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Sample records for achieve optimal balance

  1. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance.

    PubMed

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  2. Achieving the right balance with strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Martin, M

    1998-05-01

    Nurse executives must be involved with their organization's strategic management and marketing process, keep abreast of business trends and shifts, and at the same time find a good balance between nursing and business administration. An overview of the strategic planning models helps managers apply the process to health care, and in particular, nursing administration.

  3. The Balanced Reading Program: Helping All Students Achieve Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair-Larsen, Susan M., Ed.; Williams, Kathryn A., Ed.

    This book explains the methodologies, techniques, strategies, and knowledge base necessary to achieve a balanced reading program. The book's contributors define the key elements in a balanced reading program and provide guidelines for implementing a balanced instructional program in the classroom. Following an introduction which addresses…

  4. Combinatorial optimization methods for disassembly line balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Seamus M.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-12-01

    Disassembly takes place in remanufacturing, recycling, and disposal with a line being the best choice for automation. The disassembly line balancing problem seeks a sequence which: minimizes workstations, ensures similar idle times, and is feasible. Finding the optimal balance is computationally intensive due to factorial growth. Combinatorial optimization methods hold promise for providing solutions to the disassembly line balancing problem, which is proven to belong to the class of NP-complete problems. Ant colony optimization, genetic algorithm, and H-K metaheuristics are presented and compared along with a greedy/hill-climbing heuristic hybrid. A numerical study is performed to illustrate the implementation and compare performance. Conclusions drawn include the consistent generation of optimal or near-optimal solutions, the ability to preserve precedence, the speed of the techniques, and their practicality due to ease of implementation.

  5. Achieving excellence in veterans healthcare--a balanced scorecard approach.

    PubMed

    Biro, Lawrence A; Moreland, Michael E; Cowgill, David E

    2003-01-01

    This article provides healthcare administrators and managers with a framework and model for developing a balanced scorecard and demonstrates the remarkable success of this process, which brings focus to leadership decisions about the allocation of resources. This scorecard was developed as a top management tool designed to structure multiple priorities of a large, complex, integrated healthcare system and to establish benchmarks to measure success in achieving targets for performance in identified areas. Significant benefits and positive results were derived from the implementation of the balanced scorecard, based upon benchmarks considered to be critical success factors. The network's chief executive officer and top leadership team set and articulated the network's primary operating principles: quality and efficiency in the provision of comprehensive healthcare and support services. Under the weighted benchmarks of the balanced scorecard, the facilities in the network were mandated to adhere to one non-negotiable tenet: providing care that is second to none. The balanced scorecard approach to leadership continuously ensures that this is the primary goal and focal point for all activity within the network. To that end, systems are always in place to ensure that the network is fully successful on all performance measures relating to quality.

  6. Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui

    2016-05-01

    Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.

  7. Achieving the Proper Balance Between Crew and Public Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowan, John; Rosati, Paul; Silvestri, Ray; Stahl, Ben; Wilde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. Historical examples and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will be presented. Using these examples as context, the paper will discuss some operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Manned vehicle perspectives from the FAA and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will also be summarized. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  8. Achieving the Proper Balance Between Crew and Public Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowan, John; Silvestri, Ray; Stahl, Ben; Rosati, Paul; Wilde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard, and the design engineers must give these requirements the same consideration as crew safety requirements. For human spaceflight, the primary purpose and operational concept for any flight safety system is to protect the public while maximizing the likelihood of crew survival. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. An overview of existing range and crew safety policy requirements will be presented. Application of these requirements and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will also be discussed. Using these past programs as examples, the paper will detail operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Manned vehicle perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will be summarized as well. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  9. Achieving the Proper Balance between Crew & Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, P.; Gowan, J.; Silvestri, R.; Stahl, B.; Rosati, P.

    2012-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard, and the design engineers must give these requirements the same consideration as crew safety requirements. For human spaceflight, the primary purpose and operational concept for any flight safety system is to protect the public while maximizing the likelihood of crew survival. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. An overview of existing range and crew safety policy requirements will be presented. Application of these requirements and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will also be discussed. Using these past programs as examples, the paper will detail operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Crewed vehicle perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will be summarized as well. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  10. Fuzzy Pool Balance: An algorithm to achieve a two dimensional balance in distribute storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenjing; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    The limitation of scheduling modules and the gradual addition of disk pools in distributed storage systems often result in imbalances among their disk pools in terms of both disk usage and file count. This can cause various problems to the storage system such as single point of failure, low system throughput and imbalanced resource utilization and system loads. An algorithm named Fuzzy Pool Balance (FPB) is proposed here to solve this problem. The input of FPB is the current file distribution among disk pools and the output is a file migration plan indicating what files are to be migrated to which pools. FPB uses an array to classify the files by their sizes. The file classification array is dynamically calculated with a defined threshold named Tmax that defines the allowed pool disk usage deviations. File classification is the basis of file migration. FPB also defines the Immigration Pool (IP) and Emigration Pool (EP) according to the pool disk usage and File Quantity Ratio (FQR) that indicates the percentage of each category of files in each disk pool, so files with higher FQR in an EP will be migrated to IP(s) with a lower FQR of this file category. To verify this algorithm, we implemented FPB on an ATLAS Tier2 dCache production system. The results show that FPB can achieve a very good balance in both free space and file counts, and adjusting the threshold value Tmax and the correction factor to the average FQR can achieve a tradeoff between free space and file count.

  11. PV modules with optimized energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weixlberger, Johann; Bruckner, Richard

    2011-09-01

    The overall energy balance of a solar PV-module across its life time needs a consideration incl. its energy consumption during manufacturing process versus its energy harvesting capabilities during life time. A glass-glass-module based on thin tempered glass on front and backside can dramatically influence this overall balance, since more than 50 % of encapsulation materials manufacturing energy can be saved, followed by a an further impact on frameless mounting of light-weighted modules, reducing mounting costs and enabling simpler BIPV.

  12. Achieving Life Balance: Myths, Realities, and Developmental Perspectives. Information Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Spencer G.; Herr, Edwin L.; Hartung, Paul J.

    The evolving role of work in society and the factors driving emerging trends in work were examined to assist career development practitioners in helping individuals deal with life-role balance. Donald Super's life-space theory was presented as a framework for adult career development and used as a backdrop for discussing how adults can crystallize…

  13. Carbon and nutrient use efficiencies optimally balance stoichiometric imbalances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Čapek, Petr; Lindahl, Björn; Mooshammer, Maria; Richter, Andreas; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2016-04-01

    Decomposer organisms face large stoichiometric imbalances because their food is generally poor in nutrients compared to the decomposer cellular composition. The presence of excess carbon (C) requires adaptations to utilize nutrients effectively while disposing of or investing excess C. As food composition changes, these adaptations lead to variable C- and nutrient-use efficiencies (defined as the ratios of C and nutrients used for growth over the amounts consumed). For organisms to be ecologically competitive, these changes in efficiencies with resource stoichiometry have to balance advantages and disadvantages in an optimal way. We hypothesize that efficiencies are varied so that community growth rate is optimized along stoichiometric gradients of their resources. Building from previous theories, we predict that maximum growth is achieved when C and nutrients are co-limiting, so that the maximum C-use efficiency is reached, and nutrient release is minimized. This optimality principle is expected to be applicable across terrestrial-aquatic borders, to various elements, and at different trophic levels. While the growth rate maximization hypothesis has been evaluated for consumers and predators, in this contribution we test it for terrestrial and aquatic decomposers degrading resources across wide stoichiometry gradients. The optimality hypothesis predicts constant efficiencies at low substrate C:N and C:P, whereas above a stoichiometric threshold, C-use efficiency declines and nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies increase up to one. Thus, high resource C:N and C:P lead to low C-use efficiency, but effective retention of nitrogen and phosphorus. Predictions are broadly consistent with efficiency trends in decomposer communities across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Infomax Strategies for an Optimal Balance Between Exploration and Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Gautam; Celani, Antonio; Vergassola, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Proper balance between exploitation and exploration is what makes good decisions that achieve high reward, like payoff or evolutionary fitness. The Infomax principle postulates that maximization of information directs the function of diverse systems, from living systems to artificial neural networks. While specific applications turn out to be successful, the validity of information as a proxy for reward remains unclear. Here, we consider the multi-armed bandit decision problem, which features arms (slot-machines) of unknown probabilities of success and a player trying to maximize cumulative payoff by choosing the sequence of arms to play. We show that an Infomax strategy (Info-p) which optimally gathers information on the highest probability of success among the arms, saturates known optimal bounds and compares favorably to existing policies. Conversely, gathering information on the identity of the best arm in the bandit leads to a strategy that is vastly suboptimal in terms of payoff. The nature of the quantity selected for Infomax acquisition is then crucial for effective tradeoffs between exploration and exploitation.

  15. Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.; Bader, Jon B.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a candidate math model search algorithm that recommends an optimized regression model for the data analysis. During the calibration the normal force and the moment at the balance moment center were selected as independent calibration variables. The sting balance itself had two moment gages. Therefore, after analyzing the connection between calibration loads and gage outputs, it was decided to choose the difference and the sum of the gage outputs as the two responses that best describe the behavior of the balance. The math model search algorithm was applied to these two responses. An optimized regression model was obtained for each response. Classical strain gage balance load transformations and the equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam under load are used to show that the search algorithm s two optimized regression models are supported by a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the applied calibration loads and the measured gage outputs. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when terms of a regression model of a balance can directly be derived from first principles of physics. In addition, it is interesting to note that the search algorithm recommended the correct regression model term combinations using only a set of statistical quality metrics that were applied to the experimental data during the algorithm s term selection process.

  16. Female family physicians in obstetrics: achieving personal balance.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J C; Brown, J B; Reid, A J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of female family physicians who practise obstetrics in balancing professional obligations with personal and family needs, given the unique challenges that such practice poses for these physicians. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A purposefully selected sample of nine female family physicians who met the criteria of being married, having children and currently practising obstetrics. OUTCOME MEASURES: Experiences of female family physicians and their strategies in their personal, family and professional lives that enable them to continue practising obstetrics. RESULTS: All participants continued to practise obstetrics because of the pleasure they derived from it, despite the challenges of balancing the unpredictable demands of obstetrics with their personal and family needs. To continue in obstetrics, they needed to make changes in their lives, either through a gradual, evolutionary process or in response to a critical event. Alterations to work and family arrangements permitted them to meet the challenges and led to increased satisfaction. Changes included making supportive call-group arrangements, limiting work hours and the number of births attended and securing help with household duties. CONCLUSIONS: An in-depth examination, through the use of qualitative methods, showed the reasons why some female family physicians continue to practise obstetrics despite the stressful aspects of doing so. This knowledge may be useful for women who are residents or experienced clinicians and who are considering including obstetrics in their practice. PMID:7497390

  17. Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert; Bader, Jon B.

    2009-01-01

    Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a search algorithm that identifies an optimized regression model for the data analysis. The selected sting balance had two moment gages that were mounted forward and aft of the balance moment center. The difference and the sum of the two gage outputs were fitted in the least squares sense using the normal force and the pitching moment at the balance moment center as independent variables. The regression model search algorithm predicted that the difference of the gage outputs should be modeled using the intercept and the normal force. The sum of the two gage outputs, on the other hand, should be modeled using the intercept, the pitching moment, and the square of the pitching moment. Equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam are used to show that the search algorithm s two recommended math models can also be obtained after performing a rigorous theoretical analysis of the deflection of the sting balance under load. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when regression models of balance calibration data can directly be derived from first principles of physics and engineering. In addition, it is interesting to see that the search algorithm recommended the same regression models for the data analysis using only a set of statistical quality metrics.

  18. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance

    PubMed Central

    Girdler, Sonya J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women. PMID:27305074

  19. Wage-Earner or Family Member? FCS Students Learn How to Achieve a Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabb, Tamra

    2004-01-01

    Successful business people in all walks of life recognize that achieving a balance between their work lives and their families is critical to their personal happiness. Although the subject is mentioned in textbooks and seminars, very little, if any, time is spent discussing how the young career person will achieve this goal. Fortunately, potential…

  20. GMI Instrument Spin Balance Method, Optimization, Calibration, and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3 year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and CG to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI instrument is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire instrument was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI instrument. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.

  1. GMI Instrument Spin Balance Method, Optimization, Calibration and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3-year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and center of gravity (CG) to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI instrument is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire instrument was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI instrument. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.

  2. Balancing Dreams and Realities: The College Choice Process for High-Achieving Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2015-01-01

    This study's narratives of 17 high-achieving Latinas revealed how their college choice was a constant balancing of individual and family expectations, being "close, but far enough away," and "getting your money's worth." With the use of critical race theory, further analysis revealed the influence of "familismo" on…

  3. Partial inhibition and bilevel optimization in flux balance analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Within Flux Balance Analysis, the investigation of complex subtasks, such as finding the optimal perturbation of the network or finding an optimal combination of drugs, often requires to set up a bilevel optimization problem. In order to keep the linearity and convexity of these nested optimization problems, an ON/OFF description of the effect of the perturbation (i.e. Boolean variable) is normally used. This restriction may not be realistic when one wants, for instance, to describe the partial inhibition of a reaction induced by a drug. Results In this paper we present a formulation of the bilevel optimization which overcomes the oversimplified ON/OFF modeling while preserving the linear nature of the problem. A case study is considered: the search of the best multi-drug treatment which modulates an objective reaction and has the minimal perturbation on the whole network. The drug inhibition is described and modulated through a convex combination of a fixed number of Boolean variables. The results obtained from the application of the algorithm to the core metabolism of E.coli highlight the possibility of finding a broader spectrum of drug combinations compared to a simple ON/OFF modeling. Conclusions The method we have presented is capable of treating partial inhibition inside a bilevel optimization, without loosing the linearity property, and with reasonable computational performances also on large metabolic networks. The more fine-graded representation of the perturbation allows to enlarge the repertoire of synergistic combination of drugs for tasks such as selective perturbation of cellular metabolism. This may encourage the use of the approach also for other cases in which a more realistic modeling is required. PMID:24286232

  4. Redox-optimized ROS balance: a unifying hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Aon, M.A.; Cortassa, S.; O’Rourke, B.

    2010-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance depends on the both rate of single electron reduction of O2 to superoxide (O2.−) by the electron transport chain and the rate of scavenging by intracellular antioxidant pathways, considerable controversy exists regarding the conditions leading to oxidative stress in intact cells versus isolated mitochondria. Here, we postulate that mitochondria have been evolutionarily optimized to maximize energy output while keeping ROS overflow to a minimum by operating in an intermediate redox state. We show that at the extremes of reduction or oxidation of the redox couples involved in electron transport (NADH/NAD+) or ROS scavenging (NADPH/NADP+, GSH/GSSG), respectively, ROS balance is lost. This results in a net overflow of ROS that increases as one moves farther away from the optimal redox potential. At more reduced mitochondrial redox potentials, ROS production exceeds scavenging, while under more oxidizing conditions (e.g., at higher workloads) antioxidant defenses can be compromised and eventually overwhelmed. Experimental support for this hypothesis is provided in both cardiomyocytes and in isolated mitochondria from guinea pig hearts. The model reconciles, within a single framework, observations that isolated mitochondria tend to display increased oxidative stress at high reduction potentials (and high mitochondrial membrane potential, ΔΨm), whereas intact cardiac cells can display oxidative stress either when mitochondria become more uncoupled (i.e., low ΔΨm) or when mitochondria are maximally reduced (as in ischemia or hypoxia). The continuum described by the model has the potential to account for many disparate experimental observations and also provides a rationale for graded physiological ROS signaling at redox potentials near the minimum. PMID:20175987

  5. Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  6. Neurons within the same network independently achieve conserved output by differentially balancing variable conductance magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Ransdell, Joseph L; Nair, Satish S; Schulz, David J

    2013-06-12

    Biological and theoretical evidence suggest that individual neurons may achieve similar outputs by differentially balancing variable underlying ionic conductances. Despite the substantial amount of data consistent with this idea, a direct biological demonstration that cells with conserved output, particularly within the same network, achieve these outputs via different solutions has been difficult to achieve. Here we demonstrate definitively that neurons from native neural networks with highly similar output achieve this conserved output by differentially tuning underlying conductance magnitudes. Multiple motor neurons of the crab (Cancer borealis) cardiac ganglion have highly conserved output within a preparation, despite showing a 2-4-fold range of conductance magnitudes. By blocking subsets of these currents, we demonstrate that the remaining conductances become unbalanced, causing disparate output as a result. Therefore, as strategies to understand neuronal excitability become increasingly sophisticated, it is important that such variability in excitability of neurons, even among those within the same individual, is taken into account.

  7. Optimality of Rate Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarighati, Alla; Jalden, Joakim

    2016-07-01

    We consider the problem of distributed binary hypothesis testing in a parallel network topology where sensors independently observe some phenomenon and send a finite rate summary of their observations to a fusion center for the final decision. We explicitly consider a scenario under which (integer) rate messages are sent over an error free multiple access channel, modeled by a sum rate constraint at the fusion center. This problem was previously studied by Chamberland and Veeravalli, who provided sufficient conditions for the optimality of one bit sensor messages. Their result is however crucially dependent on the feasibility of having as many one bit sensors as the (integer) sum rate constraint of the multiple access channel, an assumption that can often not be satisfied in practice. This prompts us to consider the case of an a-priori limited number of sensors and we provide sufficient condition under which having no two sensors with rate difference more than one bit, so called rate balancing, is an optimal strategy with respect to the Bhattacharyya distance between the hypotheses at the input to the fusion center. We further discuss explicit observation models under which these sufficient conditions are satisfied.

  8. Structural Optimization of a Force Balance Using a Computational Experiment Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. A.; DeLoach, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to force balance structural optimization featuring a computational experiment design. Currently, this multi-dimensional design process requires the designer to perform a simplification by executing parameter studies on a small subset of design variables. This one-factor-at-a-time approach varies a single variable while holding all others at a constant level. Consequently, subtle interactions among the design variables, which can be exploited to achieve the design objectives, are undetected. The proposed method combines Modern Design of Experiments techniques to direct the exploration of the multi-dimensional design space, and a finite element analysis code to generate the experimental data. To efficiently search for an optimum combination of design variables and minimize the computational resources, a sequential design strategy was employed. Experimental results from the optimization of a non-traditional force balance measurement section are presented. An approach to overcome the unique problems associated with the simultaneous optimization of multiple response criteria is described. A quantitative single-point design procedure that reflects the designer's subjective impression of the relative importance of various design objectives, and a graphical multi-response optimization procedure that provides further insights into available tradeoffs among competing design objectives are illustrated. The proposed method enhances the intuition and experience of the designer by providing new perspectives on the relationships between the design variables and the competing design objectives providing a systematic foundation for advancements in structural design.

  9. Translational Geroscience: Emphasizing function to achieve optimal longevity

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Douglas R.; Melov, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Among individuals, biological aging leads to cellular and organismal dysfunction and an increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and disability. This sequence of events in combination with the projected increases in the number of older adults will result in a worldwide healthcare burden with dire consequences. Superimposed on this setting are the adults now reaching traditional retirement ages--the baby boomers--a group that wishes to remain active, productive and physically and cognitively fit as they grow older. Together, these conditions are producing an unprecedented demand for increased healthspan or what might be termed “optimal longevity”—to live long, but well. To meet this demand, investigators with interests in the biological aspects of aging from model organisms to human epidemiology (population aging) must work together within an interactive process that we describe as translational geroscience. An essential goal of this new investigational platform should be the optimization and preservation of physiological function throughout the lifespan, including integrative physical and cognitive function, which would serve to increase healthspan, compress morbidity and disability into a shorter period of late-life, and help achieve optimal longevity. To most effectively utilize this new approach, we must rethink how investigators and administrators working at different levels of the translational research continuum communicate and collaborate with each other, how best to train the next generation of scientists in this new field, and how contemporary biological-biomedical aging research should be organized and funded. PMID:25324468

  10. Optimized Delivery System Achieves Enhanced Endomyocardial Stem Cell Retention

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Atta; Latere, Jean-Pierre; Bartunek, Jozef; Homsy, Christian; Daro, Dorothee; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J.; Stalboerger, Paul G.; Steenwinckel, Valerie; Seron, Aymeric; Redfield, Margaret M.; Terzic, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Background Regenerative cell-based therapies are associated with limited myocardial retention of delivered stem cells. The objective of this study is to develop an endocardial delivery system for enhanced cell retention. Methods and Results Stem cell retention was simulated in silico using one and three-dimensional models of tissue distortion and compliance associated with delivery. Needle designs, predicted to be optimal, were accordingly engineered using nitinol – a nickel and titanium alloy displaying shape memory and super-elasticity. Biocompatibility was tested with human mesenchymal stem cells. Experimental validation was performed with species-matched cells directly delivered into Langendorff-perfused porcine hearts or administered percutaneously into the endocardium of infarcted pigs. Cell retention was quantified by flow cytometry and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Models, computing optimal distribution of distortion calibrated to favor tissue compliance, predicted that a 75°-curved needle featuring small-to-large graded side holes would ensure the highest cell retention profile. In isolated hearts, the nitinol curved needle catheter (C-Cath) design ensured 3-fold superior stem cell retention compared to a standard needle. In the setting of chronic infarction, percutaneous delivery of stem cells with C-Cath yielded a 37.7±7.1% versus 10.0±2.8% retention achieved with a traditional needle, without impact on biocompatibility or safety. Conclusions Modeling guided development of a nitinol-based curved needle delivery system with incremental side holes achieved enhanced myocardial stem cell retention. PMID:24326777

  11. Using tailored methodical approaches to achieve optimal science outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingate, Lory M.

    2016-08-01

    The science community is actively engaged in research, development, and construction of instrumentation projects that they anticipate will lead to new science discoveries. There appears to be very strong link between the quality of the activities used to complete these projects, and having a fully functioning science instrument that will facilitate these investigations.[2] The combination of using internationally recognized standards within the disciplines of project management (PM) and systems engineering (SE) has been demonstrated to lead to achievement of positive net effects and optimal project outcomes. Conversely, unstructured, poorly managed projects will lead to unpredictable, suboptimal project outcomes ultimately affecting the quality of the science that can be done with the new instruments. The proposed application of these two specific methodical approaches, implemented as a tailorable suite of processes, are presented in this paper. Project management (PM) is accepted worldwide as an effective methodology used to control project cost, schedule, and scope. Systems engineering (SE) is an accepted method that is used to ensure that the outcomes of a project match the intent of the stakeholders, or if they diverge, that the changes are understood, captured, and controlled. An appropriate application, or tailoring, of these disciplines can be the foundation upon which success in projects that support science can be optimized.

  12. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  13. A hybrid approach to achieving both marginal and conditional balances for stratification variables in sequential clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunzhi; Su, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Various methods exist in the literature for achieving marginal balance for baseline stratification variables in sequential clinical trials. One major limitation with balancing on the margins of the stratification variables is that there is an efficiency loss when the primary analysis is stratified. To preserve the efficiency of a stratified analysis one recently proposed approach balances on the crossing of the stratification variables included in the analysis, which achieves conditional balance for the variables. A hybrid approach to achieving both marginal and conditional balances in sequential clinical trials is proposed, which is applicable to both continuous and categorical stratification variables. Numerical results based on extensive simulation studies and a real dataset show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing ones and is particularly useful when both additive and stratified models are planned for a trial.

  14. Balancing Online Teaching Activities: Strategies for Optimizing Efficiency and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffo, Deana M.; Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Gardner, Justin G.; Fisher, Lawanna S.

    2015-01-01

    Increased demands in professional expectations have required online faculty to learn how to balance multiple roles in an open-ended, changing, and relatively unstructured job. In this paper, we argue that being strategic about one's balance of the various facets of online teaching will improve one's teaching efficiency and effectiveness. We…

  15. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions

    PubMed Central

    Jung, HoHyun; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Hong, Jaesoo; Lim, Dohyung

    2015-01-01

    Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m2) were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior–posterior, right-diagonal, medial–lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P<0.05). The maximum was greater with anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation than with that in other directions (P<0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of center of body mass deviations from the base of support (P>0.05). These results indicate that optimizing rotation control of the base plate of balance rehabilitation training equipment to induce anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation preferentially can lead to effective balance training. Additional tests with varied speeds and ranges of

  16. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions.

    PubMed

    Jung, HoHyun; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Hong, Jaesoo; Lim, Dohyung

    2015-01-01

    Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m(2)) were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior-posterior, right-diagonal, medial-lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P<0.05). The maximum was greater with anterior-posterior and medial-lateral dynamic rotation than with that in other directions (P<0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of center of body mass deviations from the base of support (P>0.05). These results indicate that optimizing rotation control of the base plate of balance rehabilitation training equipment to induce anterior-posterior and medial-lateral dynamic rotation preferentially can lead to effective balance training. Additional tests with varied speeds and ranges of angles of

  17. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  18. Theory of optimal balance predicts and explains the amplitude and decay time of synaptic inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaekyung K.; Fiorillo, Christopher D.

    2017-03-01

    Synaptic inhibition counterbalances excitation, but it is not known what constitutes optimal inhibition. We previously proposed that perfect balance is achieved when the peak of an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is exactly at spike threshold, so that the slightest variation in excitation determines whether a spike is generated. Using simulations, we show that the optimal inhibitory postsynaptic conductance (IPSG) increases in amplitude and decay rate as synaptic excitation increases from 1 to 800 Hz. As further proposed by theory, we show that optimal IPSG parameters can be learned through anti-Hebbian rules. Finally, we compare our theoretical optima to published experimental data from 21 types of neurons, in which rates of synaptic excitation and IPSG decay times vary by factors of about 100 (5-600 Hz) and 50 (1-50 ms), respectively. From an infinite range of possible decay times, theory predicted experimental decay times within less than a factor of 2. Across a distinct set of 15 types of neuron recorded in vivo, theory predicted the amplitude of synaptic inhibition within a factor of 1.7. Thus, the theory can explain biophysical quantities from first principles.

  19. Theory of optimal balance predicts and explains the amplitude and decay time of synaptic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaekyung K.; Fiorillo, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic inhibition counterbalances excitation, but it is not known what constitutes optimal inhibition. We previously proposed that perfect balance is achieved when the peak of an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is exactly at spike threshold, so that the slightest variation in excitation determines whether a spike is generated. Using simulations, we show that the optimal inhibitory postsynaptic conductance (IPSG) increases in amplitude and decay rate as synaptic excitation increases from 1 to 800 Hz. As further proposed by theory, we show that optimal IPSG parameters can be learned through anti-Hebbian rules. Finally, we compare our theoretical optima to published experimental data from 21 types of neurons, in which rates of synaptic excitation and IPSG decay times vary by factors of about 100 (5–600 Hz) and 50 (1–50 ms), respectively. From an infinite range of possible decay times, theory predicted experimental decay times within less than a factor of 2. Across a distinct set of 15 types of neuron recorded in vivo, theory predicted the amplitude of synaptic inhibition within a factor of 1.7. Thus, the theory can explain biophysical quantities from first principles. PMID:28281523

  20. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  1. Growth-defense tradeoffs in plants: a balancing act to optimize fitness.

    PubMed

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-08-01

    Growth-defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth-defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth-defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth-defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands.

  2. Growth–Defense Tradeoffs in Plants: A Balancing Act to Optimize Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L.; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Growth–defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth–defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth–defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth–defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands. PMID:24777989

  3. Robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing using particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund Nilakantan, J.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    Automation in an assembly line can be achieved using robots. In robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing (RUALB), robots are assigned to workstations to perform the assembly tasks on a U-shaped assembly line. The robots are expected to perform multiple tasks, because of their capabilities. U-shaped assembly line problems are derived from traditional assembly line problems and are relatively new. Tasks are assigned to the workstations when either all of their predecessors or all of their successors have already been assigned to workstations. The objective function considered in this article is to maximize the cycle time of the assembly line, which in turn helps to maximize the production rate of the assembly line. RUALB aims at the optimal assignment of tasks to the workstations and selection of the best fit robot to the workstations in a manner such that the cycle time is minimized. To solve this problem, a particle swarm optimization algorithm embedded with a heuristic allocation (consecutive) procedure is proposed. The consecutive heuristic is used to allocate the tasks to the workstation and to assign a best fit robot to that workstation. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a wide variety of data sets. The results indicate that robotic U-shaped assembly lines perform better than robotic straight assembly lines in terms of cycle time.

  4. Multidisciplinary optimization for engineering systems: Achievements and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1989-01-01

    The currently common sequential design process for engineering systems is likely to lead to suboptimal designs. Recently developed decomposition methods offer an alternative for coming closer to optimum by breaking the large task of system optimization into smaller, concurrently executed and, yet, coupled tasks, identified with engineering disciplines or subsystems. The hierarchic and non-hierarchic decompositions are discussed and illustrated by examples. An organization of a design process centered on the non-hierarchic decomposition is proposed.

  5. Aircraft optimization by a system approach: Achievements and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1992-01-01

    Recently emerging methodology for optimal design of aircraft treated as a system of interacting physical phenomena and parts is examined. The methodology is found to coalesce into methods for hierarchic, non-hierarchic, and hybrid systems all dependent on sensitivity analysis. A separate category of methods has also evolved independent of sensitivity analysis, hence suitable for discrete problems. References and numerical applications are cited. Massively parallel computer processing is seen as enabling technology for practical implementation of the methodology.

  6. Achieving Optimal Privacy in Trust-Aware Social Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail

    Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.

  7. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure.

    PubMed

    Bernal, José Antonio; Quilis, Neus; Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Pascual, Eliseo

    2016-03-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention. To ensure treatment adherence it is necessary to explain to the patient what the objectives are.

  8. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, José Antonio; Quilis, Neus; Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Pascual, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention. To ensure treatment adherence it is necessary to explain to the patient what the objectives are. PMID:26977282

  9. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chopra, Neetu; So, Franky; Sapochak, Linda S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2009-08-27

    operating voltages, particularly if this is to be achieved in a device that can be manufactured at low cost. To avoid the efficiency losses associated with phosphorescence quenching by back-energy transfer from the dopant onto the host, the triplet excited states of the host material must be higher in energy than the triplet excited state of the dopant.5 This must be accomplished without sacrificing the charge transporting properties of the composite.6 Similar problems limit the efficiency of OLED-based displays, where blue light emitters are the least efficient and least stable. We previously demonstrated the utility of organic phosphine oxide (PO) materials as electron transporting HMs for FIrpic in blue OLEDs.7 However, the high reluctance of PO materials to oxidation and thus, hole injection limits the ability to balance charge injection and transport in the EML without relying on charge transport by the phosphorescent dopant. PO host materials were engineered to transport both electrons and holes in the EML and still maintain high triplet exciton energy to ensure efficient energy transfer to the dopant (Figure 1). There are examples of combining hole transporting moieties (mainly aromatic amines) with electron transport moieties (e.g., oxadiazoles, triazines, boranes)8 to develop new emitter and host materials for small molecule and polymer9 OLEDs. The challenge is to combine the two moieties without lowering the triplet energy of the target molecule. For example, coupling of a dimesitylphenylboryl moiety with a tertiary aromatic amine (FIAMBOT) results in intramolecular electron transfer from the amine to the boron atom through the bridging phenyl. The mesomeric effect of the dimesitylphenylboryl unit acts to extend conjugation and lowers triplet exciton energies (< 2.8 eV) rendering such systems inadequate as ambipolar hosts for blue phosphors.

  10. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  11. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  12. Technical and economical optimization of a full-scale poultry manure treatment process: total ammonia nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Alejo-Alvarez, Luz; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

    2016-11-01

    A full-scale process for the treatment of 80 tons per day of poultry manure was designed and optimized. A total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) balance was performed at steady state, considering the stoichiometry and the kinetic data from the anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic ammonia oxidation. The equipment, reactor design, investment costs, and operational costs were considered. The volume and cost objective functions optimized the process in terms of three variables: the water recycle ratio, the protein conversion during AD, and the TAN conversion in the process. The processes were compared with and without water recycle; savings of 70% and 43% in the annual fresh water consumption and the heating costs, respectively, were achieved. The optimal process complies with the Chilean environmental legislation limit of 0.05 g total nitrogen/L.

  13. Balancing out dwelling and moving: optimal sensorimotor synchronization.

    PubMed

    Cos, Ignasi; Girard, Benoît; Guigon, Emmanuel

    2015-07-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization is a fundamental skill involved in the performance of many artistic activities (e.g., music, dance). After a century of research, the manner in which the nervous system produces synchronized movements remains poorly understood. Typical rhythmic movements involve a motion and a motionless phase (dwell). The dwell phase represents a sizable fraction of the rhythm period, and scales with it. The rationale for this organization remains unexplained and is the object of this study. Twelve participants, four drummers (D) and eight nondrummers (ND), performed tapping movements paced at 0.5-2.5 Hz by a metronome. The participants organized their tapping behavior into dwell and movement phases according to two strategies: 1) Eight participants (1 D, 7 ND) maintained an almost constant ratio of movement time (MT) and dwell time (DT) irrespective of the metronome period. 2) Four participants increased the proportion of DT as the period increased. The temporal variabilities of both the dwell and movement phases were consistent with Weber's law, i.e., their variability increased with their durations, and the longest phase always exhibited the smallest variability. We developed an optimal statistical model that formalized the distribution of time into dwell and movement intervals as a function of their temporal variability. The model accurately predicted the participants' dwell and movement durations irrespective of their strategy and musical skill, strongly suggesting that the distribution of DT and MT results from an optimization process, dependent on each participant's skill to predict time during rest and movement.

  14. Magnetostrophic balance as the optimal state for turbulent magnetoconvection

    PubMed Central

    King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent convection in the vast oceans of liquid metal within them. Although direct observation is not possible, this liquid metal circulation is thought to be dominated by the controlling influences of planetary rotation and magnetic fields through the Coriolis and Lorentz forces. Theory famously predicts that planetary dynamo systems naturally settle into the so-called magnetostrophic state, where the Coriolis and Lorentz forces partially cancel, and convection is optimally efficient. Although this magnetostrophic theory correctly predicts the strength of Earth’s magnetic field, no laboratory experiments have reached the magnetostrophic regime in turbulent liquid metal convection. Furthermore, computational dynamo simulations have as yet failed to produce a magnetostrophic dynamo, which has led some to question the existence of the magnetostrophic state. Here, we present results from the first, to our knowledge, turbulent, magnetostrophic convection experiments using the liquid metal gallium. We find that turbulent convection in the magnetostrophic regime is, in fact, maximally efficient. The experimental results clarify these previously disparate results, suggesting that the dynamically optimal magnetostrophic state is the natural expression of turbulent planetary dynamo systems. PMID:25583512

  15. Magnetostrophic balance as the optimal state for turbulent magnetoconvection.

    PubMed

    King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M

    2015-01-27

    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent convection in the vast oceans of liquid metal within them. Although direct observation is not possible, this liquid metal circulation is thought to be dominated by the controlling influences of planetary rotation and magnetic fields through the Coriolis and Lorentz forces. Theory famously predicts that planetary dynamo systems naturally settle into the so-called magnetostrophic state, where the Coriolis and Lorentz forces partially cancel, and convection is optimally efficient. Although this magnetostrophic theory correctly predicts the strength of Earth's magnetic field, no laboratory experiments have reached the magnetostrophic regime in turbulent liquid metal convection. Furthermore, computational dynamo simulations have as yet failed to produce a magnetostrophic dynamo, which has led some to question the existence of the magnetostrophic state. Here, we present results from the first, to our knowledge, turbulent, magnetostrophic convection experiments using the liquid metal gallium. We find that turbulent convection in the magnetostrophic regime is, in fact, maximally efficient. The experimental results clarify these previously disparate results, suggesting that the dynamically optimal magnetostrophic state is the natural expression of turbulent planetary dynamo systems.

