothing techniques which stabilize the numerical noise and accurately predict the propagating thermal disturbances. The accurate capture of propagating thermal disturbances at characteristic time-step values is achieved; numerical test cases are presented which validate the proposed hyperbolic heat-conduction problem concepts.

  12. Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  13. Hindi Numerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, William

    In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…

  14. Stability analysis of an encapsulated microbubble against gas diffusion.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Amit; Sarkar, Kausik

    2010-03-01

    Linear stability analysis is performed for a mathematical model of diffusion of gases from an encapsulated microbubble. It is an Epstein-Plesset model modified to account for encapsulation elasticity and finite gas permeability. Although bubbles, containing gases other than air, are considered, the final stable bubble, if any, contains only air, and stability is achieved only when the surrounding medium is saturated or oversaturated with air. In absence of encapsulation elasticity, only a neutral stability is achieved for zero surface tension, the other solution being unstable. For an elastic encapsulation, different equilibrium solutions are obtained depending on the saturation level and whether the surface tension is smaller or higher than the elasticity. For an elastic encapsulation, elasticity can stabilize the bubble. However, imposing a non-negativity condition on the effective surface tension (consisting of reference surface tension and the elastic stress) leads to an equilibrium radius which is only neutrally stable. If the encapsulation can support a net compressive stress, it achieves actual stability. The linear stability results are consistent with our recent numerical findings. Physical mechanisms for the stability or instability of various equilibriums are provided.

  15. A Comparison between the Stabilization Method and the Post-stabilization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun-fang; Wu, Xin

    2007-01-01

    A detailed discussion on Baumgarte's stabilization method and Chin's post-stabilization method is carried out together with a numerical comparison. The numerical accuracy can be increased and the numerical stability can be improved by combining the classical numerical method with either of the two stabilization methods. Assuming optimal stabilizing parameter the accuracy is not the same in the two methods and it is not certain which one is the more accurate. While noting the reasons underlying the post-stabilization scheme, it is inadvisable, when applying the latter, to use step lengths greater than are recommended by the original classical integrator with no stabilization.

  16. Feedback stabilization initiative

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  17. Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model

    SciTech Connect

    Suryanto, Agus

    2014-06-19

    In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived. It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart.

  18. Numerical Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sozio, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    Senior secondary students cover numerical integration techniques in their mathematics courses. In particular, students would be familiar with the "midpoint rule," the elementary "trapezoidal rule" and "Simpson's rule." This article derives these techniques by methods which secondary students may not be familiar with and an approach that…

  19. Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  20. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  1. Closing the Minority Achievement Gap in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Minority students face numerous academic barriers for achievement in the classroom as well as outside the school. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) suggests six principles for maintaining the standard of school mathematics.

  2. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  3. Numerical Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    fisica matematica . ABSTRACT - We consider a new method for the numerical solution both of non- linear systems of equations and of cornplementauity... Matematica , Serie V11 Volume 9 , Roma (1989), 521-543 An Inexact Continuous Method for the Solution of Large Systems of Equations and Complementarity...34 - 00185 Roma - Italy APPENDIX 2 A Quadratically Convergent Method for Unear Programming’ Stefano Herzel Dipartimento di Matematica -G. Castelnuovo

  4. Aquifer stability investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.

    1981-09-01

    The study of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous rock reservoirs is carried out within the Reservoir Stability Studies Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal of the study is to establish criteria for long-term stability of aquifer CAES reservoirs. These criteria are intended to be guidelines and check lists that utilities and architect-engineering firms may use to evaluate reservoir stability at candidate CAES sites. These criteria will be quantitative where possible, qualitative where necessary, and will provide a focal point for CAES relevant geotechnical knowledge, whether developed within this study or available from petroleum, mining or other geotechnical practices using rock materials. The Reservoir Stability Studies Program had four major activities: a state-of-the-art survey to establish preliminary stability criteria and identify areas requiring research and development; numerical modeling; laboratory testing to provide data for use in numerical models and to investigate fundamental rock mechanics, thermal, fluid, and geochemical response of aquifer materials; and field studies to verify the feasibility of air injection and recovery under CAES conditions in an aquifer, to validate and refine the stability criteria, and to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of the numerical and experimental methodologies developed in previous work. Three phases of study, including preliminary criteria formulation, numerical model development, and experimental assessment of CAES reservoir materials have been completed. Present activity consists of construction and operation of the aquifer field test, and associated numerical and experimental work in support of that activity. Work is presently planned to be complete by 1983 at the end of the field test. At that time the final stability criteria for aquifers will be issued. Attached here also are preliminary criteria for aquifers.

  5. School Achievement Strongly Predicts Midlife IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, Ruth; Arndt, Stephan; Caspers, Kristin; Yucuis, Rebecca; McKirgan, L. William; Pfalzgraf, Christopher; Waterman, Elijah

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between measures of IQ and standardized school achievement tests is well established at around r~0.5 when the two are measured in close proximity. The current paper examined the stability of this correlation when comparing elementary school achievement (grades 3-8) and midlife IQ. Iowa Adoption Study participants who had…

  6. Numerical simulation and modeling of combustion in scramjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Ryan James

    In the last fifteen years the development of a viable scramjet has quickly approached the following long term goals: responsive sub-orbital space access; long-range, prompt global strike; and high-speed transportation. Nonetheless, there are significant challenges that need to be resolved. These challenges include high skin friction drag and high heat transfer rates, inherent to vehicles in sustained, hypersonic flight. Another challenge is sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation and modeling was performed to provide insight into reducing skin friction drag and sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation was used to investigate boundary layer combustion, which has been shown to reduce skin friction drag. The objective of the numerical simulations was to quantify the effect of fuel injection parameters on boundary layer combustion and ultimately on the change in the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. A qualitative analysis of the results suggest that the reduction in the skin friction coefficient depends on multiple parameters and potentially an interaction between parameters. Sustained combustion can be achieved through a stabilized detonation wave. Additionally, stabilizing a detonation wave will yield rapid combustion. This will allow for a shorter and lighter-weight engine system, resulting in less required combustor cooling. A stabilized detonation wave was numerically modeled for various inlet and geometric cases. The effect of fuel concentration, inlet Mach number, and geometric configuration on the stability of a detonation wave was quantified. Correlations were established between fuel concentration, inlet speed, geometric configuration and parameters characterizing the detonation wave. A linear relationship was quantified between the fuel concentration and the parameters characterizing the detonation wave.

  7. Thermal Noise Limit in Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Kemery, Amy; Camp, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated thermal noise (Brownian motion) in a rigid reference cavity used for frequency stabilization of lasers, based on the mechanical loss of cavity materials and the numerical analysis of the mirror-spacer mechanics with t.he direct application of the fluctuation dissipation theorem. This noise sets a fundamental limit for the frequency stability achieved with a rigid frequency- reference cavity of order 1 Hz/square root Hz(0.01 Hz/square root Hz) at 10 mHz (100 Hz) at room temperature. This level coincides with the world-highest level stabilization results.

  8. Thermal Noise Limit in Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Kemery, Amy; Camp, Jordan

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated thermal noise (Brownian motion) in a rigid reference cavity Used for frequency stabilization of lasers, based on the mechanical loss of cavity materials and the numerical analysis of the mirror-spacer mechanics with the direct application of the fluctuation dissipation theorem. This noise sets a fundamental limit for the frequency stability achieved with a rigid frequency-reference cavity of order 1 Hz/rtHz at 10mHz at room temperature. This level coincides with the world-highest level stabilization results.

  9. Achieving nano-gold stability through rational design† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01597b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Scurrell, Michael S.; Rodella, Cristiane B.; Diaz, Beatriz; Billing, David G.

    2016-01-01

    When Au is subdivided to the nanoscale its reactivity changes from an inert nature to one of incredible reactivity which is not replicated by other catalysts. When dispersed onto metal oxides such as TiO2, nano-Au has shown high reactivities for a multitude of reduction and oxidation reactions of industrial importance with potential and current uses such as, CO oxidation, NOx reduction, purification of hydrogen for fuel cells, water gas shift reactions, abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) as well as pollution and emission control systems such as autocatalysts. However, many industrially important reactions and applications operate under harsh conditions where the catalyst is exposed to high temperatures and further needs to operate for extended periods of time. These conditions cause Au nanoparticle sintering whereby small, highly active clusters form large clusters which are catalytically inactive. For this reason, research into stabilizing Au nanoparticles has abounded with a goal of producing durable, thermally stable catalysts for industrial applications. Here we show a durable, thermally stable Au–TiO2 catalyst which has been developed by rational design. The catalyst exhibits a 3-dimensional, radially aligned nanorod structure, already locked into the thermodynamically stable polymorph, via a scalable and facile synthesis, with Au nanoparticles isolated on the support structure. As the Au nanoparticles are highly stable the new catalyst is able to maintain light-off for CO oxidation below 115 °C even after multiple cycles at 800 °C. This ability of the catalyst to resist multiple thermal cycles to high temperature while remaining active at low temperatures shows promise for various industrial applications. The thermal stability of the catalyst is investigated and characterized through morphological and structural studies. PMID:28042468

  10. Increasing entropy for colloidal stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Songping; Shao, Xuefeng; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    Stability is of paramount importance in colloidal applications. Attraction between colloidal particles is believed to lead to particle aggregation and phase separation; hence, stability improvement can be achieved through either increasing repulsion or reducing attraction by modifying the fluid medium or by using additives. Two traditional mechanisms for colloidal stability are electrostatic stabilization and steric stabilization. However, stability improvement by mixing attractive and unstable particles has rarely been considered. Here, we emphasize the function of mixing entropy in colloidal stabilization. Dispersion stability improvement is demonstrated by mixing suspensions of attractive nanosized titania spheres and platelets. A three-dimensional phase diagram is proposed to illustrate the collaborative effects of particle mixing and particle attraction on colloidal stability. This discovery provides a novel method for enhancing colloidal stability and opens a novel opportunity for engineering applications. PMID:27872473

  11. Increasing entropy for colloidal stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Songping; Shao, Xuefeng; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-11-01

    Stability is of paramount importance in colloidal applications. Attraction between colloidal particles is believed to lead to particle aggregation and phase separation; hence, stability improvement can be achieved through either increasing repulsion or reducing attraction by modifying the fluid medium or by using additives. Two traditional mechanisms for colloidal stability are electrostatic stabilization and steric stabilization. However, stability improvement by mixing attractive and unstable particles has rarely been considered. Here, we emphasize the function of mixing entropy in colloidal stabilization. Dispersion stability improvement is demonstrated by mixing suspensions of attractive nanosized titania spheres and platelets. A three-dimensional phase diagram is proposed to illustrate the collaborative effects of particle mixing and particle attraction on colloidal stability. This discovery provides a novel method for enhancing colloidal stability and opens a novel opportunity for engineering applications.

  12. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  13. Stability in straight stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Yoshikawa, S.

    1981-07-01

    The stability of the straight stellarator against localized interchange modes is investigated employing the Mercier-Greene-Johnson criterion. Critical values of ..beta.. are obtained both numerically and analytically. The conclusion is that for classical helical stellarators the average limiting ..beta..'s are quite low of order three to four percent.

  14. A study of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff source terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveque, R. J.; Yee, H. C.

    1988-01-01

    The proper modeling of nonequilibrium gas dynamics is required in certain regimes of hypersonic flow. For inviscid flow this gives a system of conservation laws coupled with source terms representing the chemistry. Often a wide range of time scales is present in the problem, leading to numerical difficulties as in stiff systems of ordinary differential equations. Stability can be achieved by using implicit methods, but other numerical difficulties are observed. The behavior of typical numerical methods on a simple advection equation with a parameter-dependent source term was studied. Two approaches to incorporate the source term were utilized: MacCormack type predictor-corrector methods with flux limiters, and splitting methods in which the fluid dynamics and chemistry are handled in separate steps. Various comparisons over a wide range of parameter values were made. In the stiff case where the solution contains discontinuities, incorrect numerical propagation speeds are observed with all of the methods considered. This phenomenon is studied and explained.

  15. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  16. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  17. Ballooning Stability of the Compact Quasiaxially Symmetric Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    M.H. Redi; J. Canik; R.L. Dewar; J.L. Johnson; S. Klasky; W.A. Cooper; W. Kerbichler

    2001-09-19

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning stability of a compact, quasiaxially symmetric stellarator (QAS), expected to achieve good stability and particle confinement is examined with a method that can lead to estimates of global stability. Making use of fully 3D, ideal-MHD stability codes, the QAS beta is predicted to be limited above 4% by ballooning and high-n kink modes. Here MHD stability is analyzed through the calculation and examination of the ballooning mode eigenvalue isosurfaces in the 3-space [s, alpha, theta(subscript ''k'')]; s is the edge normalized toroidal flux, alpha is the field line variable, and theta(subscript ''k'') is the perpendicular wave vector or ballooning parameter. Broken symmetry, i.e., deviations from axisymmetry, in the stellarator magnetic field geometry causes localization of the ballooning mode eigenfunction, with new types of nonsymmetric, eigenvalue isosurfaces in both the stable and unstable spectrum. The isosurfaces around the most unstable points i n parameter space (well above marginal) are topologically spherical. In such cases, attempts to use ray tracing to construct global ballooning modes lead to a k-space runaway. Introduction of a reflecting cutoff in k(perpendicular) to model numerical truncation or finite Larmor radius (FLR) yields chaotic ray paths ergodically filling the allowed phase space, indicating that the global spectrum must be described using the language of quantum chaos theory. However, the isosurface for marginal stability in the cases studied are found to have a more complex topology, making estimation of FLR stabilization more difficult.

  18. Numerical Methods For Chemically Reacting Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveque, R. J.; Yee, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Issues related to numerical stability, accuracy, and resolution discussed. Technical memorandum presents issues in numerical solution of hyperbolic conservation laws containing "stiff" (relatively large and rapidly changing) source terms. Such equations often used to represent chemically reacting flows. Usually solved by finite-difference numerical methods. Source terms generally necessitate use of small time and/or space steps to obtain sufficient resolution, especially at discontinuities, where incorrect mathematical modeling results in unphysical solutions.

  19. Design and testing of magnetic controllers for Satellite stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guelman, M.; Waller, R.; Shiryaev, A.; Psiaki, M.

    2005-01-01

    A study was carried out of attitude control algorithms that are able to provide 3-axis stabilization of a satellite equipped with a magnetometer as the only sensor, and magnetic torquers as the only actuators. Two different solutions to the problem were developed, namely Linear Quadratic Regulator and No Wheel controllers. Their aptitude to achieve the required performance was confirmed by multiple numerical simulations under different initial conditions and various scenarios. The new algorithms were tested onboard the Israeli Gurwin-TechSAT micro-satellite, nominally momentum-biased, stabilized within 2- 2.5∘ precision by the proportion-plus-derivative magnetic controller. In the flight tests of the new controllers, some valuable results were obtained, such as revealing the possibility to effectively maintain the satellite 3-axis stabilization even with a very small momentum bias, and the implementation and efficient performance of the properly modified extended and linear Kalman filters in the onboard computer.

  20. Potentials and limits to basin stability estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Paul; Menck, Peter J.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Stability assessment methods for dynamical systems have recently been complemented by basin stability and derived measures, i.e. probabilistic statements whether systems remain in a basin of attraction given a distribution of perturbations. Their application requires numerical estimation via Monte Carlo sampling and integration of differential equations. Here, we analyse the applicability of basin stability to systems with basin geometries that are challenging for this numerical method, having fractal basin boundaries and riddled or intermingled basins of attraction. We find that numerical basin stability estimation is still meaningful for fractal boundaries but reaches its limits for riddled basins with holes.

  1. Dynamic Stability Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    was tested at either a canard or tail position. The slightly larger numerical value of dCm /dn for the aft tail is accounted for by the 10% longer tail...4 6 ( Phantom ) at M = 0.6 , and at M = 0.9 where the slat is not so successful. Also shown is the combined rolling moment due to aileron and spoiler...ory alt) is easily presented (Fig. 3.2). 3.1 Static and dynamic longitudinal stability The criterion for the longitudinal stability is (ref. 7) ( dCm

  2. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  3. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  4. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  5. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  6. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  7. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  8. Efficient numerical methods for nonlinear Schrodinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiao

    , while the approach achieves expected accuracy. The fourth-order exponential time dierencing Runge-Kutta method is combined with the fourth-order compact scheme in space to solve the space fractional coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations, involving Riesz derivatives. The system of four space fractional equations models the interaction of four water waves moving in the Levy motion. A locally extrapolated exponential operator splitting scheme is applied to multi-dimensional nonlinear space fractional Schrodinger equations. The scheme achieves second-order accuracy in time for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems, compared to the second-order ADI method, whose application is constrained to two-dimensional problems. The Gross-Pitaevskii equation containing space fractional derivatives is demonstrated to indicate the usage of the scheme. Theoretical and numerical study of stability and convergence of the numerical methods have been discussed. Extensive numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency, and reliability of the proposed methods.

  9. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  10. The Relationship between Resources and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.

    This paper evaluates whether or not there is a direct academic-achievement benefit from additional expenditures on education in the United States. Numerous critics have said that education is already overfunded and that it can never be funded enough to make any appreciable difference. Berliner's study of 900 school districts in Texas in the 1993…

  11. Employing Abductive Reasoning to Achieve Understanding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    future operational environment is described as volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous and composed of numerous dynamic and adaptive systems...environment, and winning the nation’s wars in this future environment, military professionals must cultivate an ability to achieve understanding...

  12. Nonlinear dynamics and numerical uncertainties in CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sweby, P. K.

    1996-01-01

    The application of nonlinear dynamics to improve the understanding of numerical uncertainties in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is reviewed. Elementary examples in the use of dynamics to explain the nonlinear phenomena and spurious behavior that occur in numerics are given. The role of dynamics in the understanding of long time behavior of numerical integrations and the nonlinear stability, convergence, and reliability of using time-marching, approaches for obtaining steady-state numerical solutions in CFD is explained. The study is complemented with spurious behavior observed in CFD computations.

  13. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  14. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  15. Designing a Stability Operations Framework to Achieve National Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    National Security Strategy (Washington, DC: The White House, May 2010), 17. 3 Ibid., 38. 31 4 Abraham H. Maslow , ―A Theory of Human Motivation...population. Abraham Harold Maslow’s theory of human motivation will be used to demonstrate the pre-eminent and enduring nature of prosperity interests...to pursue peak experiences and self actualization needs is where the majority have evolved. As Maslow explains, this fact does not imply that love

  16. Stability and optimal parameters for continuous feedback chaos control.

    PubMed

    Kouomou, Y Chembo; Woafo, P

    2002-09-01

    We investigate the conditions under which an optimal continuous feedback control can be achieved. Chaotic oscillations in the single-well Duffing model, with either a positive or a negative nonlinear stiffness term, are tuned to their related Ritz approximation. The Floquet theory enables the stability analysis of the control. Critical values of the feedback control coefficient fulfilling the optimization criteria are derived. The influence of the chosen target orbit, of the feedback coefficient, and of the onset time of control on its duration is discussed. The analytic approach is confirmed by numerical simulations.

  17. Numerical Modeling in Geodynamics: Success, Failure and Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2005-12-01

    A real success in numerical modeling of dynamics of the Earth can be achieved only by multidisciplinary research teams of experts in geodynamics, applied and pure mathematics, and computer science. The success in numerical modeling is based on the following basic, but simple, rules. (i) People need simplicity most, but they understand intricacies best (B. Pasternak, writer). Start from a simple numerical model, which describes basic physical laws by a set of mathematical equations, and move then to a complex model. Never start from a complex model, because you cannot understand the contribution of each term of the equations to the modeled geophysical phenomenon. (ii) Study the numerical methods behind your computer code. Otherwise it becomes difficult to distinguish true and erroneous solutions to the geodynamic problem, especially when your problem is complex enough. (iii) Test your model versus analytical and asymptotic solutions, simple 2D and 3D model examples. Develop benchmark analysis of different numerical codes and compare numerical results with laboratory experiments. Remember that the numerical tool you employ is not perfect, and there are small bugs in every computer code. Therefore the testing is the most important part of your numerical modeling. (iv) Prove (if possible) or learn relevant statements concerning the existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution to the mathematical and discrete problems. Otherwise you can solve an improperly-posed problem, and the results of the modeling will be far from the true solution of your model problem. (v) Try to analyze numerical models of a geological phenomenon using as less as possible tuning model variables. Already two tuning variables give enough possibilities to constrain your model well enough with respect to observations. The data fitting sometimes is quite attractive and can take you far from a principal aim of your numerical modeling: to understand geophysical phenomena. (vi) If the number of

  18. Stability analysis for laminar flow control, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benney, D. J.; Orszag, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The basic equations for the stability analysis of flow over three dimensional swept wings are developed and numerical methods for their solution are surveyed. The equations for nonlinear stability analysis of three dimensional disturbances in compressible, three dimensional, nonparallel flows are given. Efficient and accurate numerical methods for the solution of the equations of stability theory were surveyed and analyzed.

