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Sample records for achieve optimal balance

  1. Role of well-being therapy in achieving a balanced and individualized path to optimal functioning.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Chiara; Fava, Giovanni A

    2012-01-01

    A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), based on Ryff's conceptual model, has been developed and tested in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life and a sense of self-determination. A decreased vulnerability to depression, mood swings and anxiety has been demonstrated after WBT in high-risk populations. School interventions based on the principles of WBT have been found to yield both promotion of well-being and decrease of distress compared with control groups. The differential technical characteristics and indications of WBT are described, with a special reference to the promotion of an individualized and balanced path to achieve optimal human functioning, avoiding the polarities in positive psychological dimensions. PMID:22570318

  2. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  3. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance.

    PubMed

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  4. Achieve balance from your scorecard strategy.

    PubMed

    2000-04-01

    The Balanced Scorecard concept, which aims to translate an organization's mission and strategy into a set of concrete performance measures, may have been developed for use in other industries, but a growing number of hospital quality directors and administrators have begun to make the concept their own.

  5. Achieving a balance - Science and human exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    The linkage between science and human exploration is close. Currently, proponents of science and human presence themes identified by the Synthesis Group as the most important themes of Mars exploration, tend to have reservations about the other camp. Mechanisms that integrate the program themes are essential, to gain the advocacies of the exploration communities and find optimal solutions to the technical problems. Without such mechanisms, it will be difficult to gain widespread acceptance of the SEI as the strategic horizon for the U.S. civilian space program.

  6. A reduced emissions and optimal production balance

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, F.; Gianamore, D.

    1995-12-31

    Electric Utilities are motivated to produce power efficiently and with little excess emissions. Control strategies for boiler and combined cycle plants have evolved over time from simple performance monitoring to optimization with a view to heat rate, taking into account, thermal characteristics and other constraints. More stringent environmental incentives place even more factors on approaches for control. This essay describes and evaluates a repeatable design for power production that balances efficiency and low emissions goals.

  7. Achieving excellence in veterans healthcare--a balanced scorecard approach.

    PubMed

    Biro, Lawrence A; Moreland, Michael E; Cowgill, David E

    2003-01-01

    This article provides healthcare administrators and managers with a framework and model for developing a balanced scorecard and demonstrates the remarkable success of this process, which brings focus to leadership decisions about the allocation of resources. This scorecard was developed as a top management tool designed to structure multiple priorities of a large, complex, integrated healthcare system and to establish benchmarks to measure success in achieving targets for performance in identified areas. Significant benefits and positive results were derived from the implementation of the balanced scorecard, based upon benchmarks considered to be critical success factors. The network's chief executive officer and top leadership team set and articulated the network's primary operating principles: quality and efficiency in the provision of comprehensive healthcare and support services. Under the weighted benchmarks of the balanced scorecard, the facilities in the network were mandated to adhere to one non-negotiable tenet: providing care that is second to none. The balanced scorecard approach to leadership continuously ensures that this is the primary goal and focal point for all activity within the network. To that end, systems are always in place to ensure that the network is fully successful on all performance measures relating to quality.

  8. Achieving excellence in veterans healthcare--a balanced scorecard approach.

    PubMed

    Biro, Lawrence A; Moreland, Michael E; Cowgill, David E

    2003-01-01

    This article provides healthcare administrators and managers with a framework and model for developing a balanced scorecard and demonstrates the remarkable success of this process, which brings focus to leadership decisions about the allocation of resources. This scorecard was developed as a top management tool designed to structure multiple priorities of a large, complex, integrated healthcare system and to establish benchmarks to measure success in achieving targets for performance in identified areas. Significant benefits and positive results were derived from the implementation of the balanced scorecard, based upon benchmarks considered to be critical success factors. The network's chief executive officer and top leadership team set and articulated the network's primary operating principles: quality and efficiency in the provision of comprehensive healthcare and support services. Under the weighted benchmarks of the balanced scorecard, the facilities in the network were mandated to adhere to one non-negotiable tenet: providing care that is second to none. The balanced scorecard approach to leadership continuously ensures that this is the primary goal and focal point for all activity within the network. To that end, systems are always in place to ensure that the network is fully successful on all performance measures relating to quality. PMID:12774646

  9. REM sleep, energy balance and 'optimal foraging'.

    PubMed

    Horne, Jim

    2009-03-01

    Mechanisms underlying mammalian REM sleep (REM) indicate commonality with feeding and energy balance. REM 'epiphenomena' may facilitate this, in providing heat conservation and appetite modulation, with the atonia reflecting search (foraging?) behaviour, and the lost neck muscle tonus a suppressed ingestion. In rodents, REM deprivation severely undermines energy balance. It is argued that REM may also facilitate 'optimal foraging' in wakefulness by updating 'decisions' about: appropriate food, where to find it, allocation of time in obtaining it, the locomotion/energy expenditure required to do so, vs. risk of predation. Whereas REM in the early sleep period is oriented to this updating, later REM can put feeding 'on hold'. PGO intensity changes over successive REM periods may reflect this shift. Humans, pets, zoo and laboratory mammals, and neonates have easy food accessibility, without need to forage, leading to a potential excess of REM in the later sleep period; loss of which has different outcomes to total REM deprivation. A more ecological approach in understanding REM function is desirable.

  10. Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui

    2016-05-01

    Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.

  11. Achieving the Proper Balance Between Crew and Public Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowan, John; Rosati, Paul; Silvestri, Ray; Stahl, Ben; Wilde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. Historical examples and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will be presented. Using these examples as context, the paper will discuss some operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Manned vehicle perspectives from the FAA and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will also be summarized. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  12. Achieving the Proper Balance between Crew & Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, P.; Gowan, J.; Silvestri, R.; Stahl, B.; Rosati, P.

    2012-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard, and the design engineers must give these requirements the same consideration as crew safety requirements. For human spaceflight, the primary purpose and operational concept for any flight safety system is to protect the public while maximizing the likelihood of crew survival. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. An overview of existing range and crew safety policy requirements will be presented. Application of these requirements and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will also be discussed. Using these past programs as examples, the paper will detail operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Crewed vehicle perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will be summarized as well. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  13. Achieving the Proper Balance Between Crew and Public Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowan, John; Silvestri, Ray; Stahl, Ben; Rosati, Paul; Wilde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard, and the design engineers must give these requirements the same consideration as crew safety requirements. For human spaceflight, the primary purpose and operational concept for any flight safety system is to protect the public while maximizing the likelihood of crew survival. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. An overview of existing range and crew safety policy requirements will be presented. Application of these requirements and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will also be discussed. Using these past programs as examples, the paper will detail operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Manned vehicle perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will be summarized as well. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  14. Fuzzy Pool Balance: An algorithm to achieve a two dimensional balance in distribute storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenjing; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    The limitation of scheduling modules and the gradual addition of disk pools in distributed storage systems often result in imbalances among their disk pools in terms of both disk usage and file count. This can cause various problems to the storage system such as single point of failure, low system throughput and imbalanced resource utilization and system loads. An algorithm named Fuzzy Pool Balance (FPB) is proposed here to solve this problem. The input of FPB is the current file distribution among disk pools and the output is a file migration plan indicating what files are to be migrated to which pools. FPB uses an array to classify the files by their sizes. The file classification array is dynamically calculated with a defined threshold named Tmax that defines the allowed pool disk usage deviations. File classification is the basis of file migration. FPB also defines the Immigration Pool (IP) and Emigration Pool (EP) according to the pool disk usage and File Quantity Ratio (FQR) that indicates the percentage of each category of files in each disk pool, so files with higher FQR in an EP will be migrated to IP(s) with a lower FQR of this file category. To verify this algorithm, we implemented FPB on an ATLAS Tier2 dCache production system. The results show that FPB can achieve a very good balance in both free space and file counts, and adjusting the threshold value Tmax and the correction factor to the average FQR can achieve a tradeoff between free space and file count.

  15. Optimizing Balanced Incomplete Block Designs for Educational Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Carlson, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A popular design in large-scale educational assessments as well as any other type of survey is the balanced incomplete block design. The design is based on an item pool split into a set of blocks of items that are assigned to sets of "assessment booklets." This article shows how the problem of calculating an optimal balanced incomplete block…

  16. Carbon and nutrient use efficiencies optimally balance stoichiometric imbalances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Čapek, Petr; Lindahl, Björn; Mooshammer, Maria; Richter, Andreas; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2016-04-01

    Decomposer organisms face large stoichiometric imbalances because their food is generally poor in nutrients compared to the decomposer cellular composition. The presence of excess carbon (C) requires adaptations to utilize nutrients effectively while disposing of or investing excess C. As food composition changes, these adaptations lead to variable C- and nutrient-use efficiencies (defined as the ratios of C and nutrients used for growth over the amounts consumed). For organisms to be ecologically competitive, these changes in efficiencies with resource stoichiometry have to balance advantages and disadvantages in an optimal way. We hypothesize that efficiencies are varied so that community growth rate is optimized along stoichiometric gradients of their resources. Building from previous theories, we predict that maximum growth is achieved when C and nutrients are co-limiting, so that the maximum C-use efficiency is reached, and nutrient release is minimized. This optimality principle is expected to be applicable across terrestrial-aquatic borders, to various elements, and at different trophic levels. While the growth rate maximization hypothesis has been evaluated for consumers and predators, in this contribution we test it for terrestrial and aquatic decomposers degrading resources across wide stoichiometry gradients. The optimality hypothesis predicts constant efficiencies at low substrate C:N and C:P, whereas above a stoichiometric threshold, C-use efficiency declines and nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies increase up to one. Thus, high resource C:N and C:P lead to low C-use efficiency, but effective retention of nitrogen and phosphorus. Predictions are broadly consistent with efficiency trends in decomposer communities across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Infomax Strategies for an Optimal Balance Between Exploration and Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Gautam; Celani, Antonio; Vergassola, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Proper balance between exploitation and exploration is what makes good decisions that achieve high reward, like payoff or evolutionary fitness. The Infomax principle postulates that maximization of information directs the function of diverse systems, from living systems to artificial neural networks. While specific applications turn out to be successful, the validity of information as a proxy for reward remains unclear. Here, we consider the multi-armed bandit decision problem, which features arms (slot-machines) of unknown probabilities of success and a player trying to maximize cumulative payoff by choosing the sequence of arms to play. We show that an Infomax strategy (Info-p) which optimally gathers information on the highest probability of success among the arms, saturates known optimal bounds and compares favorably to existing policies. Conversely, gathering information on the identity of the best arm in the bandit leads to a strategy that is vastly suboptimal in terms of payoff. The nature of the quantity selected for Infomax acquisition is then crucial for effective tradeoffs between exploration and exploitation.

  18. Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.; Bader, Jon B.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a candidate math model search algorithm that recommends an optimized regression model for the data analysis. During the calibration the normal force and the moment at the balance moment center were selected as independent calibration variables. The sting balance itself had two moment gages. Therefore, after analyzing the connection between calibration loads and gage outputs, it was decided to choose the difference and the sum of the gage outputs as the two responses that best describe the behavior of the balance. The math model search algorithm was applied to these two responses. An optimized regression model was obtained for each response. Classical strain gage balance load transformations and the equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam under load are used to show that the search algorithm s two optimized regression models are supported by a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the applied calibration loads and the measured gage outputs. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when terms of a regression model of a balance can directly be derived from first principles of physics. In addition, it is interesting to note that the search algorithm recommended the correct regression model term combinations using only a set of statistical quality metrics that were applied to the experimental data during the algorithm s term selection process.

  19. Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert; Bader, Jon B.

    2009-01-01

    Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a search algorithm that identifies an optimized regression model for the data analysis. The selected sting balance had two moment gages that were mounted forward and aft of the balance moment center. The difference and the sum of the two gage outputs were fitted in the least squares sense using the normal force and the pitching moment at the balance moment center as independent variables. The regression model search algorithm predicted that the difference of the gage outputs should be modeled using the intercept and the normal force. The sum of the two gage outputs, on the other hand, should be modeled using the intercept, the pitching moment, and the square of the pitching moment. Equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam are used to show that the search algorithm s two recommended math models can also be obtained after performing a rigorous theoretical analysis of the deflection of the sting balance under load. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when regression models of balance calibration data can directly be derived from first principles of physics and engineering. In addition, it is interesting to see that the search algorithm recommended the same regression models for the data analysis using only a set of statistical quality metrics.

  20. The Effects of Academic Optimism on Elementary Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…

  1. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kiah L; Millsteed, Jeannine; Richmond, Janet E; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Girdler, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working 'sandwich' generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working 'sandwich' generation women.

  2. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kiah L; Millsteed, Jeannine; Richmond, Janet E; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Girdler, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working 'sandwich' generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working 'sandwich' generation women. PMID:27305074

  3. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance

    PubMed Central

    Girdler, Sonya J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women. PMID:27305074

  4. GMI Instrument Spin Balance Method, Optimization, Calibration, and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3 year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and CG to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI instrument is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire instrument was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI instrument. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.

  5. GMI Instrument Spin Balance Method, Optimization, Calibration and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3-year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and center of gravity (CG) to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI instrument is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire instrument was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI instrument. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.

  6. Wage-Earner or Family Member? FCS Students Learn How to Achieve a Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabb, Tamra

    2004-01-01

    Successful business people in all walks of life recognize that achieving a balance between their work lives and their families is critical to their personal happiness. Although the subject is mentioned in textbooks and seminars, very little, if any, time is spent discussing how the young career person will achieve this goal. Fortunately, potential…

  7. Academic Optimism and Student Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Page A.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was two-fold: to demonstrate a general construct of schools called academic optimism and to show it was related to student achievement in urban elementary schools, even controlling for socioeconomic factors, and school size. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 99 urban elementary schools in Texas…

  8. Improving balance function using vestibular stochastic resonance: optimizing stimulus characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Fiedler, Matthew J; Kofman, Igor S; Wood, Scott J; Serrador, Jorge M; Peters, Brian; Cohen, Helen S; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2011-04-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a non-linear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. Stochastic resonance using imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, has been shown to significantly improve ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt; improved balance performance during postural disturbances and optimize covariance between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart rate responses. In our study, 15 subjects stood on a compliant surface with their eyes closed. They were given low-amplitude binaural bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular organs in two frequency ranges of 1-2 and 0-30 Hz over the amplitude range of 0 to ±700 μA. Subjects were instructed to maintain an upright stance during 43-s trials, which consisted of baseline (zero amplitude) and stimulation (non-zero amplitude) periods. Measures of stability of the head and trunk using inertial motion unit sensors attached to these segments and the whole body using a force plate were measured and quantified in the mediolateral plane. Using a multivariate optimization criterion, our results show that the low levels of vestibular stimulation given to the vestibular organs improved balance performance in normal healthy subjects in the range of 5-26% consistent with the stochastic resonance phenomenon. In our study, 8 of 15 and 10 of 15 subjects were responsive for the 1-2- and 0-30-Hz stimulus signals, respectively. The improvement in balance performance did not differ significantly between the stimulations in the two frequency ranges. The amplitude of optimal stimulus for improving balance performance was predominantly in the range of ±100 to ±400 μA. A device based on SR stimulation of the vestibular system might be useful as either a training

  9. Fast Optimal Load Balancing Algorithms for 1D Partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Aykanat, Cevdet

    2002-12-09

    One-dimensional decomposition of nonuniform workload arrays for optimal load balancing is investigated. The problem has been studied in the literature as ''chains-on-chains partitioning'' problem. Despite extensive research efforts, heuristics are still used in parallel computing community with the ''hope'' of good decompositions and the ''myth'' of exact algorithms being hard to implement and not runtime efficient. The main objective of this paper is to show that using exact algorithms instead of heuristics yields significant load balance improvements with negligible increase in preprocessing time. We provide detailed pseudocodes of our algorithms so that our results can be easily reproduced. We start with a review of literature on chains-on-chains partitioning problem. We propose improvements on these algorithms as well as efficient implementation tips. We also introduce novel algorithms, which are asymptotically and runtime efficient. We experimented with data sets from two different applications: Sparse matrix computations and Direct volume rendering. Experiments showed that the proposed algorithms are 100 times faster than a single sparse-matrix vector multiplication for 64-way decompositions on average. Experiments also verify that load balance can be significantly improved by using exact algorithms instead of heuristics. These two findings show that exact algorithms with efficient implementations discussed in this paper can effectively replace heuristics.

  10. Balancing Dreams and Realities: The College Choice Process for High-Achieving Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2015-01-01

    This study's narratives of 17 high-achieving Latinas revealed how their college choice was a constant balancing of individual and family expectations, being "close, but far enough away," and "getting your money's worth." With the use of critical race theory, further analysis revealed the influence of "familismo" on…

  11. Renal nerves affect rate of achieving sodium balance in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, S G; Enders, C; Osborn, J L

    1993-07-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has an elevated efferent sympathetic nerve activity, suggesting that the renal handling of sodium and water may be altered. This study evaluated the renal neurogenic influence on the rate of achieving sodium balance in adult SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats after either a step increase or step decrease in fixed sodium intake. Conscious, unrestrained rats with either innervated or denervated kidneys were initially placed on a low-sodium (0.3 mEq/d) or high-sodium (5.0 mEq/d) intake by intravenous infusion. Hourly urinary sodium excretion was determined 24 hours before and 72 hours after sodium intake had been increased from low to high or decreased from high to low. After either step change in fixed sodium intake, both innervated SHRs and innervated WKY rats achieved sodium balance within 24 hours. Similarly, the time course of achieving sodium balance was nearly identical between WKY rats with innervated and denervated kidneys after either switch in sodium intake. In SHRs receiving a step increase in sodium intake, both innervated and denervated kidneys increased urinary sodium excretion equally for 9 hours; however, at this time, innervated SHRs continued to increase sodium excretion rapidly, whereas denervated rats were delayed in a further response. Thus, innervated SHRs achieved sodium balance approximately 18 hours sooner than denervated SHRs. Differences in urinary sodium excretion did not result from concomitant changes in plasma renin activity or mean arterial pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. CNS drug design: balancing physicochemical properties for optimal brain exposure.

    PubMed

    Rankovic, Zoran

    2015-03-26

    The human brain is a uniquely complex organ, which has evolved a sophisticated protection system to prevent injury from external insults and toxins. Designing molecules that can overcome this protection system and achieve optimal concentration at the desired therapeutic target in the brain is a specific and major challenge for medicinal chemists working in CNS drug discovery. Analogous to the now widely accepted rule of 5 in the design of oral drugs, the physicochemical properties required for optimal brain exposure have been extensively studied in an attempt to similarly define the attributes of successful CNS drugs and drug candidates. This body of work is systematically reviewed here, with a particular emphasis on the interplay between the most critical physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of CNS drugs as well as their impact on medicinal chemistry strategies toward molecules with optimal brain exposure. A summary of modern CNS pharmacokinetic concepts and methods is also provided.

  13. Structural Optimization of a Force Balance Using a Computational Experiment Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. A.; DeLoach, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to force balance structural optimization featuring a computational experiment design. Currently, this multi-dimensional design process requires the designer to perform a simplification by executing parameter studies on a small subset of design variables. This one-factor-at-a-time approach varies a single variable while holding all others at a constant level. Consequently, subtle interactions among the design variables, which can be exploited to achieve the design objectives, are undetected. The proposed method combines Modern Design of Experiments techniques to direct the exploration of the multi-dimensional design space, and a finite element analysis code to generate the experimental data. To efficiently search for an optimum combination of design variables and minimize the computational resources, a sequential design strategy was employed. Experimental results from the optimization of a non-traditional force balance measurement section are presented. An approach to overcome the unique problems associated with the simultaneous optimization of multiple response criteria is described. A quantitative single-point design procedure that reflects the designer's subjective impression of the relative importance of various design objectives, and a graphical multi-response optimization procedure that provides further insights into available tradeoffs among competing design objectives are illustrated. The proposed method enhances the intuition and experience of the designer by providing new perspectives on the relationships between the design variables and the competing design objectives providing a systematic foundation for advancements in structural design.

  14. Neurons within the same network independently achieve conserved output by differentially balancing variable conductance magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Ransdell, Joseph L; Nair, Satish S; Schulz, David J

    2013-06-12

    Biological and theoretical evidence suggest that individual neurons may achieve similar outputs by differentially balancing variable underlying ionic conductances. Despite the substantial amount of data consistent with this idea, a direct biological demonstration that cells with conserved output, particularly within the same network, achieve these outputs via different solutions has been difficult to achieve. Here we demonstrate definitively that neurons from native neural networks with highly similar output achieve this conserved output by differentially tuning underlying conductance magnitudes. Multiple motor neurons of the crab (Cancer borealis) cardiac ganglion have highly conserved output within a preparation, despite showing a 2-4-fold range of conductance magnitudes. By blocking subsets of these currents, we demonstrate that the remaining conductances become unbalanced, causing disparate output as a result. Therefore, as strategies to understand neuronal excitability become increasingly sophisticated, it is important that such variability in excitability of neurons, even among those within the same individual, is taken into account. PMID:23761890

  15. Translational Geroscience: Emphasizing function to achieve optimal longevity

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Douglas R.; Melov, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Among individuals, biological aging leads to cellular and organismal dysfunction and an increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and disability. This sequence of events in combination with the projected increases in the number of older adults will result in a worldwide healthcare burden with dire consequences. Superimposed on this setting are the adults now reaching traditional retirement ages--the baby boomers--a group that wishes to remain active, productive and physically and cognitively fit as they grow older. Together, these conditions are producing an unprecedented demand for increased healthspan or what might be termed “optimal longevity”—to live long, but well. To meet this demand, investigators with interests in the biological aspects of aging from model organisms to human epidemiology (population aging) must work together within an interactive process that we describe as translational geroscience. An essential goal of this new investigational platform should be the optimization and preservation of physiological function throughout the lifespan, including integrative physical and cognitive function, which would serve to increase healthspan, compress morbidity and disability into a shorter period of late-life, and help achieve optimal longevity. To most effectively utilize this new approach, we must rethink how investigators and administrators working at different levels of the translational research continuum communicate and collaborate with each other, how best to train the next generation of scientists in this new field, and how contemporary biological-biomedical aging research should be organized and funded. PMID:25324468

  16. Regulatory schemes to achieve optimal flux partitioning in bacterial metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lei-Han; Yang, Zhu; Hui, Sheng; Kim, Pan-Jun; Li, Xue-Fei; Hwa, Terence

    2012-02-01

    The flux balance analysis (FBA) offers a way to compute the optimal performance of a given metabolic network when the maximum incoming flux of nutrient molecules and other essential ingredients for biosynthesis are specified. Here we report a theoretical and computational analysis of the network structure and regulatory interactions in an E. coli cell. An automated scheme is devised to simplify the network topology and to enumerate the independent flux degrees of freedom. The network organization revealed by the scheme enables a detailed interpretation of the three layers of metabolic regulation known in the literature: i) independent transcriptional regulation of biosynthesis and salvage pathways to render the network tree-like under a given nutrient condition; ii) allosteric end-product inhibition of enzyme activity at entry points of synthesis pathways for metabolic flux partitioning according to consumption; iii) homeostasis of currency and carrier compounds to maintain sufficient supply of global commodities. Using the amino-acid synthesis pathways as an example, we show that the FBA result can be reproduced with suitable implementation of the three classes of regulatory interactions with literature evidence.

  17. Balancing Online Teaching Activities: Strategies for Optimizing Efficiency and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffo, Deana M.; Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Gardner, Justin G.; Fisher, Lawanna S.

    2015-01-01

    Increased demands in professional expectations have required online faculty to learn how to balance multiple roles in an open-ended, changing, and relatively unstructured job. In this paper, we argue that being strategic about one's balance of the various facets of online teaching will improve one's teaching efficiency and effectiveness. We…

  18. A hybrid approach to achieving both marginal and conditional balances for stratification variables in sequential clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunzhi; Su, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Various methods exist in the literature for achieving marginal balance for baseline stratification variables in sequential clinical trials. One major limitation with balancing on the margins of the stratification variables is that there is an efficiency loss when the primary analysis is stratified. To preserve the efficiency of a stratified analysis one recently proposed approach balances on the crossing of the stratification variables included in the analysis, which achieves conditional balance for the variables. A hybrid approach to achieving both marginal and conditional balances in sequential clinical trials is proposed, which is applicable to both continuous and categorical stratification variables. Numerical results based on extensive simulation studies and a real dataset show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing ones and is particularly useful when both additive and stratified models are planned for a trial.

  19. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions

    PubMed Central

    Jung, HoHyun; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Hong, Jaesoo; Lim, Dohyung

    2015-01-01

    Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m2) were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior–posterior, right-diagonal, medial–lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P<0.05). The maximum was greater with anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation than with that in other directions (P<0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of center of body mass deviations from the base of support (P>0.05). These results indicate that optimizing rotation control of the base plate of balance rehabilitation training equipment to induce anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation preferentially can lead to effective balance training. Additional tests with varied speeds and ranges of

  20. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions.

    PubMed

    Jung, HoHyun; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Hong, Jaesoo; Lim, Dohyung

    2015-01-01

    Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m(2)) were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior-posterior, right-diagonal, medial-lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P<0.05). The maximum was greater with anterior-posterior and medial-lateral dynamic rotation than with that in other directions (P<0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of center of body mass deviations from the base of support (P>0.05). These results indicate that optimizing rotation control of the base plate of balance rehabilitation training equipment to induce anterior-posterior and medial-lateral dynamic rotation preferentially can lead to effective balance training. Additional tests with varied speeds and ranges of angles of

  1. WFH: closing the global gap--achieving optimal care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark W

    2012-07-01

    For 50 years, the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) has been working globally to close the gap in care and to achieve Treatment for All patients, men and women, with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders, regardless of where they might live. The WFH estimates that more than one in 1000 men and women has a bleeding disorder equating to 6,900,000 worldwide. To close the gap in care between developed and developing nations a continued focus on the successful strategies deployed heretofore will be required. However, in response to the rapid advances in treatment and emerging therapeutic advances on the horizon it will also require fresh approaches and renewed strategic thinking. It is difficult to predict what each therapeutic advance on the horizon will mean for the future, but there is no doubt that we are in a golden age of research and development, which has the prospect of revolutionizing treatment once again. An improved understanding of "optimal" treatment is fundamental to the continued evolution of global care. The challenges of answering government and payer demands for evidence-based medicine, and cost justification for the introduction and enhancement of treatment, are ever-present and growing. To sustain and improve care it is critical to build the body of outcome data for individual patients, within haemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), nationally, regionally and globally. Emerging therapeutic advances (longer half-life therapies and gene transfer) should not be justified or brought to market based only on the notion that they will be economically more affordable, although that may be the case, but rather more importantly that they will be therapeutically more advantageous. Improvements in treatment adherence, reductions in bleeding frequency (including microhemorrhages), better management of trough levels, and improved health outcomes (including quality of life) should be the foremost considerations. As part of a new WFH strategic plan

  2. WFH: closing the global gap--achieving optimal care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark W

    2012-07-01

    For 50 years, the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) has been working globally to close the gap in care and to achieve Treatment for All patients, men and women, with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders, regardless of where they might live. The WFH estimates that more than one in 1000 men and women has a bleeding disorder equating to 6,900,000 worldwide. To close the gap in care between developed and developing nations a continued focus on the successful strategies deployed heretofore will be required. However, in response to the rapid advances in treatment and emerging therapeutic advances on the horizon it will also require fresh approaches and renewed strategic thinking. It is difficult to predict what each therapeutic advance on the horizon will mean for the future, but there is no doubt that we are in a golden age of research and development, which has the prospect of revolutionizing treatment once again. An improved understanding of "optimal" treatment is fundamental to the continued evolution of global care. The challenges of answering government and payer demands for evidence-based medicine, and cost justification for the introduction and enhancement of treatment, are ever-present and growing. To sustain and improve care it is critical to build the body of outcome data for individual patients, within haemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), nationally, regionally and globally. Emerging therapeutic advances (longer half-life therapies and gene transfer) should not be justified or brought to market based only on the notion that they will be economically more affordable, although that may be the case, but rather more importantly that they will be therapeutically more advantageous. Improvements in treatment adherence, reductions in bleeding frequency (including microhemorrhages), better management of trough levels, and improved health outcomes (including quality of life) should be the foremost considerations. As part of a new WFH strategic plan

  3. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  4. The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.

  5. Optimizing density patterns to achieve desired light extraction for displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, T. L. R.; Cassarly, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    In displays such as backlights and signage, it is often desirable to produce a particular spatial luminance distribution of light. This work demonstrates an iterative optimization technique for determining the density of light extractors required to produce desired luminance distributions.

  6. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  7. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively.

  8. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively. PMID:26820247

  9. Growth-defense tradeoffs in plants: a balancing act to optimize fitness.

    PubMed

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-08-01

    Growth-defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth-defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth-defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth-defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands. PMID:24777989

  10. Growth–Defense Tradeoffs in Plants: A Balancing Act to Optimize Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L.; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Growth–defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth–defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth–defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth–defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands. PMID:24777989

  11. Growth-defense tradeoffs in plants: a balancing act to optimize fitness.

    PubMed

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-08-01

    Growth-defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth-defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth-defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth-defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands.

  12. Achieving Balance Through the Art of Eating: Demystifying Eastern Nutrition and Blending it with Western Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Wongvibulsin, Shannon; Lee, Suzie Seoyang; Hui, Ka-Kit

    2012-01-01

    Eastern and Western approaches to nutrition are unique and possess both strengths and weaknesses. Blending the best of both techniques will allow for the development of an integrative nutrition system that is more effective than either tradition on its own. The Western view to nutrition is already adopting certain attributes of the Eastern medicine philosophy as exemplified by the progression towards individualized nutrition through methods such as nutrigenetics. Nevertheless, many differences still remain between Eastern and Western nutritional concepts. Becoming fluent in both Western and Eastern methodologies can ensure the extraction of the best from both techniques for the development of a comprehensive, systematic, and holistic nutritional approach to achieve optimal health. PMID:24716109

  13. Aircraft optimization by a system approach: Achievements and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1992-01-01

    Recently emerging methodology for optimal design of aircraft treated as a system of interacting physical phenomena and parts is examined. The methodology is found to coalesce into methods for hierarchic, non-hierarchic, and hybrid systems all dependent on sensitivity analysis. A separate category of methods has also evolved independent of sensitivity analysis, hence suitable for discrete problems. References and numerical applications are cited. Massively parallel computer processing is seen as enabling technology for practical implementation of the methodology.

  14. Achieving Optimal Privacy in Trust-Aware Social Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail

    Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.

  15. Robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing using particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund Nilakantan, J.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    Automation in an assembly line can be achieved using robots. In robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing (RUALB), robots are assigned to workstations to perform the assembly tasks on a U-shaped assembly line. The robots are expected to perform multiple tasks, because of their capabilities. U-shaped assembly line problems are derived from traditional assembly line problems and are relatively new. Tasks are assigned to the workstations when either all of their predecessors or all of their successors have already been assigned to workstations. The objective function considered in this article is to maximize the cycle time of the assembly line, which in turn helps to maximize the production rate of the assembly line. RUALB aims at the optimal assignment of tasks to the workstations and selection of the best fit robot to the workstations in a manner such that the cycle time is minimized. To solve this problem, a particle swarm optimization algorithm embedded with a heuristic allocation (consecutive) procedure is proposed. The consecutive heuristic is used to allocate the tasks to the workstation and to assign a best fit robot to that workstation. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a wide variety of data sets. The results indicate that robotic U-shaped assembly lines perform better than robotic straight assembly lines in terms of cycle time.

  16. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, José Antonio; Quilis, Neus; Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Pascual, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention. To ensure treatment adherence it is necessary to explain to the patient what the objectives are. PMID:26977282

  17. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  18. Magnetostrophic balance as the optimal state for turbulent magnetoconvection.

    PubMed

    King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M

    2015-01-27

    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent convection in the vast oceans of liquid metal within them. Although direct observation is not possible, this liquid metal circulation is thought to be dominated by the controlling influences of planetary rotation and magnetic fields through the Coriolis and Lorentz forces. Theory famously predicts that planetary dynamo systems naturally settle into the so-called magnetostrophic state, where the Coriolis and Lorentz forces partially cancel, and convection is optimally efficient. Although this magnetostrophic theory correctly predicts the strength of Earth's magnetic field, no laboratory experiments have reached the magnetostrophic regime in turbulent liquid metal convection. Furthermore, computational dynamo simulations have as yet failed to produce a magnetostrophic dynamo, which has led some to question the existence of the magnetostrophic state. Here, we present results from the first, to our knowledge, turbulent, magnetostrophic convection experiments using the liquid metal gallium. We find that turbulent convection in the magnetostrophic regime is, in fact, maximally efficient. The experimental results clarify these previously disparate results, suggesting that the dynamically optimal magnetostrophic state is the natural expression of turbulent planetary dynamo systems.

  19. Balancing out dwelling and moving: optimal sensorimotor synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Benoît; Guigon, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization is a fundamental skill involved in the performance of many artistic activities (e.g., music, dance). After a century of research, the manner in which the nervous system produces synchronized movements remains poorly understood. Typical rhythmic movements involve a motion and a motionless phase (dwell). The dwell phase represents a sizable fraction of the rhythm period, and scales with it. The rationale for this organization remains unexplained and is the object of this study. Twelve participants, four drummers (D) and eight nondrummers (ND), performed tapping movements paced at 0.5–2.5 Hz by a metronome. The participants organized their tapping behavior into dwell and movement phases according to two strategies: 1) Eight participants (1 D, 7 ND) maintained an almost constant ratio of movement time (MT) and dwell time (DT) irrespective of the metronome period. 2) Four participants increased the proportion of DT as the period increased. The temporal variabilities of both the dwell and movement phases were consistent with Weber's law, i.e., their variability increased with their durations, and the longest phase always exhibited the smallest variability. We developed an optimal statistical model that formalized the distribution of time into dwell and movement intervals as a function of their temporal variability. The model accurately predicted the participants' dwell and movement durations irrespective of their strategy and musical skill, strongly suggesting that the distribution of DT and MT results from an optimization process, dependent on each participant's skill to predict time during rest and movement. PMID:25878154

  20. Magnetostrophic balance as the optimal state for turbulent magnetoconvection

    PubMed Central

    King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent convection in the vast oceans of liquid metal within them. Although direct observation is not possible, this liquid metal circulation is thought to be dominated by the controlling influences of planetary rotation and magnetic fields through the Coriolis and Lorentz forces. Theory famously predicts that planetary dynamo systems naturally settle into the so-called magnetostrophic state, where the Coriolis and Lorentz forces partially cancel, and convection is optimally efficient. Although this magnetostrophic theory correctly predicts the strength of Earth’s magnetic field, no laboratory experiments have reached the magnetostrophic regime in turbulent liquid metal convection. Furthermore, computational dynamo simulations have as yet failed to produce a magnetostrophic dynamo, which has led some to question the existence of the magnetostrophic state. Here, we present results from the first, to our knowledge, turbulent, magnetostrophic convection experiments using the liquid metal gallium. We find that turbulent convection in the magnetostrophic regime is, in fact, maximally efficient. The experimental results clarify these previously disparate results, suggesting that the dynamically optimal magnetostrophic state is the natural expression of turbulent planetary dynamo systems. PMID:25583512

  1. Technical and economical optimization of a full-scale poultry manure treatment process: total ammonia nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Alejo-Alvarez, Luz; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

    2016-11-01

    A full-scale process for the treatment of 80 tons per day of poultry manure was designed and optimized. A total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) balance was performed at steady state, considering the stoichiometry and the kinetic data from the anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic ammonia oxidation. The equipment, reactor design, investment costs, and operational costs were considered. The volume and cost objective functions optimized the process in terms of three variables: the water recycle ratio, the protein conversion during AD, and the TAN conversion in the process. The processes were compared with and without water recycle; savings of 70% and 43% in the annual fresh water consumption and the heating costs, respectively, were achieved. The optimal process complies with the Chilean environmental legislation limit of 0.05 g total nitrogen/L.

  2. Optimal Balance of the Striatal Medium Spiny Neuron Network

    PubMed Central

    Ponzi, Adam; Wickens, Jeffery R.

    2013-01-01

    Slowly varying activity in the striatum, the main Basal Ganglia input structure, is important for the learning and execution of movement sequences. Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) form cell assemblies whose population firing rates vary coherently on slow behaviourally relevant timescales. It has been shown that such activity emerges in a model of a local MSN network but only at realistic connectivities of and only when MSN generated inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (IPSPs) are realistically sized. Here we suggest a reason for this. We investigate how MSN network generated population activity interacts with temporally varying cortical driving activity, as would occur in a behavioural task. We find that at unrealistically high connectivity a stable winners-take-all type regime is found where network activity separates into fixed stimulus dependent regularly firing and quiescent components. In this regime only a small number of population firing rate components interact with cortical stimulus variations. Around connectivity a transition to a more dynamically active regime occurs where all cells constantly switch between activity and quiescence. In this low connectivity regime, MSN population components wander randomly and here too are independent of variations in cortical driving. Only in the transition regime do weak changes in cortical driving interact with many population components so that sequential cell assemblies are reproducibly activated for many hundreds of milliseconds after stimulus onset and peri-stimulus time histograms display strong stimulus and temporal specificity. We show that, remarkably, this activity is maximized at striatally realistic connectivities and IPSP sizes. Thus, we suggest the local MSN network has optimal characteristics – it is neither too stable to respond in a dynamically complex temporally extended way to cortical variations, nor is it too unstable to respond in a consistent repeatable way. Rather, it is optimized to

  3. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chopra, Neetu; So, Franky; Sapochak, Linda S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2009-08-27

    operating voltages, particularly if this is to be achieved in a device that can be manufactured at low cost. To avoid the efficiency losses associated with phosphorescence quenching by back-energy transfer from the dopant onto the host, the triplet excited states of the host material must be higher in energy than the triplet excited state of the dopant.5 This must be accomplished without sacrificing the charge transporting properties of the composite.6 Similar problems limit the efficiency of OLED-based displays, where blue light emitters are the least efficient and least stable. We previously demonstrated the utility of organic phosphine oxide (PO) materials as electron transporting HMs for FIrpic in blue OLEDs.7 However, the high reluctance of PO materials to oxidation and thus, hole injection limits the ability to balance charge injection and transport in the EML without relying on charge transport by the phosphorescent dopant. PO host materials were engineered to transport both electrons and holes in the EML and still maintain high triplet exciton energy to ensure efficient energy transfer to the dopant (Figure 1). There are examples of combining hole transporting moieties (mainly aromatic amines) with electron transport moieties (e.g., oxadiazoles, triazines, boranes)8 to develop new emitter and host materials for small molecule and polymer9 OLEDs. The challenge is to combine the two moieties without lowering the triplet energy of the target molecule. For example, coupling of a dimesitylphenylboryl moiety with a tertiary aromatic amine (FIAMBOT) results in intramolecular electron transfer from the amine to the boron atom through the bridging phenyl. The mesomeric effect of the dimesitylphenylboryl unit acts to extend conjugation and lowers triplet exciton energies (< 2.8 eV) rendering such systems inadequate as ambipolar hosts for blue phosphors.

  4. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  5. Trade balance instability and the optimal exchange rate regime: The case of OPEC countries

    SciTech Connect

    Aljerrah, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The OPEC members have experienced wide fluctuations in their trade balances. This can be attributed to several factors: (1) heavy dependence of national income and export earnings on a single primary export-oil; (2) instability of price and world demand for oil; and (3) the exchange rate regime practiced in recent years. An exchange rate policy can be used to minimize the fluctuations in trade balance, given the changes in exchange rates of major international currencies. The purpose of this study is two fold; first, examine the effects of fluctuations in trade balance on the OPEC economies, and second, propose appropriate exchange rate regime for selected OPEC members. The study is divided into two parts. The first part demonstrates the impact of trade balance changes on national income and other macroeconomic variables using a Keynesian framework. The second part involves using conventional trade models to search for the appropriate exchange rate regime to minimize the fluctuations in trade balance of each selective country. The study's findings are: first, fluctuations in trade balances had negative effects on the economics of Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Second, the current exchange rate regime of no sample country is optimal in minimizing trade balance fluctuations. Third, in contrast to expectations, U.S. dollar peg did not stabilize the trade balance of any OPEC member. Finally, the results show that the sample OPEC economies could have enjoyed faster - though with different degree - economic growth if they had pegged their currencies to the derived optimal exchange rate regime. These optimal exchange rate regimes are: the SDR for Algeria and the United Arab Emirates, the purchasing power parity for Libya and Saudi Arabia, and the real Yen for Kuwait.