  16. Achieving Accurate Ligament Balancing Using Robotic-Assisted Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Plate, Johannes F.; Mofidi, Ali; Mannava, Sandeep; Smith, Beth P.; Lang, Jason E.; Poehling, Gary G.; Conditt, Michael A.; Jinnah, Riyaz H.

    2013-01-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) allows replacement of a single compartment in patients with limited disease. However, UKA is technically challenging and relies on accurate component positioning and restoration of natural knee kinematics. This study examined the accuracy of dynamic, real-time ligament balancing using a robotic-assisted UKA system. Surgical data obtained from the computer system were prospectively collected from 51 patients (52 knees) undergoing robotic-assisted medial UKA by a single surgeon. Dynamic ligament balancing of the knee was obtained under valgus stress prior to component implantation and then compared to final ligament balance with the components in place. Ligament balancing was accurate up to 0.53 mm compared to the preoperative plan, with 83% of cases within 1 mm at 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 110° of flexion. Ligamentous laxity of 1.31 ± 0.13 mm at 30° of flexion was corrected successfully to 0.78 ± 0.17 mm (P < 0.05). Robotic-assisted UKA allows accurate and precise reproduction of a surgical balance plan using dynamic, real-time soft-tissue balancing to help restore natural knee kinematics, potentially improving implant survival and functional outcomes. PMID:23634304

  17. Standardization and optimization of CT protocols to achieve low dose.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sigal; Pearson, Gregory D N; Chin, Cynthia; Cody, Dianna D; Gupta, Rajiv; Hess, Christopher P; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Kofler, James M; Krishnam, Mayil S; Einstein, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    The increase in radiation exposure due to CT scans has been of growing concern in recent years. CT scanners differ in their capabilities, and various indications require unique protocols, but there remains room for standardization and optimization. In this paper, the authors summarize approaches to reduce dose, as discussed in lectures constituting the first session of the 2013 UCSF Virtual Symposium on Radiation Safety and Computed Tomography. The experience of scanning at low dose in different body regions, for both diagnostic and interventional CT procedures, is addressed. An essential primary step is justifying the medical need for each scan. General guiding principles for reducing dose include tailoring a scan to a patient, minimizing scan length, use of tube current modulation and minimizing tube current, minimizing tube potential, iterative reconstruction, and periodic review of CT studies. Organized efforts for standardization have been spearheaded by professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Finally, all team members should demonstrate an awareness of the importance of minimizing dose.

  18. Optimal balance of the striatal medium spiny neuron network.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Adam; Wickens, Jeffery R

    2013-04-01

    Slowly varying activity in the striatum, the main Basal Ganglia input structure, is important for the learning and execution of movement sequences. Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) form cell assemblies whose population firing rates vary coherently on slow behaviourally relevant timescales. It has been shown that such activity emerges in a model of a local MSN network but only at realistic connectivities of 10 ~ 20% and only when MSN generated inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (IPSPs) are realistically sized. Here we suggest a reason for this. We investigate how MSN network generated population activity interacts with temporally varying cortical driving activity, as would occur in a behavioural task. We find that at unrealistically high connectivity a stable winners-take-all type regime is found where network activity separates into fixed stimulus dependent regularly firing and quiescent components. In this regime only a small number of population firing rate components interact with cortical stimulus variations. Around 15% connectivity a transition to a more dynamically active regime occurs where all cells constantly switch between activity and quiescence. In this low connectivity regime, MSN population components wander randomly and here too are independent of variations in cortical driving. Only in the transition regime do weak changes in cortical driving interact with many population components so that sequential cell assemblies are reproducibly activated for many hundreds of milliseconds after stimulus onset and peri-stimulus time histograms display strong stimulus and temporal specificity. We show that, remarkably, this activity is maximized at striatally realistic connectivities and IPSP sizes. Thus, we suggest the local MSN network has optimal characteristics - it is neither too stable to respond in a dynamically complex temporally extended way to cortical variations, nor is it too unstable to respond in a consistent repeatable way. Rather, it is

  19. A dynamic ant colony optimization for load balancing in MRN/MLN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Le; Huang, Shanguo; Gu, Wanyi

    2011-12-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a popular research field these years. Ants choose paths where pheromone concentration is higher and modify the environment they visited. However, in the context of multi-service in multi-level and multi-domain optical network, the capacity of inter-domain links is limited. Congestion may be occurred at inter-domain links. In this paper, ant colony optimization algorithm based on load balancing is proposed. Ants follow paths not just depend on pheromone alone, we also take available resources on the link as a factor too. Simulations show the proposed method could reduce the traffic blocking probability, and realize load balancing within the network.

  20. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  1. Trade balance instability and the optimal exchange rate regime: The case of OPEC countries

    SciTech Connect

    Aljerrah, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The OPEC members have experienced wide fluctuations in their trade balances. This can be attributed to several factors: (1) heavy dependence of national income and export earnings on a single primary export-oil; (2) instability of price and world demand for oil; and (3) the exchange rate regime practiced in recent years. An exchange rate policy can be used to minimize the fluctuations in trade balance, given the changes in exchange rates of major international currencies. The purpose of this study is two fold; first, examine the effects of fluctuations in trade balance on the OPEC economies, and second, propose appropriate exchange rate regime for selected OPEC members. The study is divided into two parts. The first part demonstrates the impact of trade balance changes on national income and other macroeconomic variables using a Keynesian framework. The second part involves using conventional trade models to search for the appropriate exchange rate regime to minimize the fluctuations in trade balance of each selective country. The study's findings are: first, fluctuations in trade balances had negative effects on the economics of Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Second, the current exchange rate regime of no sample country is optimal in minimizing trade balance fluctuations. Third, in contrast to expectations, U.S. dollar peg did not stabilize the trade balance of any OPEC member. Finally, the results show that the sample OPEC economies could have enjoyed faster - though with different degree - economic growth if they had pegged their currencies to the derived optimal exchange rate regime. These optimal exchange rate regimes are: the SDR for Algeria and the United Arab Emirates, the purchasing power parity for Libya and Saudi Arabia, and the real Yen for Kuwait.

  2. Optimization of Stimulus Characteristics for Vestibular Stochastic Resonance to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Acock, Keena; DeDios, Yiri E.; Heap, Erin; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Recent studies have shown that applying imperceptible stochastic noise electrical stimulation to the vestibular system significantly improved balance and ocular motor responses. The goal of this study was to optimize the amplitude of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standardized balance task of standing on a block of 10-cm-thick medium-density foam with their eyes closed. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block and using inertial motion sensors placed on the torso and head segments. Stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system through electrodes placed over the mastoid process. Subjects were tested at seven amplitudes in the 0.01-30Hz frequency range. The root mean square of the signal increased by 30 microamperes for each +/-100 microampere increment in the current range of 0 - +/-700 microampere. Six balance parameters were calculated to characterize the performance of subjects during the baseline and the stimulus periods for all seven amplitudes. Optimal stimulus amplitude was determined as the one at which the ratio of parameters from the stimulus period to the baseline period for any amplitude range was less than that for the no stimulus condition on a minimum of four of six parameters. Results from this study showed that balance performance at the optimal stimulus amplitude showed significant improvement with the application of the vestibular SR stimulation. The amplitude of optimal stimulus for improving balance performance in normal subjects was in the range of +/-100 - +/-300 microamps.

  3. Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Personalized, online homework was used to supplement textbook homework, quizzes, and exams for one section of a course in material and energy balances. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that students using personalized, online homework earned better grades in the course. The online homework system asks the same questions of…

  4. Reaction null-space filter: extracting reactionless synergies for optimal postural balance from motion capture data.

    PubMed

    Nenchev, D N; Miyamoto, Y; Iribe, H; Takeuchi, K; Sato, D

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of a reactionless synergy: a postural variation for a specific motion pattern/strategy, whereby the movements of the segments do not alter the force/moment balance at the feet. Given an optimal initial posture in terms of stability, a reactionless synergy can ensure optimality throughout the entire movement. Reactionless synergies are derived via a dynamical model wherein the feet are regarded to be unfixed. Though in contrast with the conventional fixed-feet models, this approach has the advantage of exhibiting the reactions at the feet explicitly. The dynamical model also facilitates a joint-space decomposition scheme yielding two motion components: the reactionless synergy and an orthogonal complement responsible for the dynamical coupling between the feet and the support. Since the reactionless synergy provides the basis (a feedforward control component) for optimal balance control, it may play an important role when evaluating balance abnormalities or when assessing optimality in balance control. We show how to apply the proposed method for analysis of motion capture data obtained from three voluntary movement patterns in the sagittal plane: squat, sway, and forward bend.

  5. Knowledge Visualizations: A Tool to Achieve Optimized Operational Decision Making and Data Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    and pedigree possess additive implications toward the quality of the data utilized within the DSS. F. SUMMARY Decision - making theories such as...VISUALIZATIONS: A TOOL TO ACHIEVE OPTIMIZED OPERATIONAL DECISION MAKING AND DATA INTEGRATION by Paul C. Hudson Jeffrey A. Rzasa June 2015 Thesis...TOOL TO ACHIEVE OPTIMIZED OPERATIONAL DECISION MAKING AND DATA INTEGRATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Paul C. Hudson, and Jeffrey A. Rzasa

  6. Development of a Pattern Recognition Methodology for Determining Operationally Optimal Heat Balance Instrumentation Calibration Schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Beran; John Christenson; Dragos Nica; Kenny Gross

    2002-12-15

    The goal of the project is to enable plant operators to detect with high sensitivity and reliability the onset of decalibration drifts in all of the instrumentation used as input to the reactor heat balance calculations. To achieve this objective, the collaborators developed and implemented at DBNPS an extension of the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) pattern recognition methodology pioneered by ANAL. The extension was implemented during the second phase of the project and fully achieved the project goal.

  7. Robust Constrained Optimization Approach to Control Design for International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Auto Balancing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postma, Barry Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This thesis discusses application of a robust constrained optimization approach to control design to develop an Auto Balancing Controller (ABC) for a centrifuge rotor to be implemented on the International Space Station. The design goal is to minimize a performance objective of the system, while guaranteeing stability and proper performance for a range of uncertain plants. The Performance objective is to minimize the translational response of the centrifuge rotor due to a fixed worst-case rotor imbalance. The robustness constraints are posed with respect to parametric uncertainty in the plant. The proposed approach to control design allows for both of these objectives to be handled within the framework of constrained optimization. The resulting controller achieves acceptable performance and robustness characteristics.

  8. A self-optimizing scheme for energy balanced routing in Wireless Sensor Networks using SensorAnt.

    PubMed

    Shamsan Saleh, Ahmed M; Ali, Borhanuddin Mohd; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A; Ismail, Alyani

    2012-01-01

    Planning of energy-efficient protocols is critical for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) because of the constraints on the sensor nodes' energy. The routing protocol should be able to provide uniform power dissipation during transmission to the sink node. In this paper, we present a self-optimization scheme for WSNs which is able to utilize and optimize the sensor nodes' resources, especially the batteries, to achieve balanced energy consumption across all sensor nodes. This method is based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) metaheuristic which is adopted to enhance the paths with the best quality function. The assessment of this function depends on multi-criteria metrics such as the minimum residual battery power, hop count and average energy of both route and network. This method also distributes the traffic load of sensor nodes throughout the WSN leading to reduced energy usage, extended network life time and reduced packet loss. Simulation results show that our scheme performs much better than the Energy Efficient Ant-Based Routing (EEABR) in terms of energy consumption, balancing and efficiency.

  9. The Effects of Academic Optimism on Student Academic Achievement in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevel, Raymona King

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the effects of academic optimism on student academic achievement through measuring the individual and collective effects of academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in clients. Data for this study were obtained from the School Academic Optimism Scale and the reading section of the…

  10. Collective Responsibility, Academic Optimism, and Student Achievement in Taiwan Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that collective efficacy, faculty trust in students and parents, and academic emphasis together formed a single latent school construct, called academic optimism. In the U.S., academic optimism has been proven to be a powerful construct that could effectively predict student achievement even after controlling for…

  11. Optimization of water balance within the martian crew life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, V.; Levinskikh, M.

    The present-day scenarios of the first exploration mission differ in the total length crew size period of the stay on Mars etc However no matter the scenario one of the common problems is optimization of water balance within the crew life support system Water balance optimization implies in addition to regeneration of atmospheric moisture and urine also dehydration of biowastes In this mission all wastes will be stored and for this reason safe storage is prerequisite Investigations of two-component laboratory BLSS in which the autotrophic component was composed of algae Spirulina platensis and the heterotrophic component was represented by Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica dom showed that optimization of the autotrophic and heterotrophic gas exchange and water regeneration from quail biowastes could raise the system susbstance balance to 76 of the total balance during autonomic cultivation of algae and birds In these investigations dehydration of quail biowastes caused significant pollution of water and air by organics toxic for humans It was demonstrated that the sorption technologies applied on the Russian space station MIR and ISS cannot fully absorb organic contaminants released in the process of quail wastes drying Algal suspension as a hydrobiological filter was able to control the organic pollination of both air and water These results are in agreement with the data of ground-based simulation studies with participation of human subjects at IBMP According to the simulation data intensive

  12. New mechanisms that regulate Saccharomyces cerevisiae short peptide transporter achieve balanced intracellular amino acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Melnykov, Artem V

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to take up large quantities of amino acids in the form of di- and tripeptides via a short peptide transporter, Ptr2p. It is known that PTR2 can be induced by certain peptides and amino acids, and the mechanisms governing this upregulation are understood at the molecular level. We describe two new opposing mechanisms of regulation that emphasize potential toxicity of amino acids: the first is upregulation of PTR2 in a population of cells, caused by amino acid secretion that accompanies peptide uptake; the second is loss of Ptr2p activity, due to transporter internalization following peptide uptake. Our findings emphasize the importance of proper amino acid balance in the cell and extend understanding of peptide import regulation in yeast.

  13. Parental Behavioural Control and Academic Achievement: Striking the Balance between Control and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Karen Z.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal US dataset (N = 6,134) we examine the relationship between parental behavioural control and academic achievement and explore the moderating role of parental involvement and parental warmth. Analyses using multiple hierarchical regression with clustering controls shows that parental behavioural control is negatively associated…

  14. Spectral optimization for measuring electron density by the dual-energy computed tomography coupled with balanced filter method.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2009-08-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has the potential for measuring electron density distribution in a human body to predict the range of particle beams for treatment planning in proton or heavy-ion radiotherapy. However, thus far, a practical dual-energy method that can be used to precisely determine electron density for treatment planning in particle radiotherapy has not been developed. In this article, another DECT technique involving a balanced filter method using a conventional x-ray tube is described. For the spectral optimization of DECT using balanced filters, the author calculates beam-hardening error and air kerma required to achieve a desired noise level in electron density and effective atomic number images of a cylindrical water phantom with 50 cm diameter. The calculation enables the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage, balanced filter material, and its thickness. The optimized parameters were applied to cases with different phantom diameters ranging from 5 to 50 cm for the calculations. The author predicts that the optimal combination of tube voltages would be 80 and 140 kV with Tb/Hf and Bi/Mo filter pairs for the 50-cm-diameter water phantom. When a single phantom calibration at a diameter of 25 cm was employed to cover all phantom sizes, maximum absolute beam-hardening errors were 0.3% and 0.03% for electron density and effective atomic number, respectively, over a range of diameters of the water phantom. The beam-hardening errors were 1/10 or less as compared to those obtained by conventional DECT, although the dose was twice that of the conventional DECT case. From the viewpoint of beam hardening and the tube-loading efficiency, the present DECT using balanced filters would be significantly more effective in measuring the electron density than the conventional DECT. Nevertheless, further developments of low-exposure imaging technology should be necessary as well as x-ray tubes with higher outputs to apply DECT coupled with the

  15. High direct drive illumination uniformity achieved by multi-parameter optimization approach: a case study of Shenguang III laser facility.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Liu, Dongxiao; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Weiwu; Zhang, Baohan; Gu, Yuqiu

    2015-05-04

    The uniformity of the compression driver is of fundamental importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In this paper, the illumination uniformity on a spherical capsule during the initial imprinting phase directly driven by laser beams has been considered. We aim to explore methods to achieve high direct drive illumination uniformity on laser facilities designed for indirect drive ICF. There are many parameters that would affect the irradiation uniformity, such as Polar Direct Drive displacement quantity, capsule radius, laser spot size and intensity distribution within a laser beam. A novel approach to reduce the root mean square illumination non-uniformity based on multi-parameter optimizing approach (particle swarm optimization) is proposed, which enables us to obtain a set of optimal parameters over a large parameter space. Finally, this method is applied to improve the direct drive illumination uniformity provided by Shenguang III laser facility and the illumination non-uniformity is reduced from 5.62% to 0.23% for perfectly balanced beams. Moreover, beam errors (power imbalance and pointing error) are taken into account to provide a more practical solution and results show that this multi-parameter optimization approach is effective.

  16. Optimal Balance Between Force and Velocity Differs Among World-Class Athletes.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Caroline; Rabita, Giuseppe; Chollet, Didier; Guilhem, Gaël

    2016-02-01

    Performance during human movements is highly related to force and velocity muscle capacities. Those capacities are highly developed in elite athletes practicing power-oriented sports. However, it is still unclear whether the balance between their force and velocity-generating capacities constitutes an optimal profile. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of elite sport background on the force-velocity relationship in the squat jump, and evaluate the level of optimization of these profiles. Ninety-five elite athletes in cycling, fencing, taekwondo, and athletic sprinting, and 15 control participants performed squat jumps in 7 loading conditions (range: 0%-60% of the maximal load they were able to lift). Theoretical maximal power (Pm), force (F0), and velocity (v0) were determined from the individual force-velocity relationships. Optimal profiles were assessed by calculating the optimal force (F0th) and velocity (v0th). Athletic sprinters and cyclists produced greater force than the other groups (P < .05). F0 was significantly lower than F0th, and v0 was significantly higher than v0th for female fencers and control participants, and for male athletics sprinters, fencers, and taekwondo practitioners (P < .05). Our study shows that the chronic practice of an activity leads to differently balanced force-velocity profiles. Moreover, the differences between measured and optimal force-velocity profiles raise potential sources of performance improvement in elite athletes.

  17. Optimal mixing rate in linear solvent strength gradient liquid chromatography. Balanced mixing program.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Leonid M; Desmet, Gert

    2016-12-09

    The mixing rate (Rϕ) is the temporal rate of increase in the solvent strength in gradient LC. The optimal Rϕ (Rϕ,Opt) is the one at which a required peak capacity of gradient LC analysis is obtained in the shortest time. The balanced mixing program is a one where, for better separation of early eluting solutes, the mixing ramp is preceded by a balanced isocratic hold of the duration depending on Rϕ. The improvement in the separation of the earlier eluites due to the balanced programming has been evaluated. The value of Rϕ,Opt depends on the solvent composition range covered by the mixing ramp and on the column pressure conditions. The Rϕ,Opt for a column operating at maximum instrumental pressure is different from Rϕ,Opt for a column operating below the instrumental pressure limit. On the other hand, it has been shown that the difference in the Rϕ,Opt values under different conditions is not very large so that a single default Rϕ previously recommended for gradient analyses without the isocratic hold also yields a good approximation to the shortest analysis time for all conditions in the balanced analyses. With or without the initial balance isocratic hold, the recommended default Rϕ is about 5%/t0 (5% increase in the solvent strength per each t0-long increment in time) for small-molecule samples, and about an order of magnitude slower (0.5%/t0) for protein samples. A discussion illustrating the use of the optimization criteria employed here for the techniques other than LSS gradient LC is included.

  18. Differential Bees Flux Balance Analysis with OptKnock for In Silico Microbial Strains Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Choon, Yee Wen; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Deris, Safaai; Illias, Rosli Md.; Chong, Chuii Khim; Chai, Lian En; Omatu, Sigeru; Corchado, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Microbial strains optimization for the overproduction of desired phenotype has been a popular topic in recent years. The strains can be optimized through several techniques in the field of genetic engineering. Gene knockout is a genetic engineering technique that can engineer the metabolism of microbial cells with the objective to obtain desirable phenotypes. However, the complexities of the metabolic networks have made the process to identify the effects of genetic modification on the desirable phenotypes challenging. Furthermore, a vast number of reactions in cellular metabolism often lead to the combinatorial problem in obtaining optimal gene deletion strategy. Basically, the size of a genome-scale metabolic model is usually large. As the size of the problem increases, the computation time increases exponentially. In this paper, we propose Differential Bees Flux Balance Analysis (DBFBA) with OptKnock to identify optimal gene knockout strategies for maximizing the production yield of desired phenotypes while sustaining the growth rate. This proposed method functions by improving the performance of a hybrid of Bees Algorithm and Flux Balance Analysis (BAFBA) by hybridizing Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm into neighborhood searching strategy of BAFBA. In addition, DBFBA is integrated with OptKnock to validate the results for improving the reliability the work. Through several experiments conducted on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Clostridium thermocellum as the model organisms, DBFBA has shown a better performance in terms of computational time, stability, growth rate, and production yield of desired phenotypes compared to the methods used in previous works. PMID:25047076

  19. Curriculum reform and choice of science: Consequences for balanced and equitable participation and achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Léonie J.; Parker, Lesley H.

    In 1988, most schools in Western Australia adopted a Unit Curriculum structure in the first three years of high school, following piloting of the scheme in seven schools in 1987. The goais of the Unit Curriculum are stated to be excellence, equity, and relevance, and one of its key features is the increased flexibility students have in making their subject selection. This article reviews the science enrollment and achievement patterns of males and females studying in the pilot schools in 1987, and for the first three years of the operation of the Unit Curriculum in 1988, 1989, and 1990. The data indicate that lowering the age for subject choice is associated with a reduction in the amount of science studies, especially by females, and with the early manifestation of sex-stereotyped subject selection. It appears that if early sex stereotyping is to be avoided, then students need to be provided with more structure in their selection of units. This article emphasizes the need for all involved in system-wide curriculum change to be fully informed of the potential benefits and dangers of curriculum models which allow wide flexibility, especially where curriculum change affects students' choice point.

  20. A question of balance: achieving appropriate nutrient levels in biofortified staple crops.

    PubMed

    Sanahuja, Georgina; Farré, Gemma; Berman, Judit; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2013-12-01

    The biofortification of staple crops with vitamins is an attractive strategy to increase the nutritional quality of human food, particularly in areas where the population subsists on a cereal-based diet. Unlike other approaches, biofortification is sustainable and does not require anything more than a standard food-distribution infrastructure. The health-promoting effects of vitamins depend on overall intake and bioavailability, the latter influenced by food processing, absorption efficiency and the utilisation or retention of the vitamin in the body. The bioavailability of vitamins in nutritionally enriched foods should ideally be adjusted to achieve the dietary reference intake in a reasonable portion. Current vitamin biofortification programmes focus on the fat-soluble vitamins A and E, and the water-soluble vitamins C and B9 (folate), but the control of dosage and bioavailability has been largely overlooked. In the present review, we discuss the vitamin content of nutritionally enhanced foods developed by conventional breeding and genetic engineering, focusing on dosage and bioavailability. Although the biofortification of staple crops could potentially address micronutrient deficiency on a global scale, further research is required to develop effective strategies that match the bioavailability of vitamins to the requirements of the human diet.

  1. Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Method to Improve Balance Function: Optimization of Stimulus Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input through the proprioceptive, visual, or vestibular sensory systems has been shown to improve motor function. Specifically, studies have shown that that vestibular electrical stimulation by imperceptible stochastic noise, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standardized balance task of standing on a block of 10 cm thick medium density foam with their eyes closed for a total of 40 seconds. Stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears during the last 20 seconds of the test period. A custom built constant current stimulator with subject isolation delivered the stimulus. Stimulation signals were generated with frequencies in the bandwidth of 1-2 Hz and 0.01-30 Hz. Amplitude of the signals were varied in the range of 0- +/-700 micro amperes with the RMS of the signal increased by 30 micro amperes for each 100 micro amperes increase in the current range. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block and inertial motion sensors placed on the torso and head segments. Preliminary results indicate that balance performance is improved in the range of 10-25% compared to no stimulation conditions. Subjects improved their performance consistently across the blocks of stimulation. Further the signal amplitude at which the performance was maximized was different in the two frequency ranges. Optimization of the frequency and

  2. Determine Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J.J.; Mulavara, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface [1]. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training applications customized to each crewmember. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds [2]. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s long sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. Comparison of threshold of motion detection obtained from joystick data versus body sway suggests that perceptual thresholds were significantly lower. In the balance task, subjects stood on an unstable surface and had to maintain balance

  3. ePathOptimize: A Combinatorial Approach for Transcriptional Balancing of Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J. Andrew; Vernacchio, Victoria R.; Lachance, Daniel M.; Lebovich, Matthew; Fu, Li; Shirke, Abhijit N.; Schultz, Victor L.; Cress, Brady; Linhardt, Robert J.; Koffas, Mattheos A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to fine tune gene expression has created the field of metabolic pathway optimization and balancing where a variety of factors affecting flux balance are carefully modulated to improve product titers, yields, and productivity. Using a library of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible mutant T7 promoters of varied strength a combinatorial method was developed for transcriptional balancing of the violacein pathway. Violacein biosynthesis involves a complex five-gene pathway that is an excellent model for exploratory metabolic engineering efforts into pathway regulation and control due to many colorful intermediates and side products allowing for easy analysis and strain comparison. Upon screening approximately 4% of the total initial library, several high-titer mutants were discovered that resulted in up to a 63-fold improvement over the control strain. With further fermentation optimization, titers were improved to 1829 ± 46 mg/L; a 2.6-fold improvement in titer and a 30-fold improvement in productivity from previous literature reports. PMID:26062452

  4. Future Forest Production and Net Carbon Sinks under Optimal C:N Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, A.; Kalliokoski, T.; Peltoniemi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental change affects forests directly by changing physiological process rates, but the consequent changes in resource acquisition may lead to structural and functional acclimations that obscure the long-term relationship between environmental drivers and forest function. Based on an adaptive balance between structure and function, evolutionary optimisation may provide a feasible tool for analysing such indirect effects of environmental change on forests. This study applies OptiPipe, a model of optimal co-allocation of forest carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), to prediction of potential productivity and C balance of Finnish forests under climate change. OptiPipe is embedded in a transparent modular system including: PreLes, a canopy C exchange model; Yasso, a soil C model; and expert assumptions about the impacts of weather on N availability at different growth sites. National Forest Inventory data and gridded weather data (10 x 10 km2) are utilised. The uncertainties of the projections are analysed relative to inputs and parameters. The results quantify the changes in growth and carbon stocks, which are either smaller or larger than those in photosynthetic capacity, depending on the C:N balance of the site. The results emphasize the need to obtain more reliable information and data about nitrogen processes, but also demonstrate the potential for the optimality approach for regional applications.

  5. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with a History of ASDs Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggest that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are particularly difficult to remediate. We examined present and past RRBs in 34 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes (OOs; lost their ASD diagnosis), 45 high-functioning individuals with ASD (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. The OO…

  6. Academic Optimism, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, and Student Achievement at Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guvercin, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic optimism, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs), and student achievement in college preparatory charter schools. A purposeful sample of elementary school teachers from college preparatory charter schools (N = 226) in southeast Texas was solicited to complete the…

  7. Use of a Batch Reactive Distillation with Dynamic Optimization Strategy to Achieve Industrial Grade Ethyl Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakom, Kwantip; Saengchan, Aritsara; Kittisupakorn, Paisan; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.

    2011-08-01

    Industrial grade ethyl acetate is available with minimum purity of 85.0%. It is mostly produced by an ethanol esterification in a distillation process on both batch and continuous modes. However, researches on high purity production with short operating time are rarely achieved. Therefore, the objective in this work is to study an approach to produce ethyl acetate of 90.0% by 8 hours using a batch reactive distillation column. Based on open-loop simulations, the distillation with constant reflux ratio cannot achieve the product specification. Thus, the dynamic optimization strategy is proposed to handle this problem. For the process safety—preventing the dried column and fractured, a minimum reflux ratio must be determined in advance and then an optimal reflux profile is calculated to achieve optimal product yield. Simulation results show that the industrial grade ethyl acetate can be produced by the dynamic optimization programming with two or more time intervals. Besides, the increasing of time intervals can produce more distillate product.

  8. Joint Multiuser Detection and Optimal Spectrum Balancing for Digital Subscriber Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Vincent M. K.; Yu, Wei

    2006-12-01

    In a digital subscriber line (DSL) system with strong crosstalk, the detection and cancellation of interference signals have the potential to improve the overall data rate performance. However, as DSL crosstalk channels are highly frequency selective and multiuser detection is suitable only when crosstalk is strong, the set of frequency tones in which multiuser detection may be used must be carefully chosen. Further, this problem of tone selection is highly coupled with the transmit power spectra of both direct and interfering signals, so the optimal solution requires the tone selection problem to be solved jointly with the multiuser spectrum optimization problem. The main idea of this paper is that the above joint optimization may be done efficiently using a dual decomposition technique similar to that of the optimal spectrum balancing algorithm. Simulations show that multiuser detection can increase the bit rate performance in a remotely deployed ADSL environment. Rate improvement is also observed when near-end crosstalk is estimated and cancelled in a VDSL environment with overlapping upstream and downstream frequency bands.

  9. Optimizing rTMS treatment of a balance disorder with EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Guofa Shou; Han Yuan; Urbano, Diamond; Yoon-Hee Cha; Lei Ding

    2016-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been increasingly used for its potential treatment effects across diverse mental disorders. However, the treatment effect is elusive and the rate of positive responders is not high, which make it in great demand of optimizing rTMS protocols to improve the treatment effects and the rate. In this regard, neural activity guided optimization has indicated great potential in several neuroimaging studies. In this paper, we present our ongoing work on optimizing rTMS treatment of a balance disorder, i.e., Mal de Debarquement syndrome (MdDS), by investigating treatment-related EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity changes. Motivated by our previous pilot study of rTMS on MdDS, we firstly applied a bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) rTMS protocol to evaluate its efficacy and the treatment-related neural responses via an independent component analysis (ICA)-based framework. Thereafter, guided by identified EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity patterns, we proposed three potential stimulation targets covering posterior nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and implemented a new rTMS protocol by stimulating the target with the great symptoms relief. The preliminary clinical response data has indicated that the new rTMS protocol significantly increase the rate of positive responders and the degrees of the improvement. The present study demonstrates that it is promising to integrate EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity into the optimization of rTMS protocols for different mental disorders.

  10. Robust, integrated computational control of NMR experiments to achieve optimal assignment by ADAPT-NMR.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Arash; Tonelli, Marco; Sahu, Sarata C; Singarapu, Kiran K; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Markley, John L

    2012-01-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) represents a groundbreaking prototype for automated protein structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. With a [(13)C,(15)N]-labeled protein sample loaded into the NMR spectrometer, ADAPT-NMR delivers complete backbone resonance assignments and secondary structure in an optimal fashion without human intervention. ADAPT-NMR achieves this by implementing a strategy in which the goal of optimal assignment in each step determines the subsequent step by analyzing the current sum of available data. ADAPT-NMR is the first iterative and fully automated approach designed specifically for the optimal assignment of proteins with fast data collection as a byproduct of this goal. ADAPT-NMR evaluates the current spectral information, and uses a goal-directed objective function to select the optimal next data collection step(s) and then directs the NMR spectrometer to collect the selected data set. ADAPT-NMR extracts peak positions from the newly collected data and uses this information in updating the analysis resonance assignments and secondary structure. The goal-directed objective function then defines the next data collection step. The procedure continues until the collected data support comprehensive peak identification, resonance assignments at the desired level of completeness, and protein secondary structure. We present test cases in which ADAPT-NMR achieved results in two days or less that would have taken two months or more by manual approaches.

  11. Achieving pH control in microalgal cultures through fed-batch addition of stoichiometrically-balanced growth media

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of accounting for proton uptake and secretion has confounded interpretation of the stoichiometry of photosynthetic growth of algae. This is also problematic for achieving growth of microalgae to high cell concentrations which is necessary to improve productivity and the economic feasibility of commercial-scale chemical production systems. Since microalgae are capable of consuming both nitrate and ammonium, this represents an opportunity to balance culture pH based on a nitrogen feeding strategy that does not utilize gas-phase CO2 buffering. Stoichiometry suggests that approximately 36 weight%N-NH4+ (balance nitrogen as NO3-) would minimize the proton imbalance and permit high-density photoautotrophic growth as it does in higher plant tissue culture. However, algal media almost exclusively utilize nitrate, and ammonium is often viewed as ‘toxic’ to algae. Results The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exclusively utilize ammonium when both ammonium and nitrate are provided during growth on excess CO2. The resulting proton imbalance from preferential ammonium utilization causes the pH to drop too low to sustain further growth when ammonium was only 9% of the total nitrogen (0.027 gN-NH4+/L). However, providing smaller amounts of ammonium sequentially in the presence of nitrate maintained the pH of a Chlorella vulgaris culture for improved growth on 0.3 gN/L to 5 gDW/L under 5% CO2 gas-phase supplementation. Bioreactor pH dynamics are shown to be predictable based on simple nitrogen assimilation as long as there is sufficient CO2 availability. Conclusions This work provides both a media formulation and a feeding strategy with a focus on nitrogen metabolism and regulation to support high-density algal culture without buffering. The instability in culture pH that is observed in microalgal cultures in the absence of buffers can be overcome through alternating utilization of ammonium and nitrate. Despite the highly regulated

  12. Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijun; Mei, Yushan

    2015-12-01

    Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine currently consists of micro-controller and peripheral devices. The structure has the problems which include low integration, single signal processing algorithms and great measurement error. Therefore, electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization is presented in the paper. Firstly, the device control electrical measuring system by ARM subsystem of OMAP dual-core architecture and DSP subsystem realizes digital signal processing and unbalance computing. Also, the low-pass filtering circuit is designed for solving frequency interference. Secondly, the system implement digital band-pass tracking filter based on harmonic wavelet packet. Thirdly, the system extracts any period of weak signal characteristics using the unlimited segmentation features harmonic for wavelet packet signal in the frequency domain. Simulation results show that the system effectively inhibits nearly frequency signal interference, improves signal to noise ratio, and reduces the initial imbalance signal characteristics. And test results improve that precision indexes and technical specifications could meet the design goals.

  13. An optimal state estimation model of sensory integration in human postural balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Arthur D.

    2005-09-01

    We propose a model for human postural balance, combining state feedback control with optimal state estimation. State estimation uses an internal model of body and sensor dynamics to process sensor information and determine body orientation. Three sensory modalities are modeled: joint proprioception, vestibular organs in the inner ear, and vision. These are mated with a two degree-of-freedom model of body dynamics in the sagittal plane. Linear quadratic optimal control is used to design state feedback and estimation gains. Nine free parameters define the control objective and the signal-to-noise ratios of the sensors. The model predicts statistical properties of human sway in terms of covariance of ankle and hip motion. These predictions are compared with normal human responses to alterations in sensory conditions. With a single parameter set, the model successfully reproduces the general nature of postural motion as a function of sensory environment. Parameter variations reveal that the model is highly robust under normal sensory conditions, but not when two or more sensors are inaccurate. This behavior is similar to that of normal human subjects. We propose that age-related sensory changes may be modeled with decreased signal-to-noise ratios, and compare the model's behavior with degraded sensors against experimental measurements from older adults. We also examine removal of the model's vestibular sense, which leads to instability similar to that observed in bilateral vestibular loss subjects. The model may be useful for predicting which sensors are most critical for balance, and how much they can deteriorate before posture becomes unstable.