  19. Reservoir stability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-07-01

    The objective of the reservoir stability studies project is to develop stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock caverns, and porous rock structures for air storage in utility applications. Because reservoir stability was deemed crucial to commercialization of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems this project has received major emphasis in the early phases of the overall CAES program. A long term plan, including state-of-the-art assessment, numerical model development and experimental studies culminating in field research, as necessary, was formulated. This plan, initiated in 1977, has been completed during FY-1981 to the stage of specific experimental studies and field research. Activities within this project during FY-1981 have included completion of site specific geotechnical design evaluations using methodologies developed to assess hard rock cavern stability, implementation of in-mine research to evaluate numerical and laboratory study conclusions on the response of domal salt, and preparation of integrated laboratory and field study facilities to assess developed predictive methods and determine in situ response of a porous media reservoir to air injection. The major activity in the project has been the field study component of the porous media studies. Accomplishments there have included completion of exploration, permitting and leasing, operation contractor selection and negotiation, and initiation of procurement and construction for an FY-1982 test initiation. A major program milestone, drilling of the injection withdrawal well for this test, was completed ahead of schedule.

  20. MHD Stability Study of Oblate FRCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, G. A.; Milroy, R. D.; Kim, C. C.

    2009-11-01

    The n=1 tilt, interchange, and shift modes of oblate FRC plasmas are simulated using the NIMROD code. The grid geometry approximates the shaped, close-fitting flux conserver used in the Swarthmore Spheromak eXperiment (SSX) oblate FRC studyfootnotetextM. J. Schaffer, M. Brown, C. Cothran, N. Murphy, An oblate FRC concept for SSX, ICC Workshop, College Park, MD, Feb 2007. The results validate the work by Belova et alfootnotetextE. V. Belova, S. C. Jardin, H. Ji, M. Yamada, R. Kulsrud, Numerical study of global stability of oblate field-reversed configurations, Phys. Plasmas, 8(4), 1267 (2001) which characterized important thresholds for these instabilities. The tilt mode changes from an internal mode to an external mode with decreasing FRC elongation, and in the oblate case it can be stabilized with a close-fitting conducting wall. By increasing the edge separatrix pressure for wall-supported FRCs, the growth rate of interchange mode decreases, and complete stabilization is achieved when the separatrix beta exceeds 30%. Simulations of the dynamics of FRC formation from two counter-helicity spheromaks are beginning, and preliminary results will be presented.

  1. The Predictive Relationship between Achievement and Participation in Music and Achievement in Core Grade 12 Academic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouzouasis, Peter; Guhn, Martin; Kishor, Nand

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between musical training and general intellectual capacity as well as academic achievement has been discussed in numerous contexts. In our study, we examined the relationship between participation and achievement in music and achievement in academic courses, based on data from three consecutive British Columbia student cohorts.…

  2. Lean Stability augmentation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program was conducted to investigate techniques and develop technology for improving the lean combustion limits of premixing, prevaporizing combustors applicable to gas turbine engine main burners. Three concepts for improving lean stability limits were selected for experimental evaluation among twelve approaches considered. Concepts were selected on the basis of the potential for improving stability limits and achieving emission goals, the technological risks associated with development of practical burners employing the concepts, and the penalties to airline direct operating costs resulting from decreased combustor performance, increased engine cost, increased maintenance cost and increased engine weight associated with implementation of the concepts. Tests of flameholders embodying the selected concepts were conducted.

  3. Stability of Detached Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.; Croell, A.

    2009-01-01

    Bridgman crystal growth can be conducted in the so-called "detached" solidification regime, where the growing crystal is detached from the crucible wall. A small gap between the growing crystal and the crucible wall, of the order of 100 micrometers or less, can be maintained during the process. A meniscus is formed at the bottom of the melt between the crystal and crucible wall. Under proper conditions, growth can proceed without collapsing the meniscus. The meniscus shape plays a key role in stabilizing the process. Thermal and other process parameters can also affect the geometrical steady-state stability conditions of solidification. The dynamic stability theory of the shaped crystal growth process has been developed by Tatarchenko. It consists of finding a simplified autonomous set of differential equations for the radius, height, and possibly other process parameters. The problem then reduces to analyzing a system of first order linear differential equations for stability. Here we apply a modified version of this theory for a particular case of detached solidification. Approximate analytical formulas as well as accurate numerical values for the capillary stability coefficients are presented. They display an unexpected singularity as a function of pressure differential. A novel approach to study the thermal field effects on the crystal shape stability has been proposed. In essence, it rectifies the unphysical assumption of the model that utilizes a perturbation of the crystal radius along the axis as being instantaneous. It consists of introducing time delay effects into the mathematical description and leads, in general, to stability over a broader parameter range. We believe that this novel treatment can be advantageously implemented in stability analyses of other crystal growth techniques such as Czochralski and float zone methods.

  4. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  5. Numerical solution of the chemical master equation uniqueness and stability of the stationary distribution for chemical networks, and mRNA bursting in a gene network with negative feedback regulation.

    PubMed

    Zeron, E S; Santillán, M

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a couple of algorithms to compute the stationary probability distribution for the chemical master equation (CME) of arbitrary chemical networks. We further find the conditions guaranteeing the algorithms' convergence and the unity and stability of the stationary distribution. Next, we employ these algorithms to study the mRNA and protein probability distributions in a gene regulatory network subject to negative feedback regulation. In particular, we analyze the influence of the promoter activation/deactivation speed on the shape of such distributions. We find that a reduction of the promoter activation/deactivation speed modifies the shape of those distributions in a way consistent with the phenomenon known as mRNA (or transcription) bursting.

  6. Entropy Splitting and Numerical Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.; Djomehri, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    A rigorous stability estimate for arbitrary order of accuracy of spatial central difference schemes for initial-boundary value problems of nonlinear symmetrizable systems of hyperbolic conservation laws was established recently by Olsson and Oliger (1994) and Olsson (1995) and was applied to the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas by Gerritsen and Olsson (1996) and Gerritsen (1996). The basic building block in developing the stability estimate is a generalized energy approach based on a special splitting of the flux derivative via a convex entropy function and certain homogeneous properties. Due to some of the unique properties of the compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas, the splitting resulted in the sum of a conservative portion and a non-conservative portion of the flux derivative. hereafter referred to as the "Entropy Splitting." There are several potential desirable attributes and side benefits of the entropy splitting for the compressible Euler equations that were not fully explored in Gerritsen and Olsson. The paper has several objectives. The first is to investigate the choice of the arbitrary parameter that determines the amount of splitting and its dependence on the type of physics of current interest to computational fluid dynamics. The second is to investigate in what manner the splitting affects the nonlinear stability of the central schemes for long time integrations of unsteady flows such as in nonlinear aeroacoustics and turbulence dynamics. If numerical dissipation indeed is needed to stabilize the central scheme, can the splitting help minimize the numerical dissipation compared to its un-split cousin? Extensive numerical study on the vortex preservation capability of the splitting in conjunction with central schemes for long time integrations will be presented. The third is to study the effect of the non-conservative proportion of splitting in obtaining the correct shock location for high speed complex shock

  7. Numerical aspects of compressible turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honein, Albert Edward

    Nonlinear instabilities present a long standing hurdle for compact, high order, non dissipative, finite difference computation of compressible turbulence. The spectral-like accuracy of these schemes, while attractive, results in significant aliasing errors that corrupt the solution. As a result, successful simulations have been limited to moderate Reynolds numbers ( Re) and low-order or upwind schemes with inherent numerical dissipation. However, resorting to dissipative schemes in discretizing the nonlinear terms was shown to have a detrimental effect on turbulence. A recent LES approach is to abandon the subgrid model altogether and rely on the scheme dissipation to mimic the effect of small scales. A dissipative monotone integrated LES (MILES) algorithm based on a multidimensional flux-corrected transport (FCT) algorithm has been developed and tested for decaying compressible isotropic turbulence. Agreement with the benchmark experiments of Comte-Bellot and Corrsin is very sensitive to the parameters involved in the FCT algorithm, while the evolution of thermodynamic fluctuations do not compare well with direct numerical simulations. An under-resolved simulation of inviscid, compressible, isotropic turbulence at low Mach number is chosen as a severe benchmark to investigate the nonlinear stability properties of nondissipative schemes. The behavior of this benchmark is predicted by performing a fully de-aliased spectral simulation on a 32 3 grid with turbulent Mach number of Mto = 0.07. The kinetic energy and thermodynamic fluctuations are found to decay for finite Re, and remain constant at infinite Re for a long time before the occurrence of numerical shocks. Extending the proof of Kraichnan (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 27(3), 1955), this inviscid statistical equilibrium is demonstrated to be a consequence of the discrete equivalent of the Liouville theorem of classical statistical mechanics. Several existing non-dissipative methods are

  8. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  9. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  10. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  11. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  12. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  13. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  14. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  15. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  16. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  17. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  18. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  19. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  20. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  1. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  2. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  3. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  4. Stabilizing oscillating universes against quantum decay

    SciTech Connect

    Mithani, Audrey T.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2015-07-07

    We investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. However, stability may be achieved for some specially fine-tuned non-vacuum states.

  5. Stabilizing oscillating universes against quantum decay

    SciTech Connect

    Mithani, Audrey T.; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. However, stability may be achieved for some specially fine-tuned non-vacuum states.

  6. Method for Studying Helicopter Longitudinal Maneuver Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B

    1954-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.

  7. Exact and Approximate Stability of Solutions to Traveling Salesman Problems.

    PubMed

    Niendorf, Moritz; Girard, Anouck R

    2017-01-17

    This paper presents the stability analysis of an optimal tour for the symmetric traveling salesman problem (TSP) by obtaining stability regions. The stability region of an optimal tour is the set of all cost changes for which that solution remains optimal and can be understood as the margin of optimality for a solution with respect to perturbations in the problem data. It is known that it is not possible to test in polynomial time whether an optimal tour remains optimal after the cost of an arbitrary set of edges changes. Therefore, this paper develops tractable methods to obtain under and over approximations of stability regions based on neighborhoods and relaxations. The application of the results to the two-neighborhood and the minimum 1 tree (M1T) relaxation are discussed in detail. For Euclidean TSPs, stability regions with respect to vertex location perturbations and the notion of safe radii and location criticalities are introduced. Benefits of this paper include insight into robustness properties of tours, minimum spanning trees, M1Ts, and fast methods to evaluate optimality after perturbations occur. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the methods and achievable approximation quality.

  8. Numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamical systems driven by commutative noise

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, F. Biscay, R.J.; Jimenez, J.C.; Cruz, H. de la

    2007-10-01

    The local linearization (LL) approach has become an effective technique for the numerical integration of ordinary, random and stochastic differential equations. One of the reasons for this success is that the LL method achieves a convenient trade-off between numerical stability and computational cost. Besides, the LL method reproduces well the dynamics of nonlinear equations for which other classical methods fail. However, in the stochastic case, most of the reported works has been focused in Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) driven by additive noise. This limits the applicability of the LL method since there is a number of interesting dynamics observed in equations with multiplicative noise. On the other hand, recent results show that commutative noise SDEs can be transformed into a random differential equation (RDE) by means of a random diffeomorfism (conjugacy). This paper takes advantages of such conjugacy property and the LL approach for defining a LL scheme for SDEs driven by commutative noise. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by means of numerical simulations.

  9. Numerical method for gas dynamics combining characteristic and conservation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    An efficient implicit numerical method that solves the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates by the finite-volume technique is presented. An intrinsically dissipative difference scheme and a fully implicit treatment of boundary conditions, based on characteristic and conservation concepts, are used to improve stability and accuracy. Efficiency is achieved by using a diagonal form of the implicit algorithm and spatially varying time-steps. Comparisons of various schemes and methods are presented for one- and two-dimensional flows, including transonic separated flow past a thick circular-arc airfoil in a channel. The new method is equal to or better than a version of MacCormack's hybrid method in accuracy and it converges to a steady state up to an order of magnitude faster.

  10. Fault stability under conditions of variable normal stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.; Linker, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    The stability of fault slip under conditions of varying normal stress is modelled as a spring and slider system with rate- and state-dependent friction. Coupling of normal stress to shear stress is achieved by inclining the spring at an angle, ??, to the sliding surface. Linear analysis yields two conditions for unstable slip. The first, of a type previously identified for constant normal stress systems, results in instability if stiffness is below a critical value. Critical stiffness depends on normal stress, constitutive parameters, characteristic sliding distance and the spring angle. Instability of the first type is possible only for velocity-weakening friction. The second condition yields instability if spring angle ?? <-cot-1??ss, where ??ss is steady-state sliding friction. The second condition can arise under conditions of velocity strengthening or weakening. Stability fields for finite perturbations are investigated by numerical simulation. -Authors

  11. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  12. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  13. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  14. Dynamic stability of detached solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2016-06-01

    A dynamic stability analysis model is developed for meniscus-defined crystal growth processes. The Young-Laplace equation is used to analyze the response of a growing crystal to perturbations to its radius and a thermal transport model is used to analyze the effect of perturbations on the evolution of the crystal-melt interface. A linearized differential equation is used to analyze radius perturbations but a linear integro-differential equation is required for the height perturbations. The stability model is applied to detached solidification under zero-gravity and terrestrial conditions. A numerical analysis is supplemented with an approximate analytical analysis, valid in the limit of small Bond numbers. For terrestrial conditions, a singularity is found to exist in the capillary stability coefficients where, at a critical value of the pressure differential across the meniscus, there is a transition from stability to instability. For the zero-gravity condition, exact formulas for the capillary stability coefficients are derived.

  15. Uncertainties in climate stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wigley, T. M.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Jacoby, H. D.; Paltsev, S.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Reilly, J. M.; Richels, Richard G.; Sarofim, M. C.; Smith, Steven J.

    2009-11-01

    We explore the atmospheric composition, temperature and sea level implications of new reference and cost-optimized stabilization emissions scenarios produced using three different Integrated Assessment (IA) models for U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1a. We also consider an extension of one of these sets of scenarios out to 2300. Stabilization is defined in terms of radiative forcing targets for the sum of gases potentially controlled under the Kyoto Protocol. For the most stringent stabilization case (“Level 1” with CO2 concentration stabilizing at about 450 ppm), peak CO2 emissions occur close to today, implying a need for immediate CO2 emissions abatement if we wish to stabilize at this level. In the extended reference case, CO2 stabilizes at 1000 ppm in 2200 – but even to achieve this target requires large and rapid CO2 emissions reductions over the 22nd century. Future temperature changes for the Level 1 stabilization case show considerable uncertainty even when a common set of climate model parameters is used (a result of different assumptions for non-Kyoto gases). Uncertainties are about a factor of three when climate sensitivity uncertainties are accounted for. We estimate the probability that warming from pre-industrial times will be less than 2oC to be about 50%. For one of the IA models, warming in the Level 1 case is greater out to 2050 than in the reference case, due to the effect of decreasing SO2 emissions that occur as a side effect of the policy-driven reduction in CO2 emissions. Sea level rise uncertainties for the Level 1 case are very large, with increases ranging from 12 to 100 cm over 2000 to 2300.

  16. Recent advances in numerical PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Julia Michelle

    In this thesis, we investigate four neighboring topics, all in the general area of numerical methods for solving Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Topic 1. Radial Basis Functions (RBF) are widely used for multi-dimensional interpolation of scattered data. This methodology offers smooth and accurate interpolants, which can be further refined, if necessary, by clustering nodes in select areas. We show, however, that local refinements with RBF (in a constant shape parameter [varepsilon] regime) may lead to the oscillatory errors associated with the Runge phenomenon (RP). RP is best known in the case of high-order polynomial interpolation, where its effects can be accurately predicted via Lebesgue constant L (which is based solely on the node distribution). We study the RP and the applicability of Lebesgue constant (as well as other error measures) in RBF interpolation. Mainly, we allow for a spatially variable shape parameter, and demonstrate how it can be used to suppress RP-like edge effects and to improve the overall stability and accuracy. Topic 2. Although not as versatile as RBFs, cubic splines are useful for interpolating grid-based data. In 2-D, we consider a patch representation via Hermite basis functions s i,j ( u, v ) = [Special characters omitted.] h mn H m ( u ) H n ( v ), as opposed to the standard bicubic representation. Stitching requirements for the rectangular non-equispaced grid yield a 2-D tridiagonal linear system AX = B, where X represents the unknown first derivatives. We discover that the standard methods for solving this NxM system do not take advantage of the spline-specific format of the matrix B. We develop an alternative approach using this specialization of the RHS, which allows us to pre-compute coefficients only once, instead of N times. MATLAB implementation of our fast 2-D cubic spline algorithm is provided. We confirm analytically and numerically that for large N ( N > 200), our method is at least 3 times faster than the

  17. [Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation of female students].

    PubMed

    Doi, K

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the two dimensional theory of achievement motivation (Doi, 1982) in female students. Doi's motivation scale were administered to 81 female university students, 58 female students of school of nursing and 77 female students of school of English Language, and the Yatabe-Guilford personality inventory was also administered to the first and the second groups. Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation were extracted by principal component analyses and canonical correlation analyses. Non-affiliative achievement motivation was found to be related to personality type: emotional instability and introversion. These findings differ from achievement motivation concepts (Murray, 1938; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953), that include emotional stability and extraversion.

  18. A stabilized, symmetric Nitsche method for spatially localized plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truster, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    A heterogeneous interface method is developed for combining primal displacement and mixed displacement-pressure formulations across nonconforming finite element meshes to treat volume-preserving plastic flow. When the zone of inelastic response is localized within a larger domain, significant computational savings can be achieved by confining the mixed formulation solely to the localized region. The method's distinguishing feature is that the coupling terms for joining dissimilar element types are derived from a time-discrete free energy functional, which is based on a Lagrange multiplier formulation of the interface constraints. Incorporating residual-based stabilizing terms at the interface enables the condensation of the multiplier field, leading to a symmetric Nitsche formulation in which the interface operators respect the differing character of the governing equations in each region. In a series of numerical problems, the heterogeneous interface method achieved comparable results on coarser meshes as those obtained from applying the mixed formulation throughout the domain.

  19. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Betancourt, O.; Garabedian, P.

    1981-01-01

    The computer code developed by Bauer et al. (1978) for the study of the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and stability of a plasma in toroidal geometry is extended so that the growth rates of instabilities may be estimated more accurately. The original code, which is based on the variational principle of ideal magnetohydrodynamics, is upgraded by the introduction of a nonlinear formula for the growth rate of an unstable mode which acts as a quantitative measure of instability that is important in estimating numerical errors. The revised code has been applied to the determination of the nonlinear saturation, ballooning modes and beta limits for tokamaks, stellarators and torsatrons.

  20. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  1. Laser frequency stabilization using bichromatic crossover spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Taek; Seb Moon, Han

    2015-03-07

    We propose a Doppler-free spectroscopic method named bichromatic crossover spectroscopy (BCS), which we then use for the frequency stabilization of an off-resonant frequency that does not correspond to an atomic transition. The observed BCS in the 5S{sub 1/2} → 5P{sub 1/2} transition of {sup 87}Rb is related to the hyperfine structure of the conventional saturated absorption spectrum of this transition. Furthermore, the Doppler-free BCS is numerically calculated by considering all of the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S{sub 1/2} → 5P{sub 1/2} transition in an atomic vapor cell, and is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, we successfully achieve modulation-free off-resonant locking at the center frequency between the two 5S{sub 1/2}(F = 1 and 2) → 5P{sub 1/2}(F′ = 1) transitions using a polarization rotation of the BCS. The laser frequency stability was estimated to be the Allan variance of 2.1 × 10{sup −10} at 1 s.

  2. Phase stability in a multistage Zeeman decelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederkehr, A. W.; Hogan, S. D.; Merkt, F.

    2010-10-15

    The phase stability of a multistage Zeeman decelerator is analyzed by numerical particle-trajectory simulations and experimental measurements. A one-dimensional model of the phase stability in multistage Stark deceleration [Bethlem et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744 (2000)] has been adapted to multistage Zeeman deceleration and compared with one- and three-dimensional particle-trajectory simulations, including the analysis of the effect of finite switch-on and -off times of the deceleration pulses. The comparison reveals that transverse effects in the decelerator lead to a considerable reduction of the phase-space acceptance at low values of the phase angle and an enhancement at high values. The optimal combinations of phase angles and currents with which a preset amount of kinetic energy can be removed from atoms and molecules in a pulsed supersonic beam using a multistage decelerator are determined by simulation. Quantitative analysis of the phase-space acceptance within a given volume reveals that for our decelerator (8 {mu}s switch-off time) optimal conditions are achieved for values of the phase angle between 45 deg. and 55 deg. This conclusion is examined and confirmed by experimental measurements using deuterium atoms. Alternative approaches to generate optimal deceleration pulse sequences, such as the implementation of evolutionary algorithms or the use of higher-order modes of the decelerator, are discussed.