  6. Man in Balance with the Environment: Pollution and the Optimal Population Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ultsch, Gordon R.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between population size and pollution, and suggests that the optimal population level toward which we should strive would be that level at which man is in balance with the biosphere in terms of pollution production and degradation, coupled with a harmless steady-state background pollution level. (JR)

  7. Ab initio thermochemistry using optimal-balance models with isodesmic corrections: The ATOMIC protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakowies, Dirk

    2009-04-01

    A theoretical composite approach, termed ATOMIC for Ab initio Thermochemistry using Optimal-balance Models with Isodesmic Corrections, is introduced for the calculation of molecular atomization energies and enthalpies of formation. Care is taken to achieve optimal balance in accuracy and cost between the various components contributing to high-level estimates of the fully correlated energy at the infinite-basis-set limit. To this end, the energy at the coupled-cluster level of theory including single, double, and quasiperturbational triple excitations is decomposed into Hartree-Fock, low-order correlation (MP2, CCSD), and connected-triples contributions and into valence-shell and core contributions. Statistical analyses for 73 representative neutral closed-shell molecules containing hydrogen and at least three first-row atoms (CNOF) are used to devise basis-set and extrapolation requirements for each of the eight components to maintain a given level of accuracy. Pople's concept of bond-separation reactions is implemented in an ab initio framework, providing for a complete set of high-level precomputed isodesmic corrections which can be used for any molecule for which a valence structure can be drawn. Use of these corrections is shown to lower basis-set requirements dramatically for each of the eight components of the composite model. A hierarchy of three levels is suggested for isodesmically corrected composite models which reproduce atomization energies at the reference level of theory to within 0.1 kcal/mol (A), 0.3 kcal/mol (B), and 1 kcal/mol (C). Large-scale statistical analysis shows that corrections beyond the CCSD(T) reference level of theory, including coupled-cluster theory with fully relaxed connected triple and quadruple excitations, first-order relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections can normally be dealt with using a greatly simplified model that assumes thermoneutral bond-separation reactions and that reduces the estimate of these

  8. Ab initio thermochemistry using optimal-balance models with isodesmic corrections: the ATOMIC protocol.

    PubMed

    Bakowies, Dirk

    2009-04-14

    A theoretical composite approach, termed ATOMIC for Ab initio Thermochemistry using Optimal-balance Models with Isodesmic Corrections, is introduced for the calculation of molecular atomization energies and enthalpies of formation. Care is taken to achieve optimal balance in accuracy and cost between the various components contributing to high-level estimates of the fully correlated energy at the infinite-basis-set limit. To this end, the energy at the coupled-cluster level of theory including single, double, and quasiperturbational triple excitations is decomposed into Hartree-Fock, low-order correlation (MP2, CCSD), and connected-triples contributions and into valence-shell and core contributions. Statistical analyses for 73 representative neutral closed-shell molecules containing hydrogen and at least three first-row atoms (CNOF) are used to devise basis-set and extrapolation requirements for each of the eight components to maintain a given level of accuracy. Pople's concept of bond-separation reactions is implemented in an ab initio framework, providing for a complete set of high-level precomputed isodesmic corrections which can be used for any molecule for which a valence structure can be drawn. Use of these corrections is shown to lower basis-set requirements dramatically for each of the eight components of the composite model. A hierarchy of three levels is suggested for isodesmically corrected composite models which reproduce atomization energies at the reference level of theory to within 0.1 kcal/mol (A), 0.3 kcal/mol (B), and 1 kcal/mol (C). Large-scale statistical analysis shows that corrections beyond the CCSD(T) reference level of theory, including coupled-cluster theory with fully relaxed connected triple and quadruple excitations, first-order relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections can normally be dealt with using a greatly simplified model that assumes thermoneutral bond-separation reactions and that reduces the estimate of these

  9. Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Personalized, online homework was used to supplement textbook homework, quizzes, and exams for one section of a course in material and energy balances. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that students using personalized, online homework earned better grades in the course. The online homework system asks the same questions of…

  10. Development of a Pattern Recognition Methodology for Determining Operationally Optimal Heat Balance Instrumentation Calibration Schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Beran; John Christenson; Dragos Nica; Kenny Gross

    2002-12-15

    The goal of the project is to enable plant operators to detect with high sensitivity and reliability the onset of decalibration drifts in all of the instrumentation used as input to the reactor heat balance calculations. To achieve this objective, the collaborators developed and implemented at DBNPS an extension of the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) pattern recognition methodology pioneered by ANAL. The extension was implemented during the second phase of the project and fully achieved the project goal.

  11. Robust Constrained Optimization Approach to Control Design for International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Auto Balancing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postma, Barry Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This thesis discusses application of a robust constrained optimization approach to control design to develop an Auto Balancing Controller (ABC) for a centrifuge rotor to be implemented on the International Space Station. The design goal is to minimize a performance objective of the system, while guaranteeing stability and proper performance for a range of uncertain plants. The Performance objective is to minimize the translational response of the centrifuge rotor due to a fixed worst-case rotor imbalance. The robustness constraints are posed with respect to parametric uncertainty in the plant. The proposed approach to control design allows for both of these objectives to be handled within the framework of constrained optimization. The resulting controller achieves acceptable performance and robustness characteristics.

  12. Collective Responsibility, Academic Optimism, and Student Achievement in Taiwan Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that collective efficacy, faculty trust in students and parents, and academic emphasis together formed a single latent school construct, called academic optimism. In the U.S., academic optimism has been proven to be a powerful construct that could effectively predict student achievement even after controlling for…

  13. Do Well-Balanced Primary TKA Patients Achieve Better Outcomes Within the First Year After Surgery?

    PubMed

    Lampe, Frank; Marques, Carlos J; Fiedler, Franziska; Sufi-Siavach, Anusch; Matziolis, Georg

    2016-05-01

    Some surgically modifiable factors are related to soft tissue balance. With computer-assisted surgery, it is possible to access these variables quantitatively. The aim of this analysis was to study the influence of gap balance on clinical outcomes within the first year after computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Based on navigation data, 3 independent variables reflecting gap balance were used to split the patients in 2 groups. The Knee Society Scores (Function [KSS-F] and Knee [KSS-K]) and the maximal knee flexion (MKF) measured preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months were compared using analyses of variance (2×4 design) for repeated measures. Higher flexion-extension gap equality led to statistically higher KSS-F and KSS-K scores at 1 year (P=.02). Higher medial-lateral flexion gap equality led to superior mean MKF at all measurement points; however the differences were statistically only significant at 3 months (P=.01). The coefficients of variation of the variables used to select the patients were overall very low. With computer-assisted navigation, it is possible to access quantitatively the size of the medial and lateral flexion and extension gaps. Higher flexion-extension gap equality values led to statistically significant better KSS-F and KSS-K scores at 1 year. Higher medial-lateral flexion gap equality values led to better MKF values; however the differences were only statistically significant at 3 months. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):S6-S12.].

  14. Principal Leadership: Creating a Culture of Academic Optimism to Improve Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Leigh; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2006-01-01

    Since the Coleman Report (1966), educational researchers have tried to identify school properties that make a difference in student achievement and overcome the negative influence of low socioeconomic status. We theorized that academic optimism was a latent construct that enhanced student achievement and that enabling school structure provided a…

  15. Optimal cytoplasmatic density and flux balance model under macromolecular crowding effects.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Alexei

    2010-05-21

    Macromolecules occupy between 34% and 44% of the cell cytoplasm, about half the maximum packing density of spheres in three dimension. Yet, there is no clear understanding of what is special about this value. To address this fundamental question we investigate the effect of macromolecular crowding on cell metabolism. We develop a cell scale flux balance model capturing the main features of cell metabolism at different nutrient uptakes and macromolecular densities. Using this model we show there are two metabolic regimes at low and high nutrient uptakes. The latter regime is characterized by an optimal cytoplasmatic density where the increase of reaction rates by confinement and the decrease by diffusion slow-down balance. More important, the predicted optimal density is in the range of the experimentally determined density of Escherichia coli.

  16. Limitation of the achievable signal-to-noise ratio in optical coherence tomography due to mismatch of the balanced receiver.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carla Carmelo; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2004-09-01

    Owing to the limited spectral response of the fiber directional coupler used in a balanced optical coherence tomography configuration, the spectra are different in the two outputs. This affects unfavorably operation of the balanced photodetector unit. Excess photon noise makes a larger contribution than a directional coupler with a flat spectral response. A theoretical model is developed that shows that an optimum set of parameters may be defined to maximize the achievable signal-to-noise ratio. The model leads to a redefinition of the effective noise bandwidth, which takes into account the nonflat response of the directional coupler used. The model also predicts a limitation on the signal-to-noise ratio even when the stray reflectances in the interferometer are brought to zero. PMID:15449466

  17. Optimal Balance Between Force and Velocity Differs Among World-Class Athletes.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Caroline; Rabita, Giuseppe; Chollet, Didier; Guilhem, Gaël

    2016-02-01

    Performance during human movements is highly related to force and velocity muscle capacities. Those capacities are highly developed in elite athletes practicing power-oriented sports. However, it is still unclear whether the balance between their force and velocity-generating capacities constitutes an optimal profile. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of elite sport background on the force-velocity relationship in the squat jump, and evaluate the level of optimization of these profiles. Ninety-five elite athletes in cycling, fencing, taekwondo, and athletic sprinting, and 15 control participants performed squat jumps in 7 loading conditions (range: 0%-60% of the maximal load they were able to lift). Theoretical maximal power (Pm), force (F0), and velocity (v0) were determined from the individual force-velocity relationships. Optimal profiles were assessed by calculating the optimal force (F0th) and velocity (v0th). Athletic sprinters and cyclists produced greater force than the other groups (P < .05). F0 was significantly lower than F0th, and v0 was significantly higher than v0th for female fencers and control participants, and for male athletics sprinters, fencers, and taekwondo practitioners (P < .05). Our study shows that the chronic practice of an activity leads to differently balanced force-velocity profiles. Moreover, the differences between measured and optimal force-velocity profiles raise potential sources of performance improvement in elite athletes.

  18. New mechanisms that regulate Saccharomyces cerevisiae short peptide transporter achieve balanced intracellular amino acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Melnykov, Artem V

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to take up large quantities of amino acids in the form of di- and tripeptides via a short peptide transporter, Ptr2p. It is known that PTR2 can be induced by certain peptides and amino acids, and the mechanisms governing this upregulation are understood at the molecular level. We describe two new opposing mechanisms of regulation that emphasize potential toxicity of amino acids: the first is upregulation of PTR2 in a population of cells, caused by amino acid secretion that accompanies peptide uptake; the second is loss of Ptr2p activity, due to transporter internalization following peptide uptake. Our findings emphasize the importance of proper amino acid balance in the cell and extend understanding of peptide import regulation in yeast.

  19. High direct drive illumination uniformity achieved by multi-parameter optimization approach: a case study of Shenguang III laser facility.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Liu, Dongxiao; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Weiwu; Zhang, Baohan; Gu, Yuqiu

    2015-05-01

    The uniformity of the compression driver is of fundamental importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In this paper, the illumination uniformity on a spherical capsule during the initial imprinting phase directly driven by laser beams has been considered. We aim to explore methods to achieve high direct drive illumination uniformity on laser facilities designed for indirect drive ICF. There are many parameters that would affect the irradiation uniformity, such as Polar Direct Drive displacement quantity, capsule radius, laser spot size and intensity distribution within a laser beam. A novel approach to reduce the root mean square illumination non-uniformity based on multi-parameter optimizing approach (particle swarm optimization) is proposed, which enables us to obtain a set of optimal parameters over a large parameter space. Finally, this method is applied to improve the direct drive illumination uniformity provided by Shenguang III laser facility and the illumination non-uniformity is reduced from 5.62% to 0.23% for perfectly balanced beams. Moreover, beam errors (power imbalance and pointing error) are taken into account to provide a more practical solution and results show that this multi-parameter optimization approach is effective.

  20. Parental Behavioural Control and Academic Achievement: Striking the Balance between Control and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Karen Z.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal US dataset (N = 6,134) we examine the relationship between parental behavioural control and academic achievement and explore the moderating role of parental involvement and parental warmth. Analyses using multiple hierarchical regression with clustering controls shows that parental behavioural control is negatively associated…

  1. Agency and capabilities to achieve a work-life balance: a comparison of Sweden and Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Barbara; Fahlén, Susanne; Takács, Judit

    2011-01-01

    This study develops a conceptual framework with a capabilities and agency approach for analyzing work–life balance (WLB) applied in two societies (Hungary and Sweden), which have different working time regimes, levels of precarious employment, and gender equality discourses and norms. Inspired by Amartya Sen, we present a model illustrating how agency freedom for WLB depends on multiple resources at the individual, work organizational, institutional, and normative/societal levels. Using a unique qualitative survey conducted in two cities, Budapest and Stockholm, we analyze how mothers and fathers subjectively experience the tensions between family and work demands, and their possibilities for alternative choices (agency freedom). We find similarities in these tensions involving time pressure and time poverty, cutting across gender and education. Our Hungarian parents, nevertheless, experience greater agency inequalities for WLB, which reflect weaker institutional resources (conversion factors) as well as cultural/societal norms that act as constraints for WLB claims in the workplace and household. Our study reveals that Swedish parents, both men and women, express a strong sense of entitlement to exercise rights to care. PMID:21966697

  2. Deficits in the way to achieve balance related to mechanisms of dynamic stability control in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Arampatzis, Adamantios; Karamanidis, Kiros; Mademli, Lida

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the postural corrections related to components of dynamic stability aimed to increase our understanding of successful postural control among the elderly population. This was done by comparing balance behaviour of older adults who were able to recover stability (stable) and others who failed to regain stability (unstable) with a single step after a forward fall. Thirty-eight old male adults (64+/-3yr, 176+/-6cm, 78.5+/-7.8kg) had to recover balance after a sudden induced forward fall. All participants performed maximal isometric ankle plantarflexion and knee extension contractions on a dynamometer. The elongation of the gastrocnemius medialis and the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeuroses during isometric contraction was examined by ultrasonography. There were no differences in leg-extensor muscle strength or tendon stiffness between the two groups showing that the muscle tendon capacities may not be the reason for the observed differences in dynamic stability control. The unstable participants created a higher horizontal ground reaction push-off force of the support limb in the second part ( approximately 260ms after release) of the phase until touchdown leading to an unstable body position at touchdown. The results indicate deficits in the way to achieve balance related to mechanisms responsible for dynamic stability control within the elderly population.

  3. On the need for automated multiobjective optimization and uncertainty estimation of glacier mass balance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rye, Cameron J.; Willis, Ian C.; Arnold, Neil S.; Kohler, Jack

    2012-06-01

    Physically based models are valuable tools for exploring the detailed spatial and temporal responses of glaciers and ice sheets to climate forcing. However, while the last two decades have seen considerable progress in the development of increasingly sophisticated numerical descriptions, very little attention has been given to simulation uncertainty. In particular, glaciological models have traditionally been calibrated (or "tuned") in order to identify a single set of parameters (e.g., snow density, surface albedo, temperature lapse rate) such that the model's behavior closely matches real-world observations. The present study disputes this classical approach by demonstrating that it is often difficult (if not impossible) to find a single "best" solution. Instead, multiple equally plausible parameter sets will usually exist. To address this limitation, we present a novel application of a calibration technique previously not used in glacial modeling - multiobjective optimization - designed to identify multiple optimal parameter sets that fit different characteristics of available observations, thereby enabling an assessment of the uncertainty associated with predictions. The strength and applicability of our approach is illustrated through the implementation of a surface mass balance model for two glaciers in Svalbard: Midre Lovénbreen and Kongsvegen. The model is forced using the ERA-40 reanalysis and calibrated against available mass balance measurements. The overall uncertainty range in modeled cumulative annual surface mass balance is -7.84 to -14.02 m w.e. for Midre Lovénbreen (over the period 1968-2001) and -0.91 to +9.80 m w.e. for Kongsvegen (over the period 1987-2001). The calibrated model is used to extend the mass balance records of the two glaciers back to the beginning of the ERA-40 reanalysis, giving a cumulative loss of loss of 13.2 ± 3.3 m w.e. for Midre Lovénbreen and a cumulative gain of 5.3 ± 3.4 m w.e. for Kongsvegen over the period 1958

  4. Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Method to Improve Balance Function: Optimization of Stimulus Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input through the proprioceptive, visual, or vestibular sensory systems has been shown to improve motor function. Specifically, studies have shown that that vestibular electrical stimulation by imperceptible stochastic noise, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standardized balance task of standing on a block of 10 cm thick medium density foam with their eyes closed for a total of 40 seconds. Stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears during the last 20 seconds of the test period. A custom built constant current stimulator with subject isolation delivered the stimulus. Stimulation signals were generated with frequencies in the bandwidth of 1-2 Hz and 0.01-30 Hz. Amplitude of the signals were varied in the range of 0- +/-700 micro amperes with the RMS of the signal increased by 30 micro amperes for each 100 micro amperes increase in the current range. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block and inertial motion sensors placed on the torso and head segments. Preliminary results indicate that balance performance is improved in the range of 10-25% compared to no stimulation conditions. Subjects improved their performance consistently across the blocks of stimulation. Further the signal amplitude at which the performance was maximized was different in the two frequency ranges. Optimization of the frequency and

  5. Determine Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J.J.; Mulavara, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface [1]. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training applications customized to each crewmember. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds [2]. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s long sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. Comparison of threshold of motion detection obtained from joystick data versus body sway suggests that perceptual thresholds were significantly lower. In the balance task, subjects stood on an unstable surface and had to maintain balance

  6. ePathOptimize: A Combinatorial Approach for Transcriptional Balancing of Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J. Andrew; Vernacchio, Victoria R.; Lachance, Daniel M.; Lebovich, Matthew; Fu, Li; Shirke, Abhijit N.; Schultz, Victor L.; Cress, Brady; Linhardt, Robert J.; Koffas, Mattheos A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to fine tune gene expression has created the field of metabolic pathway optimization and balancing where a variety of factors affecting flux balance are carefully modulated to improve product titers, yields, and productivity. Using a library of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible mutant T7 promoters of varied strength a combinatorial method was developed for transcriptional balancing of the violacein pathway. Violacein biosynthesis involves a complex five-gene pathway that is an excellent model for exploratory metabolic engineering efforts into pathway regulation and control due to many colorful intermediates and side products allowing for easy analysis and strain comparison. Upon screening approximately 4% of the total initial library, several high-titer mutants were discovered that resulted in up to a 63-fold improvement over the control strain. With further fermentation optimization, titers were improved to 1829 ± 46 mg/L; a 2.6-fold improvement in titer and a 30-fold improvement in productivity from previous literature reports. PMID:26062452

  7. Future Forest Production and Net Carbon Sinks under Optimal C:N Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, A.; Kalliokoski, T.; Peltoniemi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental change affects forests directly by changing physiological process rates, but the consequent changes in resource acquisition may lead to structural and functional acclimations that obscure the long-term relationship between environmental drivers and forest function. Based on an adaptive balance between structure and function, evolutionary optimisation may provide a feasible tool for analysing such indirect effects of environmental change on forests. This study applies OptiPipe, a model of optimal co-allocation of forest carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), to prediction of potential productivity and C balance of Finnish forests under climate change. OptiPipe is embedded in a transparent modular system including: PreLes, a canopy C exchange model; Yasso, a soil C model; and expert assumptions about the impacts of weather on N availability at different growth sites. National Forest Inventory data and gridded weather data (10 x 10 km2) are utilised. The uncertainties of the projections are analysed relative to inputs and parameters. The results quantify the changes in growth and carbon stocks, which are either smaller or larger than those in photosynthetic capacity, depending on the C:N balance of the site. The results emphasize the need to obtain more reliable information and data about nitrogen processes, but also demonstrate the potential for the optimality approach for regional applications.

  8. Achieving optimal aesthetics for direct and indirect restorations with microhybrid composite resins.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Wynn H

    2005-04-01

    In aesthetic dentistry, material science has played a key role in the development of natural-appearing restorations. Despite the progress, there have been challenges in achieving a harmonious integration of direct and indirect posterior restorations. Although porcelain restorations provide natural aesthetics, ceramics cannot be applied via direct techniques. Consequently, composite resins are valuable alternatives for conservative posterior restorations. In addition, because of their differing physical and optical properties, optimal aesthetic blending with porcelain and resin cannot be routinely achieved. This article explores the potential of composite resins as a direct and indirect restorative option in achieving the most favorable natural blend in the posterior region.

  9. Academic Optimism, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, and Student Achievement at Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guvercin, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic optimism, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs), and student achievement in college preparatory charter schools. A purposeful sample of elementary school teachers from college preparatory charter schools (N = 226) in southeast Texas was solicited to complete the…

  10. Torque-consistent 3D force balance and optimization of non-resonant fields in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Kyu

    2015-11-01

    A non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbation in tokamaks breaks the toroidal symmetry and produces toroidal torque, which is well known as neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) effects. Although NTV torque is second order, it is the first-order change in the pressure anisotropy that drives currents associated with local torques and thereby modifies the field penetration in force balance. The force operator becomes non-Hermitian, but can be directly solved using parallel, toroidal, and radial force balance, leading to a modified Euler-Lagrange equation. The general perturbed equilibrium code (GPEC), which has been successfully developed to solve the modified Euler-Lagrange equation, gives the torque-consistent 3D force balance as well as self-consistent NTV torque. The self-shielding of the torque becomes apparent in the solutions in high β, which was implied in recent MARS-K applications. Furthermore, the full response matrix including the torque in GPEC provides a new and systematic way of optimizing torque and non-resonant fields. Recently the optimization of 3D fields for torque has been actively studied using the stellarator optimizing tools, but the efficiency and accuracy can be greatly improved by directly incorporating the torque response matrix. There are salient features uncovered by response with the torque, as the response can become invisible in amplitudes but only significant in toroidal phase shift. A perturbation in backward helicity is an example, in which NTV can be induced substantially but quietly without measurable response in amplitudes. A number of other GPEC applications will also be discussed, including the multi-mode responses in high- β tokamak plasmas and the new non-axisymmetric control coil (NCC) design in NSTX-U. This work was supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Use of a Batch Reactive Distillation with Dynamic Optimization Strategy to Achieve Industrial Grade Ethyl Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakom, Kwantip; Saengchan, Aritsara; Kittisupakorn, Paisan; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.

    2011-08-01

    Industrial grade ethyl acetate is available with minimum purity of 85.0%. It is mostly produced by an ethanol esterification in a distillation process on both batch and continuous modes. However, researches on high purity production with short operating time are rarely achieved. Therefore, the objective in this work is to study an approach to produce ethyl acetate of 90.0% by 8 hours using a batch reactive distillation column. Based on open-loop simulations, the distillation with constant reflux ratio cannot achieve the product specification. Thus, the dynamic optimization strategy is proposed to handle this problem. For the process safety—preventing the dried column and fractured, a minimum reflux ratio must be determined in advance and then an optimal reflux profile is calculated to achieve optimal product yield. Simulation results show that the industrial grade ethyl acetate can be produced by the dynamic optimization programming with two or more time intervals. Besides, the increasing of time intervals can produce more distillate product.

  12. Joint Multiuser Detection and Optimal Spectrum Balancing for Digital Subscriber Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Vincent M. K.; Yu, Wei

    2006-12-01

    In a digital subscriber line (DSL) system with strong crosstalk, the detection and cancellation of interference signals have the potential to improve the overall data rate performance. However, as DSL crosstalk channels are highly frequency selective and multiuser detection is suitable only when crosstalk is strong, the set of frequency tones in which multiuser detection may be used must be carefully chosen. Further, this problem of tone selection is highly coupled with the transmit power spectra of both direct and interfering signals, so the optimal solution requires the tone selection problem to be solved jointly with the multiuser spectrum optimization problem. The main idea of this paper is that the above joint optimization may be done efficiently using a dual decomposition technique similar to that of the optimal spectrum balancing algorithm. Simulations show that multiuser detection can increase the bit rate performance in a remotely deployed ADSL environment. Rate improvement is also observed when near-end crosstalk is estimated and cancelled in a VDSL environment with overlapping upstream and downstream frequency bands.

  13. Achieving pH control in microalgal cultures through fed-batch addition of stoichiometrically-balanced growth media

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of accounting for proton uptake and secretion has confounded interpretation of the stoichiometry of photosynthetic growth of algae. This is also problematic for achieving growth of microalgae to high cell concentrations which is necessary to improve productivity and the economic feasibility of commercial-scale chemical production systems. Since microalgae are capable of consuming both nitrate and ammonium, this represents an opportunity to balance culture pH based on a nitrogen feeding strategy that does not utilize gas-phase CO2 buffering. Stoichiometry suggests that approximately 36 weight%N-NH4+ (balance nitrogen as NO3-) would minimize the proton imbalance and permit high-density photoautotrophic growth as it does in higher plant tissue culture. However, algal media almost exclusively utilize nitrate, and ammonium is often viewed as ‘toxic’ to algae. Results The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exclusively utilize ammonium when both ammonium and nitrate are provided during growth on excess CO2. The resulting proton imbalance from preferential ammonium utilization causes the pH to drop too low to sustain further growth when ammonium was only 9% of the total nitrogen (0.027 gN-NH4+/L). However, providing smaller amounts of ammonium sequentially in the presence of nitrate maintained the pH of a Chlorella vulgaris culture for improved growth on 0.3 gN/L to 5 gDW/L under 5% CO2 gas-phase supplementation. Bioreactor pH dynamics are shown to be predictable based on simple nitrogen assimilation as long as there is sufficient CO2 availability. Conclusions This work provides both a media formulation and a feeding strategy with a focus on nitrogen metabolism and regulation to support high-density algal culture without buffering. The instability in culture pH that is observed in microalgal cultures in the absence of buffers can be overcome through alternating utilization of ammonium and nitrate. Despite the highly regulated

  14. Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijun; Mei, Yushan

    2015-12-01

    Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine currently consists of micro-controller and peripheral devices. The structure has the problems which include low integration, single signal processing algorithms and great measurement error. Therefore, electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization is presented in the paper. Firstly, the device control electrical measuring system by ARM subsystem of OMAP dual-core architecture and DSP subsystem realizes digital signal processing and unbalance computing. Also, the low-pass filtering circuit is designed for solving frequency interference. Secondly, the system implement digital band-pass tracking filter based on harmonic wavelet packet. Thirdly, the system extracts any period of weak signal characteristics using the unlimited segmentation features harmonic for wavelet packet signal in the frequency domain. Simulation results show that the system effectively inhibits nearly frequency signal interference, improves signal to noise ratio, and reduces the initial imbalance signal characteristics. And test results improve that precision indexes and technical specifications could meet the design goals.

  15. An optimal state estimation model of sensory integration in human postural balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Arthur D.

    2005-09-01

    We propose a model for human postural balance, combining state feedback control with optimal state estimation. State estimation uses an internal model of body and sensor dynamics to process sensor information and determine body orientation. Three sensory modalities are modeled: joint proprioception, vestibular organs in the inner ear, and vision. These are mated with a two degree-of-freedom model of body dynamics in the sagittal plane. Linear quadratic optimal control is used to design state feedback and estimation gains. Nine free parameters define the control objective and the signal-to-noise ratios of the sensors. The model predicts statistical properties of human sway in terms of covariance of ankle and hip motion. These predictions are compared with normal human responses to alterations in sensory conditions. With a single parameter set, the model successfully reproduces the general nature of postural motion as a function of sensory environment. Parameter variations reveal that the model is highly robust under normal sensory conditions, but not when two or more sensors are inaccurate. This behavior is similar to that of normal human subjects. We propose that age-related sensory changes may be modeled with decreased signal-to-noise ratios, and compare the model's behavior with degraded sensors against experimental measurements from older adults. We also examine removal of the model's vestibular sense, which leads to instability similar to that observed in bilateral vestibular loss subjects. The model may be useful for predicting which sensors are most critical for balance, and how much they can deteriorate before posture becomes unstable.

  16. Using balance statistics to determine the optimal number of controls in matching studies.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Samuels, Steven J

    2013-10-01

    When a randomized controlled trial is not feasible, investigators typically turn to matching techniques as an alternative approach to evaluate the effectiveness of health care interventions. Matching studies are designed to minimize imbalances on measured pre-intervention characteristics, thereby reducing bias in estimates of treatment effects. Generally, a matching ratio up to 4:1 (control to treatment) elicits the lowest bias. However, when matching techniques are used in prospective studies, investigators try to maximize the number of controls matched to each treated individual to increase the likelihood that a sufficient sample size will remain after attrition. In this paper, we describe a systematic approach to managing the trade-off between minimizing bias and maximizing matched sample size. Our approach includes the following three steps: (1) run the desired matching algorithm, starting with 1:1 (one control to one treated individual) matching and iterating until the maximum desired number of potential controls per treated subject is reached; (2) for each iteration, test for covariate balance; and (3) generate numeric summaries and graphical plots of the balance statistics across all iterations in order to determine the optimal solution. We demonstrate the implementation of this approach with data from a medical home pilot programme and with a simulation study of populations of 100,000 in which 1000 individuals receive the intervention. We advocate undertaking this methodical approach in matching studies to ensure that the optimal matching solution is identified. Doing so will raise the overall quality of the literature and increase the likelihood of identifying effective interventions.

  17. Power-balancing instantaneous optimization energy management for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dongye; Lin, Xinyou; Qin, Datong; Deng, Tao

    2012-11-01

    Energy management(EM) is a core technique of hybrid electric bus(HEB) in order to advance fuel economy performance optimization and is unique for the corresponding configuration. There are existing algorithms of control strategy seldom take battery power management into account with international combustion engine power management. In this paper, a type of power-balancing instantaneous optimization(PBIO) energy management control strategy is proposed for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus. According to the characteristic of the novel series-parallel architecture, the switching boundary condition between series and parallel mode as well as the control rules of the power-balancing strategy are developed. The equivalent fuel model of battery is implemented and combined with the fuel of engine to constitute the objective function which is to minimize the fuel consumption at each sampled time and to coordinate the power distribution in real-time between the engine and battery. To validate the proposed strategy effective and reasonable, a forward model is built based on Matlab/Simulink for the simulation and the dSPACE autobox is applied to act as a controller for hardware in-the-loop integrated with bench test. Both the results of simulation and hardware-in-the-loop demonstrate that the proposed strategy not only enable to sustain the battery SOC within its operational range and keep the engine operation point locating the peak efficiency region, but also the fuel economy of series-parallel hybrid electric bus(SPHEB) dramatically advanced up to 30.73% via comparing with the prototype bus and a similar improvement for PBIO strategy relative to rule-based strategy, the reduction of fuel consumption is up to 12.38%. The proposed research ensures the algorithm of PBIO is real-time applicability, improves the efficiency of SPHEB system, as well as suite to complicated configuration perfectly.

  18. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  19. Optimal approaches for balancing invasive species eradication and endangered species management.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Adam; Hastings, Alan; Grosholz, Edwin D; Jardine, Sunny L; Sanchirico, James N

    2014-05-30

    Resolving conflicting ecosystem management goals-such as maintaining fisheries while conserving marine species or harvesting timber while preserving habitat-is a widely recognized challenge. Even more challenging may be conflicts between two conservation goals that are typically considered complementary. Here, we model a case where eradication of an invasive plant, hybrid Spartina, threatens the recovery of an endangered bird that uses Spartina for nesting. Achieving both goals requires restoration of native Spartina. We show that the optimal management entails less intensive treatment over longer time scales to fit with the time scale of natural processes. In contrast, both eradication and restoration, when considered separately, would optimally proceed as fast as possible. Thus, managers should simultaneously consider multiple, potentially conflicting goals, which may require flexibility in the timing of expenditures. PMID:24876497

  20. Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Brussoni, Mariana; Olsen, Lise L.; Pike, Ian; Sleet, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Injury prevention plays a key role in keeping children safe, but emerging research suggests that imposing too many restrictions on children’s outdoor risky play hinders their development. We explore the relationship between child development, play, and conceptions of risk taking with the aim of informing child injury prevention. Generational trends indicate children’s diminishing engagement in outdoor play is influenced by parental and societal concerns. We outline the importance of play as a necessary ingredient for healthy child development and review the evidence for arguments supporting the need for outdoor risky play, including: (1) children have a natural propensity towards risky play; and, (2) keeping children safe involves letting them take and manage risks. Literature from many disciplines supports the notion that safety efforts should be balanced with opportunities for child development through outdoor risky play. New avenues for investigation and action are emerging seeking optimal strategies for keeping children “as safe as necessary,” not “as safe as possible.” This paradigm shift represents a potential for epistemological growth as well as cross-disciplinary collaboration to foster optimal child development while preserving children’s safety. PMID:23202675

  1. Multiobjective Signal Processing Optimization: The way to balance conflicting metrics in 5G systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjornson, Emil; Jorswieck, Eduard Axel; Debbah, Merouane; Ottersten, Bjorn

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of cellular networks is driven by the dream of ubiquitous wireless connectivity: Any data service is instantly accessible everywhere. With each generation of cellular networks, we have moved closer to this wireless dream; first by delivering wireless access to voice communications, then by providing wireless data services, and recently by delivering a WiFi-like experience with wide-area coverage and user mobility management. The support for high data rates has been the main objective in recent years, as seen from the academic focus on sum-rate optimization and the efforts from standardization bodies to meet the peak rate requirements specified in IMT-Advanced. In contrast, a variety of metrics/objectives are put forward in the technological preparations for 5G networks: higher peak rates, improved coverage with uniform user experience, higher reliability and lower latency, better energy efficiency, lower-cost user devices and services, better scalability with number of devices, etc. These multiple objectives are coupled, often in a conflicting manner such that improvements in one objective lead to degradation in the other objectives. Hence, the design of future networks calls for new optimization tools that properly handle the existence and tradeoffs between multiple objectives. In this article, we provide a review of multi-objective optimization (MOO), which is a mathematical framework to solve design problems with multiple conflicting objectives. (...) We provide a survey of the basic definitions, properties, and algorithmic tools in MOO. This reveals how signal processing algorithms are used to visualize the inherent conflicts between 5G performance objectives, thereby allowing the network designer to understand the possible operating points and how to balance the objectives in an efficient and satisfactory way. For clarity, we provide a case study on massive MIMO.

  2. Differences in Transfer Propensity and Learning Speed on Balance-Scale Problems for Students with Learning Disabilities and Other Low-Achieving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Mary T.; And Others

    Research on Vygotsky's zone of proximal development theory was used as a foundation to investigate differences in the learning and transfer ability of 30 students with learning disabilities (LD) and 30 students with matched low achievement (LA), from grades 7 and 8. The two groups were assessed on their problem-solving ability on a balance scale…

  3. Exploring the Causal Impact of the McREL Balanced Leadership Program on Leadership, Principal Efficacy, Instructional Climate, Educator Turnover, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung; Miller, Robert; Goddard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a randomized design to assess the impact of the Balanced Leadership program on principal leadership, instructional climate, principal efficacy, staff turnover, and student achievement in a sample of rural northern Michigan schools. Participating principals report feeling more efficacious, using more effective leadership practices,…

  4. Technical note: Optimization for improved tube-loading efficiency in the dual-energy computed tomography coupled with balanced filter method

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: This article describes the spectral optimization of dual-energy computed tomography using balanced filters (bf-DECT) to reduce the tube loadings and dose by dedicating to the acquisition of electron density information, which is essential for treatment planning in radiotherapy. Methods: For the spectral optimization of bf-DECT, the author calculated the beam-hardening error and air kerma required to achieve a desired noise level in an electron density image of a 50-cm-diameter cylindrical water phantom. The calculation enables the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage, balanced filter material, and its thickness. Results: The optimal combination of tube voltages was 80 kV/140 kV in conjunction with Tb/Hf and Bi/Mo filter pairs; this combination agrees with that obtained in a previous study [M. Saito, ''Spectral optimization for measuring electron density by the dual-energy computed tomography coupled with balanced filter method,'' Med. Phys. 36, 3631-3642 (2009)], although the thicknesses of the filters that yielded a minimum tube output were slightly different from those obtained in the previous study. The resultant tube loading of a low-energy scan of the present bf-DECT significantly decreased from 57.5 to 4.5 times that of a high-energy scan for conventional DECT. Furthermore, the air kerma of bf-DECT could be reduced to less than that of conventional DECT, while obtaining the same figure of merit for the measurement of electron density and effective atomic number. Conclusions: The tube-loading and dose efficiencies of bf-DECT were considerably improved by sacrificing the quality of the noise level in the images of effective atomic number.

  5. [Pictures balance for optimal surgical management of pelvic endometriosis. Imaging and surgery of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Leroy, A; Garabedian, C; Fourquet, T; Azaïs, H; Merlot, B; Collinet, P; Rubod, C

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is a frequent benign pathology that is found in 10-15% of women and in 20% of infertile women. It has an impact on fertility, but also in everyday life. If medical treatment fails, surgical treatment can be offered to the patient. To provide adequate treatment and give clearer information to patients, it seems essential to achieve an optimal preoperative imaging assessment. Thus, the aim of this work is to define the information expected by the surgeon and the indications of each imaging test for each compartment of the pelvis, allowing an ideal surgical management of pelvic endometriosis. We will not discuss imaging techniques' principles and we will not develop the indications and surgical techniques. PMID:26874665

  6. Optimizing the balance between area and orientation distortions for variable-scale maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ti, Peng; Li, Zhilin; Xu, Zhu; Jia, Hongguo

    2016-07-01

    Applying a variable scale transformation to maps leads to area distortions of the maps, i.e. enlarging interesting areas on maps to larger scales and shrinking other areas. Such area distortions improve the clarity of the interesting areas. However, it may result in the over-distortion of line orientations so as to reduce map recognition. This article developed an optimization method to correct orientation distortions for variable-scale maps generated by any existing variable scale transformations, while preserving the map clarity as much as possible. The proposed method is tested with the variable-scale resultant maps of two real-life datasets and evaluated by statistical analysis and perceptual tests. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is able to effectively reduce the orientation distortions so as to improve map recognition, while map clarity has been sufficiently achieved.

  7. A balanced calibration of water quantity and quality by multi-objective optimization for integrated water system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Shao, Quanxi; Taylor, John A.

    2016-07-01

    Due to the high interactions among multiple processes in integrated water system models, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to achieve reasonable solutions for all objectives by using the traditional step-by-step calibration. In many cases, water quantity and quality are equally important but their objectives in model calibration usually conflict with each other, so it is not a good practice to calibrate one after another. In this study, a combined auto-calibration multi-process approach was proposed for the integrated water system model (HEQM) using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. This ensures that the model performance among inseparable or interactive processes could be balanced by users based on the Pareto front. The Huai River Basin, a highly regulated and heavily polluted region of China, was selected as a case study. The hydrological and water quality parameters of HEQM were calibrated simultaneously based on the observed series of runoff and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentrations. The results were compared with those of the step-by-step calibration to demonstrate the rationality and feasibility of the multi-objective approach. The results showed that a Pareto optimal front was formed and could be divided into three clear sections based on the elastic coefficient of model performance between NH4-N and runoff, i.e., the dominated section for NH4-N improvement, the trade-off section between NH4-N and runoff, and the dominated section for runoff improvement. The trade-off of model performance between runoff and NH4-N concentration was clear. The results of the step-by-step calibration fell in the dominated section for NH4-N improvement, where just the optimum of the runoff simulation was achieved with a large potential to improve NH4-N simulation without a significant degradation of the runoff simulation. The overall optimal solutions for all the simulations appeared in the trade-off section. Therefore, the Pareto front provided different

  8. Panel discussion on the Blewett Scholarship, and how it helps young women achieve career/family balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yennello, Sherry

    2011-03-01

    This panel discussion will be preceded by talks by three women who have had career interruptions due to family reasons and have restarted their research careers with some assistance from a Blewett Scholarship. They will discuss their experience balancing career and family. Questions from the audience will be encouraged. This session should provide inspiration for young women to pursue their passions and motivation for department chairs to be flexible and accommodating of career/family balance. The Blewett Scholarship program is administered by CSWP.