  14. Power-balancing instantaneous optimization energy management for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dongye; Lin, Xinyou; Qin, Datong; Deng, Tao

    2012-11-01

    Energy management(EM) is a core technique of hybrid electric bus(HEB) in order to advance fuel economy performance optimization and is unique for the corresponding configuration. There are existing algorithms of control strategy seldom take battery power management into account with international combustion engine power management. In this paper, a type of power-balancing instantaneous optimization(PBIO) energy management control strategy is proposed for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus. According to the characteristic of the novel series-parallel architecture, the switching boundary condition between series and parallel mode as well as the control rules of the power-balancing strategy are developed. The equivalent fuel model of battery is implemented and combined with the fuel of engine to constitute the objective function which is to minimize the fuel consumption at each sampled time and to coordinate the power distribution in real-time between the engine and battery. To validate the proposed strategy effective and reasonable, a forward model is built based on Matlab/Simulink for the simulation and the dSPACE autobox is applied to act as a controller for hardware in-the-loop integrated with bench test. Both the results of simulation and hardware-in-the-loop demonstrate that the proposed strategy not only enable to sustain the battery SOC within its operational range and keep the engine operation point locating the peak efficiency region, but also the fuel economy of series-parallel hybrid electric bus(SPHEB) dramatically advanced up to 30.73% via comparing with the prototype bus and a similar improvement for PBIO strategy relative to rule-based strategy, the reduction of fuel consumption is up to 12.38%. The proposed research ensures the algorithm of PBIO is real-time applicability, improves the efficiency of SPHEB system, as well as suite to complicated configuration perfectly.

  15. Achievements and challenges in automated parameter, shape and topology optimization for divertor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baelmans, M.; Blommaert, M.; Dekeyser, W.; Van Oevelen, T.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma edge transport codes play a key role in the design of future divertor concepts. Their long simulation times in combination with a large number of control parameters turn the design into a challenging task. In aerodynamics and structural mechanics, adjoint-based optimization techniques have proven successful to tackle similar design challenges. This paper provides an overview of achievements and remaining challenges with these techniques for complex divertor design. It is shown how these developments pave the way for fast sensitivity analysis and improved design from different perspectives.

  16. Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Brussoni, Mariana; Olsen, Lise L.; Pike, Ian; Sleet, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Injury prevention plays a key role in keeping children safe, but emerging research suggests that imposing too many restrictions on children’s outdoor risky play hinders their development. We explore the relationship between child development, play, and conceptions of risk taking with the aim of informing child injury prevention. Generational trends indicate children’s diminishing engagement in outdoor play is influenced by parental and societal concerns. We outline the importance of play as a necessary ingredient for healthy child development and review the evidence for arguments supporting the need for outdoor risky play, including: (1) children have a natural propensity towards risky play; and, (2) keeping children safe involves letting them take and manage risks. Literature from many disciplines supports the notion that safety efforts should be balanced with opportunities for child development through outdoor risky play. New avenues for investigation and action are emerging seeking optimal strategies for keeping children “as safe as necessary,” not “as safe as possible.” This paradigm shift represents a potential for epistemological growth as well as cross-disciplinary collaboration to foster optimal child development while preserving children’s safety. PMID:23202675

  17. Exploring the Causal Impact of the McREL Balanced Leadership Program on Leadership, Principal Efficacy, Instructional Climate, Educator Turnover, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung; Miller, Robert; Goddard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a randomized design to assess the impact of the Balanced Leadership program on principal leadership, instructional climate, principal efficacy, staff turnover, and student achievement in a sample of rural northern Michigan schools. Participating principals report feeling more efficacious, using more effective leadership practices,…

  18. Genetic Algorithms for an Optimal Line Balancing Problem with Workers of Different Skill Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iima, Hitoshi; Karuno, Yoshiyuki; Kise, Hiroshi

    This paper discusses a new combinatorial optimization problem which occurs in line balancing for real assembly lines demanding skilled operations. On the contrast with conventional assembly lines such as automotive in which each operation is associated with a standard processing time, it is assumed that each operation time depends on assigned worker's skill and there exists an upper bound on the number of operations to be assigned to each worker. Three genetic algorithms (GAs) which have different genotypes and different decoding procedures are discussed for this problem. The genotype in the first GA is expressed by sequencing the operation numbers, and an effective heuristic rule is introduced into the decoding procedure. In the second GA, the genotype is expressed by sequencing the sets of operations to be assigned to each worker. In the third GA, the genotype is expressed by sequencing the worker numbers executing each operation in the order of operation numbers. These GAs are compared by numerical experiment based on real conditions.

  19. Does a 4-6 Week Shoeing Interval Promote Optimal Foot Balance in the Working Equine?

    PubMed

    Leśniak, Kirsty; Williams, Jane; Kuznik, Kerry; Douglas, Peter

    2017-03-29

    Variation in equine hoof conformation between farriery interventions lacks research, despite associations with distal limb injuries. This study aimed to determine linear and angular hoof variations pre- and post-farriery within a four to six week shoeing/trimming interval. Seventeen hoof and distal limb measurements were drawn from lateral and anterior digital photographs from 26 horses pre- and post-farriery. Most lateral view variables changed significantly. Reductions of the dorsal wall, and weight bearing and coronary band lengths resulted in an increased vertical orientation of the hoof. The increased dorsal hoof wall angle, heel angle, and heel height illustrated this further, improving dorsopalmar alignment. Mediolateral measurements of coronary band and weight bearing lengths reduced, whilst medial and lateral wall lengths from the 2D images increased, indicating an increased vertical hoof alignment. Additionally, dorsopalmar balance improved. However, the results demonstrated that a four to six week interval is sufficient for a palmer shift in the centre of pressure, increasing the loading on acutely inclined heels, altering DIP angulation, and increasing the load on susceptible structures (e.g., DDFT). Mediolateral variable asymmetries suit the lateral hoof landing and unrollment pattern of the foot during landing. The results support regular (four to six week) farriery intervals for the optimal prevention of excess loading of palmar limb structures, reducing long-term injury risks through cumulative, excessive loading.

  20. Optimizing the balance between area and orientation distortions for variable-scale maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ti, Peng; Li, Zhilin; Xu, Zhu; Jia, Hongguo

    2016-07-01

    Applying a variable scale transformation to maps leads to area distortions of the maps, i.e. enlarging interesting areas on maps to larger scales and shrinking other areas. Such area distortions improve the clarity of the interesting areas. However, it may result in the over-distortion of line orientations so as to reduce map recognition. This article developed an optimization method to correct orientation distortions for variable-scale maps generated by any existing variable scale transformations, while preserving the map clarity as much as possible. The proposed method is tested with the variable-scale resultant maps of two real-life datasets and evaluated by statistical analysis and perceptual tests. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is able to effectively reduce the orientation distortions so as to improve map recognition, while map clarity has been sufficiently achieved.

  1. A balanced calibration of water quantity and quality by multi-objective optimization for integrated water system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Shao, Quanxi; Taylor, John A.

    2016-07-01

    Due to the high interactions among multiple processes in integrated water system models, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to achieve reasonable solutions for all objectives by using the traditional step-by-step calibration. In many cases, water quantity and quality are equally important but their objectives in model calibration usually conflict with each other, so it is not a good practice to calibrate one after another. In this study, a combined auto-calibration multi-process approach was proposed for the integrated water system model (HEQM) using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. This ensures that the model performance among inseparable or interactive processes could be balanced by users based on the Pareto front. The Huai River Basin, a highly regulated and heavily polluted region of China, was selected as a case study. The hydrological and water quality parameters of HEQM were calibrated simultaneously based on the observed series of runoff and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentrations. The results were compared with those of the step-by-step calibration to demonstrate the rationality and feasibility of the multi-objective approach. The results showed that a Pareto optimal front was formed and could be divided into three clear sections based on the elastic coefficient of model performance between NH4-N and runoff, i.e., the dominated section for NH4-N improvement, the trade-off section between NH4-N and runoff, and the dominated section for runoff improvement. The trade-off of model performance between runoff and NH4-N concentration was clear. The results of the step-by-step calibration fell in the dominated section for NH4-N improvement, where just the optimum of the runoff simulation was achieved with a large potential to improve NH4-N simulation without a significant degradation of the runoff simulation. The overall optimal solutions for all the simulations appeared in the trade-off section. Therefore, the Pareto front provided different

  2. What Works to Improve Student Literacy Achievement? An Examination of Instructional Practices in a Balanced Literacy Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Catherine; O'Day, Jennifer; Gubbins, Paul; Socias, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    A core assumption of the San Diego City Schools (SDCS) reform effort was that improved instructional practices, aligned with a balanced literacy approach, would be effective in improving student outcomes. This article explores this hypothesis by presenting findings from an analysis of classroom instruction data collected in 101 classrooms in 9…

  3. Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Block Constructions Differ in Structural Balance: A Block-Building Characteristic Related to Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Beth M.; Pezaris, Elizabeth E.; Bassi, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on block building in adolescents, assessing middle school (Study 1) and high school students (Study 2). Students were asked to build something interesting with blocks. In both samples, the same pattern of gender differences were found; boys built taller structures than girls, and balanced a larger number of blocks on a…

  4. The effect of adjusting model inputs to achieve mass balance on time-dynamic simulations in a food-web model of Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langseth, Brian J.; Jones, Michael L.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) is a widely used modeling tool in fishery research and management. Ecopath requires a mass-balanced snapshot of a food web at a particular point in time, which Ecosim then uses to simulate changes in biomass over time. Initial inputs to Ecopath, including estimates for biomasses, production to biomass ratios, consumption to biomass ratios, and diets, rarely produce mass balance, and thus ad hoc changes to inputs are required to balance the model. There has been little previous research of whether ad hoc changes to achieve mass balance affect Ecosim simulations. We constructed an EwE model for the offshore community of Lake Huron, and balanced the model using four contrasting but realistic methods. The four balancing methods were based on two contrasting approaches; in the first approach, production of unbalanced groups was increased by increasing either biomass or the production to biomass ratio, while in the second approach, consumption of predators on unbalanced groups was decreased by decreasing either biomass or the consumption to biomass ratio. We compared six simulation scenarios based on three alternative assumptions about the extent to which mortality rates of prey can change in response to changes in predator biomass (i.e., vulnerabilities) under perturbations to either fishing mortality or environmental production. Changes in simulated biomass values over time were used in a principal components analysis to assess the comparative effect of balancing method, vulnerabilities, and perturbation types. Vulnerabilities explained the most variation in biomass, followed by the type of perturbation. Choice of balancing method explained little of the overall variation in biomass. Under scenarios where changes in predator biomass caused large changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., high vulnerabilities), variation in biomass was greater than when changes in predator biomass caused only small changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., low

  5. Testing the optimal defense theory and the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Barto, E Kathryn; Cipollini, Don

    2005-12-01

    Two prominent theories proposed to explain patterns of chemical defense expression in plants are the optimal defense theory (ODT) and the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH). The ODT predicts that plant parts with high fitness value will be highly defended, and the GDBH predicts that slow growing plant parts will have more resources available for defense and thus will have higher defense levels than faster growing tissues. We examined growth rate, fitness value, and defense protein levels in leaves of a wild and lab ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana to address whether patterns of defense protein expression in this plant conform to predictions of either the ODT or the GDBH. We divided leaves of A. thaliana into six leaf classes based on three developmental stages: vegetative, bolting, and flowering; with two leaf ages at each stage: young and old. We assessed the fitness value of leaves by determining the impact of the removal of each leaf class on total seed production and germination rates. Although A. thaliana was highly tolerant to defoliation, young leaves were more valuable than old in general, and young leaves on bolting plants were the most valuable leaf class in particular. Young leaves on vegetative plants grew fastest in both ecotypes, while old leaves on bolting and flowering plants grew slowest. Finally, defense levels were assessed in each leaf class by quantifying the constitutive and inducible expression of four defense-related proteins. Expression of guaiacol peroxidase and chitinase activity conformed largely to GDBH predictions. Expression of trypsin inhibitor and polyphenoloxidase activity varied by leaf class and treatment, but conformed to neither GDBH nor ODT predictions.

  6. Physiological geroscience: targeting function to increase healthspan and achieve optimal longevity.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R; Justice, Jamie N; LaRocca, Thomas J

    2016-04-15

    Most nations of the world are undergoing rapid and dramatic population ageing, which presents great socio-economic challenges, as well as opportunities, for individuals, families, governments and societies. The prevailing biomedical strategy for reducing the healthcare impact of population ageing has been 'compression of morbidity' and, more recently, to increase healthspan, both of which seek to extend the healthy period of life and delay the development of chronic diseases and disability until a brief period at the end of life. Indeed, a recently established field within biological ageing research, 'geroscience', is focused on healthspan extension. Superimposed on this background are new attitudes and demand for 'optimal longevity' - living long, but with good health and quality of life. A key obstacle to achieving optimal longevity is the progressive decline in physiological function that occurs with ageing, which causes functional limitations (e.g. reduced mobility) and increases the risk of chronic diseases, disability and mortality. Current efforts to increase healthspan centre on slowing the fundamental biological processes of ageing such as inflammation/oxidative stress, increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired proteostasis and reduced stress resistance. We propose that optimization of physiological function throughout the lifespan should be a major emphasis of any contemporary biomedical policy addressing global ageing. Effective strategies should delay, reduce in magnitude or abolish reductions in function with ageing (primary prevention) and/or improve function or slow further declines in older adults with already impaired function (secondary prevention). Healthy lifestyle practices featuring regular physical activity and ideal energy intake/diet composition represent first-line function-preserving strategies, with pharmacological agents, including existing and new pharmaceuticals and novel 'nutraceutical' compounds, serving as potential

  7. Using thermal balance model to determine optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed in a laboratory-scale composting reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjiang; Pang, Li; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Yuansheng; Zhou, Kexun; Luo, Fei

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive model of thermal balance and degradation kinetics was developed to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material. Biological heat production and five channels of heat loss were considered in the thermal balance model for a representative reactor. Degradation kinetics was developed to make the model applicable to different types of substrates. Simulation of the model showed that the internal energy accumulation of compost was the significant heat loss channel, following by heat loss through reactor wall, and latent heat of water evaporation. Lower proportion of heat loss occurred through the reactor wall when the reactor volume was larger. Insulating materials with low densities and low conductive coefficients were more desirable for building small reactor systems. Model developed could be used to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed before the fabrication of a lab-scale composting system.

  8. Dual-energy approach to contrast-enhanced mammography using the balanced filter method: Spectral optimization and preliminary phantom measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2007-11-15

    Dual-energy contrast agent-enhanced mammography is a technique of demonstrating breast cancers obscured by a cluttered background resulting from the contrast between soft tissues in the breast. The technique has usually been implemented by exploiting two exposures to different x-ray tube voltages. In this article, another dual-energy approach using the balanced filter method without switching the tube voltages is described. For the spectral optimization of dual-energy mammography using the balanced filters, we applied a theoretical framework reported by Lemacks et al. [Med. Phys. 29, 1739-1751 (2002)] to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in an iodinated contrast agent subtraction image. This permits the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage and balanced filter material, and the optimization of the latter's thickness with respect to some critical quantity--in this case, mean glandular dose. For an imaging system with a 0.1 mm thick CsI:Tl scintillator, we predict that the optimal tube voltage would be 45 kVp for a tungsten anode using zirconium, iodine, and neodymium balanced filters. A mean glandular dose of 1.0 mGy is required to obtain an SNR of 5 in order to detect 1.0 mg/cm{sup 2} iodine in the resulting clutter-free image of a 5 cm thick breast composed of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue. In addition to spectral optimization, we carried out phantom measurements to demonstrate the present dual-energy approach for obtaining a clutter-free image, which preferentially shows iodine, of a breast phantom comprising three major components - acrylic spheres, olive oil, and an iodinated contrast agent. The detection of iodine details on the cluttered background originating from the contrast between acrylic spheres and olive oil is analogous to the task of distinguishing contrast agents in a mixture of glandular and adipose tissues.

  9. Illumination pupil optimization in 0.33NA EUVL by intensity balancing for semi-iso dark field two-bar M1 building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, T.; de Winter, L.; van Adrichem, P.; Finders, J.

    2016-10-01

    We will shed light on the optimization of lithographic metrics for the semi-isolated dark field two-bar logic building block. Under standard D90Y illumination this building block suffers from large mask 3D induced relative focus dependent CD asymmetries. Such behavior limits its overlapping process window and gives rise to untenable full wafer CDU and intra-field pattern shifts. We have found that besides a Ta absorber thickness reduction an illumination pupil optimization is necessary to fully remove these CD asymmetries. The pupil optimization is achieved by relating the aerial image decomposition (here: symmetrization and balancing of intensities across the diffracted orders) with lithographic metrics per pupil plane location. The resulting pupil allows us (i) to lift the focus-dependent CD asymmetries and (ii) to co-optimize a number of lithographic metrics such as overlapping process window, contrast, non-telecentricity and pattern shift. The importance of subsidiary conditions (e.g. symmetry of the pupil, required DOF) will be discussed.

  10. An organizational cybernetics framework for achieving balance in evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article applies the systems science of organizational cybernetics to the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the provision of social work services in a residential treatment center setting. It does so by systemically balancing EBP with practice-based evidence (PBE) with a focus on the organizational and information system infrastructures necessary to ensure successful implementation. This application is illustrated by discussing a residential treatment program that implemented evidence-based programming and evaluated the results; however, the systemic principles articulated can be applied to any human services organizational setting.

  11. Optimal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device for achieving high pyroelectric response of AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Bemnnet; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses research being conducted on aluminum nitride (AlN) as a pyroelectric material for use in detecting applications. AlN is being investigated because of its high pyroelectric coefficient, thermal stability, and high Curie temperature. In order to determine suitability of the pyroelectric properties of AlN for use as a detector, testing of several devices was conducted. These devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication processes; the devices were also designed to allow for voltage and current measurements. The deposited AlN films used were 150 nm - 300 nm in thickness. Thin-films were used to rapidly increase the temperature response after the thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material. This is important because the pyroelectric effect is directly proportional to the rate of temperature change. The design used was a face-electrode bridge that provides thermal isolation which minimizes heat loss to the substrate, thereby increasing operation frequency of the pyroelectric device. A thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material and the response was measured across the electrodes. A thermal imaging camera was used to monitor the changes in temperature. Throughout the testing process, the annealing temperatures, type of layers, and thicknesses were also varied. These changes resulted in improved MEMS designs, which were fabricated to obtain an optimal design configuration for achieving a high pyroelectric response. A pyroelectric voltage response of 38.9 mVp-p was measured without filtering, 12.45 mVp-p was measured in the infrared (IR) region using a Si filter, and 6.38 mVp-p was measured in the short wavelength IR region using a long pass filter. The results showed that AlN's pyroelectric properties can be used in detecting applications.

  12. Robust Airfoil Optimization to Achieve Consistent Drag Reduction Over a Mach Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Huyse, Luc; Padula, Sharon; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We prove mathematically that in order to avoid point-optimization at the sampled design points for multipoint airfoil optimization, the number of design points must be greater than the number of free-design variables. To overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points, a robust airfoil optimization method (called the profile optimization method) is developed and analyzed. This optimization method aims at a consistent drag reduction over a given Mach range and has three advantages: (a) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (b) there is no random airfoil shape distortion for any iterate it generates, and (c) it allows a designer to make a trade-off between a truly optimized airfoil and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, we use the profile optimization method to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for 2-D airfoil in Euler flow with 20 free-design variables. A comparison with other airfoil optimization methods is also included.

  13. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on completion of Phase I and Phase II activities. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. During this reporting period, optimization tests were performed to evaluate system performance and identify optimum operating conditions for the installed equipment. The overfire air system process design activities and preliminary engineering design were completed.

  14. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  15. A Study of the Relationships between Distributed Leadership, Teacher Academic Optimism and Student Achievement in Taiwanese Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, I-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between distributed leadership, teachers' academic optimism and student achievement in learning. The study targeted public elementary schools in Taiwan and adopted stratified random sampling to investigate 1500 teachers. Teachers' perceptions were collected by a self-report scale. In…

  16. Should Schools Be Optimistic? An Investigation of the Association between Academic Optimism of Schools and Student Achievement in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Tinneke; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in students and parents (3 school characteristics positively associated with student achievement) are assumed to form a higher order latent construct, "academic optimism" (Hoy, Tarter, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2006a, 2006b). The aim of the present study is to corroborate the latent…

  17. The Relationship of Mental Pressure with Optimism and Academic Achievement Motivation among Second Grade Male High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…

  18. Navy Strategy for Achieving Information Dominance, 2013-2017. Optimizing Navy’s Primacy in the Maritime and Information Domains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    and resources to optimize decision making and maximize warfighting effects, Navy Information Dominance has become a leading Service priority. In 2009...This Strategy for Achieving Information Dominance provides the framework through which the Navy s information capabilities will be mainstreamed into...the Navy s culture as a distinct warfighting discipline. The strategy focuses on the three fundamental Information Dominance capabilities of Assured

  19. Academic Optimism and Collective Responsibility: An Organizational Model of the Dynamics of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jason H.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the construct of academic optimism and its relationship with collective responsibility in a sample of Taiwan elementary schools. The construct of academic optimism was tested using confirmatory factor analysis, and the whole structural model was tested with a structural equation modeling analysis. The data were…

  20. Performance evaluation of ant colony optimization-based solution strategies on the mixed-model assembly line balancing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpinar, Sener; Mirac Bayhan, G.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the performances of iterative ant colony optimization (ACO)-based solution strategies on a mixed-model assembly line balancing problem of type II (MMALBP-II) by addressing some particular features of real-world assembly line balancing problems such as parallel workstations and zoning constraints. To solve the problem, where the objective is to minimize the cycle time (i.e. maximize the production rate) for a predefined number of workstations in an existing assembly line, two ACO-based approaches which differ in the mission assigned to artificial ants are used. Furthermore, each ACO-based approach is conducted with two different pheromone release strategies: global and local pheromone updating rules. The four ACO-based approaches are used for solving 20 representative MMALBP-II to compare their performance in terms of computational time and solution quality. Detailed comparison results are presented.

  1. Achieving Consistent Near-Optimal Pattern Recognition Accuracy Using Particle Swarm Optimization to Pre-Train Artificial Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikelshpur, Dmitry O.

    2014-01-01

    Similar to mammalian brains, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are universal approximators, capable of yielding near-optimal solutions to a wide assortment of problems. ANNs are used in many fields including medicine, internet security, engineering, retail, robotics, warfare, intelligence control, and finance. "ANNs have a tendency to get…

  2. Tenure Track Policy Increases Representation of Women in Senior Academic Positions, but Is Insufficient to Achieve Gender Balance

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Martha M.; Jacobs, Maarten H.

    2016-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in senior positions is a persistent problem in universities worldwide, and a wide range of strategies to combat this situation is currently being contemplated. One such strategy is the introduction of a tenure track system, in which decisions to promote scientific staff to higher ranks are guided by a set of explicit and transparent criteria, as opposed to earlier situations in which decisions were based on presumably more subjective impressions by superiors. We examined the effect of the introduction of a tenure track system at Wageningen University (The Netherlands) on male and female promotion rates. We found that chances on being promoted to higher levels were already fairly equal between men and women before the tenure track system was introduced, and improved–more for women than for men–after the introduction of the tenure track system. These results may partly be explained by affirmative actions, but also by the fact that legacy effects of historical discrimination have led to a more competitive female population of scientists. In spite of these outcomes, extrapolations of current promotion rates up to 2025 demonstrate that the equal or even higher female promotion rates do not lead to substantial improvement of the gender balance at higher levels (i.e., associate professor and higher). Since promotion rates are small compared to the total amount of staff, the current distribution of men and women will, especially at higher levels, exhibit a considerable degree of inertia—unless additional affirmative action is taken. PMID:27684072

  3. A balance-evolution artificial bee colony algorithm for protein structure optimization based on a three-dimensional AB off-lattice model.

    PubMed

    Li, Bai; Chiong, Raymond; Lin, Mu

    2015-02-01

    Protein structure prediction is a fundamental issue in the field of computational molecular biology. In this paper, the AB off-lattice model is adopted to transform the original protein structure prediction scheme into a numerical optimization problem. We present a balance-evolution artificial bee colony (BE-ABC) algorithm to address the problem, with the aim of finding the structure for a given protein sequence with the minimal free-energy value. This is achieved through the use of convergence information during the optimization process to adaptively manipulate the search intensity. Besides that, an overall degradation procedure is introduced as part of the BE-ABC algorithm to prevent premature convergence. Comprehensive simulation experiments based on the well-known artificial Fibonacci sequence set and several real sequences from the database of Protein Data Bank have been carried out to compare the performance of BE-ABC against other algorithms. Our numerical results show that the BE-ABC algorithm is able to outperform many state-of-the-art approaches and can be effectively employed for protein structure optimization.

  4. Harmonic balance optimization of terahertz Schottky diode multipliers using an advanced device model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlecht, E. T.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Maestrini, A.; Pukala, D.; Gill, J.; Mehdi, I.

    2002-01-01

    Substantial proress has been made recently in the advancement of solid state terahertz sources using chains of Schottky diode frequency multipliers. We have developed a harmonic balance simulator and corresponding diode model that incorporates many other factors participating in the diode behavior.

  5. OPTIMAL CONFIGURATION OF A COMMAND AND CONTROL NETWORK: BALANCING PERFORMANCE AND RECONFIGURATION CONSTRAINTS

    SciTech Connect

    L. DOWELL

    1999-08-01

    The optimization of the configuration of communications and control networks is important for assuring the reliability and performance of the networks. This paper presents techniques for determining the optimal configuration for such a network in the presence of communication and connectivity constraints. reconfiguration to restore connectivity to a data-fusion network following the failure of a network component.

  6. Carbon mass balance and microbial ecology in a laboratory scale reactor achieving simultaneous sludge reduction and nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei; Li, Liang; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Goel, Ramesh

    2014-04-15

    Solids reduction in activated sludge processes (ASP) at source using process manipulation has been researched widely over the last two-decades. However, the absence of nutrient removal component, lack of understanding on the organic carbon, and limited information on key microbial community in solids minimizing ASP preclude the widespread acceptance of sludge minimizing processes. In this manuscript, we report simultaneous solids reduction through anaerobiosis along with nitrogen and phosphorus removals. The manuscript also reports carbon mass balance using stable isotope of carbon, microbial ecology of nitrifiers and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Two laboratory scale reactors were operated in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic (A(2)O) mode. One reactor was run in the standard mode (hereafter called the control-SBR) simulating conventional A(2)O type of activated sludge process and the second reactor was run in the sludge minimizing mode (called the modified-SBR). Unlike other research efforts where the sludge minimizing reactor was maintained at nearly infinite solids retention time (SRT). To sustain the efficient nutrient removal, the modified-SBR in this research was operated at a very small solids yield rather than at infinite SRT. Both reactors showed consistent NH3-N, phosphorus and COD removals over a period of 263 days. Both reactors also showed active denitrification during the anoxic phase even if there was no organic carbon source available during this phase, suggesting the presence of denitrifying PAOs (DNPAOs). The observed solids yield in the modified-SBR was 60% less than the observed solids yield in the control-SBR. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for the modified-SBR was almost 44% more than the control-SBR under identical feeding conditions, but was nearly the same for both reactors under fasting conditions. The modified-SBR showed greater diversity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and PAOs compared to the control-SBR. The diversity of PAOs

  7. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on Phase I and Phase II activities. The furnace sensors were procured and installed in February 2003. Baseline testing was performed following the sensor installation. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. Process design activities were performed to support design of the equipment installed and to develop specifications for the overfire air system. The overfire air system preliminary engineering design was initiated.

  8. Application of hydrophilic-lypophilic balance (HLB) number to optimize a compatible non-ionic surfactant for dried aerial conidia of Beauveria bassiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) number system was used to optimize a compatible non-ionic surfactant, TDA(polyoxyethylene tridecyl ether) in formulations for two Beauveria bassiana strains, NI8 and GHA. The optimal HLB number for TDA was determined on the basis of wetting times for conidia...

  9. Optimal Experience and Reading Achievement in Virtual Environments among College Level Developmental Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    In this mixed methods study the potential for developmental readers to experience optimal experience (flow) within the multi-user virtual environment, "Second Life," was examined. In an educational context, "Second Life" provided a space for constructivist learning, socialization, exploration, discovery and creativity. The communicative, social…

  10. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t...

  11. Optimization of Composite Material System and Lay-up to Achieve Minimum Weight Pressure Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Haris Hameed; Wang, Gang; Dar, Uzair Ahmed; Zhang, Weihong

    2013-10-01

    The use of composite pressure vessels particularly in the aerospace industry is escalating rapidly because of their superiority in directional strength and colossal weight advantage. The present work elucidates the procedure to optimize the lay-up for composite pressure vessel using finite element analysis and calculate the relative weight saving compared with the reference metallic pressure vessel. The determination of proper fiber orientation and laminate thickness is very important to decrease manufacturing difficulties and increase structural efficiency. In the present work different lay-up sequences for laminates including, cross-ply [ 0 m /90 n ] s , angle-ply [ ±θ] ns , [ 90/±θ] ns and [ 0/±θ] ns , are analyzed. The lay-up sequence, orientation and laminate thickness (number of layers) are optimized for three candidate composite materials S-glass/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy and Carbon/epoxy. Finite element analysis of composite pressure vessel is performed by using commercial finite element code ANSYS and utilizing the capabilities of ANSYS Parametric Design Language and Design Optimization module to automate the process of optimization. For verification, a code is developed in MATLAB based on classical lamination theory; incorporating Tsai-Wu failure criterion for first-ply failure (FPF). The results of the MATLAB code shows its effectiveness in theoretical prediction of first-ply failure strengths of laminated composite pressure vessels and close agreement with the FEA results. The optimization results shows that for all the composite material systems considered, the angle-ply [ ±θ] ns is the optimum lay-up. For given fixed ply thickness the total thickness of laminate is obtained resulting in factor of safety slightly higher than two. Both Carbon/epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy resulted in approximately same laminate thickness and considerable percentage of weight saving, but S-glass/epoxy resulted in weight increment.

  12. Optimizing the Vertebrate Vestibular Semicircular Canal: Could We Balance Any Better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Todd M.

    2004-11-01

    The fluid-filled semicircular canals (SCCs) of the vestibular system are used by all vertebrates to sense angular rotation. Despite masses spanning seven decades, all mammalian SCCs are nearly the same size. We propose that the SCC represents a sensory organ that evolution has “optimally designed.” Four geometric parameters characterize the SCC, and “building materials” of given physical properties are assumed. Identifying physical and physiological constraints on SCC operation, we find the most sensitive SCC has dimensions consistent with available data. Since natural selection involves optimization, this approach may find broader use in understanding biological structures.

  13. Fifty Years in the Development of a Glutaminergic-Dopaminergic Optimization Complex (KB220) to Balance Brain Reward Circuitry in Reward Deficiency Syndrome: A Pictorial.

    PubMed

    Blum, K; Febo, M; Badgaiyan, R D

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine along with other chemical messengers like serotonin, cannabinoids, endorphins and glutamine, play significant roles in brain reward processing. There is a devastating opiate/opioid epidemicin the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day due to narcotic overdose and alarmingly heroin overdose is on the rise. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved some Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for alcoholism, opiate and nicotine dependence, but nothing for psychostimulant and cannabis abuse. While these pharmaceuticals are essential for the short-term induction of "psychological extinction," in the long-term caution is necessary because their use favors blocking dopaminergic function indispensable for achieving normal satisfaction in life. The two institutions devoted to alcoholism and drug dependence (NIAAA & NIDA) realize that MATs are not optimal and continue to seek better treatment options. We review, herein, the history of the development of a glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex called KB220 to provide for the possible eventual balancing of the brain reward system and the induction of "dopamine homeostasis." This complex may provide substantial clinical benefit to the victims of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) and assist in recovery from iatrogenically induced addiction to unwanted opiates/opioids and other addictive behaviors.

  14. Fifty Years in the Development of a Glutaminergic-Dopaminergic Optimization Complex (KB220) to Balance Brain Reward Circuitry in Reward Deficiency Syndrome: A Pictorial

    PubMed Central

    Blum, K; Febo, M; Badgaiyan, RD

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine along with other chemical messengers like serotonin, cannabinoids, endorphins and glutamine, play significant roles in brain reward processing. There is a devastating opiate/opioid epidemicin the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day due to narcotic overdose and alarmingly heroin overdose is on the rise. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved some Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for alcoholism, opiate and nicotine dependence, but nothing for psychostimulant and cannabis abuse. While these pharmaceuticals are essential for the short-term induction of “psychological extinction,” in the long-term caution is necessary because their use favors blocking dopaminergic function indispensable for achieving normal satisfaction in life. The two institutions devoted to alcoholism and drug dependence (NIAAA & NIDA) realize that MATs are not optimal and continue to seek better treatment options. We review, herein, the history of the development of a glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex called KB220 to provide for the possible eventual balancing of the brain reward system and the induction of “dopamine homeostasis.” This complex may provide substantial clinical benefit to the victims of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) and assist in recovery from iatrogenically induced addiction to unwanted opiates/opioids and other addictive behaviors. PMID:27840857

  15. Need for optimizing catalyst loading for achieving affordable microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderjeet; Chandra, Amreesh

    2013-08-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is a promising technology for electricity production together with simultaneous water treatment. Catalysts play an important role in deciding the MFC performance. In most reports, effect of catalyst - both type and quantity is not optimized. In this paper, synthesis of nanorods of MnO2-catalyst particles for application in Pt-free MFCs is reported. The effect of catalyst loading i.e., weight ratio, with respect to conducting element and binder has been optimized by employing large number of combinations. Using simple theoretical model, it is shown that too high (or low) concentration of catalysts result in loss of MFC performance. The operation of MFC has been investigated using domestic wastewater as source of bio-waste for obtaining real world situation. Maximum power density of ∼61 mW/m(2) was obtained when weight ratio of catalyst and conducting species was 1:1. Suitable reasons are given to explain the outcomes.

  16. Balancing Multicultural Competence with Social Justice: Feminist Beliefs and Optimal Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Janice D.; Snell, Andrea F.; Tobias, Ann

    2012-01-01

    To identify a multivariate configuration of feminist beliefs best associated with optimal psychological functioning, 215 mostly White college women completed an online survey measuring their feminist beliefs (Feminist Perspectives Scale, Attitudes toward Feminism and the Women's Movement, sense of common fate, and Feminist Identity Composite) and…

  17. Achievement of balanced high frequency and high breakdown by InGaAs-based high-electron-mobility transistors with slant field plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosotani, Tomotaka; Otsuji, Taiichi; Suemitsu, Tetsuya

    2016-11-01

    InGaAs-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with SiCN-based multistep slant field plates (FPs) and two-step recess (TSR) gates are fabricated and characterized. The slant FPs, which were originally developed for GaN-HEMTs, are integrated with InGaAs-HEMTs to increase the breakdown voltage (BV). The BVs of InGaAs-HEMTs increase by a factor of 1.5-2. However, FPs have a negative effect on the current gain cutoff frequency (f T). Consequently, BV and f T have a trade-off relationship. The combination of slant FPs and TSR gates enables the achievement of a balanced BV and f T of 8.0 V and 106 GHz, respectively, in 130-nm-gate-length InGaAs-HEMTs.

  18. Using a nursing balanced scorecard approach to measure and optimize nursing performance.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Lianne; Merkley, Jane; Richardson, Sandy; Eli, Jackie; McAllister, Mary

    2011-04-01

    The authors give an overview of one healthcare organization's experience in developing a nursing strategic plan and nursing balanced scorecard (NBS) using a focused planning process involving strategy mapping. The NBS is being used at this organization to manage the nursing strategic plan by leveraging and improving nursing processes and organizational capabilities as required, based on data and transparent communication of performance results to key stakeholders. Key strategies and insights may help other nurse leaders in developing or refining strategic approaches to measuring nursing performance. Vital to the success of an organization's strategic plan are ongoing endorsement, engagement and visibility of senior leaders. Quality of decisions made depends on the organization's ability to collect data from multiple sources using standardized definitions, mine data and extract them for statistical analysis and effectively present them in a compelling and understandable way to users and decision-makers.