  3. Admission Requirements for Teacher Education as a Factor of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous researches have demonstrated the enormous role of teachers in achievements of students. Educated and motivated teacher that cares about the success of students devotes more effort to preparing the lesson and thus provides the students better conditions for achieving results. The problem occurs when teachers are not equally qualified,…

  4. Moore's Law and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voller, V. R.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2002-07-01

    An estimate of the rate of increase in numerical simulation grid sizes with time is obtained by counting the grids (measured in terms of number of node points) reported in the nine volumes of an established proceedings on the numerical modeling of solidification phenomena dating back to 1980. It is shown that the largest grids used in a given year increase at a rate consistent with the well-known Moore's law on computing power, i.e., the number of nodes in the grids double every 18 months. From this observation, approximate bounds on the available grid size in a current year are established. This approximation is used to provide projections as to when, assuming Moore's law continues to hold, direct simulations of physical phenomena, which resolve to the smallest scale present, will be achievable.

  5. Stabilizing population.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Mitchell, J

    1998-04-01

    This article is a reprint of the Worldwatch Institute's "State of the World Report," Chapter 10: "Building a New Economy." 16 countries reached zero population growth by 1997. 33 countries have stabilized population, which amounts to 14% of world population. It is estimated that by 2050 population will include an additional 3.6 billion people beyond the present 6 billion. About 60% of the added population will be in Asia, an increase from 3.4 billion in 1995 to 5.4 billion in 2050. China's current population of 1.2 billion will reach 1.5 billion. India's population is expected to rapidly rise from 930 million to 1.53 billion. Populations in the Middle East and North Africa are expected to double in size. Sub-Saharan population is expected to triple in size. By 2050, Nigeria will have 339 million people, which was the entire population of Africa in 1960. There is a great need to stabilize population in a number of currently unstabilized countries. In 1971, Bangladesh and Pakistan had the same population; however, by 2050, Pakistan, without a strong commitment to reducing population growth, will have 70 million more people than Bangladesh. Population stabilization will depend on removal of physical and social barriers that prevent women from using family planning services and thereby help them control their own unwanted fertility. Stabilization will require poverty alleviation and removal of the need for large families. Family size is reduced with lower infant and child mortality risk, increased education, a higher legal age of marriage, and investment in stabilization programs. Solutions to global population growth cannot wait for health reform and budget deficit reductions.

  6. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  7. DYNAMIC NEUROMUSCULAR STABILIZATION & SPORTS REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Kobesova, Alena; Kolar, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic neuromuscular (core) stability is necessary for optimal athletic performance and is not achieved purely by adequate strength of abdominals, spinal extensors, gluteals or any other musculature; rather, core stabilization is accomplished through precise coordination of these muscles and intra‐abdominal pressure regulation by the central nervous system. Understanding developmental kinesiology provides a framework to appreciate the regional interdependence and the inter‐linking of the skeleton, joints, musculature during movement and the importance of training both the dynamic and stabilizing function of muscles in the kinetic chain. The Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization (DNS) approach provides functional tools to assess and activate the intrinsic spinal stabilizers in order to optimize the movement system for both pre‐habilitation and rehabilitation of athletic injuries and performance. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23439921

  8. Robust control design with real parameter uncertainty using absolute stability theory. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    How, Jonathan P.; Hall, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate an extension of mu theory for robust control design by considering systems with linear and nonlinear real parameter uncertainties. In the process, explicit connections are made between mixed mu and absolute stability theory. In particular, it is shown that the upper bounds for mixed mu are a generalization of results from absolute stability theory. Both state space and frequency domain criteria are developed for several nonlinearities and stability multipliers using the wealth of literature on absolute stability theory and the concepts of supply rates and storage functions. The state space conditions are expressed in terms of Riccati equations and parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions. For controller synthesis, these stability conditions are used to form an overbound of the H2 performance objective. A geometric interpretation of the equivalent frequency domain criteria in terms of off-axis circles clarifies the important role of the multiplier and shows that both the magnitude and phase of the uncertainty are considered. A numerical algorithm is developed to design robust controllers that minimize the bound on an H2 cost functional and satisfy an analysis test based on the Popov stability multiplier. The controller and multiplier coefficients are optimized simultaneously, which avoids the iteration and curve-fitting procedures required by the D-K procedure of mu synthesis. Several benchmark problems and experiments on the Middeck Active Control Experiment at M.I.T. demonstrate that these controllers achieve good robust performance and guaranteed stability bounds.

  9. Stability domains for vane with viscous filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosaev, Marat

    2017-01-01

    The motion of a four-blade axisymmetric vane with fixed point is considered in the constant flow of medium. This is a mechanical system with variable dissipation. One can observe the opposition between external aerodynamic load and internal friction. Stability of the permanent rotation of vane in medium flow is studied. We consider the stability conditions for this motion. Stability domains are analyzed numerically for blades with low fineness.

  10. Numerical simulation of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming

    1992-01-01

    A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.

  11. Polymeric mixed micelles as nanomedicines: Achievements and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cagel, Maximiliano; Tesan, Fiorella C; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Salgueiro, Maria J; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Moretton, Marcela A; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2017-04-01

    During the past few decades, polymeric micelles have raised special attention as novel nano-sized drug delivery systems for optimizing the treatment and diagnosis of numerous diseases. These nanocarriers exhibit several in vitro and in vivo advantages as well as increased stability and solubility to hydrophobic drugs. An interesting approach for optimizing these properties and overcoming some of their disadvantages is the combination of two or more polymers in order to assemble polymeric mixed micelles. This review article gives an overview on the current state of the art of several mixed micellar formulations as nanocarriers for drugs and imaging probes, evaluating their ongoing status (preclinical or clinical stage), with special emphasis on type of copolymers, physicochemical properties, in vivo progress achieved so far and toxicity profiles. Besides, the present article presents relevant research outcomes about polymeric mixed micelles as better drug delivery systems, when compared to polymeric pristine micelles. The reported data clearly illustrates the promise of these nanovehicles reaching clinical stages in the near future.

  12. Dynamical behavior and Jacobi stability analysis of wound strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Matthew J.; Harko, Tiberiu

    2016-06-01

    We numerically solve the equations of motion (EOM) for two models of circular cosmic string loops with windings in a simply connected internal space. Since the windings cannot be topologically stabilized, stability must be achieved (if at all) dynamically. As toy models for realistic compactifications, we consider windings on a small section of mathbb {R}^2, which is valid as an approximation to any simply connected internal manifold if the winding radius is sufficiently small, and windings on an S^2 of constant radius mathcal {R}. We then use Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory to analyze the Jacobi stability of the string equations and determine bounds on the physical parameters that ensure dynamical stability of the windings. We find that, for the same initial conditions, the curvature and topology of the internal space have nontrivial effects on the microscopic behavior of the string in the higher dimensions, but that the macroscopic behavior is remarkably insensitive to the details of the motion in the compact space. This suggests that higher-dimensional signatures may be extremely difficult to detect in the effective (3+1)-dimensional dynamics of strings compactified on an internal space, even if configurations with nontrivial windings persist over long time periods.

  13. Numerical estimation of densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascasibar, Y.; Binney, J.

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel technique, dubbed FIESTAS, to estimate the underlying density field from a discrete set of sample points in an arbitrary multidimensional space. FIESTAS assigns a volume to each point by means of a binary tree. Density is then computed by integrating over an adaptive kernel. As a first test, we construct several Monte Carlo realizations of a Hernquist profile and recover the particle density in both real and phase space. At a given point, Poisson noise causes the unsmoothed estimates to fluctuate by a factor of ~2 regardless of the number of particles. This spread can be reduced to about 1dex (~26 per cent) by our smoothing procedure. The density range over which the estimates are unbiased widens as the particle number increases. Our tests show that real-space densities obtained with an SPH kernel are significantly more biased than those yielded by FIESTAS. In phase space, about 10 times more particles are required in order to achieve a similar accuracy. As a second application we have estimated phase-space densities in a dark matter halo from a cosmological simulation. We confirm the results of Arad, Dekel & Klypin that the highest values of f are all associated with substructure rather than the main halo, and that the volume function v(f) ~f-2.5 over about four orders of magnitude in f. We show that a modified version of the toy model proposed by Arad et al. explains this result and suggests that the departures of v(f) from power-law form are not mere numerical artefacts. We conclude that our algorithm accurately measures the phase-space density up to the limit where discreteness effects render the simulation itself unreliable. Computationally, FIESTAS is orders of magnitude faster than the method based on Delaunay tessellation that Arad et al. employed, making it practicable to recover smoothed density estimates for sets of 109 points in six dimensions.

  14. Stabilization of autoionizing states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ereifej, Heider Naim

    2000-09-01

    In the first experiment, the stabilization process of doubly excited states in Barium was examined for the case when a laser field was used to induce stimulated emission of the excited core electron. Stabilization is referred to all the atoms that form a singly excited neutral state after being in a doubly excited autoionizing state. Relative to pure fluorescence, the application of a laser pulse which was long relative to the autoionization lifetime was found to increase the number of atoms that were stabilized. Shake-up spectra in which the principal quantum number of both electrons changes during the stimulated emission process was also clearly demonstrated. In the second experiment, a short laser pulse (short relative to the autoionization lifetime) was used to stimulate doubly excited Calcium atoms to form a stable configuration. Because the stimulated emission process happens on a fast time scale, more atoms were stabilized before they had a chance to autoionize. As a result, much larger enhancement factors were achieved. In the third and final experiment, a direct measurement of the oscillations between degenerate bound state configurations in a rapidly autoionizing system was clearly demonstrated. Because of the short pulse excitation, the atom was prepared in one of many accessible two-electron configurations. This state of the atom was not an energy eigenstate but a non-stationary wavepacket. The evolution of these wavepackets was monitored by changing the timing between the exciting ``pump'' laser and the stimulating ``probe'' laser.

  15. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Brackbill, J.U.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs.

  16. Experimental and numerical FSI study of compliant hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augier, B.; Yan, J.; Korobenko, A.; Czarnowski, J.; Ketterman, G.; Bazilevs, Y.

    2015-06-01

    A propulsion system based on tandem hydrofoils is studied experimentally and numerically. An experimental measurement system is developed to extract hydrodynamic loads on the foils and capture their twisting deformation during operation. The measured data allowed us to assess the efficiency of the propulsion system as a function of travel speed and stroke frequency. The numerical simulation of the propulsion system is also presented and involves 3D, full-scale fluid-structure interaction (FSI) computation of a single (forward) foil. The foil is modeled as a combination of the isogeometric rotation-free Kirchhoff-Love shell and bending-stabilized cable, while the hydrodynamics makes use of the finite-element-based arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian variational multiscale formulation. The large added mass is handled through a quasi-direct FSI coupling technique. The measurement data collected is used in the validation of the FSI simulation, and excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured hydrodynamic loads and foil twisting motion.

  17. Direct Numerical Simulation of Air Layer Drag Reduction over a Backward-facing Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dokyun; Moin, Parviz

    2010-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of two-phase flow is performed to investigate the air layer drag reduction (ALDR) phenomenon in turbulent flow over a backward-facing step. In their experimental study, Elbing et al. (JFM, 2008) have observed a stable air layer on an entire flat plate if air is injected beyond the critical air-flow rate. In the present study, air is injected at the step on the wall into turbulent water flow for ALDR. The Reynolds and Weber numbers based on the water properties and step height are 22,800 and 560, respectively. An inlet section length before the step is 3h and the post expansion length is 30h, where h is the step height. The total number of grid points is about 271 million for DNS. The level set method is used to track the phase interface and the structured-mesh finite volume solver is used with an efficient algorithm for two-phase DNS. Two cases with different air-flow rates are performed to investigate the mechanism and stability of air layer. For high air-flow rate, the stable air layer is formed on the plate and more than 90% drag reduction is obtained. In the case of low air-flow rate, the air layer breaks up and ALDR is not achieved. The parameters governing the stability of air layer from the numerical simulations is also consistent with the results of stability analysis.

  18. Stability and Change in Markers of Core Numerical Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Robert; Reynolds, Fiona; Humberstone, Judi; Butterworth, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Dot enumeration (DE) and number comparison (NC) abilities are considered markers of core number competence. Differences in DE/NC reaction time (RT) signatures are thought to distinguish between typical and atypical number development. Whether a child's DE and NC signatures change or remain stable over time, relative to other developmental…

  19. Numerical Analysis of Filter Based Stabilization for Evolution Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    compare the accuracy of the algorithms. Further testing is then performed using the flow around a cylinder benchmark problem. We use the software FreeFEM ...aerodynamic noises, PhD thesis: Dept. of Mathematics, Université Rennes 1, Rennes, France, 2004. [HePi] F. Hecht and O. Pironneau, FreeFEM ++ , webpage

  20. Numerical Simulations of Some Unresolved Issues in Diocotron Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Grant W.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2003-10-01

    Several unresolved issues concerning the growth or decay of diocotron modes of nonneutral plasmas in Malmberg-Penning traps were presented at a recent workshop(Workshop on Non-Neutral Plasmas---2003, July 7-11, 2003, Santa Fe, New Mexico. To appear in AIP Conference Proceedings.) 1) Fajans and Pasquini report that, contrary to infinite length models, flat-topped (n(r) = constant) electron columns are violently unstable for non-maxwellian velocity distributions. 2) Driscoll and Kabantsev report that magnetic mirror analogs of electrostatically created trapped-particle asymmetry modes fail to appear in experiments. 3) Kabantsev and Driscoll report that small numbers of positive ions added to electron columns are diocotron unstable, with implications for antihydrogen formation experiments. 4) Driscoll and Kabantsev report that the decay of electrostatically confined asymmetry modes scales with axial magnetic field for low rigidity as B-1 whereas simulations show a B-2 behavior for low rigidity. We report on progress in simulations of these various effects with a detailed particle-in-cell code (Inferno).

  1. Numerical Prediction of Pitch Damping Stability Derivatives for Finned Projectiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    0.01905 m. The model was launched at atmospheric conditions similar to that of the DRDC tests at Mach numbers in the range 0.6–2.5. SF and MF...Small-Caliber Ammunition Performance Using a Virtual Wind Tunnel Approach. AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, AIAA 2007- 6579, Hilton Head

  2. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  3. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  4. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  5. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  6. Assessing the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire across Task Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.

    2012-01-01

    A program of research is necessary to examine the psychometric properties of instruments designed to measure individuals' achievement goal orientations. Recently, research on achievement goal orientation has examined the stability of achievement goals to assess how context might influence individuals' achievement goals. Accordingly, studies are…

  7. Numerical methods for turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, James C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    It has generally become accepted that the Navier-Strokes equations predict the dynamic behavior of turbulent as well as laminar flows of a fluid at a point in space away form a discontinuity such as a shock wave. Turbulence is also closely related to the phenomena of non-uniqueness of solutions of the Navier-Strokes equations. These second order, nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved analytically for only a few simple flows. Turbulent flow fields are much to complex to lend themselves to these few analytical methods. Numerical methods, therefore, offer the only possibility of achieving a solution of turbulent flow equations. In spite of recent advances in computer technology, the direct solution, by discrete methods, of the Navier-Strokes equations for turbulent flow fields is today, and in the foreseeable future, impossible. Thus the only economically feasible way to solve practical turbulent flow problems numerically is to use statistically averaged equations governing mean-flow quantities. The objective is to study some recent developments relating to the use of numerical methods to study turbulent flow.

  8. What Is Numerical Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goold, Vernell C.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical control (a technique involving coded, numerical instructions for the automatic control and performance of a machine tool) does not replace fundamental machine tool training. It should be added to the training program to give the student an additional tool to accomplish production rates and accuracy that were not possible before. (HD)

  9. Stabilization and synchronization of networked mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Sujit S.

    The main theme of this thesis is coordination and stabilization of a network of mechanical systems or rigid bodies to achieve synchronized behaviour. The idea is to use controls derived from potentials to couple the systems such that the closed-loop system is also a mechanical system with a Lagrangian structure. This permits the closed-loop Hamiltonian to be used as a Lyapunov function for stability analysis. It is a big challenge to develop a provable, systematic methodology to control and coordinate a network of systems to perform a given task. The control law should be robust enough to handle environment uncertainties, avoid obstacles and collisions and keep the system formation going. The fact that these systems may even have unstable dynamics makes the problem even more interesting and exciting both from a theoretical and applied point of view. This work investigates the coordination problem when each individual system has its own (maybe unstable) dynamics; this distinguishes this work from many other recent works on coordination control where the individual system dynamics are assumed to be single/double integrators. We build coordination techniques for three kinds of systems. The first one consists of underactuated Lagrangian systems with Abelian symmetry groups lacking gyroscopic forces. Asymptotic stabilization is proved for two cases, one which yields convergence to synchronized motion restricted to a constant momentum surface and one in which the system converges asymptotically to a relative equilibrium. Next we consider rigid body systems where the configuration space of each individual body is the non Abelian Lie group SO(3) or SE(3). In the SO(3) case, the asymptotically stabilized solution corresponds to each rigid body rotating about its unstable middle axis and all the bodies synchronized and pointing in a particular direction in inertial space. In the SE(3) case, the asymptotically stabilized solution corresponds to each rigid body rotating about

  10. Aeroelastic Stability Computations for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Bakhle, M. A.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Stefko, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an aeroelastic analysis program for turbomachines. Unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on dynamically deforming, body fitted, grid to obtain the aeroelastic characteristics. Blade structural response is modeled using a modal representation of the blade and the work-per-cycle method is used to evaluate the stability characteristics. Nonzero interblade phase angle is modeled using phase-lagged boundary conditions. Results obtained showed good correlation with existing experimental, analytical, and numerical results. Numerical analysis also showed that given the computational resources available today, engineering solutions with good accuracy are possible using higher fidelity analyses.

  11. Stability Limits and Dynamics of Nonaxisymmetric Liquid Bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigation of the stability of nonaxisymmetric and axisymmetric bridges contained between equal and unequal radii disks as a function of Bond and Weber number with emphasis on the transition from unstable axisymmetric to stable nonaxisymmetric shapes. Numerical analysis of the stability of nonaxisymmetric bridges between unequal disks for various orientations of the gravity vector Experimental and numerical investigation of bridge stability (nonaxisymmetric and axisymmetric), large amplitude (nonaxisymmetric) oscillations and breaking.

  12. Computerized Numerical Control Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 285 test items for use in teaching a course in computerized numerical control. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in such aspects of programming and planning, setting up, and operating machines with…

  13. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  14. A simplified spatial model for BWR stability

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Y.; Lederer, Y.; Meron, E.

    2012-07-01

    A spatial reduced order model for the study of BWR stability, based on the phenomenological model of March-Leuba et al., is presented. As one dimensional spatial dependence of the neutron flux, fuel temperature and void fraction is introduced, it is possible to describe both global and regional oscillations of the reactor power. Both linear stability analysis and numerical analysis were applied in order to describe the parameters which govern the model stability. The results were found qualitatively similar to past results. Doppler reactivity feedback was found essential for the explanation of the different regions of the flow-power stability map. (authors)

  15. Towards an unconditionally stable numerical scheme for continuum dislocation transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, H.; Massart, T. J.; Peerlings, R. H. J.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in plasticity modeling for crystalline materials are based on dislocations transport models, formulated for computational efficiency in terms of their densities. This leads to sets of coupled partial differential equations in a continuum description involving diffusion and convection-like processes combined with non-linearity. The properties of these equations cause the most traditional numerical methods to fail when applied to solve them. Therefore, dedicated stabilization techniques must be developed in order to obtain physically meaningful and numerically stable approximations. The objective of this paper is to present a dedicated stabilization technique and to apply it to a system of dislocation transport equations in one dimension. This stabilization technique, based on coefficient perturbations, successfully provides unconditional stability with respect to the spatial discretization. Several of its favorable characteristics are discussed, providing evidence of its versatility and effectiveness through a thorough numerical assessment.

  16. Spin stabilized magnetic levitation of horizontal rotors.

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Louis Anthony

    2004-10-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of a new configuration for achieving spin stabilized magnetic levitation. In the classical configuration, the rotor spins about a vertical axis; and the spin stabilizes the lateral instability of the top in the magnetic field. In this new configuration the rotor spins about a horizontal axis; and the spin stabilizes the axial instability of the top in the magnetic field.