  9. Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Block Constructions Differ in Structural Balance: A Block-Building Characteristic Related to Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Beth M.; Pezaris, Elizabeth E.; Bassi, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on block building in adolescents, assessing middle school (Study 1) and high school students (Study 2). Students were asked to build something interesting with blocks. In both samples, the same pattern of gender differences were found; boys built taller structures than girls, and balanced a larger number of blocks on a…

  10. Physiological geroscience: targeting function to increase healthspan and achieve optimal longevity.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R; Justice, Jamie N; LaRocca, Thomas J

    2016-04-15

    Most nations of the world are undergoing rapid and dramatic population ageing, which presents great socio-economic challenges, as well as opportunities, for individuals, families, governments and societies. The prevailing biomedical strategy for reducing the healthcare impact of population ageing has been 'compression of morbidity' and, more recently, to increase healthspan, both of which seek to extend the healthy period of life and delay the development of chronic diseases and disability until a brief period at the end of life. Indeed, a recently established field within biological ageing research, 'geroscience', is focused on healthspan extension. Superimposed on this background are new attitudes and demand for 'optimal longevity' - living long, but with good health and quality of life. A key obstacle to achieving optimal longevity is the progressive decline in physiological function that occurs with ageing, which causes functional limitations (e.g. reduced mobility) and increases the risk of chronic diseases, disability and mortality. Current efforts to increase healthspan centre on slowing the fundamental biological processes of ageing such as inflammation/oxidative stress, increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired proteostasis and reduced stress resistance. We propose that optimization of physiological function throughout the lifespan should be a major emphasis of any contemporary biomedical policy addressing global ageing. Effective strategies should delay, reduce in magnitude or abolish reductions in function with ageing (primary prevention) and/or improve function or slow further declines in older adults with already impaired function (secondary prevention). Healthy lifestyle practices featuring regular physical activity and ideal energy intake/diet composition represent first-line function-preserving strategies, with pharmacological agents, including existing and new pharmaceuticals and novel 'nutraceutical' compounds, serving as potential

  11. Using thermal balance model to determine optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed in a laboratory-scale composting reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjiang; Pang, Li; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Yuansheng; Zhou, Kexun; Luo, Fei

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive model of thermal balance and degradation kinetics was developed to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material. Biological heat production and five channels of heat loss were considered in the thermal balance model for a representative reactor. Degradation kinetics was developed to make the model applicable to different types of substrates. Simulation of the model showed that the internal energy accumulation of compost was the significant heat loss channel, following by heat loss through reactor wall, and latent heat of water evaporation. Lower proportion of heat loss occurred through the reactor wall when the reactor volume was larger. Insulating materials with low densities and low conductive coefficients were more desirable for building small reactor systems. Model developed could be used to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed before the fabrication of a lab-scale composting system.

  12. The effect of adjusting model inputs to achieve mass balance on time-dynamic simulations in a food-web model of Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langseth, Brian J.; Jones, Michael L.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) is a widely used modeling tool in fishery research and management. Ecopath requires a mass-balanced snapshot of a food web at a particular point in time, which Ecosim then uses to simulate changes in biomass over time. Initial inputs to Ecopath, including estimates for biomasses, production to biomass ratios, consumption to biomass ratios, and diets, rarely produce mass balance, and thus ad hoc changes to inputs are required to balance the model. There has been little previous research of whether ad hoc changes to achieve mass balance affect Ecosim simulations. We constructed an EwE model for the offshore community of Lake Huron, and balanced the model using four contrasting but realistic methods. The four balancing methods were based on two contrasting approaches; in the first approach, production of unbalanced groups was increased by increasing either biomass or the production to biomass ratio, while in the second approach, consumption of predators on unbalanced groups was decreased by decreasing either biomass or the consumption to biomass ratio. We compared six simulation scenarios based on three alternative assumptions about the extent to which mortality rates of prey can change in response to changes in predator biomass (i.e., vulnerabilities) under perturbations to either fishing mortality or environmental production. Changes in simulated biomass values over time were used in a principal components analysis to assess the comparative effect of balancing method, vulnerabilities, and perturbation types. Vulnerabilities explained the most variation in biomass, followed by the type of perturbation. Choice of balancing method explained little of the overall variation in biomass. Under scenarios where changes in predator biomass caused large changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., high vulnerabilities), variation in biomass was greater than when changes in predator biomass caused only small changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., low

  13. Academic abilities in children and adolescents with a history of autism spectrum disorders who have achieved optimal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Helt, Molly; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael; Fein, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the academic abilities of children and adolescents who were once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for this disorder. These individuals have achieved social and language skills within the average range for their ages, receive little or no school support, and are referred to as having achieved "optimal outcomes." Performance of 32 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes, 41 high-functioning individuals with a current autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (high-functioning autism), and 34 typically developing peers was compared on measures of decoding, reading comprehension, mathematical problem solving, and written expression. Groups were matched on age, sex, and nonverbal IQ; however, the high-functioning autism group scored significantly lower than the optimal outcome and typically developing groups on verbal IQ. All three groups performed in the average range on all subtests measured, and no significant differences were found in performance of the optimal outcome and typically developing groups. The high-functioning autism group scored significantly lower on subtests of reading comprehension and mathematical problem solving than the optimal outcome group. These findings suggest that the academic abilities of individuals who achieved optimal outcomes are similar to those of their typically developing peers, even in areas where individuals who have retained their autism spectrum disorder diagnoses exhibit some ongoing difficulty.

  14. Dual-energy approach to contrast-enhanced mammography using the balanced filter method: Spectral optimization and preliminary phantom measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2007-11-15

    Dual-energy contrast agent-enhanced mammography is a technique of demonstrating breast cancers obscured by a cluttered background resulting from the contrast between soft tissues in the breast. The technique has usually been implemented by exploiting two exposures to different x-ray tube voltages. In this article, another dual-energy approach using the balanced filter method without switching the tube voltages is described. For the spectral optimization of dual-energy mammography using the balanced filters, we applied a theoretical framework reported by Lemacks et al. [Med. Phys. 29, 1739-1751 (2002)] to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in an iodinated contrast agent subtraction image. This permits the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage and balanced filter material, and the optimization of the latter's thickness with respect to some critical quantity--in this case, mean glandular dose. For an imaging system with a 0.1 mm thick CsI:Tl scintillator, we predict that the optimal tube voltage would be 45 kVp for a tungsten anode using zirconium, iodine, and neodymium balanced filters. A mean glandular dose of 1.0 mGy is required to obtain an SNR of 5 in order to detect 1.0 mg/cm{sup 2} iodine in the resulting clutter-free image of a 5 cm thick breast composed of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue. In addition to spectral optimization, we carried out phantom measurements to demonstrate the present dual-energy approach for obtaining a clutter-free image, which preferentially shows iodine, of a breast phantom comprising three major components - acrylic spheres, olive oil, and an iodinated contrast agent. The detection of iodine details on the cluttered background originating from the contrast between acrylic spheres and olive oil is analogous to the task of distinguishing contrast agents in a mixture of glandular and adipose tissues.

  15. Maximizing and Optimizing the Large Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy: Achieving the U.S. Government's Goal of 20% by 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alliss, R.; Apling, D.; Kiley, H.; Mason, M.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Government has an ambitious goal of growing renewable energy from 1% to 20% by 2030. Two key challenges exist in order to realize this target: Creating system-level approaches to overall generation capacity expansion and integration, including difficult policy changes, and addressing the variability issues of wind and solar generation. These challenges are addressed using MORE Power (Maximizing and Optimizing Renewable Energy), a system level planning tool designed to optimize the placement of wind and solar sites to maximize high quality, useable power. This planning tool uses historical, high resolution, measurements of wind and solar parameters along with a unique, non-linear, optimization algorithm to optimize the placement of sites given a set of user specified input parameters. MORE Power is quantifying the real value of transmission as an enabler to aggregate diverse variable resources which in turn is incentivizing transmission developers to expand the grid. In addition, the issue of grid stability becomes even more critical as larger deployment of renewable resources come online. MORE Power is identifying the benefits of larger balancing areas as an enabler for greater stability and therefore a reduced need to keep transmission capacity in reserve. In the end, by addressing and minimizing the impacts of the natural variability of wind and solar, a reduction in price volatility results which favorably impacts the consumer. This presentation will show examples of how MORE Power is being used to address the variability issue of renewables in order to achieve the 20% deployment target by 2030.

  16. Calibration of STUD+ parameters to achieve optimally efficient broadband adiabatic decoupling in a single transient

    PubMed

    Bendall; Skinner

    1998-10-01

    for a single sech/tanh pulse. Residual splitting of the centerband, normally associated with incomplete or inefficient decoupling, is not seen in sech/tanh decoupling and therefore cannot be used as a measure of adiabatic decoupling efficiency. The calibrated experimental performance levels achieved in this study are within 20% of theoretical performance levels derived previously for ideal sech/tanh decoupling at high power, indicating a small scope for further improvement at practical RF power levels. The optimization procedures employed here will be generally applicable to any good combination of adiabatic inversion pulse and phase cycle. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9761708

  17. An organizational cybernetics framework for achieving balance in evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article applies the systems science of organizational cybernetics to the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the provision of social work services in a residential treatment center setting. It does so by systemically balancing EBP with practice-based evidence (PBE) with a focus on the organizational and information system infrastructures necessary to ensure successful implementation. This application is illustrated by discussing a residential treatment program that implemented evidence-based programming and evaluated the results; however, the systemic principles articulated can be applied to any human services organizational setting.

  18. Robust Airfoil Optimization to Achieve Consistent Drag Reduction Over a Mach Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Huyse, Luc; Padula, Sharon; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We prove mathematically that in order to avoid point-optimization at the sampled design points for multipoint airfoil optimization, the number of design points must be greater than the number of free-design variables. To overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points, a robust airfoil optimization method (called the profile optimization method) is developed and analyzed. This optimization method aims at a consistent drag reduction over a given Mach range and has three advantages: (a) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (b) there is no random airfoil shape distortion for any iterate it generates, and (c) it allows a designer to make a trade-off between a truly optimized airfoil and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, we use the profile optimization method to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for 2-D airfoil in Euler flow with 20 free-design variables. A comparison with other airfoil optimization methods is also included.

  19. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on completion of Phase I and Phase II activities. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. During this reporting period, optimization tests were performed to evaluate system performance and identify optimum operating conditions for the installed equipment. The overfire air system process design activities and preliminary engineering design were completed.

  20. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  1. Achieving Consistent Near-Optimal Pattern Recognition Accuracy Using Particle Swarm Optimization to Pre-Train Artificial Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikelshpur, Dmitry O.

    2014-01-01

    Similar to mammalian brains, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are universal approximators, capable of yielding near-optimal solutions to a wide assortment of problems. ANNs are used in many fields including medicine, internet security, engineering, retail, robotics, warfare, intelligence control, and finance. "ANNs have a tendency to get…

  2. The Relationship of Mental Pressure with Optimism and Academic Achievement Motivation among Second Grade Male High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…

  3. Should Schools Be Optimistic? An Investigation of the Association between Academic Optimism of Schools and Student Achievement in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Tinneke; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in students and parents (3 school characteristics positively associated with student achievement) are assumed to form a higher order latent construct, "academic optimism" (Hoy, Tarter, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2006a, 2006b). The aim of the present study is to corroborate the latent…

  4. A Study of the Relationships between Distributed Leadership, Teacher Academic Optimism and Student Achievement in Taiwanese Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, I-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between distributed leadership, teachers' academic optimism and student achievement in learning. The study targeted public elementary schools in Taiwan and adopted stratified random sampling to investigate 1500 teachers. Teachers' perceptions were collected by a self-report scale. In…

  5. Academic Optimism and Collective Responsibility: An Organizational Model of the Dynamics of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jason H.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the construct of academic optimism and its relationship with collective responsibility in a sample of Taiwan elementary schools. The construct of academic optimism was tested using confirmatory factor analysis, and the whole structural model was tested with a structural equation modeling analysis. The data were…

  6. A balance-evolution artificial bee colony algorithm for protein structure optimization based on a three-dimensional AB off-lattice model.

    PubMed

    Li, Bai; Chiong, Raymond; Lin, Mu

    2015-02-01

    Protein structure prediction is a fundamental issue in the field of computational molecular biology. In this paper, the AB off-lattice model is adopted to transform the original protein structure prediction scheme into a numerical optimization problem. We present a balance-evolution artificial bee colony (BE-ABC) algorithm to address the problem, with the aim of finding the structure for a given protein sequence with the minimal free-energy value. This is achieved through the use of convergence information during the optimization process to adaptively manipulate the search intensity. Besides that, an overall degradation procedure is introduced as part of the BE-ABC algorithm to prevent premature convergence. Comprehensive simulation experiments based on the well-known artificial Fibonacci sequence set and several real sequences from the database of Protein Data Bank have been carried out to compare the performance of BE-ABC against other algorithms. Our numerical results show that the BE-ABC algorithm is able to outperform many state-of-the-art approaches and can be effectively employed for protein structure optimization. PMID:25463349

  7. OPTIMAL CONFIGURATION OF A COMMAND AND CONTROL NETWORK: BALANCING PERFORMANCE AND RECONFIGURATION CONSTRAINTS

    SciTech Connect

    L. DOWELL

    1999-07-01

    The optimization of the configuration of communications and control networks is important for assuring the reliability and performance of the networks. This paper presents techniques for determining the optimal configuration for such a network in the presence of communication and connectivity constraints.

  8. OPTIMAL CONFIGURATION OF A COMMAND AND CONTROL NETWORK: BALANCING PERFORMANCE AND RECONFIGURATION CONSTRAINTS

    SciTech Connect

    L. DOWELL

    1999-08-01

    The optimization of the configuration of communications and control networks is important for assuring the reliability and performance of the networks. This paper presents techniques for determining the optimal configuration for such a network in the presence of communication and connectivity constraints. reconfiguration to restore connectivity to a data-fusion network following the failure of a network component.

  9. Tenure Track Policy Increases Representation of Women in Senior Academic Positions, but Is Insufficient to Achieve Gender Balance

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Martha M.; Jacobs, Maarten H.

    2016-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in senior positions is a persistent problem in universities worldwide, and a wide range of strategies to combat this situation is currently being contemplated. One such strategy is the introduction of a tenure track system, in which decisions to promote scientific staff to higher ranks are guided by a set of explicit and transparent criteria, as opposed to earlier situations in which decisions were based on presumably more subjective impressions by superiors. We examined the effect of the introduction of a tenure track system at Wageningen University (The Netherlands) on male and female promotion rates. We found that chances on being promoted to higher levels were already fairly equal between men and women before the tenure track system was introduced, and improved–more for women than for men–after the introduction of the tenure track system. These results may partly be explained by affirmative actions, but also by the fact that legacy effects of historical discrimination have led to a more competitive female population of scientists. In spite of these outcomes, extrapolations of current promotion rates up to 2025 demonstrate that the equal or even higher female promotion rates do not lead to substantial improvement of the gender balance at higher levels (i.e., associate professor and higher). Since promotion rates are small compared to the total amount of staff, the current distribution of men and women will, especially at higher levels, exhibit a considerable degree of inertia—unless additional affirmative action is taken. PMID:27684072

  10. Visual feedback of the centre of gravity to optimize standing balance.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Bimal; Mansfield, Avril

    2015-02-01

    Force platform biofeedback training, whereby concurrent visual feedback of the centre of pressure (COP) is provided, has previously been used for balance training. Since the goal of balance is to maintain control of the centre of gravity (COG), specific feedback of the COG may be more likely than COP feedback to improve overall balance control. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of concurrent visual feedback of the COP versus COG on postural control during a novel quiet standing task. Thirty-two young healthy adults (20-35 years old) were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to receive concurrent visual feedback of either the COP or COG while standing on a foam pad. Training occurred over one session (20-30-second trials). Retention and transfer testing (i.e. without concurrent visual feedback) occurred after ∼24h. Variability of the COG decreased, variability of COP-COG increased, and sample entropy increased with concurrent visual feedback. With practice, variability of COP, COG and COP-COG decreased whereas sample entropy increased. The decrease in variability of COP-COG was greater for those who received COG feedback than those who received COP feedback. Training effects on COP, COG and COP-COG variability were not retained after 24h and removal of visual feedback. However, on retention and transfer testing, sample entropy was significantly higher than on baseline testing, indicating more 'automatic' postural control. These results suggest that concurrent visual feedback of neither the COP nor COG is superior for improving quiet standing balance control.

  11. Balanced Input Allows Optimal Encoding in a Stochastic Binary Neural Network Model: An Analytical Study

    PubMed Central

    Deco, Gustavo; Hugues, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological experiments have demonstrated a remarkable effect of attention on the underlying neural activity that suggests for the first time that information encoding is indeed actively influenced by attention. Single cell recordings show that attention reduces both the neural variability and correlations in the attended condition with respect to the non-attended one. This reduction of variability and redundancy enhances the information associated with the detection and further processing of the attended stimulus. Beyond the attentional paradigm, the local activity in a neural circuit can be modulated in a number of ways, leading to the general question of understanding how the activity of such circuits is sensitive to these relatively small modulations. Here, using an analytically tractable neural network model, we demonstrate how this enhancement of information emerges when excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents are balanced. In particular, we show that the network encoding sensitivity -as measured by the Fisher information- is maximized at the exact balance. Furthermore, we find a similar result for a more realistic spiking neural network model. As the regime of balanced inputs has been experimentally observed, these results suggest that this regime is functionally important from an information encoding standpoint. PMID:22359550

  12. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on Phase I and Phase II activities. The furnace sensors were procured and installed in February 2003. Baseline testing was performed following the sensor installation. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. Process design activities were performed to support design of the equipment installed and to develop specifications for the overfire air system. The overfire air system preliminary engineering design was initiated.

  13. Fairness: How to Achieve It and How to Optimize in a Fair-Division Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.; Cohen, Stanley F.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and practical application of mathematics is for fairly resolving the dispute of division of items for which two parties have equal claim. Basic properties of fair division are explained, which would enable students to learn concepts on optimization without introducing calculus.

  14. Achieving diverse and monoallelic olfactory receptor selection through dual-objective optimization design.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Hang; Sannerud, Jens; Xing, Jianhua

    2016-05-24

    Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at the organism level, the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation, and cannot explain recent observations in mutants, especially the reduced global diversity of expressed ORs in G9a/GLP knockouts. In this work we integrated existing information on OR expression, and constructed a comprehensive model that has all its components based on physical interactions. Analyzing the model reveals an evolutionarily optimized three-layer regulation mechanism, which includes zonal segregation, epigenetic barrier crossing coupled to a negative feedback loop that mechanistically differs from previous theoretical proposals, and a previously unidentified enhancer competition step. This model not only recapitulates monoallelic OR expression, but also elucidates how the olfactory system maximizes and maintains the diversity of OR expression, and has multiple predictions validated by existing experimental results. Through making an analogy to a physical system with thermally activated barrier crossing and comparative reverse engineering analyses, the study reveals that the olfactory receptor selection system is optimally designed, and particularly underscores cooperativity and synergy as a general design principle for multiobjective optimization in biology.

  15. Optimal Experience and Reading Achievement in Virtual Environments among College Level Developmental Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    In this mixed methods study the potential for developmental readers to experience optimal experience (flow) within the multi-user virtual environment, "Second Life," was examined. In an educational context, "Second Life" provided a space for constructivist learning, socialization, exploration, discovery and creativity. The communicative, social…

  16. Achieving diverse and monoallelic olfactory receptor selection through dual-objective optimization design.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Hang; Sannerud, Jens; Xing, Jianhua

    2016-05-24

    Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at the organism level, the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation, and cannot explain recent observations in mutants, especially the reduced global diversity of expressed ORs in G9a/GLP knockouts. In this work we integrated existing information on OR expression, and constructed a comprehensive model that has all its components based on physical interactions. Analyzing the model reveals an evolutionarily optimized three-layer regulation mechanism, which includes zonal segregation, epigenetic barrier crossing coupled to a negative feedback loop that mechanistically differs from previous theoretical proposals, and a previously unidentified enhancer competition step. This model not only recapitulates monoallelic OR expression, but also elucidates how the olfactory system maximizes and maintains the diversity of OR expression, and has multiple predictions validated by existing experimental results. Through making an analogy to a physical system with thermally activated barrier crossing and comparative reverse engineering analyses, the study reveals that the olfactory receptor selection system is optimally designed, and particularly underscores cooperativity and synergy as a general design principle for multiobjective optimization in biology. PMID:27162367

  17. Application of hydrophilic-lypophilic balance (HLB) number to optimize a compatible non-ionic surfactant for dried aerial conidia of Beauveria bassiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) number system was used to optimize a compatible non-ionic surfactant, TDA(polyoxyethylene tridecyl ether) in formulations for two Beauveria bassiana strains, NI8 and GHA. The optimal HLB number for TDA was determined on the basis of wetting times for conidia...

  18. Rocket ascent G-limited moment-balanced optimization program (RAGMOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, J. T.; Woltosz, W. S.; Abercrombie, G. E.; Gottlieb, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    This document describes the RAGMOP (Rocket Ascent G-limited Momentbalanced Optimization Program) computer program for parametric ascent trajectory optimization. RAGMOP computes optimum polynomial-form attitude control histories, launch azimuth, engine burn-time, and gross liftoff weight for space shuttle type vehicles using a search-accelerated, gradient projection parameter optimization technique. The trajectory model available in RAGMOP includes a rotating oblate earth model, the option of input wind tables, discrete and/or continuous throttling for the purposes of limiting the thrust acceleration and/or the maximum dynamic pressure, limitation of the structural load indicators (the product of dynamic pressure with angle-of-attack and sideslip angle), and a wide selection of intermediate and terminal equality constraints.

  19. Optimization of Composite Material System and Lay-up to Achieve Minimum Weight Pressure Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Haris Hameed; Wang, Gang; Dar, Uzair Ahmed; Zhang, Weihong

    2013-10-01

    The use of composite pressure vessels particularly in the aerospace industry is escalating rapidly because of their superiority in directional strength and colossal weight advantage. The present work elucidates the procedure to optimize the lay-up for composite pressure vessel using finite element analysis and calculate the relative weight saving compared with the reference metallic pressure vessel. The determination of proper fiber orientation and laminate thickness is very important to decrease manufacturing difficulties and increase structural efficiency. In the present work different lay-up sequences for laminates including, cross-ply [ 0 m /90 n ] s , angle-ply [ ±θ] ns , [ 90/±θ] ns and [ 0/±θ] ns , are analyzed. The lay-up sequence, orientation and laminate thickness (number of layers) are optimized for three candidate composite materials S-glass/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy and Carbon/epoxy. Finite element analysis of composite pressure vessel is performed by using commercial finite element code ANSYS and utilizing the capabilities of ANSYS Parametric Design Language and Design Optimization module to automate the process of optimization. For verification, a code is developed in MATLAB based on classical lamination theory; incorporating Tsai-Wu failure criterion for first-ply failure (FPF). The results of the MATLAB code shows its effectiveness in theoretical prediction of first-ply failure strengths of laminated composite pressure vessels and close agreement with the FEA results. The optimization results shows that for all the composite material systems considered, the angle-ply [ ±θ] ns is the optimum lay-up. For given fixed ply thickness the total thickness of laminate is obtained resulting in factor of safety slightly higher than two. Both Carbon/epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy resulted in approximately same laminate thickness and considerable percentage of weight saving, but S-glass/epoxy resulted in weight increment.

  20. Optimizing the Vertebrate Vestibular Semicircular Canal: Could We Balance Any Better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Todd M.

    2004-11-01

    The fluid-filled semicircular canals (SCCs) of the vestibular system are used by all vertebrates to sense angular rotation. Despite masses spanning seven decades, all mammalian SCCs are nearly the same size. We propose that the SCC represents a sensory organ that evolution has “optimally designed.” Four geometric parameters characterize the SCC, and “building materials” of given physical properties are assumed. Identifying physical and physiological constraints on SCC operation, we find the most sensitive SCC has dimensions consistent with available data. Since natural selection involves optimization, this approach may find broader use in understanding biological structures.

  1. Balancing Multicultural Competence with Social Justice: Feminist Beliefs and Optimal Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Janice D.; Snell, Andrea F.; Tobias, Ann

    2012-01-01

    To identify a multivariate configuration of feminist beliefs best associated with optimal psychological functioning, 215 mostly White college women completed an online survey measuring their feminist beliefs (Feminist Perspectives Scale, Attitudes toward Feminism and the Women's Movement, sense of common fate, and Feminist Identity Composite) and…

  2. Achieving Optimal Self-Adaptivity for Dynamic Tuning of Organic Semiconductors through Resonance Engineering.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ye; Xu, Lijia; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Runfeng; Li, Huanhuan; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Chao; Huang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Current static-state explorations of organic semiconductors for optimal material properties and device performance are hindered by limited insights into the dynamically changed molecular states and charge transport and energy transfer processes upon device operation. Here, we propose a simple yet successful strategy, resonance variation-based dynamic adaptation (RVDA), to realize optimized self-adaptive properties in donor-resonance-acceptor molecules by engineering the resonance variation for dynamic tuning of organic semiconductors. Organic light-emitting diodes hosted by these RVDA materials exhibit remarkably high performance, with external quantum efficiencies up to 21.7% and favorable device stability. Our approach, which supports simultaneous realization of dynamically adapted and selectively enhanced properties via resonance engineering, illustrates a feasible design map for the preparation of smart organic semiconductors capable of dynamic structure and property modulations, promoting the studies of organic electronics from static to dynamic. PMID:27403886

  3. Using a nursing balanced scorecard approach to measure and optimize nursing performance.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Lianne; Merkley, Jane; Richardson, Sandy; Eli, Jackie; McAllister, Mary

    2011-04-01

    The authors give an overview of one healthcare organization's experience in developing a nursing strategic plan and nursing balanced scorecard (NBS) using a focused planning process involving strategy mapping. The NBS is being used at this organization to manage the nursing strategic plan by leveraging and improving nursing processes and organizational capabilities as required, based on data and transparent communication of performance results to key stakeholders. Key strategies and insights may help other nurse leaders in developing or refining strategic approaches to measuring nursing performance. Vital to the success of an organization's strategic plan are ongoing endorsement, engagement and visibility of senior leaders. Quality of decisions made depends on the organization's ability to collect data from multiple sources using standardized definitions, mine data and extract them for statistical analysis and effectively present them in a compelling and understandable way to users and decision-makers.

  4. Optimizing the balance between host and environmental survival skills: lessons learned from Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Xayarath, Bobbi; Freitag, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental pathogens – organisms that survive in the outside environment but maintain the capacity to cause disease in mammals – navigate the challenges of life in habitats that range from water and soil to the cytosol of host cells. The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes has served for decades as a model organism for studies of host–pathogen interactions and for fundamental paradigms of cell biology. This ubiquitous saprophy te has recently become a model for understanding how an environmental bacterium switches to life within human cells. This review describes how L. monocytogenes balances life in disparate environments with the help of a critical virulence regulator known as PrfA. Understanding L. monocytogenes survival strategies is important for gaining insight into how environmental microbes become pathogens. PMID:22827306

  5. Using a nursing balanced scorecard approach to measure and optimize nursing performance.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Lianne; Merkley, Jane; Richardson, Sandy; Eli, Jackie; McAllister, Mary

    2011-04-01

    The authors give an overview of one healthcare organization's experience in developing a nursing strategic plan and nursing balanced scorecard (NBS) using a focused planning process involving strategy mapping. The NBS is being used at this organization to manage the nursing strategic plan by leveraging and improving nursing processes and organizational capabilities as required, based on data and transparent communication of performance results to key stakeholders. Key strategies and insights may help other nurse leaders in developing or refining strategic approaches to measuring nursing performance. Vital to the success of an organization's strategic plan are ongoing endorsement, engagement and visibility of senior leaders. Quality of decisions made depends on the organization's ability to collect data from multiple sources using standardized definitions, mine data and extract them for statistical analysis and effectively present them in a compelling and understandable way to users and decision-makers. PMID:21512337

  6. Estimation of an Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). The goal of this project was to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection.

  7. Optimal marking of threatened species to balance benefits of information with impacts of marking.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2008-12-01

    Marking animals so that they are uniquely identifiable provides information that may assist conservation efforts. Nevertheless, some methods used to mark animals can be harmful. We used mathematical methods to assess the trade-off between the impact of marking threatened species and the value of the information gained. We considered the case where 2 management strategies, each aiming to improve a species' survival rate, are implemented in an experimental phase. The results of the experiment were applied in a postexperimental management phase. We expressed the expected number of survivors in both phases mathematically, accounting for any mortality caused by the experiment, and determined the proportion of animals to mark to maximize this number. The optimal number of animals to mark increased with the number of individuals available for the experiment and with the number of individuals to be managed in the future. The optimal solution was to mark only 25% of the animals when there were 1000 individuals available for the experiment, the results were used to manage 2000 individuals, and marking caused mortality of 1%. Fewer animals were marked when there were fewer animals in either phase or when marking caused higher mortality. In the case of the Helmeted Honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix), the optimal proportion to mark was <1 if the mortality rate was >0.15%-1%, with the threshold depending on the number of animals in the experimental and postexperimental phases. The trade-off between gaining more information about a species and possibly harming individuals of that species by marking them is difficult to assess subjectively. We show how to determine objectively the optimal proportion of animals to mark to enhance the management of threatened species.

  8. Optimal marking of threatened species to balance benefits of information with impacts of marking.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2008-12-01

    Marking animals so that they are uniquely identifiable provides information that may assist conservation efforts. Nevertheless, some methods used to mark animals can be harmful. We used mathematical methods to assess the trade-off between the impact of marking threatened species and the value of the information gained. We considered the case where 2 management strategies, each aiming to improve a species' survival rate, are implemented in an experimental phase. The results of the experiment were applied in a postexperimental management phase. We expressed the expected number of survivors in both phases mathematically, accounting for any mortality caused by the experiment, and determined the proportion of animals to mark to maximize this number. The optimal number of animals to mark increased with the number of individuals available for the experiment and with the number of individuals to be managed in the future. The optimal solution was to mark only 25% of the animals when there were 1000 individuals available for the experiment, the results were used to manage 2000 individuals, and marking caused mortality of 1%. Fewer animals were marked when there were fewer animals in either phase or when marking caused higher mortality. In the case of the Helmeted Honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix), the optimal proportion to mark was <1 if the mortality rate was >0.15%-1%, with the threshold depending on the number of animals in the experimental and postexperimental phases. The trade-off between gaining more information about a species and possibly harming individuals of that species by marking them is difficult to assess subjectively. We show how to determine objectively the optimal proportion of animals to mark to enhance the management of threatened species. PMID:18680498

  9. Optimal thickness of silicon membranes to achieve maximum thermoelectric efficiency: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Claudia; Neogi, Sanghamitra; Donadio, Davide

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanostructures with reduced dimensionality, such as nanowires, membranes, and thin films, are promising thermoelectric materials, as they exhibit considerably reduced thermal conductivity. Here, we utilize density functional theory and Boltzmann transport equation to compute the electronic properties of ultra-thin crystalline silicon membranes with thickness between 1 and 12 nm. We predict that an optimal thickness of ˜7 nm maximizes the thermoelectric figure of merit of membranes with native oxide surface layers. Further thinning of the membranes, although attainable in experiments, reduces the electrical conductivity and worsens the thermoelectric efficiency.

  10. Master Amino acid Pattern as sole and total substitute for dietary proteins during a weight-loss diet to achieve the body's nitrogen balance equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Lucà-Moretti, M; Grandi, A; Lucà, E; Muratori, G; Nofroni, M G; Mucci, M P; Gambetta, P; Stimolo, R; Drago, P; Giudice, G; Tamburlin, N; Karbalai, M; Valente, C; Moras, G

    2003-01-01

    Results of this multicentric study have shown that by giving Master Amino acid Pattern (MAP) as a sole and total substitute of dietary proteins to 500 overweight participants undergoing the American Nutrition Clinics/Overweight Management Program (ANC/OMP), the participants' body nitrogen balance could be maintained in equilibrium with essentially no calories (MAP 1 g=0.04 kcal), thereby preserving the body's structural and functional proteins, eliminating excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment, and preventing the sudden weight increase after study conclusion commonly known as the yo-yo effect. Study results have shown that the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP regimen, has proven to be safe and effective by preventing those adverse effects associated with a negative nitrogen balance, such as oversized or flabby tissue, stretch marks, the sagging of breast tissue, increased hair loss, faded hair color, and fragile or brittle nails. Also prevented were those anomalies commonly associated with weight-loss diets, such as hunger, weakness, headache caused by ketosis, constipation, and decreased libido. The use of MAP in conjunction with the ANC/OMP also allowed for mean weight loss of 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) per week, achieved through reduction of excessive fat tissue and elimination of excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment. PMID:14964347

  11. Achievement of balanced high frequency and high breakdown by InGaAs-based high-electron-mobility transistors with slant field plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosotani, Tomotaka; Otsuji, Taiichi; Suemitsu, Tetsuya

    2016-11-01

    InGaAs-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with SiCN-based multistep slant field plates (FPs) and two-step recess (TSR) gates are fabricated and characterized. The slant FPs, which were originally developed for GaN-HEMTs, are integrated with InGaAs-HEMTs to increase the breakdown voltage (BV). The BVs of InGaAs-HEMTs increase by a factor of 1.5–2. However, FPs have a negative effect on the current gain cutoff frequency (f T). Consequently, BV and f T have a trade-off relationship. The combination of slant FPs and TSR gates enables the achievement of a balanced BV and f T of 8.0 V and 106 GHz, respectively, in 130-nm-gate-length InGaAs-HEMTs.

  12. Effective hybrid teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm for balancing two-sided assembly lines with multiple constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qiuhua; Li, Zixiang; Zhang, Liping; Floudas, C. A.; Cao, Xiaojun

    2015-09-01

    Due to the NP-hardness of the two-sided assembly line balancing (TALB) problem, multiple constraints existing in real applications are less studied, especially when one task is involved with several constraints. In this paper, an effective hybrid algorithm is proposed to address the TALB problem with multiple constraints (TALB-MC). Considering the discrete attribute of TALB-MC and the continuous attribute of the standard teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm, the random-keys method is hired in task permutation representation, for the purpose of bridging the gap between them. Subsequently, a special mechanism for handling multiple constraints is developed. In the mechanism, the directions constraint of each task is ensured by the direction check and adjustment. The zoning constraints and the synchronism constraints are satisfied by teasing out the hidden correlations among constraints. The positional constraint is allowed to be violated to some extent in decoding and punished in cost function. Finally, with the TLBO seeking for the global optimum, the variable neighborhood search (VNS) is further hybridized to extend the local search space. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms the late acceptance hill-climbing algorithm (LAHC) for TALB-MC in most cases, especially for large-size problems with multiple constraints, and demonstrates well balance between the exploration and the exploitation. This research proposes an effective and efficient algorithm for solving TALB-MC problem by hybridizing the TLBO and VNS.

  13. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. S.; Qiu, S. R.; Zheng, L. L.; Schaffers, K. I.; Tassano, J. B.; Caird, J. A.; Zhang, H.

    2008-08-01

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb 3+:Sr 5(PO 4) 3F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF 2-rich melts often encounters cracks during the post-growth cool-down stage. To suppress cracking during cool-down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool-down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented, which produced high-quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  14. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H; Qiu, S; Kheng, L; Schaffers, K; Tassano, J; Caird, J; Zhang, H

    2007-08-20

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF{sub 2}-rich melts often encounter cracks during the post growth cool down stage. To suppress cracking during cool down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented and produced high quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  15. Metal-binding sites are designed to achieve optimal mechanical and signaling properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anindita; Bahar, Ivet

    2010-09-01

    Many proteins require bound metals to achieve their function. We take advantage of increasing structural data on metal-binding proteins to elucidate three properties: the involvement of metal-binding sites in the global dynamics of the protein, predicted by elastic network models, their exposure/burial to solvent, and their signal-processing properties indicated by Markovian stochastics analysis. Systematic analysis of a data set of 145 structures reveals that the residues that coordinate metal ions enjoy remarkably efficient and precise signal transduction properties. These properties are rationalized in terms of their physical properties: participation in hinge sites that control the softest modes collectively accessible to the protein and occupancy of central positions minimally exposed to solvent. Our observations suggest that metal-binding sites may have been evolutionary selected to achieve optimum allosteric communication. They also provide insights into basic principles for designing metal-binding sites, which are verified to be met by recently designed de novo metal-binding proteins.

  16. A modelling framework for predicting the optimal balance between control and surveillance effort in the local eradication of tuberculosis in New Zealand wildlife.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Andrew M; Holland, E Penelope; Barron, Mandy C; Anderson, Dean P; Nugent, Graham

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) impacts livestock farming in New Zealand, where the introduced marsupial brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the wildlife maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis. New Zealand has implemented a campaign to control TB using a co-ordinated programme of livestock diagnostic testing and large-scale culling of possums, with the long-term aim of TB eradication. For management of the disease in wildlife, methods that can optimise the balance between control and surveillance effort will facilitate the objective of eradication on a fixed or limited budget. We modelled and compared management options to optimise the balance between the two activities necessary to achieve and verify eradication of TB from New Zealand wildlife: the number of lethal population control operations required to halt the M. bovis infection cycle in possums, and the subsequent surveillance effort needed to confidently declare TB freedom post-control. The approach considered the costs of control and surveillance, as well as the potential costs of re-control resulting from false declaration of TB freedom. The required years of surveillance decreased with increasing numbers of possum lethal control operations but the overall time to declare TB freedom depended on additional factors, such as the probability of freedom from disease after control and the probability of success of mop-up control, i.e. retroactive culling following detection of persistent disease in the residual possum population. The total expected cost was also dependent on a number of factors, many of which had wide cost ranges, suggesting that an optimal strategy is unlikely to be singular and fixed, but will likely vary for each different area being considered. Our approach provides a simple framework that considers the known and potential costs of possum control and TB surveillance, enabling managers to optimise the balance between these two activities to achieve and prove eradication of a wildlife

  17. Balancing sample accumulation and DNA degradation rates to optimize noninvasive genetic sampling of sympatric carnivores.

    PubMed

    Lonsinger, Robert C; Gese, Eric M; Dempsey, Steven J; Kluever, Bryan M; Johnson, Timothy R; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-07-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling, or noninvasive DNA sampling (NDS), can be an effective monitoring approach for elusive, wide-ranging species at low densities. However, few studies have attempted to maximize sampling efficiency. We present a model for combining sample accumulation and DNA degradation to identify the most efficient (i.e. minimal cost per successful sample) NDS temporal design for capture-recapture analyses. We use scat accumulation and faecal DNA degradation rates for two sympatric carnivores, kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) and coyote (Canis latrans) across two seasons (summer and winter) in Utah, USA, to demonstrate implementation of this approach. We estimated scat accumulation rates by clearing and surveying transects for scats. We evaluated mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (nDNA) DNA amplification success for faecal DNA samples under natural field conditions for 20 fresh scats/species/season from <1-112 days. Mean accumulation rates were nearly three times greater for coyotes (0.076 scats/km/day) than foxes (0.029 scats/km/day) across seasons. Across species and seasons, mtDNA amplification success was ≥95% through day 21. Fox nDNA amplification success was ≥70% through day 21 across seasons. Coyote nDNA success was ≥70% through day 21 in winter, but declined to <50% by day 7 in summer. We identified a common temporal sampling frame of approximately 14 days that allowed species to be monitored simultaneously, further reducing time, survey effort and costs. Our results suggest that when conducting repeated surveys for capture-recapture analyses, overall cost-efficiency for NDS may be improved with a temporal design that balances field and laboratory costs along with deposition and degradation rates.

  18. Balancing sample accumulation and DNA degradation rates to optimize noninvasive genetic sampling of sympatric carnivores.