  19. Optimizing the balance between host and environmental survival skills: lessons learned from Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Xayarath, Bobbi; Freitag, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental pathogens – organisms that survive in the outside environment but maintain the capacity to cause disease in mammals – navigate the challenges of life in habitats that range from water and soil to the cytosol of host cells. The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes has served for decades as a model organism for studies of host–pathogen interactions and for fundamental paradigms of cell biology. This ubiquitous saprophy te has recently become a model for understanding how an environmental bacterium switches to life within human cells. This review describes how L. monocytogenes balances life in disparate environments with the help of a critical virulence regulator known as PrfA. Understanding L. monocytogenes survival strategies is important for gaining insight into how environmental microbes become pathogens. PMID:22827306

  20. Estimation of an Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). The goal of this project was to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection.

  1. Optimal marking of threatened species to balance benefits of information with impacts of marking.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2008-12-01

    Marking animals so that they are uniquely identifiable provides information that may assist conservation efforts. Nevertheless, some methods used to mark animals can be harmful. We used mathematical methods to assess the trade-off between the impact of marking threatened species and the value of the information gained. We considered the case where 2 management strategies, each aiming to improve a species' survival rate, are implemented in an experimental phase. The results of the experiment were applied in a postexperimental management phase. We expressed the expected number of survivors in both phases mathematically, accounting for any mortality caused by the experiment, and determined the proportion of animals to mark to maximize this number. The optimal number of animals to mark increased with the number of individuals available for the experiment and with the number of individuals to be managed in the future. The optimal solution was to mark only 25% of the animals when there were 1000 individuals available for the experiment, the results were used to manage 2000 individuals, and marking caused mortality of 1%. Fewer animals were marked when there were fewer animals in either phase or when marking caused higher mortality. In the case of the Helmeted Honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix), the optimal proportion to mark was <1 if the mortality rate was >0.15%-1%, with the threshold depending on the number of animals in the experimental and postexperimental phases. The trade-off between gaining more information about a species and possibly harming individuals of that species by marking them is difficult to assess subjectively. We show how to determine objectively the optimal proportion of animals to mark to enhance the management of threatened species.

  2. Optimal feedback gains of a delayed proportional-derivative (PD) control for balancing an inverted pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zaihua

    2017-03-01

    In the dynamics analysis and synthesis of a controlled system, it is important to know for what feedback gains can the controlled system decay to the demanded steady state as fast as possible. This article presents a systematic method for finding the optimal feedback gains by taking the stability of an inverted pendulum system with a delayed proportional-derivative controller as an example. First, the condition for the existence and uniqueness of the stable region in the gain plane is obtained by using the D-subdivision method and the method of stability switch. Then the same procedure is used repeatedly to shrink the stable region by decreasing the real part of the rightmost characteristic root. Finally, the optimal feedback gains within the stable region that minimizes the real part of the rightmost root are expressed by an explicit formula. With the optimal feedback gains, the controlled inverted pendulum decays to its trivial equilibrium at the fastest speed when the initial values around the origin are fixed. The main results are checked by numerical simulation.

  3. Optimized atomistic force fields for aqueous solutions of Magnesium and Calcium Chloride: Analysis, achievements and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfgen, Roman; Hülsmann, Marco; Krämer, Andreas; Köddermann, Thorsten; Kirschner, Karl N.; Reith, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Molecular simulations are an important tool in the study of aqueous salt solutions. To predict the physical properties accurately and reliably, the molecular models must be tailored to reproduce experimental data. In this work, a combination of recent global and local optimization tools is used to derive force fields for MgCl2 (aq) and CaCl2 (aq). The molecular models for the ions are based on a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential with a superimposed point charge. The LJ parameters are adjusted to reproduce the bulk density and shear viscosity of the different solutions at 1 bar and temperatures of 293.15, 303.15, and 318.15 K. It is shown that the σ-value of chloride consistently has the strongest influence on the system properties. The optimized force field for MgCl2 (aq) provides both properties in good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of salt concentrations. For CaCl2 (aq), a compromise was made between the bulk density and shear viscosity, since reproducing the two properties requires two different choices of the LJ parameters. This is demonstrated by studying metamodels of the simulated data, which are generated to visualize the correlation between the parameters and observables by using projection plots. Consequently, in order to derive a transferable force field, an error of ˜3% on the bulk density has to be tolerated to yield the shear viscosity in satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  4. A modelling framework for predicting the optimal balance between control and surveillance effort in the local eradication of tuberculosis in New Zealand wildlife.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Andrew M; Holland, E Penelope; Barron, Mandy C; Anderson, Dean P; Nugent, Graham

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) impacts livestock farming in New Zealand, where the introduced marsupial brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the wildlife maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis. New Zealand has implemented a campaign to control TB using a co-ordinated programme of livestock diagnostic testing and large-scale culling of possums, with the long-term aim of TB eradication. For management of the disease in wildlife, methods that can optimise the balance between control and surveillance effort will facilitate the objective of eradication on a fixed or limited budget. We modelled and compared management options to optimise the balance between the two activities necessary to achieve and verify eradication of TB from New Zealand wildlife: the number of lethal population control operations required to halt the M. bovis infection cycle in possums, and the subsequent surveillance effort needed to confidently declare TB freedom post-control. The approach considered the costs of control and surveillance, as well as the potential costs of re-control resulting from false declaration of TB freedom. The required years of surveillance decreased with increasing numbers of possum lethal control operations but the overall time to declare TB freedom depended on additional factors, such as the probability of freedom from disease after control and the probability of success of mop-up control, i.e. retroactive culling following detection of persistent disease in the residual possum population. The total expected cost was also dependent on a number of factors, many of which had wide cost ranges, suggesting that an optimal strategy is unlikely to be singular and fixed, but will likely vary for each different area being considered. Our approach provides a simple framework that considers the known and potential costs of possum control and TB surveillance, enabling managers to optimise the balance between these two activities to achieve and prove eradication of a wildlife

  5. Effective hybrid teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm for balancing two-sided assembly lines with multiple constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qiuhua; Li, Zixiang; Zhang, Liping; Floudas, C. A.; Cao, Xiaojun

    2015-09-01

    Due to the NP-hardness of the two-sided assembly line balancing (TALB) problem, multiple constraints existing in real applications are less studied, especially when one task is involved with several constraints. In this paper, an effective hybrid algorithm is proposed to address the TALB problem with multiple constraints (TALB-MC). Considering the discrete attribute of TALB-MC and the continuous attribute of the standard teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm, the random-keys method is hired in task permutation representation, for the purpose of bridging the gap between them. Subsequently, a special mechanism for handling multiple constraints is developed. In the mechanism, the directions constraint of each task is ensured by the direction check and adjustment. The zoning constraints and the synchronism constraints are satisfied by teasing out the hidden correlations among constraints. The positional constraint is allowed to be violated to some extent in decoding and punished in cost function. Finally, with the TLBO seeking for the global optimum, the variable neighborhood search (VNS) is further hybridized to extend the local search space. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms the late acceptance hill-climbing algorithm (LAHC) for TALB-MC in most cases, especially for large-size problems with multiple constraints, and demonstrates well balance between the exploration and the exploitation. This research proposes an effective and efficient algorithm for solving TALB-MC problem by hybridizing the TLBO and VNS.

  6. Metal-binding sites are designed to achieve optimal mechanical and signaling properties

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Anindita; Bahar, Ivet

    2010-01-01

    Many proteins require bound metals to achieve their function. We take advantage of increasing structural data on metal-binding proteins to elucidate three properties: the involvement of metal-binding sites in the global dynamics of the protein, predicted by elastic network models, their exposure/burial to solvent, and their signal-processing properties indicated by Markovian stochastics analysis. Systematic analysis of a dataset of 145 structures reveals that the residues that coordinate metal ions enjoy remarkably efficient and precise signal transduction properties. These properties are rationalized in terms of their physical properties: participation in hinge sites that control the softest modes collectively accessible to the protein and occupancy of central positions minimally exposed to solvent. Our observations suggest that metal-binding sites may have been evolutionary selected to achieve optimum allosteric communication. They also provide insights into basic principles for designing metal-binding sites, which are verified to be met by recently designed de novo metal-binding proteins. PMID:20826340

  7. Optimizing transformations of structural balance in signed networks with potential relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Haifeng; He, Xiaochen; Wang, Shanfeng; Gong, Maoguo; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2017-01-01

    A signed network includes positive edges, negative edges and "0" edges, the last of which denote potential relationships. However, "0" edges are commonly ignored in transformations of unbalanced networks. In this paper, we take "0" edges into account and solve the optimization problem in a more comprehensive way. We transform the unbalanced network by not only changing signs of edges but also changing edges into potential. The experimental results show that our method can solve this problem efficiently, and that our solutions are cost-saving.

  8. Achieving high lipid productivity of a thermotolerant microalga Desmodesmus sp. F2 by optimizing environmental factors and nutrient conditions.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lai, Yen-Ying; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2014-03-01

    The optimal conditions for cultivating the thermotolerant lipid-rich microalga Desmodesmus sp. F2 to achieve maximal lipid productivity were determined in this study. The conditions were light intensity, 700μmol/m(2)s; temperature, 35°C; cultivation nitrogen source, nitrate; initial nitrogen level, 6.6mM nitrogen. Carbon dioxide (2.5%, 0.2 vvm) was pumped into the cultures continuously. In the pre-optimized conditions, the maximal lipid productivity of this microalga was 113mg/L/d, which was raised to 263mg/L/d in the optimized conditions. This level of lipid productivity of microalgae is the highest ever reported in the literature. Fatty acid composition of the lipid produced by Desmodesmus sp. F2 in the optimal conditions was determined, in which C16 and C18 species accounted for 95% of the fatty acids. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids accounted for 38.9%, 33.1% and 22.6%, respectively. Based on the analysis, this lipid quality makes it a good feedstock for biodiesel production.

  9. Optimization of Oxidation Temperature for Commercially Pure Titanium to Achieve Improved Corrosion Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Rajesh; Singh, J. K.; Singh, Vakil; Singh, D. D. N.; Das, Parimal

    2017-03-01

    Thermal oxidation of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) was carried out at different temperatures, ranging from 200 to 900 °C to achieve optimum corrosion resistance of the thermally treated surface in simulated body fluid. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the oxides and assess their protective properties exposed in the test electrolyte. Maximum resistance toward corrosion was observed for samples oxidized at 500 °C. This was attributed to the formation of a composite layer of oxides at this temperature comprising Ti2O3 (titanium sesquioxide), anatase and rutile phases of TiO2 on the surface of cp-Ti. Formation of an intact and pore-free oxide-substrate interface also improved its corrosion resistance.

  10. Optimization of Oxidation Temperature for Commercially Pure Titanium to Achieve Improved Corrosion Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Rajesh; Singh, J. K.; Singh, Vakil; Singh, D. D. N.; Das, Parimal

    2017-02-01

    Thermal oxidation of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) was carried out at different temperatures, ranging from 200 to 900 °C to achieve optimum corrosion resistance of the thermally treated surface in simulated body fluid. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the oxides and assess their protective properties exposed in the test electrolyte. Maximum resistance toward corrosion was observed for samples oxidized at 500 °C. This was attributed to the formation of a composite layer of oxides at this temperature comprising Ti2O3 (titanium sesquioxide), anatase and rutile phases of TiO2 on the surface of cp-Ti. Formation of an intact and pore-free oxide-substrate interface also improved its corrosion resistance.

  11. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  12. Balancing sample accumulation and DNA degradation rates to optimize noninvasive genetic sampling of sympatric carnivores.

    PubMed

    Lonsinger, Robert C; Gese, Eric M; Dempsey, Steven J; Kluever, Bryan M; Johnson, Timothy R; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-07-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling, or noninvasive DNA sampling (NDS), can be an effective monitoring approach for elusive, wide-ranging species at low densities. However, few studies have attempted to maximize sampling efficiency. We present a model for combining sample accumulation and DNA degradation to identify the most efficient (i.e. minimal cost per successful sample) NDS temporal design for capture-recapture analyses. We use scat accumulation and faecal DNA degradation rates for two sympatric carnivores, kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) and coyote (Canis latrans) across two seasons (summer and winter) in Utah, USA, to demonstrate implementation of this approach. We estimated scat accumulation rates by clearing and surveying transects for scats. We evaluated mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (nDNA) DNA amplification success for faecal DNA samples under natural field conditions for 20 fresh scats/species/season from <1-112 days. Mean accumulation rates were nearly three times greater for coyotes (0.076 scats/km/day) than foxes (0.029 scats/km/day) across seasons. Across species and seasons, mtDNA amplification success was ≥95% through day 21. Fox nDNA amplification success was ≥70% through day 21 across seasons. Coyote nDNA success was ≥70% through day 21 in winter, but declined to <50% by day 7 in summer. We identified a common temporal sampling frame of approximately 14 days that allowed species to be monitored simultaneously, further reducing time, survey effort and costs. Our results suggest that when conducting repeated surveys for capture-recapture analyses, overall cost-efficiency for NDS may be improved with a temporal design that balances field and laboratory costs along with deposition and degradation rates.

  13. Bisphenol-A removal in various wastewater treatment processes: operational conditions, mass balance, and optimization.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Teslic, S; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) was analyzed in 499 liquid and 347 solid samples collected from twenty-five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to investigate parameters affecting BPA occurrence, removal, and fate. Lagoons, chemically-assisted primary treatment, secondary treatment, and advanced treatment processes were included. Median BPA concentrations in influent and final effluent were 400 ng/L and 150 ng/L, respectively. Median removal efficiencies ranged from 1 to 77%. Respective median BPA levels in primary sludge, secondary biological sludge, and biosolids were 230, 260, and 460 ng/g with digested biosolids having the highest concentrations. The biological aerated filter and membrane bioreactor processes showed the best performance, while chemically-assisted primary treatment achieved the lowest removal. Biodegradation and sorption contributing to BPA removal were influenced by operational conditions: hydraulic retention time (HRT), solids retention time (SRT), and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). The influence of HRT, SRT, and MLSS in the bioreactor was stronger during cold temperatures. In order to achieve above 80% removal, the required conditions for HRT, SRT, and MLSS were 13 h, 7 days, and 1600 mg/L during summer (median temperature 19 °C) and 13 h, 17 days, and 5300 mg/L during winter (median temperature 10 °C); indicating that longer SRT and higher MLSS were needed during winter. BPA's sorption tendency to sludge was strongly influenced by the degree of nitrification and HRT.

  14. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brenda C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2003-09-01

    Although vegetarian diets are generally lower in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than are nonvegetarian diets, they provide comparable levels of essential fatty acids. Vegetarian, especially vegan, diets are relatively low in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) compared with linoleic acid (LA) and provide little, if any, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Clinical studies suggest that tissue levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids are depressed in vegetarians, particularly in vegans. n-3 Fatty acids have numerous physiologic benefits, including potent cardioprotective effects. These effects have been demonstrated for ALA as well as EPA and DHA, although the response is generally less for ALA than for EPA and DHA. Conversion of ALA by the body to the more active longer-chain metabolites is inefficient: < 5-10% for EPA and 2-5% for DHA. Thus, total n-3 requirements may be higher for vegetarians than for nonvegetarians, as vegetarians must rely on conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA. Because of the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids, it is recommended that vegetarians make dietary changes to optimize n-3 fatty acid status.

  15. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Rossignol, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    the optimal treatments for these abnormalities. PMID:27330338

  16. Balancing incident heat and ion flow for process optimization in plasma based ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mändl, S.; Manova, D.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2002-06-01

    Plasma based ion implantation at elevated temperatures is a technology often used to obtain thick surface layers of several µm by thermally activated diffusion, e.g. nitrogen in steel, titanium or aluminium. By lowering the pulse voltage at constant temperature, the current density can be increased at a constant heat flow. However, an upper limit is given by the ratio of the diffusion rate transporting the implanted ions from the surface towards the bulk and the sputter yield. This sputtering of the surface dominates for very high current densities and limits the maximum achievable layer thickness. Different maximum current densities were found for the four investigated systems - nitrogen in different steel grades, aluminium and titanium, as well as oxygen in titanium - reflecting the varying diffusivities. Additional requirements, besides the maximum current density, as a conformal treatment for complex objects containing small holes or trenches, as well as short heating times, can be solved most effectively by pulsed voltages in the range of 2-5 kV and an additional heating of the sample. The problem of a sample cooling time of several hours after the treatment is recognized. A partial solution would be to increase the gas pressure during the cooling phase for a more effective heat dissipation.

  17. Effect of protein, dairy components and energy balance in optimizing body composition.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Stuart M; Zemel, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss is achieved through the consumption of a hypoenergetic diet and/or increased energy expenditure through exercise. While weight loss is associated with numerous benefits, the pattern of weight loss in terms of body composition changes is not always studied. In our view, the optimum pattern of weight loss is one in which fat mass is lost and lean mass is preserved. The preservation of lean mass has important consequences due to the role of this tissue in contributing to basal metabolic rate, controlling glycemia, and contributing to lipid oxidation. We also propose that a preservation of lean mass would have important consequences in resisting weight regain after loss. We review dietary practices, including reduced consumption of dietary carbohydrate, consuming higher than recommended dietary protein, with an emphasis on dairy sources, as well as dietary calcium, to accelerate the loss of fat mass during dieting and preserve lean mass. Available evidence suggests that each practice has a highly plausible mechanistic and growing clinical rationale in terms of efficacy in promoting fat mass loss and lean mass retention during a hypoenergetic diet.

  18. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (<500 ng/mL) on Day 8. In these patients, the frequency of posaconazole administration was increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was <200 ng/mL. This study shows that increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy.

  19. Optimization of CDT-1 and XYL1 expression for balanced co-production of ethanol and xylitol from cellobiose and xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zha, Jian; Li, Bing-Zhi; Shen, Ming-Hua; Hu, Meng-Long; Song, Hao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Production of ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is an alternative to the traditional production of ethanol in utilizing biomass. However, the conversion efficiency of xylose to xylitol is restricted by glucose repression, causing a low xylitol titer. To this end, we cloned genes CDT-1 (encoding a cellodextrin transporter) and gh1-1 (encoding an intracellular β-glucosidase) from Neurospora crassa and XYL1 (encoding a xylose reductase that converts xylose into xylitol) from Scheffersomyces stipitis into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabling simultaneous production of ethanol and xylitol from a mixture of cellobiose and xylose (main components of lignocellulosic hydrolysates). We further optimized the expression levels of CDT-1 and XYL1 by manipulating their promoters and copy-numbers, and constructed an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (carrying one copy of PGK1p-CDT1 and two copies of TDH3p-XYL1), which showed an 85.7% increase in xylitol production from the mixture of cellobiose and xylose than that from the mixture of glucose and xylose. Thus, we achieved a balanced co-fermentation of cellobiose (0.165 g/L/h) and xylose (0.162 g/L/h) at similar rates to co-produce ethanol (0.36 g/g) and xylitol (1.00 g/g).

  20. Hybrid neuromusculoskeletal modeling to best track joint moments using a balance between muscle excitations derived from electromyograms and optimization.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Massimo; Farina, Dario; Lloyd, David G

    2014-11-28

    Current electromyography (EMG)-driven musculoskeletal models are used to estimate joint moments measured from an individual׳s extremities during dynamic movement with varying levels of accuracy. The main benefit is the underlying musculoskeletal dynamics is simulated as a function of realistic, subject-specific, neural-excitation patterns provided by the EMG data. The main disadvantage is surface EMG cannot provide information on deeply located muscles. Furthermore, EMG data may be affected by cross-talk, recording and post-processing artifacts that could adversely influence the EMG׳s information content. This limits the EMG-driven model׳s ability to calculate the multi-muscle dynamics and the resulting joint moments about multiple degrees of freedom. We present a hybrid neuromusculoskeletal model that combines calibration, subject-specificity, EMG-driven and static optimization methods together. In this, the joint moment tracking errors are minimized by balancing the information content extracted from the experimental EMG data and from that generated by a static optimization method. Using movement data from five healthy male subjects during walking and running we explored the hybrid model׳s best configuration to minimally adjust recorded EMGs and predict missing EMGs while attaining the best tracking of joint moments. Minimally adjusted and predicted excitations substantially improved the experimental joint moment tracking accuracy than current EMG-driven models. The ability of the hybrid model to predict missing muscle EMGs was also examined. The proposed hybrid model enables muscle-driven simulations of human movement while enforcing physiological constraints on muscle excitation patterns. This might have important implications for studying pathological movement for which EMG recordings are limited.

  1. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR -/-) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Longo, Kenneth A; Berryman, Darlene E; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Distefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J; Kopchick, John J

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR -/- mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (M(b)) changes and physical activity in 17month-old female GHR -/- mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR -/- mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit M(b), had greater EE per unit M(b) and had an increase in 24-h EE/M(b) that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR -/- mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, M(b) and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for M(b) and LMA, the GHR -/- mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR -/- mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR -/- mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final 3h of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR -/- mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable M(b). Relative to wild type mice, the GHR -/- mice consumed more calories per unit M(b), which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR -/- mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA.

  2. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR−/−) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Kenneth A.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; DiStefano, Peter S.; Geddes, Brad J.; Kopchick, John

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR −/− mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (Mb) changes and physical activity in 17 month-old female GHR −/− mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR −/− mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit Mb, had greater EE per unit Mb and had an increase in 24-h EE/Mb that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR −/− mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, Mb and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for Mb and LMA, the GHR −/− mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR −/− mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR −/− mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final three hours of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR −/− mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable Mb. Relative to wild type mice, the GHR −/− mice consumed more calories per unit Mb, which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR −/− mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. PMID:19747867

  3. Two-speed phacoemulsification for soft cataracts using optimized parameters and procedure step toolbar with the CENTURION Vision System and Balanced Tip

    PubMed Central

    Davison, James A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To present a cause of posterior capsule aspiration and a technique using optimized parameters to prevent it from happening when operating soft cataracts. Patients and methods A prospective list of posterior capsule aspiration cases was kept over 4,062 consecutive cases operated with the Alcon CENTURION machine and Balanced Tip. Video analysis of one case of posterior capsule aspiration was accomplished. A surgical technique was developed using empirically derived machine parameters and customized setting-selection procedure step toolbar to reduce the pace of aspiration of soft nuclear quadrants in order to prevent capsule aspiration. Results Two cases out of 3,238 experienced posterior capsule aspiration before use of the soft quadrant technique. Video analysis showed an attractive vortex effect with capsule aspiration occurring in 1/5 of a second. A soft quadrant removal setting was empirically derived which had a slower pace and seemed more controlled with no capsule aspiration occurring in the subsequent 824 cases. The setting featured simultaneous linear control from zero to preset maximums for: aspiration flow, 20 mL/min; and vacuum, 400 mmHg, with the addition of torsional tip amplitude up to 20% after the fluidic maximums were achieved. A new setting selection procedure step toolbar was created to increase intraoperative flexibility by providing instantaneous shifting between the soft and normal settings. Conclusion A technique incorporating a reduced pace for soft quadrant acquisition and aspiration can be accomplished through the use of a dedicated setting of integrated machine parameters. Toolbar placement of the procedure button next to the normal setting procedure button provides the opportunity to instantaneously alternate between the two settings. Simultaneous surgeon control over vacuum, aspiration flow, and torsional tip motion may make removal of soft nuclear quadrants more efficient and safer. PMID:26355695

  4. Lipid Encapsulation Provides Insufficient Total-Tract Digestibility to Achieve an Optimal Transfer Efficiency of Fatty Acids to Milk Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle. Diets consisted of a control (no EEO); 1.5% of dry matter (DM) as EEO and 1.5% DM as encapsulation matrix; and 3% DM as EEO. The EEO was rumen-stable and had no effect on animal production. EEO-derived FA were incorporated into all plasma lipid fractions, with the highest proportion of n-3 FA observed in cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of EEO-derived FA ranged from 7–14%. Biohydrogenation products increased in milk, plasma, and feces with EEO supplementation. In conclusion, lipid-encapsulation provides inadequate digestibility to achieve an optimal transfer efficiency of n-3 FA to milk. PMID:27741299

  5. Achieving Work-Life Balance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting, Part I: The Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley; Pitney, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Supervisor support has been identified as key to the fulfillment of work-life balance for the athletic trainer (AT), yet limited literature exists on the perspectives of supervisors. Objective: To investigate how the head AT facilitates work-life balance among staff members within the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Web-based management system. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 head ATs (13 men, 5 women; age = 44 ± 8 years, athletic training experience = 22 ± 7 years) volunteered for an asynchronous, Web-based interview. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to a series of questions by journaling their thoughts and experiences. We included multiple-analyst triangulation, stakeholder checks, and peer review to establish data credibility. We analyzed the data via a general inductive approach. Results: Four prevailing themes emerged from the data: modeling work-life balance, encouraging disengagement from the AT role, cooperation and community workplace, and administrative support and understanding. Conclusions: Head ATs at the Division I level recognized the need to promote work-life balance among their staffs. They not only were supportive of policies that promote work-life balance, including spending time away from the role of the AT and teamwork among staff members, but also modeled and practiced the strategies that they promoted. PMID:25343530

  6. Nanocarriers for optimizing the balance between interfollicular permeation and follicular uptake of topically applied clobetasol to minimize adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Mathes, C; Melero, A; Conrad, P; Vogt, T; Rigo, L; Selzer, D; Prado, W A; De Rossi, C; Garrigues, T M; Hansen, S; Guterres, S S; Pohlmann, A R; Beck, R C R; Lehr, C-M; Schaefer, U F

    2016-02-10

    The treatment of various hair disorders has become a central focus of good dermatologic patient care as it affects men and women all over the world. For many inflammatory-based scalp diseases, glucocorticoids are an essential part of treatment, even though they are known to cause systemic as well as local adverse effects when applied topically. Therefore, efficient targeting and avoidance of these side effects are of utmost importance. Optimizing the balance between drug release, interfollicular permeation, and follicular uptake may allow minimizing these adverse events and simultaneously improve drug delivery, given that one succeeds in targeting a sustained release formulation to the hair follicle. To test this hypothesis, three types of polymeric nanocarriers (nanospheres, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules) for the potent glucocorticoid clobetasol propionate (CP) were prepared. They all exhibited a sustained release of drug, as was desired. The particles were formulated as a dispersion and hydrogel and (partially) labeled with Rhodamin B for quantification purposes. Follicular uptake was investigated using the Differential Stripping method and was found highest for nanocapsules in dispersion after application of massage. Moreover, the active ingredient (CP) as well as the nanocarrier (Rhodamin B labeled polymer) recovered in the hair follicle were measured simultaneously, revealing an equivalent uptake of both. In contrast, only negligible amounts of CP could be detected in the hair follicle when applied as free drug in solution or hydrogel, regardless of any massage. Skin permeation experiments using heat-separated human epidermis mounted in Franz Diffusion cells revealed equivalent reduced transdermal permeability for all nanocarriers in comparison to application of the free drug. Combining these results, nanocapsules formulated as an aqueous dispersion and applied by massage appeare to be a good candidate to maximize follicular targeting and minimize drug

  7. People First Mission Always: A Historical Examination of the Need to Find the Balance Between Protecting the Force and Achieving the Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    protection policy must balance the competing interests of the state in order to allow for mission success, while still maintaining the combat effectiveness...people, can be equated to the possible effects of force protection on the success of the mission. Political and military resolve encapsulates two parts

  8. Prediction of the optimum surface orientation angles to achieve maximum solar radiation using Particle Swarm Optimization in Sabha City Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, F. A.; Nizam, M.; Anwar, M.

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to predict the optimum surface orientation angles in solar panel installation to achieve maximum solar radiation. Incident solar radiation is calculated using koronakis mathematical model. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used as computational method to find optimum angle orientation for solar panel installation in order to get maximum solar radiation. A series of simulation has been carried out to calculate solar radiation based on monthly, seasonally, semi-yearly and yearly period. South-facing was calculated also as comparison of proposed method. South-facing considers azimuth of 0°. Proposed method attains higher incident predictions than South-facing that recorded 2511.03 kWh/m2for monthly. It were about 2486.49 kWh/m2, 2482.13 kWh/m2and 2367.68 kWh/m2 for seasonally, semi-yearly and yearly. South-facing predicted approximately 2496.89 kWh/m2, 2472.40 kWh/m2, 2468.96 kWh/m2, 2356.09 kWh/m2for monthly, seasonally, semi-yearly and yearly periods respectively. Semi-yearly is the best choice because it needs twice adjustments of solar panel in a year. Yet it considers inefficient to adjust solar panel position in every season or monthly with no significant solar radiation increase than semi-yearly and solar tracking device still considers costly in solar energy system. PSO was able to predict accurately with simple concept, easy and computationally efficient. It has been proven by finding the best fitness faster.

  9. Whole-herd optimization with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. III. Application of an optimization model to evaluate alternatives to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Fox, D G; Cherney, D J; Chase, L E; Tedeschi, L O

    2000-09-01

    The objectives of this paper were to use a linear programming model previously described to evaluate different alternatives for reducing excess nutrients that may influence water quality on a case study farm (300 lactating cows on 430 ha of cropland growing alfalfa, grass, and corn). Several alternatives perceived to influence farm nutrient balance were evaluated for their potential to reduce N and P mass balance. Dividing lactating cow diets into three groups according to their level of milk production versus a one-group total mixed ration decreased mass balance (tonne/yr) from 51.7 to 44.7 for N, from 6.7 to 6.1 for P and from 16.2 to 14.8 for K with little influence on return over feed costs. Increasing forage quality (lower neutral detergent fiber and higher crude protein) did not improve N balance because of the increased N fixation from the air to the soil, but it increased returns over feed costs by $31,385. Improving yields to the maximum potential for the farm reduced mass balance by 29, 51, and 100% for N, P, and K, respectively, and increased returns over feed costs by $70,579. Changing the crop hectare proportions to more corn and less alfalfa reduced N and K balances by 19 and 29%, respectively, and increased returns over feed costs $39,383. Increasing annual milk production 10% by increasing milk production per head 10% compared with increasing animal numbers at the current average milk production per cow until total milk increased 10% gave $34,132 more return over feed costs with less N, P, and K retained on the farm.

  10. Use of allopurinol with low-dose 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease to achieve optimal active metabolite levels: A review of four cases and the literature

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Todd N; Ginsberg, Allen L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At least one-third of patients with inflammatory bowel disease do not respond or are intolerant to therapy with 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). A subgroup fails to attain optimal levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) and instead shunts to 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (6-MMPN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted, and four patients are described who had been previously unable to achieve optimal 6-TGN metabolite levels until allopurinol was added to their treatment. RESULTS: All four patients achieved optimal 6-TGN levels and undetectable 6-MMPN with a mean 6-MP dose of 0.49 mg/kg. Three achieved steroid-free clinical remission. Two of those three patients had normalization of liver enzymes; one patient had baseline normal liver enzymes despite an initial 6-MMPN level of 27,369 pmol/8×108 red blood cells. Two patients experienced reversible leukopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Combination allopurinol and low-dose 6-MP is an effective means to achieve optimal metabolite levels and steroid-free clinical remission in previously refractory patients. Caution is advised. PMID:18299738

  11. Addition of hydrochlorothiazide to angiotensin receptor blocker therapy can achieve a lower sodium balance with no acceleration of intrarenal renin angiotensin system in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Daisuke; Fukuda, Michio; Ogiyama, Yoshiaki; Sato, Ryo; Mizuno, Masashi; Miura, Toshiyuki; Abe-Dohmae, Sumiko; Michikawa, Makoto; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) produce a lower sodium (Na) balance, and the natriuretic effect is enhanced under Na deprivation, despite falls in blood pressure (BP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods The effect of additional hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 12.5 mg/day) to ARB treatment (valsartan; 80 mg/day) on glomerulotubular Na balance was evaluated in 23 patients with chronic kidney disease. Results Add-on HCTZ decreased GFR, tubular Na load, and tubular Na reabsorption (tNa), although 24-hour urinary Na excretion (UNaV) remained constant. Daily urinary angiotensinogen excretion (UAGTV, 152±10→82±17 μg/g Cre) reduced (p=0.02). Changes in tubular Na load (r2=0.26) and tNa (r2=0.25) correlated with baseline 24-hour UAGTV. Changes in filtered Na load correlated with changes in nighttime systolic BP (r2=0.17), but not with changes in daytime systolic BP. The change in the tNa to filtered Na load ratio was influenced by the change in daytime UNaV (β=−0.67, F=16.8), rather than the change in nighttime UNaV. Conclusions Lower Na balance was produced by add-on HCTZ to ARB treatment without an increase of intra-renal renin-angiotensin system activity, leading to restoration of nocturnal hypertension. A further study is needed to demonstrate that the reduction of UAGTV by additional diuretics to ARBs prevents the progression of nephropathy or cardiovascular events. PMID:27283968

  12. A neural network based optimization system provides on-line coal fired furnace air flow balancing for heat rate improvement and NO{sub x} reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Radl, B.J.; Roland, W. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The optimization system provides on-line, real-time air flow balancing without extensive testing or large complex physical models. NO{sub x} emissions and unit heat rate are very sensitive to air distribution and turbulence in the combustion zone. These issues are continuously changing due to ambient conditions, coal quality and the condition of plant equipment. This report discusses applying on-line, real-time and neural network to adjust secondary air flow and overfire air flow to reduce NO{sub x} and improve heat rate on various coal fired boiler designs.

  13. On enforcing maximum principles and achieving element-wise species balance for advection-diffusion-reaction equations under the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a robust computational framework for advective-diffusive-reactive systems that satisfies maximum principles, the non-negative constraint, and element-wise species balance property. The proposed methodology is valid on general computational grids, can handle heterogeneous anisotropic media, and provides accurate numerical solutions even for very high Péclet numbers. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate advection (which makes the spatial part of the differential operator non-self-adjoint) into the non-negative computational framework, and overcome numerical challenges associated with advection. We employ low-order mixed finite element formulations based on least-squares formalism, and enforce explicit constraints on the discrete problem to meet the desired properties. The resulting constrained discrete problem belongs to convex quadratic programming for which a unique solution exists. Maximum principles and the non-negative constraint give rise to bound constraints while element-wise species balance gives rise to equality constraints. The resulting convex quadratic programming problems are solved using an interior-point algorithm. Several numerical results pertaining to advection-dominated problems are presented to illustrate the robustness, convergence, and the overall performance of the proposed computational framework.

  14. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  15. Optimal numbers of matings: the conditional balance between benefits and costs of mating for females of a nuptial gift-giving spider.

    PubMed

    Toft, S; Albo, M J

    2015-02-01

    In species where females gain a nutritious nuptial gift during mating, the balance between benefits and costs of mating may depend on access to food. This means that there is not one optimal number of matings for the female but a range of optimal mating numbers. With increasing food availability, the optimal number of matings for a female should vary from the number necessary only for fertilization of her eggs to the number needed also for producing these eggs. In three experimental series, the average number of matings for females of the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis before egg sac construction varied from 2 to 16 with food-limited females generally accepting more matings than well-fed females. Minimal level of optimal mating number for females at satiation feeding conditions was predicted to be 2-3; in an experimental test, the median number was 2 (range 0-4). Multiple mating gave benefits in terms of increased fecundity and increased egg hatching success up to the third mating, and it had costs in terms of reduced fecundity, reduced egg hatching success after the third mating, and lower offspring size. The level of polyandry seems to vary with the female optimum, regulated by a satiation-dependent resistance to mating, potentially leaving satiated females in lifelong virginity.