  17. Residential Stability and Academic Sense of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gigliotti, Richard J.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that stability level of an individual and the community in which he operates is directly related to a child's sense of control and consequently his achievement in school. Findings indicate that for whites, community stability is positively and significantly related to sense of control, with the inverse for blacks. (Author/AM)

  18. Numerical modeling of enclosure convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duh, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical study on the steady and unsteady natural convection in two-dimensional rectangular enclosures has been performed by a time-accurate ADI finite difference scheme. The study covered a range of Rayleigh numbers between 1000 and 10 to the 7th, aspect ratios between 0.2 and 10.0, and tilt angles between -90 (heating from bottom) and +90 deg (heating from top). Various Prandtl numbers have been studied, but only the results of water (Pr = 7.0) are reported here due to space limitations. The physics revealed, however, includes the convection phenomena and the Rayleigh-Benard stability, as well as the combined mechanism of these two. The onset of secondary cells is determined by using a velocity map, which is simpler and cleaner, instead of a streamline plot. The critical Ra number for the occurrence of these secondary cells is shown to be lower than can be detected by experimental studies. On the Rayleigh-Benard stability part, a second transition from stable single-cell convection to periodic multicellular convection is disclosed.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilseven, E.; Mendoza, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.

  20. Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity.

    PubMed

    Ilseven, E; Mendoza, M

    2016-02-01

    In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.

  1. Head stabilization in herons.

    PubMed

    Katzir, G; Schechtman, E; Carmi, N; Weihs, D

    2001-07-01

    We examined head stabilization in relation to body mass and length of legs in four heron species (little egrets, Egretta garzetta; night herons, Nycticorax nycticorax; squacco herons, Ardeola ralloides; and cattle egrets, Bubulcus ibis: Aves: Ardeidae). Head stabilization, under controlled, sinusoidal, perch perturbations was mostly elicited at frequencies lower than 1 Hz. Maximal perturbation amplitudes sustained were positively correlated with leg length and maximal perturbation frequencies sustained were negatively correlated with body mass and with leg length. The species differed significantly in average maximal perturbation amplitudes sustained. Combinations of amplitude and frequency for which stabilization was achieved were bounded by a decreasing concave "envelope" curve in the frequency-amplitude plane, with inter specific differences in "envelope". As physical constraints, we tested maximal vertical acceleration, which translates into a line defined by the product of frequency2 x amplitude, and maximal vertical velocity, which translates into a line defined by the product of frequency x amplitude. Both relations were in good agreement with the experimental results for all but squacco herons. The results support predictions based on mechanical considerations and may explain the predominance of motor patterns employed by herons while foraging.

  2. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  3. The inviscid stability of a trailing line vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duck, P. W.; Foster, M. R.

    1980-07-01

    A finite-difference numerical method is applied to the problem of the inviscid stability of plane-wave modes for Batchelor's trailing line vortex. The numerical method proves to be much faster than a shooting method and is just as accurate. The numerical scheme generates further distinct solutions with different mode shapes and wave speeds.

  4. Stabilizing brokerage

    PubMed Central

    Stovel, Katherine; Golub, Benjamin; Milgrom, Eva M. Meyersson

    2011-01-01

    A variety of social and economic arrangements exist to facilitate the exchange of goods, services, and information over gaps in social structure. Each of these arrangements bears some relationship to the idea of brokerage, but this brokerage is rarely like the pure and formal economic intermediation seen in some modern markets. Indeed, for reasons illuminated by existing sociological and economic models, brokerage is a fragile relationship. In this paper, we review the causes of instability in brokerage and identify three social mechanisms that can stabilize fragile brokerage relationships: social isolation, broker capture, and organizational grafting. Each of these mechanisms rests on the emergence or existence of supporting institutions. We suggest that organizational grafting may be the most stable and effective resolution to the tensions inherent in brokerage, but it is also the most institutionally demanding. PMID:22198763

  5. STABILIZED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jessen, P.L.; Price, H.J.

    1958-03-18

    This patent relates to sine-wave generators and in particular describes a generator with a novel feedback circuit resulting in improved frequency stability. The generator comprises two triodes having a common cathode circuit connected to oscillate at a frequency and amplitude at which the loop galn of the circutt ls unity, and another pair of triodes having a common cathode circuit arranged as a conventional amplifier. A signal is conducted from the osciliator through a frequency selective network to the amplifier and fed back to the osciliator. The unique feature of the feedback circuit is the amplifier operates in the nonlinear portion of its tube characteristics thereby providing a relatively constant feedback voltage to the oscillator irrespective of the amplitude of its input signal.

  6. Simulation-based particle swarm optimization and mechanical validation of screw position and number for the fixation stability of a femoral locking compression plate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chian-Her; Shih, Kao-Shang; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Cho, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Locking compression plates (LCPs) have been used to fix femoral shaft fractures. Previous studies have attempted to identify the best LCP screw positions and numbers to achieve the fixation stability. However, the determined screw positions and numbers were mainly based on the surgeons' experiences. The aim of this study was to discover the best number and positions of LCP screws to achieve acceptable fixation stability. Three-dimensional numerical models of a fractured femur with the LCP were first developed. Then, the best screw position and number of LCPs were determined by using a simulation-based particle swarm optimization algorithm. Finally, the results of the numerical study were validated by conducting biomechanical tests. The results showed that the LCP with six locking screws resulted in the necessary fixation stability, and the best combination of positions of locking screws inserted into the LCP was 1-5-6-7-8-12 (three locking screws on either side of the bone fragment with two locking screws as close as practicable to the fracture site). In addition, the numerical models and algorithms developed in this study were validated by the biomechanical tests. Both the numerical and experimental results can provide clinical suggestions to surgeons and help them to understand the biomechanics of LCP systems.

  7. Rocket engine numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

  8. Rocket engine numerical simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: a rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS) definition; objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusion.

  9. Numerical methods for nonlinear hillslope transport laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, J. Taylor

    2011-06-01

    The numerical methods used to solve nonlinear sediment transport equations often set very restrictive limits on the stability and accuracy of landscape evolution models. This is especially true for hillslope transport laws in which sediment flux increases nonlinearly as the surface slope approaches a limiting value. Explicit-time finite difference methods applied to such laws are subject to fundamental limits on numerical stability that require time steps much shorter than the timescales over which landscapes evolve, creating a heavy computational burden. I present an implicit method for nonlinear hillslope transport that builds on a previously proposed approach to modeling alluvial sediment transport and improves stability and accuracy by avoiding the direct calculation of sediment flux. This method can be adapted to any transport law in which the expression for sediment flux is differentiable. Comparisons of numerical solutions with analytic solutions in one and two dimensions show that the implicit method retains the accuracy of a standard explicit method while permitting time steps several orders of magnitude longer than the maximum stable time step for the explicit method. The ability to take long time steps affords a substantial savings in overall computation time, despite the implicit method's higher per-iteration computational cost. Implicit models for hillslope evolution also offer a distinct advantage when modeling the response of hillslopes to incising channels.

  10. Numerical Techniques in Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    This is the compilation of abstracts of the Numerical Techniques in Acoustics Forum held at the ASME's Winter Annual Meeting. This forum was for informal presentation and information exchange of ongoing acoustic work in finite elements, finite difference, boundary elements and other numerical approaches. As part of this forum, it was intended to allow the participants time to raise questions on unresolved problems and to generate discussions on possible approaches and methods of solution.

  11. Better Stability with Measurement Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argun, Aykut; Volpe, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    Often it is desirable to stabilize a system around an optimal state. This can be effectively accomplished using feedback control, where the system deviation from the desired state is measured in order to determine the magnitude of the restoring force to be applied. Contrary to conventional wisdom, i.e. that a more precise measurement is expected to improve the system stability, here we demonstrate that a certain degree of measurement error can improve the system stability. We exemplify the implications of this finding with numerical examples drawn from various fields, such as the operation of a temperature controller, the confinement of a microscopic particle, the localization of a target by a microswimmer, and the control of a population.

  12. Stabilization Strategies for Unstable Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Devjani J.; Morasso, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Background When humans are faced with an unstable task, two different stabilization mechanisms are possible: a high-stiffness strategy, based on the inherent elastic properties of muscles/tools/manipulated objects, or a low-stiffness strategy, based on an explicit positional feedback mechanism. Specific constraints related to the dynamics of the task and/or the neuromuscular system often force people to adopt one of these two strategies. Methodology/Findings This experiment was designed such that subjects could achieve stability using either strategy, with a marked difference in terms of effort and control requirements between the two strategies. The task was to balance a virtual mass in an unstable environment via two elastic linkages that connected the mass to each hand. The dynamics of the mass under the influence of the unstable force field and the forces applied through the linkages were simulated using a bimanual, planar robot. The two linkages were non-linear, with a stiffness that increased with the amount of stretch. The mass could be stabilized by stretching the linkages to achieve a stiffness that was greater than the instability coefficient of the unstable field (high-stiffness), or by balancing the mass with sequences of small force impulses (low-stiffness). The results showed that 62% of the subjects quickly adopted the high-stiffness strategy, with stiffness ellipses that were aligned along the direction of instability. The remaining subjects applied the low-stiffness strategy, with no clear preference for the orientation of the stiffness ellipse. Conclusions The choice of a strategy was based on the bimanual coordination of the hands: high-stiffness subjects achieved stability quickly by separating the hands to stretch the linkages, while the low-stiffness subjects kept the hands close together and took longer to achieve stability but with lower effort. We suggest that the existence of multiple solutions leads to different types of skilled behavior

  13. Frontiers in Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Charles R.; Finn, Lee S.; Hobill, David W.

    2011-06-01

    Preface; Participants; Introduction; 1. Supercomputing and numerical relativity: a look at the past, present and future David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 2. Computational relativity in two and three dimensions Stuart L. Shapiro and Saul A. Teukolsky; 3. Slowly moving maximally charged black holes Robert C. Ferrell and Douglas M. Eardley; 4. Kepler's third law in general relativity Steven Detweiler; 5. Black hole spacetimes: testing numerical relativity David H. Bernstein, David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 6. Three dimensional initial data of numerical relativity Ken-ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 7. Initial data for collisions of black holes and other gravitational miscellany James W. York, Jr.; 8. Analytic-numerical matching for gravitational waveform extraction Andrew M. Abrahams; 9. Supernovae, gravitational radiation and the quadrupole formula L. S. Finn; 10. Gravitational radiation from perturbations of stellar core collapse models Edward Seidel and Thomas Moore; 11. General relativistic implicit radiation hydrodynamics in polar sliced space-time Paul J. Schinder; 12. General relativistic radiation hydrodynamics in spherically symmetric spacetimes A. Mezzacappa and R. A. Matzner; 13. Constraint preserving transport for magnetohydrodynamics John F. Hawley and Charles R. Evans; 14. Enforcing the momentum constraints during axisymmetric spacelike simulations Charles R. Evans; 15. Experiences with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm in numerical relativity Matthew W. Choptuik; 16. The multigrid technique Gregory B. Cook; 17. Finite element methods in numerical relativity P. J. Mann; 18. Pseudo-spectral methods applied to gravitational collapse Silvano Bonazzola and Jean-Alain Marck; 19. Methods in 3D numerical relativity Takashi Nakamura and Ken-ichi Oohara; 20. Nonaxisymmetric rotating gravitational collapse and gravitational radiation Richard F. Stark; 21. Nonaxisymmetric neutron star collisions: initial results using smooth particle hydrodynamics

  14. Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Hillslope Transport Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The numerical methods used to solve nonlinear sediment transport equations often set restrictive limits on the stability and accuracy of landscape evolution models. This is especially true for hillslope transport laws in which sediment flux increases nonlinearly as the surface slope approaches a limiting value. Standard explicit finite difference methods applied to such laws are subject to fundamental limits on numerical stability that require time steps much shorter than the timescales over which landscapes evolve, creating a heavy computational burden. Methods that rely on cell-to-cell sediment routing schemes can introduce significant errors that may not be obvious unless the numerical solution is compared with a known solution. I present a new, implicit method for nonlinear hillslope transport that builds on a previously proposed approach to modeling alluvial sediment transport but avoids the use of a cell-to-cell sediment routing scheme. Comparisons of numerical solutions with analytic solutions in one and two dimensions show that the new method retains the accuracy of the explicit method while allowing timesteps several orders of magnitude longer than the maximum timesteps permitted by the explicit method. The method can be adapted to any transport law in which the expression for sediment flux is differentiable, including coupled systems in which sediment flux is a function of quantities such as soil depth.

  15. Numerical FEM modeling in dental implantology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roateşi, Iulia; Roateşi, Simona

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to a numerical approach of the stress and displacement calculation of a system made up of dental implant, ceramic crown and surrounding bone. This is the simulation of a clinical situation involving both biological - the bone tissue, and non-biological - the implant and the crown, materials. On the other hand this problem deals with quite fine technical structure details - the threads, tapers, etc with a great impact in masticatory force transmission. Modeling the contact between the implant and the bone tissue is important to a proper bone-implant interface model and implant design. The authors proposed a three-dimensional numerical model to assess the biomechanical behaviour of this complex structure in order to evaluate its stability by determining the risk zones. A comparison between this numerical analysis and clinical cases is performed and a good agreement is obtained.

  16. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  17. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  18. Predicting vegetation-stabilized dune field morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.

    2012-09-01

    The morphology of vegetation-stabilized dune fields on the North American Great Plains (NAGP) mostly comprises parabolic dunes; stabilized barchan and transverse dunes are rare, with the exception of transverse and barchan mega-dunes in the Nebraska Sand Hills. We present a hypothesis from a numerical dune field model explaining the vegetation-stabilized morphology of dunes under unidirectional wind. Simulations with a range of initial dune morphologies (closely-spaced transverse to disperse barchans) indicate that stabilized morphology is determined by the ratio of slipface deposition rate to deposition tolerance of vegetation. Slipface deposition rate is related to dune height, flux, and celerity. With a fixed depositional tolerance, large, slow-moving dunes have low slipface deposition rates and ‘freeze’ in place once vegetation is introduced. Relatively small, fast dunes have high slipface deposition rates and evolve into parabolic dunes, often colliding during stabilization. Our hypothesis could explain differences in stabilized morphology across the NAGP and elsewhere.

  19. Stability of the Levitron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heflinger, Lee O.; Ridgway, S. L.; Simon, Martin D.

    1996-05-01

    The Levitron, manufactured by Fascinations in Seattle WA, successfully demonstrates magnetic suspension. A 22 gram spinning magnetic dipole top is supported by magnetic forces that balance its weight about 3.2 cm above a magnetized base, and it will float about two minutes until its spin rate has declined to about 1000 rpm. However, since in general it is not possible (The Feynman Lectures on Physics Volume II, 5-4) to have a potential energy minimum or maximum for any rigidly connected system of poles in a magnetic field, the stability of the Levitron is not obvious. Gyroscopic forces that prevent the top from flipping over and being attracted to the base have been suggested as the source of the stability (US Patent 5,404,062, Hones et al.). We find that fixing the direction of the top axis in space is not sufficient. An analysis and numerical integration of the five degree of freedom equations of motion of the top that includes gyroscopic precession around the local magnetic field lines do predict that the top will be supported stably up to spin speeds of 2100 rpm.

  20. Stability of the Levitron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heflinger, Lee O.; Ridgway, S. L.; Simon, Martin D.

    1996-03-01

    abstract. Abstract text lines The Levitron, manufactured by Fascinations in Seattle WA, successfully demonstrates magnetic suspension. A 22 gram spinning magnetic dipole top is supported by magnetic forces that balance its weight about 3.2 cm above a magnetized base, and it will float about two minutes until its spin rate has declined to about 1000 rpm. However, since in general i t is not possible (The Feynman Lectures on Physics Volume II, 5-4) to have a potential energy minimum or maximum for any rigidly connected system of poles in a magnetic field, the stability of the Levitron is not obvious. Gyroscopic forces that prevent the top from flipping over and being attracted to the base have been suggested as the source of the stability (US Patent 5,404,062, Hones et al.). We find that fixing the direction of the top axis in space is not sufficient. An analysis and numerical integration of the five degree of freedom equations of motion of the top that includes gyroscopic precession around the local magnetic field lines do predict that the top will be supported stably up to spin speeds of 2100 rpm.

  1. Theory and Simulation Basis for Magnetohydrodynamic Stability in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, A.D.; Brennan, D.P.; Chu, M.S.; Lao, L.L.; Snyder, P.B.

    2005-10-15

    Theory and simulation have provided one of the critical foundations for many of the significant achievements in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability in DIII-D over the past two decades. Early signature achievements included the validation of tokamak MHD stability limits, beta and performance optimization through cross-section shaping and profiles, and the development of new operational regimes. More recent accomplishments encompass the realization and sustainment of wall stabilization using plasma rotation and active feedback, a new understanding of edge stability and its relation to edge-localized modes, and recent successes in predicting resistive tearing and interchange instabilities. The key to success has been the synergistic tie between the theory effort and the experiment made possible by the detailed equilibrium reconstruction data available in DIII-D and the corresponding attention to the measured details in the modeling. This interaction fosters an emphasis on the important phenomena and leads to testable theoretical predictions. Also important is the application of a range of analytic and simulation techniques, coupled with a program of numerical tool development. The result is a comprehensive integrated approach to fusion science and improving the tokamak approach to burning plasmas.

  2. Olive-oil nanocapsules stabilized by HSA: influence of processing variables on particle properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Galisteo-González, F.

    2015-10-01

    Liquid lipid nanocapsules (LLN) are considered to be promising drug carriers in the medical field. The size and the surface charge of these nanocarriers are of major importance, affecting their bioavailability and the in vivo behaviour after intravenous injection. This research provides a comprehensive study on the preparation of olive-oil nanocapsules stabilized with a human serum albumin shell (HSA). LLN were prepared by modified solvent-displacement method. Numerous experimental variables were examined in order to characterize their impact on LLN size, distribution, and electrophoretic mobility. Physicochemical parameters of LLN were controlled by adjusting the nanodroplet stabilizing shell of adsorbed protein molecules, which was affected by the oil:HSA ratio, pH, and ionic strength of aqueous medium. The stronger the repulsion between adsorbed HSA molecules, the smaller and more monodisperse the particles proved. Other process parameters, including the ethanol:acetone ratio, organic:aqueous phase ratio, speed of organic-phase injection, and stirring rate were examined to achieve optimum preparation conditions. LLN produced by our standardized formulation were in the range of 170-175 nm with low polydispersity index (<0.1). Long-term colloidal stability of samples was evaluated after 6 months of storage. Efficient incorporation of curcumin, a model for a water-insoluble drug, into olive-oil nanocapsules was achieved (90 %). Encapsulation of curcumin into LLN had a stabilizing effect with respect to drug photodecomposition compared to that of the free molecule in solution.

  3. Stability in skipping gaits

    PubMed Central

    Blickhan, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway. We used a bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum to model and to describe the dynamics of skipping. The subjects displayed higher peak ground reaction forces and leg stiffness in the first landing leg (trailing leg) compared to the second landing leg (leading leg). In numerical simulations, we found that skipping is stable across an amazing speed range from skipping on the spot to fast running speeds. Higher leg stiffness in the trailing leg permits longer strides at same system energy. However, this strategy is at the same time less robust to sudden drop perturbations than skipping with a stiffer leading leg. A slightly higher stiffness in the leading leg is most robust, but might be costlier. PMID:28018651

  4. Stability in skipping gaits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2016-11-01

    As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway. We used a bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum to model and to describe the dynamics of skipping. The subjects displayed higher peak ground reaction forces and leg stiffness in the first landing leg (trailing leg) compared to the second landing leg (leading leg). In numerical simulations, we found that skipping is stable across an amazing speed range from skipping on the spot to fast running speeds. Higher leg stiffness in the trailing leg permits longer strides at same system energy. However, this strategy is at the same time less robust to sudden drop perturbations than skipping with a stiffer leading leg. A slightly higher stiffness in the leading leg is most robust, but might be costlier.

  5. Stability in skipping gaits.

    PubMed

    Andrada, Emanuel; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2016-11-01

    As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway. We used a bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum to model and to describe the dynamics of skipping. The subjects displayed higher peak ground reaction forces and leg stiffness in the first landing leg (trailing leg) compared to the second landing leg (leading leg). In numerical simulations, we found that skipping is stable across an amazing speed range from skipping on the spot to fast running speeds. Higher leg stiffness in the trailing leg permits longer strides at same system energy. However, this strategy is at the same time less robust to sudden drop perturbations than skipping with a stiffer leading leg. A slightly higher stiffness in the leading leg is most robust, but might be costlier.

  6. Optimal control of spin stabilized spacecraft with telescoping appendages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.; Sellappan, R.