    PubMed

    Lonsinger, Robert C; Gese, Eric M; Dempsey, Steven J; Kluever, Bryan M; Johnson, Timothy R; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-07-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling, or noninvasive DNA sampling (NDS), can be an effective monitoring approach for elusive, wide-ranging species at low densities. However, few studies have attempted to maximize sampling efficiency. We present a model for combining sample accumulation and DNA degradation to identify the most efficient (i.e. minimal cost per successful sample) NDS temporal design for capture-recapture analyses. We use scat accumulation and faecal DNA degradation rates for two sympatric carnivores, kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) and coyote (Canis latrans) across two seasons (summer and winter) in Utah, USA, to demonstrate implementation of this approach. We estimated scat accumulation rates by clearing and surveying transects for scats. We evaluated mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (nDNA) DNA amplification success for faecal DNA samples under natural field conditions for 20 fresh scats/species/season from <1-112 days. Mean accumulation rates were nearly three times greater for coyotes (0.076 scats/km/day) than foxes (0.029 scats/km/day) across seasons. Across species and seasons, mtDNA amplification success was ≥95% through day 21. Fox nDNA amplification success was ≥70% through day 21 across seasons. Coyote nDNA success was ≥70% through day 21 in winter, but declined to <50% by day 7 in summer. We identified a common temporal sampling frame of approximately 14 days that allowed species to be monitored simultaneously, further reducing time, survey effort and costs. Our results suggest that when conducting repeated surveys for capture-recapture analyses, overall cost-efficiency for NDS may be improved with a temporal design that balances field and laboratory costs along with deposition and degradation rates. PMID:25454561

  19. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  20. Bisphenol-A removal in various wastewater treatment processes: operational conditions, mass balance, and optimization.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Teslic, S; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) was analyzed in 499 liquid and 347 solid samples collected from twenty-five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to investigate parameters affecting BPA occurrence, removal, and fate. Lagoons, chemically-assisted primary treatment, secondary treatment, and advanced treatment processes were included. Median BPA concentrations in influent and final effluent were 400 ng/L and 150 ng/L, respectively. Median removal efficiencies ranged from 1 to 77%. Respective median BPA levels in primary sludge, secondary biological sludge, and biosolids were 230, 260, and 460 ng/g with digested biosolids having the highest concentrations. The biological aerated filter and membrane bioreactor processes showed the best performance, while chemically-assisted primary treatment achieved the lowest removal. Biodegradation and sorption contributing to BPA removal were influenced by operational conditions: hydraulic retention time (HRT), solids retention time (SRT), and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). The influence of HRT, SRT, and MLSS in the bioreactor was stronger during cold temperatures. In order to achieve above 80% removal, the required conditions for HRT, SRT, and MLSS were 13 h, 7 days, and 1600 mg/L during summer (median temperature 19 °C) and 13 h, 17 days, and 5300 mg/L during winter (median temperature 10 °C); indicating that longer SRT and higher MLSS were needed during winter. BPA's sorption tendency to sludge was strongly influenced by the degree of nitrification and HRT. PMID:25684568

  1. Standardization and Optimization of Computed Tomography Protocols to Achieve Low-Dose

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Cynthia; Cody, Dianna D.; Gupta, Rajiv; Hess, Christopher P.; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Kofler, James M.; Krishnam, Mayil S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in radiation exposure due to CT scans has been of growing concern in recent years. CT scanners differ in their capabilities and various indications require unique protocols, but there remains room for standardization and optimization. In this paper we summarize approaches to reduce dose, as discussed in lectures comprising the first session of the 2013 UCSF Virtual Symposium on Radiation Safety in Computed Tomography. The experience of scanning at low dose in different body regions, for both diagnostic and interventional CT procedures, is addressed. An essential primary step is justifying the medical need for each scan. General guiding principles for reducing dose include tailoring a scan to a patient, minimizing scan length, use of tube current modulation and minimizing tube current, minimizing-tube potential, iterative reconstruction, and periodic review of CT studies. Organized efforts for standardization have been spearheaded by professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Finally, all team members should demonstrate an awareness of the importance of minimizing dose. PMID:24589403

  2. Strike a balance: optimization of backbone torsion parameters of AMBER polarizable force field for simulations of proteins and peptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chun; Lei, Hongxing; Cieplak, Piotr; Duan, Yong

    2006-04-30

    Based on the AMBER polarizable model (ff02), we have re-optimized the parameters related to the main-chain (Phi, Psi) torsion angles by fitting to the Boltzmann-weighted average quantum mechanical (QM) energies of the important regions (i.e., beta, P(II), alpha(R), and alpha(L) regions). Following the naming convention of the AMBER force field series, this release will be called ff02pol.rl The force field has been assessed both by energetic comparison against the QM data and by the replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of short alanine peptides in water. For Ace-Ala-Nme, the simulated populations in the beta, P(II) and alpha(R) regions were approximately 30, 43, and 26%, respectively. For Ace-(Ala)(7)-Nme, the populations in these three regions were approximately 24, 49, and 26%. Both were in qualitative agreement with the NMR and CD experimental conclusions. In comparison with the previous force field, ff02pol.rl demonstrated good balance among these three important regions. The optimized torsion parameters, together with those in ff02, allow us to carry out simulations on proteins and peptides with the consideration of polarization.

  3. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Frye, Richard E; Rossignol, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    the optimal treatments for these abnormalities. PMID:27330338

  4. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Rossignol, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    the optimal treatments for these abnormalities. PMID:27330338

  5. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Frye, Richard E; Rossignol, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    the optimal treatments for these abnormalities.

  6. Optimization of allosteric MEK inhibitors. Part 2: Taming the sulfamide group balances compound distribution properties.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Ingo V; Hammer, Stefanie; Hitchcock, Marion; Neuhaus, Roland; Scholz, Arne; Siemeister, Gerhard; Bohlmann, Rolf; Hillig, Roman C; Pühler, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we had identified an unexplored pocket adjacent to the known binding site of allosteric MEK inhibitors which allowed us to design highly potent and in vivo efficacious novel inhibitors. We now report that our initial preclinical candidate, featuring a phenoxy side chain with a sulfamide capping group, displayed human carbonic anhydrase off-target activity and species-dependent blood cell accumulation, which prevented us from advancing this candidate further. Since this sulfamide MEK inhibitor displayed an exceptionally favorable PK profile with low brain penetration potential despite being highly oral bioavailable, we elected to keep the sulfamide capping group intact while taming its unwanted off-target activity by optimizing the structural surroundings. Introduction of a neighboring fluorine atom or installation of a methylene linker reduced hCA potency sufficiently, at the cost of MEK target potency. Switching to a higher fluorinated central core reinstated high MEK potency, leading to two new preclinical candidates with long half-lives, high bioavailabilities, low brain penetration potential and convincing efficacy in a K-Ras-mutated A549 xenograft model. PMID:26611920

  7. Optimization of allosteric MEK inhibitors. Part 2: Taming the sulfamide group balances compound distribution properties.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Ingo V; Hammer, Stefanie; Hitchcock, Marion; Neuhaus, Roland; Scholz, Arne; Siemeister, Gerhard; Bohlmann, Rolf; Hillig, Roman C; Pühler, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we had identified an unexplored pocket adjacent to the known binding site of allosteric MEK inhibitors which allowed us to design highly potent and in vivo efficacious novel inhibitors. We now report that our initial preclinical candidate, featuring a phenoxy side chain with a sulfamide capping group, displayed human carbonic anhydrase off-target activity and species-dependent blood cell accumulation, which prevented us from advancing this candidate further. Since this sulfamide MEK inhibitor displayed an exceptionally favorable PK profile with low brain penetration potential despite being highly oral bioavailable, we elected to keep the sulfamide capping group intact while taming its unwanted off-target activity by optimizing the structural surroundings. Introduction of a neighboring fluorine atom or installation of a methylene linker reduced hCA potency sufficiently, at the cost of MEK target potency. Switching to a higher fluorinated central core reinstated high MEK potency, leading to two new preclinical candidates with long half-lives, high bioavailabilities, low brain penetration potential and convincing efficacy in a K-Ras-mutated A549 xenograft model.

  8. An Optimal Balance between Efficiency and Safety of Urban Drainage Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban drainage networks have been developed to promote the efficiency of a system in terms of drainage time so far. Typically, a drainage system is designed to drain water from developed areas promptly as much as possible during floods. In this regard, an artificial drainage system have been considered to be more efficient compared to river networks in nature. This study examined artificial drainage networks and the results indicate they can be less efficient in terms of network configuration compared with river networks, which is counter-intuitive. The case study of 20 catchments in Seoul, South Korea shows that they have wide range of efficiency in terms of network configuration and consequently, drainage time. This study also demonstrates that efficient drainage networks are more sensitive to spatial and temporal rainfall variation such as rainstorm movement. Peak flows increase more than two times greater in effective drainage networks compared with inefficient and highly sinuous drainage networks. Combining these results, this study implies that the layout of a drainage network is an important factor in terms of efficient drainage and also safety in urban catchments. Design of an optimal layout of the drainage network can be an alternative non-structural measures that mitigate potential risks and it is crucial for the sustainability of urban environments.

  9. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (<500 ng/mL) on Day 8. In these patients, the frequency of posaconazole administration was increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was <200 ng/mL. This study shows that increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27234674

  10. Optimization of CDT-1 and XYL1 expression for balanced co-production of ethanol and xylitol from cellobiose and xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zha, Jian; Li, Bing-Zhi; Shen, Ming-Hua; Hu, Meng-Long; Song, Hao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Production of ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is an alternative to the traditional production of ethanol in utilizing biomass. However, the conversion efficiency of xylose to xylitol is restricted by glucose repression, causing a low xylitol titer. To this end, we cloned genes CDT-1 (encoding a cellodextrin transporter) and gh1-1 (encoding an intracellular β-glucosidase) from Neurospora crassa and XYL1 (encoding a xylose reductase that converts xylose into xylitol) from Scheffersomyces stipitis into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabling simultaneous production of ethanol and xylitol from a mixture of cellobiose and xylose (main components of lignocellulosic hydrolysates). We further optimized the expression levels of CDT-1 and XYL1 by manipulating their promoters and copy-numbers, and constructed an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (carrying one copy of PGK1p-CDT1 and two copies of TDH3p-XYL1), which showed an 85.7% increase in xylitol production from the mixture of cellobiose and xylose than that from the mixture of glucose and xylose. Thus, we achieved a balanced co-fermentation of cellobiose (0.165 g/L/h) and xylose (0.162 g/L/h) at similar rates to co-produce ethanol (0.36 g/g) and xylitol (1.00 g/g). PMID:23844185

  11. Optimization of CDT-1 and XYL1 expression for balanced co-production of ethanol and xylitol from cellobiose and xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zha, Jian; Li, Bing-Zhi; Shen, Ming-Hua; Hu, Meng-Long; Song, Hao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Production of ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is an alternative to the traditional production of ethanol in utilizing biomass. However, the conversion efficiency of xylose to xylitol is restricted by glucose repression, causing a low xylitol titer. To this end, we cloned genes CDT-1 (encoding a cellodextrin transporter) and gh1-1 (encoding an intracellular β-glucosidase) from Neurospora crassa and XYL1 (encoding a xylose reductase that converts xylose into xylitol) from Scheffersomyces stipitis into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabling simultaneous production of ethanol and xylitol from a mixture of cellobiose and xylose (main components of lignocellulosic hydrolysates). We further optimized the expression levels of CDT-1 and XYL1 by manipulating their promoters and copy-numbers, and constructed an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (carrying one copy of PGK1p-CDT1 and two copies of TDH3p-XYL1), which showed an 85.7% increase in xylitol production from the mixture of cellobiose and xylose than that from the mixture of glucose and xylose. Thus, we achieved a balanced co-fermentation of cellobiose (0.165 g/L/h) and xylose (0.162 g/L/h) at similar rates to co-produce ethanol (0.36 g/g) and xylitol (1.00 g/g).

  12. Optimal body balance disturbance tolerance skills as a methodological basis for selection of firefighters to solve difficult rescue tasks.

    PubMed

    Jagiełło, Władysław; Wójcicki, Zbigniew; Barczyński, Bartłomiej J; Litwiniuk, Artur; Kalina, Roman Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the methodology of optimal choice of firefighters to solve difficult rescue tasks. 27 firefighters were analyzed: aged from 22-50 years of age, and with 2-27 years of work experience. Body balance disturbance tolerance skills (BBDTS) measured by the 'Rotational Test' (RT) and time of transition (back and forth) on a 4 meter beam located 3 meters above the ground, was the criterion for simulation of a rescue task (SRT). RT and SRT were carried out first in a sports tracksuit and then in protective clothing. A total of 4 results of the RT and SRT is the substantive base of the 4 rankings. The correlation of the RT and SRT results with 3 criteria for estimating BBDTS and 2 categories ranged from 0.478 (p<0.01) - 0.884 (p<0.01) and the results of SRT 0.911 (p<0.01). The basic ranking very highly correlated indicators of SRT (0.860 and 0.844), while the 6 indicators of RT only 2 (0.396 and 0.381; p<0.05). There was no correlation between the results of the RT and SRT, but there was an important partial correlation of these variables, but only then was the effect stabilized. The Rotational Test is a simple and easy to use tool for measuring body balance disturbance tolerance skills. However, the BBDTS typology is an accurate criteria for forecasting on this basis, including the results of accurate motor simulations, and the periodic ability of firefighters to solve the most difficult rescue tasks. PMID:24738515

  13. The RhoGAP RGA-2 and LET-502/ROCK achieve a balance of actomyosin-dependent forces in C. elegans epidermis to control morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Diogon, Marie; Wissler, Frédéric; Quintin, Sophie; Nagamatsu, Yasuko; Sookhareea, Satis; Landmann, Frédéric; Hutter, Harald; Vitale, Nicolas; Labouesse, Michel

    2007-07-01

    Embryonic morphogenesis involves the coordinate behaviour of multiple cells and requires the accurate balance of forces acting within different cells through the application of appropriate brakes and throttles. In C. elegans, embryonic elongation is driven by Rho-binding kinase (ROCK) and actomyosin contraction in the epidermis. We identify an evolutionary conserved, actin microfilament-associated RhoGAP (RGA-2) that behaves as a negative regulator of LET-502/ROCK. The small GTPase RHO-1 is the preferred target of RGA-2 in vitro, and acts between RGA-2 and LET-502 in vivo. Two observations show that RGA-2 acts in dorsal and ventral epidermal cells to moderate actomyosin tension during the first half of elongation. First, time-lapse microscopy shows that loss of RGA-2 induces localised circumferentially oriented pulling on junctional complexes in dorsal and ventral epidermal cells. Second, specific expression of RGA-2 in dorsal/ventral, but not lateral, cells rescues the embryonic lethality of rga-2 mutants. We propose that actomyosin-generated tension must be moderated in two out of the three sets of epidermal cells surrounding the C. elegans embryo to achieve morphogenesis.

  14. A balanced pyrimidine pool is required for optimal Chk1 activation to prevent ultrafine anaphase bridge formation.

    PubMed

    Gemble, Simon; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Onclercq-Delic, Rosine; Biard, Denis; Lambert, Sarah; Amor-Guéret, Mounira

    2016-08-15

    Cytidine deaminase (CDA) deficiency induces an excess of cellular dCTP, which reduces basal PARP-1 activity, thereby compromising complete DNA replication, leading to ultrafine anaphase bridge (UFB) formation. CDA dysfunction has pathological implications, notably in cancer and in Bloom syndrome. It remains unknown how reduced levels of PARP-1 activity and pyrimidine pool imbalance lead to the accumulation of unreplicated DNA during mitosis. We report that a decrease in PARP-1 activity in CDA-deficient cells impairs DNA-damage-induced Chk1 activation, and, thus, the downstream checkpoints. Chemical inhibition of the ATR-Chk1 pathway leads to UFB accumulation, and we found that this pathway was compromised in CDA-deficient cells. Our data demonstrate that ATR-Chk1 acts downstream from PARP-1, preventing the accumulation of unreplicated DNA in mitosis, and, thus, UFB formation. Finally, delaying entry into mitosis is sufficient to prevent UFB formation in both CDA-deficient and CDA-proficient cells, suggesting that both physiological and pathological UFBs are derived from unreplicated DNA. Our findings demonstrate an unsuspected requirement for a balanced nucleotide pool for optimal Chk1 activation both in unchallenged cells and in response to genotoxic stress.

  15. A balanced pyrimidine pool is required for optimal Chk1 activation to prevent ultrafine anaphase bridge formation.

    PubMed

    Gemble, Simon; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Onclercq-Delic, Rosine; Biard, Denis; Lambert, Sarah; Amor-Guéret, Mounira

    2016-08-15

    Cytidine deaminase (CDA) deficiency induces an excess of cellular dCTP, which reduces basal PARP-1 activity, thereby compromising complete DNA replication, leading to ultrafine anaphase bridge (UFB) formation. CDA dysfunction has pathological implications, notably in cancer and in Bloom syndrome. It remains unknown how reduced levels of PARP-1 activity and pyrimidine pool imbalance lead to the accumulation of unreplicated DNA during mitosis. We report that a decrease in PARP-1 activity in CDA-deficient cells impairs DNA-damage-induced Chk1 activation, and, thus, the downstream checkpoints. Chemical inhibition of the ATR-Chk1 pathway leads to UFB accumulation, and we found that this pathway was compromised in CDA-deficient cells. Our data demonstrate that ATR-Chk1 acts downstream from PARP-1, preventing the accumulation of unreplicated DNA in mitosis, and, thus, UFB formation. Finally, delaying entry into mitosis is sufficient to prevent UFB formation in both CDA-deficient and CDA-proficient cells, suggesting that both physiological and pathological UFBs are derived from unreplicated DNA. Our findings demonstrate an unsuspected requirement for a balanced nucleotide pool for optimal Chk1 activation both in unchallenged cells and in response to genotoxic stress. PMID:27383768

  16. Reduction of exposure to acrylamide: achievements, potential of optimization, and problems encountered from the perspectives of a Swiss enforcement laboratory.

    PubMed

    Grob, Koni

    2005-01-01

    The most important initiatives taken in Switzerland to reduce exposure of consumers to acrylamide are the separate sale of potatoes low in reducing sugars for roasting and frying, the optimization of the raw material and preparation of french fries, and campaigns to implement suitable preparation methods in the gastronomy and homes. Industry works on improving a range of other products. Although these measures can reduce high exposures by some 80%, they have little effect on the background exposure resulting from coffee, bread, and numerous other products for which no substantial improvement is in sight. At this stage, improvements should be achieved by supporting voluntary activity rather than legal limits. Committed and consistent risk communication is key, and the support of improvements presupposes innovative approaches.

  17. Achieving consistent image quality with dose optimization in 64-row multidetector computed tomography prospective ECG gated coronary calcium scoring.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zilai; Pang, Lifang; Li, Jianying; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Wenjie; Ding, Bei; Chai, Weimin; Chen, Kemin; Yao, Weiwu

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of a body mass index (BMI) based tube current (mA) selection method for obtaining consistent image quality with dose optimization in MDCT prospective ECG gated coronary calcium scoring. A formula for selecting mA to achieve desired image quality based on patient BMI was established using a control group (A) of 200 MDCT cardiac patients with a standard scan protocol. One hundred patients in Group B were scanned with this BMI-dependent mA for achieving a desired noise level of 18 HU at 2.5 mm slice thickness. The CTDIvol and image noise on the ascending aorta for the two groups were recorded. Two experienced radiologists quantitatively evaluated the image quality using scores of 1-4 with 4 being the highest. The image quality scores had no statistical difference (P = 0.71) at 3.89 ± 0.32, 3.87 ± 0.34, respectively, for groups A and B of similar BMI. The image noise in Group A had linear relationship with BMI. The image noise in Group B using BMI-dependent mA was independent of BMI with average value of 17.9 HU and smaller deviations for the noise values than in Group A (2.0 vs. 2.9 HU). There was a 35% dose reduction with BMI-dependent mA selection method on average with the lowest effective dose being only 0.35 mSv for patient with BMI of 18.3. A quantitative BMI-based mA selection method in MDCT prospective ECG gated coronary calcium scoring has been proposed to obtain a desired and consistent image quality and provide dose optimization across patient population.

  18. Optimization Correction Strength Using Contra Bending Technique without Anterior Release Procedure to Achieve Maximum Correction on Severe Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Saleh, Ifran; Purnaning, Dyah; Kurniawati, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Posterior-only approach with rod and screw corrective manipulation to add strength of contra bending manipulation has correction achievement similar to that obtained by conventional combined anterior release and posterior approach. It also avoids the complications related to the thoracic approach. We reported a case of 25-year-old male adult idiopathic scoliosis with double curve. It consists of main thoracic curve of 150 degrees and lumbar curve of 89 degrees. His curve underwent direct contra bending posterior approach using rod and screw corrective manipulation technique to achieve optimal correction. After surgery the main thoracic Cobb angle becomes 83 degrees and lumbar Cobb angle becomes 40 degrees, with 5 days length of stay and less than 800 mL blood loss during surgery. There is no complaint at two months after surgery; he has already come back to normal activity with good functional activity. PMID:27064801

  19. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR−/−) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Kenneth A.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; DiStefano, Peter S.; Geddes, Brad J.; Kopchick, John

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR −/− mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (Mb) changes and physical activity in 17 month-old female GHR −/− mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR −/− mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit Mb, had greater EE per unit Mb and had an increase in 24-h EE/Mb that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR −/− mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, Mb and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for Mb and LMA, the GHR −/− mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR −/− mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR −/− mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final three hours of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR −/− mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable Mb. Relative to wild type mice, the GHR −/− mice consumed more calories per unit Mb, which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR −/− mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. PMID:19747867

  20. Two-speed phacoemulsification for soft cataracts using optimized parameters and procedure step toolbar with the CENTURION Vision System and Balanced Tip

    PubMed Central

    Davison, James A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To present a cause of posterior capsule aspiration and a technique using optimized parameters to prevent it from happening when operating soft cataracts. Patients and methods A prospective list of posterior capsule aspiration cases was kept over 4,062 consecutive cases operated with the Alcon CENTURION machine and Balanced Tip. Video analysis of one case of posterior capsule aspiration was accomplished. A surgical technique was developed using empirically derived machine parameters and customized setting-selection procedure step toolbar to reduce the pace of aspiration of soft nuclear quadrants in order to prevent capsule aspiration. Results Two cases out of 3,238 experienced posterior capsule aspiration before use of the soft quadrant technique. Video analysis showed an attractive vortex effect with capsule aspiration occurring in 1/5 of a second. A soft quadrant removal setting was empirically derived which had a slower pace and seemed more controlled with no capsule aspiration occurring in the subsequent 824 cases. The setting featured simultaneous linear control from zero to preset maximums for: aspiration flow, 20 mL/min; and vacuum, 400 mmHg, with the addition of torsional tip amplitude up to 20% after the fluidic maximums were achieved. A new setting selection procedure step toolbar was created to increase intraoperative flexibility by providing instantaneous shifting between the soft and normal settings. Conclusion A technique incorporating a reduced pace for soft quadrant acquisition and aspiration can be accomplished through the use of a dedicated setting of integrated machine parameters. Toolbar placement of the procedure button next to the normal setting procedure button provides the opportunity to instantaneously alternate between the two settings. Simultaneous surgeon control over vacuum, aspiration flow, and torsional tip motion may make removal of soft nuclear quadrants more efficient and safer. PMID:26355695

  1. Lipid Encapsulation Provides Insufficient Total-Tract Digestibility to Achieve an Optimal Transfer Efficiency of Fatty Acids to Milk Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle. Diets consisted of a control (no EEO); 1.5% of dry matter (DM) as EEO and 1.5% DM as encapsulation matrix; and 3% DM as EEO. The EEO was rumen-stable and had no effect on animal production. EEO-derived FA were incorporated into all plasma lipid fractions, with the highest proportion of n-3 FA observed in cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of EEO-derived FA ranged from 7–14%. Biohydrogenation products increased in milk, plasma, and feces with EEO supplementation. In conclusion, lipid-encapsulation provides inadequate digestibility to achieve an optimal transfer efficiency of n-3 FA to milk. PMID:27741299

  2. Nanocarriers for optimizing the balance between interfollicular permeation and follicular uptake of topically applied clobetasol to minimize adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Mathes, C; Melero, A; Conrad, P; Vogt, T; Rigo, L; Selzer, D; Prado, W A; De Rossi, C; Garrigues, T M; Hansen, S; Guterres, S S; Pohlmann, A R; Beck, R C R; Lehr, C-M; Schaefer, U F

    2016-02-10

    The treatment of various hair disorders has become a central focus of good dermatologic patient care as it affects men and women all over the world. For many inflammatory-based scalp diseases, glucocorticoids are an essential part of treatment, even though they are known to cause systemic as well as local adverse effects when applied topically. Therefore, efficient targeting and avoidance of these side effects are of utmost importance. Optimizing the balance between drug release, interfollicular permeation, and follicular uptake may allow minimizing these adverse events and simultaneously improve drug delivery, given that one succeeds in targeting a sustained release formulation to the hair follicle. To test this hypothesis, three types of polymeric nanocarriers (nanospheres, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules) for the potent glucocorticoid clobetasol propionate (CP) were prepared. They all exhibited a sustained release of drug, as was desired. The particles were formulated as a dispersion and hydrogel and (partially) labeled with Rhodamin B for quantification purposes. Follicular uptake was investigated using the Differential Stripping method and was found highest for nanocapsules in dispersion after application of massage. Moreover, the active ingredient (CP) as well as the nanocarrier (Rhodamin B labeled polymer) recovered in the hair follicle were measured simultaneously, revealing an equivalent uptake of both. In contrast, only negligible amounts of CP could be detected in the hair follicle when applied as free drug in solution or hydrogel, regardless of any massage. Skin permeation experiments using heat-separated human epidermis mounted in Franz Diffusion cells revealed equivalent reduced transdermal permeability for all nanocarriers in comparison to application of the free drug. Combining these results, nanocapsules formulated as an aqueous dispersion and applied by massage appeare to be a good candidate to maximize follicular targeting and minimize drug

  3. Nanocarriers for optimizing the balance between interfollicular permeation and follicular uptake of topically applied clobetasol to minimize adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Mathes, C; Melero, A; Conrad, P; Vogt, T; Rigo, L; Selzer, D; Prado, W A; De Rossi, C; Garrigues, T M; Hansen, S; Guterres, S S; Pohlmann, A R; Beck, R C R; Lehr, C-M; Schaefer, U F

    2016-02-10

    The treatment of various hair disorders has become a central focus of good dermatologic patient care as it affects men and women all over the world. For many inflammatory-based scalp diseases, glucocorticoids are an essential part of treatment, even though they are known to cause systemic as well as local adverse effects when applied topically. Therefore, efficient targeting and avoidance of these side effects are of utmost importance. Optimizing the balance between drug release, interfollicular permeation, and follicular uptake may allow minimizing these adverse events and simultaneously improve drug delivery, given that one succeeds in targeting a sustained release formulation to the hair follicle. To test this hypothesis, three types of polymeric nanocarriers (nanospheres, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules) for the potent glucocorticoid clobetasol propionate (CP) were prepared. They all exhibited a sustained release of drug, as was desired. The particles were formulated as a dispersion and hydrogel and (partially) labeled with Rhodamin B for quantification purposes. Follicular uptake was investigated using the Differential Stripping method and was found highest for nanocapsules in dispersion after application of massage. Moreover, the active ingredient (CP) as well as the nanocarrier (Rhodamin B labeled polymer) recovered in the hair follicle were measured simultaneously, revealing an equivalent uptake of both. In contrast, only negligible amounts of CP could be detected in the hair follicle when applied as free drug in solution or hydrogel, regardless of any massage. Skin permeation experiments using heat-separated human epidermis mounted in Franz Diffusion cells revealed equivalent reduced transdermal permeability for all nanocarriers in comparison to application of the free drug. Combining these results, nanocapsules formulated as an aqueous dispersion and applied by massage appeare to be a good candidate to maximize follicular targeting and minimize drug

  4. Achieving Work-Life Balance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting, Part I: The Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley; Pitney, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Supervisor support has been identified as key to the fulfillment of work-life balance for the athletic trainer (AT), yet limited literature exists on the perspectives of supervisors. Objective: To investigate how the head AT facilitates work-life balance among staff members within the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Web-based management system. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 head ATs (13 men, 5 women; age = 44 ± 8 years, athletic training experience = 22 ± 7 years) volunteered for an asynchronous, Web-based interview. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to a series of questions by journaling their thoughts and experiences. We included multiple-analyst triangulation, stakeholder checks, and peer review to establish data credibility. We analyzed the data via a general inductive approach. Results: Four prevailing themes emerged from the data: modeling work-life balance, encouraging disengagement from the AT role, cooperation and community workplace, and administrative support and understanding. Conclusions: Head ATs at the Division I level recognized the need to promote work-life balance among their staffs. They not only were supportive of policies that promote work-life balance, including spending time away from the role of the AT and teamwork among staff members, but also modeled and practiced the strategies that they promoted. PMID:25343530

  5. Reducing the Academic Risks of Over-Optimism: The Longitudinal Effects of Attributional Retraining on Cognition and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Tara L.; Ruthig, Joelle C.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2006-01-01

    Although optimism is generally regarded as a positive dispositional characteristic, unmitigated optimism can be problematic. The adaptiveness of overly optimistic expectations in novel or unfamiliar settings is questionable because individuals have little relevant experience on which to base such expectations. In this four-phase longitudinal…

  6. Dynamic strain scanning optimization: an efficient strain design strategy for balanced yield, titer, and productivity. DySScO strategy for strain design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, constraint-based metabolic models have emerged as an important tool for metabolic engineering; a number of computational algorithms have been developed for identifying metabolic engineering strategies where the production of the desired chemical is coupled with the growth of the organism. A caveat of the existing algorithms is that they do not take the bioprocess into consideration; as a result, while the product yield can be optimized using these algorithms, the product titer and productivity cannot be optimized. In order to address this issue, we developed the Dynamic Strain Scanning Optimization (DySScO) strategy, which integrates the Dynamic Flux Balance Analysis (dFBA) method with existing strain algorithms. Results In order to demonstrate the effective of the DySScO strategy, we applied this strategy to the design of Escherichia coli strains targeted for succinate and 1,4-butanediol production respectively. We evaluated consequences of the tradeoff between growth yield and product yield with respect to titer and productivity, and showed that the DySScO strategy is capable of producing strains that balance the product yield, titer, and productivity. In addition, we evaluated the economic viability of the designed strain, and showed that the economic performance of a strain can be strongly affected by the price difference between the product and the feedstock. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the DySScO strategy is a useful computational tool for designing microbial strains with balanced yield, titer, and productivity, and has potential applications in evaluating the economic performance of the design strains. PMID:23388063

  7. Addition of hydrochlorothiazide to angiotensin receptor blocker therapy can achieve a lower sodium balance with no acceleration of intrarenal renin angiotensin system in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Daisuke; Fukuda, Michio; Ogiyama, Yoshiaki; Sato, Ryo; Mizuno, Masashi; Miura, Toshiyuki; Abe-Dohmae, Sumiko; Michikawa, Makoto; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) produce a lower sodium (Na) balance, and the natriuretic effect is enhanced under Na deprivation, despite falls in blood pressure (BP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods The effect of additional hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 12.5 mg/day) to ARB treatment (valsartan; 80 mg/day) on glomerulotubular Na balance was evaluated in 23 patients with chronic kidney disease. Results Add-on HCTZ decreased GFR, tubular Na load, and tubular Na reabsorption (tNa), although 24-hour urinary Na excretion (UNaV) remained constant. Daily urinary angiotensinogen excretion (UAGTV, 152±10→82±17 μg/g Cre) reduced (p=0.02). Changes in tubular Na load (r2=0.26) and tNa (r2=0.25) correlated with baseline 24-hour UAGTV. Changes in filtered Na load correlated with changes in nighttime systolic BP (r2=0.17), but not with changes in daytime systolic BP. The change in the tNa to filtered Na load ratio was influenced by the change in daytime UNaV (β=−0.67, F=16.8), rather than the change in nighttime UNaV. Conclusions Lower Na balance was produced by add-on HCTZ to ARB treatment without an increase of intra-renal renin-angiotensin system activity, leading to restoration of nocturnal hypertension. A further study is needed to demonstrate that the reduction of UAGTV by additional diuretics to ARBs prevents the progression of nephropathy or cardiovascular events. PMID:27283968

  8. Master Amino acid Pattern as substitute for dietary proteins during a weight-loss diet to achieve the body's nitrogen balance equilibrium with essentially no calories.

    PubMed

    Lucà-Moretti, M; Grandi, A; Lucà, E; Muratori, G; Nofroni, M G; Mucci, M P; Gambetta, P; Stimolo, R; Drago, P; Giudice, G; Tamburlin, N

    2003-01-01

    Results of this multicentric study have shown that by giving 10 g (10 tablets) of Master Amino acid Pattern (MAP) as a substitute for dietary proteins, once a day, to 114 overweight participants undergoing the American Nutrition Clinics/Overweight Management Program (ANC/OMP), the participants' nitrogen balance could be maintained in equilibrium with essentially no calories (MAP 1 g=0.04 kcal), thereby preserving the body's structural and functional proteins, eliminating excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment, and preventing the sudden weight increase after study conclusion commonly known as the yo-yo effect. Study results have shown that the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP, has proven to be safe and effective by preventing those adverse effects associated with a negative nitrogen balance, such as oversized or flabby tissue, stretch marks, sagging of breast tissue, increased hair loss, faded hair color, and fragile or brittle nails. Also preventing those anomalies commonly associated with weight-loss diets, such as hunger, weakness, headache caused by ketosis, constipation, or decreased libido, the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP, allowed for mean weight loss of 1.4 kg (3 lb) per week. PMID:14964348

  9. On enforcing maximum principles and achieving element-wise species balance for advection-diffusion-reaction equations under the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a robust computational framework for advective-diffusive-reactive systems that satisfies maximum principles, the non-negative constraint, and element-wise species balance property. The proposed methodology is valid on general computational grids, can handle heterogeneous anisotropic media, and provides accurate numerical solutions even for very high Péclet numbers. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate advection (which makes the spatial part of the differential operator non-self-adjoint) into the non-negative computational framework, and overcome numerical challenges associated with advection. We employ low-order mixed finite element formulations based on least-squares formalism, and enforce explicit constraints on the discrete problem to meet the desired properties. The resulting constrained discrete problem belongs to convex quadratic programming for which a unique solution exists. Maximum principles and the non-negative constraint give rise to bound constraints while element-wise species balance gives rise to equality constraints. The resulting convex quadratic programming problems are solved using an interior-point algorithm. Several numerical results pertaining to advection-dominated problems are presented to illustrate the robustness, convergence, and the overall performance of the proposed computational framework.

  10. Optimizing Performance on Linux Clusters Using Advanced Communication Protocols: Achieving Over 10 Teraflops on a 8.6 Teraflops Linpack-Rated Linux Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2005-04-26

    Advancements in high-performance networks (Quadrics, Infiniband or Myrinet) continue to improve the efficiency of modern clusters. However, the average application efficiency is as small fraction of the peak as the system’s efficiency. This paper describes techniques for optimizing application performance on Linux clusters using Remote Memory Access communication protocols. The effectiveness of these optimizations is presented in the context of an application kernel, dense matrix multiplication. The result was achieving over 10 teraflops on HP Linux cluster on which LINPACK performance is measured as 8.6 teraflops.

  11. Face verification with balanced thresholds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuicheng; Xu, Dong; Tang, Xiaoou

    2007-01-01

    The process of face verification is guided by a pre-learned global threshold, which, however, is often inconsistent with class-specific optimal thresholds. It is, hence, beneficial to pursue a balance of the class-specific thresholds in the model-learning stage. In this paper, we present a new dimensionality reduction algorithm tailored to the verification task that ensures threshold balance. This is achieved by the following aspects. First, feasibility is guaranteed by employing an affine transformation matrix, instead of the conventional projection matrix, for dimensionality reduction, and, hence, we call the proposed algorithm threshold balanced transformation (TBT). Then, the affine transformation matrix, constrained as the product of an orthogonal matrix and a diagonal matrix, is optimized to improve the threshold balance and classification capability in an iterative manner. Unlike most algorithms for face verification which are directly transplanted from face identification literature, TBT is specifically designed for face verification and clarifies the intrinsic distinction between these two tasks. Experiments on three benchmark face databases demonstrate that TBT significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art subspace techniques for face verification.

  12. Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with "optimal outcomes" (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the…

  13. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  14. Codon optimization, promoter and expression system selection that achieved high-level production of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Jing; Yang, Jiang-Ke; Mao, Lin; Miao, Li-Hong

    2015-04-01

    Lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) stands amongst the most important and promising biocatalysts for industrial applications. In this study, in order to realize a high-level expression of the Yarrowia lipolytica lipase gene in Pichia pastoris, we optimized the codon of LIP2 by de novo gene design and synthesis, which significantly improved the lipase expression when compared to the native lip2 gene. We also comparatively analyzed the effects of the promoter types (PAOX1 and PFLD1) and the Pichia expression systems, including the newly developed PichiaPink system, on lipase production and obtained the optimal recombinants. Bench-top scale fermentation studies indicated that the recombinant carrying the codon-optimized lipase gene syn-lip under the control of promoter PAOX1 has a significantly higher lipase production capacity in the fermenter than other types of recombinants. After undergoing methanol inducible expression for 96h, the wet cell weight of Pichia, the lipase activity and the protein content in the fermentation broth reached their highest values of 262g/L, 38,500U/mL and 2.82g/L, respectively. This study has not only greatly facilitated the bioapplication of lipase in industrial fields but the strategies utilized, such as de novo gene design and synthesis, the comparative analysis among promoters and different generations of Pichia expression systems will also be useful as references for future work in this field. PMID:25765312

  15. Achieving a balance between small singlet-triplet energy splitting and high fluorescence radiative rate in a quinoxaline-based orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling; Wu, Zhongbin; Xie, Guohua; Zhong, Cheng; Zhu, Zece; Cong, Hengjiang; Ma, Dongge; Yang, Chuluo

    2016-09-21

    A new orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter is designed and synthesized by incorporating a fluorine-substituted quinoxaline as an electron-acceptor and a phenoxazine as an electron-donor. The rational molecular design enables small singlet-triplet energy splitting (ΔEST) and high fluorescence radiative rate (k) for long-wavelength TADF emitters. The organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing the new TADF emitter achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 13.9% and 9.0% for the vacuum- and solution-processed OLEDs, respectively.

  16. SU-E-T-387: Achieving Optimal Patient Setup Imaging and Treatment Workflow Configurations in Multi-Room Proton Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H; Prado, K; Langen, K; Yi, B; Mehta, M; Regine, W; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To simulate patient flow in proton treatment center under uncertainty and to explore the feasibility of treatment preparation rooms to improve patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Methods: Three center layout scenarios were modeled: (S1: In-Tx room imaging) patient setup and imaging (planar/volumetric) performed in treatment room, (S2: Patient setup in preparation room) each treatment room was assigned with preparation room(s) that was equipped with lasers only for patient setup and gross patient alignment, and (S3: Patient setup and imaging in preparation room) preparation room(s) was equipped with laser and volumetric imaging for patient setup, gross and fine patient alignment. A 'snap' imaging was performed in treatment room. For each scenario, the number of treatment rooms and the number of preparation rooms serving each treatment room were varied. We examined our results (average of 100 16-hour (two shifts) working days) by evaluating patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Results: When the number of treatment rooms increased ([from, to]) [1, 5], daily patient throughput increased [32, 161], [29, 184] and [27, 184] and cyclotron utilization increased [13%, 85%], [12%, 98%], and [11%, 98%] for scenarios S1, S2 and S3 respectively. However, both measures plateaued after 4 rooms. With the preparation rooms, the throughput and the cyclotron utilization increased by 14% and 15%, respectively. Three preparation rooms were optimal to serve 1-3 treatment rooms and two preparation rooms were optimal to serve 4 or 5 treatment rooms. Conclusion: Patient preparation rooms for patient setup may increase throughput and decrease the need for additional treatment rooms (cost effective). Optimal number of preparation rooms serving each gantry room varies as a function of treatment rooms and patient setup scenarios. A 5th treatment room may not be justified by throughput or utilization.

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Optimal Resource Management during the Diurnal Cycle in Emiliania huxleyi by Genome-Scale Reconstruction and an Extended Flux Balance Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Knies, David; Wittmüß, Philipp; Appel, Sebastian; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael; Feuer, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    The coccolithophorid unicellular alga Emiliania huxleyi is known to form large blooms, which have a strong effect on the marine carbon cycle. As a photosynthetic organism, it is subjected to a circadian rhythm due to the changing light conditions throughout the day. For a better understanding of the metabolic processes under these periodically-changing environmental conditions, a genome-scale model based on a genome reconstruction of the E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 was created. It comprises 410 reactions and 363 metabolites. Biomass composition is variable based on the differentiation into functional biomass components and storage metabolites. The model is analyzed with a flux balance analysis approach called diurnal flux balance analysis (diuFBA) that was designed for organisms with a circadian rhythm. It allows storage metabolites to accumulate or be consumed over the diurnal cycle, while keeping the structure of a classical FBA problem. A feature of this approach is that the production and consumption of storage metabolites is not defined externally via the biomass composition, but the result of optimal resource management adapted to the diurnally-changing environmental conditions. The model in combination with this approach is able to simulate the variable biomass composition during the diurnal cycle in proximity to literature data. PMID:26516924

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Optimal Resource Management during the Diurnal Cycle in Emiliania huxleyi by Genome-Scale Reconstruction and an Extended Flux Balance Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Knies, David; Wittmüß, Philipp; Appel, Sebastian; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael; Feuer, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    The coccolithophorid unicellular alga Emiliania huxleyi is known to form large blooms, which have a strong effect on the marine carbon cycle. As a photosynthetic organism, it is subjected to a circadian rhythm due to the changing light conditions throughout the day. For a better understanding of the metabolic processes under these periodically-changing environmental conditions, a genome-scale model based on a genome reconstruction of the E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 was created. It comprises 410 reactions and 363 metabolites. Biomass composition is variable based on the differentiation into functional biomass components and storage metabolites. The model is analyzed with a flux balance analysis approach called diurnal flux balance analysis (diuFBA) that was designed for organisms with a circadian rhythm. It allows storage metabolites to accumulate or be consumed over the diurnal cycle, while keeping the structure of a classical FBA problem. A feature of this approach is that the production and consumption of storage metabolites is not defined externally via the biomass composition, but the result of optimal resource management adapted to the diurnally-changing environmental conditions. The model in combination with this approach is able to simulate the variable biomass composition during the diurnal cycle in proximity to literature data. PMID:26516924

  19. Optical properties of InAsBi and optimal designs of lattice-matched and strain-balanced III-V semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. T.; Shalindar, A. J.; Riordan, N. A.; Gogineni, C.; Liang, H.; Sharma, A. R.; Johnson, S. R.