  16. Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with "optimal outcomes" (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the…

  17. Exquisite Moments: Achieving Optimal Flow in Three Activity-Based Groups Regardless of Early-Childhood Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S. Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Flow experiences (also known as optimal performance) occur when people engage in activities they enjoy. The authors discuss such events in their study that examined a number of healthy, active individuals (performing artists, athletes, and others engaged in a range of recreational activities) and divided these into three groups based on adverse…

  18. Academic Abilities in Children and Adolescents with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Helt, Molly; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the academic abilities of children and adolescents who were once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for this disorder. These individuals have achieved social and language skills within the average range for their ages, receive little or no school support, and are referred to…

  19. SU-E-T-387: Achieving Optimal Patient Setup Imaging and Treatment Workflow Configurations in Multi-Room Proton Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H; Prado, K; Langen, K; Yi, B; Mehta, M; Regine, W; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To simulate patient flow in proton treatment center under uncertainty and to explore the feasibility of treatment preparation rooms to improve patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Methods: Three center layout scenarios were modeled: (S1: In-Tx room imaging) patient setup and imaging (planar/volumetric) performed in treatment room, (S2: Patient setup in preparation room) each treatment room was assigned with preparation room(s) that was equipped with lasers only for patient setup and gross patient alignment, and (S3: Patient setup and imaging in preparation room) preparation room(s) was equipped with laser and volumetric imaging for patient setup, gross and fine patient alignment. A 'snap' imaging was performed in treatment room. For each scenario, the number of treatment rooms and the number of preparation rooms serving each treatment room were varied. We examined our results (average of 100 16-hour (two shifts) working days) by evaluating patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Results: When the number of treatment rooms increased ([from, to]) [1, 5], daily patient throughput increased [32, 161], [29, 184] and [27, 184] and cyclotron utilization increased [13%, 85%], [12%, 98%], and [11%, 98%] for scenarios S1, S2 and S3 respectively. However, both measures plateaued after 4 rooms. With the preparation rooms, the throughput and the cyclotron utilization increased by 14% and 15%, respectively. Three preparation rooms were optimal to serve 1-3 treatment rooms and two preparation rooms were optimal to serve 4 or 5 treatment rooms. Conclusion: Patient preparation rooms for patient setup may increase throughput and decrease the need for additional treatment rooms (cost effective). Optimal number of preparation rooms serving each gantry room varies as a function of treatment rooms and patient setup scenarios. A 5th treatment room may not be justified by throughput or utilization.

  20. Using ant colony optimization on the quadratic assignment problem to achieve low energy cost in geo-distributed data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, Richard

    There are many problems associated with operating a data center. Some of these problems include data security, system performance, increasing infrastructure complexity, increasing storage utilization, keeping up with data growth, and increasing energy costs. Energy cost differs by location, and at most locations fluctuates over time. The rising cost of energy makes it harder for data centers to function properly and provide a good quality of service. With reduced energy cost, data centers will have longer lasting servers/equipment, higher availability of resources, better quality of service, a greener environment, and reduced service and software costs for consumers. Some of the ways that data centers have tried to using to reduce energy costs include dynamically switching on and off servers based on the number of users and some predefined conditions, the use of environmental monitoring sensors, and the use of dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), which enables processors to run at different combinations of frequencies with voltages to reduce energy cost. This thesis presents another method by which energy cost at data centers could be reduced. This method involves the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) on a Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) in assigning user request to servers in geo-distributed data centers. In this paper, an effort to reduce data center energy cost involves the use of front portals, which handle users' requests, were used as ants to find cost effective ways to assign users requests to a server in heterogeneous geo-distributed data centers. The simulation results indicate that the ACO for Optimal Server Activation and Task Placement algorithm reduces energy cost on a small and large number of users' requests in a geo-distributed data center and its performance increases as the input data grows. In a simulation with 3 geo-distributed data centers, and user's resource request ranging from 25,000 to 25,000,000, the ACO algorithm was able

  1. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  2. Predictive Potential of Flux Balance Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using as Optimization Function Combinations of Cell Compartmental Objectives

    PubMed Central

    García Sánchez, Carlos Eduardo; Vargas García, César Augusto; Torres Sáez, Rodrigo Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Background The main objective of flux balance analysis (FBA) is to obtain quantitative predictions of metabolic fluxes of an organism, and it is necessary to use an appropriate objective function to guarantee a good estimation of those fluxes. Methodology In this study, the predictive performance of FBA was evaluated, using objective functions arising from the linear combination of different cellular objectives. This approach is most suitable for eukaryotic cells, owing to their multiplicity of cellular compartments. For this reason, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as model organism, and its metabolic network was represented using the genome-scale metabolic model iMM904. As the objective was to evaluate the predictive performance from the FBA using the kind of objective function previously described, substrate uptake and oxygen consumption were the only input data used for the FBA. Experimental information about microbial growth and exchange of metabolites with the environment was used to assess the quality of the predictions. Conclusions The quality of the predictions obtained with the FBA depends greatly on the knowledge of the oxygen uptake rate. For the most of studied classifications, the best predictions were obtained with “maximization of growth”, and with some combinations that include this objective. However, in the case of exponential growth with unknown oxygen exchange flux, the objective function “maximization of growth, plus minimization of NADH production in cytosol, plus minimization of NAD(P)H consumption in mitochondrion” gave much more accurate estimations of fluxes than the obtained with any other objective function explored in this study. PMID:22912775

  3. Technology for monitoring shot-level light source performance data to achieve high-optimization of lithography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Masato; Ochiai, Hideyuki; Watabe, Yoshinobu; Ishida, Keisuke; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Youichi; Kumazaki, Takahito; Kurosu, Akihiko; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2014-03-01

    Gigaphoton has developed a new monitoring system that provides shot-level light source performance data to FDC systems during exposure time. The system provides basic monitoring data (e.g. Energy, Wavelength, Bandwidth, etc.) and beam performance data, such as Beam Profile, Pointing, Divergence, Polarization can also be monitored using a new metrology tool called the Beam Performance Monitor (BPM) module. During exposure time the system automatically identifies the start and end timing of the wafer and each shot based on the burst of firing signals from the scanner, and stores the measured data in sequence. The stored data is sorted by wafer or by shot, and sent to REDeeM Piece which in turn converts the data to the user's protocol and send it to the FDC system. The user also has the option to directly view or download the stored data using a GUI. Through this monitoring system, users can manage light sources data at the shot or reticle level to facilitate optimization of performance and running cost of the light source for each process. This monitoring system can be easily retrofitted to Gigaphoton's current ArF laser light sources. The beam splitter of the BPM was specially designed to bend only a small fraction of the source beam, so we are able to simply install the BPM without the need for special optical alignment.

  4. Imaging Live Cells at the Nanometer-Scale with Single-Molecule Microscopy: Obstacles and Achievements in Experiment Optimization for Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Beth L.; Matson, Jyl S.; DiRita, Victor J.; Biteen, Julie S.

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy enables biological investigations inside living cells to achieve millisecond- and nanometer-scale resolution. Although single-molecule-based methods are becoming increasingly accessible to non-experts, optimizing new single-molecule experiments can be challenging, in particular when super-resolution imaging and tracking are applied to live cells. In this review, we summarize common obstacles to live-cell single-molecule microscopy and describe the methods we have developed and applied to overcome these challenges in live bacteria. We examine the choice of fluorophore and labeling scheme, approaches to achieving single-molecule levels of fluorescence, considerations for maintaining cell viability, and strategies for detecting single-molecule signals in the presence of noise and sample drift. We also discuss methods for analyzing single-molecule trajectories and the challenges presented by the finite size of a bacterial cell and the curvature of the bacterial membrane. PMID:25123183

  5. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) optimize foraging efficiency by balancing oxygen use and energy gain as a function of prey density.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Elliott Lee; Friedlaender, Ari Seth; Goldbogen, Jeremy Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Terrestrial predators can modulate the energy used for prey capture to maximize efficiency, but diving animals face the conflicting metabolic demands of energy intake and the minimization of oxygen depletion during a breath hold. It is thought that diving predators optimize their foraging success when oxygen use and energy gain act as competing currencies, but this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested because it has been difficult to measure the quality of prey that is targeted by free-ranging animals. We used high-resolution multisensor digital tags attached to foraging blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) with concurrent acoustic prey measurements to quantify foraging performance across depth and prey density gradients. We parameterized two competing physiological models to estimate energy gain and expenditure based on foraging decisions. Our analyses show that at low prey densities, blue whale feeding rates and energy intake were low to minimize oxygen use, but at higher prey densities feeding frequency increased to maximize energy intake. Contrary to previous paradigms, we demonstrate that blue whales are not indiscriminate grazers but instead switch foraging strategies in response to variation in prey density and depth to maximize energetic efficiency.

  6. Male moths optimally balance take-off thoracic temperature and warm-up duration to reach a pheromone source quickly.

    PubMed

    Crespo, José G; Vickers, Neil J; Goller, Franz

    2014-12-01

    Animal activities, such as foraging and reproduction, are constrained by decisions about how to allocate energy and time efficiently. Overall, male moths invest less in reproduction than females, but they are thought to engage in a scramble competition for access to females that advertise readiness to mate by releasing sexual pheromones. However, before male moths can follow the pheromone, they often need to heat their flight muscles by shivering to produce sufficient power for sustained flight. Here, we show that Helicoverpa zea males that sense the female pheromone at high ambient temperatures take off with higher thoracic temperature, shiver for less time and warm up faster than males tested at lower ambient temperatures. These higher take-off temperatures translate into higher airspeeds, underscoring the importance of thoracic temperature for flight performance. Furthermore, shorter combined duration for warm-up and pheromone-mediated optomotor anemotaxis is consistent with the idea that males engage in scramble competition for access to females in nature. Our results strongly suggest that male moths minimize the time between perceiving the female's pheromone signal and arriving at the source by optimizing thermoregulatory behaviour and temperature-dependent flight performance in accordance with ambient temperature conditions. Our finding that moths engage in a trade-off between rapid flight initiation and suboptimal flight performance suggests a sensorimotor control mechanism that involves a complex interaction with the thermal environment.

  7. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) optimize foraging efficiency by balancing oxygen use and energy gain as a function of prey density

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Elliott Lee; Friedlaender, Ari Seth; Goldbogen, Jeremy Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial predators can modulate the energy used for prey capture to maximize efficiency, but diving animals face the conflicting metabolic demands of energy intake and the minimization of oxygen depletion during a breath hold. It is thought that diving predators optimize their foraging success when oxygen use and energy gain act as competing currencies, but this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested because it has been difficult to measure the quality of prey that is targeted by free-ranging animals. We used high-resolution multisensor digital tags attached to foraging blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) with concurrent acoustic prey measurements to quantify foraging performance across depth and prey density gradients. We parameterized two competing physiological models to estimate energy gain and expenditure based on foraging decisions. Our analyses show that at low prey densities, blue whale feeding rates and energy intake were low to minimize oxygen use, but at higher prey densities feeding frequency increased to maximize energy intake. Contrary to previous paradigms, we demonstrate that blue whales are not indiscriminate grazers but instead switch foraging strategies in response to variation in prey density and depth to maximize energetic efficiency. PMID:26601290

  8. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  9. A single-stage optical load-balanced switch for data centers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qirui; Yeo, Yong-Kee; Zhou, Luying

    2012-10-22

    Load balancing is an attractive technique to achieve maximum throughput and optimal resource utilization in large-scale switching systems. However current electronic load-balanced switches suffer from severe problems in implementation cost, power consumption and scaling. To overcome these problems, in this paper we propose a single-stage optical load-balanced switch architecture based on an arrayed waveguide grating router (AWGR) in conjunction with fast tunable lasers. By reuse of the fast tunable lasers, the switch achieves both functions of load balancing and switching through the AWGR. With this architecture, proof-of-concept experiments have been conducted to investigate the feasibility of the optical load-balanced switch and to examine its physical performance. Compared to three-stage load-balanced switches, the reported switch needs only half of optical devices such as tunable lasers and AWGRs, which can provide a cost-effective solution for future data centers.

  10. Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  11. Energy Balance and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hill, James O.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Peters, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interplay among energy intake, energy expenditure and body energy stores and illustrates how an understanding of energy balance can help develop strategies to reduce obesity. First, reducing obesity will require modifying both energy intake and energy expenditure and not simply focusing on either alone. Food restriction alone will not be effective in reducing obesity if human physiology is biased toward achieving energy balance at a high energy flux (i.e. at a high level of energy intake and expenditure). In previous environments a high energy flux was achieved with a high level of physical activity but in today's sedentary environment it is increasingly achieved through weight gain. Matching energy intake to a high level of energy expenditure will likely be more a more feasible strategy for most people to maintain a healthy weight than restricting food intake to meet a low level of energy expenditure. Second, from an energy balance point of view we are likely to be more successful in preventing excessive weight gain than in treating obesity. This is because the energy balance system shows much stronger opposition to weight loss than to weight gain. While large behavior changes are needed to produce and maintain reductions in body weight, small behavior changes may be sufficient to prevent excessive weight gain. In conclusion, the concept of energy balance combined with an understanding of how the body achieves balance may be a useful framework in helping develop strategies to reduce obesity rates. PMID:22753534

  12. Strategy to Achieve Highly Porous/Biocompatible Macroscale Cell Blocks, Using a Collagen/Genipin-bioink and an Optimal 3D Printing Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Bok; Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-11-30

    Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting process for obtaining a cell-laden structure has been widely applied because of its ability to fabricate biomimetic complex structures embedded with and without cells. To successfully obtain a cell-laden porous block, the cell-delivering vehicle, bioink, is one of the significant factors. Until now, various biocompatible hydrogels (synthetic and natural biopolymers) have been utilized in the cell-printing process, but a bioink satisfying both biocompatibility and print-ability requirements to achieve a porous structure with reasonable mechanical strength has not been issued. Here, we propose a printing strategy with optimal conditions including a safe cross-linking procedure for obtaining a 3D porous cell block composed of a biocompatible collagen-bioink and genipin, a cross-linking agent. To obtain the optimal processing conditions, we modified the 3D printing machine and selected an optimal cross-linking condition (∼1 mM and 1 h) of genipin solution. To show the feasibility of the process, 3D pore-interconnected cell-laden constructs were manufactured using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and human adipose stem cells (hASCs). Under these processing conditions, a macroscale 3D collagen-based cell block of 21 × 21 × 12 mm(3) and over 95% cell viability was obtained. In vitro biological testing of the cell-laden 3D porous structure showed that the embedded cells were sufficiently viable, and their proliferation was significantly higher; the cells also exhibited increased osteogenic activities compared to the conventional alginate-based bioink (control). The results indicated the fabrication process using the collagen-bioink would be an innovative platform to design highly biocompatible and mechanically stable cell blocks.

  13. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  14. Optimal and safe standard doses of midazolam and propofol to achieve patient and doctor satisfaction with dental treatment: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Mutsumi; Nishimura, Akiko; Gotoh, Kinuko; Oka, Shuichirou; Iijima, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidences of morbidity and mortality caused by pharmacosedation for dental treatment have not yet reached zero. Adverse events are related to inappropriate respiratory management, mostly originating from an overdose of sedatives. Since sedation is utilized for the satisfaction of both the dentist and the patient, the optimal dose should be minimized to prevent adverse events. We attempted to define the optimal doses of midazolam and propofol required to achieve high levels of patient and dentist satisfaction. Methods One thousand dental patients, including those undergoing third molar extractions, were enrolled in this study. A dose of 1 mg of midazolam was administered at 1-minute intervals until adequate sedation was achieved. Propofol was then infused continuously to maintain the sedation level. Both the patients and the dentists were subsequently interviewed and asked to complete a questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors that contributed to patient and dentist satisfaction. Results The peak midazolam dose resulting in the highest percentage of patient satisfaction was 3 mg. Both a lower dose and a higher dose reduced patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction increased with an increasing dosage of propofol up until 4 mg/kg/hr, reaching a peak of 78.6%. The peak midazolam dose resulting in the highest percentage of dentist satisfaction (78.8%) was 2 mg. Incremental propofol doses reduced dentist satisfaction, in contrast to their effect on patient satisfaction. The strongest independent predictors of patient satisfaction and dentist satisfaction were no intraoperative memory (OR, 5.073; 95% CI, 3.532–7.287; P<0.001) and unintentional movements by the patient (OR, 0.035; 95% CI, 0.012–0.104; P<0.001), respectively. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion We found that 3 mg of midazolam and 3 mg/kg/hr of propofol may be the optimal doses for maximizing both patient and dentist

  15. Pharmacodynamic effects of cangrelor and clopidogrel: the platelet function substudy from the cangrelor versus standard therapy to achieve optimal management of platelet inhibition (CHAMPION) trials.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Schneider, David J; Bhatt, Deepak L; French, William J; Price, Matthew J; Saucedo, Jorge F; Shaburishvili, Tamaz; Huber, Kurt; Prats, Jayne; Liu, Tiepu; Harrington, Robert A; Becker, Richard C

    2012-07-01

    Cangrelor is an intravenous antagonist of the P2Y(12) receptor characterized by rapid, potent, predictable, and reversible platelet inhibition. However, cangrelor was not superior to clopidogrel in reducing the incidence of ischemic events in the cangrelor versus standard therapy to achieve optimal management of platelet inhibition (CHAMPION) trials. A prospectively designed platelet function substudy was performed in a selected cohort of patients to provide insight into the pharmacodynamic effects of cangrelor, particularly in regard to whether cangrelor therapy may interfere with the inhibitory effects of clopidogrel. This pre-defined substudy was conducted in a subset of patients from the CHAMPION-PCI trial (n = 230) comparing cangrelor with 600 mg of clopidogrel administered before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and from the CHAMPION-PLATFORM trial (n = 4) comparing cangrelor at the time of PCI and 600 mg clopidogrel given after the PCI. Pharmacodynamic measures included P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) assessed by VerifyNow P2Y12 testing (primary endpoint marker), platelet aggregation by light transmittance aggregometry following 5 and 20 μmol/L adenosine diphosphate stimuli, and markers of platelet activation determined by flow cytometry. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients who achieved <20 % change in PRU between baseline and >10 h after PCI. The main trial was stopped early limiting enrollment in the platelet substudy. A total of 167 patients had valid pharmacodynamic assessments for the primary endpoint. The percent of individuals achieving <20 % change in PRU between baseline and >10 h after PCI was higher with cangrelor + clopidogrel (32/84, 38.1 %) compared with placebo + clopidogrel (21/83, 25.3 %), but this was not statistically significant (difference:12.79 %, 95 % CI: -1.18 %, 26.77 %;p = 0.076). All pharmacodynamic markers as well as the prevalence of patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity were significantly lower

  16. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  17. Laser Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  18. Optimization of 4D vessel‐selective arterial spin labeling angiography using balanced steady‐state free precession and vessel‐encoding

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Peter; Bi, Xiaoming; Chappell, Michael A.; Tijssen, Rob H. N.; Sheerin, Fintan; Miller, Karla L.; Jezzard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Vessel‐selective dynamic angiograms provide a wealth of useful information about the anatomical and functional status of arteries, including information about collateral flow and blood supply to lesions. Conventional x‐ray techniques are invasive and carry some risks to the patient, so non‐invasive alternatives are desirable. Previously, non‐contrast dynamic MRI angiograms based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) have been demonstrated using both spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) and balanced steady‐state free precession (bSSFP) readout modules, but no direct comparison has been made, and bSSFP optimization over a long readout period has not been fully explored. In this study bSSFP and SPGR are theoretically and experimentally compared for dynamic ASL angiography. Unlike SPGR, bSSFP was found to have a very low ASL signal attenuation rate, even when a relatively large flip angle and short repetition time were used, leading to a threefold improvement in the measured signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) efficiency compared with SPGR. For vessel‐selective applications, SNR efficiency can be further improved over single‐artery labeling methods by using a vessel‐encoded pseudo‐continuous ASL (VEPCASL) approach. The combination of a VEPCASL preparation with a time‐resolved bSSFP readout allowed the generation of four‐dimensional (4D; time‐resolved three‐dimensional, 3D) vessel‐selective cerebral angiograms in healthy volunteers with 59 ms temporal resolution. Good quality 4D angiograms were obtained in all subjects, providing comparable structural information to 3D time‐of‐flight images, as well as dynamic information and vessel selectivity, which was shown to be high. A rapid 1.5 min dynamic two‐dimensional version of the sequence yielded similar image features and would be suitable for a busy clinical protocol. Preliminary experiments with bSSFP that included the extracranial vessels showed signal loss in regions of poor magnetic field

  19. Pups of dams fed low-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation showed strong preference for high-fat diet to achieve optimal growth.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoko; Sato, Akie

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the causes why pups of dams fed a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet (LFD) showed a strong preference for fat, three groups of dams were fed one of three diets during pregnancy and lactation: the LFD, a control diet (CTD) or a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet (HFD). After weaning, pups of each of the three groups were divided into two equal subgroups (Pair 1 and Pair 2), for a total of six pup subgroups. Each subgroup was placed on a two-choice diet program of the LFD and the HFD (Pair 1), or the LFD and a HFDLE (with cellulose added to maintain the same energy concentration as the LFD) (Pair 2), for 3 wk. Although the energy intake of dams fed the LFD during the nursing period was lower than that of the HFD group, no significant difference in body weight was observed among the three groups. At weaning, the body weight of pups nursed by dams fed the LFD was lower than that of the other groups. In Pair 1, the HFD intake ratio of the LFD and the HFD groups during the self-selection period was higher than that of the CTD group. In Pair 2, the HFDLE intake ratio of the LFD and the CTD groups was lower than that of the HFD group. At the end of the self-selection period, no significant difference in body weight was observed among the three groups of Pair 1. However, in Pair 2, the body weight of the LFD group was lower than that of the other groups. Therefore, it was supposed that pups of dams fed the LFD showed strong preference for the HFD containing high energy in order to achieve optimal growth.

  20. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  1. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  2. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., ... involves simulated trips down the aisles of a virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality ...

  3. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  4. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  5. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help ... whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance retraining exercise ...

  6. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    prior to a decision on redefinition. The CCM had already recognized that agreement was close and has set in place a process whereby redefinition can take place by 2018. The final decision will be in the hands of the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) but the results reported here should aid a positive decision. Figure 1. Figure 1. Results from recent measurements of the Planck constant. The reference for the results h 90 is derived from the conventional values of the Josephson constant K J-90 and the von Klitzing constant R K-90. The factor of ten improvement in uncertainty of the NRC watt balance result, over that achieved by the same apparatus at NPL a few years earlier, can be understood as a factor of five improvement arising from the elimination of an effect discovered at NPL that could not be eliminated before shipment to Canada and a factor of two arising from the considerable improvements made by NRC. Once the kilogram has been redefined, the watt and joule balances will complete their transitions from instruments that are primarily of interest to the electrical community for determining the SI electrical units from the mechanical units, to the principal methods by which an individual National Measurement Institute (NMI) can make an independent determination of the SI unit of mass and thereby contribute to the maintenance of national and international mass scales. This special issue gives an introduction to the diversity of techniques which are required for the operation of watt and joule balances. However it does not contain a review of existing balances; this was a deliberate decision, as a number of such review papers have been published in the past five years [3-7] and it was felt that it was not yet time for another. The first technique considered is that of gravimetry; the watt balance measures the weight Mg of a mass M , and to convert the measured weight into a mass, the value of the acceleration due to gravity g must be known, at the

  7. Leadership and Work-Life Balance.

    PubMed

    Mattock, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Simply stated, work-life balance is something that is both difficult to define and difficult to achieve. Leaders, throughout the continuum of trauma care, need to have a sound understanding of what work-life balance means and set an example of a healthy work-life balance for those they lead. This article offers strategies for enhancing work-life balance and challenges individuals to use self-reflection as a means to furthering their personal and professional growth.

  8. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a residual risk factor associated with long-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease who achieve optimal control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shinya; Kurata, Takeshi; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is recognized an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Clinical trials have shown that statins significantly reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statin. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established coronary risk factor that is independent of LDL-C levels. We evaluated the impact of HDL-C on long-term mortality in diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieved optimal LDL-C. We enrolled 438 consecutive diabetic patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention between 2004 and 2007 at our institution. We identified 165 patients who achieved target LDL-C <100 mg/dl. Patients were stratified into two groups according to HDL-C levels (low HDL-C group, baseline HDL-C <40 mg/dl; high HDL-C group, ≥40 mg/dl). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) that included all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome, and target lesion revascularization were evaluated between the two groups. The median follow-up period was 946 days. The rate of MACE was significantly higher in diabetic patients with low-HDL-C who achieved optimal LDL-C (6.9 vs 17.9 %, log-rank P = 0.030). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C is significantly associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for MACE 1.33, 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.75, P = 0.042). Low HDL-C is a residual risk factor that is significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieve optimal LDL-C levels.

  9. Dynamic localized load balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Sergey I.; Heiner, Andreas P.

    2003-08-01

    Traditionally dynamic load balancing is applied in resource-reserved connection-oriented networks with a large degree of managed control. Load balancing in connectionless networks is rather rudimentary and is either static or requires network-wide load information. This paper presents a fully automated, traffic driven dynamic load balancing mechanism that uses local load information. The proposed mechanism is easily deployed in a multi-vendor environment in which only a subset of routers supports the function. The Dynamic Localized Load Balancing (DLLB) mechanism distributes traffic based on two sets of weights. The first set is fixed and is inverse proportional to the path cost, typically the sum of reciprocal bandwidths along the path. The second weight reflects the utilization of the link to the first next hop along the path, and is therefore variable. The ratio of static weights defines the ideal load distribution, the ratio of variable weights the node-local load distribution estimate. By minimizing the difference between variable and fixed ratios the traffic distribution, with the available node-local knowledge, is optimal. The above mechanism significantly increases throughput and decreases delay from a network-wide perspective. Optionally the variable weight can include load information of nodes downstream to prevent congestion on those nodes. The latter function further improves network performance, and is easily implemented on top of the standard OSPF signaling. The mechanism does not require many node resources and can be implemented on existing router platforms.

  10. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  11. High-performance n-type organic semiconductors: incorporating specific electron-withdrawing motifs to achieve tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun Woo; Kim, Jong H; Shin, Seunghoon; Yang, Hoichang; An, Byeong-Kwan; Yang, Lin; Park, Soo Young

    2012-02-14

    Novel π–conjugated cyanostilbene-based semiconductors (Hex-3,5-TFPTA and Hex-4-TFPTA) with tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels are synthesized. Hex-4-TFPTA exhibits high-performance n-type organic field-effect transistor (OFET) properties with electron mobilities as high as 2.14 cm2 V−1s−1 and on-off current ratios

  12. Ultralong, small-diameter TiOTiO₂ nanotubes achieved by an optimized two-step anodization for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Wang, Xiu

    2014-02-12

    An optimized two-step anodization is developed to fabricate ultralong, small-diameter TiO2 nanotubes, that is, with tube length of up to 31 μm and pore diameter of about 35 nm in this work. This overcomes the length limitation of small diameter tubes that usually presents in conventional one-step anodization. The small tubes with lengths of 23 μm yield a conversion efficiency of 5.02% in dye-sensitized solar cells under nonoptimized conditions.

  13. An optimized workflow for building 3D models from balanced sections and potential field geophysics: a study case in NE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Conxi; Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Pueyo, Emilio Luis; Rubio, Félix; Rodríguez-Pintó, Adriana; María Casas, Antonio; Oliva-Urcía, Belén; Rey-Moral, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining an accurate 3D image of the geometry and physical properties of geological structures in depth is a challenge regardless the scale and the aim of the investigation. In this framework, assessing the origin of the uncertainties and reducing them is a key issue when building a 3D reconstruction of a target area. Usually, this process involves an interdisciplinary approach and also the use of different software whose inputs and outputs have to be interoperable. We have designed a new workflow for 2.5D and 3D geological and potential field modelling, especially useful in areas where no seismic data is available. The final aim is to obtain a 3D geological model, at a regional or local scale, with the smaller uncertainty as possible. Once the study area and the working scale are is decided, the first obvious step is to compile all preexisting data and to determine its uncertainties. If necessary, a survey will be carried out to acquire additional data (e.g., gravity, magnetic or petrophysical data) to have an appropriated coverage of information and rock samples. A thorough study of the petrophysical properties is made to determine the density, magnetic susceptibility and remanence that will be assigned to each lithology, together with its corresponding uncertainty. Finally, the modelling process is started, and it includes a feedback between geology and potential fields in order to progressively refine the model until it fits all the existing data. The procedure starts with the construction of balanced geological cross sections from field work, available geological maps as well as data from stratigraphic columns, boreholes, etc. These geological cross sections are exported and imported in GMSYS software to carry out the 2.5D potential field modelling. The model improves and its uncertainty is reduced through the feedback between the geologists and the geophysicists. Once the potential field anomalies are well adjusted, the cross sections are exported into 3

  14. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  15. Optimization of charge carrier transport balance for performance improvement of PDPP3T-based polymer solar cells prepared using a hot solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Fujun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Wenbin; An, Qiaoshi; Li, Lingliang; Sun, Qianqian; Tang, Weihua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-04-21

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs), with poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the active layers, were fabricated using solutions of different temperatures. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs prepared using a hot solution was about 6.22%, which is better than 5.54% for PSCs prepared using cool (room temperature) solutions and 5.85% for PSCs prepared using cool solutions with a 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) solvent additive. The underlying reasons for the improved PCE of the PSCs prepared using a hot solution could be attributed to the more dispersive donor and acceptor distribution in the active layer, resulting in a better bi-continuous interpenetrating network for exciton dissociation and charge carrier transport. An enhanced and more balanced charge carrier transport in the active layer is obtained for the PSCs prepared using a hot solution, which can be determined from the J-V curves of the related hole-only and electron-only devices.

  16. An ABJS Best Paper: Dynamic intraoperative ligament balancing for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, Darryl D; Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Colwell, Clifford W

    2007-10-01

    Complications after total knee arthroplasty, such as malalignment, instability, and excessive wear, have been attributed to poor soft tissue balance. Traditional instruments that assist in intraoperative soft tissue balancing rely on static measurements. We used a custom tibial trial, instrumented with force transducers, for dynamic measurement of soft tissue balance. Six cadaver knees and two patients were implanted with the trial tray along with a standard femoral component and a tibial insert. We recorded tibial forces during passive knee flexion, after the initial bone cuts were made, after soft tissue balancing, and after replacing the selected optimal insert with one that was 2 mm thicker. In all knees, substantial imbalance in tibial forces initially was recorded. Soft tissue balancing substantially reduced the imbalance. Although reasonable balance was achieved at 0-degree and 90-degree flexion, there was some measurable imbalance at flexion angles other than 0 degrees and 90 degrees. Increasing the thickness of the insert by 2 mm substantially increased net tibial forces. Inconsistent soft tissue balance may explain some of the wide variation in knee kinematics. Surgical navigation systems have reduced the variability in component alignment. An instrumented tibial trial can be a valuable adjunct to directly measure soft tissue balance.

  17. Analysis of the ability of pramlintide to inhibit amyloid formation by human islet amyloid polypeptide reveals a balance between optimal recognition and reduced amyloidogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ridgway, Zachary; Cao, Ping; Ruzsicska, Bela; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2015-11-10

    The hormone human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin) plays a role in glucose metabolism, but forms amyloid in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is associated with β-cell death and dysfunction in the disease. Inhibitors of islet amyloid have therapeutic potential; however, there are no clinically approved inhibitors, and the mode of action of existing inhibitors is not well understood. Rat IAPP (rIAPP) differs from hIAPP at six positions, does not form amyloid, and is an inhibitor of amyloid formation by hIAPP. Five of the six differences are located within the segment of residues 20-29, and three of them are Pro residues, which are well-known disruptors of β-sheet structure. rIAPP is thus a natural example of a "β-breaker inhibitor", a molecule that combines a recognition element with an entity that inhibits β-sheet formation. Pramlintide (PM) is a peptide drug approved for use as an adjunct to insulin therapy for treatment of diabetes. PM was developed by introducing the three Pro substitutions found in rIAPP into hIAPP. Thus, it more closely resembles the human peptide than does rIAPP. Here we examine and compare the ability of rIAPP, PM, and a set of designed analogues of hIAPP to inhibit amyloid formation by hIAPP, to elucidate the factors that lead to effective peptide-based inhibitors. Our results reveal, for this class of molecules, a balance between the reduced amyloidogenicity of the inhibitory sequence on one hand and its ability to recognize hIAPP on the other.

  18. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  19. Using the Taguchi method for rapid quantitative PCR optimization with SYBR Green I.

    PubMed

    Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol; Welch, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Here, we applied the Taguchi method, an engineering optimization process, to successfully determine the optimal conditions for three SYBR Green I-based quantitative PCR assays. This method balanced the effects of all factors and their associated levels by using an orthogonal array rather than a factorial array. Instead of running 27 experiments with the conventional factorial method, the Taguchi method achieved the same optimal conditions using only nine experiments, saving valuable resources.

  20. Benefits and risks of fish consumption Part II. RIBEPEIX, a computer program to optimize the balance between the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Bocio, Ana; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M

    2007-02-12

    In recent years, and based on the importance of fish as a part of a healthy diet, there has been a notable promotion of fish and seafood consumption. However, a number of recent studies have shown that fish may be a potential source of exposure to chemical pollutants, some of them with well known adverse effects on human health. Recently, we determined in 14 edible marine species the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosohexaenoic acid (DHA), as well as those of a number of chemical contaminants: Cd, Hg, Pb, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenylethers and polychlorinated diphenylethers. To quantitative establish the intake of these pollutants (risks) versus that of EPA+DHA (benefits), we designed a simple computer program, RIBEPEIX. The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and the chemical pollutants were introduced into the program. We here present how RIBEPEIX may be used as an easy tool to optimize fish consumption: most suitable species, frequency of consumption, and size of meals. RIBEPEIX can be useful not only for professionals (cardiologists, general physicians, nutritionists, toxicologists, etc.), but also for the general population. It is available at: .

  1. Optimizing municipal wastewater treatment plants using an improved multi-objective optimization method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Xie, Wen-Ming; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei

    2014-04-01

    An improved multi-objective optimization (MOO) model was established and used for simultaneously optimizing the treatment cost and multiple effluent quality indexes (including effluent COD, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N) of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Compared with previous models that were mainly based on the use of fixed decision factors and did not taken into account the treatment cost, this model introduces a relationship model based on back propagation algorithm to determine the set of decision factors according to the expected optimization targets. Thus, a more flexible and precise optimization of the treatment process was allowed. Moreover, a MOO of conflicting objectives (i.e., treatment cost and effluent quality) was achieved. Applying this method, an optimal balance between operating cost and effluent quality of a WWTP can be found. This model may offer a useful tool for optimized design and control of practical WWTPs.

  2. BAS: balanced acceptance sampling of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Robertson, B L; Brown, J A; McDonald, T; Jaksons, P

    2013-09-01

    To design an efficient survey or monitoring program for a natural resource it is important to consider the spatial distribution of the resource. Generally, sample designs that are spatially balanced are more efficient than designs which are not. A spatially balanced design selects a sample that is evenly distributed over the extent of the resource. In this article we present a new spatially balanced design that can be used to select a sample from discrete and continuous populations in multi-dimensional space. The design, which we call balanced acceptance sampling, utilizes the Halton sequence to assure spatial diversity of selected locations. Targeted inclusion probabilities are achieved by acceptance sampling. The BAS design is conceptually simpler than competing spatially balanced designs, executes faster, and achieves better spatial balance as measured by a number of quantities. The algorithm has been programed in an R package freely available for download.