    1976-01-01

    The control of a spin-stabilized spacecraft consisting of a rigid central hub and one or two movable offset telescoping booms (with end masses) is considered. The equations of rotational motion are linearized about either of two desired final states. A control law for the boom and mass position is sought such that a quadratic cost functional involving the weighted components of angular velocity plus the control is minimized when the final time is unspecified and involves the solution of the matrix Riccati algebraic equation. For three-axis control more than one offset boom (orthogonal to each other) is required. For two-axis control with a single boom offset from a symmetrical hub, an analytic solution is obtained; when this system is used for nutation decay the time constant is one order of magnitude smaller than previously achieved using non-optimal control logic. For the general case results are obtained numerically.

  7. Optimal control of spin-stabilized spacecraft with telescoping appendages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.; Sellappan, R.

    1976-01-01

    The control of a spin-stabilized spacecraft consisting of a rigid central hub and one or two movable offset telescoping booms (with end masses) is considered. The equations of rotational motion are linearized about either of two desired final states. A control law for the boom end mass position is sought such that a quadratic cost functional involving the weighted components of angular velocity plus the control is minimized when the final time is unspecified and involves the solution of the matrix Riccati algebraic equation. For three axis control more than one offset boom (orthogonal to each other) is required. For two-axis control with a single boom offset from a symmetrical hub, an analytic solution is obtained; when this system is used for nutation decay the time constant is one order of magnitude smaller than previously achieved using nonoptimal control logic. For the general case results are obtained numerically.

  8. Numerical Investigation of Boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagan, Michael; Tanguy, Sebastien; Colin, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    In this work, boiling is numerically investigated, using two phase flow direct numerical simulation based on a level set / Ghost Fluid method. Nucleate boiling implies both thermal issue and multiphase dynamics issues at different scales and at different stages of bubble growth. As a result, the different phenomena are investigated separately, considering their nature and the scale at which they occur. First, boiling of a static bubble immersed in an overheated liquid is analysed. Numerical simulations have been performed at different Jakob numbers in the case of strong density discontinuity through the interface. The results show a good agreement on bubble radius evolution between the theoretical evolution and numerical simulation. After the validation of the code for the Scriven test case, interaction of a bubble with a wall is studied. A numerical method taking into account contact angle is evaluated by comparing simulations of the spreading of a liquid droplet impacting on a plate, with experimental data. Then the heat transfer near the contact line is investigated, and simulations of nucleate boiling are performed considering different contact angles values. Finally, the relevance of including a model to take into account the evaporation of the micro layer is discussed.

  9. Finite-time stability and synchronization for memristor-based fractional-order Cohen-Grossberg neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Mingwen; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Xiao, Jinghua; Yang, Yixian; Zhao, Hui

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the finite-time stability and synchronization problem of a class of memristor-based fractional-order Cohen-Grossberg neural network (MFCGNN) with the fractional order α ∈ (0,1 ]. We utilize the set-valued map and Filippov differential inclusion to treat MFCGNN because it has discontinuous right-hand sides. By using the definition of Caputo fractional-order derivative, the definitions of finite-time stability and synchronization, Gronwall's inequality and linear feedback controller, two new sufficient conditions are derived to ensure the finite-time stability of our proposed MFCGNN and achieve the finite-time synchronization of drive-response systems which are constituted by MFCGNNs. Finally, two numerical simulations are presented to verify the rightness of our proposed theorems.

  10. Toward Scientific Numerical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil

    2007-01-01

    Ultimately, scientific numerical models need quantified output uncertainties so that modeling can evolve to better match reality. Documenting model input uncertainties and verifying that numerical models are translated into code correctly, however, are necessary first steps toward that goal. Without known input parameter uncertainties, model sensitivities are all one can determine, and without code verification, output uncertainties are simply not reliable. To address these two shortcomings, two proposals are offered: (1) an unobtrusive mechanism to document input parameter uncertainties in situ and (2) an adaptation of the Scientific Method to numerical model development and deployment. Because these two steps require changes in the computational simulation community to bear fruit, they are presented in terms of the Beckhard-Harris-Gleicher change model.

  11. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT AND THE NAVAJO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAAS, JOHN; MELVILLE, ROBERT

    A STUDY WAS DEVISED TO APPRAISE THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF NAVAJO STUDENTS LIVING IN DORMITORIES AWAY FROM THE INDIAN RESERVATION. THE FOLLOWING SEVEN FACTORS WERE CHOSEN TO BE INVESTIGATED AS BEING DIRECTLY RELATED TO ACHIEVEMENT--(1) INTELLIGENCE, (2) READING ABILITY, (3) ANXIETY, (4) SELF-CONCEPT, (5) MOTIVATION, (6) VERBAL DEVELOPMENT, (7)…

  12. Sociocultural Origins of Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theoretical review of work on sociocultural influences on achievement, focusing on a critical evaluation of the work of David McClellan. Offers an alternative conception of achievement motivation which stresses the role of contextual and situational factors in addition to personality factors. Available from: Transaction Periodicals…

  13. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do…

  14. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  15. Early Intervention and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hormes, Mridula T.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Education has been rigorous in holding all states accountable with regard to student achievement. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 clearly laid out federal mandates for all schools to follow. K-12 leaders of public schools are very aware of the fact that results in terms of student achievement need to improve…

  16. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  17. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  18. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  19. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  20. Fraction Development in Children: Importance of Building Numerical Magnitude Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Carrique, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Resnick, Ilyse

    2016-01-01

    This chapter situates fraction learning within the integrated theory of numerical development. We argue that the understanding of numerical magnitudes for whole numbers as well as for fractions is critical to fraction learning in particular and mathematics achievement more generally. Results from the Delaware Longitudinal Study, which examined…

  1. Predicting Engineering Major Status from Mathematics Achievement and Interest Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuwerke, Wade C.; Robbins, Steven; Sawyer, Richard; Hovland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This study proposed that precollege students' standardized mathematics achievement score and the congruence between their occupational interests and engineering tasks would predict their second-year retention in college and the stability of their major. Binary response models were used to predict second-year major status (i.e., continue, transfer…

  2. Introduction to Numerical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonover, Joseph A.

    2016-06-14

    These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

  3. Achieving reuse of computable guideline systems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P; Tu, S; Jones, N

    2001-01-01

    We describe an architecture for reusing computable guidelines and the programs used to interpret them across varied legacy clinical systems. Developed for the PRODIGY 3 project, our architecture aims to support interactive, point of care use of guidelines in primary care. Legacy medical record systems in UK primary care are diverse, using different terminologies, different data models, and varying user-interface philosophies. However, our goal is to provide common guideline knowledge bases and system components, while achieving full integration with the host medical record system, and a user interface tailored to that system. In conjunction with system suppliers, we identified areas of standardization required to achieve this goal. Firstly, standardized interfaces were created for mediation with the legacy system medical record and for act management. Secondly, a standard interface was developed for communication with the User Interface for guideline interaction. Thirdly, a terminology mapping knowledge base and system component was provided. Lastly, we developed a numeric unit conversion knowledge base and system component. The standardization of this architecture was achieved by close collaboration with existing vendors of Primary Care computing systems in the UK. The work has been verified by two suppliers successfully building and deploying systems with User Interfaces which mirror their normal look and feel, communicating fully with existing medical records, while using identical Guideline Interpreter components and knowledge bases. Encouragingly further experiments in other areas of clinical decision support have not required extension of our interfaces.

  4. Stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Verdon, C. P.

    1993-08-01

    The linear stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts is carried out for a semi-infinite uniform medium. For a laser accelerated target, it is shown that a properly selected modulation of the laser intensity can lead to the dynamic stabilization or growth-rate reduction of a large portion of the unstable spectrum. The theory is in qualitative agreement with the numerical results obtained by using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic code ORCHID.

  5. Stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, R.; McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P. )

    1993-11-08

    The linear stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts is carried out for a semi-infinite uniform medium. For a laser accelerated target, it is shown that a properly selected modulation of the laser intensity can lead to the dynamic stabilization or growth-rate reduction of a large portion of the unstable spectrum. The theory is in qualitative agreement with the numerical results obtained by using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic code ORCHID.

  6. Stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Verdon, C. P.

    1993-11-01

    The linear stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts is carried out for a semi-infinite uniform medium. For a laser accelerated target, it is shown that a properly selected modulation of the laser intensity can lead to the dynamic stabilization or growth-rate reduction of a large portion of the unstable spectrum. The theory is in qualitative agreement with the numerical results obtained by using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic code orchid.

  7. Stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, R.; McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P.

    1993-08-01

    The linear stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts, is carried out for a semi-infinite uniform medium. For a laser accelerated target, it is shown that a properly selected modulation of the laser intensity can lead to the dynamic stabilization or growth-rate reduction of a large portion of the unstable spectrum. The theory is in qualitative agreement with the numerical results obtained by using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic code ORCHID.

  8. Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators. II. Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proll, J. H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Helander, P.

    2013-12-01

    Microinstabilities exhibit a rich variety of behavior in stellarators due to the many degrees of freedom in the magnetic geometry. It has recently been found that certain stellarators (quasi-isodynamic ones with maximum-J geometry) are partly resilient to trapped-particle instabilities, because fast-bouncing particles tend to extract energy from these modes near marginal stability. In reality, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here, the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with the National Compact Stellarator Experiment and the DIII-D tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, ion-temperature-gradient modes, trapped-electron modes, and mixed-type instabilities are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduced growth rates for all simulations that include kinetic electrons, and the latter are indeed found to be stabilizing in the energy budget. These results suggest that imperfectly optimized stellarators can retain most of the stabilizing properties predicted for perfect maximum-J configurations.

  9. Composite stabilizer unit

    SciTech Connect

    Ebaugh, L.R.; Sadler, C.P.; Carter, G.D.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an improved fin stabilized projectile including multiple stabilizer fins upon a stabilizer unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the stabilizer fins are joined into the stabilizer unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.

  10. Composite stabilizer unit

    DOEpatents

    Ebaugh, Larry R.; Sadler, Collin P.; Carter, Gary D.

    1992-01-01

    An improved fin stabilized projectile including multiple stabilizer fins upon a stabilizer unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the stabilizer fins are joined into the stabillizer unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.

  11. Impact of aerobic stabilization on the characteristics of treatment sludge in the leather tanning industry.

    PubMed

    Cokgor, Emine Ubay; Aydinli, Ebru; Tas, Didem Okutman; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of aerobic stabilization on the treatment sludge generated from the leather industry was investigated to meet the expected characteristics and conditions of sludge prior to landfill. The sludge types subjected to aerobic stabilization were chemical treatment sludge, biological excess sludge, and the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges. At the end of 23 days of stabilization, suspended solids, volatile suspended solids and total organic carbon removal efficiencies were determined as 17%, 19% and 23% for biological sludge 31%, 35% and 54% for chemical sludge, and 32%, 34% and 63% for the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges, respectively. Model simulations of the respirometric oxygen uptake rate measurements showed that the ratio of active biomass remained the same at the end of the stabilization for all the sludge samples. Although mixing the chemical and biological sludges resulted in a relatively effective organic carbon and solids removal, the level of stabilization achieved remained clearly below the required level of organic carbon content for landfill. These findings indicate the potential risk of setting numerical restrictions without referring to proper scientific support.

  12. Real-time Numerical Solution for the Plasma Response Matrix for Disruption Avoidance in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Alexander; Kolemen, Egemen; Glasser, A. H.

    2016-10-01

    Real-time analysis of plasma stability is essential to any active feedback control system that performs ideal MHD disruption avoidance. Due to singularities and poor numerical conditioning endemic to ideal MHD models of tokamak plasmas, current state-of-the-art codes require serial operation, and are as yet inoperable on the sub- O (1s) timescale required by ITER's MHD evolution time. In this work, low-toroidal-n ideal MHD modes are found in near real-time as solutions to a well-posed boundary value problem. Using a modified parallel shooting technique and linear methods to subdue numerical instability, such modes are integrated with parallelization across spatial and ``temporal'' parts, via a Riccati approach. The resulting state transition matrix is shown to yield the desired plasma response matrix, which describes how magnetic perturbations may be employed to maintain plasma stability. Such an algorithm may be helpful in designing a control system to achieve ITER's high-performance operational objectives. Sponsored by US DOE under DE-SC0015878 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  13. Numerical-Optimization Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, Garret N.

    1991-01-01

    Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) computer program is general-purpose numerical-optimization program for design engineering. Provides wide range of options for solution of constrained and unconstrained function minimization problems. Suitable for such applications as minimum-weight design. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Numerical Estimation in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Piazza, Manuela; Dehaene, Stanislas; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Children's sense of numbers before formal education is thought to rely on an approximate number system based on logarithmically compressed analog magnitudes that increases in resolution throughout childhood. School-age children performing a numerical estimation task have been shown to increasingly rely on a formally appropriate, linear…

  15. Teachers' Judgements of Students' Foreign-Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Mingjing; Urhahne, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted on the accuracy of teacher judgement in different educational areas such as mathematics, language arts and reading. Teacher judgement of students' foreign-language achievement, however, has been rarely investigated. The study aimed to examine the accuracy of teacher judgement of students' foreign-language…

  16. Social Capital and Educational Achievements: Coleman vs. Bourdieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogošic, Silvia; Baranovic, Branislava

    2016-01-01

    The influence of social capital on an individual's educational achievements is the subject of numerous scientific papers. Research on social capital is most frequently based on Coleman's (1988) or Bourdieu's (1986) theories of capital, which are related to different paradigms of social theory: whereas Coleman's approach has its roots in structural…

  17. Neo-Piagetian Predictors of Achievement in Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1990-01-01

    Examined is the predictive value of the cognitive variables of developmental level, mental capacity, cognitive style, short-term storage space, and numerical inductive reasoning for student achievement in college science. Included is a strategy for the development of materials which would allow students to develop problem-solving skills. (KR)

  18. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  19. The effect of pulsewidth of pumping pulse on the stability of distributed feedback dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasandideh, K.; Rahbari, M.; Sadighi Bonabi, R.

    2017-04-01

    The generation of a single and stable picosecond pulse by distributed feedback dye laser is investigated in this work. The numerical result for the rate equation system that includes the thermal effects in the lasing medium is provided. By applying this model to Rhodamine 6G, it is found that considerable improvement in the stability of the laser can be achieved by pumping the system with narrower laser pulses. The simulation shows that if the dye solution is pumped by sub-200 ps pulse, the laser can be operated in single-pulse output mode with acceptable stability in pulsewidth over a long range of pumping intensity. This result is confirmed by a more complicated model composed of non-averaged Maxwell and rate equations. Even though the thermal effects do not play a significant role in equivalent cavity lifetime, they result in considerable wavelength shift toward the shorter wavelengths.

  20. Achieving tunable surface tension in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of multiphase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Luo, K. H.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we aim to address an important issue about the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann (LB) model, which has attracted much attention as a mesoscopic model for simulating interfacial dynamics of complex fluids, but suffers from the problem that the surface tension cannot be tuned independently of the density ratio. In the literature, a multirange potential was devised to adjust the surface tension [Sbragaglia , Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.75.026702 75, 026702 (2007)]. However, it was recently found that the density ratio of the system will be changed when the multirange potential is employed to adjust the surface tension. An alternative approach is therefore proposed in the present work. The basic strategy is to add a source term to the LB equation so as to tune the surface tension of the pseudopotential LB model. The proposed approach can guarantee that the adjustment of the surface tension does not affect the mechanical stability condition of the pseudopotential LB model, and thus provides a separate control of the surface tension and the density ratio. Meanwhile, it still retains the mesoscopic feature and the computational simplicity of the pseudopotential LB model. Numerical simulations are carried out for stationary droplets, capillary waves, and droplet splashing on a thin liquid film. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed approach is capable of achieving a tunable surface tension over a very wide range and can keep the density ratio unchanged when adjusting the surface tension.

  1. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  2. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  3. Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34" ’■■"■" 1 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations by Richard Fliss Col. Richard M. Meinhart Project...government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES IN ARMY INSTALLATIONS BY RICHARD FLISS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved...for public release. Distribution is unlimited. DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED & USAWC CLASS OF 1998 U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050

  4. Finite time stabilization of delayed neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leimin; Shen, Yi; Ding, Zhixia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the problem of finite time stabilization for a class of delayed neural networks (DNNs) is investigated. The general conditions on the feedback control law are provided to ensure the finite time stabilization of DNNs. Then some specific conditions are derived by designing two different controllers which include the delay-dependent and delay-independent ones. In addition, the upper bound of the settling time for stabilization is estimated. Under fixed control strength, discussions of the extremum of settling time functional are made and a switched controller is designed to optimize the settling time. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Heliospheric Transients Approaching Geospace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    12/15/08 – 12/14/09 Numerical Simulation of Heliospheric Transients Approaching Geospace Report by Dusan Odstrcil, University of Colorado...simulations of heliospheric transients approaching geospace . The project was supervised by Dr. Dusan Odstrcil at the University of Colorado (CU...plays a key role in the prediction accuracy of heliospheric transients approaching geospace . This report presents main results achieved within the

  6. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdulmalik, T. O.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The extended length of a Mars mission, along with the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortificants will remain stable through long-duration missions if proper formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are all achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX); premixes were formulated to be compatible with current processing techniques (retort or freeze-dried), varied water activities (high or low), and packaging material. The overall goal of this process is to provide 25% of the recommended daily intake of each vitamin (per serving), following processing and two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced (with and without the vitamin premix), to assess the impact of the added fortificant on color and taste, and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The use of fortification in spaceflight foods appears to be a plausible mitigation step to inadequate nutrition. This is due to the ease of vitamin addition as well as the sustainability of the premixes through initial processing steps. Postprocessing analysis indicated that vitamin fortification with this premix did not immediately impact organoleptic properties of the food. At this stage, the largest hurdle to fortification is the preciseness to which vitamins can be added; the total amount of vitamins required for production is 10

  7. Numerical comparison of Kalman filter algorithms - Orbit determination case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierman, G. J.; Thornton, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical characteristics of various Kalman filter algorithms are illustrated with a realistic orbit determination study. The case study of this paper highlights the numerical deficiencies of the conventional and stabilized Kalman algorithms. Computational errors associated with these algorithms are found to be so large as to obscure important mismodeling effects and thus cause misleading estimates of filter accuracy. The positive result of this study is that the U-D covariance factorization algorithm has excellent numerical properties and is computationally efficient, having CPU costs that differ negligibly from the conventional Kalman costs. Accuracies of the U-D filter using single precision arithmetic consistently match the double precision reference results. Numerical stability of the U-D filter is further demonstrated by its insensitivity to variations in the a priori statistics.

  8. Race, School Achievement, and Educational Inequality: Toward a Student-Based Inquiry Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggan, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four decades, there have been numerous discussions on student achievement and school failure. Within this time, the debate over the causes and consequences of racial differences in achievement has been at the heart of the nation's social and political life. The author discusses the major developments in achievement research over the…

  9. The Academic Achievement of Immigrant Children in Japan: An Empirical Analysis of the Assimilation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishida, Kenji; Nakamuro, Makiko; Takenaka, Ayumi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we test the assimilation thesis by comparing the academic achievement between native students and first and second generation immigrant pupils. It is the first empirical study that systematically analyzes the native-immigrant achievement gap in Japan. Although numerous studies have examined the achievement gap, most of them are…

  10. Spectral Methods for Numerical Relativity.

    PubMed

    Grandclément, Philippe; Novak, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    Equations arising in general relativity are usually too complicated to be solved analytically and one must rely on numerical methods to solve sets of coupled partial differential equations. Among the possible choices, this paper focuses on a class called spectral methods in which, typically, the various functions are expanded in sets of orthogonal polynomials or functions. First, a theoretical introduction of spectral expansion is given with a particular emphasis on the fast convergence of the spectral approximation. We then present different approaches to solving partial differential equations, first limiting ourselves to the one-dimensional case, with one or more domains. Generalization to more dimensions is then discussed. In particular, the case of time evolutions is carefully studied and the stability of such evolutions investigated. We then present results obtained by various groups in the field of general relativity by means of spectral methods. Work, which does not involve explicit time-evolutions, is discussed, going from rapidly-rotating strange stars to the computation of black-hole-binary initial data. Finally, the evolution of various systems of astrophysical interest are presented, from supernovae core collapse to black-hole-binary mergers.

  11. A numerical investigation of severe thunderstorm gust fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to simulate the evolution and structure of severe thunderstorm gust fronts. The model is a non-hydrostatic, fine resolution, cross-sectional primitive equation model. Two-dimensional horizontal and vertical equations of motion, the continuity equation, and the thermodynamic energy equation were utilized. It was shown that two dominant factors influencing gust front configuration are surface friction and the solenoidal field coincident with the front. It is suggested that solenoidal accelerations oppose the deceleration of surface friction. After a downdraft is initiated in the model, these opposing tendencies soon reach a balance and the gust front achieves a quasi-steady configuration. Thus, the experiments indicate that surface friction does not induce a cycle of front formation and collapse. In addition, the effect of evaporative cooling in producing a vigorous downdraft was parameterized by a local cooling function. Greater cooling in the downdraft results in a more intense gust front that exhibits stronger wind maximums and greater shears. The ambient air stability was shown to be an important factor influencing the depth of the cold outflow.