    2016-06-01

    The optical properties of bulk InAs0.936Bi0.064 grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a (100)-oriented GaSb substrate are measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The index of refraction and absorption coefficient are measured over photon energies ranging from 44 meV to 4.4 eV and are used to identify the room temperature bandgap energy of bulk InAs0.936Bi0.064 as 60.6 meV. The bandgap of InAsBi is expressed as a function of Bi mole fraction using the band anticrossing model and a characteristic coupling strength of 1.529 eV between the Bi impurity state and the InAs valence band. These results are programmed into a software tool that calculates the miniband structure of semiconductor superlattices and identifies optimal designs in terms of maximizing the electron-hole wavefunction overlap as a function of transition energy. These functionalities are demonstrated by mapping the design spaces of lattice-matched GaSb/InAs0.911Sb0.089 and GaSb/InAs0.932Bi0.068 and strain-balanced InAs/InAsSb, InAs/GaInSb, and InAs/InAsBi superlattices on GaSb. The absorption properties of each of these material systems are directly compared by relating the wavefunction overlap square to the absorption coefficient of each optimized design. Optimal design criteria are provided for key detector wavelengths for each superlattice system. The optimal design mid-wave infrared InAs/InAsSb superlattice is grown using molecular beam epitaxy, and its optical properties are evaluated using spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  20. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  1. Predictive Potential of Flux Balance Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using as Optimization Function Combinations of Cell Compartmental Objectives

    PubMed Central

    García Sánchez, Carlos Eduardo; Vargas García, César Augusto; Torres Sáez, Rodrigo Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Background The main objective of flux balance analysis (FBA) is to obtain quantitative predictions of metabolic fluxes of an organism, and it is necessary to use an appropriate objective function to guarantee a good estimation of those fluxes. Methodology In this study, the predictive performance of FBA was evaluated, using objective functions arising from the linear combination of different cellular objectives. This approach is most suitable for eukaryotic cells, owing to their multiplicity of cellular compartments. For this reason, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as model organism, and its metabolic network was represented using the genome-scale metabolic model iMM904. As the objective was to evaluate the predictive performance from the FBA using the kind of objective function previously described, substrate uptake and oxygen consumption were the only input data used for the FBA. Experimental information about microbial growth and exchange of metabolites with the environment was used to assess the quality of the predictions. Conclusions The quality of the predictions obtained with the FBA depends greatly on the knowledge of the oxygen uptake rate. For the most of studied classifications, the best predictions were obtained with “maximization of growth”, and with some combinations that include this objective. However, in the case of exponential growth with unknown oxygen exchange flux, the objective function “maximization of growth, plus minimization of NADH production in cytosol, plus minimization of NAD(P)H consumption in mitochondrion” gave much more accurate estimations of fluxes than the obtained with any other objective function explored in this study. PMID:22912775

  2. Technology for monitoring shot-level light source performance data to achieve high-optimization of lithography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Masato; Ochiai, Hideyuki; Watabe, Yoshinobu; Ishida, Keisuke; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Youichi; Kumazaki, Takahito; Kurosu, Akihiko; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2014-03-01

    Gigaphoton has developed a new monitoring system that provides shot-level light source performance data to FDC systems during exposure time. The system provides basic monitoring data (e.g. Energy, Wavelength, Bandwidth, etc.) and beam performance data, such as Beam Profile, Pointing, Divergence, Polarization can also be monitored using a new metrology tool called the Beam Performance Monitor (BPM) module. During exposure time the system automatically identifies the start and end timing of the wafer and each shot based on the burst of firing signals from the scanner, and stores the measured data in sequence. The stored data is sorted by wafer or by shot, and sent to REDeeM Piece which in turn converts the data to the user's protocol and send it to the FDC system. The user also has the option to directly view or download the stored data using a GUI. Through this monitoring system, users can manage light sources data at the shot or reticle level to facilitate optimization of performance and running cost of the light source for each process. This monitoring system can be easily retrofitted to Gigaphoton's current ArF laser light sources. The beam splitter of the BPM was specially designed to bend only a small fraction of the source beam, so we are able to simply install the BPM without the need for special optical alignment.

  3. Optimal azimuthal orientation for Si(111) double-crystal monochromators to achieve the least amount of glitches in the hard X-ray region.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng; Zheng, Lirong; Chu, Shengqi; Wu, Min; An, Pengfei; Zhang, Long; Hu, Tiandou

    2015-09-01

    Simulations of the periods, split regularities and mirror symmetries of the glitch pattern of a Si(111) crystal along with the azimuthal angles are presented. The glitch patterns of Si(111) double-crystal monochromators (DCMs) are found to be the superposition of the two sets of glitch patterns from the two crystals. The optimal azimuthal orientation ϕ1,2 = [(2n+1)π]/6 (n = 0, ±1, ±2…) for Si(111) DCMs to achieve the least amount of glitches in the hard X-ray region has been suggested.

  4. Imaging Live Cells at the Nanometer-Scale with Single-Molecule Microscopy: Obstacles and Achievements in Experiment Optimization for Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Beth L.; Matson, Jyl S.; DiRita, Victor J.; Biteen, Julie S.

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy enables biological investigations inside living cells to achieve millisecond- and nanometer-scale resolution. Although single-molecule-based methods are becoming increasingly accessible to non-experts, optimizing new single-molecule experiments can be challenging, in particular when super-resolution imaging and tracking are applied to live cells. In this review, we summarize common obstacles to live-cell single-molecule microscopy and describe the methods we have developed and applied to overcome these challenges in live bacteria. We examine the choice of fluorophore and labeling scheme, approaches to achieving single-molecule levels of fluorescence, considerations for maintaining cell viability, and strategies for detecting single-molecule signals in the presence of noise and sample drift. We also discuss methods for analyzing single-molecule trajectories and the challenges presented by the finite size of a bacterial cell and the curvature of the bacterial membrane. PMID:25123183

  5. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  6. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) optimize foraging efficiency by balancing oxygen use and energy gain as a function of prey density

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Elliott Lee; Friedlaender, Ari Seth; Goldbogen, Jeremy Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial predators can modulate the energy used for prey capture to maximize efficiency, but diving animals face the conflicting metabolic demands of energy intake and the minimization of oxygen depletion during a breath hold. It is thought that diving predators optimize their foraging success when oxygen use and energy gain act as competing currencies, but this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested because it has been difficult to measure the quality of prey that is targeted by free-ranging animals. We used high-resolution multisensor digital tags attached to foraging blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) with concurrent acoustic prey measurements to quantify foraging performance across depth and prey density gradients. We parameterized two competing physiological models to estimate energy gain and expenditure based on foraging decisions. Our analyses show that at low prey densities, blue whale feeding rates and energy intake were low to minimize oxygen use, but at higher prey densities feeding frequency increased to maximize energy intake. Contrary to previous paradigms, we demonstrate that blue whales are not indiscriminate grazers but instead switch foraging strategies in response to variation in prey density and depth to maximize energetic efficiency. PMID:26601290

  7. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) optimize foraging efficiency by balancing oxygen use and energy gain as a function of prey density.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Elliott Lee; Friedlaender, Ari Seth; Goldbogen, Jeremy Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Terrestrial predators can modulate the energy used for prey capture to maximize efficiency, but diving animals face the conflicting metabolic demands of energy intake and the minimization of oxygen depletion during a breath hold. It is thought that diving predators optimize their foraging success when oxygen use and energy gain act as competing currencies, but this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested because it has been difficult to measure the quality of prey that is targeted by free-ranging animals. We used high-resolution multisensor digital tags attached to foraging blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) with concurrent acoustic prey measurements to quantify foraging performance across depth and prey density gradients. We parameterized two competing physiological models to estimate energy gain and expenditure based on foraging decisions. Our analyses show that at low prey densities, blue whale feeding rates and energy intake were low to minimize oxygen use, but at higher prey densities feeding frequency increased to maximize energy intake. Contrary to previous paradigms, we demonstrate that blue whales are not indiscriminate grazers but instead switch foraging strategies in response to variation in prey density and depth to maximize energetic efficiency. PMID:26601290

  8. Male moths optimally balance take-off thoracic temperature and warm-up duration to reach a pheromone source quickly.

    PubMed

    Crespo, José G; Vickers, Neil J; Goller, Franz

    2014-12-01

    Animal activities, such as foraging and reproduction, are constrained by decisions about how to allocate energy and time efficiently. Overall, male moths invest less in reproduction than females, but they are thought to engage in a scramble competition for access to females that advertise readiness to mate by releasing sexual pheromones. However, before male moths can follow the pheromone, they often need to heat their flight muscles by shivering to produce sufficient power for sustained flight. Here, we show that Helicoverpa zea males that sense the female pheromone at high ambient temperatures take off with higher thoracic temperature, shiver for less time and warm up faster than males tested at lower ambient temperatures. These higher take-off temperatures translate into higher airspeeds, underscoring the importance of thoracic temperature for flight performance. Furthermore, shorter combined duration for warm-up and pheromone-mediated optomotor anemotaxis is consistent with the idea that males engage in scramble competition for access to females in nature. Our results strongly suggest that male moths minimize the time between perceiving the female's pheromone signal and arriving at the source by optimizing thermoregulatory behaviour and temperature-dependent flight performance in accordance with ambient temperature conditions. Our finding that moths engage in a trade-off between rapid flight initiation and suboptimal flight performance suggests a sensorimotor control mechanism that involves a complex interaction with the thermal environment. PMID:25386029

  9. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) optimize foraging efficiency by balancing oxygen use and energy gain as a function of prey density.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Elliott Lee; Friedlaender, Ari Seth; Goldbogen, Jeremy Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Terrestrial predators can modulate the energy used for prey capture to maximize efficiency, but diving animals face the conflicting metabolic demands of energy intake and the minimization of oxygen depletion during a breath hold. It is thought that diving predators optimize their foraging success when oxygen use and energy gain act as competing currencies, but this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested because it has been difficult to measure the quality of prey that is targeted by free-ranging animals. We used high-resolution multisensor digital tags attached to foraging blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) with concurrent acoustic prey measurements to quantify foraging performance across depth and prey density gradients. We parameterized two competing physiological models to estimate energy gain and expenditure based on foraging decisions. Our analyses show that at low prey densities, blue whale feeding rates and energy intake were low to minimize oxygen use, but at higher prey densities feeding frequency increased to maximize energy intake. Contrary to previous paradigms, we demonstrate that blue whales are not indiscriminate grazers but instead switch foraging strategies in response to variation in prey density and depth to maximize energetic efficiency.

  10. Male moths optimally balance take-off thoracic temperature and warm-up duration to reach a pheromone source quickly.

    PubMed

    Crespo, José G; Vickers, Neil J; Goller, Franz

    2014-12-01

    Animal activities, such as foraging and reproduction, are constrained by decisions about how to allocate energy and time efficiently. Overall, male moths invest less in reproduction than females, but they are thought to engage in a scramble competition for access to females that advertise readiness to mate by releasing sexual pheromones. However, before male moths can follow the pheromone, they often need to heat their flight muscles by shivering to produce sufficient power for sustained flight. Here, we show that Helicoverpa zea males that sense the female pheromone at high ambient temperatures take off with higher thoracic temperature, shiver for less time and warm up faster than males tested at lower ambient temperatures. These higher take-off temperatures translate into higher airspeeds, underscoring the importance of thoracic temperature for flight performance. Furthermore, shorter combined duration for warm-up and pheromone-mediated optomotor anemotaxis is consistent with the idea that males engage in scramble competition for access to females in nature. Our results strongly suggest that male moths minimize the time between perceiving the female's pheromone signal and arriving at the source by optimizing thermoregulatory behaviour and temperature-dependent flight performance in accordance with ambient temperature conditions. Our finding that moths engage in a trade-off between rapid flight initiation and suboptimal flight performance suggests a sensorimotor control mechanism that involves a complex interaction with the thermal environment.

  11. Male moths optimally balance take-off thoracic temperature and warm-up duration to reach a pheromone source quickly

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, José G.; Vickers, Neil J.; Goller, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Animal activities, such as foraging and reproduction, are constrained by decisions about how to allocate energy and time efficiently. Overall, male moths invest less in reproduction than females, but they are thought to engage in a scramble competition for access to females that advertise readiness to mate by releasing sexual pheromones. However, before male moths can follow the pheromone, they often need to heat their flight muscles by shivering to produce sufficient power for sustained flight. Here, we show that Helicoverpa zea males that sense the female pheromone at high ambient temperatures take off with higher thoracic temperature, shiver for less time and warm up faster than males tested at lower ambient temperatures. These higher take-off temperatures translate into higher airspeeds, underscoring the importance of thoracic temperature for flight performance. Furthermore, shorter combined duration for warm-up and pheromone-mediated optomotor anemotaxis is consistent with the idea that males engage in scramble competition for access to females in nature. Our results strongly suggest that male moths minimize the time between perceiving the female's pheromone signal and arriving at the source by optimizing thermoregulatory behaviour and temperature-dependent flight performance in accordance with ambient temperature conditions. Our finding that moths engage in a trade-off between rapid flight initiation and suboptimal flight performance suggests a sensorimotor control mechanism that involves a complex interaction with the thermal environment. PMID:25386029

  12. Balancing Cost and Risk by Optimizing the High-Level Waste and Low-Activity Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.

    2000-02-23

    In the currently used melters, the waste loading for nearly all high-level waste (HLW) is limited by crystallization. Above a certain level of waste loading, precipitation, settling, and accumulation of crystalline phases can cause severe processing problems and shorten the melter lifetime. To decrease the cost without putting the vitrification process at an unreasonable risk, several options, such as developing melters that operate above the liquidus temperature of glass, can be considered. Alternatively, if the melter is stirred, either mechanically, by bubbling, or by temperature gradients in induction heating, the melt can contain a substantial fraction of a crystalline phase that would not settle because it would be removed from the melter with glass. In addition, an induction melter can be nearly completely drained. For current melters that operate at a fixed temperature of 1150C, optimized glass formulation within currently accepted constaints has been developed. This approach is based on mathematically formulated relationships between glass properties and glass composition. Finally, re-evaluating the liquidus-temperature constraint, which may be unnecessarily restrictive for some HLWs, has recently been investigated. An attempt is being made to assess the rate of settling of crystalline phases in the melter and evaluate the risk for melter operation. Based on a reliable estimate of such a risk, waste loading could be increased, and a substantial saving can accrue. For low-activity waste (LAW), the waste loading in glass is limited either by the product quality or by segregation of sulfate during melting. The formulation of constraints on LAW glass in terms of relevant properties has not been completed, and no property-composition relationships have been established so far for this type of waste glass.

  13. Strategies to optimize lithium-ion supercapacitors achieving high-performance: Cathode configurations, lithium loadings on anode, and types of separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wanjun; Li, Yangxing; Fitch, Brian; Shih, Jonathan; Doung, Tien; Zheng, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The Li-ion capacitor (LIC) is composed of a lithium-doped carbon anode and an activated carbon cathode, which is a half Li-ion battery (LIB) and a half electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). LICs can achieve much more energy density than EDLC without sacrificing the high power performance advantage of capacitors over batteries. LIC pouch cells were assembled using activated carbon (AC) cathode and hard carbon (HC) + stabilized lithium metal power (SLMP®) anode. Different cathode configurations, various SLMP loadings on HC anode, and two types of separators were investigated to achieve the optimal electrochemical performance of the LIC. Firstly, the cathode binders study suggests that the PTFE binder offers improved energy and power performances for LIC in comparison to PVDF. Secondly, the mass ratio of SLMP to HC is at 1:7 to obtain the optimized electrochemical performance for LIC among all the various studied mass ratios between lithium loading amounts and active anode material. Finally, compared to the separator Celgard PP 3501, cellulose based TF40-30 is proven to be a preferred separator for LIC.

  14. Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  15. Maximize the benefit of SNCR: Combine SNCR with combustion optimization and achieve 50% NOx reduction from a low NOx burner baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Trego, P.; Schindler, E.

    2000-07-01

    PECO Energy Company operates one coal fired boiler at its Cromby Generating Facility. Cromby Unit 1 is a B and W front fired unit rated at 160 MW. The units boiler has been retrofitted with low NOx burners and overfire air ports. Due to NOx allowance pricing, PECO began evaluating options for reducing Cromby's NOx emissions. SNCR was evaluated at the best option for the plant even though the furnace exit temperatures and CO were high at practical injection locations. RJM Corporation, a Fuel Tech NOxOUT{trademark} Implementer, was selected to supply the system because of their extensive experience in solving combustion problems and applying NOxOUT SNCR systems on utility boilers. In order to reduce emissions during the 1999 NOx season, the deadline for an operational system was set at June 2nd. The project was issued on a fast track schedule starting February 2, 1999. The boiler was started up on June 2 on schedule after a six week maintenance outage. The project's 25% NOx reduction target was achieved after two weeks of combustion optimization. Combustion optimization was followed by NOxOUT A reagent injection system optimization which resulted in a 50% combined NOx reduction. Other benefits included a reduction in CO to less than 100 ppm and a 33% reduction in LOI.

  16. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  17. Using optimal combination of teaching-learning methods (open book assignment and group tutorials) as revision exercises to improve learning outcome in low achievers in biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Suryapriya, R; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2016-07-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving the learning outcome. About 143 graduate medical students were classified into low (<50%: group 1, n = 23), medium (50-75%: group 2, n = 74), and high (>75%: group 3, n = 46) achievers, based on their internal assessment marks. After the regular teaching module on the topics "Vitamins and Enzymology", all the students attempted an open book assignment without peer consultation. Then all the students participated in group tutorials. The effects on the groups were evaluated by pre and posttests at the end of each phase, with the same set of MCQs. Gain from group tutorials and overall gain was significantly higher in the low achievers, compared to other groups. High and medium achievers obtained more gain from open book assignment, than group tutorials. The overall gain was significantly higher than the gain obtained from open book assignment or group tutorials, in all three groups. All the three groups retained the gain even after 1 week of the exercise. Hence, optimal use of novel T-L methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) as revision exercises help in strengthening concepts in Biochemistry in this oft neglected group of low achievers in graduate medical education. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):321-325, 2016.

  18. A Novel Hybridization of Applied Mathematical, Operations Research and Risk-based Methods to Achieve an Optimal Solution to a Challenging Subsurface Contamination Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. D.; Pinder, G. F.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the project is the creation of a new, computationally based, approach to the collection, evaluation and use of data for the purpose of determining optimal strategies for investment in the solution of remediation of contaminant source areas and similar environmental problems. The research focuses on the use of existing mathematical tools assembled in a unique fashion. The area of application of this new capability is optimal (least-cost) groundwater contamination source identification; we wish to identify the physical environments wherein it may be cost-prohibitive to identify a contaminant source, the optimal strategy to protect the environment from additional insult and formulate strategies for cost-effective environmental restoration. The computational underpinnings of the proposed approach encompass the integration into a unique of several known applied-mathematical tools. The resulting tool integration achieves the following: 1) simulate groundwater flow and contaminant transport under uncertainty, that is when the physical parameters such as hydraulic conductivity are known to be described by a random field; 2) define such a random field from available field data or be able to provide insight into the sampling strategy needed to create such a field; 3) incorporate subjective information, such as the opinions of experts on the importance of factors such as locations of waste landfills; 4) optimize a search strategy for finding a potential source location and to optimally combine field information with model results to provide the best possible representation of the mean contaminant field and its geostatistics. Our approach combines in a symbiotic manner methodologies found in numerical simulation, random field analysis, Kalman filtering, fuzzy set theory and search theory. Testing the algorithm for this stage of the work, we will focus on fabricated field situations wherein we can a priori specify the degree of uncertainty associated with the

  19. Determining the optimal window length for pattern recognition-based myoelectric control: balancing the competing effects of classification error and controller delay

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren H.; Hargrove, Levi J.; Lock, Blair A.; Kuiken, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition–based control of myoelectric prostheses has shown great promise in research environments, but has not been optimized for use in a clinical setting. To explore the relationship between classification error, controller delay, and real-time controllability, 13 able-bodied subjects were trained to operate a virtual upper-limb prosthesis using pattern recognition of electromyogram (EMG) signals. Classification error and controller delay were varied by training different classifiers with a variety of analysis window lengths ranging from 50 to 550 ms and either two or four EMG input channels. Offline analysis showed that classification error decreased with longer window lengths (p < 0.01). Real-time controllability was evaluated with the Target Achievement Control (TAC) Test, which prompted users to maneuver the virtual prosthesis into various target postures. The results indicated that user performance improved with lower classification error (p<0.01) and was reduced with longer controller delay (p<0.01), as determined by the window length. Therefore, both of these effects should be considered when choosing a window length; it may be beneficial to increase the window length if this results in a reduced classification error, despite the corresponding increase in controller delay. For the system employed in this study, the optimal window length was found to be between 150 and 250 ms, which is within acceptable controller delays for conventional multi-state amplitude controllers. PMID:21193383

  20. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  1. Optimizing Bi2O3 and TiO2 to achieve the maximum non-linear electrical property of ZnO low voltage varistor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In fabrication of ZnO-based low voltage varistor, Bi2O3 and TiO2 have been used as former and grain growth enhancer factors respectively. Therefore, the molar ratio of the factors is quit important in the fabrication. In this paper, modeling and optimization of Bi2O3 and TiO2 was carried out by response surface methodology to achieve maximized electrical properties. The fabrication was planned by central composite design using two variables and one response. To obtain actual responses, the design was performed in laboratory by the conventional methods of ceramics fabrication. The actual responses were fitted into a valid second order algebraic polynomial equation. Then the quadratic model was suggested by response surface methodology. The model was validated by analysis of variance which provided several evidences such as high F-value (153.6), very low P-value (<0.0001), adjusted R-squared (0.985) and predicted R-squared (0.947). Moreover, the lack of fit was not significant which means the model was significant. Results The model tracked the optimum of the additives in the design by using three dimension surface plots. In the optimum condition, the molars ratio of Bi2O3 and TiO2 were obtained in a surface area around 1.25 point that maximized the nonlinear coefficient around 20 point. Moreover, the model predicted the optimum amount of the additives in desirable condition. In this case, the condition included minimum standard error (0.35) and maximum nonlinearity (20.03), while molar ratio of Bi2O3 (1.24 mol%) and TiO2 (1.27 mol%) was in range. The condition as a solution was tested by further experiments for confirmation. As the experimental results showed, the obtained value of the non-linearity, 21.6, was quite close to the predicted model. Conclusion Response surface methodology has been successful for modeling and optimizing the additives such as Bi2O3 and TiO2 of ZnO-based low voltage varistor to achieve maximized non-linearity properties. PMID

  2. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  3. Optimization of 4D vessel‐selective arterial spin labeling angiography using balanced steady‐state free precession and vessel‐encoding

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Peter; Bi, Xiaoming; Chappell, Michael A.; Tijssen, Rob H. N.; Sheerin, Fintan; Miller, Karla L.; Jezzard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Vessel‐selective dynamic angiograms provide a wealth of useful information about the anatomical and functional status of arteries, including information about collateral flow and blood supply to lesions. Conventional x‐ray techniques are invasive and carry some risks to the patient, so non‐invasive alternatives are desirable. Previously, non‐contrast dynamic MRI angiograms based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) have been demonstrated using both spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) and balanced steady‐state free precession (bSSFP) readout modules, but no direct comparison has been made, and bSSFP optimization over a long readout period has not been fully explored. In this study bSSFP and SPGR are theoretically and experimentally compared for dynamic ASL angiography. Unlike SPGR, bSSFP was found to have a very low ASL signal attenuation rate, even when a relatively large flip angle and short repetition time were used, leading to a threefold improvement in the measured signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) efficiency compared with SPGR. For vessel‐selective applications, SNR efficiency can be further improved over single‐artery labeling methods by using a vessel‐encoded pseudo‐continuous ASL (VEPCASL) approach. The combination of a VEPCASL preparation with a time‐resolved bSSFP readout allowed the generation of four‐dimensional (4D; time‐resolved three‐dimensional, 3D) vessel‐selective cerebral angiograms in healthy volunteers with 59 ms temporal resolution. Good quality 4D angiograms were obtained in all subjects, providing comparable structural information to 3D time‐of‐flight images, as well as dynamic information and vessel selectivity, which was shown to be high. A rapid 1.5 min dynamic two‐dimensional version of the sequence yielded similar image features and would be suitable for a busy clinical protocol. Preliminary experiments with bSSFP that included the extracranial vessels showed signal loss in regions of poor magnetic field

  4. Laser Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  5. Challenges in achieving optimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients with declining renal function: The Southeast Asia perspective.

    PubMed

    Cc Chow, Francis; Chan, Siew-Pheng; Hwu, Chii-Min; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompongse; Wu, Akira Yt; Gan, Susan Yu; Zacarias, Manuel B

    2012-12-20

    It is well recognised that Asia is at the epicenter of the global type 2 diabetes epidemic. Driven by socioeconomic changes involving industrialization, urbanization and adoption of Western lifestyles, the unprecedented increases in the prevalence of diabetes are particularly evident in Southeast Asia. The impact of diabetes is immense, and despite evidence of the benefit of optimal glucose control in reducing the risk of disease progression and development of macrovascular and microvascular complications, many individuals in this region remain poorly controlled. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasingly common diabetes-associated complication in Asian patients. Furthermore, Southeast Asia has one of the highest rates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Consequently, CKD in diabetes is associated with considerable morbidity and cardiovascular-related mortality, highlighting the need to screen and assess patients early in the course of the disease. The management of type 2 diabetes patients with declining renal function represents a significant challenge. Many of the older antidiabetic agents, such as metformin and sulfonylureas, are limited in their utility in CKD as a result of contraindications or hypoglycemic episodes. In contrast, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitors have provided a welcome addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for achieving glycemic control in these special populations. With comparable efficacy to and more favorable pharmacokinetic and side-effect profiles than traditional therapies, agents in this drug class, such as linagliptin, offer a more tailored approach to disease control in type 2 diabetes patients with declining renal function.

  6. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  7. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  8. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., developed ... a virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality Center. Patients walk on a treadmill and safely ...

  9. Optimizing rumen functions in the close-up transition period and early lactation to drive dry matter intake and energy balance in cows.

    PubMed

    Jouany, J-P

    2006-12-01

    The large deficit in energy intake in relation to energy requirements during the transition and early lactation periods means that high-producing cows need energy-dense rations. High-starch diets are intensively fermented by the microbial ecosystem in the rumen, giving rise to a high production of VFAs and resulting in a drop in pH and the accumulation of lactic acid, which exacerbates the decline in pH and is considered as the major cause of rumen acidosis. This rumen dysfunction affects rumen microbes and results in less efficient digestion, thereby decreasing feed intake and exacerbating the energy deficit in the cows. The main way to limit the risk of acidosis is by diet management. Thus, animals must be progressively adapted to grain ingredients during the 3-week period before calving. Furthermore, the diet management strategy will be to privilege low-degradable starch and include enough fiber in the diet to stimulate rumination and salivation. Chemical additives can be used to prevent rumen acidosis. Rumen pH can be controlled by direct addition of chemical buffers at doses of 1-2% of DM intake. Metabolic hydrogen can be mobilized through specific metabolic pathways such as propionogenesis to compete with the synthesis of lactic acid. This can be achieved by adding propionate precursors such as aspartate, malate or fumarate. However, these additives are not economically viable, and will not easily be accepted by consumers. Probiotics, which are mainly supplied as live yeasts, have to be regarded as a solution for preventing subacute acidosis but they are not considered as an efficient cure for acute acidosis. Although the mechanisms of action of probiotics are not fully understood, this paper proposes a plausible model of their mode of action. Recently, additives based on plant extracts have been proposed as a solution for optimizing rumen functions, but further efficacy studies and safety trials are required before these additives can be marketed. The

  10. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR arteriography with balanced steady-state free-precession and time spatial labeling inversion pulse: optimization of the inversion time at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Seiya; Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Furuta, Akihiro; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Background A 3 Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance (MR) scanner is a promising tool for upper abdominal angiography. However, no report has focused on the contrast behavior of non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR arteriography at 3 T. Purpose To establish the optimal inversion time (TI) for favorable selective visualization of the hepatic arteries on non-contrast-enhanced MR arteriography with time spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) at 3 T. Material and Methods Twenty-five healthy volunteers were examined using respiratory-triggered three-dimensional balanced steady-state free-precession combined with Time-SLIP. According to the difference in the TI, five image groups (A, B, C, D, and E, from 1200 to 2000 ms, increasing at 200-ms intervals) were performed and compared to detect the optimal TI for hepatic artery visualization. The relative Cv-l (vessel-to-liver contrast) was quantified. For qualitative evaluation, the vessel visualization quality and order of the depicted hepatic artery branches were evaluated. Results In group C (TI of 1600 ms), the Cv-l showed the highest probably due to a favorable balance between the hepatic vessel signal and signal recovery of the surrounding tissue. Regarding qualitative assessment, in group C, the mean image quality score of all hepatic arteries and mean maximal visible order of the hepatic artery branches were the highest. However, there was no significant difference between these results. Conclusion Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR arteriography with Time-SLIP at 3 T enabled the selective visualization of hepatic arteries at a TI of 1600 ms with an optimal balance between Cv-l and peripheral hepatic artery visualization. PMID:26668756

  11. Balancing on tightropes and slacklines

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, P.; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-01-01

    Balancing on a tightrope or a slackline is an example of a neuromechanical task where the whole body both drives and responds to the dynamics of the external environment, often on multiple timescales. Motivated by a range of neurophysiological observations, here we formulate a minimal model for this system and use optimal control theory to design a strategy for maintaining an upright position. Our analysis of the open and closed-loop dynamics shows the existence of an optimal rope sag where balancing requires minimal effort, consistent with qualitative observations and suggestive of strategies for optimizing balancing performance while standing and walking. Our consideration of the effects of nonlinearities, potential parameter coupling and delays on the overall performance shows that although these factors change the results quantitatively, the existence of an optimal strategy persists. PMID:22513724

  12. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  13. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  14. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  15. Balanced Can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-12-01

    The ordinary 12-oz beverage cans in the figures below are not held up with any props or glue. The bottom of such cans is stepped at its circumference for better stacking. When this kind of can is tilted, as shown in Fig. 1, the outside corners of the step touch the surface beneath, providing an effective contact about 1 cm wide. Because the contact is relatively wide and the geometry is symmetrical, it is easy to balance an empty can by simply adding an appropriate amount of water so that the overall center of mass is located directly above the contact. In fact, any amount of water between about 40 and 210 mL will work. A computational animation of this trick by Sijia Liang and Bruce Atwood that shows center of mass as a function of amount of added water is available at http://demonstrations.wolfram.com. Once there, search "balancing can."

  16. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a residual risk factor associated with long-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease who achieve optimal control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shinya; Kurata, Takeshi; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is recognized an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Clinical trials have shown that statins significantly reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statin. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established coronary risk factor that is independent of LDL-C levels. We evaluated the impact of HDL-C on long-term mortality in diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieved optimal LDL-C. We enrolled 438 consecutive diabetic patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention between 2004 and 2007 at our institution. We identified 165 patients who achieved target LDL-C <100 mg/dl. Patients were stratified into two groups according to HDL-C levels (low HDL-C group, baseline HDL-C <40 mg/dl; high HDL-C group, ≥40 mg/dl). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) that included all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome, and target lesion revascularization were evaluated between the two groups. The median follow-up period was 946 days. The rate of MACE was significantly higher in diabetic patients with low-HDL-C who achieved optimal LDL-C (6.9 vs 17.9 %, log-rank P = 0.030). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C is significantly associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for MACE 1.33, 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.75, P = 0.042). Low HDL-C is a residual risk factor that is significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieve optimal LDL-C levels.

  17. Use of Lipid-Lowering Medications and the Likelihood of Achieving Optimal LDL-Cholesterol Goals in Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Karalis, Dean G; Victor, Brett; Ahedor, Lilian; Liu, Longjian

    2012-01-01

    Background. In clinical practice, most coronary artery disease patients are not achieving their recommend LDL-cholesterol goal of <70 mg/dL. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of outpatient electronic health records and the most recent lipid profile, lipid-lowering medications and doses were collected. Results. We identified 9950 coronary artery disease patients. Only 37% on a statin alone achieved an LDL-cholesterol of <70 mg/dL, and most were on moderate-to-high-potency statins. The intensity of statin therapy did not improve LDL-cholesterol goal attainment. Among patients on combination therapy, 41% on statin plus ezetimibe and 46% on statin plus niacin achieved an LDL-cholesterol of <70 mg/dL (P = 0.01 and <0.0001 versus statin alone). If patients were switched to a high-potency statin LDL-cholesterol goal attainment of <70 mg/dL would increase to 46% and would increase up to 72% with combination therapy. Conclusions. Most coronary artery disease patients in clinical practice do not attain an LDL-cholesterol of <70 mg/dL, even among patients on high potency statins. The combination of statin plus either ezetimibe or niacin is the most effective regimen to achieve an LDL-cholesterol of <70 mg/dL, however, these drug combinations are used infrequently in clinical practice.

  18. Engineering redox balance through cofactor systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulai; Li, Shubo; Liu, Liming

    2014-06-01

    Redox balance plays an important role in the production of enzymes, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. To meet the demands of industrial production, it is desirable that microbes maintain a maximal carbon flux towards target metabolites with no fluctuations in redox. This requires functional cofactor systems that support dynamic homeostasis between different redox states or functional stability in a given redox state. Redox balance can be achieved by improving the self-balance of a cofactor system, regulating the substrate balance of a cofactor system, and engineering the synthetic balance of a cofactor system. This review summarizes how cofactor systems can be manipulated to improve redox balance in microbes.

  19. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    prior to a decision on redefinition. The CCM had already recognized that agreement was close and has set in place a process whereby redefinition can take place by 2018. The final decision will be in the hands of the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) but the results reported here should aid a positive decision. Figure 1. Figure 1. Results from recent measurements of the Planck constant. The reference for the results h 90 is derived from the conventional values of the Josephson constant K J-90 and the von Klitzing constant R K-90. The factor of ten improvement in uncertainty of the NRC watt balance result, over that achieved by the same apparatus at NPL a few years earlier, can be understood as a factor of five improvement arising from the elimination of an effect discovered at NPL that could not be eliminated before shipment to Canada and a factor of two arising from the considerable improvements made by NRC. Once the kilogram has been redefined, the watt and joule balances will complete their transitions from instruments that are primarily of interest to the electrical community for determining the SI electrical units from the mechanical units, to the principal methods by which an individual National Measurement Institute (NMI) can make an independent determination of the SI unit of mass and thereby contribute to the maintenance of national and international mass scales. This special issue gives an introduction to the diversity of techniques which are required for the operation of watt and joule balances. However it does not contain a review of existing balances; this was a deliberate decision, as a number of such review papers have been published in the past five years [3-7] and it was felt that it was not yet time for another. The first technique considered is that of gravimetry; the watt balance measures the weight Mg of a mass M , and to convert the measured weight into a mass, the value of the acceleration due to gravity g must be known, at the

  20. Calibrating and adjusting expectations in life: A grounded theory on how elderly persons with somatic health problems maintain control and balance in life and optimize well-being

    PubMed Central

    Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Iversen, Valentina Cabral; Steiring, Randi; Hallberg, Lillemor R-M

    2011-01-01

    Aim This study aims at exploring the main concern for elderly individuals with somatic health problems and what they do to manage this. Method In total, 14 individuals (mean=74.2 years; range=68–86 years) of both gender including hospitalized and outpatient persons participated in the study. Open interviews were conducted and analyzed according to grounded theory, an inductive theory-generating method. Results The main concern for the elderly individuals with somatic health problems was identified as their striving to maintain control and balance in life. The analysis ended up in a substantive theory explaining how elderly individuals with somatic disease were calibrating and adjusting their expectations in life in order to adapt to their reduced energy level, health problems, and aging. By adjusting the expectations to their actual abilities, the elderly can maintain a sense of that they still have the control over their lives and create stability. The ongoing adjustment process is facilitated by different strategies and result despite lower expectations in subjective well-being. The facilitating strategies are utilizing the network of important others, enjoying cultural heritage, being occupied with interests, having a mission to fulfill, improving the situation by limiting boundaries and, finally, creating meaning in everyday life. Conclusion The main concern of the elderly with somatic health problems was to maintain control and balance in life. The emerging theory explains how elderly people with somatic health problems calibrate their expectations of life in order to adjust to reduced energy, health problems, and aging. This process is facilitated by different strategies and result despite lower expectation in subjective well-being. PMID:21468299

  1. Leadership and Work-Life Balance.

    PubMed

    Mattock, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Simply stated, work-life balance is something that is both difficult to define and difficult to achieve. Leaders, throughout the continuum of trauma care, need to have a sound understanding of what work-life balance means and set an example of a healthy work-life balance for those they lead. This article offers strategies for enhancing work-life balance and challenges individuals to use self-reflection as a means to furthering their personal and professional growth. PMID:26574942

  2. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  3. Optimization of charge carrier transport balance for performance improvement of PDPP3T-based polymer solar cells prepared using a hot solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Fujun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Wenbin; An, Qiaoshi; Li, Lingliang; Sun, Qianqian; Tang, Weihua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-04-21

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs), with poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the active layers, were fabricated using solutions of different temperatures. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs prepared using a hot solution was about 6.22%, which is better than 5.54% for PSCs prepared using cool (room temperature) solutions and 5.85% for PSCs prepared using cool solutions with a 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) solvent additive. The underlying reasons for the improved PCE of the PSCs prepared using a hot solution could be attributed to the more dispersive donor and acceptor distribution in the active layer, resulting in a better bi-continuous interpenetrating network for exciton dissociation and charge carrier transport. An enhanced and more balanced charge carrier transport in the active layer is obtained for the PSCs prepared using a hot solution, which can be determined from the J-V curves of the related hole-only and electron-only devices.

  4. Further Optimization and Evaluation of Bioavailable, Mixed-Efficacy µ-Opioid Receptor (MOR) Agonists/δ-Opioid Receptor (DOR) Antagonists: Balancing MOR and DOR Affinities

    PubMed Central

    Harland, Aubrie A.; Yeomans, Larisa; Griggs, Nicholas W.; Anand, Jessica P.; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.

    2016-01-01

    In a previously described peptidomimetic series, we reported the development of bifunctional µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist ligands with a lead compound that produced antinociception for 1 h after intraperitoneal administration in mice. In this paper, we expand on our original series by presenting two modifications, both of which were designed with the following objectives: 1) probing bioavailability and improving metabolic stability, 2) balancing affinities between MOR and DOR while reducing affinity and efficacy at the Κ-opioid receptor (KOR), and 3) improving in vivo efficacy. Here we establish that through N-acetylation of our original peptidomimetic series, we are able to improve DOR affinity and increase selectivity relative to KOR while maintaining the desired MOR agonist/DOR antagonist profile. From initial in vivo studies, one compound (14a) was found to produce dose-dependent antinociception after peripheral administration with an improved duration of action of longer than 3 h. PMID:26524472

  5. Balancing act of template bank construction: Inspiral waveform template banks for gravitational-wave detectors and optimizations at fixed computational cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppel, Drew

    2013-06-01

    Gravitational-wave searches for signals from inspiraling compact binaries have relied on matched filtering banks of waveforms (called template banks) to try to extract the signal waveforms from the detector data. These template banks have been constructed using four main considerations, the region of parameter space of interest, the sensitivity of the detector, the matched filtering bandwidth, and the sensitivity one is willing to lose due to the granularity of template placement, the latter of which is governed by the minimal match. In this work we describe how the choice of the lower frequency cutoff, the lower end of the matched filter frequency band, can be optimized for detection. We also show how the minimal match can be optimally chosen in the case of limited computational resources. These techniques are applied to searches for binary neutron star signals that have been previously performed when analyzing Initial LIGO and Virgo data and will be performed analyzing Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo data using the expected detector sensitivity. By following the algorithms put forward here, the volume sensitivity of these searches is predicted to improve without increasing the computational cost of performing the search.

  6. Use of response surface methodology in a fed-batch process for optimization of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates to achieve high levels of canthaxanthin from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1.

    PubMed

    Nasri Nasrabadi, Mohammad Reza; Razavi, Seyed Hadi

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we applied statistical experimental design to a fed-batch process for optimization of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediates in order to achieve high-level production of canthaxanthin from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 cultured in beet molasses. A fractional factorial design (screening test) was first conducted on five TCA cycle intermediates. Out of the five TCA cycle intermediates investigated via screening tests, alfaketoglutarate, oxaloacetate and succinate were selected based on their statistically significant (P<0.05) and positive effects on canthaxanthin production. These significant factors were optimized by means of response surface methodology (RSM) in order to achieve high-level production of canthaxanthin. The experimental results of the RSM were fitted with a second-order polynomial equation by means of a multiple regression technique to identify the relationship between canthaxanthin production and the three TCA cycle intermediates. By means of this statistical design under a fed-batch process, the optimum conditions required to achieve the highest level of canthaxanthin (13172 + or - 25 microg l(-1)) were determined as follows: alfaketoglutarate, 9.69 mM; oxaloacetate, 8.68 mM; succinate, 8.51 mM.