  3. Fine-tuning the lipogenic/lipolytic balance to optimize the metabolic requirements of cancer cell growth: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Javier A

    2010-03-01

    Evolving evidence suggest that metabolic requirements for cell proliferation are identical in all normal and cancer cells. HER2 oncogene-overexpressors, a highly aggressive subtype of human cancer cells, constitute one of the best examples of how malignant cells maximize their ability to acquire and metabolize nutrients in a manner conductive to proliferation rather than efficient ATP production. HER2-overexpressors optimize their requirements of rapid cancer cell growth by fine-tuning a double [lipogenic/lipolytic]-edged metabolic sword. On the one edge, HER2 oncogene overexpression triggers redundant signaling cascades to ensure that all the major enzymes involved in de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis will facilitate aerobic glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation for energy production (Warburg effect). HER2 also establishes a positive bidirectional relationship with the key lipogenic enzyme Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) that rapidly senses and respond to any disturbance in the flux of lipogenic substrates (e.g. NADPH and acetyl-CoA) and lipogenesis end-products (i.e. palmitate). On the other edge, HER2 overexpression arranges detoxifying mechanisms by upregulating PPARgamma, a well established positive regulator role of adipogenesis and lipid storage in cell types with active lipid metabolism. PPARgamma establishes a lipogenesis/lipolysis joining-point that enables HER2-positive cancer cells to avoid endogenous palmitate toxicity while securing palmitate into fat stores to avoid palmitate feedback on FASN functioning. The ability of HER2 to supercharge lipogenesis (by activating regulatory circuits that activate and fuel the lipogenic enzyme FASN) while averting lipotoxicity (by promoting conversion and storage of excess FAs to triglycerides in a PPARgamma-dependent manner) supports the notion that best adapted cancer phenotypes are addicted to oncogenic lipid metabolism for cell proliferation and survival. It is conceptually attractive to assume that we can

  4. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance.

  5. Reframing Our Pursuit of Life Balance

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Rachel R.; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F.

    2015-01-01

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics’ pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  6. Field balancing in the real world

    SciTech Connect

    Bracher, B.

    1997-09-05

    Field balancing can achieve significant results when other problems are present in the frequency spectrum and multiple vibrations are evident in the waveform. Many references suggest eliminating other problems before attempting to balance. That`s great - if you can do it. There are valid reasons for this approach, and it would be much easier to balance machinery when other problems have been corrected. It is the theoretical ideal in field balancing. However, in the real world of machinery maintained for years by reacting to immediate problems, the classic vibration signature for unbalance is rarely seen. Maintenance personnel make most of their decisions with limited information. The decision to balance or not to balance is usually made the same way. This paper will demonstrate significant results of field balancing in the presence of multiple problems. By examining the data available and analyzing the probabilities, a reasonable chance for success can be assured.

  7. The Global Challenge: A Matter of Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Argues that global challenge created by the pressure for change requires educators to understand the balance between continuity and constant change dependence and independence, individualism and community, homogeneity and heterogeneity. To achieve balanced learning and development, education should place greater emphasis on continuity,…

  8. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

  9. Dizziness and Balance

    MedlinePlus

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move without falling. ... if I have a problem with balance or dizziness? It is important to see your doctor if ...

  10. Balancing game universes for playing without sight or hearing.

    PubMed

    Westin, Thomas; Furöstam, Malin; Yasasindhu, Roy; Norberg, Lena; Wiklund, Mats; Mozelius, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Equal access to cultural activities is important for inclusion and computer gaming is one of the most common activities in digital culture. However, many people with impairments are excluded from participating. While parallel game universes (PGUs) provide a method to achieve equal access, the question is: how can a balanced collaborative real-time game be designed with the help of PGU for playing without sight or hearing? Balance is a central concept in game design and is important to avoid perceived cheating or disadvantages due to individual or environmental differences. The question was examined with a design science approach, where a game prototype was created in two iterations with a structured design method and evaluated using interviews and observations. In this first step of a more long-term study, ten experienced gamers without impairments were selected with purposive sampling to provide relevant data through simulation of temporary impairments or environmental issues, which can affect many or all gamers. By sorting out these issues first, later testing with actual blind and deaf gamers can focus on more specific issues for each group. The ten participants played either without sight or hearing. The results confirm the use of PGUs for creating a balanced experience but also finds that while multiplayer feel is not optimal, it is a reasonable trade-off for universal access for blind and deaf being able to play together. The results also show that a help system and equal understanding of the game play between the blind and deaf players are important aspects to achieve game balance. Further research should be done involving actual blind and deaf gamers, and similar evaluations of game balance should be conducted with users having other types of impairments.

  11. Macronutrient balance, reproductive function, and lifespan in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; Walters, Kirsty A.; Simanainen, Ulla K.; McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Ballard, John William O.; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In invertebrates, reproductive output and lifespan are profoundly impacted by dietary macronutrient balance, with these traits achieving their maxima on different diet compositions, giving the appearance of a resource-based tradeoff between reproduction and longevity. For the first time in a mammal, to our knowledge, we evaluate the effects of dietary protein (P), carbohydrate (C), fat (F), and energy (E) on lifespan and reproductive function in aging male and female mice. We show that, as in invertebrates, the balance of macronutrients has marked and largely opposing effects on reproductive and longevity outcomes. Mice were provided ad libitum access to one of 25 diets differing in P, C, F, and E content, with reproductive outcomes assessed at 15 months. An optimal balance of macronutrients exists for reproductive function, which, for most measures, differs from the diets that optimize lifespan, and this response differs with sex. Maximal longevity was achieved on diets containing a P:C ratio of 1:13 in males and 1:11 for females. Diets that optimized testes mass and epididymal sperm counts (indicators of gamete production) contained a higher P:C ratio (1:1) than those that maximized lifespan. In females, uterine mass (an indicator of estrogenic activity) was also greatest on high P:C diets (1:1) whereas ovarian follicle number was greatest on P:C 3:1 associated with high-F intakes. By contrast, estrous cycling was more likely in mice on lower P:C (1:8), and the number of corpora lutea, indicative of recent ovulations, was greatest on P:C similar to those supporting greatest longevity (1:11). PMID:25733862

  12. Thin sheets achieve optimal wrapping of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Joseph; Démery, Vincent; Davidovitch, Benny; Santangelo, Christian; Russell, Thomas; Menon, Narayanan

    2015-03-01

    A liquid drop can wrap itself in a sheet using capillary forces [Py et al., PRL 98, 2007]. However, the efficiency of ``capillary origami'' at covering the surface of a drop is hampered by the mechanical cost of bending the sheet. Thinner sheets deform more readily by forming small-scale wrinkles and stress-focussing patterns, but it is unclear how coverage efficiency competes with mechanical cost as thickness is decreased, and what wrapping shapes will emerge. We place a thin (~ 100 nm) polymer film on a drop whose volume is gradually decreased so that the sheet covers an increasing fraction of its surface. The sheet exhibits a complex sequence of axisymmetric and polygonal partially- and fully- wrapped shapes. Remarkably, the progression appears independent of mechanical properties. The gross shape, which neglects small-scale features, is correctly predicted by a simple geometric approach wherein the exposed area is minimized. Thus, simply using a thin enough sheet results in maximal coverage.

  13. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  14. Balance in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  15. A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Dupree, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities consider balance to be a component of skill-related physical fitness. Balance, however, is directly related to health, especially for older adults. Falls are a leading cause of injury and death among the elderly. Improved balance can help reduce falls and contribute to older people remaining physically active. Balance is a…

  16. Dynamic balance improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reduction of residual unbalance in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure turbopump rotors was addressed. Elastic rotor response to unbalance and balancing requirements, multiplane and in housing balancing, and balance related rotor design considerations were assessed. Recommendations are made for near term improvement of the SSME balancing and for future study and development efforts.

  17. Balancing rations to optimize milk components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammalian milk contains a multitude of components that are important in providing the nutritional requirements of the developing offspring. Whereas the primary selective pressure for the vast majority of mammalian milk composition comes from the ability to meet the nutritional requirements for healt...

  18. Balancing Vanguard Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkovich, A.; Baumann, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    The Vanguard satellites and component parts were balanced within the specified limits by using a Gisholt Type-S balancer in combination with a portable International Research and Development vibration analyzer and filter, with low-frequency pickups. Equipment and procedures used for balancing are described; and the determination of residual imbalance is accomplished by two methods: calculation, and graphical interpretation. Between-the-bearings balancing is recommended for future balancing of payloads.

  19. Relative Harmony: Achieving Balance in Your Brand Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Educational institutions understand the importance of having a positive image among their target audiences, but the process of creating, enhancing, and managing that image remains challenging to many. Confusion over what branding is only adds to the challenge. Consultants define "brand" as promising an experience and delivering on that…

  20. Feedback and assessment for clinical placements: achieving the right balance

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Annette; Mellis, Craig

    2015-01-01

    During clinical placements, the provision of feedback forms an integral part of the learning process and enriches students’ learning experiences. The purpose of feedback is to improve the learner’s knowledge, skills, or behavior. Receipt of accurate feedback can help to narrow the gap between actual and desired performance. Effective and regular feedback has the potential to reinforce good practice and motivate the learner toward the desired outcome. Despite the obvious role of feedback in effective teaching and learning, a common complaint from students is that they do not receive adequate feedback. Unfortunately, skills in giving and receiving feedback are rarely taught to students or clinicians. This study aims to provide an understanding of the role of feedback within the learning process, consider consequences of inadequate or poorly given feedback, consider the barriers to the feedback process, provide practical guidelines for providing feedback, and consider the need for student and faculty development in feedback skills. PMID:26056511

  1. Calcium and Calcium Supplements: Achieving the Right Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... be found in a variety of foods, including: Dairy products, such as cheese, milk and yogurt Dark green ... a vegan diet Have lactose intolerance and limit dairy products Consume large amounts of protein or sodium, which ...

  2. Focus on the Future: Achieving Balance in Career & Life Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Knowdell, Richard, Ed.

    This book contains conference papers from the 2000 International Career Development Conference. The intent is to broaden the dissemination of the ideas presented at the conference, and to provide the authors with an international platform for communicating their ideas. The presentations include the following: (1) "Retaining Knowledge Workers:…

  3. The Right Balance: Helping Cancer Survivors Achieve a Healthy Weight

    Cancer.gov

    An article about interventions that aim to help survivors maintain a healthy weight to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and death and decrease the likelihood of chronic and late effects of cancer treatment.

  4. Model-based Assessment for Balancing Privacy Requirements and Operational Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Knirsch, Fabian; Engel, Dominik; Frincu, Marc; Prasanna, Viktor

    2015-02-17

    The smart grid changes the way energy is produced and distributed. In addition both, energy and information is exchanged bidirectionally among participating parties. Therefore heterogeneous systems have to cooperate effectively in order to achieve a common high-level use case, such as smart metering for billing or demand response for load curtailment. Furthermore, a substantial amount of personal data is often needed for achieving that goal. Capturing and processing personal data in the smart grid increases customer concerns about privacy and in addition, certain statutory and operational requirements regarding privacy aware data processing and storage have to be met. An increase of privacy constraints, however, often limits the operational capabilities of the system. In this paper, we present an approach that automates the process of finding an optimal balance between privacy requirements and operational requirements in a smart grid use case and application scenario. This is achieved by formally describing use cases in an abstract model and by finding an algorithm that determines the optimum balance by forward mapping privacy and operational impacts. For this optimal balancing algorithm both, a numeric approximation and – if feasible – an analytic assessment are presented and investigated. The system is evaluated by applying the tool to a real-world use case from the University of Southern California (USC) microgrid.

  5. Exercise for Mild Balance Dysfunction: Research into Practice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan; Meyer, Claudia; Batchelor, Frances; Hill, Keith

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether improved balance outcomes achieved in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) using balance screening to identify mild balance dysfunction and home exercises could be translated into community settings. Community-dwelling people aged over 65 who expressed concerns about their balance, had less than two falls in the preceding 12 months, and who had mild balance impairment on screening were given an individualized home-based balance and strengthening exercise program with intermittent home-visit support by a physiotherapist. Of 71 participants assessed (mean age 77.3 years, 76% female), 58 (82%) completed the six-month intervention. Twenty six percent of participants regained balance performance within normal limits--similar to those achieved in the previous RCT. Successful results from a previous RCT were able to be translated into community settings, with a similar magnitude of effect on balance and mobility.

  6. Occlusal cranial balancing technique.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gerald H

    2007-01-01

    The acronym for Occlusal Cranial Balancing Technique is OCB. The OCB concept is based on the architectural principle of a level foundation. The principles of Occlusal Cranial Balancing are a monumental discovery and if applied will enhance total body function.

  7. Skylab water balance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  8. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  9. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  10. Thermal balance in convective therapies.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Antonio; Mancini, Elena; Canova, Cristina; Mambelli, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    Among the factors causing intradialytic haemodynamic instability, dialysate temperature has been shown to play a relevant role. An improved cardiovascular response during isolated ultrafiltration or with cooled dialysate has been described in the past. Cold dialysate may increase the external heat loss compensating for the increase in core temperature, thus avoiding vasodilatation, but it also increases myocardial contractility. However, a better haemodynamic response to dialysis treatment has long been known in convective therapies as well, and the hypothesis of a leading role for thermal balance is under discussion. In conventional haemofiltration (HF), venous blood cooling is expected, on the basis of the infusate temperature and the filtration fraction. In on-line HF, the infusate temperature and its volume may have a different impact on thermal balance depending on the site of infusion (pre- or post-dialyser). In an in vitro study comparing haemodialysis (HD) (conventional HD, dialysate 37 degrees C; and cold HD, dialysate 35.5 degrees C) with HF (pre- and post-dilution, 37 degrees C), we observed a more negative thermal balance with cold HD (-130 kJ/h) and with post-dilution HF (-75 kJ/h). The beneficial pressor effects of HF have been confirmed even in on-line HF, which actually has very few differences in the thermal balance compared with conventional HD (dialysate 37 degrees C). In on-line HF, the amount of warm infusion, often exceeding the blood flow, makes the achievement of a negative thermal balance highly unlikely. Thus, there is not sufficient evidence that vascular stability in on-line HF is solely related to different thermal energy balances. Other factors playing a relevant role in the cardiocirculatory response to convective dialysis should thus be considered.

  11. Wind Tunnel Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P; Norton, F H

    1920-01-01

    Report embodies a description of the balance designed and constructed for the use of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, and also deals with the theory of sensitivity of balances and with the errors to which wind tunnel balances of various types are subject.

  12. Coaching for Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses coaching for balance the integration of the whole self: physical (body), intellectual (mind), spiritual (soul), and emotional (heart). Offers four ways to identify problems and tell whether someone is out of balance and four coaching techniques for creating balance. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  13. Human Balance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... and vision problems, and difficulty with concentration and memory. What is balance? Balance is the ability to maintain the body’s center of mass over its base of support. 1 A properly functioning balance system allows humans to see clearly while moving, identify orientation with ...

  14. Stochastic solution of population balance equations for reactor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Menz, William J.; Akroyd, Jethro; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a sequential modular approach to solve a generic network of reactors with a population balance model using a stochastic numerical method. Full-coupling to the gas-phase is achieved through operator-splitting. The convergence of the stochastic particle algorithm in test networks is evaluated as a function of network size, recycle fraction and numerical parameters. These test cases are used to identify methods through which systematic and statistical error may be reduced, including by use of stochastic weighted algorithms. The optimal algorithm was subsequently used to solve a one-dimensional example of silicon nanoparticle synthesis using a multivariate particle model. This example demonstrated the power of stochastic methods in resolving particle structure by investigating the transient and spatial evolution of primary polydispersity, degree of sintering and TEM-style images. Highlights: •An algorithm is presented to solve reactor networks with a population balance model. •A stochastic method is used to solve the population balance equations. •The convergence and efficiency of the reported algorithms are evaluated. •The algorithm is applied to simulate silicon nanoparticle synthesis in a 1D reactor. •Particle structure is reported as a function of reactor length and time.

  15. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model.

  16. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOEpatents

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  17. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  18. T700 power turbine rotor multiplane/multispeed balancing demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, G.; Rio, R.

    1979-01-01

    Research was conducted to demonstrate the ability of influence coefficient based multispeed balancing to control rotor vibration through bending criticals. Rotor dynamic analyses were conducted of the General Electric T700 power turbine rotor. The information was used to generate expected rotor behavior for optimal considerations in designing a balance rig and a balance technique. The rotor was successfully balanced 9500 rpm. Uncontrollable coupling behavior prevented observations through the 16,000 rpm service speed. The balance technique is practical and with additional refinement it can meet production standards.

  19. Synthesis of Molecular Seesaw Balances and the Evaluation of Pyridinium-π Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinji; Yamamoto, Natsuo; Takamori, Eri

    2016-12-02

    A series of molecular seesaw balances 1-5 have been developed to measure the relative strength of pyridinium-π (cation-π) interactions. The cycloaddition of 1-azaanthracene and o-quinodimethane under microwave irradiation afforded the efficient synthesis of 1 and 5. Introduction of substituents to the pyridine ring of balance 1 was achieved to produce 2-4 in good yields. Anion exchange of 1·MeI afforded 1·MeX with a variety of counteranions (X = Cl, Br, I, BF4, PF6, OAc). These balances adopt two distinct conformers, A and B, which are stabilized by a cation-π interaction and a π-π interaction, respectively. The conformer ratio was determined on the basis of the observed averaged (3)J coupling constants for H1-C-C-H2 by comparison with the boundary JA and JB values, which were estimated by applying the Carplus-Altona equation to the dihedral angles of the optimized conformers A and B. The effects of the solvent, substituent and counteranion on the ΔG values were elucidated using these molecular balances. Thermodynamic parameters obtained from a van't Hoff plot as well as the electrostatic potential maps for both conformers A and B of the molecular balances helped us to better understand the obtained results.

  20. Improving the carrier balance of light-emitting electrochemical cells based on ionic transition metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Su, Hai-Ching; Hsu, Jia-Hong

    2015-05-14

    Recently, solid-state light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) based on ionic transition metal complexes (iTMCs) have attracted much research interest since they have the advantages of a simple device structure, a low operation voltage and compatibility with air-stable electrodes. These properties enable LECs to be cost-effective, versatile and power-efficient organic light-emitting sources. However, it is generally not easy to modify the molecular structure to achieve balanced carrier mobilities without altering the photoluminescence quantum yield of the iTMC. Furthermore, the carrier balance and the consequent device efficiency of single-layered LECs would not be easy to optimize since no carrier injection and transport layers can be used. In this perspective, some reported techniques to improve carrier balance of LECs based on iTMCs are described and reviewed. The importance and impact of these studies are highlighted. The effects on device lifetime and turn-on time because of employing these techniques to improve the carrier balance are also discussed. This perspective concludes that even with electrochemically doped layers, improving the carrier balance of LECs would be required for realizing efficient electroluminescent emission from simple-structure organic light-emitting sources.

  1. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  2. Performance Analysis and Portability of the PLUM Load Balancing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Gabow, Harold N.

    1998-01-01

    The ability to dynamically adapt an unstructured mesh is a powerful tool for solving computational problems with evolving physical features; however, an efficient parallel implementation is rather difficult. To address this problem, we have developed PLUM, an automatic portable framework for performing adaptive numerical computations in a message-passing environment. PLUM requires that all data be globally redistributed after each mesh adaption to achieve load balance. We present an algorithm for minimizing this remapping overhead by guaranteeing an optimal processor reassignment. We also show that the data redistribution cost can be significantly reduced by applying our heuristic processor reassignment algorithm to the default mapping of the parallel partitioner. Portability is examined by comparing performance on a SP2, an Origin2000, and a T3E. Results show that PLUM can be successfully ported to different platforms without any code modifications.

  3. Static balancing of planar articulated robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglia, Giuseppe; Yin, Zhe

    2015-12-01

    Static balancing for a manipulator's weight is necessary in terms of energy saving and performance improvement. This paper proposes a method to design balancing devices for articulated robots in industry, based on robotic dynamics. Full design details for the balancing system using springs are presented from two aspects: One is the optimization for the position of the balancing system; the other is the design of the spring parameters. As examples, two feasible balancing devices are proposed, based on different robotic structures: The first solution consists of linkages and springs; the other consists of pulleys, cross mechanisms and (hydro-) pneumatic springs. Then the two solutions are compared. Pneumatic, hydro-pneumatic and mechanical springs are discussed and their parameters are decided according to the requirements of torque compensation. Numerical results show that with the proper design using the methodology presented in this paper, an articulated robot can be statically balanced perfectly in all configurations. This paper therefore provides a design method of the balancing system for other similar structures.

  4. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  5. 2-opt heuristic for the disassembly line balancing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Seamus M.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    Disassembly activities are an important part of product recovery operations. The disassembly line is the best choice for automated disassembly of returned products. However, finding the optimal balance for a disassembly line is computationally intensive with exhaustive search quickly becoming prohibitively large. In this paper, a greedy algorithm is presented for obtaining optimal or near-optimal solutions to the disassembly line-balancing problem. The greedy algorithm is a first-fit decreasing algorithm further enhanced to preserve precedence relationships. The algorithm seeks to minimize the number of workstations while addressing hazardous and high demand components. A two optimal algorithm is then developed to balance the part removal sequence and attempt to further reduce the total number of workstations. Examples are considered to illustrate the methodology. The conclusions drawn from the study include the consistent generation of optimal or near-optimal solutions, the ability to preserve precedence, the speed of the algorithms and their practicality due to the ease of implementation.

  6. Variation in Patient Profiles and Outcomes in US and Non-US Subgroups of the Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Harrington, Robert A.; Stone, Gregg W.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Gibson, C. Michael; Hamm, Christian W.; Price, Matthew J.; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; White, Harvey D.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX trial demonstrated superiority of cangrelor in reducing ischemic events at 48 hours in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention compared with clopidogrel. Methods and Results— We analyzed all patients included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis in US (n=4097; 37.4%) and non-US subgroups (n=6845; 62.6%). The US cohort was older, had a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors, and had more frequently undergone prior cardiovascular procedures. US patients more frequently underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina (77.9% versus 46.2%). Almost all US patients (99.1%) received clopidogrel loading doses of 600 mg, whereas 40.5% of non-US patients received 300 mg. Bivalirudin was more frequently used in US patients (56.7% versus 2.9%). At 48 hours, rates of the primary composite end point were comparable in the US and non-US cohorts (5.5% versus 5.2%; P=0.53). Cangrelor reduced rates of the primary composite end point compared with clopidogrel in US (4.5% versus 6.4%; odds ratio 0.70 [95% confidence interval 0.53–0.92]) and in non-US patients (4.8% versus 5.6%; odds ratio 0.85 [95% confidence interval 0.69–1.05]; interaction P=0.26). Similarly, rates of the key secondary end point, stent thrombosis, were reduced by cangrelor in both regions. Rates of Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO)–defined severe bleeding were low and not significantly increased by cangrelor in either region. Conclusions— Despite broad differences in clinical profiles and indications for percutaneous coronary intervention by region in a large global cardiovascular clinical trial, cangrelor consistently reduced rates of ischemic end points compared with clopidogrel without an excess in severe bleeding in both the US and non-US subgroups. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http

  7. Quantitative analysis of gait and balance response to deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mera, Thomas O; Filipkowski, Danielle E; Riley, David E; Whitney, Christina M; Walter, Benjamin L; Gunzler, Steven A; Giuffrida, Joseph P

    2013-05-01

    Gait and balance disturbances in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be debilitating and may lead to increased fall risk. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a treatment option once therapeutic benefits from medication are limited due to motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Optimizing DBS parameters for gait and balance can be significantly more challenging than for other PD motor symptoms. Furthermore, inter-rater reliability of the standard clinical PD assessment scale, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), may introduce bias and washout important features of gait and balance that may respond differently to PD therapies. Study objectives were to evaluate clinician UPDRS gait and balance scoring inter-rater reliability, UPDRS sensitivity to different aspects of gait and balance, and how kinematic features extracted from motion sensor data respond to stimulation. Forty-two subjects diagnosed with PD were recruited with varying degrees of gait and balance impairment. All subjects had been prescribed dopaminergic medication, and 20 subjects had previously undergone DBS surgery. Subjects performed seven items of the gait and balance subset of the UPDRS while wearing motion sensors on the sternum and each heel and thigh. Inter-rater reliability varied by UPDRS item. Correlation coefficients between at least one kinematic feature and corresponding UPDRS scores were greater than 0.75 for six of the seven items. Kinematic features improved (p<0.05) from DBS-OFF to DBS-ON for three UPDRS items. Despite achieving high correlations with the UPDRS, evaluating individual kinematic features may help address inter-rater reliability issues and rater bias associated with focusing on different aspects of a motor task.

  8. Quantitative analysis of gait and balance response to deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mera, Thomas O.; Filipkowski, Danielle E.; Riley, David E.; Whitney, Christina M.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Gunzler, Steven A.; Giuffrida, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Gait and balance disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be debilitating and may lead to increased fall risk. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a treatment option once therapeutic benefits from medication are limited due to motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Optimizing DBS parameters for gait and balance can be significantly more challenging than for other PD motor symptoms. Furthermore, inter-rater reliability of the standard clinical PD assessment scale, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), may introduce bias and washout important features of gait and balance that may respond differently to PD therapies. Study objectives were to evaluate clinician UPDRS gait and balance scoring inter-rater reliability, UPDRS sensitivity to different aspects of gait and balance, and how kinematic features extracted from motion sensor data respond to stimulation. Forty-two subjects diagnosed with PD were recruited with varying degrees of gait and balance impairment. All subjects had been prescribed dopaminergic medication, and twenty subjects had previously undergone DBS surgery. Subjects performed seven items of the gait and balance subset of the UPDRS while wearing motion sensors on the sternum and each heel and thigh. Inter-rater reliability varied by UPDRS item. Correlation coefficients between at least one kinematic feature for six of the seven items and UPDRS were greater than 0.75. Kinematic features improved (p < 0.05) from DBS-OFF to DBS-ON for three UPDRS items. Despite achieving high correlations with the UPDRS, evaluating individual kinematic features may help address inter-rater reliability issues and rater bias associated with focusing on different aspects of a motor task. PMID:23218768

  9. Judicial Checks and Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porta, Rafael; Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio; Pop-Eleches, Cristian; Shleifer, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    In the Anglo-American constitutional tradition, judicial checks and balances are often seen as crucial guarantees of freedom. Hayek distinguishes two ways in which the judiciary provides such checks and balances: judicial independence and constitutional review. We create a new database of constitutional rules in 71 countries that reflect these…

  10. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  11. A Balance of Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosey, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The booming economy of the Pacific Northwest region promotes the dilemma of balancing the need for increased electrical power with the desire to maintain that region's unspoiled natural environment. Pertinent factors discussed within the balance equation are population trends, economic considerations, industrial power requirements, and…

  12. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  13. A smartphone inertial balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-04-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  14. Skeletal facial balance and harmony in the cleft patient: Principles and techniques in orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Salyer, Kenneth E.; Xu, Haisong; Portnof, Jason E.; Yamada, Akira; Chong, David K.; Genecov, Edward R.

    2009-01-01

    The management of the palatal cleft, dental arch, and subsequent maxillary form is a challenge for the craniomaxillofacial surgeon. The purpose of this paper is to present the experience of a senior surgeon (KES) who has treated over 2000 patients with cleft lip and palate. This paper focuses on the experience of a recent series of 103 consecutive orthognathic cases treated by one surgeon with a surgical-orthodontic, speech-oriented approach. It will concentrate on not only correcting the occlusion, as others have described, but also on how a surgeon who was trying to achieve optimal aesthetic balance, harmony, and beauty, approached this problem. PMID:19884671

  15. The magneto-Hall difference and the planar extraordinary Hall balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. L.; Hesjedal, T.

    2016-04-01

    The extraordinary Hall balance (EHB) is a general device concept that harnesses the net extraordinary Hall effect (EHE) arising from two independent magnetic layers, which are electrically in parallel. Different EHB behavior can be achieved by tuning the strength and type of interlayer coupling, i.e., ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic of varying strength, allowing for logic and memory applications. The physics of the EHE in such a multilayered systems, especially the interface-induced effect, will be discussed. A discrepancy between the magnetization and the Hall effect, called the magneto-Hall difference (MHD) is found, which is not expected in conventional EHE systems. By taking advantage of the MHD effect, and by optimizing the materials structure, magnetoresistance ratios in excess of 40,000% can be achieved at room-temperature. We present a new design, the planar EHB, which has the potential to achieve significantly larger magnetoresistance ratios.

  16. T55 power turbine rotor multiplane-multispeed balancing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A rotordynamic analysis of the T55-L-11C engine was used to evaluate the balancing needs of the power turbine and to optimize the balancing procedure. As a result, recommendations were made for implementation of a multiplane-multispeed balancing plan. Precision collars for the attachment of trial weights to a slender rotor were designed enabling demonstration balancing on production hardware. The quality of the balance was then evaluated by installing a high speed balanced power turbine in an engine and running in a test cell at the Corpus Christi Army depot. The engine used had been tested prior to the turbine changeout and showed acceptable overall vibration levels for the engine were significantly reduced, demonstrating the ability of multiplane-multispeed balancing to control engine vibration.

  17. Dilemmas in Balancing a University Literature Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, David

    2004-01-01

    This essay explores some of the conflicts faced by the author, a liaison with book-selection responsibilities to a university English Department. These conflicts include: trying to fill gaps missed by profiles set up with our book vendor; trying to achieve a reasonable balance between canonical and non-canonical texts; between primary texts and…

  18. Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, I question how practitioners can balance the certainty and confidence that they can help their patients with the uncertainty that makes them continually question their beliefs and assumptions. Method: I compare the mechanisms of science and models of clinical practice that may help practitioners achieve the right balance…

  19. Optimized diagnostic model combination for improving diagnostic accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunche, S.; Chen, C.; Pecht, M. G.

    Identifying the most suitable classifier for diagnostics is a challenging task. In addition to using domain expertise, a trial and error method has been widely used to identify the most suitable classifier. Classifier fusion can be used to overcome this challenge and it has been widely known to perform better than single classifier. Classifier fusion helps in overcoming the error due to inductive bias of various classifiers. The combination rule also plays a vital role in classifier fusion, and it has not been well studied which combination rules provide the best performance during classifier fusion. Good combination rules will achieve good generalizability while taking advantage of the diversity of the classifiers. In this work, we develop an approach for ensemble learning consisting of an optimized combination rule. The generalizability has been acknowledged to be a challenge for training a diverse set of classifiers, but it can be achieved by an optimal balance between bias and variance errors using the combination rule in this paper. Generalizability implies the ability of a classifier to learn the underlying model from the training data and to predict the unseen observations. In this paper, cross validation has been employed during performance evaluation of each classifier to get an unbiased performance estimate. An objective function is constructed and optimized based on the performance evaluation to achieve the optimal bias-variance balance. This function can be solved as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. Sequential Quadratic Programming based optimization with better convergence property has been employed for the optimization. We have demonstrated the applicability of the algorithm by using support vector machine and neural networks as classifiers, but the methodology can be broadly applicable for combining other classifier algorithms as well. The method has been applied to the fault diagnosis of analog circuits. The performance of the proposed

  20. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  1. Work Stealing and Persistence-based Load Balancers for Iterative Overdecomposed Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2012-06-18

    Applications often involve iterative execution of identical or slowly evolving calculations. Such applications require good initial load balance coupled with efficient periodic rebalancing. In this paper, we consider the design and evaluation of two distinct approaches to addressing this challenge: persistence-based load balancing and work stealing. The work to be performed is overdecomposed into tasks, enabling automatic rebalancing by the middleware. We present a hierarchical persistence-based rebalancing algorithm that performs localized incremental rebalancing. We also present an active-message-based retentive work stealing algorithm optimized for iterative applications on distributed memory machines. These are shown to incur low overheads and achieve over 90% efficiency on 76,800 cores.

  2. Static and dynamic load-balancing strategies for parallel reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Anguille, L.; Killough, J.E.; Li, T.M.C.; Toepfer, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Accurate simulation of the complex phenomena that occur in flow in porous media can tax even the most powerful serial computers. Emergence of new parallel computer architectures as a future efficient tool in reservoir simulation may overcome this difficulty. Unfortunately, major problems remain to be solved before using parallel computers commercially: production serial programs must be rewritten to be efficient in parallel environments and load balancing methods must be explored to evenly distribute the workload on each processor during the simulation. This study implements both a static load-balancing algorithm and a receiver-initiated dynamic load-sharing algorithm to achieve high parallel efficiencies on both the IBM SP2 and Intel IPSC/860 parallel computers. Significant speedup improvement was recorded for both methods. Further optimization of these algorithms yielded a technique with efficiencies as high as 90% and 70% on 8 and 32 nodes, respectively. The increased performance was the result of the minimization of message-passing overhead.

  3. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  4. Optimal census by quorum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillefumier, Thibaud

    Bacteria regulate their gene expression in response to changes in local cell density in a process called quorum sensing. To synchronize their gene-expression programs, these bacteria need to glean as much information as possible about local density. Our study is the first to physically model the flow of information in a quorum-sensing microbial community, wherein the internal regulator of the individual's response tracks the external cell density via an endogenously generated shared signal. Combining information theory and Lagrangian optimization, we find that quorum-sensing systems can improve their information capabilities by tuning circuit feedbacks. At the population level, external feedback adjusts the dynamic range of the shared input to individuals' detection channels. At the individual level, internal feedback adjusts the regulator's response time to dynamically balance output noise reduction and signal tracking ability. Our analysis suggests that achieving information benefit via feedback requires dedicated systems to control gene expression noise, such as sRNA-based regulation.

  5. Optimizing QoS-Aware Semantic Web Service Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lécué, Freddy

    Ranking and optimization of web service compositions are some of the most interesting challenges at present. Since web services can be enhanced with formal semantic descriptions, forming the "semantic web services", it becomes conceivable to exploit the quality of semantic links between services (of any composition) as one of the optimization criteria. For this we propose to use the semantic similarities between output and input parameters of web services. Coupling this with other criteria such as quality of service (QoS) allow us to rank and optimize compositions achieving the same goal. Here we suggest an innovative and extensible optimization model designed to balance semantic fit (or functional quality) with non-functional QoS metrics. To allow the use of this model in the context of a large number of services as foreseen by the strategic EC-funded project SOA4All we propose and test the use of Genetic Algorithms.

  6. Consideration of Dynamical Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.

  7. Balance Evaluation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NeuroCom's Balance Master is a system to assess and then retrain patients with balance and mobility problems and is used in several medical centers. NeuroCom received assistance in research and funding from NASA, and incorporated technology from testing mechanisms for astronauts after shuttle flights. The EquiTest and Balance Master Systems are computerized posturography machines that measure patient responses to movement of a platform on which the subject is standing or sitting, then provide assessments of the patient's postural alignment and stability.

  8. Errors in potassium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by /sup 40/K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies.

  9. Thermal-Balance Strip for Fluted LFC Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bono, P.

    1985-01-01

    Waviness of less than 0.004 inch achieved using titanium strips. Process uses titanium balancing strips to keep waviness within 0.004inch limit. Balancing strips reduce thermal bonding stresses on lower fiberglass fluted sections and placed so fiberglass ends up sandwiched between porous titanium skin and titanium balance strip. Method requires less skill and less labor intensive than composite-wrapped-mandrel method.

  10. Balance Devices Train Golfers for a Consistent Swing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts, NASA funded research that resulted in a commercial product to treat balance disorders. West Palm Beach, Florida-based Sports Therapy Inc. worked with the inventor to modify the technology, creating the Dynamic Balance System (DBS) for sports applications. DBS is now used by Professional Golfers' Association-owned facilities and golf academies to help players achieve an effective, balanced swing.