  12. Analytical and Numerical Evaluation of Limit States of MSE Wall Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drusa, Marián; Vlček, Jozef; Holičková, Martina; Kais, Ladislav

    2016-12-01

    Simplification of the design of Mechanically Stabilized Earth wall structures (MSE wall or MSEW) is now an important factor that helps us not only to save a time and costs, but also to achieve the desired results more reliably. It is quite common way in practice, that the designer of a section of motorway or railway line gives order for design to a supplier of geosynthetics materials. However, supplier company has experience and skills, but a general designer does not review the safety level of design and its efficiency, and is simply incorporating into the overall design of the construction project. Actually, large number of analytical computational methods for analysis and design of MSE walls or similar structures are known. The problem of these analytical methods is the verification of deformations and global stability of structure. The article aims to clarify two methods of calculating the internal stability of MSE wall and their comparison with FEM numerical model. Comparison of design approaches allows us to draft an effective retaining wall and tells us about the appropriateness of using a reinforcing element.

  13. Information Based Numerical Practice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    N I IIi I2 LA 1.6 liii I~JIIN MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK CAMPUS INSTITUTE FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Technical Note S1-1059 INFORMATION BASED...K-0169 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NMEU AMC ADDRESS 16. PROGRAM CELEMNT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUNSERS, Institute for Physical Science and...BASED NUMERICAL PRACTICE I. Babuska Institute for Physical Science and Technology University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 a Partially supported by

  14. Numerical Relativistic Quantum Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-08

    Introduction 1 II. Relativistic Wave Equations 2 III. Stationary States 4 A. Analytical Solutions for Coulomb Potentials 4 B. Numerical Solutions...C. Relativistic Ionization Example 15 V. Computational Performance 18 VI. Conclusions 21 VII. Acknowledgements 22 References 23 1 I. INTRODUCTION ...peculiar result that B0 = 1 TG is a weak field. At present, such fields are observed only in connection with astrophysical phenomena [14]. The highest

  15. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Hairetdinov, A.H.; Zukov, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  16. Numerical Modeling of Airblast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    REPORT SAIC 87/1701 June 1987 Dr.. Submitted to: cp Dr. Jay Boris Laboratory for Computational Physics Accet F4,r Naval Research Laboratory I...boundary layer physical assumptions provides an unsteady prediction of the mass flux emerging from the ground. This model was first proposed by Mirels...the physics modeled will be explained. High explosive dust cloud simulation provides a research path when combined with numerical calculations can lead

  17. Numerical simulation of the blood flow in the human cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Zácek, M; Krause, E

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical model of the human cardiovascular system. The model is composed of 15 elements connected in series representing the main parts of the system. Each element is composed of a rigid connecting tube and an elastic reservoir. The blood flow is described by a one-dimensional time-dependent Bernoulli equation. The action of the ventricles is simulated with a Hill's three-element model, adapted for the left and right heart. The closing of the four heart valves is simulated with the aid of time-dependent drag coefficients. Closing is achieved by letting the drag coefficient approach infinity. The resulting system of 32 non-linear ordinary differential equations is solved numerically with the Runge-Kutta method. The results of the simulation (pressure-time and volume-time dependence for the atria and ventricles and pressure forms in the aorta at a heart rate of 70 beats per minute) agree with the physiological data given in the literature. The model's input aortic impedance is 31.5 dyn s cm-5 which agrees with literature data given for aortic input impedance in man 26-80 dyn s cm-5). Long-term stability of the system was achieved. The cardiovascular system presented here can also be simulated at higher and varying heart rates--up to 200 beats per minute. The results of calculations for some pathological changes (e.g. valvular abnormalities) are discussed.

  18. Aerothermodynamics in Europe: ESA Achievements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muylaert, J.-M.

    2005-02-01

    Europe is faced with challenging aerothermodynamic problems for several of ESA's human space flight and exploration, science, application and launcher programmes. The Aerothermodynamic section at ESA/ESTEC provided technical support to these programmes and implemented research and development programmes to improve industrial tools for design in a way to strengthen the co-operation between universities, research establishments and industry. The ESA programmes involving Aerothermodynamics are: • Human space flight and exploration: CARV, PARES, IRDT, EXPERT, EVD, ATV, COLUMBUS • Science programmes : Huygens, MARS, VEX • Launcher programmes: ARIANE, VEGA, Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP). • Satellite telecommunication and earth observation programmes: MSG, EOLUS, CRYOSAT, GOCE • Technological Research programmes: improvements of the tools for design and analysis of space vehicles (ground-based facilities, flight test and measurement techniques and numerical/physical modelling validation activities) The paper will review past ESA aerothermodynamic activities by highlighting achievements obtained on the occasion of the past 4 Aerothermodynamics symposia. Critical aerothermodynamic issues for the design of reentry space vehicles and launchers will be addressed. A number of analysis and test results will be presented, the need for advanced numerical tools will be addressed and the importance of flight-testing will be identified for the validation of the methods and procedures for flight extrapolation of results obtained from ground-based facilities.

  19. The Nekhoroshev Theorem and Long-Term Stabilities in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, M.

    2015-06-01

    The Nekhoroshev theorem has been often indicated in the last decades as the reference theorem for explaining the dynamics of several systems which are stable in the long-term. The Solar System dynamics provides a wide range of possible and useful applications. In fact, despite the complicated models which are used to numerically integrate realistic Solar System dynamics as accurately as possible, when the integrated solutions are chaotic the reliability of the numerical integrations is limited, and a theoretical long-term stability analysis is required. After the first formulation of Nekhoroshev's theorem in 1977, many theoretical improvements have been achieved. On the one hand, alternative proofs of the theorem itself led to consistent improvements of the stability estimates; on the other hand, the extensions which were necessary to apply the theorem to the systems of interest for Solar System Dynamics, in particular concerning the removal of degeneracies and the implementation of computer assisted proofs, have been developed. In this review paper we discuss some of the motivations and the results which have made Nekhoroshev's theorem a reference stability result for many applications in the Solar System dynamics.

  20. High capacity embedding with indexed data recovery using adjunctive numerical relations in multimedia signal covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, James C.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a technique for covertly embedding data throughout an audio file using redundant number system decomposition across non-standard digital bit-lines. This bit-line implementation integrates an index recoverable embedded algorithm with an extended bit level representation that achieves a high capacity data channel within an audio multimedia file. It will be shown this new steganography method has minimal aural distortive affects while preserving both first and second order cover statistics, making it less susceptible to most steganalysis attacks. Our research approach involves reviewing the common numerical methods used in common binary-based algorithms. We then describe basic concepts and challenges when attempting to implement complex embedding algorithms that are based on redundant number systems. Finally, we introduce a novel class of numerical based multiple bit-line decomposition systems, which we define as Adjunctive Numerical Representations. The system is primarily described using basic PCM techniques in uncompressed audio files however extended applications for alternate multimedia is addressed. This new embedding system will not only provide the statistical stability required for effective steganography but will also give us an improvement in the embedding capacity in this class of multimedia carrier files. This novelty of our approach is demonstrated by an ability to embed high capacity covert data while simultaneously providing a means for rapid, indexed data recovery.

  1. Efficiency and Accuracy Verification of the Explicit Numerical Manifold Method for Dynamic Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Fu, G. Y.; Ma, G. W.

    2015-05-01

    The original numerical manifold method (NMM) employs an implicit time integration scheme to achieve higher computational accuracy, but its efficiency is relatively low, especially when the open-close iterations of contact are involved. To improve its computational efficiency, a modified version of the NMM based on an explicit time integration algorithm is proposed in this study. The lumped mass matrix, internal force and damping vectors are derived for the proposed explicit scheme. A calibration study on P-wave propagation along a rock bar is conducted to investigate the efficiency and accuracy of the developed explicit numerical manifold method (ENMM) for wave propagation problems. Various considerations in the numerical simulations are discussed, and parametric studies are carried out to obtain an insight into the influencing factors on the efficiency and accuracy of wave propagation. To further verify the capability of the proposed ENMM, dynamic stability assessment for a fractured rock slope under seismic effect is analysed. It is shown that, compared to the original NMM, the computational efficiency of the proposed ENMM can be significantly improved.

  2. Stability analysis of two immiscible fluids in a shear driven flow: a DNS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cartagena, Edgardo J.; Bernardini, Matteo; Arenas, Isnardo; Mohammadi, Alireza; Iungo, G. Valerio; Smits, Alexander J.; Leonardi, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Numerical studies of the flow over either super hydrophobic surfaces or liquid infused surfaces have shown that a large drag reduction (>10%) can be obtained if the flow remains in the Cassie state, thus stability of the interface plays a crucial role to achieve drag reduction. Direct Numerical Simulations of two immiscible fluids have been performed to assess how the stability of the interface depends on the viscosity ratio, thickness and Reynolds number of the two-layer flow. The flow is driven by the motion of one plate at constant velocity while the other plate is at rest. A finite difference code, based on a Runge-Kutta and fractional step method, has been combined to a level set method for tracking the interface between the two fluids. Results agree well with the linear theory until the nonlinear saturation. Once the fluctuations become large, a halving of the wavelength in the streamwise direction is observed for the least stable mode. The interaction between Tollmien-Schlichting waves and interfacial instabilities will be discussed at the meeting. This work was supported under ONR MURI Grants N00014-12-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962, Program Manager Dr. Ki-Han Kim. Numerical simulations were performed on the Texas Advanced Computer Center.

  3. Stability analysis of cylinders with circular cutouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almroth, B. O.; Brogan, F. A.; Marlowe, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The stability of axially compressed cylinders with circular cutouts is analyzed numerically. An extension of the finite-difference method is used which removes the requirement that displacement components be defined in the directions of the grid lines. The results of this nonlinear analysis are found to be in good agreement with earlier experimental results.

  4. Non-Linear Spring Equations and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the boundary in the Poincare phase plane for boundedness of solutions to spring model equations of the form [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 2] = Fcoswt and the [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 3] = Fcoswt and report the results of a systematic numerical investigation on the global stability of…

  5. Boundary stability under nonequilibrium conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, S.A.; Lee, J.K.; Plichta, M.R.

    1999-08-01

    Summaries of research accomplished are given for the following areas: Morphological (Diffusional) Stability; A New Algorithm for Numerical Modeling of Non-equilibrium Materials Behavior; A Unified Treatment of Single and Microcrystalline Film Edge Instabilities; and Validation of the Structure Based Grain Boundary Diffusion/Migration Model.

  6. Developments in Cylindrical Shell Stability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Today high-performance computing systems and new analytical and numerical techniques enable engineers to explore the use of advanced materials for shell design. This paper reviews some of the historical developments of shell buckling analysis and design. The paper concludes by identifying key research directions for reliable and robust methods development in shell stability analysis and design.

  7. Stability Test for Transient-Temperature Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W.

    1984-01-01

    Graphical test helps assure numerical stability of calculations of transient temperature or diffusion in composite medium. Rectangular grid forms basis of two-dimensional finite-difference model for heat conduction or other diffusion like phenomena. Model enables calculation of transient heat transfer among up to four different materials that meet at grid point.

  8. Sawtooth stabilization by energetic trapped particles

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Rutherford, P.H.; Colestock, P.; Bussac, M.N.

    1988-03-01

    Recent experiments involving high power radio-frequency heating of a tokamak plasma show strong suppression of the sawtooth oscillation. A high energy trapped particle population is shown to have a strong stabilizing effect on the internal resistive kink mode. Numerical calculations are in reasonable agreement with experiment. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  10. The numerical solution of thermoporoelastoplasticity problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivtsev, P. V.; Kolesov, A. E.; Sirditov, I. K.; Stepanov, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    Before constructing buildings in permafrost areas the careful study of stress-strain state of soils and building foundations must be performed in order to estimate their bearing capacity and stability to avoid issues with maintenance. To determine stress-strain state of frozen soils the numerical modeling of thermoporoelastoplasticity problems is used. The mathematical model of considered problems includes the elasto-plasticity equations and equations of heat and mass transfer with phase transition. The computational algorithm is based on the finite element approximation in space and the finite difference approximation in time. As the model problem we consider the deformation of soil under house weight and heating. Special attention is given to thawing of frozen soils, which can cause additional deformations and lead to loss of stability.

  11. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    PubMed Central

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  12. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability.

    PubMed

    Destrade, M; Ogden, R W; Sgura, I; Vergori, L

    2014-04-08

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise.

  13. Childhood vaccination: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ndumbe, P

    1996-09-01

    As the goal of eradicating smallpox was being met, the World Health Organization created its Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in 1974 and reached its initial goal of achieving full vaccination of 80% of the world's children by 1990. This effort was aided by the creation of "cold chain" delivery systems and resulted in the annual saving of 3.5 million children in less-developed countries. Current EPI vaccination goals include 1) eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000, 2) elimination of neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, 3) control of measles and hepatitis B, and 4) immunization of 90% of the world's children 1 year or younger by the year 2000. Goals of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (formed in 1991) include 1) provision of an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and effective vaccines; 2) production of improved and new vaccines; and 3) simplification of the logistics of vaccine delivery. Future challenges are to sustain high vaccination coverage, reach the unreached, achieve proper storage of vaccines and reduce waste, integrate new vaccines into national programs, and achieve vaccine self-sufficiency. The fact that these challenges will be difficult to achieve is illustrated by the situation in Africa where the high immunization levels achieved in 1990 have dropped dramatically. Those who must act to implement immunization programs are health personnel, families, governments, and development partners. In order to achieve equity in health, every child must be reached, governments must be made accountable for programs, health workers must convince families of the importance of vaccination, delivery systems must be in place to take advantage of the new vaccines being delivered, and a multisectoral approach must be taken to assure sustainability.

  14. Differential processing of symbolic numerical magnitude and order in first-grade children.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Stephan E; Remark, Alicia; Ansari, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has indicated a link between individual differences in children's symbolic numerical magnitude discrimination (e.g., judging which of two numbers is numerically larger) and their arithmetic achievement. In contrast, relatively little is known about the processing of numerical order (e.g., deciding whether two numbers are in ascending or descending numerical order) and whether individual differences in judging numerical order are related to the processing of numerical magnitude and arithmetic achievement. In view of this, we investigated the relationships among symbolic numerical magnitude comparison, symbolic order judgments, and mathematical achievement. Data were collected from a group of 61 first-grade children who completed a magnitude comparison task, an order judgment task, and two standardized tests of arithmetic achievement. Results indicated a numerical distance effect (NDE) in both the symbolic numerical magnitude discrimination and the numerical order judgment condition. However, correlation analyses demonstrated that although individual differences in magnitude comparison correlated significantly with arithmetic achievement, performance on the order judgment task did not. Moreover, the NDE of the magnitude and order comparison performance was also found to be uncorrelated. These findings suggest that order and numerical magnitude processing may be underpinned by different processes and relate differentially to arithmetic achievement in young children.

  15. Stability of large DC power systems using switching converters, with application to the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manners, B.; Gholdston, E. W.; Karimi, K.; Lee, F. C.; Rajagopalan, J.; Panov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    As space direct current (dc) power systems continue to grow in size, switching power converters are playing an ever larger role in power conditioning and control. When designing a large dc system using power converters of this type, special attention must be placed on the electrical stability of the system and of the individual loads on the system. In the design of the electric power system (EPS) of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its contractor team led by Boeing Defense & Space Group has placed a great deal of emphasis on designing for system and load stability. To achieve this goal, the team has expended considerable effort deriving a dear concept on defining system stability in both a general sense and specifically with respect to the space station. The ISS power system presents numerous challenges with respect to system stability, such as high power, complex sources and undefined loads. To complicate these issues, source and load components have been designed in parallel by three major subcontractors (Boeing, Rocketdyne, and McDonnell Douglas) with interfaces to both sources and loads being designed in different countries (Russia, Japan, Canada, Europe, etc.). These issues, coupled with the program goal of limiting costs, have proven a significant challenge to the program. As a result, the program has derived an impedance specification approach for system stability. This approach is based on the significant relationship between source and load impedances and the effect of this relationship on system stability. This approach is limited in its applicability by the theoretical and practical limits on component designs as presented by each system segment. As a result, the overall approach to system stability implemented by the ISS program consists of specific hardware requirements coupled with extensive system analysis and hardware testing. Following this approach, the ISS program plans to begin

  16. Direct Numerical Simulation of the Leidenfrost Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, Sebastien; Rueda Villegas, Lucia; Fluid Mechanics Institute of Toulouse Team

    2015-11-01

    The development of numerical methods for the direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows with phase changes, is the main topic of this study. We propose a novel numerical method which allows dealing with both evaporation and boiling at the interface between a liquid and a gas. For instance it can occur for a Leidenfrost droplet; a water drop levitating above a hot plate which temperature is much higher than the boiling temperature. In this case, boiling occurs in the film of saturated vapor which is entrapped between the bottom of the drop and the plate, whereas the top of the water droplet evaporates in contact of ambient air. Thus, boiling and evaporation can occur simultaneously on different regions of the same liquid interface or occur successively at different times of the history of an evaporating droplet. Usual numerical methods are not able to perform computations in these transient regimes, therefore, we propose in this paper a novel numerical method to achieve this challenging task. Finally, we present several accurate validations against experimental results on Leidenfrost Droplets to strengthen the relevance of this new method.

  17. Numerical discretization for nonlinear diffusion filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, I.; Mizuar, I.; Aminuddin, M. M. M.; Dasril, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear diffusion filters are famously used in machine vision for image denoising and restoration. This paper presents a study on the effects of different numerical discretization of nonlinear diffusion filter. Several numerical discretization schemes are presented; namely semi-implicit, AOS, and fully implicit schemes. The results of these schemes are compared by visual results, objective measurement e.g. PSNR and MSE. The results are also compared to a Daubechies wavelet denoising method. It is acknowledged that the two preceding scheme have already been discussed in literature, however comparison to the latter scheme has not been made. The semi-implicit scheme uses an additive operator splitting (AOS) developed to overcome the shortcoming of the explicit scheme i.e., stability for very small time steps. Although AOS has proven to be efficient, from the nonlinear diffusion filter results with different discretization schemes, examples shows that implicit schemes are worth pursuing.

  18. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  19. A Numerical Study of Feathering Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wing-Kit; Wang, Hsiang-Hsu

    2016-06-01

    The stability of a spiral shock of self-gravitating, magnetized interstellar medium is studied by performing two-dimensional numerical simulations of a local patch of tight-winding spiral arm. As previously suggested by the linear studies, two types of instabilities are identified, namely, wiggle instability and feathering instability. The former instability occurs in the hydrodynamics limit and results in short wavelength perturbations. On the other hand, the feathering instability requires both self-gravitating and magnetic fields and results in wider structures.

  20. Direct numerical simulation of hot jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Marc C.

    1993-01-01

    The ultimate motivation of this work is to investigate the stability of two dimensional heated jets and its implications for aerodynamic sound generation from data obtained with direct numerical simulations (DNS). As pointed out in our last report, these flows undergo two types of instabilities, convective or absolute, depending on their temperature. We also described the limits of earlier experimental and theoretical studies and explained why a numerical investigation could give us new insight into the physics of these instabilities. The aeroacoustical interest of these flows was also underlined. In order to reach this goal, we first need to succeed in the DNS of heated jets. Our past efforts have been focused on this issue which encountered several difficulties. Our numerical difficulties are directly related to the physical problem we want to investigate since these absolutely or almost absolutely unstable flows are by definition very sensitive to the smallest disturbances and are very likely to reach nonlinear saturation through a numerical feedback mechanism. As a result, it is very difficult to compute a steady laminar solution using a spatial DNS. A steady state was reached only for strongly co-flowed jets, but these flows are almost equivalent to two independent mixing layers. Thus they are far from absolute instability and have much lower growth rates.

  1. On the stability of satellite capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitz-Coy, Norman G.; Chatterjee, Anindya

    The stability of `grapple and wrestle' capture scenarios is investigated. It is shown that these capture scenarios may become unstable. The dynamic system is analyzed assuming there are no control forces and torques. The system is examined for stability by linearizing the equations in terms of small deviations from steady, non-interfering coning motion. Routh's method for analyzing small deviations from steady motion in dynamical systems is utilized. Simplified flexibility effects are included. The final results are numerical, and are presented in terms of a reduced number of parameters so that some general conclusions may be drawn. Since a conclusion of neutral stability from linear analysis may be false, the linear analysis results are validated through some numerical simulations using the exact nonlinear equations.