  7. Balanced Sparse Model for Tight Frames in Compressed Sensing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunsong; Cai, Jian-Feng; Zhan, Zhifang; Guo, Di; Ye, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Qu, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Compressed sensing has shown to be promising to accelerate magnetic resonance imaging. In this new technology, magnetic resonance images are usually reconstructed by enforcing its sparsity in sparse image reconstruction models, including both synthesis and analysis models. The synthesis model assumes that an image is a sparse combination of atom signals while the analysis model assumes that an image is sparse after the application of an analysis operator. Balanced model is a new sparse model that bridges analysis and synthesis models by introducing a penalty term on the distance of frame coefficients to the range of the analysis operator. In this paper, we study the performance of the balanced model in tight frame based compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging and propose a new efficient numerical algorithm to solve the optimization problem. By tuning the balancing parameter, the new model achieves solutions of three models. It is found that the balanced model has a comparable performance with the analysis model. Besides, both of them achieve better results than the synthesis model no matter what value the balancing parameter is. Experiment shows that our proposed numerical algorithm constrained split augmented Lagrangian shrinkage algorithm for balanced model (C-SALSA-B) converges faster than previously proposed algorithms accelerated proximal algorithm (APG) and alternating directional method of multipliers for balanced model (ADMM-B). PMID:25849209

  8. A pragmatic approach to determine the optimal kVp in cone beam CT: balancing contrast-to-noise ratio and radiation dose

    PubMed Central

    Silkosessak, O; Jacobs, R; Bogaerts, R; Bosmans, H; Panmekiate, S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the optimal kVp setting for a particular cone beam CT (CBCT) device by maximizing technical image quality at a fixed radiation dose. Methods: The 3D Accuitomo 170 (J. Morita Mfg. Corp., Kyoto, Japan) CBCT was used. The radiation dose as a function of kVp was measured in a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom using a small-volume ion chamber. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured using a PMMA phantom containing four materials (air, aluminium, polytetrafluoroethylene and low-density polyethylene), which was scanned using 180 combinations of kVp/mA, ranging from 60/1 to 90/8. The CNR was measured for each material using PMMA as background material. The pure effect of kVp and mAs on the CNR values was analysed. Using a polynomial fit for CNR as a function of mA for each kVp value, the optimal kVp was determined at five dose levels. Results: Absorbed doses ranged between 0.034 mGy mAs−1 (14 × 10 cm, 60 kVp) and 0.108 mGy mAs−1 (14 × 10 cm, 90 kVp). The relation between kVp and dose was quasilinear (R2 > 0.99). The effect of mA and kVp on CNR could be modelled using a second-degree polynomial. At a fixed dose, there was a tendency for higher CNR values at increasing kVp values, especially at low dose levels. A dose reduction through mA was more efficient than an equivalent reduction through kVp in terms of image quality deterioration. Conclusions: For the investigated CBCT model, the most optimal contrast at a fixed dose was found at the highest available kVp setting. There is great potential for dose reduction through mA with a minimal loss in image quality. PMID:24708447

  9. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  10. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Abdulla, Salim; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ndong, Alice; Falade, Catherine O; Sagara, Issaka; Mulure, Nathan; Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem(R)) has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat.As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat) results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat). African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals) supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans) and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30-60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day). Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15-30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat) or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5-59 months have shown similar high cure rates to those observed in

  11. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Abdulla, Salim; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ndong, Alice; Falade, Catherine O; Sagara, Issaka; Mulure, Nathan; Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem®) has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat. As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat) results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat). African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals) supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans) and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30–60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day). Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15–30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat) or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5–59 months have shown similar high cure rates to those observed

  12. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  13. Benefits and risks of fish consumption Part II. RIBEPEIX, a computer program to optimize the balance between the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Bocio, Ana; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M

    2007-02-12

    In recent years, and based on the importance of fish as a part of a healthy diet, there has been a notable promotion of fish and seafood consumption. However, a number of recent studies have shown that fish may be a potential source of exposure to chemical pollutants, some of them with well known adverse effects on human health. Recently, we determined in 14 edible marine species the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosohexaenoic acid (DHA), as well as those of a number of chemical contaminants: Cd, Hg, Pb, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenylethers and polychlorinated diphenylethers. To quantitative establish the intake of these pollutants (risks) versus that of EPA+DHA (benefits), we designed a simple computer program, RIBEPEIX. The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and the chemical pollutants were introduced into the program. We here present how RIBEPEIX may be used as an easy tool to optimize fish consumption: most suitable species, frequency of consumption, and size of meals. RIBEPEIX can be useful not only for professionals (cardiologists, general physicians, nutritionists, toxicologists, etc.), but also for the general population. It is available at: .

  14. Achieving Finite Element Mesh Quality via Optimization of the Jacobian Matrix Norm and Associated Quantities, Part II - A Framework for Volume Mesh Optimization and the Condition Number of the Jacobian Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Knupp, P.M.

    1999-03-26

    Three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral and hexahedral finite element mesh optimization is studied from a theoretical perspective and by computer experiments to determine what objective functions are most effective in attaining valid, high quality meshes. The approach uses matrices and matrix norms to extend the work in Part I to build suitable 3D objective functions. Because certain matrix norm identities which hold for 2 x 2 matrices do not hold for 3 x 3 matrices. significant differences arise between surface and volume mesh optimization objective functions. It is shown, for example, that the equivalence in two-dimensions of the Smoothness and Condition Number of the Jacobian matrix objective functions does not extend to three dimensions and further. that the equivalence of the Oddy and Condition Number of the Metric Tensor objective functions in two-dimensions also fails to extend to three-dimensions. Matrix norm identities are used to systematically construct dimensionally homogeneous groups of objective functions. The concept of an ideal minimizing matrix is introduced for both hexahedral and tetrahedral elements. Non-dimensional objective functions having barriers are emphasized as the most logical choice for mesh optimization. The performance of a number of objective functions in improving mesh quality was assessed on a suite of realistic test problems, focusing particularly on all-hexahedral ''whisker-weaved'' meshes. Performance is investigated on both structured and unstructured meshes and on both hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Although several objective functions are competitive, the condition number objective function is particularly attractive. The objective functions are closely related to mesh quality measures. To illustrate, it is shown that the condition number metric can be viewed as a new tetrahedral element quality measure.

  15. Optimizing municipal wastewater treatment plants using an improved multi-objective optimization method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Xie, Wen-Ming; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei

    2014-04-01

    An improved multi-objective optimization (MOO) model was established and used for simultaneously optimizing the treatment cost and multiple effluent quality indexes (including effluent COD, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N) of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Compared with previous models that were mainly based on the use of fixed decision factors and did not taken into account the treatment cost, this model introduces a relationship model based on back propagation algorithm to determine the set of decision factors according to the expected optimization targets. Thus, a more flexible and precise optimization of the treatment process was allowed. Moreover, a MOO of conflicting objectives (i.e., treatment cost and effluent quality) was achieved. Applying this method, an optimal balance between operating cost and effluent quality of a WWTP can be found. This model may offer a useful tool for optimized design and control of practical WWTPs.

  16. Review of key Belotero Balance safety and efficacy trials.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Z Paul; Fagien, Steven; Flynn, Timothy C; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2013-10-01

    Belotero Balance is a novel highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid that uses cohesive polydensified matrix technology to achieve cohesive gel; improved adaptation by the dermis; and a soft, smooth fill. Several studies have now compared Belotero Balance to bovine collagen and other hyaluronic acids. Two pivotal studies demonstrated the noninferiority and superiority of Belotero Balance to bovine collagen. In the first study, more than half of the patients maintained optimal correction at 6 months on the Belotero-treated side of the face. The second of those two studies followed patients to week 96 and demonstrated that the effects of Belotero Balance in this long-term, open-label study persisted in the majority of subjects without repeated treatment for at least one interval of 48 weeks. The filler was well tolerated, with only one of 34 total adverse events (injection-site bruising) considered to be related to the study device. A third study compared the safety and efficacy of other hyaluronic acids (i.e., Juvéderm and Restylane) with Belotero Balance. In this study, the safety profiles of all three hyaluronic acids were generally favorable, with site-specific adverse events mild to moderate and comparable across each hyaluronic acid. Aesthetic results were also similar, although Belotero Balance resulted in greater evenness than Restylane at 4 weeks by one indicator used in the study. Finally, a 5-year retrospective safety review of 317 patients treated with Belotero Balance over a 5-year period revealed no severe adverse events in any patients, including the absence of persistent nodules or granulomas.

  17. A load-balance path selection algorithm in automatically swiched optical network (ASON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Lu, Yueming; Ji, Yuefeng

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a novel load-balance algorithm is proposed to provide an approach to optimized path selection in automatically swiched optical network (ASON). By using this algorithm, improved survivability and low congestion can be achieved. The static nature of current routing algorithms, such as OSPF or IS-IS, has made the situation worse since the traffic is concentrated on the "least-cost" paths which causes the congestion for some links while leaving other links lightly loaded. So, the key is to select suitable paths to balance the network load to optimize network resource utilization and traffic performance. We present a method to provide the capability to control traffic engineering so that the carriers can define their own strategies for optimizations and apply them to path selection for dynamic load balancing. With considering load distribution and topology information, capacity utilization factor is introduced into Dijkstra (shortest path selection) for path selection to achieve balancing traffic over network. Routing simulations have been done over mesh networks to compare the two different algorithms. With the simulation results, a conclusion can be made on the performance of different algorithms.

  18. BAS: balanced acceptance sampling of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Robertson, B L; Brown, J A; McDonald, T; Jaksons, P

    2013-09-01

    To design an efficient survey or monitoring program for a natural resource it is important to consider the spatial distribution of the resource. Generally, sample designs that are spatially balanced are more efficient than designs which are not. A spatially balanced design selects a sample that is evenly distributed over the extent of the resource. In this article we present a new spatially balanced design that can be used to select a sample from discrete and continuous populations in multi-dimensional space. The design, which we call balanced acceptance sampling, utilizes the Halton sequence to assure spatial diversity of selected locations. Targeted inclusion probabilities are achieved by acceptance sampling. The BAS design is conceptually simpler than competing spatially balanced designs, executes faster, and achieves better spatial balance as measured by a number of quantities. The algorithm has been programed in an R package freely available for download.

  19. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  20. Reframing Our Pursuit of Life Balance

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Rachel R.; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F.

    2015-01-01

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics’ pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  1. Field balancing in the real world

    SciTech Connect

    Bracher, B.

    1997-09-05

    Field balancing can achieve significant results when other problems are present in the frequency spectrum and multiple vibrations are evident in the waveform. Many references suggest eliminating other problems before attempting to balance. That`s great - if you can do it. There are valid reasons for this approach, and it would be much easier to balance machinery when other problems have been corrected. It is the theoretical ideal in field balancing. However, in the real world of machinery maintained for years by reacting to immediate problems, the classic vibration signature for unbalance is rarely seen. Maintenance personnel make most of their decisions with limited information. The decision to balance or not to balance is usually made the same way. This paper will demonstrate significant results of field balancing in the presence of multiple problems. By examining the data available and analyzing the probabilities, a reasonable chance for success can be assured.

  2. Balancing act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This chapter looks at how in the 1960's the laboratory worked to broaden the base of its work. The laboratory began its mission by developing nuclear energy for wartime usage, expanded into nuclear energy, and into broader peaceful application of nuclear energy, but in the late 50's was still primarily based on nuclear physics, or closely related disciplines. Because of problems encountered by several large scale programs, management began to look at broadening the scope of the laboratory, to provide a base not entirely based on nuclear physics, and to take advantage of the caliber of intellectual strengths within the laboratory personnel. Projects which were developed included enhanced work in information sciences, related to analyzing and making available the vast amount of published literature appearing in print. Efforts were directed toward desalination programs, and expanded work in large biology projects. Work was expanded into DNA projects, and cancer research on smoking. Efforts went into civil defense issues. There was an expanded effort to study environmental concerns, from water to air to ground. Nuclear safety issues became an increasingly larger segment of the reactor programs. The laboratory had 14% of it programs consisting of non-nuclear work for agencies other than AEC by 1969, and in general this had been achieved by approaching AEC on these programs one at a time. The lab had developed a much broader program than most other national labs at this time.

  3. Mass balancing of hollow fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kielb, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A typical section model is used to analytically investigate the effect of mass balancing as applied to hollow, supersonic fan blades. A procedure to determine the best configuration of an internal balancing mass to provide flutter alleviation is developed. This procedure is applied to a typical supersonic shroudless fan blade which is unstable in both the solid configuration and when it is hollow with no balancing mass. The addition of an optimized balancing mass is shown to stabilize the blade at the design condition.

  4. Macronutrient balance, reproductive function, and lifespan in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Walters, Kirsty A; Simanainen, Ulla K; McMahon, Aisling C; Ruohonen, Kari; Ballard, John William O; Raubenheimer, David; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-17

    In invertebrates, reproductive output and lifespan are profoundly impacted by dietary macronutrient balance, with these traits achieving their maxima on different diet compositions, giving the appearance of a resource-based tradeoff between reproduction and longevity. For the first time in a mammal, to our knowledge, we evaluate the effects of dietary protein (P), carbohydrate (C), fat (F), and energy (E) on lifespan and reproductive function in aging male and female mice. We show that, as in invertebrates, the balance of macronutrients has marked and largely opposing effects on reproductive and longevity outcomes. Mice were provided ad libitum access to one of 25 diets differing in P, C, F, and E content, with reproductive outcomes assessed at 15 months. An optimal balance of macronutrients exists for reproductive function, which, for most measures, differs from the diets that optimize lifespan, and this response differs with sex. Maximal longevity was achieved on diets containing a P:C ratio of 1:13 in males and 1:11 for females. Diets that optimized testes mass and epididymal sperm counts (indicators of gamete production) contained a higher P:C ratio (1:1) than those that maximized lifespan. In females, uterine mass (an indicator of estrogenic activity) was also greatest on high P:C diets (1:1) whereas ovarian follicle number was greatest on P:C 3:1 associated with high-F intakes. By contrast, estrous cycling was more likely in mice on lower P:C (1:8), and the number of corpora lutea, indicative of recent ovulations, was greatest on P:C similar to those supporting greatest longevity (1:11). PMID:25733862

  5. Macronutrient balance, reproductive function, and lifespan in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Walters, Kirsty A; Simanainen, Ulla K; McMahon, Aisling C; Ruohonen, Kari; Ballard, John William O; Raubenheimer, David; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-17

    In invertebrates, reproductive output and lifespan are profoundly impacted by dietary macronutrient balance, with these traits achieving their maxima on different diet compositions, giving the appearance of a resource-based tradeoff between reproduction and longevity. For the first time in a mammal, to our knowledge, we evaluate the effects of dietary protein (P), carbohydrate (C), fat (F), and energy (E) on lifespan and reproductive function in aging male and female mice. We show that, as in invertebrates, the balance of macronutrients has marked and largely opposing effects on reproductive and longevity outcomes. Mice were provided ad libitum access to one of 25 diets differing in P, C, F, and E content, with reproductive outcomes assessed at 15 months. An optimal balance of macronutrients exists for reproductive function, which, for most measures, differs from the diets that optimize lifespan, and this response differs with sex. Maximal longevity was achieved on diets containing a P:C ratio of 1:13 in males and 1:11 for females. Diets that optimized testes mass and epididymal sperm counts (indicators of gamete production) contained a higher P:C ratio (1:1) than those that maximized lifespan. In females, uterine mass (an indicator of estrogenic activity) was also greatest on high P:C diets (1:1) whereas ovarian follicle number was greatest on P:C 3:1 associated with high-F intakes. By contrast, estrous cycling was more likely in mice on lower P:C (1:8), and the number of corpora lutea, indicative of recent ovulations, was greatest on P:C similar to those supporting greatest longevity (1:11).

  6. Balancing game universes for playing without sight or hearing.

    PubMed

    Westin, Thomas; Furöstam, Malin; Yasasindhu, Roy; Norberg, Lena; Wiklund, Mats; Mozelius, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Equal access to cultural activities is important for inclusion and computer gaming is one of the most common activities in digital culture. However, many people with impairments are excluded from participating. While parallel game universes (PGUs) provide a method to achieve equal access, the question is: how can a balanced collaborative real-time game be designed with the help of PGU for playing without sight or hearing? Balance is a central concept in game design and is important to avoid perceived cheating or disadvantages due to individual or environmental differences. The question was examined with a design science approach, where a game prototype was created in two iterations with a structured design method and evaluated using interviews and observations. In this first step of a more long-term study, ten experienced gamers without impairments were selected with purposive sampling to provide relevant data through simulation of temporary impairments or environmental issues, which can affect many or all gamers. By sorting out these issues first, later testing with actual blind and deaf gamers can focus on more specific issues for each group. The ten participants played either without sight or hearing. The results confirm the use of PGUs for creating a balanced experience but also finds that while multiplayer feel is not optimal, it is a reasonable trade-off for universal access for blind and deaf being able to play together. The results also show that a help system and equal understanding of the game play between the blind and deaf players are important aspects to achieve game balance. Further research should be done involving actual blind and deaf gamers, and similar evaluations of game balance should be conducted with users having other types of impairments. PMID:26294500

  7. Achieving optimal SERS through enhanced experimental design

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, Heidi; Westley, Chloe; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the current limitations surrounding surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is the perceived lack of reproducibility. SERS is indeed challenging, and for analyte detection, it is vital that the analyte interacts with the metal surface. However, as this is analyte dependent, there is not a single set of SERS conditions that are universal. This means that experimental optimisation for optimum SERS response is vital. Most researchers optimise one factor at a time, where a single parameter is altered first before going onto optimise the next. This is a very inefficient way of searching the experimental landscape. In this review, we explore the use of more powerful multivariate approaches to SERS experimental optimisation based on design of experiments and evolutionary computational methods. We particularly focus on colloidal‐based SERS rather than thin film preparations as a result of their popularity. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27587905

  8. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  9. Balance in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  10. Dynamic balance improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reduction of residual unbalance in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure turbopump rotors was addressed. Elastic rotor response to unbalance and balancing requirements, multiplane and in housing balancing, and balance related rotor design considerations were assessed. Recommendations are made for near term improvement of the SSME balancing and for future study and development efforts.

  11. A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Dupree, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities consider balance to be a component of skill-related physical fitness. Balance, however, is directly related to health, especially for older adults. Falls are a leading cause of injury and death among the elderly. Improved balance can help reduce falls and contribute to older people remaining physically active. Balance is a…

  12. A location selection policy of live virtual machine migration for power saving and load balancing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Liang; Dong, Yushuang; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM) migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy) of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA). This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA) idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  13. A Location Selection Policy of Live Virtual Machine Migration for Power Saving and Load Balancing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Liang; Dong, Yushuang; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM) migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy) of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA). This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA) idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful. PMID:24348165

  14. Balancing Vanguard Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkovich, A.; Baumann, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    The Vanguard satellites and component parts were balanced within the specified limits by using a Gisholt Type-S balancer in combination with a portable International Research and Development vibration analyzer and filter, with low-frequency pickups. Equipment and procedures used for balancing are described; and the determination of residual imbalance is accomplished by two methods: calculation, and graphical interpretation. Between-the-bearings balancing is recommended for future balancing of payloads.

  15. Feedback and assessment for clinical placements: achieving the right balance

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Annette; Mellis, Craig

    2015-01-01

    During clinical placements, the provision of feedback forms an integral part of the learning process and enriches students’ learning experiences. The purpose of feedback is to improve the learner’s knowledge, skills, or behavior. Receipt of accurate feedback can help to narrow the gap between actual and desired performance. Effective and regular feedback has the potential to reinforce good practice and motivate the learner toward the desired outcome. Despite the obvious role of feedback in effective teaching and learning, a common complaint from students is that they do not receive adequate feedback. Unfortunately, skills in giving and receiving feedback are rarely taught to students or clinicians. This study aims to provide an understanding of the role of feedback within the learning process, consider consequences of inadequate or poorly given feedback, consider the barriers to the feedback process, provide practical guidelines for providing feedback, and consider the need for student and faculty development in feedback skills. PMID:26056511

  16. Relative Harmony: Achieving Balance in Your Brand Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Educational institutions understand the importance of having a positive image among their target audiences, but the process of creating, enhancing, and managing that image remains challenging to many. Confusion over what branding is only adds to the challenge. Consultants define "brand" as promising an experience and delivering on that promise. In…

  17. The Right Balance: Helping Cancer Survivors Achieve a Healthy Weight

    Cancer.gov

    An article about interventions that aim to help survivors maintain a healthy weight to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and death and decrease the likelihood of chronic and late effects of cancer treatment.

  18. Focus on the Future: Achieving Balance in Career & Life Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Knowdell, Richard, Ed.

    This book contains conference papers from the 2000 International Career Development Conference. The intent is to broaden the dissemination of the ideas presented at the conference, and to provide the authors with an international platform for communicating their ideas. The presentations include the following: (1) "Retaining Knowledge Workers:…

  19. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    prior to a decision on redefinition. The CCM had already recognized that agreement was close and has set in place a process whereby redefinition can take place by 2018. The final decision will be in the hands of the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) but the results reported here should aid a positive decision. Figure 1. Figure 1. Results from recent measurements of the Planck constant. The reference for the results h 90 is derived from the conventional values of the Josephson constant K J-90 and the von Klitzing constant R K-90. The factor of ten improvement in uncertainty of the NRC watt balance result, over that achieved by the same apparatus at NPL a few years earlier, can be understood as a factor of five improvement arising from the elimination of an effect discovered at NPL that could not be eliminated before shipment to Canada and a factor of two arising from the considerable improvements made by NRC. Once the kilogram has been redefined, the watt and joule balances will complete their transitions from instruments that are primarily of interest to the electrical community for determining the SI electrical units from the mechanical units, to the principal methods by which an individual National Measurement Institute (NMI) can make an independent determination of the SI unit of mass and thereby contribute to the maintenance of national and international mass scales. This special issue gives an introduction to the diversity of techniques which are required for the operation of watt and joule balances. However it does not contain a review of existing balances; this was a deliberate decision, as a number of such review papers have been published in the past five years [3-7] and it was felt that it was not yet time for another. The first technique considered is that of gravimetry; the watt balance measures the weight Mg of a mass M , and to convert the measured weight into a mass, the value of the acceleration due to gravity g must be known, at the

  20. Skylab water balance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  1. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  2. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  3. PLUM: Parallel Load Balancing for Unstructured Adaptive Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliker, Leonid

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic mesh adaption on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for computing large-scale problems that require grid modifications to efficiently resolve solution features. Unfortunately, an efficient parallel implementation is difficult to achieve, primarily due to the load imbalance created by the dynamically-changing nonuniform grid. To address this problem, we have developed PLUM, an automatic portable framework for performing adaptive large-scale numerical computations in a message-passing environment. First, we present an efficient parallel implementation of a tetrahedral mesh adaption scheme. Extremely promising parallel performance is achieved for various refinement and coarsening strategies on a realistic-sized domain. Next we describe PLUM, a novel method for dynamically balancing the processor workloads in adaptive grid computations. This research includes interfacing the parallel mesh adaption procedure based on actual flow solutions to a data remapping module, and incorporating an efficient parallel mesh repartitioner. A significant runtime improvement is achieved by observing that data movement for a refinement step should be performed after the edge-marking phase but before the actual subdivision. We also present optimal and heuristic remapping cost metrics that can accurately predict the total overhead for data redistribution. Several experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of PLUM on sequences of dynamically adapted unstructured grids. Portability is demonstrated by presenting results on the two vastly different architectures of the SP2 and the Origin2OOO. Additionally, we evaluate the performance of five state-of-the-art partitioning algorithms that can be used within PLUM. It is shown that for certain classes of unsteady adaption, globally repartitioning the computational mesh produces higher quality results than diffusive repartitioning schemes. We also demonstrate that a coarse starting mesh produces high quality load balancing, at

  4. Get the Balance Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, Rebecca Jaurigue

    Today work goes on 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and is about acceleration and access. Workers need balance more than ever. In fact, recent college graduates value work/life balance as their key factor in selecting employers. This paper, written for career counselors, defines balance as encompassing emotional, spiritual, physical, and…

  5. Stochastic solution of population balance equations for reactor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Menz, William J.; Akroyd, Jethro; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a sequential modular approach to solve a generic network of reactors with a population balance model using a stochastic numerical method. Full-coupling to the gas-phase is achieved through operator-splitting. The convergence of the stochastic particle algorithm in test networks is evaluated as a function of network size, recycle fraction and numerical parameters. These test cases are used to identify methods through which systematic and statistical error may be reduced, including by use of stochastic weighted algorithms. The optimal algorithm was subsequently used to solve a one-dimensional example of silicon nanoparticle synthesis using a multivariate particle model. This example demonstrated the power of stochastic methods in resolving particle structure by investigating the transient and spatial evolution of primary polydispersity, degree of sintering and TEM-style images. Highlights: •An algorithm is presented to solve reactor networks with a population balance model. •A stochastic method is used to solve the population balance equations. •The convergence and efficiency of the reported algorithms are evaluated. •The algorithm is applied to simulate silicon nanoparticle synthesis in a 1D reactor. •Particle structure is reported as a function of reactor length and time.

  6. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model. PMID:24952097

  7. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOEpatents

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  8. Self-Beliefs and Student Goal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caroline J.; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students' levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are…

  9. Searching for balanced development.

    PubMed

    Kulessa, M

    1987-08-01

    It is significant in China, as the day of 5 billion is commemorated, that the Government has shown its full committment to a family planning program that has been internationally acknowledged as one of the most successful efforts in the world today. Since 1979, the annual population growth rate in China has gone down from 2.7% to an annual average of around 1.2%. In fact, because China makes up more than 1/5 of the world's population, the overall growth rate achieved worldwide has been reduced to about 2%. This is heavily due to the achievements of the Chinese family planning program. Even as China has lowered its birthrate, its rate of agricultural production has rapidly risen. At present, China is doing well in grain production. Although the per capita income in China is still comparatively low, the country is able to feed its citizens, and the famines that used to be a big problem are now but a bad memory. As the close relationship between population and development is observed, there is some controversy about the effects and impact of family planning on development. The belief is held that the more people there are in this world, the more progress there will be because more brains, hands, and energy will be harnessed for development. As has also been noted, however, a person is not just head and hands--a person has a mouth to feed, as well. Thus, there is a need to balance the number of people with the resources of the society. If the rate of population growth outstrips economic and social production, then hunger and poverty will result, as the fruits of development will be eaten up too rapidly.

  10. Meal replacements and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B

    2010-04-26

    Induction and maintenance of a period of negative energy balance are required for overweight and obese subjects to lose weight. Meal replacements, particularly in beverage form, have now evolved as part of the "toolbox" used by researchers and clinicians to achieve negative energy balance. This overview traces the historical development of beverage meal replacements, reviews key studies supporting their clinical efficacy, and examines concerns related to their safe use. This collective information supports the view that meal replacements, particularly in beverage form, are now an effective and safe component for use in the clinical setting. Further studies are needed to identify those subjects most likely to benefit from use of meal replacements as part of their comprehensive weight control program.

  11. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  12. T700 power turbine rotor multiplane/multispeed balancing demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, G.; Rio, R.

    1979-01-01

    Research was conducted to demonstrate the ability of influence coefficient based multispeed balancing to control rotor vibration through bending criticals. Rotor dynamic analyses were conducted of the General Electric T700 power turbine rotor. The information was used to generate expected rotor behavior for optimal considerations in designing a balance rig and a balance technique. The rotor was successfully balanced 9500 rpm. Uncontrollable coupling behavior prevented observations through the 16,000 rpm service speed. The balance technique is practical and with additional refinement it can meet production standards.

  13. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  14. Performance Analysis and Portability of the PLUM Load Balancing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Gabow, Harold N.

    1998-01-01

    The ability to dynamically adapt an unstructured mesh is a powerful tool for solving computational problems with evolving physical features; however, an efficient parallel implementation is rather difficult. To address this problem, we have developed PLUM, an automatic portable framework for performing adaptive numerical computations in a message-passing environment. PLUM requires that all data be globally redistributed after each mesh adaption to achieve load balance. We present an algorithm for minimizing this remapping overhead by guaranteeing an optimal processor reassignment. We also show that the data redistribution cost can be significantly reduced by applying our heuristic processor reassignment algorithm to the default mapping of the parallel partitioner. Portability is examined by comparing performance on a SP2, an Origin2000, and a T3E. Results show that PLUM can be successfully ported to different platforms without any code modifications.

  15. Variation in Patient Profiles and Outcomes in US and Non-US Subgroups of the Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Harrington, Robert A.; Stone, Gregg W.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Gibson, C. Michael; Hamm, Christian W.; Price, Matthew J.; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; White, Harvey D.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX trial demonstrated superiority of cangrelor in reducing ischemic events at 48 hours in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention compared with clopidogrel. Methods and Results— We analyzed all patients included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis in US (n=4097; 37.4%) and non-US subgroups (n=6845; 62.6%). The US cohort was older, had a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors, and had more frequently undergone prior cardiovascular procedures. US patients more frequently underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina (77.9% versus 46.2%). Almost all US patients (99.1%) received clopidogrel loading doses of 600 mg, whereas 40.5% of non-US patients received 300 mg. Bivalirudin was more frequently used in US patients (56.7% versus 2.9%). At 48 hours, rates of the primary composite end point were comparable in the US and non-US cohorts (5.5% versus 5.2%; P=0.53). Cangrelor reduced rates of the primary composite end point compared with clopidogrel in US (4.5% versus 6.4%; odds ratio 0.70 [95% confidence interval 0.53–0.92]) and in non-US patients (4.8% versus 5.6%; odds ratio 0.85 [95% confidence interval 0.69–1.05]; interaction P=0.26). Similarly, rates of the key secondary end point, stent thrombosis, were reduced by cangrelor in both regions. Rates of Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO)–defined severe bleeding were low and not significantly increased by cangrelor in either region. Conclusions— Despite broad differences in clinical profiles and indications for percutaneous coronary intervention by region in a large global cardiovascular clinical trial, cangrelor consistently reduced rates of ischemic end points compared with clopidogrel without an excess in severe bleeding in both the US and non-US subgroups. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http

  16. Static balancing of planar articulated robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglia, Giuseppe; Yin, Zhe

    2015-12-01

    Static balancing for a manipulator's weight is necessary in terms of energy saving and performance improvement. This paper proposes a method to design balancing devices for articulated robots in industry, based on robotic dynamics. Full design details for the balancing system using springs are presented from two aspects: One is the optimization for the position of the balancing system; the other is the design of the spring parameters. As examples, two feasible balancing devices are proposed, based on different robotic structures: The first solution consists of linkages and springs; the other consists of pulleys, cross mechanisms and (hydro-) pneumatic springs. Then the two solutions are compared. Pneumatic, hydro-pneumatic and mechanical springs are discussed and their parameters are decided according to the requirements of torque compensation. Numerical results show that with the proper design using the methodology presented in this paper, an articulated robot can be statically balanced perfectly in all configurations. This paper therefore provides a design method of the balancing system for other similar structures.

  17. A balanced view of balanced solutions.

    PubMed

    Guidet, Bertrand; Soni, Neil; Della Rocca, Giorgio; Kozek, Sibylle; Vallet, Benoît; Annane, Djillali; James, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The present review of fluid therapy studies using balanced solutions versus isotonic saline fluids (both crystalloids and colloids) aims to address recent controversy in this topic. The change to the acid-base equilibrium based on fluid selection is described. Key terms such as dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis (correctly used instead of dilutional acidosis or hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis to account for both the Henderson-Hasselbalch and Stewart equations), isotonic saline and balanced solutions are defined. The review concludes that dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis is a side effect, mainly observed after the administration of large volumes of isotonic saline as a crystalloid. Its effect is moderate and relatively transient, and is minimised by limiting crystalloid administration through the use of colloids (in any carrier). Convincing evidence for clinically relevant adverse effects of dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis on renal function, coagulation, blood loss, the need for transfusion, gastrointestinal function or mortality cannot be found. In view of the long-term use of isotonic saline either as a crystalloid or as a colloid carrier, the paucity of data documenting detrimental effects of dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis and the limited published information on the effects of balanced solutions on outcome, we cannot currently recommend changing fluid therapy to the use of a balanced colloid preparation.

  18. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  19. Highly connected neurons spike less frequently in balanced networks.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Ryan; Rosenbaum, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Biological neuronal networks exhibit highly variable spiking activity. Balanced networks offer a parsimonious model of this variability in which strong excitatory synaptic inputs are canceled by strong inhibitory inputs on average, and irregular spiking activity is driven by fluctuating synaptic currents. Most previous studies of balanced networks assume a homogeneous or distance-dependent connectivity structure, but connectivity in biological cortical networks is more intricate. We use a heterogeneous mean-field theory of balanced networks to show that heterogeneous in-degrees can break balance. Moreover, heterogeneous architectures that achieve balance promote lower firing rates in neurons with larger in-degrees, consistent with some recent experimental observations. PMID:27176240

  20. Highly connected neurons spike less frequently in balanced networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Ryan; Rosenbaum, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Biological neuronal networks exhibit highly variable spiking activity. Balanced networks offer a parsimonious model of this variability in which strong excitatory synaptic inputs are canceled by strong inhibitory inputs on average, and irregular spiking activity is driven by fluctuating synaptic currents. Most previous studies of balanced networks assume a homogeneous or distance-dependent connectivity structure, but connectivity in biological cortical networks is more intricate. We use a heterogeneous mean-field theory of balanced networks to show that heterogeneous in-degrees can break balance. Moreover, heterogeneous architectures that achieve balance promote lower firing rates in neurons with larger in-degrees, consistent with some recent experimental observations.

  1. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  2. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  3. Judicial Checks and Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porta, Rafael; Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio; Pop-Eleches, Cristian; Shleifer, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    In the Anglo-American constitutional tradition, judicial checks and balances are often seen as crucial guarantees of freedom. Hayek distinguishes two ways in which the judiciary provides such checks and balances: judicial independence and constitutional review. We create a new database of constitutional rules in 71 countries that reflect these…

  4. The Technology Balance Beam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Eddie K.

    2006-01-01

    "The Technology Balance Beam" is designed to question the role of technology within school districts. This case study chronicles a typical school district in relation to the school district's implementation of technology beginning in the 1995-1996 school year. The fundamental question that this scenario raises is, What is the balance between…

  5. A Balance of Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosey, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The booming economy of the Pacific Northwest region promotes the dilemma of balancing the need for increased electrical power with the desire to maintain that region's unspoiled natural environment. Pertinent factors discussed within the balance equation are population trends, economic considerations, industrial power requirements, and…

  6. Skeletal facial balance and harmony in the cleft patient: Principles and techniques in orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Salyer, Kenneth E.; Xu, Haisong; Portnof, Jason E.; Yamada, Akira; Chong, David K.; Genecov, Edward R.

    2009-01-01

    The management of the palatal cleft, dental arch, and subsequent maxillary form is a challenge for the craniomaxillofacial surgeon. The purpose of this paper is to present the experience of a senior surgeon (KES) who has treated over 2000 patients with cleft lip and palate. This paper focuses on the experience of a recent series of 103 consecutive orthognathic cases treated by one surgeon with a surgical-orthodontic, speech-oriented approach. It will concentrate on not only correcting the occlusion, as others have described, but also on how a surgeon who was trying to achieve optimal aesthetic balance, harmony, and beauty, approached this problem. PMID:19884671

  7. Optimal census by quorum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillefumier, Thibaud

    Bacteria regulate their gene expression in response to changes in local cell density in a process called quorum sensing. To synchronize their gene-expression programs, these bacteria need to glean as much information as possible about local density. Our study is the first to physically model the flow of information in a quorum-sensing microbial community, wherein the internal regulator of the individual's response tracks the external cell density via an endogenously generated shared signal. Combining information theory and Lagrangian optimization, we find that quorum-sensing systems can improve their information capabilities by tuning circuit feedbacks. At the population level, external feedback adjusts the dynamic range of the shared input to individuals' detection channels. At the individual level, internal feedback adjusts the regulator's response time to dynamically balance output noise reduction and signal tracking ability. Our analysis suggests that achieving information benefit via feedback requires dedicated systems to control gene expression noise, such as sRNA-based regulation.

  8. The magneto-Hall difference and the planar extraordinary Hall balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. L.; Hesjedal, T.

    2016-04-01

    The extraordinary Hall balance (EHB) is a general device concept that harnesses the net extraordinary Hall effect (EHE) arising from two independent magnetic layers, which are electrically in parallel. Different EHB behavior can be achieved by tuning the strength and type of interlayer coupling, i.e., ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic of varying strength, allowing for logic and memory applications. The physics of the EHE in such a multilayered systems, especially the interface-induced effect, will be discussed. A discrepancy between the magnetization and the Hall effect, called the magneto-Hall difference (MHD) is found, which is not expected in conventional EHE systems. By taking advantage of the MHD effect, and by optimizing the materials structure, magnetoresistance ratios in excess of 40,000% can be achieved at room-temperature. We present a new design, the planar EHB, which has the potential to achieve significantly larger magnetoresistance ratios.

  9. T55 power turbine rotor multiplane-multispeed balancing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A rotordynamic analysis of the T55-L-11C engine was used to evaluate the balancing needs of the power turbine and to optimize the balancing procedure. As a result, recommendations were made for implementation of a multiplane-multispeed balancing plan. Precision collars for the attachment of trial weights to a slender rotor were designed enabling demonstration balancing on production hardware. The quality of the balance was then evaluated by installing a high speed balanced power turbine in an engine and running in a test cell at the Corpus Christi Army depot. The engine used had been tested prior to the turbine changeout and showed acceptable overall vibration levels for the engine were significantly reduced, demonstrating the ability of multiplane-multispeed balancing to control engine vibration.

  10. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  11. Balanced Literacy in an Urban School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Bruce B.; Lee, Steve W.; Tollefson, Nona; Pass, Lisa; Massengill, Donita

    2005-01-01

    Balanced literacy is a philosophical orientation that assumes that reading and writing achievement are developed through instruction and support in multiple environments in which teachers use various approaches that differ by level of teacher support and child control. The authors describe 1 urban school district's real-world attempt to create a…

  12. Dilemmas in Balancing a University Literature Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, David

    2004-01-01

    This essay explores some of the conflicts faced by the author, a liaison with book-selection responsibilities to a university English Department. These conflicts include: trying to fill gaps missed by profiles set up with our book vendor; trying to achieve a reasonable balance between canonical and non-canonical texts; between primary texts and…

  13. Measuring Racial Balance. Research Memorandum No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Ben; D'Esopo, Tony

    The purpose of this research memorandum is to describe a means of measuring racial balance and to apply the measure to the distribution of public school population in San Francisco. The measure is derived from the definition that full integration would be achieved if each school had exactly the citywide racial mixture of students. The racial…

  14. Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, I question how practitioners can balance the certainty and confidence that they can help their patients with the uncertainty that makes them continually question their beliefs and assumptions. Method: I compare the mechanisms of science and models of clinical practice that may help practitioners achieve the right balance…

  15. New enhanced artificial bee colony (JA-ABC5) algorithm with application for reactive power optimization.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Noorazliza; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Abro, Abdul Ghani

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement.

  16. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  17. Work Stealing and Persistence-based Load Balancers for Iterative Overdecomposed Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2012-06-18

    Applications often involve iterative execution of identical or slowly evolving calculations. Such applications require good initial load balance coupled with efficient periodic rebalancing. In this paper, we consider the design and evaluation of two distinct approaches to addressing this challenge: persistence-based load balancing and work stealing. The work to be performed is overdecomposed into tasks, enabling automatic rebalancing by the middleware. We present a hierarchical persistence-based rebalancing algorithm that performs localized incremental rebalancing. We also present an active-message-based retentive work stealing algorithm optimized for iterative applications on distributed memory machines. These are shown to incur low overheads and achieve over 90% efficiency on 76,800 cores.

  18. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  19. Consideration of Dynamical Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.

  20. Balance Evaluation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NeuroCom's Balance Master is a system to assess and then retrain patients with balance and mobility problems and is used in several medical centers. NeuroCom received assistance in research and funding from NASA, and incorporated technology from testing mechanisms for astronauts after shuttle flights. The EquiTest and Balance Master Systems are computerized posturography machines that measure patient responses to movement of a platform on which the subject is standing or sitting, then provide assessments of the patient's postural alignment and stability.

  1. Errors in potassium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by /sup 40/K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies.

  2. A question of balance

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.; Brown, H.; Strawn, N.

    1996-12-31

    Nature seeks a balance. The global carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans through natural processes such as absorption, photosynthesis, and respiration, is one of those balances. This constant exchange promotes an equilibrium in which atmospheric carbon dioxide is keep relatively steady over long periods of time. For the last 10,000 years, up to the 19th century, the global carbon cycle has maintained atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide between 260 and 290 ppm. This article discusses the disturbance of the balance, how ethanol fuels address the carbon dioxide imbalance, and a bioethanol strategy.