  11. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  12. Optimal wrapping of liquid droplets with ultrathin sheets.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Joseph D; Démery, Vincent; Santangelo, Christian D; Russell, Thomas P; Davidovitch, Benny; Menon, Narayanan

    2015-12-01

    Elastic sheets offer a path to encapsulating a droplet of one fluid in another that is different from that of traditional molecular or particulate surfactants. In wrappings of fluids by sheets of moderate thickness with petals designed to curl into closed shapes, capillarity balances bending forces. Here, we show that, by using much thinner sheets, the constraints of this balance can be lifted to access a regime of high sheet bendability that brings three major advantages: ultrathin sheets automatically achieve optimally efficient shapes that maximize the enclosed volume of liquid for a fixed area of sheet; interfacial energies and mechanical properties of the sheet are irrelevant within this regime, thus allowing for further functionality; and complete coverage of the fluid can be achieved without special sheet designs. We propose and validate a general geometric model that captures the entire range of this new class of wrapped and partially wrapped shapes.

  13. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  14. Mars Balance Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Challenge is to develop ideas for how NASA can turn available entry, descent, and landing balance mass on a future Mars mission into a scientific or technological payload. Proposed concepts sho...

  15. Strength and Balance Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If you have medical ... if you have been inactive and want to exercise vigorously, check with your doctor before beginning a ...

  16. Balancing Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Describes the responses of some companies to increasing demands for family-work balance in terms of flexibility in working hours and leave policies, child care, and fringe benefits. Identifies some of the effects on the "bottom line." (SK)

  17. The Balanced Literacy Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Describes professional development program in Ontario school district to improve student reading and writing skills. Program used food-pyramid concepts to help teacher learn to provide a balanced and flexible approach to literacy instruction based on student needs. (PKP)

  18. Balance Function Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  19. A world in balance.

    PubMed

    Westing, A H

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to define the scope of global population growth within the uncompromising everyday realities of technology, economies, and politics and to demonstrate the intimate between the human population problem and the increasing problem of Nature's destruction. It is hoped that the human species will come to its sense in time to create an adequate standard of living of all of its members in peace and environmental balance. The number of people the world can support is considered in terms of 1) the provision for a standard of living adequate for everyone's health and wellbeing, 2) consideration for wildlife and nature, and 3) reliance on existing levels of technology and politics. Standards of living are suggested for the affluent and the austere. The focus on the discussion is on standards of living, global carrying capacity, the imperatives of population control and respect for nature, humans versus wildlife, and the need for a universal declaration of respect for nature. Carrying capacity is determined by total land area, cultivated land area, forest land area, cereals (grain), and wood. Use per capita of each of the 5 essentials is determined for the affluent or austere standard of living. An affluent standard means that world population would be limited to 2 billion, which is 50% of the current population. An austere standard of living means a limit of 3 billion, or 33% less than the existing population. The unfortunate reality is that today's total population of 4.5 billion is increasing at an annual rate of 1.9% and is not expected to level off until it has increased 3 times. This population growth occurs at the expense of wildlife. Of the total terrestrial animal biomass, humans constitute 4% and domestic livestock 15%, which, in 40 years, will reach a combined 40% and lead to more species extinction. One species of bird or mammal will become extinct for each increase of 220 million people, which happens every 3 years. The solution is

  20. Balancing continuous covariates based on Kernel densities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhenjun; Hu, Feifang

    2013-03-01

    The balance of important baseline covariates is essential for convincing treatment comparisons. Stratified permuted block design and minimization are the two most commonly used balancing strategies, both of which require the covariates to be discrete. Continuous covariates are typically discretized in order to be included in the randomization scheme. But breakdown of continuous covariates into subcategories often changes the nature of the covariates and makes distributional balance unattainable. In this article, we propose to balance continuous covariates based on Kernel density estimations, which keeps the continuity of the covariates. Simulation studies show that the proposed Kernel-Minimization can achieve distributional balance of both continuous and categorical covariates, while also keeping the group size well balanced. It is also shown that the Kernel-Minimization is less predictable than stratified permuted block design and minimization. Finally, we apply the proposed method to redesign the NINDS trial, which has been a source of controversy due to imbalance of continuous baseline covariates. Simulation shows that imbalances such as those observed in the NINDS trial can be generally avoided through the implementation of the new method.

  1. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  2. Cavendish Balance Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for a project carried out to modify a manual commercial Cavendish Balance for automated use in cryostat. The scope of this project was to modify an off-the-shelf manually operated Cavendish Balance to allow for automated operation for periods of hours or days in cryostat. The purpose of this modification was to allow the balance to be used in the study of effects of superconducting materials on the local gravitational field strength to determine if the strength of gravitational fields can be reduced. A Cavendish Balance was chosen because it is a fairly simple piece of equipment for measuring gravity, one the least accurately known and least understood physical constants. The principle activities that occurred under this purchase order were: (1) All the components necessary to hold and automate the Cavendish Balance in a cryostat were designed. Engineering drawings were made of custom parts to be fabricated, other off-the-shelf parts were procured; (2) Software was written in LabView to control the automation process via a stepper motor controller and stepper motor, and to collect data from the balance during testing; (3)Software was written to take the data collected from the Cavendish Balance and reduce it to give a value for the gravitational constant; (4) The components of the system were assembled and fitted to a cryostat. Also the LabView hardware including the control computer, stepper motor driver, data collection boards, and necessary cabling were assembled; and (5) The system was operated for a number of periods, data collected, and reduced to give an average value for the gravitational constant.

  3. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  4. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  5. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  6. Prospective Optimization.

    PubMed

    Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J

    2014-05-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications.

  7. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  8. Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Helen

    The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

  9. Sport-specific balance.

    PubMed

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  10. Dynamic Load Balancing for Adaptive Meshes using Symmetric Broadcast Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biswas, Rupak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Many scientific applications involve grids that lack a uniform underlying structure. These applications are often dynamic in the sense that the grid structure significantly changes between successive phases of execution. In parallel computing environments, mesh adaptation of grids through selective refinement/coarsening has proven to be an effective approach. However, achieving load balance while minimizing inter-processor communication and redistribution costs is a difficult problem. Traditional dynamic load balancers are mostly inadequate because they lack a global view across processors. In this paper, we compare a novel load balancer that utilizes symmetric broadcast networks (SBN) to a successful global load balancing environment (PLUM) created to handle adaptive unstructured applications. Our experimental results on the IBM SP2 demonstrate that performance of the proposed SBN load balancer is comparable to results achieved under PLUM.

  11. Parallel Processing of Adaptive Meshes with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Many scientific applications involve grids that lack a uniform underlying structure. These applications are often also dynamic in nature in that the grid structure significantly changes between successive phases of execution. In parallel computing environments, mesh adaptation of unstructured grids through selective refinement/coarsening has proven to be an effective approach. However, achieving load balance while minimizing interprocessor communication and redistribution costs is a difficult problem. Traditional dynamic load balancers are mostly inadequate because they lack a global view of system loads across processors. In this paper, we propose a novel and general-purpose load balancer that utilizes symmetric broadcast networks (SBN) as the underlying communication topology, and compare its performance with a successful global load balancing environment, called PLUM, specifically created to handle adaptive unstructured applications. Our experimental results on an IBM SP2 demonstrate that the SBN-based load balancer achieves lower redistribution costs than that under PLUM by overlapping processing and data migration.

  12. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  13. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  14. Analyzing Hydrological Sustainability Through Water Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menció, Anna; Folch, Albert; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is to assist in the development of management plans that will lead to the sustainable use of water resources in all EU member states. However, defining the degree of sustainability aimed at is not a straightforward task. It requires detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological characteristics of the basin in question, its environmental needs, the amount of human water demand, and the opportunity to construct a proper water balance that describes the behavior of the hydrological system and estimates available water resources. An analysis of the water balance in the Selva basin (Girona, NE Spain) points to the importance of regional groundwater fluxes in satisfying current exploitation rates, and shows that regional scale approaches are often necessary to evaluate water availability. In addition, we discuss the pressures on water resources, and analyze potential actions, based on the water balance results, directed towards achieving sustainable water management in the basin.

  15. Seeking value in pharmaceutical care: balancing quality, access and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Montague, Terrence; Cavanaugh, Siobhan

    2004-01-01

    Healthcare remains a dominant issue for Canadians. Central to the debate is the dynamic tension among the value, accessibility and affordability of drugs. Simply put, innovative drugs improve health and economic outcomes for individuals and populations. As a result, providers and patients increasingly demand, and expect, these benefits; utilization and expenditures increase. The management challenge is finding the best balance of quality, access and costs. Supply-side strategies, such as restricting access with the intention of controlling isolated costs of drug budgets, are not optimal from a population health view because they have the adverse impact of limiting the system benefits of innovative drugs. Management strategies emphasizing the demand side of the market are more empowering to providers and patients and, given the increasing knowledge and accountability of these stakeholders, are increasingly feasible. Population health outcomes and efficient resource use may be better served by a combination of strategies. The partnership-measurement model of disease management is a practical example of this approach at the community level; timely and repeated feedback of real-world practices, as well as provider and patient education, drive accountable, cost-efficient and continuously improved outcomes. As we seek the optimal societal strategy for innovative drug therapy, resource allocation decisions have to be made. Widening the debate and informing the debaters will enhance the chances of making choices that achieve the best health for the most people at the best cost.

  16. Spray automated balancing of rotors: Methods and materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Anthony J.; Baldwin, Richard M.; Schick, Wilbur R.

    1988-01-01

    The work described consists of two parts. In the first part, a survey is performed to assess the state of the art in rotor balancing technology as it applies to Army gas turbine engines and associated power transmission hardware. The second part evaluates thermal spray processes for balancing weight addition in an automated balancing procedure. The industry survey reveals that: (1) computerized balancing equipment is valuable to reduce errors, improve balance quality, and provide documentation; (2) slow-speed balancing is used exclusively, with no forseeable need for production high-speed balancing; (3) automated procedures are desired; and (4) thermal spray balancing is viewed with cautious optimism whereas laser balancing is viewed with concern for flight propulsion hardware. The FARE method (Fuel/Air Repetitive Explosion) was selected for experimental evaluation of bond strength and fatigue strength. Material combinations tested were tungsten carbide on stainless steel (17-4), Inconel 718 on Inconel 718, and Triballoy 800 on Inconel 718. Bond strengths were entirely adequate for use in balancing. Material combinations have been identified for use in hot and cold sections of an engine, with fatigue strengths equivalent to those for hand-ground materials.

  17. Coil optimization for electromagnetic levitation using a genetic like algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Z. L.; Tackes, C.; LeSar, R.; Napolitano, R. E.

    2013-06-01

    The technique of electromagnetic levitation (EML) provides a means for thermally processing an electrically conductive specimen in a containerless manner. For the investigation of metallic liquids and related melting or freezing transformations, the elimination of substrate-induced nucleation affords access to much higher undercooling than otherwise attainable. With heating and levitation both arising from the currents induced by the coil, the performance of any EML system depends on controlling the balance between lifting forces and heating effects, as influenced by the levitation coil geometry. In this work, a genetic algorithm is developed and utilized to optimize the design of electromagnetic levitation coils. The optimization is targeted specifically to reduce the steady-state temperature of the stably levitated metallic specimen. Reductions in temperature of nominally 70 K relative to that obtained with the initial design are achieved through coil optimization, and the results are compared with experiments for aluminum. Additionally, the optimization method is shown to be robust, generating a small range of converged results from a variety of initial starting conditions. While our optimization criterion was set to achieve the lowest possible sample temperature, the method is general and can be used to optimize for other criteria as well.

  18. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  19. Balancing Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Sally; And Others

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a series of activities designed to teach strategies needed for effectively managing the multiple responsibilities of family and work. The guide contains 11 lesson plans dealing with balancing family and work that can be used in any home economics class, from middle school through college. The lesson…

  20. Balancing Your Evaluation Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willyerd, Karie A.

    1997-01-01

    Looks at different performance-measurement tools than can ensure that a training or performance solution is strategically aligned, objectively evaluated, and quantitatively measured for results. Suggests aiming for a balance among the financial, customer, and internal perspectives and the innovation and learning that can result. (Author/JOW)

  1. Balance functions reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Bialas, A.

    2011-02-15

    The idea of glue clusters, i.e., short-range correlations in the quark-gluon plasma close to freeze-out, is used to estimate the width of balance functions in momentum space. A good agreement is found with the recent measurements of the STAR Collaboration for central Au-Au collisions.

  2. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  3. Finding a Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Milton A.; Gordon, Margaret F.

    1996-01-01

    New college presidents are inundated with requests for their time, and their private life is often sacrificed. Each administrator must decide what is the appropriate balance among various aspects of his/her position. Physical separation of public and private lives is essential, and the role of the spouse, who may have other professional…

  4. Lives in the Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time…

  5. Maintaining an Environmental Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A recent conference of the National Environmental Development Association focused on the concepts of environment, energy and economy and underscored the necessity for balancing the critical needs embodied in these issues. Topics discussed included: nuclear energy and wastes, water pollution control, federal regulations, environmental technology…

  6. Comparison of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale to predict falls in community-dwelling adults

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the predictive properties of Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales, in a group of independently-functioning community dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-seven community-dwelling older adults (male=39, female=58) who were capable of walking independently on assessment were included in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores was used to investigate a predictive model for fall risk. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted for each, to determine the cut-off for optimal levels of sensitivity and specificity. [Results] The overall prediction success rate was 89.7%; the total Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores were significant in predicting fall risk. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined that a cut-off score of 40 out of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.82) and specificity (0.67), and a cut-off score of 22 out of 40 on the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.85) and specificity (0.65) in predicting faller status. [Conclusion] The Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales can predict fall risk, when used for independently-functioning community-dwelling older adults. PMID:28265146

  7. Comparison of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale to predict falls in community-dwelling adults.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the predictive properties of Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales, in a group of independently-functioning community dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-seven community-dwelling older adults (male=39, female=58) who were capable of walking independently on assessment were included in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores was used to investigate a predictive model for fall risk. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted for each, to determine the cut-off for optimal levels of sensitivity and specificity. [Results] The overall prediction success rate was 89.7%; the total Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores were significant in predicting fall risk. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined that a cut-off score of 40 out of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.82) and specificity (0.67), and a cut-off score of 22 out of 40 on the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.85) and specificity (0.65) in predicting faller status. [Conclusion] The Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales can predict fall risk, when used for independently-functioning community-dwelling older adults.

  8. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  9. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  10. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  11. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  12. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  13. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  14. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  15. Gear optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Ning-Tian

    1988-01-01

    The use of formal numerical optimization methods for the design of gears is investigated. To achieve this, computer codes were developed for the analysis of spur gears and spiral bevel gears. These codes calculate the life, dynamic load, bending strength, surface durability, gear weight and size, and various geometric parameters. It is necessary to calculate all such important responses because they all represent competing requirements in the design process. The codes developed here were written in subroutine form and coupled to the COPES/ADS general purpose optimization program. This code allows the user to define the optimization problem at the time of program execution. Typical design variables include face width, number of teeth and diametral pitch. The user is free to choose any calculated response as the design objective to minimize or maximize and may impose lower and upper bounds on any calculated responses. Typical examples include life maximization with limits on dynamic load, stress, weight, etc. or minimization of weight subject to limits on life, dynamic load, etc. The research codes were written in modular form for easy expansion and so that they could be combined to create a multiple reduction optimization capability in future.

  16. Agent based modeling of "crowdinforming" as a means of load balancing at emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Neighbour, Ryan; Oppenheimer, Luis; Mukhi, Shamir N; Friesen, Marcia R; McLeod, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    This work extends ongoing development of a framework for modeling the spread of contact-transmission infectious diseases. The framework is built upon Agent Based Modeling (ABM), with emphasis on urban scale modelling integrated with institutional models of hospital emergency departments. The method presented here includes ABM modeling an outbreak of influenza-like illness (ILI) with concomitant surges at hospital emergency departments, and illustrates the preliminary modeling of 'crowdinforming' as an intervention. 'Crowdinforming', a component of 'crowdsourcing', is characterized as the dissemination of collected and processed information back to the 'crowd' via public access. The objective of the simulation is to allow for effective policy evaluation to better inform the public of expected wait times as part of their decision making process in attending an emergency department or clinic. In effect, this is a means of providing additional decision support garnered from a simulation, prior to real world implementation. The conjecture is that more optimal service delivery can be achieved under balanced patient loads, compared to situations where some emergency departments are overextended while others are underutilized. Load balancing optimization is a common notion in many operations, and the simulation illustrates that 'crowdinforming' is a potential tool when used as a process control parameter to balance the load at emergency departments as well as serving as an effective means to direct patients during an ILI outbreak with temporary clinics deployed. The information provided in the 'crowdinforming' model is readily available in a local context, although it requires thoughtful consideration in its interpretation. The extension to a wider dissemination of information via a web service is readily achievable and presents no technical obstacles, although political obstacles may be present. The 'crowdinforming' simulation is not limited to arrivals of patients at

  17. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  18. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  19. Extinction-Optimized Volume Illumination.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Zirr, Tobias; Dachsbacher, Carsten

    2016-05-16

    We present a novel method to optimize the attenuation of light for the single scattering model in direct volume rendering. A common problem of single scattering is the high dynamic range between lit and shadowed regions due to the exponential attenuation of light along a ray. Moreover, light is often attenuated too strong between a sample point and the camera, hampering the visibility of important features. Our algorithm employs an importance function to selectively illuminate important structures and make them visible from the camera. With the importance function, more light can be transmitted to the features of interest, while contextual structures cast shadows which provide visual cues for perception of depth. At the same time, more scattered light is transmitted from the sample point to the camera to improve the primary visibility of important features. We formulate a minimization problem that automatically determines the extinction along a view or shadow ray to obtain a good balance between sufficient transmittance and attenuation. In contrast to previous approaches, we do not require a computationally expensive solution of a global optimization, but instead provide a closed-form solution for each sampled extinction value along a view or shadow ray and thus achieve interactive performance.

  20. Numerical simulation and optimization of enhanced heat transfer for high power LED light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Pu; Peng, Xu; Houchao, Miao; Li, Zhang

    2013-07-01

    A mathematical model of high power LED lights heat transfer was established, in which heat transfer structure of heat pipe was simplified based on the equivalent thermal resistance network model, and numerically solved by using the CFD software, the steady state temperature distributions were obtained. The simulation results indicate that ambient air temperature, the number of heat pipe, the thickness of bond coating, and the size of radiator play important roles for LED chip temperature, however, the influence of copper sink thickness is negligible. The heat transfer structure was optimized based on these results, and the optimized structure can achieve a better balance between cost reducing and heat transfer enhancement.

  1. Achieving real-time performance in FIESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, William; Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Quillin, Robert; Carlisle, Candace

    1988-01-01

    The Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA) is targeted for operation in a real-time online environment. Initial stages of the prototype development concentrated on acquisition and representation of the knowledge necessary to isolate faults in the TDRSS Network. Recent efforts focused on achieving real-time performance including: a discussion of the meaning of FIESTA real-time requirements, determination of performance levels (benchmarking) and techniques for optimization. Optimization techniques presented include redesign of critical relations, filtering of redundant data and optimization of patterns used in rules. Results are summarized.

  2. Athletic footwear affects balance in men.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E; Gouw, G J; McClaran, J

    1994-01-01

    Stable equilibrium during locomotion is required for both superior performance of sports and prevention of injuries from falls. A recent report indicated that currently available athletic footwear impairs stability in older men. Since this discovery, if confirmed, seems important to both competitive athletes and the physically active general public, we performed an experiment using similar methods on a younger population. We tested the hypothesis that midsole thickness is negatively, and hardness positively related to dynamic equilibrium, in 17 healthy adult men (mean(s.d.) age 33(11.13) years) via a balance beam method. Subjects walked along a 9-m long beam at 0.5 m s-1 once barefoot and six times wearing identical pairs of experimental shoes which differed only in midsole hardness and thickness which spanned the respective ranges currently available in footwear. Falls from the beam (balance failures) were quantified. Balance failures varied significantly in relation to midsole hardness and thickness, and there was a strong trend toward interaction of these variables (P = 0.09). Midsole hardness was positively related to stability, and midsole thickness was negatively related, which confirms the previous report. Hence, shoes with thick-soft soles, similar to modern athletic footwear and 'walking shoes', destabilize men, and shoes with thin-hard soles provide superior stability. The pair with the poorest stability (A 15-thick; 12.34 balance failures per 100 m) produced 217% more balance failures than those associated with the best stability (A 50-thin; 3.89 balance failures per 100 m). Since most types of athletic footwear and many other shoes incorporate midsoles with hardness and thickness associated with poor stability, we conclude that both athletic performance and public safety could be enhanced through stability optimized footwear. PMID:7921911

  3. Wind tunnel balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Warren L. (Inventor); Kunz, Nans (Inventor); Luna, Phillip M. (Inventor); Roberts, Andrew C. (Inventor); Smith, Kenneth M. (Inventor); Smith, Ronald C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A flow-through balance is provided which includes a non-metric portion and a metric portion which form a fluid-conducting passage in fluid communication with an internal bore in the sting. The non-metric and metric portions of the balance are integrally connected together by a plurality of flexure beams such that the non-metric portion, the metric portion and the flexure beams form a one-piece construction which eliminates mechanical hysteresis between the non-metric and the metric portion. The system includes structures for preventing the effects of temperature, pressure and pressurized fluid from producing asymmetric loads on the flexure beams. A temperature sensor and a pressure sensor are located within the fluid-conducting passage of the balance. The system includes a longitudinal bellows member connected at two ends to one of the non-metric portion and the metric portion and at an intermediate portion thereof to the other of (1) and (2). A plurality of strain gages are mounted on the flexure beams to measure strain forces on the flexure beams. The flexure beams are disposed so as to enable symmetric forces on the flexure beams to cancel out so that only asymmetric forces are measured as deviations by the strain gages.

  4. Gait and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach.

  5. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  6. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  7. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  8. Improving Balance with Tai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8428 · INFO @ VESTIBULAR . ORG · WWW . VESTIBULAR . ORG Improving Balance with Tai Chi By the Vestibular Disorders Association ... symptoms commonly experi- enced with vestibular (inner ear balance) disorders can cause overwhelming fatigue and anxiety. Many ...

  9. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-11-01

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark simulated annealing on a class of maximum-2-satisfiability (MAX2SAT) problems. We also compare the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer to the Hamze-Freitas-Selby (HFS) solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low-tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N =1098 variables, the D-Wave device is 2 orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver, and, modulo known caveats related to suboptimal annealing times, exhibits identical scaling with problem size.

  10. On the control of the Heider balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongkaew, S.; Caponigro, M.; Kułakowski, K.; Borzì, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Heider social balance model describes the evolution of the relationships in a social network of humans or animals. This model is built upon the concept of balance of triads consisting of friendly or hostile edges representing the state of the network. In this differential model, a leader is introduced in order to control the system and to drive the social network to a desired relationship state. Further, the stability, the local controllability, and the optimal control through leadership of the Heider model are investigated. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate the ability of the proposed control strategy to drive the Heider balance model to friendship.

  11. Balancing organization and flexibility in foraging dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tabone, Michaelangelo; Ermentrout, Bard; Doiron, Brent

    2010-10-07

    Proper pattern organization and reorganization are central problems facing many biological networks which thrive in fluctuating environments. However, in many cases the mechanisms that organize system activity oppose those that support behavioral flexibility. Thus, a balance between pattern organization and pattern flexibility is critically important for overall biological fitness. We study this balance in the foraging strategies of ant colonies exploiting food in dynamic environments. We present discrete time and space simulations of colony activity that uses a pheromone-based recruitment strategy biasing foraging towards a food source. After food relocation, the pheromone must evaporate sufficiently before foraging can shift colony attention to a new food source. The amount of food consumed within the dynamic environment depends non-monotonically on the pheromone evaporation time constant-with maximal consumption occurring at a time constant which balances trail formation and trail flexibility. A deterministic, 'mean field' model of pheromone and foragers on trails mimics our colony simulations. This reduced framework captures the essence of the flexibility-organization balance, and relates optimal pheromone evaporation to the timescale of the dynamic environment. We expect that the principles exposed in our study will generalize and motivate novel analysis across a broad range systems biology.

  12. Stimulus Characteristics for Vestibular Stochastic Resonance to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrado, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Studies have shown that imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the amplitude characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standard balance task of standing on a block of foam with their eyes closed. Bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system using constant current stimulation through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears. Amplitude of the signals varied in the range of 0-700 microamperes. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block, and inertial motion sensors were placed on the torso and head. Balance performance with stimulation was significantly greater (10%-25%) than with no stimulation. The signal amplitude at which performance was maximized was in the range of 100-300 microamperes. Optimization of the amplitude of the stochastic signals for maximizing balance performance will have a significant impact on development of vestibular SR as a unique system to aid recovery of function in astronauts after long-duration space flight or in patients with balance disorders.

  13. More on Chemical Reaction Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    A previous article stated that only the matrix method was powerful enough to balance a particular chemical equation. Shows how this equation can be balanced without using the matrix method. The approach taken involves writing partial mathematical reactions and redox half-reactions, and combining them to yield the final balanced reaction. (JN)

  14. Human stick balancing: Tuning Lèvy flights to improve balance control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Juan Luis; Milton, John G.

    2004-09-01

    State-dependent, or parametric, noise is an essential component of the neural control mechanism for stick balancing at the fingertip. High-speed motion analysis in three dimensions demonstrates that the controlling movements made by the fingertip during stick balancing can be described by a Lévy flight. The Lévy index, α, is approximately 0.9; a value close to optimal for a random search. With increased skill, the index α does not change. However, the tails of the Lévy distribution become broader. These observations suggest a Lévy flight that is truncated by the properties of the nervous and musculoskeletal system; the truncation decreasing as skill level increases. Measurements of the cross-correlation between the position of the tip of the stick and the fingertip demonstrate that the role of closed-loop feedback changes with increased skill. Moreover, estimation of the neural latencies for stick balancing show that for a given stick length, the latency increases with skill level. It is suggested that the neural control for stick balancing involves a mechanism in which brief intervals of consciously generated, corrective movements alternate with longer intervals of prediction-free control. With learning the truncation of the Lévy flight becomes better optimized for balance control and hence the time between successive conscious corrections increases. These observations provide the first evidence that changes in a Lévy flight may have functional significance for the nervous system. This work has implications for the control of balancing problems ranging from falling in the elderly to the design of two-legged robots and earthquake proof buildings.

  15. The balanced scorecard: an integrative approach to performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J

    2001-05-01

    In addition to strict financial outcomes, healthcare financial managers should assess intangible assets that affect the organization's bottom line, such as clinical processes, staff skills, and patient satisfaction and loyalty. The balanced scorecard, coupled with data-warehousing capabilities, offers a way to measure an organization's performance against its strategic objectives while focusing on building capabilities to achieve these objectives. The balanced scorecard examines performance related to finance, human resources, internal processes, and customers. Because the balanced scorecard requires substantial amounts of data, it is a necessity to establish an organizational data warehouse of clinical, operational, and financial data that can be used in decision support. Because it presents indicators that managers and staff can influence directly by their actions, the balanced-scorecard approach to performance measurement encourages behavioral changes aimed at achieving corporate strategies.

  16. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  17. Supporting clinician educators to achieve “work-work balance”

    PubMed Central

    Maniate, Jerry; Dath, Deepak; Cooke, Lara; Leslie, Karen; Snell, Linda; Busari, Jamiu

    2016-01-01

    Clinician Educators (CE) have numerous responsibilities in different professional domains, including clinical, education, research, and administration. Many CEs face tensions trying to manage these often competing professional responsibilities and achieve “work-work balance.” Rich discussions of techniques for work-work balance amongst CEs at a medical education conference inspired the authors to gather, analyze, and summarize these techniques to share with others. In this paper we present the CE’s “Four Ps”; these are practice points that support both the aspiring and established CE to help improve their performance and productivity as CEs, and allow them to approach work-work balance. PMID:28344698

  18. The balanced scorecard: sustainable performance assessment for forensic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Houck, Max; Speaker, Paul J; Fleming, Arron Scott; Riley, Richard A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of the balanced scorecard into the laboratory management environment. The balanced scorecard is a performance measurement matrix designed to capture financial and non-financial metrics that provide insight into the critical success factors for an organization, effectively aligning organization strategy to key performance objectives. The scorecard helps organizational leaders by providing balance from two perspectives. First, it ensures an appropriate mix of performance metrics from across the organization to achieve operational excellence; thereby the balanced scorecard ensures that no single or limited group of metrics dominates the assessment process, possibly leading to long-term inferior performance. Second, the balanced scorecard helps leaders offset short term performance pressures by giving recognition and weight to long-term laboratory needs that, if not properly addressed, might jeopardize future laboratory performance.

  19. Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers. The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  20. Adaptive automatic balancing of magnetic bearing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Sun

    Rotating machinery including magnetic bearings are usually persistently excited by the rotation related disturbances such as mass unbalance; hence there exists a residual vibration in the steady state response even if the closed loop system is asymptotically stable. In order to control the periodic disturbances, a disturbance accommodating controller (DAC) is designed based on the disturbance estimator and applied to the forced balancing of magnetic bearing system. The control objective is to minimize the synchronous component of shaft displacement or control current. In order to account for the variation of the disturbance model due to the shaft of operating speed, an adaptive disturbance accommodating control scheme is developed based on a certain optimality criterion. The continuous time design discretized to implement the controller in the digital computer and the merits and demerits are studied numerically. It is shown that the proposed method is efficient in reducing rotor unbalance and automatic balancing.

  1. Neurofeedback and physical balance in Parkinson's patients.

    PubMed

    Azarpaikan, Atefeh; Torbati, Hamidreza Taherii; Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the present research is to study the effect of a neurofeedback training (NFT) period on balance problems associated with Parkinson's disease. Sixteen patients were selected through purposive sampling and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The research procedure included eight sessions. Prior to and after training, pre-tests and post-tests of static and dynamic balance were administered using "limit of stability" for the Biodex as well as the Berg scale. The results revealed that, after neurofeedback training, a statistically significant improvement in both static and dynamic balance in the experimental group was achieved. The means of the Biodex and Berg scores in the experimental group increased from 18.87 to 42.87 and 17.62 to 46.37, respectively. The means of the Biodex and Berg scores in the control group in the pretest were 18.25 and 17.75 and increased to 20.00 and 20.50, respectively. The results suggest that NFT can improve static and dynamic balance in PD patients.

  2. Dynamic Load Balancing of Parallel Monte Carlo Transport Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M; Taylor, J; Procassini, R

    2004-12-22

    The performance of parallel Monte Carlo transport calculations which use both spatial and particle parallelism is increased by dynamically assigning processors to the most worked domains. Since the particle work load varies over the course of the simulation, this algorithm determines each cycle if dynamic load balancing would speed up the calculation. If load balancing is required, a small number of particle communications are initiated in order to achieve load balance. This method has decreased the parallel run time by more than a factor of three for certain criticality calculations.

  3. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  4. A global study of the unmet need for glycemic control and predictor factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have achieved optimal fasting plasma glucose control on basal insulin

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Engels; Colagiuri, Stephen; Gaàl, Zsolt; Lavalle, Fernando; Mkrtumyan, Ashot; Nikonova, Elena; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Vidal, Josep; Davies, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This study used data from different sources to identify the extent of the unmet need for postprandial glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after the initiation of basal insulin therapy in Europe, Asia Pacific, the United States, and Latin America. Methods Different levels of evidence were used as available for each country/region, with data extracted from seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), three clinical trial registries (CTRs), and three electronic medical record (EMR) databases. Glycemic status was categorized as “well controlled” (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] at target [<7%]), “residual hyperglycemia” (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] but not HbA1c at target [FPG <7.2/7.8 mmol/L, <130/140 mg/dL, depending on country‐specific recommendations]), or “uncontrolled” (both FPG and HbA1c above target). Predictor factors were identified from the RCT data set using logistic regression analysis. Results RCT data showed that 16.9% to 28.0%, 42.7% to 54.4%, and 16.9% to 38.1% of patients with T2DM had well‐controlled glycemia, residual hyperglycemia, and uncontrolled hyperglycemia, respectively. In CTRs, respective ranges were 21.8% to 33.6%, 31.5% to 35.6%, and 30.7% to 46.8%, and in EMR databases were 4.4% to 21.0%, 23.9% to 31.8%, and 53.6% to 63.8%. Significant predictor factors of residual hyperglycemia identified from RCT data included high baseline HbA1c (all countries/regions except Brazil), high baseline FPG (United Kingdom/Japan), longer duration of diabetes (Brazil), and female sex (Europe/Latin America). Conclusions Irrespective of intrinsic differences between data sources, 24% to 54% of patients with T2DM globally had residual hyperglycemia with HbA1c not at target, despite achieving FPG control, indicating a significant unmet need for postprandial glycemic control. PMID:27606888

  5. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  6. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  7. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  8. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  9. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  10. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  11. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  12. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  13. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  14. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  15. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  16. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  17. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  18. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  19. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  20. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Y. C.; Drury, M.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G. A.; Poelker, M.; Reece, C.; Tiefenback, M.

    2011-05-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  1. Constraining neutron guide optimizations with phase-space considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, Mads; Lefmann, Kim

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a method named the Minimalist Principle that serves to reduce the parameter space for neutron guide optimization when the required beam divergence is limited. The reduced parameter space will restrict the optimization to guides with a minimal neutron intake that are still theoretically able to deliver the maximal possible performance. The geometrical constraints are derived using phase-space propagation from moderator to guide and from guide to sample, while assuming that the optimized guides will achieve perfect transport of the limited neutron intake. Guide systems optimized using these constraints are shown to provide performance close to guides optimized without any constraints, however the divergence received at the sample is limited to the desired interval, even when the neutron transport is not limited by the supermirrors used in the guide. As the constraints strongly limit the parameter space for the optimizer, two control parameters are introduced that can be used to adjust the selected subspace, effectively balancing between maximizing neutron transport and avoiding background from unnecessary neutrons. One parameter is needed to describe the expected focusing abilities of the guide to be optimized, going from perfectly focusing to no correlation between position and velocity. The second parameter controls neutron intake into the guide, so that one can select exactly how aggressively the background should be limited. We show examples of guides optimized using these constraints which demonstrates the higher signal to noise than conventional optimizations. Furthermore the parameter controlling neutron intake is explored which shows that the simulated optimal neutron intake is close to the analytically predicted, when assuming that the guide is dominated by multiple scattering events.

  2. Post-operative consequences of hemodynamic optimization.

    PubMed

    Lazkani, A; Lebuffe, G

    2016-12-01

    Hemodynamic optimization begins with a medical assessment to identify the high-risk patients. This stratification is needed to customize the choice of hemodynamic support that is best adapted to the patient's level of risk, integrating the use of the least invasive procedures. The macro-circulatory hemodynamic approach aims to maintain a balance between oxygen supply (DO2) and oxygen demand (VO2). Volume replacement plays a crucial role based on the titration of fluid boluses according to their effect on measured stroke volume or indices of preload dependency. Good function of the microcirculatory system is the best guarantee to achieve this goal. An assessment of the DO2/VO2 ratio is needed for guidance in critical situations where tissue hypoxia may occur. Overall, all of these strategies are based on objective criteria to guide vascular replacement and/or tissue oxygenation in order to improve the patient's post-operative course by decreasing morbidity and hospital stay.