  2. "Recognizing Numerical Constants"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The advent of inexpensive, high performance computer and new efficient algorithms have made possible the automatic recognition of numerically computed constants. In other words, techniques now exist for determining, within certain limits, whether a computed real or complex number can be written as a simple expression involving the classical constants of mathematics. In this presentation, some of the recently discovered techniques for constant recognition, notably integer relation detection algorithms, will be presented. As an application of these methods, the author's recent work in recognizing "Euler sums" will be described in some detail.

  3. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  4. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…

  5. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  6. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  7. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  8. Student Achievement, 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangino, Evangelina

    This report summarizes results of student achievement in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) tests in 1986-87. Major findings indicate the following: (1) 99.4% of AISD seniors to graduate in May 1987 passed the Exit-Level TEAMS tests, with only 17 denied diplomas in…

  9. Sociocultural Variation in Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the variations in literacy achievement among native and non-native upper primary school children (grades three to six) in the Netherlands. Various measures of word decoding, reading literacy and writing skill were collected from 1091 native Dutch children, 753 children with a former Dutch colonial…

  10. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  11. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  12. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  13. Grouping Students for Increased Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews results of four recent studies exploring the effects of various student-grouping schemes on academic achievement. Grouping plans included multiage classrooms, full-time ability grouping, and within-classroom grouping. Two studies investigated administrator attitudes toward student grouping. Several studies found that grouping plans…

  14. Achievement, Hedonism and the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    The problem of poor school achievement is in part because students lack work and discipline values. The article suggests moral and ethical teachings inspire students to be better scholars and people; and teacher education must prepare teachers to be moral educators by reintroducing moral education into the curriculum. (SM)

  15. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  16. Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C.

    This paper discusses ways that institutions can change the higher education system and environment to accommodate more minority students. The first section, "Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement," presents an overview of the problems facing colleges and universities with respect to recruiting and retaining minority students. In the…

  17. Faculty Development: Assessing Learner Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; Overfield, Karen

    This study addressed the challenges of developing a faculty professional development workshop on assessment, measurement, and evaluation of achievement in adult learners. The setting for the workshop was a system of postsecondary career colleges throughout the United States. The curriculum development model of D. Kirkpatrick (1994) was used as a…

  18. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  19. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  20. Teacher Dispositions and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Kathleen Adams

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to close the achievement gap between students of minority and majority populations and between students in higher and lower economic circumstances, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) added instruction and evaluation of teacher dispositions to its requirements for credentialing prospective teachers.…

  1. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  2. Numerical simulation of electrospray in the cone-jet mode.

    PubMed

    Herrada, M A; López-Herrera, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Vega, E J; Montanero, J M; Popinet, S

    2012-08-01

    We present a robust and computationally efficient numerical scheme for simulating steady electrohydrodynamic atomization processes (electrospray). The main simplification assumed in this scheme is that all the free electrical charges are distributed over the interface. A comparison of the results with those calculated with a volume-of-fluid method showed that the numerical scheme presented here accurately describes the flow pattern within the entire liquid domain. Experiments were performed to partially validate the numerical predictions. The simulations reproduced accurately the experimental shape of the liquid cone jet, providing correct values of the emitted electric current even for configurations very close to the cone-jet stability limit.

  3. Capsule-train stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryngelson, Spencer H.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2016-07-01

    Elastic capsules flowing in small enough tubes, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well known to line up into regular single-file trains. The stability of such trains in somewhat wider channels, where this organization is not observed, is studied in a two-dimensional model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended capsules. A diverse set of linearly amplifying disturbances, both long-time asymptotic (modal) and transient (nonmodal) perturbations, is identified and analyzed. These have a range of amplification rates and their corresponding forms are wavelike, typically dominated by one of five principal perturbation classes: longitudinal and transverse translations, tilts, and symmetric and asymmetric shape distortions. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear effects. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow.

  4. Numerical modeling of subsidence in saturated porous media: A mass conservative method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Roza; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a second order accurate cell-centered finite volume method (FVM) is coupled with a finite element method (FEM) to solve the deformation of a saturated porous layer based on Biot's consolidation model. The proposed numerical technique is applied to the fully unstructured triangular grids to simulate actual geological formations. To reconstruct the pressure gradient at control volume faces, the diamond scheme is implemented as a multipoint flux approximation method. Also the least square algorithm is used to interpolate pressure at the vertices from the cell-center values. The stability of this numerical model is studied in comparison to the different FEMs through various examples. It is shown that, although the Taylor-Hood FEM has been introduced as a remedy for violation of the inf-sup condition, it does not entirely remove the non-physical oscillations. Contrary to the linear and Taylor-Hood FEMs, the proposed discretization model provides monotonic solution without imposing any restriction on the mesh or time step size. Compared to the mixed FEM, the method achieves local mass balance with fewer degrees of freedom. To couple the flow and mechanical sub-problems, the fixed-stress operator split is implemented as an iterative sequential method, due to its unconditional stability, accuracy and high rate of convergence. The accuracy of the proposed model is verified via a range of examples including analytical and numerical solutions. The performance of this methodology is assessed through modeling of subsidence in an aquifer-interbed system. This problem illustrates the capability of the model in providing stable solution in heterogeneous domains with complicated shapes.

  5. Confidence in Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hemez, Francois M.

    2015-02-23

    This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.

  6. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

  7. Projectile transverse motion and stability in electromagnetic induction launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Shokair, I.R.

    1993-08-01

    The transverse motion of a projectile in an electromagnetic induction launcher is considered. The equations of motion for translation and rotation are derived assuming a rigid projectile and a flyway restoring force per unit length that is proportional to the local displacement. Transverse forces and torques due to energized coils are derived for displaced or tilted projectile elements based on a first order perturbation method. The resulting equations of motion for a rigid projectile composed of multiple elements in a multi-coil launcher are analyzed as a coupled oscillator system of equations and a simple stability condition is derived. The equations of motion are incorporated into the 2-D Slingshot code and numerical solutions for the transverse motion are obtained. For the 20 meter navy launcher parameters we find that stability is achieved with a flyway spring constant of k {approx} 1{times} 10{sup 8} N/m{sup 2}. For k {approx} 1.5 {times} 10{sup 8} N/m{sup 2} and sample coil misalignment modeled as a sine wave of I mm amplitude at wavelengths of one or two meters, the projectile displacement grows to a maximum of 4 mm. This growth is due to resonance between the natural frequency of the Projectile transverse motion and the coil displacement wavelength. This resonance does not persist because of the changing axial velocity. Random coil displacement is also found to cause roughly the same projectile displacement. For the maximum displacement a rough estimate of the transverse pressure is 50 bars.

  8. Optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Soobae; Overbye, Thomas J.

    2015-10-21

    Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modalmore » analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. As a result, the performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.« less

  9. Optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soobae; Overbye, Thomas J.

    2015-10-21

    Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modal analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. As a result, the performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.

  10. Optimal Recursive Digital Filters for Active Bending Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.

    2013-01-01

    In the design of flight control systems for large flexible boosters, it is common practice to utilize active feedback control of the first lateral structural bending mode so as to suppress transients and reduce gust loading. Typically, active stabilization or phase stabilization is achieved by carefully shaping the loop transfer function in the frequency domain via the use of compensating filters combined with the frequency response characteristics of the nozzle/actuator system. In this paper we present a new approach for parameterizing and determining optimal low-order recursive linear digital filters so as to satisfy phase shaping constraints for bending and sloshing dynamics while simultaneously maximizing attenuation in other frequency bands of interest, e.g. near higher frequency parasitic structural modes. By parameterizing the filter directly in the z-plane with certain restrictions, the search space of candidate filter designs that satisfy the constraints is restricted to stable, minimum phase recursive low-pass filters with well-conditioned coefficients. Combined with optimal output feedback blending from multiple rate gyros, the present approach enables rapid and robust parametrization of autopilot bending filters to attain flight control performance objectives. Numerical results are presented that illustrate the application of the present technique to the development of rate gyro filters for an exploration-class multi-engined space launch vehicle.

  11. Stability of the Horizontal Flight of an Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshun, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The stability of the horizontal flight of a light aircraft is studied using the singular-perturbation method. A numerical parameter is introduced into the equation of motion to correct for possible errors of modeling. A set of parameter values at which stability remains is obtained

  12. Vacuum stability of asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litim, Daniel F.; Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We study the phase diagram and the stability of the ground state for certain four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories whose high-energy behaviour is controlled by an interacting fixed point. We also provide analytical and numerical results for running couplings, their crossover scales, the separatrix, and the Coleman-Weinberg effective potential. Classical and quantum stability of the vacuum is established.

  13. Robust stability of second-order systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a robust control design using strictly positive realness for second-order dynamic systems. The robust strictly positive real controller allows the system to be stabilized with only acceleration measurements. An important property of this design is that stabilization of the system is independent of the system parameters. The control design connects a virtual system to the given plant. The combined system is positive real regardless of system parameter uncertainty. Then any strictly positive real controllers can be used to achieve robust stability. A spring-mass system example and its computer simulations are presented to demonstrate this controller design.

  14. Quantum codes with low weight stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Dumer, Ilya; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2012-02-01

    We study quantum cyclic stabilizer codes whose stabilizer can be always defined by one or two stabilizer generators. Our main goal is to construct low-weight stabilizer generators that can yield quantum codes with high code rate and simple error correction. To do so, we apply the classical quaternary representation of stabilizer codes and extend our recent study of one-generator cyclic codes [1]. For any stabilizer generator of weight four or five, we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for its commutativity. We then proceed with a design of additive cyclic codes with such generators. In some cases, we also extend our commutativity condition and code design to generators of weight six. In particular, quantum cyclic codes with stabilizers of weight four are mapped to the generalized toric codes. Here we also extend the notion of toric codes using a translationally invariant generator and periodic boundary conditions on a two dimensional lattice. Some of our numerically constructed codes can be redefined by means of Code Word Stabilized (CWS) representation [1] as quantum versions of repetition codes. We particularly concentrate on codes with a fixed nonzero rate for which the minimum distance asymptotically grows as the blocklength grows.[4pt] [1] arXiv:1108.5490v1

  15. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The length of proposed Mars missions and the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system, which will need a five-year shelf life. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortification nutrients will remain stable through a long duration exploration mission at sufficient levels if compatible formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX) such that the vitamin concentration per serving equaled 25% of the recommended daily intake after two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermo-stabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced, with and without the vitamin premix, to assess the impact of the added fortification on color and taste and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The addition of fortification to spaceflight foods did not greatly alter the organoleptic properties of most products. In most cases, overall acceptability scores remained above 6.0 (minimum acceptable score) following six months and one year of low-temperature storage. Likewise, the color of fortified products appears to be preserved over one year of storage. The only exceptions were Grilled pork Chop and Chicken Noodle Soup whose individual components appeareddegrade rapidly over one year of storage. Finally, most vitamins appeared to be stable during long-term storage. The only exception was thiamin, which degraded rapidly during the first year of storage at

  16. Supplemental data and calculations of the lateral stability of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Gotthold

    1934-01-01

    In connection with the DVL Report 272 on the theory of the lateral stability of airplanes, the formal results are here amplified in some respects and their technical significance again briefly explained. Three numerical examples show how model tests for checking the lateral stability are to be evaluated and supplemented, if necessary, and how the stability limits depend on the design of the airplane and on the conditions of flight.

  17. Numerical and Calculation Abilities in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colomer, Carla; Re, Anna M.; Miranda, Ana; Lucangeli, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the specific numerical and calculation abilities of 28 children with ADHD without comorbid mathematical learning disabilities (LD), ranging from the 1st to the 5th grade of primary school, and to examine the stability or the development of the arithmetic profile. Our results showed that a high percentage of…

  18. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  19. The incongruous achiever in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kline, S A; Golombek, H

    1974-06-01

    The authors wished to study some of the internal psychological dynamics of achievement in a nonpatient identified high school population. Questionnaires were administered to the Grade 13 students and their parents in a large high school. A number of students whose achievement and educational plans were not congruous with their general background were selected for interview. The findings suggest that a wide variety of ages and developmental stages can be discerned as critical points in the development of a student's attitude toward higher education. These students have many values in common, and their values appear related to a positive or negative identification with parental values. The students themselves show a wide range of personality integration. They relate in a special way to a wide variety of teachers' personalities.

  20. Cooperative adaptive bidirectional control of a train platoon for efficient utility and string stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shi-Gen; Dong, Hai-Rong; Ning, Bin; Roberts, Clive; Chen, Lei; Sun, Xu-Bin

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes cooperative adaptive control schemes for a train platoon to improve efficient utility and guarantee string stability. The control schemes are developed based on a bidirectional strategy, i.e., the information of proximal (preceding and following) trains is used in the controller design. Based on available proximal information (prox-info) of location, speed, and acceleration, a direct adaptive control is designed to maintain the tracking interval at the minimum safe distance. Based on available prox-info of location, an observer-based adaptive control is designed to achieve the same target, which alleviates the requirements of equipped sensors to measure prox-info of speed and acceleration. The developed schemes are capable of on-line estimating of the unknown system parameters and stabilizing the closed-loop system, the string stability of train platoon is guaranteed on the basis of Lyapunov stability theorem. Numerical simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control laws. Project supported by the Beijing Jiaotong University Research Program, China (Grant No. RCS2014ZT18), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2015JBZ007), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61233001, 61322307, and 61304196).

  1. Effect of surfactants on single bubble sonoluminescence behavior and bubble surface stability.

    PubMed

    Leong, Thomas; Yasui, Kyuichi; Kato, Kazumi; Harvie, Dalton; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Kentish, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    The effect of surfactants on the radial dynamics of a single sonoluminescing bubble has been investigated. Experimentally, it is observed that an increase in the surfactant concentration leads to a decline in the oscillation amplitude and hence light emission intensity. Numerical simulations support this result, showing that under the driving pressures required to achieve single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), the surface properties, namely, the surface elasticity and dilatational viscosity, contribute to the damping of the radial amplitude in the bubble oscillation. In most cases this stabilizes the bubble surface, and contributes to a decreased light intensity. A stronger driving pressure is necessary to achieve equivalent light emission to a surfactant-free bubble. However, as the driving pressure is increased, the surface stability also decreases, making it practically very difficult for a bubble to achieve high SBSL intensities in concentrated surfactant solutions. Although more stable owing to more mild pulsations, the instability mechanism for a surfactant-coated bubble at higher ambient radii is more likely to be of the Rayleigh-Taylor type than that of a clean bubble at the same given acoustic parameters, which can lead to bubble disintegration before correcting mechanisms can bring the bubble back into the stable sonoluminescence regime.

  2. Beam cooling: Principles and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Mohl, Dieter; Sessler, Andrew M.

    2003-05-18

    After a discussion of Liouville's theorem, and its implications for beam cooling, a brief description is given of each of the various methods of beam cooling: stochastic, electron, radiation, laser, ionization, etc. For each, we present the type of particle for which it is appropriate, its range of applicability, and the currently achieved degree of cooling. For each method we also discuss the present applications and, also, possible future developments and further applications.

  3. Predicting educational achievement from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Selzam, S; Krapohl, E; von Stumm, S; O'Reilly, P F; Rimfeld, K; Kovas, Y; Dale, P S; Lee, J J; Plomin, R

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide polygenic score (GPS), derived from a 2013 genome-wide association study (N=127,000), explained 2% of the variance in total years of education (EduYears). In a follow-up study (N=329,000), a new EduYears GPS explains up to 4%. Here, we tested the association between this latest EduYears GPS and educational achievement scores at ages 7, 12 and 16 in an independent sample of 5825 UK individuals. We found that EduYears GPS explained greater amounts of variance in educational achievement over time, up to 9% at age 16, accounting for 15% of the heritable variance. This is the strongest GPS prediction to date for quantitative behavioral traits. Individuals in the highest and lowest GPS septiles differed by a whole school grade at age 16. Furthermore, EduYears GPS was associated with general cognitive ability (~3.5%) and family socioeconomic status (~7%). There was no evidence of an interaction between EduYears GPS and family socioeconomic status on educational achievement or on general cognitive ability. These results are a harbinger of future widespread use of GPS to predict genetic risk and resilience in the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27431296

  4. Using PASCAL for numerical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volper, D.; Miller, T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The data structures and control structures of PASCAL enhance the coding ability of the programmer. Proposed extensions to the language further increase its usefulness in writing numeric programs and support packages for numeric programs.

  5. Perspectives in numerical astrophysics:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdy, V.

    2016-12-01

    In this discussion paper, we investigate the current and future status of numerical astrophysics and highlight key questions concerning the transition to the exascale era. We first discuss the fact that one of the main motivation behind high performance simulations should not be the reproduction of observational or experimental data, but the understanding of the emergence of complexity from fundamental laws. This motivation is put into perspective regarding the quest for more computational power and we argue that extra computational resources can be used to gain in abstraction. Then, the readiness level of present-day simulation codes in regard to upcoming exascale architecture is examined and two major challenges are raised concerning both the central role of data movement for performances and the growing complexity of codes. Software architecture is finally presented as a key component to make the most of upcoming architectures while solving original physics problems.

  6. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  7. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  8. Numeric Databases in the Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschel, S. V.

    1984-01-01

    Provides exploration into types of numeric databases available (also known as source databases, nonbibliographic databases, data-files, data-banks, fact banks); examines differences and similarities between bibliographic and numeric databases; identifies disciplines that utilize numeric databases; and surveys representative examples in the…

  9. On the Achievable Throughput Over TVWS Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Caleffi, Marcello; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we study the throughput achievable by an unlicensed sensor network operating over TV white space spectrum in presence of coexistence interference. Through the letter, we first analytically derive the achievable throughput as a function of the channel ordering. Then, we show that the problem of deriving the maximum expected throughput through exhaustive search is computationally unfeasible. Finally, we derive a computational-efficient algorithm characterized by polynomial-time complexity to compute the channel set maximizing the expected throughput and, stemming from this, we derive a closed-form expression of the maximum expected throughput. Numerical simulations validate the theoretical analysis. PMID:27043565

  10. Stability and stabilization of the lattice Boltzmann method.

    PubMed

    Brownlee, R A; Gorban, A N; Levesley, J

    2007-03-01

    We revisit the classical stability versus accuracy dilemma for the lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM). Our goal is a stable method of second-order accuracy for fluid dynamics based on the lattice Bhatnager-Gross-Krook method (LBGK). The LBGK scheme can be recognized as a discrete dynamical system generated by free flight and entropic involution. In this framework the stability and accuracy analysis are more natural. We find the necessary and sufficient conditions for second-order accurate fluid dynamics modeling. In particular, it is proven that in order to guarantee second-order accuracy the distribution should belong to a distinguished surface--the invariant film (up to second order in the time step). This surface is the trajectory of the (quasi)equilibrium distribution surface under free flight. The main instability mechanisms are identified. The simplest recipes for stabilization add no artificial dissipation (up to second order) and provide second-order accuracy of the method. Two other prescriptions add some artificial dissipation locally and prevent the system from loss of positivity and local blowup. Demonstration of the proposed stable LBGK schemes are provided by the numerical simulation of a one-dimensional (1D) shock tube and the unsteady 2D flow around a square cylinder up to Reynolds number Re approximately 20,000.

  11. How dead ends undermine power grid stability.

    PubMed

    Menck, Peter J; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen; Joachim Schellnhuber, Hans

    2014-06-09

    The cheapest and thus widespread way to add new generators to a high-voltage power grid is by a simple tree-like connection scheme. However, it is not entirely clear how such locally cost-minimizing connection schemes affect overall system performance, in particular the stability against blackouts. Here we investigate how local patterns in the network topology influence a power grid's ability to withstand blackout-prone large perturbations. Employing basin stability, a nonlinear concept, we find in numerical simulations of artificially generated power grids that tree-like connection schemes--so-called dead ends and dead trees--strongly diminish stability. A case study of the Northern European power system confirms this result and demonstrates that the inverse is also true: repairing dead ends by addition of a few transmission lines substantially enhances stability. This may indicate a topological design principle for future power grids: avoid dead ends.