  3. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. Methods Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Results Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. Conclusion The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home

  4. Balance Devices Train Golfers for a Consistent Swing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts, NASA funded research that resulted in a commercial product to treat balance disorders. West Palm Beach, Florida-based Sports Therapy Inc. worked with the inventor to modify the technology, creating the Dynamic Balance System (DBS) for sports applications. DBS is now used by Professional Golfers' Association-owned facilities and golf academies to help players achieve an effective, balanced swing.

  5. Multimetric spatial optimization of switchgrass plantings across a watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, Michael R; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Dale, Virginia H; Griffiths, Natalie A; Parish, Esther S; Mulholland, Patrick J; Sorokine, Alexandre; Downing, Mark; Middleton, Richard; Thomas, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand for bioenergy crops presents our society with the opportunity to design more sustainable landscapes. We have created a Biomass Location for Optimal Sustainability Model (BLOSM) to test the hypothesis that landscape design of cellulosic bioenergy crop plantings may simultaneously improve water quality (i.e., decrease concentrations of sediment, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) and increase profits for farmer-producers while achieving a feedstock-production goal. BLOSM was run using six scenarios to identify switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) planting locations that might supply a commercial-scale biorefinery planned for the Lower Little Tennessee (LLT) watershed. Each scenario sought to achieve different sustainability goals: improving water quality through reduced nitrogen, phosphorus, or sediment concentrations; maximizing profit; a balance of these conditions; or a balance of these conditions with the additional constraint of converting no more than 25% of agricultural land. Scenario results were compared to a baseline case of no land-use conversion. BLOSM results indicate that a combined economic and environmental optimization approach can achieve multiple objectives simultaneously when a small proportion (1.3%) of the LLT watershed is planted with perennial switchgrass. The multimetric optimization approach described here can be used as a research tool to consider bioenergy plantings for other feedstocks, sustainability criteria, and regions.

  6. Mars Balance Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Challenge is to develop ideas for how NASA can turn available entry, descent, and landing balance mass on a future Mars mission into a scientific or technological payload. Proposed concepts sho...

  7. The Balancing Act

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2008-05-01

    This essay is being proposed as part of a book titled: "Motherhood: The Elephant in the Laboratory." It offers professional and personal advice on how to balance working in the research field with a family life.

  8. Posttraumatic balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Michael E; Balough, Ben J; Gottshall, Kim R

    2007-01-01

    Head trauma is being more frequently recognized as a causative agent in balance disorders. Most of the published literature examining traumatic brain injury (TBI) after head trauma has focused on short-term prognostic indicators and neurocognitive disorders. Few data are available to guide those individuals who see patients with balance disorders secondary to TBI. Our group has previously examined balance disorders after mild head trauma. In this study, we study all classes of head trauma. We provide a classification system that is useful in the diagnosis and management of balance disorders after head trauma and we examine treatment outcomes. As dizziness is one of the most common outcomes of TBI, it is essential that those who study and treat dizziness be familiar with this subject. PMID:17691667

  9. Balance Function Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  10. Static balance and developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Geuze, Reint H

    2003-11-01

    control children do. The clear improvement with age shows that our measures of balance control are sensitive to detect changes. The general conclusion that may be drawn from this study is that under normal conditions static balance control is not a problem for children with DCD. Only in difficult or novel situations they seem to suffer from increased postural sway as a result of non-optimal balance control. PMID:14624832

  11. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  12. Does knee motion contribute to feet-in-place balance recovery?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B

    2016-06-14

    Although knee motions have been observed at loss of balance, the ankle and hip strategies have remained the focus of past research. The present study aimed to investigate whether knee motions contribute to feet-in-place balance recovery. This was achieved by experimentally monitoring knee motions during recovery from forward falling, and by simulating balance recovery movements with and without knee joint as the main focus of the study. Twelve participants initially held a straight body configuration and were released from different forward leaning positions. Considerable knee motions were observed especially at greater leaning angles. Simulations were performed using 3-segment (feet, shanks+thighs, and head+arms+trunk) and 4-segment (with separate shanks and thighs segments) planar models. Movements were driven by joint torque generators depending on joint angle, angular velocity, and activation level. Optimal joint motions moved the mass center projection to be within the base of support without excessive joint motion. The 3-segment model (without knee motions) generated greater backward linear momentum and had better balance performance, which confirmed the advantage of having only ankle/hip strategies. Knee motions were accompanied with less body angular momentum and a lower body posture, which could be beneficial for posture control and reducing falling impact, respectively. PMID:27155745

  13. Hypohydration does not alter standing balance.

    PubMed

    Seay, Joseph F; Ely, Brett R; Kenefick, Robert W; Sauer, Shane G; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2013-04-01

    We examined the effect of body water deficits on standing balance and sought to determine if plasma hyperosmolality (P(osm)) and/or volume reduction (%ΔV(plasma)) exerted independent effects. Nine healthy volunteers completed three experimental trials which consisted of a euhydration (EUH) balance test, a water deficit session and a hypohydration (HYP) balance test. Hypohydration was achieved both by exercise-heat stress to 3% and 5% body mass loss (BML), and by a diuretic to 3% BML. Standing balance was assessed during quiet standing on a force platform with eyes open and closed. With eyes closed, hypohydration significantly decreased medial-lateral sway path and velocity by 13% (both p < .040). However, 95% confidence intervals for the mean difference between EUH and HYP were all within the coefficient of variation of EUH measures, indicating limited practical importance. Neither V(plasma) loss nor P(osm) increases were associated with changes in balance. We concluded that standing balance was not altered by hypohydration. PMID:23155117

  14. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  15. Mass balance model parameter transferability on a tropical glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Mölg, Thomas; Nicholson, Lindsey; Kaser, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The mass balance and melt water production of glaciers is of particular interest in the Peruvian Andes where glacier melt water has markedly increased water supply during the pronounced dry seasons in recent decades. However, the melt water contribution from glaciers is projected to decrease with appreciable negative impacts on the local society within the coming decades. Understanding mass balance processes on tropical glaciers is a prerequisite for modeling present and future glacier runoff. As a first step towards this aim we applied a process-based surface mass balance model in order to calculate observed ablation at two stakes in the ablation zone of Shallap Glacier (4800 m a.s.l., 9°S) in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Under the tropical climate, the snow line migrates very frequently across most of the ablation zone all year round causing large temporal and spatial variations of glacier surface conditions and related ablation. Consequently, pronounced differences between the two chosen stakes and the two years were observed. Hourly records of temperature, humidity, wind speed, short wave incoming radiation, and precipitation are available from an automatic weather station (AWS) on the moraine near the glacier for the hydrological years 2006/07 and 2007/08 while stake readings are available at intervals of between 14 to 64 days. To optimize model parameters, we used 1000 model simulations in which the most sensitive model parameters were varied randomly within their physically meaningful ranges. The modeled surface height change was evaluated against the two stake locations in the lower ablation zone (SH11, 4760m) and in the upper ablation zone (SH22, 4816m), respectively. The optimal parameter set for each point achieved good model skill but if we transfer the best parameter combination from one stake site to the other stake site model errors increases significantly. The same happens if we optimize the model parameters for each year individually and transfer

  16. Cavendish Balance Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for a project carried out to modify a manual commercial Cavendish Balance for automated use in cryostat. The scope of this project was to modify an off-the-shelf manually operated Cavendish Balance to allow for automated operation for periods of hours or days in cryostat. The purpose of this modification was to allow the balance to be used in the study of effects of superconducting materials on the local gravitational field strength to determine if the strength of gravitational fields can be reduced. A Cavendish Balance was chosen because it is a fairly simple piece of equipment for measuring gravity, one the least accurately known and least understood physical constants. The principle activities that occurred under this purchase order were: (1) All the components necessary to hold and automate the Cavendish Balance in a cryostat were designed. Engineering drawings were made of custom parts to be fabricated, other off-the-shelf parts were procured; (2) Software was written in LabView to control the automation process via a stepper motor controller and stepper motor, and to collect data from the balance during testing; (3)Software was written to take the data collected from the Cavendish Balance and reduce it to give a value for the gravitational constant; (4) The components of the system were assembled and fitted to a cryostat. Also the LabView hardware including the control computer, stepper motor driver, data collection boards, and necessary cabling were assembled; and (5) The system was operated for a number of periods, data collected, and reduced to give an average value for the gravitational constant.

  17. Load Balancing at Emergency Departments using ‘Crowdinforming’

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Marcia R; Strome, Trevor; Mukhi, Shamir; McLoed, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding is an important healthcare issue facing increasing public and regulatory scrutiny in Canada and around the world. Many approaches to alleviate excessive waiting times and lengths of stay have been studied. In theory, optimal ED patient flow may be assisted via balancing patient loads between EDs (in essence spreading patients more evenly throughout this system). This investigation utilizes simulation to explore “Crowdinforming” as a basis for a process control strategy aimed to balance patient loads between six EDs within a mid-sized Canadian city. Methods: Anonymous patient visit data comprising 120,000 ED patient visits over six months to six ED facilities were obtained from the region’s Emergency Department Information System (EDIS) to (1) determine trends in ED visits and interactions between parameters; (2) to develop a process control strategy integrating crowdinforming; and, (3) apply and evaluate the model in a simulated environment to explore the potential impact on patient self-redirection and load balancing between EDs. Results: As in reality, the data available and subsequent model demonstrated that there are many factors that impact ED patient flow. Initial results suggest that for this particular data set used, ED arrival rates were the most useful metric for ED ‘busyness’ in a process control strategy, and that Emergency Department performance may benefit from load balancing efforts. Conclusions: The simulation supports the use of crowdinforming as a potential tool when used in a process control strategy to balance the patient loads between EDs. The work also revealed that the value of several parameters intuitively expected to be meaningful metrics of ED ‘busyness’ was not evident, highlighting the importance of finding parameters meaningful within one’s particular data set. The information provided in the crowdinforming model is already available in a local context at some ED sites

  18. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  19. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  20. An Evolutionary Algorithm for Improved Diversity in DSL Spectrum Balancing Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Johelden; Klautau, Aldebaro; Monteiro, Marcio; Pelaes, Evaldo; Medeiros, Eduardo; Dortschy, Boris

    2010-12-01

    There are many spectrum balancing algorithms to combat the deleterious impact of crosstalk interference in digital subscriber lines (DSL) networks. These algorithms aim to find a unique operating point by optimizing the power spectral densities (PSDs) of the modems. Typically, the figure of merit of this optimization is the bit rate, power consumption or margin. This work poses and solves a different problem: instead of providing the solution for one specific operation point, it finds a set of operating points, each one corresponding to a distinct matrix with PSDs. This solution is useful for planning DSL deployment, for example, helping operators to conveniently evaluate their network capabilities and better plan their usage. The proposed method is based on a multiobjective formulation and implemented as an evolutionary genetic algorithm. Simulation results show that this algorithm achieves a better diversity among the operating points with lower computational cost when compared to an alternative approach.

  1. The cryogenic balance design and balance calibration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, B.; Polanski, L.; Graewe, E.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of a program aimed at the development of a cryogenic balance for the European Transonic Wind Tunnel is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the cryogenic balance design philosophy, mechanical balance design, reliability and accuracy, cryogenic balance calibration concept, and the concept of an automatic calibration machine. It is shown that the use of the automatic calibration machine will improve the accuracy of calibration while reducing the man power and time required for balance calibration.

  2. Balanced Placement Of Vibration Sensors And Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical approach that involves Hankel singular values leads to method for estimation of optimal placement of relatively few vibration sensors and actuators in multivariable flexible structure. Approach extends and complements previous developments regarding approximate decomposition, to Hankel singular values, of singular values of controllability and observability grammian matrices of multivariable flexible structure. Mathematical constructs also described in "Designing An Approximately Balanced LQG Compensator" (NPO-19000).

  3. Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Helen

    The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

  4. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  5. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  6. Parallel Processing of Adaptive Meshes with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Many scientific applications involve grids that lack a uniform underlying structure. These applications are often also dynamic in nature in that the grid structure significantly changes between successive phases of execution. In parallel computing environments, mesh adaptation of unstructured grids through selective refinement/coarsening has proven to be an effective approach. However, achieving load balance while minimizing interprocessor communication and redistribution costs is a difficult problem. Traditional dynamic load balancers are mostly inadequate because they lack a global view of system loads across processors. In this paper, we propose a novel and general-purpose load balancer that utilizes symmetric broadcast networks (SBN) as the underlying communication topology, and compare its performance with a successful global load balancing environment, called PLUM, specifically created to handle adaptive unstructured applications. Our experimental results on an IBM SP2 demonstrate that the SBN-based load balancer achieves lower redistribution costs than that under PLUM by overlapping processing and data migration.

  7. Dynamic Load Balancing for Adaptive Meshes using Symmetric Broadcast Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biswas, Rupak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Many scientific applications involve grids that lack a uniform underlying structure. These applications are often dynamic in the sense that the grid structure significantly changes between successive phases of execution. In parallel computing environments, mesh adaptation of grids through selective refinement/coarsening has proven to be an effective approach. However, achieving load balance while minimizing inter-processor communication and redistribution costs is a difficult problem. Traditional dynamic load balancers are mostly inadequate because they lack a global view across processors. In this paper, we compare a novel load balancer that utilizes symmetric broadcast networks (SBN) to a successful global load balancing environment (PLUM) created to handle adaptive unstructured applications. Our experimental results on the IBM SP2 demonstrate that performance of the proposed SBN load balancer is comparable to results achieved under PLUM.

  8. Analyzing Hydrological Sustainability Through Water Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menció, Anna; Folch, Albert; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is to assist in the development of management plans that will lead to the sustainable use of water resources in all EU member states. However, defining the degree of sustainability aimed at is not a straightforward task. It requires detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological characteristics of the basin in question, its environmental needs, the amount of human water demand, and the opportunity to construct a proper water balance that describes the behavior of the hydrological system and estimates available water resources. An analysis of the water balance in the Selva basin (Girona, NE Spain) points to the importance of regional groundwater fluxes in satisfying current exploitation rates, and shows that regional scale approaches are often necessary to evaluate water availability. In addition, we discuss the pressures on water resources, and analyze potential actions, based on the water balance results, directed towards achieving sustainable water management in the basin.

  9. Spray automated balancing of rotors: Methods and materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Anthony J.; Baldwin, Richard M.; Schick, Wilbur R.

    1988-01-01

    The work described consists of two parts. In the first part, a survey is performed to assess the state of the art in rotor balancing technology as it applies to Army gas turbine engines and associated power transmission hardware. The second part evaluates thermal spray processes for balancing weight addition in an automated balancing procedure. The industry survey reveals that: (1) computerized balancing equipment is valuable to reduce errors, improve balance quality, and provide documentation; (2) slow-speed balancing is used exclusively, with no forseeable need for production high-speed balancing; (3) automated procedures are desired; and (4) thermal spray balancing is viewed with cautious optimism whereas laser balancing is viewed with concern for flight propulsion hardware. The FARE method (Fuel/Air Repetitive Explosion) was selected for experimental evaluation of bond strength and fatigue strength. Material combinations tested were tungsten carbide on stainless steel (17-4), Inconel 718 on Inconel 718, and Triballoy 800 on Inconel 718. Bond strengths were entirely adequate for use in balancing. Material combinations have been identified for use in hot and cold sections of an engine, with fatigue strengths equivalent to those for hand-ground materials.

  10. Hierarchical polymer coating for optimizing the antifouling and bactericidal efficacies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shunjie; Song, Lingjie; Li, Zhihong; Luan, Shifang; Shi, Hengchong; Xin, Zhirong; Li, Shenghai; Yang, Yuming; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-10-01

    The bacteria-repellent and bactericidal functionalities in a single system are generally need to be carefully optimized in order to obtain the highest antibacterial performance. In this study, the controlled SI-PIMP strategy was developed for creating hierarchical polymer brushes possessing the bacteria-repellent and bactericidal functionalities. To obtain a bactericidal surface with minimal interference to its nonfouling property, optimization studies were conducted by facilely tailoring the surface density of the quaternary ammonium compound moieties through control over the monomer concentration. An optimal hierarchical polymer coating showed potent protein and bacteria repellence as well as certain bactericidal property. The longlasting antibacterial performance was also achieved due to the good balance between the dual functionalities. The tenability of the hierarchical polymer coating is applicable to surface chemistries for biosensors, molecular imaging, and biomedical applications.

  11. Hierarchical polymer coating for optimizing the antifouling and bactericidal efficacies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shunjie; Song, Lingjie; Li, Zhihong; Luan, Shifang; Shi, Hengchong; Xin, Zhirong; Li, Shenghai; Yang, Yuming; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-10-01

    The bacteria-repellent and bactericidal functionalities in a single system are generally need to be carefully optimized in order to obtain the highest antibacterial performance. In this study, the controlled SI-PIMP strategy was developed for creating hierarchical polymer brushes possessing the bacteria-repellent and bactericidal functionalities. To obtain a bactericidal surface with minimal interference to its nonfouling property, optimization studies were conducted by facilely tailoring the surface density of the quaternary ammonium compound moieties through control over the monomer concentration. An optimal hierarchical polymer coating showed potent protein and bacteria repellence as well as certain bactericidal property. The longlasting antibacterial performance was also achieved due to the good balance between the dual functionalities. The tenability of the hierarchical polymer coating is applicable to surface chemistries for biosensors, molecular imaging, and biomedical applications. PMID:27363527

  12. Appetite and energy balancing.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    pleasure of eating it. The latter, which is similar to food reward, is determined primarily by the state of emptiness of the gut and food liking related to the food's sensory qualities and macronutrient value and the individual's dietary history. Importantly, energy density adds value because energy dense foods are less satiating kJ for kJ and satiation limits further intake. That is, energy dense foods promote energy intake by virtue (1) of being more attractive and (2) having low satiating capacity kJ for kJ, and (1) is partly a consequence of (2). Energy storage is adapted to feast and famine and that includes unevenness over time of the costs of obtaining and ingesting food compared with engaging in other activities. However, in very low-cost food environments with energy dense foods readily available, risk of obesity is high. This risk can be and is mitigated by dietary restraint, which in its simplest form could mean missing the occasional meal. Another strategy we discuss is the energy dilution achieved by replacing some sugar in the diet with low-calorie sweeteners. Perhaps as or more significant, though, is that belief in short-term energy balancing (the energy depletion model) may undermine attempts to eat less. Therefore, correcting narratives of eating to be consistent with biological reality could also assist with weight control.

  13. Appetite and energy balancing.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    pleasure of eating it. The latter, which is similar to food reward, is determined primarily by the state of emptiness of the gut and food liking related to the food's sensory qualities and macronutrient value and the individual's dietary history. Importantly, energy density adds value because energy dense foods are less satiating kJ for kJ and satiation limits further intake. That is, energy dense foods promote energy intake by virtue (1) of being more attractive and (2) having low satiating capacity kJ for kJ, and (1) is partly a consequence of (2). Energy storage is adapted to feast and famine and that includes unevenness over time of the costs of obtaining and ingesting food compared with engaging in other activities. However, in very low-cost food environments with energy dense foods readily available, risk of obesity is high. This risk can be and is mitigated by dietary restraint, which in its simplest form could mean missing the occasional meal. Another strategy we discuss is the energy dilution achieved by replacing some sugar in the diet with low-calorie sweeteners. Perhaps as or more significant, though, is that belief in short-term energy balancing (the energy depletion model) may undermine attempts to eat less. Therefore, correcting narratives of eating to be consistent with biological reality could also assist with weight control. PMID:27059321

  14. Maintaining an Environmental Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A recent conference of the National Environmental Development Association focused on the concepts of environment, energy and economy and underscored the necessity for balancing the critical needs embodied in these issues. Topics discussed included: nuclear energy and wastes, water pollution control, federal regulations, environmental technology…

  15. Balancing Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Sally; And Others

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a series of activities designed to teach strategies needed for effectively managing the multiple responsibilities of family and work. The guide contains 11 lesson plans dealing with balancing family and work that can be used in any home economics class, from middle school through college. The lesson…

  16. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  17. Finding a Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Milton A.; Gordon, Margaret F.

    1996-01-01

    New college presidents are inundated with requests for their time, and their private life is often sacrificed. Each administrator must decide what is the appropriate balance among various aspects of his/her position. Physical separation of public and private lives is essential, and the role of the spouse, who may have other professional…

  18. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  19. Recent progress on the BIPM watt balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hao; Kiss, Adrien; Robertsson, Lennart; de Mirandés, Estefania; Solve, Stéphane; Lavergne, Thomas; Picard, Alain; Stock, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We present the recent progress on the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) watt balance. The existing apparatus was transferred to the dedicated new laboratory with better thermal and vibrational conditions. The apparatus is fully operational in air. An improvement by a factor of three was achieved on the S/N ratio of both the voltage-to-velocity and force-to-current ratios. The fabrication of the parts of the new magnet is completed and its assembly is finished.

  20. On-line optimal control for fed-batch culture of baker's yeast production

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.T.; Chen, K.C.; Chiou, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    A method of on-line optimal control for fed-batch culture of bakers yeast production is proposed. The feed rate is taken as the control variable. The specific growth rate of the yeast is the output variable and is determined from the balance equation of oxygen. A moving model is obtained by using the data from the feed rate and the specific growth rate. Based on the moving model, an optimal feed rate for fed-batch culture is then achieved. 11 references.

  1. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  19. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  20. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  1. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  2. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  3. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  4. Explicit spatial scattering for load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel discrete-event simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Thulasidasan, Sunil; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Romero, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel, discrete-event simulations executed on high-performance computing clusters, focusing on simulations where computational and messaging load tend to be spatially clustered. Such domains are frequently characterized by the presence of geographic 'hot-spots' - regions that generate significantly more simulation events than others. Examples of such domains include simulation of urban regions, transportation networks and networks where interaction between entities is often constrained by physical proximity. Noting that in conservatively synchronized parallel simulations, the speed of execution of the simulation is determined by the slowest (i.e most heavily loaded) simulation process, we study different partitioning strategies in achieving equitable processor-load distribution in domains with spatially clustered load. In particular, we study the effectiveness of partitioning via spatial scattering to achieve optimal load balance. In this partitioning technique, nearby entities are explicitly assigned to different processors, thereby scattering the load across the cluster. This is motivated by two observations, namely, (i) since load is spatially clustered, spatial scattering should, intuitively, spread the load across the compute cluster, and (ii) in parallel simulations, equitable distribution of CPU load is a greater determinant of execution speed than message passing overhead. Through large-scale simulation experiments - both of abstracted and real simulation models - we observe that scatter partitioning, even with its greatly increased messaging overhead, significantly outperforms more conventional spatial partitioning techniques that seek to reduce messaging overhead. Further, even if hot-spots change over the course of the simulation, if the underlying feature of spatial clustering is retained, load continues to be balanced with spatial scattering leading us to the observation that

  5. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  6. Athletic footwear affects balance in men.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E; Gouw, G J; McClaran, J

    1994-01-01

    Stable equilibrium during locomotion is required for both superior performance of sports and prevention of injuries from falls. A recent report indicated that currently available athletic footwear impairs stability in older men. Since this discovery, if confirmed, seems important to both competitive athletes and the physically active general public, we performed an experiment using similar methods on a younger population. We tested the hypothesis that midsole thickness is negatively, and hardness positively related to dynamic equilibrium, in 17 healthy adult men (mean(s.d.) age 33(11.13) years) via a balance beam method. Subjects walked along a 9-m long beam at 0.5 m s-1 once barefoot and six times wearing identical pairs of experimental shoes which differed only in midsole hardness and thickness which spanned the respective ranges currently available in footwear. Falls from the beam (balance failures) were quantified. Balance failures varied significantly in relation to midsole hardness and thickness, and there was a strong trend toward interaction of these variables (P = 0.09). Midsole hardness was positively related to stability, and midsole thickness was negatively related, which confirms the previous report. Hence, shoes with thick-soft soles, similar to modern athletic footwear and 'walking shoes', destabilize men, and shoes with thin-hard soles provide superior stability. The pair with the poorest stability (A 15-thick; 12.34 balance failures per 100 m) produced 217% more balance failures than those associated with the best stability (A 50-thin; 3.89 balance failures per 100 m). Since most types of athletic footwear and many other shoes incorporate midsoles with hardness and thickness associated with poor stability, we conclude that both athletic performance and public safety could be enhanced through stability optimized footwear. PMID:7921911

  7. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  8. Gait and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach. PMID:27430451

  9. Selection of hydronic balancing valves

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlgren, R.C.E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the selection and setting of balance valves, which, when properly applied in the design of a hydronic system, will result in a balanced system, thus preventing over pumping without excessive energy costs.

  10. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  11. On the control of the Heider balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongkaew, S.; Caponigro, M.; Kułakowski, K.; Borzì, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Heider social balance model describes the evolution of the relationships in a social network of humans or animals. This model is built upon the concept of balance of triads consisting of friendly or hostile edges representing the state of the network. In this differential model, a leader is introduced in order to control the system and to drive the social network to a desired relationship state. Further, the stability, the local controllability, and the optimal control through leadership of the Heider model are investigated. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate the ability of the proposed control strategy to drive the Heider balance model to friendship.

  12. Balancing organization and flexibility in foraging dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tabone, Michaelangelo; Ermentrout, Bard; Doiron, Brent

    2010-10-01

    Proper pattern organization and reorganization are central problems facing many biological networks which thrive in fluctuating environments. However, in many cases the mechanisms that organize system activity oppose those that support behavioral flexibility. Thus, a balance between pattern organization and pattern flexibility is critically important for overall biological fitness. We study this balance in the foraging strategies of ant colonies exploiting food in dynamic environments. We present discrete time and space simulations of colony activity that uses a pheromone-based recruitment strategy biasing foraging towards a food source. After food relocation, the pheromone must evaporate sufficiently before foraging can shift colony attention to a new food source. The amount of food consumed within the dynamic environment depends non-monotonically on the pheromone evaporation time constant-with maximal consumption occurring at a time constant which balances trail formation and trail flexibility. A deterministic, 'mean field' model of pheromone and foragers on trails mimics our colony simulations. This reduced framework captures the essence of the flexibility-organization balance, and relates optimal pheromone evaporation to the timescale of the dynamic environment. We expect that the principles exposed in our study will generalize and motivate novel analysis across a broad range systems biology. PMID:20627107

  13. Assessment of postural balance function.

    PubMed

    Kostiukow, Anna; Rostkowska, Elzbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Postural balance is defined as the ability to stand unassisted without falling. Examination of the patient's postural balance function is a difficult diagnostic task. Most of the balance tests used in medicine provide incomplete information on this coordination ability of the human body. The aim of this study was to review methods of assessment of the patient's postural balance function, including various tests used in medical diagnostics centers. PMID:20698188

  14. Assessment of postural balance function.

    PubMed

    Kostiukow, Anna; Rostkowska, Elzbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Postural balance is defined as the ability to stand unassisted without falling. Examination of the patient's postural balance function is a difficult diagnostic task. Most of the balance tests used in medicine provide incomplete information on this coordination ability of the human body. The aim of this study was to review methods of assessment of the patient's postural balance function, including various tests used in medical diagnostics centers.

  15. Stimulus Characteristics for Vestibular Stochastic Resonance to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrado, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Studies have shown that imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the amplitude characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standard balance task of standing on a block of foam with their eyes closed. Bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system using constant current stimulation through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears. Amplitude of the signals varied in the range of 0-700 microamperes. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block, and inertial motion sensors were placed on the torso and head. Balance performance with stimulation was significantly greater (10%-25%) than with no stimulation. The signal amplitude at which performance was maximized was in the range of 100-300 microamperes. Optimization of the amplitude of the stochastic signals for maximizing balance performance will have a significant impact on development of vestibular SR as a unique system to aid recovery of function in astronauts after long-duration space flight or in patients with balance disorders.

  16. The mysteries of nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Waterlow, J C

    1999-06-01

    The first part of this review is concerned with the balance between N input and output as urinary urea. I start with some observations on classical biochemical studies of the operation of the urea cycle. According to Krebs, the cycle is instantaneous and automatic, as a result of the irreversibility of the first enzyme, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (EC 6.3.5.5; CPS-I), and it should be able to handle many times the normal input to the cycle. It is now generally agreed that acetyl glutamate is a necessary co-factor for CPS-1, but not a regulator. There is abundant evidence that changes in dietary protein supply induce coordinated changes in the amounts of all five urea-cycle enzymes. How this coordination is achieved, and why it should be necessary in view of the properties of the cycle mentioned above, is unknown. At the physiological level it is not clear how a change in protein intake is translated into a change of urea cycle activity. It is very unlikely that the signal is an alteration in the plasma concentration either of total amino-N or of any single amino acid. The immediate substrates of the urea cycle are NH3 and aspartate, but there have been no measurements of their concentration in the liver in relation to urea production. Measurements of urea kinetics have shown that in many cases urea production exceeds N intake, and it is only through transfer of some of the urea produced to the colon, where it is hydrolysed to NH3, that it is possible to achieve N balance. It is beginning to look as if this process is regulated, possibly through the operation of recently discovered urea transporters in the kidney and colon. The second part of the review deals with the synthesis and breakdown of protein. The evidence on whole-body protein turnover under a variety of conditions strongly suggests that the components of turnover, including amino acid oxidation, are influenced and perhaps regulated by amino acid supply or amino acid concentration, with insulin

  17. Human stick balancing: Tuning Lèvy flights to improve balance control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Juan Luis; Milton, John G.

    2004-09-01

    State-dependent, or parametric, noise is an essential component of the neural control mechanism for stick balancing at the fingertip. High-speed motion analysis in three dimensions demonstrates that the controlling movements made by the fingertip during stick balancing can be described by a Lévy flight. The Lévy index, α, is approximately 0.9; a value close to optimal for a random search. With increased skill, the index α does not change. However, the tails of the Lévy distribution become broader. These observations suggest a Lévy flight that is truncated by the properties of the nervous and musculoskeletal system; the truncation decreasing as skill level increases. Measurements of the cross-correlation between the position of the tip of the stick and the fingertip demonstrate that the role of closed-loop feedback changes with increased skill. Moreover, estimation of the neural latencies for stick balancing show that for a given stick length, the latency increases with skill level. It is suggested that the neural control for stick balancing involves a mechanism in which brief intervals of consciously generated, corrective movements alternate with longer intervals of prediction-free control. With learning the truncation of the Lévy flight becomes better optimized for balance control and hence the time between successive conscious corrections increases. These observations provide the first evidence that changes in a Lévy flight may have functional significance for the nervous system. This work has implications for the control of balancing problems ranging from falling in the elderly to the design of two-legged robots and earthquake proof buildings.

  18. Human stick balancing: tuning Lèvy flights to improve balance control.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Juan Luis; Milton, John G

    2004-09-01

    State-dependent, or parametric, noise is an essential component of the neural control mechanism for stick balancing at the fingertip. High-speed motion analysis in three dimensions demonstrates that the controlling movements made by the fingertip during stick balancing can be described by a Lèvy flight. The Lèvy index, alpha, is approximately 0.9; a value close to optimal for a random search. With increased skill, the index alpha does not change. However, the tails of the Lèvy distribution become broader. These observations suggest a Lèvy flight that is truncated by the properties of the nervous and musculoskeletal system; the truncation decreasing as skill level increases. Measurements of the cross-correlation between the position of the tip of the stick and the fingertip demonstrate that the role of closed-loop feedback changes with increased skill. Moreover, estimation of the neural latencies for stick balancing show that for a given stick length, the latency increases with skill level. It is suggested that the neural control for stick balancing involves a mechanism in which brief intervals of consciously generated, corrective movements alternate with longer intervals of prediction-free control. With learning the truncation of the Lèvy flight becomes better optimized for balance control and hence the time between successive conscious corrections increases. These observations provide the first evidence that changes in a Lèvy flight may have functional significance for the nervous system. This work has implications for the control of balancing problems ranging from falling in the elderly to the design of two-legged robots and earthquake proof buildings.

  19. More on Chemical Reaction Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    A previous article stated that only the matrix method was powerful enough to balance a particular chemical equation. Shows how this equation can be balanced without using the matrix method. The approach taken involves writing partial mathematical reactions and redox half-reactions, and combining them to yield the final balanced reaction. (JN)

  20. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  1. The balanced scorecard: an integrative approach to performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J

    2001-05-01

    In addition to strict financial outcomes, healthcare financial managers should assess intangible assets that affect the organization's bottom line, such as clinical processes, staff skills, and patient satisfaction and loyalty. The balanced scorecard, coupled with data-warehousing capabilities, offers a way to measure an organization's performance against its strategic objectives while focusing on building capabilities to achieve these objectives. The balanced scorecard examines performance related to finance, human resources, internal processes, and customers. Because the balanced scorecard requires substantial amounts of data, it is a necessity to establish an organizational data warehouse of clinical, operational, and financial data that can be used in decision support. Because it presents indicators that managers and staff can influence directly by their actions, the balanced-scorecard approach to performance measurement encourages behavioral changes aimed at achieving corporate strategies.

  2. The balanced scorecard: an integrative approach to performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J

    2001-05-01

    In addition to strict financial outcomes, healthcare financial managers should assess intangible assets that affect the organization's bottom line, such as clinical processes, staff skills, and patient satisfaction and loyalty. The balanced scorecard, coupled with data-warehousing capabilities, offers a way to measure an organization's performance against its strategic objectives while focusing on building capabilities to achieve these objectives. The balanced scorecard examines performance related to finance, human resources, internal processes, and customers. Because the balanced scorecard requires substantial amounts of data, it is a necessity to establish an organizational data warehouse of clinical, operational, and financial data that can be used in decision support. Because it presents indicators that managers and staff can influence directly by their actions, the balanced-scorecard approach to performance measurement encourages behavioral changes aimed at achieving corporate strategies. PMID:11351809

  3. Balancing Computation and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, Rob

    2007-04-01

    How do you know when the science being performed on a supercomputer reflects what actually occurs inside a test tube, or in real life? The answer can be stated simply enough: “run the model on the computer, get the result, and then perform an experiment to test the result”. The adage “easier said than done” truly applies – especially when the focus is on innovative science to benefit government and industry. The trick in this case is to find the right balance of science-driven computing integrated with experiment.

  4. Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers. The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  5. Constraining neutron guide optimizations with phase-space considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, Mads; Lefmann, Kim

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a method named the Minimalist Principle that serves to reduce the parameter space for neutron guide optimization when the required beam divergence is limited. The reduced parameter space will restrict the optimization to guides with a minimal neutron intake that are still theoretically able to deliver the maximal possible performance. The geometrical constraints are derived using phase-space propagation from moderator to guide and from guide to sample, while assuming that the optimized guides will achieve perfect transport of the limited neutron intake. Guide systems optimized using these constraints are shown to provide performance close to guides optimized without any constraints, however the divergence received at the sample is limited to the desired interval, even when the neutron transport is not limited by the supermirrors used in the guide. As the constraints strongly limit the parameter space for the optimizer, two control parameters are introduced that can be used to adjust the selected subspace, effectively balancing between maximizing neutron transport and avoiding background from unnecessary neutrons. One parameter is needed to describe the expected focusing abilities of the guide to be optimized, going from perfectly focusing to no correlation between position and velocity. The second parameter controls neutron intake into the guide, so that one can select exactly how aggressively the background should be limited. We show examples of guides optimized using these constraints which demonstrates the higher signal to noise than conventional optimizations. Furthermore the parameter controlling neutron intake is explored which shows that the simulated optimal neutron intake is close to the analytically predicted, when assuming that the guide is dominated by multiple scattering events.

  6. To optimize performance, begin at the pulverizers

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, R.F.; Storm, S.K.

    2007-02-15

    A systematic, performance driven maintenance program for optimizing combustion can achieve great results. The challenge for O & M staff is deciding which proven strategy and tactics for reducing NOx and improving plant reliability to adapt and implement. The structured approach presented here has proven its worth at several plants that have wrestled with such problems. Based on experience gained by Storm Technologies, the article explores opportunities for raising efficiency of pulverized coal fired boilers by improving the performance of its pulverizers. In summary, significant ways to optimise performance are: increasing the fineness of coal particles to enhance release of fuel-bound nitrogen and to improve fuel balance, and reducing the total airflow and excess air to reduce thermal NOx production. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The balanced scorecard: sustainable performance assessment for forensic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Houck, Max; Speaker, Paul J; Fleming, Arron Scott; Riley, Richard A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of the balanced scorecard into the laboratory management environment. The balanced scorecard is a performance measurement matrix designed to capture financial and non-financial metrics that provide insight into the critical success factors for an organization, effectively aligning organization strategy to key performance objectives. The scorecard helps organizational leaders by providing balance from two perspectives. First, it ensures an appropriate mix of performance metrics from across the organization to achieve operational excellence; thereby the balanced scorecard ensures that no single or limited group of metrics dominates the assessment process, possibly leading to long-term inferior performance. Second, the balanced scorecard helps leaders offset short term performance pressures by giving recognition and weight to long-term laboratory needs that, if not properly addressed, might jeopardize future laboratory performance.

  8. The balanced scorecard: sustainable performance assessment for forensic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Houck, Max; Speaker, Paul J; Fleming, Arron Scott; Riley, Richard A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of the balanced scorecard into the laboratory management environment. The balanced scorecard is a performance measurement matrix designed to capture financial and non-financial metrics that provide insight into the critical success factors for an organization, effectively aligning organization strategy to key performance objectives. The scorecard helps organizational leaders by providing balance from two perspectives. First, it ensures an appropriate mix of performance metrics from across the organization to achieve operational excellence; thereby the balanced scorecard ensures that no single or limited group of metrics dominates the assessment process, possibly leading to long-term inferior performance. Second, the balanced scorecard helps leaders offset short term performance pressures by giving recognition and weight to long-term laboratory needs that, if not properly addressed, might jeopardize future laboratory performance. PMID:23068771

  9. Neurofeedback and physical balance in Parkinson's patients.

    PubMed

    Azarpaikan, Atefeh; Torbati, Hamidreza Taherii; Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the present research is to study the effect of a neurofeedback training (NFT) period on balance problems associated with Parkinson's disease. Sixteen patients were selected through purposive sampling and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The research procedure included eight sessions. Prior to and after training, pre-tests and post-tests of static and dynamic balance were administered using "limit of stability" for the Biodex as well as the Berg scale. The results revealed that, after neurofeedback training, a statistically significant improvement in both static and dynamic balance in the experimental group was achieved. The means of the Biodex and Berg scores in the experimental group increased from 18.87 to 42.87 and 17.62 to 46.37, respectively. The means of the Biodex and Berg scores in the control group in the pretest were 18.25 and 17.75 and increased to 20.00 and 20.50, respectively. The results suggest that NFT can improve static and dynamic balance in PD patients.

  10. Computerized Techniques for Calibrating Pressure Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, D. I.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure balances are generally calibrated by the cross-floating technique, where the forces acting on two similar devices in hydrostatic equilibrium are compared. It is a skilled and time-consuming process which has not previously lent itself to significant automation; computers have mostly been used only to calculate results after measurements have been taken. The objective of the present work was to develop real-time computerized measurement techniques to ease the calibration task, which would fully integrate into a single package with versatile software for calculating and displaying results. The calibration process is now conducted by studying graphical computer displays which derive their inputs from differential-pressure transducers and capacitance or optical displacement sensors. The mass imbalance between oil-operated pressure balances is calculated by interpolating between changes in piston rate-of-fall. Differential-pressure transducers are used to estimate mass imbalances between gas-operated balances, and a quick in situ method for determining their sensitivity has been developed. The new techniques have been successfully applied to a variety of pressure balance designs and substantial reductions in calibration times have been achieved. Reduced levels of scatter have revealed small systematic differences between gauge and absolute modes of operation.

  11. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks.

  12. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  13. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  14. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  15. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  16. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  17. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  18. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  19. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  20. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  1. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  2. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  3. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  4. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  5. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  6. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  7. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  8. Performance tradeoffs in static and dynamic load balancing strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iqbal, M. A.; Saltz, J. H.; Bokhart, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of uniformly distributing the load of a parallel program over a multiprocessor system was considered. A program was analyzed whose structure permits the computation of the optimal static solution. Then four strategies for load balancing were described and their performance compared. The strategies are: (1) the optimal static assignment algorithm which is guaranteed to yield the best static solution, (2) the static binary dissection method which is very fast but sub-optimal, (3) the greedy algorithm, a static fully polynomial time approximation scheme, which estimates the optimal solution to arbitrary accuracy, and (4) the predictive dynamic load balancing heuristic which uses information on the precedence relationships within the program and outperforms any of the static methods. It is also shown that the overhead incurred by the dynamic heuristic is reduced considerably if it is started off with a static assignment provided by either of the other three strategies.