  12. Facet morphology response to nonuniformities in nutrient and impurity supply. II. Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Vekilov, Peter G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1996-02-01

    A model for the evolution of facet morphologies in growth from solutions is presented. The numerical model links, for the first time, bulk transport of solute and impurities in a solution growth cell with microscopic interfacial kinetics processes. The macroscopic transport is dealt with as in the 2D model [H. Lin, F. Rosenberger, J.I.D. Alexander and A. Nadarajah, J. Crystal Growth 151 (1995) 153] of a crystallization cell used for lysozyme in our laboratory. The microscopic kinetics is incorporated through a meso-scale continuum model of growth step motion in response to the interfacial concentration distributions. Local growth step velocities are linearly interpolated from the values obtained at the grid points of the bulk transport simulation. Experimentally determined kinetics and transport coefficients are employed. We find that the facets remain macroscopically flat, in spite of the lower nutrient and impurity concentrations in the facet center regions. This stabilization is achieved through the formation of a microscopic depression in the facet, with nonuniform vicinal slope (step density). If the step density in the facet center exceeds a certain value, no further stabilization results on further steepening, and the facet loses its macroscopic morphological stability. This loss of morphological stability depends sensitively on the value of the steps' kinetic coefficient. For pure lysozyme-precipitant solutions, we obtain microscopic depressions with a higher slope at the facet center than at the edge. However, with an impurity that impedes step kinetics and is preferentially incorporated into the crystal, the simulations produce microscopic facet depressions with higher slope at the edge. Impurity depletion at the interface, due to low initial concentration and/or slow diffusion leads to mixed shapes, and eventually to shapes typical of growth from pure solution. Quantitative agreement with facet morphologies observed on lysozyme crystals [P.G. Vekilov and

  13. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    devore, L; Chrzanowski, P

    2008-11-06

    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R&D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million. Severe

  14. Numerical Convergence In Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qirong; Hernquist, Lars; Li, Yuexing

    2015-02-01

    We study the convergence properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using numerical tests and simple analytic considerations. Our analysis shows that formal numerical convergence is possible in SPH only in the joint limit N → ∞, h → 0, and Nnb → ∞, where N is the total number of particles, h is the smoothing length, and Nnb is the number of neighbor particles within the smoothing volume used to compute smoothed estimates. Previous work has generally assumed that the conditions N → ∞ and h → 0 are sufficient to achieve convergence, while holding Nnb fixed. We demonstrate that if Nnb is held fixed as the resolution is increased, there will be a residual source of error that does not vanish as N → ∞ and h → 0. Formal numerical convergence in SPH is possible only if Nnb is increased systematically as the resolution is improved. Using analytic arguments, we derive an optimal compromise scaling for Nnb by requiring that this source of error balance that present in the smoothing procedure. For typical choices of the smoothing kernel, we find Nnb vpropN 0.5. This means that if SPH is to be used as a numerically convergent method, the required computational cost does not scale with particle number as O(N), but rather as O(N 1 + δ), where δ ≈ 0.5, with a weak dependence on the form of the smoothing kernel.

  15. Study report on guidelines and test procedures for investigating stability of nonlinear cardiovascular control system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    A general study of the stability of nonlinear as compared to linear control systems is presented. The analysis is general and, therefore, applies to other types of nonlinear biological control systems as well as the cardiovascular control system models. Both inherent and numerical stability are discussed for corresponding analytical and graphic methods and numerical methods.

  16. Fibonacci numerical integration on a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannay, J. H.; Nye, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    For elementary numerical integration on a sphere, there is a distinct advantage in using an oblique array of integration sampling points based on a chosen pair of successive Fibonacci numbers. The pattern has a familiar appearance of intersecting spirals, avoiding the local anisotropy of a conventional latitude longitude array. Besides the oblique Fibonacci array, the prescription we give is also based on a non-uniform scaling used for one-dimensional numerical integration, and indeed achieves the same order of accuracy as for one dimension: error ~N-6 for N points. This benefit of Fibonacci is not shared by domains of integration with boundaries (e.g., a square, for which it was originally proposed); with non-uniform scaling the error goes as N-3, with or without Fibonacci. For experimental measurements over a sphere our prescription is realized by a non-uniform Fibonacci array of weighted sampling points.

  17. Numerical Archetypal Parameterization for Mesoscale Convective Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical shear tends to organize atmospheric moist convection into multiscale coherent structures. Especially, the counter-gradient vertical transport of horizontal momentum by organized convection can enhance the wind shear and transport kinetic energy upscale. However, this process is not represented by traditional parameterizations. The present paper sets the archetypal dynamical models, originally formulated by the second author, into a parameterization context by utilizing a nonhydrostatic anelastic model with segmentally-constant approximation (NAM-SCA). Using a two-dimensional framework as a starting point, NAM-SCA spontaneously generates propagating tropical squall-lines in a sheared environment. A high numerical efficiency is achieved through a novel compression methodology. The numerically-generated archetypes produce vertical profiles of convective momentum transport that are consistent with the analytic archetype.

  18. Direct and indirect influences of executive functions on mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Cragg, Lucy; Keeble, Sarah; Richardson, Sophie; Roome, Hannah E; Gilmore, Camilla

    2017-05-01

    Achievement in mathematics is predicted by an individual's domain-specific factual knowledge, procedural skill and conceptual understanding as well as domain-general executive function skills. In this study we investigated the extent to which executive function skills contribute to these three components of mathematical knowledge, whether this mediates the relationship between executive functions and overall mathematics achievement, and if these relationships change with age. Two hundred and ninety-three participants aged between 8 and 25years completed a large battery of mathematics and executive function tests. Domain-specific skills partially mediated the relationship between executive functions and mathematics achievement: Inhibitory control within the numerical domain was associated with factual knowledge and procedural skill, which in turn was associated with mathematical achievement. Working memory contributed to mathematics achievement indirectly through factual knowledge, procedural skill and, to a lesser extent, conceptual understanding. There remained a substantial direct pathway between working memory and mathematics achievement however, which may reflect the role of working memory in identifying and constructing problem representations. These relationships were remarkably stable from 8years through to young adulthood. Our findings help to refine existing multi-component frameworks of mathematics and understand the mechanisms by which executive functions support mathematics achievement.

  19. AEST: Adaptive Eigenvalue Stability Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Waelbroeck, F.; van Dam, J. W.; Berk, H.

    2002-11-01

    An adaptive eigenvalue linear stability code is developed. The aim is on one hand to include the non-ideal MHD effects into the global MHD stability calculation for both low and high n modes and on the other hand to resolve the numerical difficulty involving MHD singularity on the rational surfaces at the marginal stability. Our code follows some parts of philosophy of DCON by abandoning relaxation methods based on radial finite element expansion in favor of an efficient shooting procedure with adaptive gridding. The δ W criterion is replaced by the shooting procedure and subsequent matrix eigenvalue problem. Since the technique of expanding a general solution into a summation of the independent solutions employed, the rank of the matrices involved is just a few hundreds. This makes easier to solve the eigenvalue problem with non-ideal MHD effects, such as FLR or even full kinetic effects, as well as plasma rotation effect, taken into account. To include kinetic effects, the approach of solving for the distribution function as a local eigenvalue ω problem as in the GS2 code will be employed in the future. Comparison of the ideal MHD version of the code with DCON, PEST, and GATO will be discussed. The non-ideal MHD version of the code will be employed to study as an application the transport barrier physics in tokamak discharges.

  20. Study of vortex ring dynamics in the nonlinear Schrodinger equation utilizing GPU-accelerated high-order compact numerical integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Ronald Meyer

    We numerically study the dynamics and interactions of vortex rings in the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). Single ring dynamics for both bright and dark vortex rings are explored including their traverse velocity, stability, and perturbations resulting in quadrupole oscillations. Multi-ring dynamics of dark vortex rings are investigated, including scattering and merging of two colliding rings, leapfrogging interactions of co-traveling rings, as well as co-moving steady-state multi-ring ensembles. Simulations of choreographed multi-ring setups are also performed, leading to intriguing interaction dynamics. Due to the inherent lack of a close form solution for vortex rings and the dimensionality where they live, efficient numerical methods to integrate the NLSE have to be developed in order to perform the extensive number of required simulations. To facilitate this, compact high-order numerical schemes for the spatial derivatives are developed which include a new semi-compact modulus-squared Dirichlet boundary condition. The schemes are combined with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme in order to keep the overall method fully explicit. To ensure efficient use of the schemes, a stability analysis is performed to find bounds on the largest usable time step-size as a function of the spatial step-size. The numerical methods are implemented into codes which are run on NVIDIA graphic processing unit (GPU) parallel architectures. The codes running on the GPU are shown to be many times faster than their serial counterparts. The codes are developed with future usability in mind, and therefore are written to interface with MATLAB utilizing custom GPU-enabled C codes with a MEX-compiler interface. Reproducibility of results is achieved by combining the codes into a code package called NLSEmagic which is freely distributed on a dedicated website.

  1. Conditions for equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Daniela J; de Folter, Julius W J; Luigjes, Bob; Castillo, Sonja I R; Sacanna, Stefano; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2010-08-19

    Particular types of solid-stabilized emulsions can be thermodynamically stable as evidenced by their spontaneous formation and monodisperse droplet size, which only depends on system parameters. Here, we investigate the generality of these equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions with respect to the basic constituents: aqueous phase with ions, oil, and stabilizing particles. From systematic variations of these constituents, we identify general conditions for the spontaneous formation of monodisperse solid-stabilized emulsions droplets. We conclude that emulsion stability is achieved by a combination of solid particles as well as amphiphilic ions adsorbed at the droplet surface, and low interfacial tensions of the bare oil-water interface of order 10 mN/m or below. Furthermore, preferential wetting of the colloidal particles by the oil phase is necessary for thermodynamic stability. We demonstrate the sufficiency of these basic requirements by extending the observed thermodynamic stability to emulsions of different compositions. Our findings point to a new class of colloid-stabilized meso-emulsions with a potentially high impact on industrial emulsification processes due to the associated large energy savings.

  2. Personalized numerical observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brankov, Jovan G.; Pretorius, P. Hendrik

    2010-02-01

    It is widely accepted that medical image quality should be assessed using task-based criteria, such as humanobserver (HO) performance in a lesion-detection (scoring) task. HO studies are time consuming and cost prohibitive to be used for image quality assessment during development of either reconstruction methods or imaging systems. Therefore, a numerical observer (NO), a HO surrogate, is highly desirable. In the past, we have proposed and successfully tested a NO based on a supervised-learning approach (namely a support vector machine) for cardiac gated SPECT image quality assessment. In the supervised-learning approach, the goal is to identify the relationship between measured image features and HO myocardium defect likelihood scores. Thus far we have treated multiple HO readers by simply averaging or pooling their respective scores. Due to observer variability, this may be suboptimal and less accurate. Therefore, in this work, we are setting our goal to predict individual observer scores independently in the hope to better capture some relevant lesion-detection mechanism of the human observers. This is even more important as there are many ways to get equivalent observer performance (measured by area under receiver operating curve), and simply predicting some joint (average or pooled) score alone is not likely to succeed.

  3. Numerical Relativity and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the Universe many powerful events are driven by strong gravitational effects that require general relativity to fully describe them. These include compact binary mergers, black hole accretion, and stellar collapse, where velocities can approach the speed of light and extreme gravitational fields (ΦNewt/c2≃1) mediate the interactions. Many of these processes trigger emission across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Compact binaries further source strong gravitational wave emission that could directly be detected in the near future. This feat will open up a gravitational wave window into our Universe and revolutionize our understanding of it. Describing these phenomena requires general relativity, and—where dynamical effects strongly modify gravitational fields—the full Einstein equations coupled to matter sources. Numerical relativity is a field within general relativity concerned with studying such scenarios that cannot be accurately modeled via perturbative or analytical calculations. In this review, we examine results obtained within this discipline, with a focus on its impact in astrophysics.

  4. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  5. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency.

  6. District Stability Framework (DSF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    systemic causes for the SOI. • Monitoring and Evaluation . Measure change in the stability environment with respect to specific SOI as well as overall...conditions and operating environments  Better stabilization planning  Better stabilization execution • More effective/thorough Monitoring and Evaluation (IMPACT

  7. Longitudinal Stability Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz,M.

    2009-01-02

    Coupled bunch longitudinal stability in the presence of high frequency impedances is considered. A frequency domain technique is developed and compared with simulations. The frequency domain technique allows for absolute stability tests and is applied to the problem of longitudinal stability in RHIC with the new 56 MHz RF system.

  8. Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Gerta; Treml, Franz; Gödel, Marion

    2013-06-01

    The social force model of Helbing and Molnár is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.

  9. Numerical Modelling Of Pumpkin Balloon Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, D.

    Tensys have been involved in the numerical formfinding and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures for 15 years. They have recently broadened this range of activities into the `lighter than air' field with significant involvement in aerostat and heavy-lift hybrid airship design. Since early 2004 they have been investigating pumpkin balloon instability on behalf of the NASA ULDB programme. These studies are undertaken using inTENS, an in-house finite element program suite based upon the Dynamic Relaxation solution method and developed especially for the non-linear analysis and patterning of membrane structures. The paper describes the current state of an investigation that started with a numerical simulation of the lobed cylinder problem first studied by Calladine. The influence of material properties and local geometric deformation on stability is demonstrated. A number of models of complete pumpkin balloons have then been established, including a 64-gore balloon with geometry based upon Julian Nott's Endeavour. This latter clefted dramatically upon initial inflation, a phenomenon that has been reproduced in the numerical model. Ongoing investigations include the introduction of membrane contact modelling into inTENS and correlation studies with the series of large-scale ULDB models currently in preparation.

  10. Achieving Reliable Communication in Dynamic Emergency Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N.; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%. PMID:22195075

  11. A numerical comparison of discrete Kalman filtering algorithms: An orbit determination case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, C. L.; Bierman, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The numerical stability and accuracy of various Kalman filter algorithms are thoroughly studied. Numerical results and conclusions are based on a realistic planetary approach orbit determination study. The case study results of this report highlight the numerical instability of the conventional and stabilized Kalman algorithms. Numerical errors associated with these algorithms can be so large as to obscure important mismodeling effects and thus give misleading estimates of filter accuracy. The positive result of this study is that the Bierman-Thornton U-D covariance factorization algorithm is computationally efficient, with CPU costs that differ negligibly from the conventional Kalman costs. In addition, accuracy of the U-D filter using single-precision arithmetic consistently matches the double-precision reference results. Numerical stability of the U-D filter is further demonstrated by its insensitivity of variations in the a priori statistics.

  12. Stability of Charged Grains in Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Hamilton, D. P.

    2011-04-01

    Hypervelocity impacts of interplanetary micrometeoroids with orbiting ring particles generate dusty debris of all sizes. These ejecta particles become electrically charged by interactions with orbiting plasma and solar photons. Accordingly, they experience both gravity and Lorentz forces, whose combined effects cause interesting and complex dynamics. For simplicity, we model the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn by centered and aligned dipoles and investigate the stability of motion for grains launched from circularly-orbiting parent bodies. We begin by determining the stability in both the radial and vertical directions as a function of charge-to-mass ratio and distance from the planet numerically. We find that positively-charged dust grains in the micron-size range are radially unstable, colliding with the planet if launched from within synchronous orbit and escaping entirely if launched outside this distance. Escaping grains have been observed as high-velocity dust streams from Jupiter and Saturn. In addition, positively and negatively-charged smaller grains are vertically unstable and spiral up magnetic field lines to sustain large latitudinal oscillations or be lost to the planet's atmosphere. We then undertake local and global stability analyses and derive stability criteria that match our numerical data extremely well. Our analysis builds upon work led by Burns, Hamilton, Horanyi, Howard, Mitchell, Northrop, Schaffer, and others. Some stability boundaries can be obtained analytically while others require more complicated semianalytic methods. Four of our five stability boundaries do not appear in the literature and the fifth matches the findings of Hamilton and Burns (1993). Finally, we expand our numerical runs to include the effects of tilted and offset magnetic field components. We find that regions of vertical instability expand significantly for the more complicated fields, and a large new region of radial instability appears outside synchronous

  13. Stability of synchronous oscillations in a system of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with delayed diffusive and pulsed coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossoni, Enrico; Chen, Yonghong; Ding, Mingzhou; Feng, Jianfeng

    2005-06-01

    We study the synchronization dynamics for a system of two Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons coupled diffusively or through pulselike interactions. By calculating the maximum transverse Lyapunov exponent, we found that, with diffusive coupling, there are three regions in the parameter space, corresponding to qualitatively distinct behaviors of the coupled dynamics. In particular, the two neurons can synchronize in two regions and desynchronize in the third. When excitatory and inhibitory pulse coupling is considered, we found that synchronized dynamics becomes more difficult to achieve in the sense that the parameter regions where the synchronous state is stable are smaller. Numerical simulations of the coupled system are presented to validate these results. The stability of a network of coupled HH neurons is then analyzed and the stability regions in the parameter space are exactly obtained.

  14. Stability of synchronous oscillations in a system of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with delayed diffusive and pulsed coupling.

    PubMed

    Rossoni, Enrico; Chen, Yonghong; Ding, Mingzhou; Feng, Jianfeng

    2005-06-01

    We study the synchronization dynamics for a system of two Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons coupled diffusively or through pulselike interactions. By calculating the maximum transverse Lyapunov exponent, we found that, with diffusive coupling, there are three regions in the parameter space, corresponding to qualitatively distinct behaviors of the coupled dynamics. In particular, the two neurons can synchronize in two regions and desynchronize in the third. When excitatory and inhibitory pulse coupling is considered, we found that synchronized dynamics becomes more difficult to achieve in the sense that the parameter regions where the synchronous state is stable are smaller. Numerical simulations of the coupled system are presented to validate these results. The stability of a network of coupled HH neurons is then analyzed and the stability regions in the parameter space are exactly obtained.

  15. A numerical method to model excitable cells.

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, R W; Westerfield, M; Moore, J W; Stockbridge, N

    1978-01-01

    We have extended a fast, stable, and accurate method for the numerical solution of cable equations to include changes in geometry and membrane properties in order to model a single excitable cell realistically. In addition, by including the provision that the radius may be a function of distance along an axis, we have achieved a general and powerful method for simulating a cell with any number of branched processes, any or all of which may be nonuniform in diameter, and with no restriction on the branching pattern. PMID:656539

  16. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire among Nigerian Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Fatade, Alfred O.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The stability of the achievement goal orientation across different contexts has been a source of further research since the new millennium. Through theoretically-driven and empirically-based analyses, this study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elliot and McGregor 2x2 framework for achievement goal questionnaire within…

  17. Numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of burning plasma is very complicated physics, which is dominated by multi-scale and multi-physics phenomena. To understand such phenomena, numerical simulations are indispensable. Fundamentals of numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling are briefly discussed in this paper. In addition, the parallelization technique such as open multi processing (OpenMP) and message passing interface (MPI) parallel programing are introduced and the loop-level parallelization is shown as an example.

  18. Stability boundaries for command augmentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrivastava, P. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Stability Augmentation System (SAS) is a special case of the Command Augmentation System (CAS). Control saturation imposes bounds on achievable commands. The state equilibrium depends only on the open loop dynamics and control deflection. The control magnitude to achieve a desired command equilibrium is independent of the feedback gain. A feedback controller provides the desired response, maintains the system equilibrium under disturbances, but it does not affect the equilibrium values of states and control. The saturation boundaries change with commands, but the location of the equilibrium points in the saturated region remains unchanged. Nonzero command vectors yield saturation boundaries that are asymmetric with respect to the state equilibrium. Except for the saddle point case with MCE control law, the stability boundaries change with commands. For the cases of saddle point and unstable nodes, the region of stability decreases with increasing command magnitudes.

  19. Probabilistic robust stabilization of fractional order systems with interval uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Yeroglu, Celaleddin; Senol, Bilal; Ates, Abdullah

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates effects of fractional order perturbation on the robust stability of linear time invariant systems with interval uncertainty. For this propose, a probabilistic stability analysis method based on characteristic root region accommodation in the first Riemann sheet is developed for interval systems. Stability probability distribution is calculated with respect to value of fractional order. Thus, we can figure out the fractional order interval, which makes the system robust stable. Moreover, the dependence of robust stability on the fractional order perturbation is analyzed by calculating the order sensitivity of characteristic polynomials. This probabilistic approach is also used to develop a robust stabilization algorithm based on parametric perturbation strategy. We present numerical examples demonstrating utilization of stability probability distribution in robust stabilization problems of interval uncertain systems.

  20. Numerical Estimation in Deaf and Hearing Adults.

    PubMed

    Bull, Rebecca; Marschark, Marc; Sapere, Patty; Davidson, Wendy A; Murphy, Derek; Nordmann, Emily

    2011-08-01

    Deaf students often lag behind hearing peers in numerical and mathematical abilities. Studies of hearing children with mathematical difficulties highlight the importance of estimation skills as the foundation for formal mathematical abilities, but research with adults is limited. Deaf and hearing college students were assessed on the Number-to-Position task as a measure of estimation, and completed standardised assessments of arithmetical and mathematical reasoning. Deaf students performed significantly more poorly on all measures, including making less accurate number-line estimates. For deaf students, there was also a strong relationship showing that those more accurate in making number-line estimates achieved higher scores on the math achievement tests. No such relationship was apparent for hearing students. Further insights into the estimation abilities of deaf individuals should be made, including tasks that require symbolic and non-symbolic estimation and which address the quality of estimation strategies being used.