  9. Evolving Sensitivity Balances Boolean Networks

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jamie X.; Turner, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of Boolean Networks (BNs) to mutations. We are interested in Boolean Networks as a model of Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs). We adopt Ribeiro and Kauffman’s Ergodic Set and use it to study the long term dynamics of a BN. We define the sensitivity of a BN to be the mean change in its Ergodic Set structure under all possible loss of interaction mutations. Insilico experiments were used to selectively evolve BNs for sensitivity to losing interactions. We find that maximum sensitivity was often achievable and resulted in the BNs becoming topologically balanced, i.e. they evolve towards network structures in which they have a similar number of inhibitory and excitatory interactions. In terms of the dynamics, the dominant sensitivity strategy that evolved was to build BNs with Ergodic Sets dominated by a single long limit cycle which is easily destabilised by mutations. We discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of Stem Cell Differentiation and propose a relationship between pluripotent stem cells and our evolved sensitive networks. PMID:22586459

  10. Optimizing solar-cell grid geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, A. P.

    1969-01-01

    Trade-off analysis and mathematical expressions calculate optimum grid geometry in terms of various cell parameters. Determination of the grid geometry provides proper balance between grid resistance and cell output to optimize the energy conversion process.

  11. An optimization-based parallel particle filter for multitarget tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutharsan, S.; Sinha, A.; Kirubarajan, T.; Farooq, M.

    2005-09-01

    Particle filter based estimation is becoming more popular because it has the capability to effectively solve nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. However, the particle filter has high computational requirements and the problem becomes even more challenging in the case of multitarget tracking. In order to perform data association and estimation jointly, typically an augmented state vector of target dynamics is used. As the number of targets increases, the computation required for each particle increases exponentially. Thus, parallelization is a possibility in order to achieve the real time feasibility in large-scale multitarget tracking applications. In this paper, we present a real-time feasible scheduling algorithm that minimizes the total computation time for the bus connected heterogeneous primary-secondary architecture. This scheduler is capable of selecting the optimal number of processors from a large pool of secondary processors and mapping the particles among the selected processors. Furthermore, we propose a less communication intensive parallel implementation of the particle filter without sacrificing tracking accuracy using an efficient load balancing technique, in which optimal particle migration is ensured. In this paper, we present the mathematical formulations for scheduling the particles as well as for particle migration via load balancing. Simulation results show the tracking performance of our parallel particle filter and the speedup achieved using parallelization.

  12. A balanced scorecard for Canadian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Baker, G R; Pink, G H

    1995-01-01

    Managing a health care organization on the basis of one set of information alone (e.g., financial information) does not give a full view of the impact of changes on the organization. A balanced scorecard approach can provide management with a comprehensive framework that turns an organization's strategic objectives into a coherent set of performance measures. This approach has been used extensively in industry, but seldom in health care organizations. By developing a scorecard approach, these organizations could obtain feedback providing a balanced view of organizational performance, letting them see if improvements in one area may have been achieved at the expense of another. It also demands that managers translate their general mission statement on customer service into specific measures that reflect the factors that really matter to customers. PMID:10156487

  13. Inverse planning optimization method for intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yihua; Ren, Haozheng; Li, Cunhua; Min, Zhifang; Wan, Jinxin; Ma, Jianxin; Hung, Chih-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    In order to facilitate the leaf sequencing process in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and design of a practical leaf sequencing algorithm, it is an important issue to smooth the planned fluence maps. The objective is to achieve both high-efficiency and high-precision dose delivering by considering characteristics of leaf sequencing process. The key factor which affects total number of monitor units for the leaf sequencing optimization process is the max flow value of the digraph which formulated from the fluence maps. Therefore, we believe that one strategy for compromising dose conformity and total number of monitor units in dose delivery is to balance the dose distribution function and the max flow value mentioned above. However, there are too many paths in the digraph, and we don't know the flow value of which path is the maximum. The maximum flow value among the horizontal paths was selected and used in the objective function of the fluence map optimization to formulate the model. The model is a traditional linear constrained quadratic optimization model which can be solved by interior point method easily. We believe that the smoothed maps from this model are more suitable for leaf sequencing optimization process than other smoothing models. A clinical head-neck case and a prostate case were tested and compared using our proposed model and the smoothing model which is based on the minimization of total variance. The optimization results with the same level of total number of monitor units (TNMU) show that the fluence maps obtained from our model have much better dose performance for the target/non-target region than the maps from total variance based on the smoothing model. This indicates that our model achieves better dose distribution when the algorithm suppresses the TNMU at the same level. Although we have just used the max flow value of the horizontal paths in the diagraph in the objective function, a good balance has been achieved between

  14. Energy balance climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  15. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  16. Balancing Family and Career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Dawson, Silvina Ponce; Horton, K. Renee; Sandow, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    In essentially all countries, responsibilities for child care, cooking, cleaning, and other homemaking tasks fall predominantly on the wife and mother. In addition, the childbearing years come during the period when a physicist must study hard, work long hours on research, and take temporary positions, often abroad. Thus, balancing family and career has long been one of the major barriers to women's participation in science and engineering fields, including physics. While many young women believe that they must choose between having children and having a science career, the fact is that the majority of women physicists in both developing and developed countries have successfully done both. This paper summarizes some ideas and recommendations raised in discussions, especially focused on easing the challenges of having children while in temporary jobs, returning to physics after a career break, the need for "family-friendly" working conditions, and the dual-career problem facing couples where both are scientists.

  17. Energy balance in peridynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2010-09-01

    The peridynamic model of solid mechanics treats internal forces within a continuum through interactions across finite distances. These forces are determined through a constitutive model that, in the case of an elastic material, permits the strain energy density at a point to depend on the collective deformation of all the material within some finite distance of it. The forces between points are evaluated from the Frechet derivative of this strain energy density with respect to the deformation map. The resulting equation of motion is an integro-differential equation written in terms of these interparticle forces, rather than the traditional stress tensor field. Recent work on peridynamics has elucidated the energy balance in the presence of these long-range forces. We have derived the appropriate analogue of stress power, called absorbed power, that leads to a satisfactory definition of internal energy. This internal energy is additive, allowing us to meaningfully define an internal energy density field in the body. An expression for the local first law of thermodynamics within peridynamics combines this mechanical component, the absorbed power, with heat transport. The global statement of the energy balance over a subregion can be expressed in a form in which the mechanical and thermal terms contain only interactions between the interior of the subregion and the exterior, in a form anticipated by Noll in 1955. The local form of this first law within peridynamics, coupled with the second law as expressed in the Clausius-Duhem inequality, is amenable to the Coleman-Noll procedure for deriving restrictions on the constitutive model for thermomechanical response. Using an idea suggested by Fried in the context of systems of discrete particles, this procedure leads to a dissipation inequality for peridynamics that has a surprising form. It also leads to a thermodynamically consistent way to treat damage within the theory, shedding light on how damage, including the

  18. Golfers have better balance control and confidence than healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kelly L; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Tsang, William W N

    2011-11-01

    In a well-executed golf swing, golfers must maintain good balance and precise control of posture. Golfing also requires prolonged walking over uneven ground such as a hilly course. Therefore, repeated golf practice may enhance balance control and confidence in the golfers. The objective is to investigate whether older golfers had better balance control and confidence than non-golfing older, healthy adults. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted at a University-based rehabilitation center. Eleven golfers and 12 control subjects (all male; mean age: 66.2 ± 6.8 and 71.3 ± 6.6 years, respectively) were recruited. Two balance control tests were administered: (1) functional reach test which measured subjects' maximum forward distance in standing; (2) sensory organization test (SOT) which examined subjects' abilities to use somatosensory, visual, and vestibular inputs to control body sway during stance. The modified Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) determined subject's balance confidence in daily activities. The golfers were found to achieve significantly longer distance in the functional reach test than controls. They manifested significantly better balance than controls in the visual ratio and vestibular ratio, but not the somatosensory ratio of the SOT. The golfers also reported significantly higher balance confidence score ratios. Furthermore, older adults' modified ABC score ratios showed positive correlations with functional reach, visual and vestibular ratios, but not with somatosensory ratio. Golfing is an activity which may enhance both the physical and psychological aspects of balance control. Significant correlations between these measures reveal the importance of the balance control under reduced or conflicting sensory conditions in older adults' balance confidence in their daily activities. Since cause-and-effect could not be established in the present cross-sectional study, further prospective intervention design is warranted. PMID

  19. A unified approach for revealing multiple balance recovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Yeh, Chih-Kuo

    2015-12-01

    In human balance recovery, different strategies have been proposed with generally overlooked knee motions but extensive focus on the ankle, hip, and step strategies. It is not well understood whether maintaining balance is regulated at the lower "muscular-articular" level of coordinating segment joints or at a higher level of controlling whole body dynamics. Whether balance control is to minimize joint degrees of freedom (DOF) or utilize all the available DOF also remains unclear. This study aimed to use a realistic musculoskeletal human model to identify multiple balance recovery strategies with a single optimization criterion. Movements were driven by neural excitations (which activated muscle force generation) and were assumed to be symmetric. Balance recoveries were simulated with forward-inclined straight body postures as the initial conditions. When the position of the toes was fixed, balance was regained with virtually straight knees and mixed ankle/hip strategies. Under a severely perturbed condition, use of the forward hop strategy after releasing the fixed-toes constraint indicated spontaneous recruitment or suppression of DOF, which mimicked functions of optimally computed CNS commands in humans. The results also indicated that increase/decrease in the number of DOF depends on the imposed perturbation intensity and movement constraints. PMID:26519905

  20. The Balanced Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert S.; Miyake, Dylan N.

    2010-01-01

    Ten years ago, the Atlanta Public Schools had low and declining student achievement, demoralized teachers, crumbling buildings, high turnover among superintendents (average tenure of two years) and disaffected parents pulling their children out of the system. More than 60 percent of the city's high school students missed at least two weeks of…

  1. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  2. The role of prediction modeling in propensity score estimation: an evaluation of logistic regression, bCART, and the covariate-balancing propensity score.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Richard; Ellis, Alan R; Brookhart, M Alan; Girman, Cynthia J; Jonsson Funk, Michele; LoCasale, Robert; Stürmer, Til

    2014-09-15

    The covariate-balancing propensity score (CBPS) extends logistic regression to simultaneously optimize covariate balance and treatment prediction. Although the CBPS has been shown to perform well in certain settings, its performance has not been evaluated in settings specific to pharmacoepidemiology and large database research. In this study, we use both simulations and empirical data to compare the performance of the CBPS with logistic regression and boosted classification and regression trees. We simulated various degrees of model misspecification to evaluate the robustness of each propensity score (PS) estimation method. We then applied these methods to compare the effect of initiating glucagonlike peptide-1 agonists versus sulfonylureas on cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in the US Medicare population in 2007-2009. In simulations, the CBPS was generally more robust in terms of balancing covariates and reducing bias compared with misspecified logistic PS models and boosted classification and regression trees. All PS estimation methods performed similarly in the empirical example. For settings common to pharmacoepidemiology, logistic regression with balance checks to assess model specification is a valid method for PS estimation, but it can require refitting multiple models until covariate balance is achieved. The CBPS is a promising method to improve the robustness of PS models.

  3. Device engineering of perovskite solar cells to achieve near ideal efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Sumanshu E-mail: prnair@ee.iitb.ac.in; Nair, Pradeep R. E-mail: prnair@ee.iitb.ac.in

    2015-09-21

    Despite the exciting recent research on perovskite based solar cells, the design space for further optimization and the practical limits of efficiency are not well known in the community. In this letter, we address these aspects through theoretical calculations and detailed numerical simulations. Here, we first provide the detailed balance limit efficiency in the presence of radiative and Auger recombination. Then, using coupled optical and carrier transport simulations, we identify the physical mechanisms that contribute towards bias dependent carrier collection, and hence low fill factors of current perovskite based solar cells. Our detailed simulations indicate that it is indeed possible to achieve efficiencies and fill factors greater than 25% and 85%, respectively, with near ideal super-position characteristics even in the presence of Auger recombination.

  4. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - how to achieve substantial CO(2) reductions?

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, T; Olesen, J E; Petersen, S O; Petersen, B M; Jørgensen, U; Kristensen, T; Hutchings, N J; Gyldenkærne, S; Hermansen, J E

    2011-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance.

  5. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  6. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  7. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  8. Improving load balance with flexibly assignable tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Hendrickson, Bruce

    2003-09-09

    In many applications of parallel computing, distribution ofthe data unambiguously implies distribution of work among processors. Butthere are exceptions where some tasks can be assigned to one of severalprocessors without altering the total volume of communication. In thispaper, we study the problem of exploiting this flexibility in assignmentof tasks to improve load balance. We first model the problem in terms ofnetwork flow and use combinatorial techniques for its solution. Ourparametric search algorithms use maximum flow algorithms for probing on acandidate optimal solution value. We describe two algorithms to solve theassignment problem with \\logW_T and vbar P vbar probe calls, w here W_Tand vbar P vbar, respectively, denote the total workload and number ofproce ssors. We also define augmenting paths and cuts for this problem,and show that anyalgorithm based on augmenting paths can be used to findan optimal solution for the task assignment problem. We then consideracontinuous version of the problem, and formulate it as a linearlyconstrained optimization problem, i.e., \\min\\|Ax\\|_\\infty,\\; {\\rms.t.}\\;Bx=d. To avoid solving an intractable \\infty-norm optimization problem,we show that in this case minimizing the 2-norm is sufficient to minimizethe \\infty-norm, which reduces the problem to the well-studiedlinearly-constrained least squares problem. The continuous version of theproblem has the advantage of being easily amenable to parallelization.Our experiments with molecular dynamics and overlapped domaindecomposition applications proved the effectiveness of our methods withsignificant improvements in load balance. We also discuss how ourtechniques can be enhanced for heterogeneous systems.

  9. What is a balanced program?

    PubMed

    Mohl, P C

    1995-06-01

    "Balance" has become the watchword of psychiatry programs. It seems that almost all residency training programs claim to be balanced. But what do we mean by this term? This article summarizes the author's evolving thinking about what makes for a balanced program and suggests that diversity may be a better term. The author advocates that balance is not as simple as teaching both psychodynamics and biological psychiatry. Instead, it entails a considered, intellectual approach that involves long-term vs. other psychotherapies, neuro-science vs. psychopharmacology, theoretical pharmacology vs. practical pharmacology, social psychiatry vs. treating minority patients, representing all viewpoints in psychiatry vs. integrating them. PMID:24442525

  10. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  11. Adaptive Load-Balancing Algorithms using Symmetric Broadcast Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In a distributed computing environment, it is important to ensure that the processor workloads are adequately balanced, Among numerous load-balancing algorithms, a unique approach due to Das and Prasad defines a symmetric broadcast network (SBN) that provides a robust communication pattern among the processors in a topology-independent manner. In this paper, we propose and analyze three efficient SBN-based dynamic load-balancing algorithms, and implement them on an SGI Origin2000. A thorough experimental study with Poisson distributed synthetic loads demonstrates that our algorithms are effective in balancing system load. By optimizing completion time and idle time, the proposed algorithms are shown to compare favorably with several existing approaches.

  12. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Ruch, Russell; Ludwig, Peter; Maurer, Tessa

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  13. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  14. Fast computing global structural balance in signed networks based on memetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yixiang; Du, Haifeng; Gong, Maoguo; Ma, Lijia; Wang, Shanfeng

    2014-12-01

    Structural balance is a large area of study in signed networks, and it is intrinsically a global property of the whole network. Computing global structural balance in signed networks, which has attracted some attention in recent years, is to measure how unbalanced a signed network is and it is a nondeterministic polynomial-time hard problem. Many approaches are developed to compute global balance. However, the results obtained by them are partial and unsatisfactory. In this study, the computation of global structural balance is solved as an optimization problem by using the Memetic Algorithm. The optimization algorithm, named Meme-SB, is proposed to optimize an evaluation function, energy function, which is used to compute a distance to exact balance. Our proposed algorithm combines Genetic Algorithm and a greedy strategy as the local search procedure. Experiments on social and biological networks show the excellent effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  15. Exit Presentation -- Maintaining Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the projects which the author engaged in during an internship at Johnson Space Center. Project 1 was involved with Stochastic Resonance (SR). Stochastic resonance is a phenomenon in which the response of a non-linear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. The goal of this project was to develop a countermeasure for sensorimotor disturbances that are experienced after long duration space flight. The second project was a pilot study that was to examine how adaptation to a novel functional task was affected by postural disturbance.

  16. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain's ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable and provides imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles. SR using imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS) applied to normal subjects has shown to improve the degree of association between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart-rate responses. Also, application of SVS over 24

  17. Static load balancing for CFD distributed simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chronopoulos, A T; Grosu, D; Wissink, A; Benche, M

    2001-01-26

    The cost/performance ratio of networks of workstations has been constantly improving. This trend is expected to continue in the near future. The aggregate peak rate of such systems often matches or exceeds the peak rate offered by the fastest parallel computers. This has motivated research towards using a network of computers, interconnected via a fast network (cluster system) or a simple Local Area Network (LAN) (distributed system), for high performance concurrent computations. Some of the important research issues arise such as (1) Optimal problem partitioning and virtual interconnection topology mapping; (2) Optimal execution scheduling and load balancing. CFD codes have been efficiently implemented on homogeneous parallel systems in the past. In particular, the helicopter aerodynamics CFD code TURNS has been implemented with MPI on the IBM SP with parallel relaxation and Krylov iterative methods used in place of more traditional recursive algorithms to enhance performance. In this implementation the space domain is divided into equal subdomain which are mapped to the processors. We consider the implementation of TURNS on a LAN of heterogeneous workstations. In order to deal with the problem of load balancing due to the different processor speeds we propose a suboptimal algorithm of dividing the space domain into unequal subdomains and assign them to the different computers. The algorithm can apply to other CFD applications. We used our algorithm to schedule TURNS on a network of workstations and obtained significantly better results.

  18. Nozzle Mounting Method Optimization Based on Robot Kinematic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoyue; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain; Deng, Sihao

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the application of industrial robots in thermal spray is gaining more and more importance. A desired coating quality depends on factors such as a balanced robot performance, a uniform scanning trajectory and stable parameters (e.g. nozzle speed, scanning step, spray angle, standoff distance). These factors also affect the mass and heat transfer as well as the coating formation. Thus, the kinematic optimization of all these aspects plays a key role in order to obtain an optimal coating quality. In this study, the robot performance was optimized from the aspect of nozzle mounting on the robot. An optimized nozzle mounting for a type F4 nozzle was designed, based on the conventional mounting method from the point of view of robot kinematics validated on a virtual robot. Robot kinematic parameters were obtained from the simulation by offline programming software and analyzed by statistical methods. The energy consumptions of different nozzle mounting methods were also compared. The results showed that it was possible to reasonably assign the amount of robot motion to each axis during the process, so achieving a constant nozzle speed. Thus, it is possible optimize robot performance and to economize robot energy.

  19. Balancing "we" and "me".

    PubMed

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude. PMID:25509575

  20. In the Balance:

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Lawrence T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The nineteenth century saw the incorporation of technology, such as the stethoscope, microscope, and thermometer, into clinical medicine. An instrument that has received less attention in the history of the role of technology in medicine is the weighing balance, or scale. Although not new to nineteenth-century medicine, it played an important part in the rise of the numerical method and its application to the development and shaping of pediatrics. This article explores the origin and development of the weighing of babies. During its clinical and scientific adoption, this simple procedure was refined and applied in a number of increasingly sophisticated and far-reaching ways: as a measure of the dimensions of the fetus and newborn, as an index of the viability of the newborn, as a means of estimating milk intake, as a way of distinguishing normality from abnormality, as a summary measure of infant health, and as an instrument of mass surveillance. In so doing it changed the way in which medical care was delivered to infants. PMID:20632732

  1. A Balanced Memory Network

    PubMed Central

    Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory—the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds—is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons. PMID:17845070

  2. Par Pond water balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

  3. Balancing "we" and "me".

    PubMed

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude.

  4. Balance models for equatorial planetary-scale dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ian Hiu-Fung

    This thesis aims at advancing our understanding of large-scale dynamics in the tropics, specifically the characterization of slow planetary-scale motions through a balance theory; current balance theories in the tropics are unsatisfactory as they filter out Kelvin waves, which are an important component of variability, along with fast inertia-gravity (IG) waves. Recent studies have shown that estimations of tropical variability (particularly Kelvin waves) differ significantly between different reanalysis datasets, and we hypothesize that this discrepancy is largely driven by the lack of suitable balance relations that maximize information obtained from observations. The first part of the thesis concerns the derivation of a balance model that filters out IG waves, but retains slow Rossby and Kelvin waves. Our theory relies on the anisotropy of planetary-scale motions in the tropics, where the zonal scale is typically much larger than the meridional scale. We show that the dynamics of the balance model reproduces planetary-scale dynamics well, but an important point is that the balance relations can also accurately describe the slow dynamics even in the isotropic regime. Moreover, the method can be generalized to cases with strong nonlinearity, diabatic heating, or to more realistic models of the atmosphere. From a practical perspective, our model is an improvement over existing theories as in addition to accurately capturing Kelvin wave dynamics, it also has the potential to provide better constraints on diabatic heating, which is a significant source of uncertainty in tropical variability at present. In the second part of the thesis we explore how our balance theory can be applied to data assimilation systems. Through `identical twin' experiments, we determined that our theory can be used in an ensemble Kalman filter system to produce more accurate and balanced analyses. This is achieved by using a modified localization function and analysis schemes that partition

  5. Balancing Safety and Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, David L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern" (personal…

  6. The Balance-Scale Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Jay, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Presents the reflections of students on a problem given in May, 1996 issue of this journal in order to share the thinking of middle school students. The problem concerned weighing on a double per balance if given a clump of clay, and a 20-gram and 50-gram balance. (ASK)

  7. Optimal scheduling and balancing of multiprogrammed loads over heterogeneous processors

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, E.

    1995-12-01

    The serial/parallel allocation of multiprogrammed load modules among heterogeneous virtual memory processors is formulated as an instance of the separable resource allocation problem with nonconvex functions. Mild conditions on the functions leads to an efficient solution in constant time.

  8. Fluid balance in team sports. Guidelines for optimal practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Hawley, J A

    1997-07-01

    Team sports require players to perform multiple work bouts at near maximal effort, punctuated with intervals of low intensity exercise or rest for the duration of a game. Such activity patterns are associated with a significant loss of body water which has a negative impact on physical and mental performance, as well as temperature regulation. There are a number of ways in which sweat losses incurred during team sports differ from those measured during prolonged, continuous exercise. Firstly, the work rate in team sports is intermittent, largely unpredictable and random in nature. Second, analyses of various team sports reveal that such games are characterised by a high degree of inter and intra-individual variability in work rates between players from the same sport. Finally, team players are less able to anticipate sweat losses than athletes competing in events which involve prolonged, continuous, moderate intensity exercise. Yet, compared with most endurance events, many team sports offer frequent opportunities to ingest adequate volumes of fluid and thus prevent exercise-induced hypohydration. The present review details the findings of modern studies which have determined body water losses and fluid intake practices of athletes from a variety of team sports. Special considerations which influence sweat loss and fluid intake that are unique to team sports are discussed, and guidelines for sound hydration strategies during training and competition are provided.

  9. Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Liu, Fagui; Cao, Jianneng; Wang, Liangming

    2016-01-01

    Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs), we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO) is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle’s position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption. PMID:27428971

  10. Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Liu, Fagui; Cao, Jianneng; Wang, Liangming

    2016-01-01

    Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs), we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO) is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle's position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption. PMID:27428971

  11. Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Liu, Fagui; Cao, Jianneng; Wang, Liangming

    2016-01-01

    Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs), we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO) is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle's position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption.

  12. Slacklining and stroke: A rehabilitation case study considering balance and lower limb weakness

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Charles P; Rando, Natalie; Melloh, Markus

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of slacklining as a supplementary therapy for elderly stroke patients who are functionally non-progressing. This case study involved an 18-mo prospective observation of the management of an 87-year-old female stroke-patient of the left hemisphere with reduced balance, reduced lower limb muscular activation, hypertonia, and concurrent postural deficits. This entailed the initial acute care phase through to discharge to home and 18-mo final status in her original independent living setting. The introduction of slacklining as an adjunct therapy was made 12 mo post incident. Slacklining involves balance retention on a tightened band where external environmental changes cause a whole-body dynamic response to retain equilibrium. It is a complex neuromechanical task enabling individualized self-developed response strategies to be learned and adapted. This facilitates the innate process of balance retention, lower-limb and core muscle activation, and stable posture through a combination of learned motor skills and neurological system down regulation. Individuals adopt and follow established sequential motor learning stages where the acquired balance skills are achieved in a challenging composite-chain activity. Slacklining could be considered an adjunct therapy for lower limb stroke rehabilitation where function is compromised due to decreased muscle recruitment, decreased postural control and compromised balance. Initial inpatient rehabilitation involved one-month acute-care, one-month rehabilitation, and one-month transitional care prior to home discharge. A further six months of intensive outpatient rehabilitation was provided with five hourly sessions per week including:supervised and self-managed hydrotherapy, plus one individual and two group falls’ prevention sessions. These were supported by daily home exercises. At 12 mo post incident, recovery plateaued, then regressed following three falls. Rehabilitation was subsequently

  13. Slacklining and stroke: A rehabilitation case study considering balance and lower limb weakness

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Charles P; Rando, Natalie; Melloh, Markus

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of slacklining as a supplementary therapy for elderly stroke patients who are functionally non-progressing. This case study involved an 18-mo prospective observation of the management of an 87-year-old female stroke-patient of the left hemisphere with reduced balance, reduced lower limb muscular activation, hypertonia, and concurrent postural deficits. This entailed the initial acute care phase through to discharge to home and 18-mo final status in her original independent living setting. The introduction of slacklining as an adjunct therapy was made 12 mo post incident. Slacklining involves balance retention on a tightened band where external environmental changes cause a whole-body dynamic response to retain equilibrium. It is a complex neuromechanical task enabling individualized self-developed response strategies to be learned and adapted. This facilitates the innate process of balance retention, lower-limb and core muscle activation, and stable posture through a combination of learned motor skills and neurological system down regulation. Individuals adopt and follow established sequential motor learning stages where the acquired balance skills are achieved in a challenging composite-chain activity. Slacklining could be considered an adjunct therapy for lower limb stroke rehabilitation where function is compromised due to decreased muscle recruitment, decreased postural control and compromised balance. Initial inpatient rehabilitation involved one-month acute-care, one-month rehabilitation, and one-month transitional care prior to home discharge. A further six months of intensive outpatient rehabilitation was provided with five hourly sessions per week including:supervised and self-managed hydrotherapy, plus one individual and two group falls’ prevention sessions. These were supported by daily home exercises. At 12 mo post incident, recovery plateaued, then regressed following three falls. Rehabilitation was subsequently

  14. Slacklining and stroke: A rehabilitation case study considering balance and lower limb weakness.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Charles P; Rando, Natalie; Melloh, Markus

    2016-08-18

    To ascertain the effectiveness of slacklining as a supplementary therapy for elderly stroke patients who are functionally non-progressing. This case study involved an 18-mo prospective observation of the management of an 87-year-old female stroke-patient of the left hemisphere with reduced balance, reduced lower limb muscular activation, hypertonia, and concurrent postural deficits. This entailed the initial acute care phase through to discharge to home and 18-mo final status in her original independent living setting. The introduction of slacklining as an adjunct therapy was made 12 mo post incident. Slacklining involves balance retention on a tightened band where external environmental changes cause a whole-body dynamic response to retain equilibrium. It is a complex neuromechanical task enabling individualized self-developed response strategies to be learned and adapted. This facilitates the innate process of balance retention, lower-limb and core muscle activation, and stable posture through a combination of learned motor skills and neurological system down regulation. Individuals adopt and follow established sequential motor learning stages where the acquired balance skills are achieved in a challenging composite-chain activity. Slacklining could be considered an adjunct therapy for lower limb stroke rehabilitation where function is compromised due to decreased muscle recruitment, decreased postural control and compromised balance. Initial inpatient rehabilitation involved one-month acute-care, one-month rehabilitation, and one-month transitional care prior to home discharge. A further six months of intensive outpatient rehabilitation was provided with five hourly sessions per week including:supervised and self-managed hydrotherapy, plus one individual and two group falls' prevention sessions. These were supported by daily home exercises. At 12 mo post incident, recovery plateaued, then regressed following three falls. Rehabilitation was subsequently modified

  15. Slacklining and stroke: A rehabilitation case study considering balance and lower limb weakness.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Charles P; Rando, Natalie; Melloh, Markus

    2016-08-18

    To ascertain the effectiveness of slacklining as a supplementary therapy for elderly stroke patients who are functionally non-progressing. This case study involved an 18-mo prospective observation of the management of an 87-year-old female stroke-patient of the left hemisphere with reduced balance, reduced lower limb muscular activation, hypertonia, and concurrent postural deficits. This entailed the initial acute care phase through to discharge to home and 18-mo final status in her original independent living setting. The introduction of slacklining as an adjunct therapy was made 12 mo post incident. Slacklining involves balance retention on a tightened band where external environmental changes cause a whole-body dynamic response to retain equilibrium. It is a complex neuromechanical task enabling individualized self-developed response strategies to be learned and adapted. This facilitates the innate process of balance retention, lower-limb and core muscle activation, and stable posture through a combination of learned motor skills and neurological system down regulation. Individuals adopt and follow established sequential motor learning stages where the acquired balance skills are achieved in a challenging composite-chain activity. Slacklining could be considered an adjunct therapy for lower limb stroke rehabilitation where function is compromised due to decreased muscle recruitment, decreased postural control and compromised balance. Initial inpatient rehabilitation involved one-month acute-care, one-month rehabilitation, and one-month transitional care prior to home discharge. A further six months of intensive outpatient rehabilitation was provided with five hourly sessions per week including:supervised and self-managed hydrotherapy, plus one individual and two group falls' prevention sessions. These were supported by daily home exercises. At 12 mo post incident, recovery plateaued, then regressed following three falls. Rehabilitation was subsequently modified

  16. The Effect of the Minimum Compensating Cash Balance on School District Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembowski, Frederick L.

    Banks are usually reimbursed for their checking account services either by a fixed service charge or by requiring a minimum or minimum-average compensating cash balance. This paper demonstrates how to determine the optimal minimum balance for a school district to maintain in its account. It is assumed that both the bank and the school district use…

  17. A balancing act: Physical balance, through arousal, influences size perception

    PubMed Central

    Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Stevens, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that manipulating vision influences balance. Here, we question whether manipulating balance can influence vision and how it may influence vision, specifically the perception of width. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the width of beams while balanced and unbalanced. When unbalanced, participants judged the widths to be smaller. One possible explanation is that unbalanced participants did not view the stimulus as long as when balanced because they were focused on remaining balanced. In Experiment 2, we tested this notion by limiting viewing time. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 but viewing time had no effect on width judgments. In Experiment 3, participants’ level of arousal was manipulated because the balancing task likely produced arousal. While jogging, participants judged the beams to be smaller. In Experiment 4, participants completed another arousing task (counting backward by 7s) that did not involve movement. Again, participants judged the beams to be smaller when aroused. Experiment 5a raised participants’ level of arousal before estimating the board widths (to control for potential dual-task effects) and found that heightened arousal still influenced perceived width of the boards. Collectively, heightened levels of arousal, caused by multiple manipulations (including balance), influenced perceived width. PMID:20952786

  18. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  19. A comparative analysis of static and dynamic load balancing strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iqbal, M. Ashraf; Bokhari, Shahid H.; Saltz, Joel H.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of uniformly distributing the load of a parallel program over a multiprocessor system was considered. A program was analyzed whose structure permits the computation of the optimal static solution. Then four strategies for load balancing were described and their performance compared. The strategies are: (1) the optimal static assignment algorithm which is guaranteed to yield the best static solution, (2) the static binary dissection method which is very fast but suboptimal, (3) the greedy algorithm, a static fully polynomial time approximation scheme, which estimates the optimal solution to arbitrary accuracy, and (4) the predictive dynamic load balancing heuristic which uses information on the precedence relationships within the program and outperforms any of the static methods. It is also shown that the overhead incurred by the dynamic heuristic is reduced considerably if it is started off with a static assignment provided by either of the three strategies.

  20. Magnetic Wood Achieving a Harmony between Magnetic and Woody Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hideo

    Magnetic wood, which was first introduced and developed by the Oka group in 1991, achieves a good balance of both woody and magnetic functions through the active addition of magnetic characteristics to the wood itself. In addition to showing magnetic characteristics, this magnetic wood also offers a woody texture, low specific gravity, humidity control, acoustic absorption and is very easy to process.

  1. Optimizing noise for defect analysis with through-focus scanning optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attota, Ravikiran; Kramar, John

    2016-03-01

    Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) shows promise for patterned defect analysis, but it is important to minimize total system noise. TSOM is a three-dimensional shape metrology method that can achieve sub-nanometer measurement sensitivity by analyzing sets of images acquired through-focus using a conventional optical microscope. Here we present a systematic noise-analysis study for optimizing data collection and data processing parameters for TSOM and then demonstrate how the optimized parameters affect defect analysis. We show that the best balance between signalto- noise performance and acquisition time can be achieved by judicious spatial averaging. Correct background-signal subtraction of the imaging-system inhomogeneities is also critical, as well as careful alignment of the constituent images used in differential TSOM analysis.

  2. Towards an Optimal Energy Consumption for Unattended Mobile Sensor Networks through Autonomous Sensor Redeployment

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jie; Wen, Yingyou; Zhao, Dazhe

    2014-01-01

    Energy hole is an inherent problem caused by heavier traffic loads of sensor nodes nearer the sink because of more frequent data transmission, which is strongly dependent on the topology induced by the sensor deployment. In this paper, we propose an autonomous sensor redeployment algorithm to balance energy consumption and mitigate energy hole for unattended mobile sensor networks. First, with the target area divided into several equal width coronas, we present a mathematical problem modeling sensor node layout as well as transmission pattern to maximize network coverage and reduce communication cost. And then, by calculating the optimal node density for each corona to avoid energy hole, a fully distributed movement algorithm is proposed, which can achieve an optimal distribution quickly only by pushing or pulling its one-hop neighbors. The simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm achieves a much smaller average moving distance and a much longer network lifetime than existing algorithms and can eliminate the energy hole problem effectively. PMID:24949494

  3. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  4. Nexus of Poverty, Energy Balance and Health

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification

  5. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  6. Transportation Requirements for Improved Racial Balance. Research Memorandum No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Howard R.; Moon, Albert E.

    This memorandum presents the costs of transporting students to achieve racial balance in the San Francisco public schools. The costs of a district owned school bus system are analyzed for a four year implementation period. Costs of different sizes and types of buses and of major operating requirements (including parking, buildings, staff, and…

  7. Balancing Leadership and Personal Growth: The School Administrator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Christa

    2006-01-01

    After conducting intensive research and observations of school district superintendents, administrators, and school principals, the author offers strategies for achieving a healthy work and life balance, including: (1) Taking care of yourself as well as you do others; (2) Defining and applying the six themes of personal growth; (3) Nourishing your…

  8. Balancing Fun and Learning in a Serious Game Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzwa, Christopher; Tang, Ying; Johnson, Aaron; Bielefeldt, Talbot

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the underlying philosophy of Sustain City, an educational serious game system that engages students, particularly prospective and beginning science and engineering students, in a series of engineering design challenges. Various strategies implemented in Sustain City for achieving a balance of fun and learning are discussed,…

  9. New balance in pluripotency: reprogramming with lineage specifiers.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Uri; Nissenbaum, Jonathan; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2013-05-23

    Induction of pluripotency in somatic cells has been achieved by myriad combinations of transcription factors that belong to the core pluripotency circuitry. In this issue, Shu et al. report reprogramming with lineage specifiers, lending support to the view of the pluripotent state as a fine balance between competing differentiation forces.

  10. Work-Family Balance and Academic Advancement in Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geri; Schwartz, Alan; Hart, Katherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines various options that a faculty member might exercise to achieve work-family balance in academic medicine and their consequences for academic advancement. Method: Three data sets were analyzed: an anonymous web-administered survey of part-time tenure track-eligible University of Illinois College of Medicine (UI-COM)…

  11. Altiratinib Inhibits Tumor Growth, Invasion, Angiogenesis, and Microenvironment-Mediated Drug Resistance via Balanced Inhibition of MET, TIE2, and VEGFR2.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryan D; Kaufman, Michael D; Leary, Cynthia B; Turner, Benjamin A; Wise, Scott C; Ahn, Yu Mi; Booth, R John; Caldwell, Timothy M; Ensinger, Carol L; Hood, Molly M; Lu, Wei-Ping; Patt, Tristan W; Patt, William C; Rutkoski, Thomas J; Samarakoon, Thiwanka; Telikepalli, Hanumaiah; Vogeti, Lakshminarayana; Vogeti, Subha; Yates, Karen M; Chun, Lawrence; Stewart, Lance J; Clare, Michael; Flynn, Daniel L

    2015-09-01

    Altiratinib (DCC-2701) was designed based on the rationale of engineering a single therapeutic agent able to address multiple hallmarks of cancer (1). Specifically, altiratinib inhibits not only mechanisms of tumor initiation and progression, but also drug resistance mechanisms in the tumor and microenvironment through balanced inhibition of MET, TIE2 (TEK), and VEGFR2 (KDR) kinases. This profile was achieved by optimizing binding into the switch control pocket of all three kinases, inducing type II inactive conformations. Altiratinib durably inhibits MET, both wild-type and mutated forms, in vitro and in vivo. Through its balanced inhibitory potency versus MET, TIE2, and VEGFR2, altiratinib provides an agent that inhibits three major evasive (re)vascularization and resistance pathways (HGF, ANG, and VEGF) and blocks tumor invasion and metastasis. Altiratinib exhibits properties amenable to oral administration and exhibits substantial blood-brain barrier penetration, an attribute of significance for eventual treatment of brain cancers and brain metastases. PMID:26285778

  12. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  13. Mass-based design and optimization of wave rotors for gas turbine engine enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S.; Liu, H.

    2016-04-01

    An analytic method aiming at mass properties was developed for the preliminary design and optimization of wave rotors. In the present method, we introduce the mass balance principle into the design and thus can predict and optimize the mass qualities as well as the performance of wave rotors. A dedicated least-square method with artificial weighting coefficients was developed to solve the over-constrained system in the mass-based design. This method and the adoption of the coefficients were validated by numerical simulation. Moreover, the problem of fresh air exhaustion (FAE) was put forward and analyzed, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated. Parameter analyses and optimization elucidated which designs would not only achieve the best performance, but also operate with minimum EGR and no FAE.

  14. Optimal refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Hovhannisyan, Karen; Mahler, Guenter

    2010-05-01

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two n -level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures Th and Tc , respectively (θ≡Tc/Th<1) . The refrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and vice versa. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two systems. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by ζCA=(1)/(1-θ)-1 (an analog of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency ζC=(1)/(1-θ)-1 . The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit θ→1 . The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for lnn≫1 . If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by ζCA and converges to it for n≫1 .

  15. Optimal control of Atlantic population Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauser, C.E.; Runge, M.C.; Cooch, E.G.; Johnson, F.A.; Harvey, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Management of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) can be a balance between providing sustained harvest opportunity while not allowing populations to become overabundant and cause damage. In this paper, we focus on the Atlantic population of Canada geese and use stochastic dynamic programming to determine the optimal harvest strategy over a range of plausible models for population dynamics. There is evidence to suggest that the population exhibits significant age structure, and it is possible to reconstruct age structure from surveys. Consequently the harvest strategy is a function of the age composition, as well as the abundance, of the population. The objective is to maximize harvest while maintaining the number of breeding adults in the population between specified upper and lower limits. In addition, the total harvest capacity is limited and there is uncertainty about the strength of density-dependence. We find that under a density-independent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at the highest acceptable abundance. However if harvest capacity is limited, then the optimal long-term breeding population size is lower than the highest acceptable level, to reduce the risk of the population growing to an unacceptably large size. Under the proposed density-dependent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at an intermediate level between the bounds on acceptable population size; limits to harvest capacity have little effect on the optimal long-term population size. It is clear that the strength of density-dependence and constraints on harvest significantly affect the optimal harvest strategy for this population. Model discrimination might be achieved in the long term, while continuing to meet management goals, by adopting an adaptive management strategy.

  16. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  17. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  18. Assisting Pupils in Mathematics Achievement (The Common Core Standards)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics teachers must expect reasonably high standards of achievement from pupils. Too frequently, pupils attain at a substandard level and more optimal achievement is necessary. Thus, pupils should have self esteem needs met in the school and classroom setting. Thus, learners feel that mathematics is worthwhile and effort must be put forth to…

  19. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  20. Skylab water balance error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the precision of the net water balance were obtained for the entire Skylab preflight and inflight phases as well as for the first two weeks of flight. Quantitative estimates of both total sampling errors and instrumentation errors were obtained. It was shown that measurement error is minimal in comparison to biological variability and little can be gained from improvement in analytical accuracy. In addition, a propagation of error analysis demonstrated that total water balance error could be accounted for almost entirely by the errors associated with body mass changes. Errors due to interaction between terms in the water balance equation (covariances) represented less than 10% of the total error. Overall, the analysis provides evidence that daily measurements of body water changes obtained from the indirect balance technique are reasonable, precise, and relaible. The method is not biased toward net retention or loss.