  3. Evolving Sensitivity Balances Boolean Networks

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jamie X.; Turner, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of Boolean Networks (BNs) to mutations. We are interested in Boolean Networks as a model of Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs). We adopt Ribeiro and Kauffman’s Ergodic Set and use it to study the long term dynamics of a BN. We define the sensitivity of a BN to be the mean change in its Ergodic Set structure under all possible loss of interaction mutations. Insilico experiments were used to selectively evolve BNs for sensitivity to losing interactions. We find that maximum sensitivity was often achievable and resulted in the BNs becoming topologically balanced, i.e. they evolve towards network structures in which they have a similar number of inhibitory and excitatory interactions. In terms of the dynamics, the dominant sensitivity strategy that evolved was to build BNs with Ergodic Sets dominated by a single long limit cycle which is easily destabilised by mutations. We discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of Stem Cell Differentiation and propose a relationship between pluripotent stem cells and our evolved sensitive networks. PMID:22586459

  4. Performance tradeoffs in static and dynamic load balancing strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iqbal, M. A.; Saltz, J. H.; Bokhart, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of uniformly distributing the load of a parallel program over a multiprocessor system was considered. A program was analyzed whose structure permits the computation of the optimal static solution. Then four strategies for load balancing were described and their performance compared. The strategies are: (1) the optimal static assignment algorithm which is guaranteed to yield the best static solution, (2) the static binary dissection method which is very fast but sub-optimal, (3) the greedy algorithm, a static fully polynomial time approximation scheme, which estimates the optimal solution to arbitrary accuracy, and (4) the predictive dynamic load balancing heuristic which uses information on the precedence relationships within the program and outperforms any of the static methods. It is also shown that the overhead incurred by the dynamic heuristic is reduced considerably if it is started off with a static assignment provided by either of the other three strategies.

  5. Performance Optimization of Marine Science and Numerical Modeling on HPC Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongdong; Yang, Hailong; Wang, Luming; Zhou, Yucong; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Marine science and numerical modeling (MASNUM) is widely used in forecasting ocean wave movement, through simulating the variation tendency of the ocean wave. Although efforts have been devoted to improve the performance of MASNUM from various aspects by existing work, there is still large space unexplored for further performance improvement. In this paper, we aim at improving the performance of propagation solver and data access during the simulation, in addition to the efficiency of output I/O and load balance. Our optimizations include several effective techniques such as the algorithm redesign, load distribution optimization, parallel I/O and data access optimization. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves higher performance compared to the state-of-the-art work, about 3.5x speedup without degrading the prediction accuracy. In addition, the parameter sensitivity analysis shows our optimizations are effective under various topography resolutions and output frequencies. PMID:28045972

  6. Balancing Family and Career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Dawson, Silvina Ponce; Horton, K. Renee; Sandow, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    In essentially all countries, responsibilities for child care, cooking, cleaning, and other homemaking tasks fall predominantly on the wife and mother. In addition, the childbearing years come during the period when a physicist must study hard, work long hours on research, and take temporary positions, often abroad. Thus, balancing family and career has long been one of the major barriers to women's participation in science and engineering fields, including physics. While many young women believe that they must choose between having children and having a science career, the fact is that the majority of women physicists in both developing and developed countries have successfully done both. This paper summarizes some ideas and recommendations raised in discussions, especially focused on easing the challenges of having children while in temporary jobs, returning to physics after a career break, the need for "family-friendly" working conditions, and the dual-career problem facing couples where both are scientists.

  7. Energy balance climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  8. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  9. Complementary mechanisms for upright balance during walking

    PubMed Central

    Fettrow, Tyler D.; Thompson, Elizabeth D.; Agada, Peter; McFadyen, Bradford J.; Jeka, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Lateral balance is a critical factor in keeping the human body upright during walking. Two important mechanisms for balance control are the stepping strategy, in which the foot placement is changed in the direction of a sensed fall to modulate how the gravitational force acts on the body, and the lateral ankle strategy, in which the body mass is actively accelerated by an ankle torque. Currently, there is minimal evidence about how these two strategies complement one another to achieve upright balance during locomotion. We use Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) to induce the sensation of a fall at heel-off during gait initiation. We found that young healthy adults respond to the illusory fall using both the lateral ankle strategy and the stepping strategy. The stance foot center of pressure (CoP) is shifted in the direction of the perceived fall by ≈2.5 mm, starting ≈247 ms after stimulus onset. The foot placement of the following step is shifted by ≈15 mm in the same direction. The temporal delay between these two mechanisms suggests that they independently contribute to upright balance during locomotion, potentially in a serially coordinated manner. Modeling results indicate that without the lateral ankle strategy, a much larger step width is required to maintain upright balance, suggesting that the small but early CoP shift induced by the lateral ankle strategy is critical for upright stability during locomotion. The relative importance of each mechanism and how neurological disorders may affect their implementation remain an open question. PMID:28234936

  10. Energy balance in peridynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2010-09-01

    The peridynamic model of solid mechanics treats internal forces within a continuum through interactions across finite distances. These forces are determined through a constitutive model that, in the case of an elastic material, permits the strain energy density at a point to depend on the collective deformation of all the material within some finite distance of it. The forces between points are evaluated from the Frechet derivative of this strain energy density with respect to the deformation map. The resulting equation of motion is an integro-differential equation written in terms of these interparticle forces, rather than the traditional stress tensor field. Recent work on peridynamics has elucidated the energy balance in the presence of these long-range forces. We have derived the appropriate analogue of stress power, called absorbed power, that leads to a satisfactory definition of internal energy. This internal energy is additive, allowing us to meaningfully define an internal energy density field in the body. An expression for the local first law of thermodynamics within peridynamics combines this mechanical component, the absorbed power, with heat transport. The global statement of the energy balance over a subregion can be expressed in a form in which the mechanical and thermal terms contain only interactions between the interior of the subregion and the exterior, in a form anticipated by Noll in 1955. The local form of this first law within peridynamics, coupled with the second law as expressed in the Clausius-Duhem inequality, is amenable to the Coleman-Noll procedure for deriving restrictions on the constitutive model for thermomechanical response. Using an idea suggested by Fried in the context of systems of discrete particles, this procedure leads to a dissipation inequality for peridynamics that has a surprising form. It also leads to a thermodynamically consistent way to treat damage within the theory, shedding light on how damage, including the

  11. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  12. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  13. The role of prediction modeling in propensity score estimation: an evaluation of logistic regression, bCART, and the covariate-balancing propensity score.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Richard; Ellis, Alan R; Brookhart, M Alan; Girman, Cynthia J; Jonsson Funk, Michele; LoCasale, Robert; Stürmer, Til

    2014-09-15

    The covariate-balancing propensity score (CBPS) extends logistic regression to simultaneously optimize covariate balance and treatment prediction. Although the CBPS has been shown to perform well in certain settings, its performance has not been evaluated in settings specific to pharmacoepidemiology and large database research. In this study, we use both simulations and empirical data to compare the performance of the CBPS with logistic regression and boosted classification and regression trees. We simulated various degrees of model misspecification to evaluate the robustness of each propensity score (PS) estimation method. We then applied these methods to compare the effect of initiating glucagonlike peptide-1 agonists versus sulfonylureas on cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in the US Medicare population in 2007-2009. In simulations, the CBPS was generally more robust in terms of balancing covariates and reducing bias compared with misspecified logistic PS models and boosted classification and regression trees. All PS estimation methods performed similarly in the empirical example. For settings common to pharmacoepidemiology, logistic regression with balance checks to assess model specification is a valid method for PS estimation, but it can require refitting multiple models until covariate balance is achieved. The CBPS is a promising method to improve the robustness of PS models.

  14. The Balanced Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert S.; Miyake, Dylan N.

    2010-01-01

    Ten years ago, the Atlanta Public Schools had low and declining student achievement, demoralized teachers, crumbling buildings, high turnover among superintendents (average tenure of two years) and disaffected parents pulling their children out of the system. More than 60 percent of the city's high school students missed at least two weeks of…

  15. Device engineering of perovskite solar cells to achieve near ideal efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Sumanshu E-mail: prnair@ee.iitb.ac.in; Nair, Pradeep R. E-mail: prnair@ee.iitb.ac.in

    2015-09-21

    Despite the exciting recent research on perovskite based solar cells, the design space for further optimization and the practical limits of efficiency are not well known in the community. In this letter, we address these aspects through theoretical calculations and detailed numerical simulations. Here, we first provide the detailed balance limit efficiency in the presence of radiative and Auger recombination. Then, using coupled optical and carrier transport simulations, we identify the physical mechanisms that contribute towards bias dependent carrier collection, and hence low fill factors of current perovskite based solar cells. Our detailed simulations indicate that it is indeed possible to achieve efficiencies and fill factors greater than 25% and 85%, respectively, with near ideal super-position characteristics even in the presence of Auger recombination.

  16. Device engineering of perovskite solar cells to achieve near ideal efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sumanshu; Nair, Pradeep R.

    2015-09-01

    Despite the exciting recent research on perovskite based solar cells, the design space for further optimization and the practical limits of efficiency are not well known in the community. In this letter, we address these aspects through theoretical calculations and detailed numerical simulations. Here, we first provide the detailed balance limit efficiency in the presence of radiative and Auger recombination. Then, using coupled optical and carrier transport simulations, we identify the physical mechanisms that contribute towards bias dependent carrier collection, and hence low fill factors of current perovskite based solar cells. Our detailed simulations indicate that it is indeed possible to achieve efficiencies and fill factors greater than 25% and 85%, respectively, with near ideal super-position characteristics even in the presence of Auger recombination.

  17. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  18. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  19. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  20. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  1. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  2. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  3. Improving load balance with flexibly assignable tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Hendrickson, Bruce

    2003-09-09

    In many applications of parallel computing, distribution ofthe data unambiguously implies distribution of work among processors. Butthere are exceptions where some tasks can be assigned to one of severalprocessors without altering the total volume of communication. In thispaper, we study the problem of exploiting this flexibility in assignmentof tasks to improve load balance. We first model the problem in terms ofnetwork flow and use combinatorial techniques for its solution. Ourparametric search algorithms use maximum flow algorithms for probing on acandidate optimal solution value. We describe two algorithms to solve theassignment problem with \\logW_T and vbar P vbar probe calls, w here W_Tand vbar P vbar, respectively, denote the total workload and number ofproce ssors. We also define augmenting paths and cuts for this problem,and show that anyalgorithm based on augmenting paths can be used to findan optimal solution for the task assignment problem. We then consideracontinuous version of the problem, and formulate it as a linearlyconstrained optimization problem, i.e., \\min\\|Ax\\|_\\infty,\\; {\\rms.t.}\\;Bx=d. To avoid solving an intractable \\infty-norm optimization problem,we show that in this case minimizing the 2-norm is sufficient to minimizethe \\infty-norm, which reduces the problem to the well-studiedlinearly-constrained least squares problem. The continuous version of theproblem has the advantage of being easily amenable to parallelization.Our experiments with molecular dynamics and overlapped domaindecomposition applications proved the effectiveness of our methods withsignificant improvements in load balance. We also discuss how ourtechniques can be enhanced for heterogeneous systems.

  4. Phosphate balance in ESRD: diet, dialysis and binders against the low evident masked pool.

    PubMed

    Galassi, A; Cupisti, A; Santoro, A; Cozzolino, M

    2015-08-01

    Phosphate metabolism is crucial in the pathophysiology of secondary hyperparathyroidism and vascular calcification. High phosphate levels have been consistently associated with unfavorable outcomes in dialysis patients, but several limitations are still hampering a resolutive definition of the optimal targets of phosphate serum levels to be achieved in this cohort. Nonetheless, hyperphosphatemia is a late marker of phosphate overload in humans. Clinical nephrologists routinely counteract the positive phosphate balance in dialysis patients through nutritional counseling, stronger phosphate removal by dialysis and prescription of phosphate binders. However, the superiority against placebo of phosphate control by diet, dialysis or binders in terms of survival has never been tested in dedicated randomized controlled trials. The present review discusses this conundrum with particular emphasis on the rationale supporting the value of a simultaneous intervention against phosphate overload in dialysis patients via the improvement of dietary intakes, dialysis efficiency and an individualized choice of phosphate binders.

  5. Adaptive Load-Balancing Algorithms using Symmetric Broadcast Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In a distributed computing environment, it is important to ensure that the processor workloads are adequately balanced, Among numerous load-balancing algorithms, a unique approach due to Das and Prasad defines a symmetric broadcast network (SBN) that provides a robust communication pattern among the processors in a topology-independent manner. In this paper, we propose and analyze three efficient SBN-based dynamic load-balancing algorithms, and implement them on an SGI Origin2000. A thorough experimental study with Poisson distributed synthetic loads demonstrates that our algorithms are effective in balancing system load. By optimizing completion time and idle time, the proposed algorithms are shown to compare favorably with several existing approaches.

  6. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  7. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Ruch, Russell; Ludwig, Peter; Maurer, Tessa

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  8. Fast computing global structural balance in signed networks based on memetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yixiang; Du, Haifeng; Gong, Maoguo; Ma, Lijia; Wang, Shanfeng

    2014-12-01

    Structural balance is a large area of study in signed networks, and it is intrinsically a global property of the whole network. Computing global structural balance in signed networks, which has attracted some attention in recent years, is to measure how unbalanced a signed network is and it is a nondeterministic polynomial-time hard problem. Many approaches are developed to compute global balance. However, the results obtained by them are partial and unsatisfactory. In this study, the computation of global structural balance is solved as an optimization problem by using the Memetic Algorithm. The optimization algorithm, named Meme-SB, is proposed to optimize an evaluation function, energy function, which is used to compute a distance to exact balance. Our proposed algorithm combines Genetic Algorithm and a greedy strategy as the local search procedure. Experiments on social and biological networks show the excellent effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. Haemostatic balance in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Baccouche, Héla; Labidi, Asma; Fekih, Monia; Mahjoub, Sonia; Kaabi, Houda; Hmida, Slama; Filali, Azza; Romdhane, Neila B

    2017-03-01

    Despite the prolongation of coagulation tests, recent studies reported an increased frequency of thromboembolic events in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haemostatic balance in cirrhotic patients through assessing the variation of pro- and anticoagulant factors and evaluating the in-vitro thrombin generation in patients with cirrhosis and in healthy patients. Fifty-one cirrhotic patients with or without thromboembolic events and 50 controls matched by age and sex were enrolled. Procoagulant (factors VII, II, V, VIII, and XII) and inhibitor (protein C, protein S and antithrombin) factor activities were determined. Thrombin generation was measured as endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). Haemostatic balance was assessed by means of both procoagulant to inhibitor coagulation factor ratios and ETP with to without protein C activation ratios. There were 24 males and 27 females. The mean age was 57.8 years [16-91 years]. Pro and anticoagulant factors were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P < 0.001) except for factor VIII and protein S. In fact factor VIII level was significantly higher in patients than in controls and protein S levels were not significantly different between patients and controls. Almost all the pro to anticoagulant factor ratios were higher in cirrhotics than in controls, especially the factor VIII to protein C ratios which increased significantly from Child Pugh A to C (P < 0.001), the ratio of ETP with to without protein C activator was higher in patients than in controls, but did not reach a significant level (0.8 vs. 0.52) There was no statistically significant difference between Child classes. When comparing patients with history of thrombosis (n = 7) to those matched by age and sex and without history of thrombosis (n = 14), the ratios were not statistically different between the two groups. Haemostatic changes in cirrhosis tend to rebalance the haemostatic system. This state often

  10. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain's ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable and provides imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles. SR using imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS) applied to normal subjects has shown to improve the degree of association between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart-rate responses. Also, application of SVS over 24

  11. Exit Presentation -- Maintaining Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the projects which the author engaged in during an internship at Johnson Space Center. Project 1 was involved with Stochastic Resonance (SR). Stochastic resonance is a phenomenon in which the response of a non-linear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. The goal of this project was to develop a countermeasure for sensorimotor disturbances that are experienced after long duration space flight. The second project was a pilot study that was to examine how adaptation to a novel functional task was affected by postural disturbance.

  12. Static load balancing for CFD distributed simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chronopoulos, A T; Grosu, D; Wissink, A; Benche, M

    2001-01-26

    The cost/performance ratio of networks of workstations has been constantly improving. This trend is expected to continue in the near future. The aggregate peak rate of such systems often matches or exceeds the peak rate offered by the fastest parallel computers. This has motivated research towards using a network of computers, interconnected via a fast network (cluster system) or a simple Local Area Network (LAN) (distributed system), for high performance concurrent computations. Some of the important research issues arise such as (1) Optimal problem partitioning and virtual interconnection topology mapping; (2) Optimal execution scheduling and load balancing. CFD codes have been efficiently implemented on homogeneous parallel systems in the past. In particular, the helicopter aerodynamics CFD code TURNS has been implemented with MPI on the IBM SP with parallel relaxation and Krylov iterative methods used in place of more traditional recursive algorithms to enhance performance. In this implementation the space domain is divided into equal subdomain which are mapped to the processors. We consider the implementation of TURNS on a LAN of heterogeneous workstations. In order to deal with the problem of load balancing due to the different processor speeds we propose a suboptimal algorithm of dividing the space domain into unequal subdomains and assign them to the different computers. The algorithm can apply to other CFD applications. We used our algorithm to schedule TURNS on a network of workstations and obtained significantly better results.

  13. Dynamic Balancing Of Turbomachinery Shafts And Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    Method for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafts and rotors developed with view toward reducing time spent in balancing process. Improved method based on existing dynamic-balancing techniques and equipment, incorporating use of balancing arbor, which is mandrel duplicating mounting geometry and dynamic-balance properties of shaft balanced. Once shaft balanced, not necessary to disassemble machinery and/or shaft completely and rebalance shaft when replacing rotor on shaft. Instead, one balances replacement rotor on balancing arbor, then installs balanced rotor on shaft.

  14. In the Balance:

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Lawrence T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The nineteenth century saw the incorporation of technology, such as the stethoscope, microscope, and thermometer, into clinical medicine. An instrument that has received less attention in the history of the role of technology in medicine is the weighing balance, or scale. Although not new to nineteenth-century medicine, it played an important part in the rise of the numerical method and its application to the development and shaping of pediatrics. This article explores the origin and development of the weighing of babies. During its clinical and scientific adoption, this simple procedure was refined and applied in a number of increasingly sophisticated and far-reaching ways: as a measure of the dimensions of the fetus and newborn, as an index of the viability of the newborn, as a means of estimating milk intake, as a way of distinguishing normality from abnormality, as a summary measure of infant health, and as an instrument of mass surveillance. In so doing it changed the way in which medical care was delivered to infants. PMID:20632732

  15. A Balanced Memory Network

    PubMed Central

    Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory—the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds—is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons. PMID:17845070

  16. Balancing "we" and "me".

    PubMed

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude.

  17. Heat balance of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budyko, M. I.; Berlyand, T. G.; Yefimova, N. A.; Zubenok, L. I.; Strokina, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Results of improved calculations of the heat balance components of Earth's surface are reported for yearly average conditions. The technique used to determine the heat-balance components from land- and sea-based actinometric observations as well as from satellite data on the radiation balance of the Earth-atmosphere system is described, with special attention given to short-wavelength solar radiation on the continents, effective radiation from the land surface, the radiation balance of the ocean surface, heat expended by both evaporation from the ocean surface, and turbulent heat transfer between the ocean surface and the atmosphere. World maps of heat-balance components show yearly average values of total radiation, radiation balance, heat expended by evaporation, the turbulent heat flow between Earth's surface and atmosphere, and heat transfer between the ocean surface and underlying waters. The global surface heat balance is estimated along with global values of the various components and the heat-balance components for different latitude zones.

  18. Balancing Safety and Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, David L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern"…

  19. Slacklining and stroke: A rehabilitation case study considering balance and lower limb weakness

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Charles P; Rando, Natalie; Melloh, Markus

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of slacklining as a supplementary therapy for elderly stroke patients who are functionally non-progressing. This case study involved an 18-mo prospective observation of the management of an 87-year-old female stroke-patient of the left hemisphere with reduced balance, reduced lower limb muscular activation, hypertonia, and concurrent postural deficits. This entailed the initial acute care phase through to discharge to home and 18-mo final status in her original independent living setting. The introduction of slacklining as an adjunct therapy was made 12 mo post incident. Slacklining involves balance retention on a tightened band where external environmental changes cause a whole-body dynamic response to retain equilibrium. It is a complex neuromechanical task enabling individualized self-developed response strategies to be learned and adapted. This facilitates the innate process of balance retention, lower-limb and core muscle activation, and stable posture through a combination of learned motor skills and neurological system down regulation. Individuals adopt and follow established sequential motor learning stages where the acquired balance skills are achieved in a challenging composite-chain activity. Slacklining could be considered an adjunct therapy for lower limb stroke rehabilitation where function is compromised due to decreased muscle recruitment, decreased postural control and compromised balance. Initial inpatient rehabilitation involved one-month acute-care, one-month rehabilitation, and one-month transitional care prior to home discharge. A further six months of intensive outpatient rehabilitation was provided with five hourly sessions per week including:supervised and self-managed hydrotherapy, plus one individual and two group falls’ prevention sessions. These were supported by daily home exercises. At 12 mo post incident, recovery plateaued, then regressed following three falls. Rehabilitation was subsequently

  20. Achieving optimal outcomes with all-zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Christensen, John Juel

    2014-01-01

    All-zirconia crowns are enjoying an unprecedented popularity. Dental laboratories are acquiring new equipment and adopting novel techniques, some of which require a learning curve. As a result, some crowns fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology may come back to the dentist with unsatisfactory features. Dentists should carefully examine each crown under magnification prior to delivery to the patient. The dentist and dental laboratory should establish a close partnership with clear communication to yield the most favorable outcome for the patient.

  1. Earning the Stamp of Approval: How To Achieve Optimal Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makar, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the redesign of the Web site at the virtual library of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Discusses usability problems with the original site, including navigation difficulties; focus groups to determine user needs; usability testing for the new Web site; and the importance of customer input. (LRW)

  2. Modulation of the partition coefficient between octanol and buffer at pH 7.4 and pKa to achieve the optimum balance of blood clearance and volume of distribution for a series of tetrahydropyran histamine type 3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hay, Tanya; Jones, Rhys; Beaumont, Kevin; Kemp, Mark

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between rat pharmacokinetics and physicochemical parameters [the partition coefficient between octanol and buffer at pH 7.4 (log D((7.4))) and pK(a)] was studied for a series of tetrahydropyran compounds. Sixteen compounds ranging in log D((7.4)) 0.1 to 1.8 were administered intravenously to rats, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from blood concentration time curves. Across the series, a weak correlation was observed between log D((7.4)) and blood clearance, suggesting that log D((7.4)) values less than 0.5 were required to prevent clearance at hepatic blood flow. In terms of the volume of distribution (V(d)), the compounds fell into three distinct subseries characterized by the number of basic centers and differences in ionization of each basic center at physiological pH. These were referred to as the monobasic, weak second base, and strong second base subseries. All the compounds exhibited V(d) greater than body water, as would be expected from their lipophilic and basic nature. For a given clog P, the strong second base subseries showed higher V(d) than the weak second base subseries, which in turn exhibited higher values than the monobasic subseries. In addition, for the weak second base subseries, V(d) could be tuned by modulating the pK(a) of the second basic center. This relationship was rationalized in respect to the interactions of the ionizable centers with phospholipid heads in the cell membrane and/or lysosomal trapping. Compounds in the weak second base subseries showed optimal V(d), and when combined with a log D((7.4)) of 0.1, driving to moderate blood clearance, one compound showed the optimal pharmacokinetic profile.

  3. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  4. [Soft tissue balancing in total condylar knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Trepte, C T; Pfanzelt, K

    2003-01-01

    Soft tissue balancing and correct bone cuts are an entity in correcting malalignment in total knee arthroplasty, and cannot be considered isolated. Distinct bony deformations/deviations need enlarged soft tissue management. The extent of resection of the bone stock has to be planned exactly before the operation. Exact soft tissue balancing is necessary to stabilize the corrected knee. Soft tissue balancing has to be done primarily on the side of the contracture by lengthening of the shortened and contracted structures. After balancing the ligaments should have the same tension in extension and flexion together with the same height of the extension and flexion gap. Because of the classic resection of the tibial head, the femoral resection must follow the Insall-Line, that means 3 degrees to 5 degrees outer rotation in relation to the condyles. Only in this way a symmetric flexion gap can be achieved in combination with ligamentous stability in extension and flexion.

  5. Incorporation of Content Balancing Requirements in Stratification Designs for Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2003-01-01

    Studied three stratification designs for computerized adaptive testing in conjunction with three well-developed content balancing methods. Simulation study results show substantial differences in item overlap rate and pool utilization among different methods. Recommends an optimal combination of stratification design and content balancing method.…

  6. The consequences of balanced harvesting of fish communities

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Nis S.; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Ken H.

    2014-01-01

    Balanced harvesting, where species or individuals are exploited in accordance with their productivity, has been proposed as a way to minimize the effects of fishing on marine fish communities and ecosystems. This calls for a thorough examination of the consequences balanced harvesting has on fish community structure and yield. We use a size- and trait-based model that resolves individual interactions through competition and predation to compare balanced harvesting with traditional selective harvesting, which protects juvenile fish from fishing. Four different exploitation patterns, generated by combining selective or unselective harvesting with balanced or unbalanced fishing, are compared. We find that unselective balanced fishing, where individuals are exploited in proportion to their productivity, produces a slightly larger total maximum sustainable yield than the other exploitation patterns and, for a given yield, the least change in the relative biomass composition of the fish community. Because fishing reduces competition, predation and cannibalism within the community, the total maximum sustainable yield is achieved at high exploitation rates. The yield from unselective balanced fishing is dominated by small individuals, whereas selective fishing produces a much higher proportion of large individuals in the yield. Although unselective balanced fishing is predicted to produce the highest total maximum sustainable yield and the lowest impact on trophic structure, it is effectively a fishery predominantly targeting small forage fish. PMID:24307676

  7. A comparative analysis of static and dynamic load balancing strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iqbal, M. Ashraf; Bokhari, Shahid H.; Saltz, Joel H.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of uniformly distributing the load of a parallel program over a multiprocessor system was considered. A program was analyzed whose structure permits the computation of the optimal static solution. Then four strategies for load balancing were described and their performance compared. The strategies are: (1) the optimal static assignment algorithm which is guaranteed to yield the best static solution, (2) the static binary dissection method which is very fast but suboptimal, (3) the greedy algorithm, a static fully polynomial time approximation scheme, which estimates the optimal solution to arbitrary accuracy, and (4) the predictive dynamic load balancing heuristic which uses information on the precedence relationships within the program and outperforms any of the static methods. It is also shown that the overhead incurred by the dynamic heuristic is reduced considerably if it is started off with a static assignment provided by either of the three strategies.

  8. Nozzle Mounting Method Optimization Based on Robot Kinematic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoyue; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain; Deng, Sihao

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the application of industrial robots in thermal spray is gaining more and more importance. A desired coating quality depends on factors such as a balanced robot performance, a uniform scanning trajectory and stable parameters (e.g. nozzle speed, scanning step, spray angle, standoff distance). These factors also affect the mass and heat transfer as well as the coating formation. Thus, the kinematic optimization of all these aspects plays a key role in order to obtain an optimal coating quality. In this study, the robot performance was optimized from the aspect of nozzle mounting on the robot. An optimized nozzle mounting for a type F4 nozzle was designed, based on the conventional mounting method from the point of view of robot kinematics validated on a virtual robot. Robot kinematic parameters were obtained from the simulation by offline programming software and analyzed by statistical methods. The energy consumptions of different nozzle mounting methods were also compared. The results showed that it was possible to reasonably assign the amount of robot motion to each axis during the process, so achieving a constant nozzle speed. Thus, it is possible optimize robot performance and to economize robot energy.

  9. Nexus of poverty, energy balance and health.

    PubMed

    Mishra, C P

    2012-04-01

    Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification

  10. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  11. Balance perturbation system to improve balance compensatory responses during walking in old persons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Ageing commonly disrupts the balance control and compensatory postural responses that contribute to maintaining balance and preventing falls during perturbation of posture. This can lead to increased risk of falling in old adults (65 years old and over). Therefore, improving compensatory postural responses during walking is one of the goals in fall prevention programs. Training is often used to achieve this goal. Most fall prevention programs are usually directed towards improving voluntary postural control. Since compensatory postural responses triggered by a slip or a trip are not under direct volitional control these exercises are less expected to improve compensatory postural responses due to lack of training specificity. Thus, there is a need to investigate the use balance perturbations during walking to train more effectively compensatory postural reactions during walking. This paper describes the Balance Measure & Perturbation System (BaMPer System) a system that provides small, controlled and unpredictable perturbations during treadmill walking providing valuable perturbation, which allows training compensatory postural responses during walking which thus hypothesize to improve compensatory postural responses in older adults. PMID:20630113

  12. Carbon and nitrogen nutrient balance signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2009-07-01

    Cellular carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism must be tightly coordinated to sustain optimal growth and development for plants and other cellular organisms. Furthermore, C/N balance is also critical for the ecosystem response to elevated atmospheric CO(2). Despite numerous physiological and molecular studies in C/N balance or ratio response, very few genes have been shown to play important roles in C/N balance signaling. During recent five years, exciting progress was made through genetic and genomic studies. Several DNA microarray studies have shown that more than half of the transcriptome is regulated by C, N and the C-N combination. Three genetic studies involving distinct bioassays have demonstrated that a putative nitrate transporter (NTR2.1), a putative glutamate receptor (GLR1.1) and a putative methyltransferase (OSU1) have important functions in the C/N balance response. OSU1 is identical to QUA2/TSD2 which has been implicated to act in cell wall biogenesis, indicating a link between cell wall property and the C/N balance signaling. Given that many investigations are only focused on C alone or N alone, the C/N balance bioassays and gene expression patterns are discussed to assist phenotypic characterization of C/N balance signaling. Further, re-examination of those previously reported sugar or nitrogen responsive genes in C/N balance response may be necessary to dissect the C/N signaling pathways. In addition, key components involved in C-N interactions in bacterial, yeast and animal systems and whether they are functionally conserved in plants are discussed. These rapid advances have provided the first important step towards the construction of the complex yet elegant C/N balance signaling networks in plants.

  13. OPTIMIZING POTENTIAL GREEN REPLACEMENT CHEMICALS – BALANCING FUNCTION AND RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important focus of green chemistry is the design of new chemicals that are inherently less toxic than the ones they might replace, but still retain required functional properties. A variety of methods exist to measure or model both functional and toxicity surrogates that could...

  14. Optimal CH-47 AND C-130 Workload Balance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    42 LINGO -based Model Development .......................................................................42 Summary...58 Appendix A. LINGO -Based Model...scenario and network is the first step towards developing a mixed integer linear program in the LINGO ® software environment. The program development

  15. Query Optimization in Distributed Databases through Load Balancing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-06

    bound solution methods to the 0-1 integer programming problem. Although their approaches were more efficient, they still required about a second of...return to the value that it had before the large increase). We did -.- not carry out sufficiently long measurements to feel confident enough to draw any...easily implemented in such a system, we can be more confident that we can adapt them to less sophisticated DDBMS’s. Furthermore, a lot of effort has been

  16. Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Liu, Fagui; Cao, Jianneng; Wang, Liangming

    2016-01-01

    Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs), we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO) is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle’s position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption. PMID:27428971

  17. Balancing Fun and Learning in a Serious Game Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzwa, Christopher; Tang, Ying; Johnson, Aaron; Bielefeldt, Talbot

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the underlying philosophy of Sustain City, an educational serious game system that engages students, particularly prospective and beginning science and engineering students, in a series of engineering design challenges. Various strategies implemented in Sustain City for achieving a balance of fun and learning are discussed,…

  18. Balancing Leadership and Personal Growth: The School Administrator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Christa

    2006-01-01

    After conducting intensive research and observations of school district superintendents, administrators, and school principals, the author offers strategies for achieving a healthy work and life balance, including: (1) Taking care of yourself as well as you do others; (2) Defining and applying the six themes of personal growth; (3) Nourishing your…

  19. Work-Family Balance and Academic Advancement in Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geri; Schwartz, Alan; Hart, Katherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines various options that a faculty member might exercise to achieve work-family balance in academic medicine and their consequences for academic advancement. Method: Three data sets were analyzed: an anonymous web-administered survey of part-time tenure track-eligible University of Illinois College of Medicine (UI-COM)…

  20. Balancing Process and Content in Groups: A Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Kurt; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

    1996-01-01

    Through the use of a culinary metaphor, the authors depict common problems that can occur when process is overlooked in group settings. The metaphor offers "food for thought" for helping leaders achieve a balance between process and content in effective group work. (Author)

  1. Transportation Requirements for Improved Racial Balance. Research Memorandum No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Howard R.; Moon, Albert E.

    This memorandum presents the costs of transporting students to achieve racial balance in the San Francisco public schools. The costs of a district owned school bus system are analyzed for a four year implementation period. Costs of different sizes and types of buses and of major operating requirements (including parking, buildings, staff, and…

  2. Optimized solar module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santala, T.; Sabol, R.; Carbajal, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The minimum cost per unit of power output from flat plate solar modules can most likely be achieved through efficient packaging of higher efficiency solar cells. This paper outlines a module optimization method which is broadly applicable, and illustrates the potential results achievable from a specific high efficiency tandem junction (TJ) cell. A mathematical model is used to assess the impact of various factors influencing the encapsulated cell and packing efficiency. The optimization of the packing efficiency is demonstrated. The effect of encapsulated cell and packing efficiency on the module add-on cost is shown in a nomograph form.

  3. Multiple needle puncturing: balancing the varus knee.

    PubMed

    Bellemans, Johan

    2011-09-09

    The so-called "pie crusting" technique using multiple stab incisions is a well-established procedure for correcting tightness of the iliotibial band in the valgus knee. It is, however, not applicable for balancing the medial side in varus knees because of the risk for iatrogenic transsection of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). This article presents our experience with a safer alternative and minimally invasive technique for medial soft tissue balancing, where we make multiple punctures in the MCL using a 19-gauge needle to progressively stretch the MCL until a correct ligament balance is achieved. Our technique requires minimal to no additional soft tissue dissection and can even be performed percutaneously when necessary. This technique, therefore, does not impact the length of the skin or soft tissue incisions. We analyzed 61 cases with varus deformity that were intraoperatively treated using this technique. In 4 other cases, the technique was used as a percutaneous procedure to correct postoperative medial tightness that caused persistent pain on the medial side. The procedure was considered successful when a 2- to 4-mm mediolateral joint line opening was obtained in extension and 2 to 6 mm in flexion. In 62 cases (95%), a progressive correction of medial tightness was achieved according to the above-described criteria. Three cases were overreleased and required compensatory release of the lateral structures and use of a thicker insert. Based on these results, we consider needle puncturing an effective and safe technique for progressive correction of MCL tightness during minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty.

  4. Force instrumentation for cryogenic wind tunnels using one-piece strain-gage balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    The use of cryogenic temperatures in wind tunnels to achieve high Reynolds numbers has imposed a harsh operating environment on the force balance. Laboratory tests were conducted to study the effect cryogenic temperatures have on balance materials, gages, wiring, solder, adhesives, and moisture proofing. Wind tunnel tests were conducted using a one piece three component balance to verify laboratory results. These initial studies indicate that satisfactory force data can be obtained under steady state conditions.

  5. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  6. Effect of arm swing on single-step balance recovery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Huang, Yi-Chang; Kuo, Shih-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Balance recovery techniques are useful not only in preventing falls but also in many sports activities. The step strategy plays an important role especially under intense perturbations. However, relatively little is known about the effect of arm swing on stepping balance recovery although considerable arm motions have been observed. The purpose of this study was to examine how the arms influence kinematic and kinetic characteristics in single-step balance recovery. Twelve young male adults were released from three forward-lean angles and asked to regain balance by taking a single step under arm swing (AS) and arm constrained (AC) conditions. It was found that unconstrained arms had initial forward motion and later upward motion causing increased moment of inertia of the body, which decreased falling angular velocity and allowed more time for stepping. The lengthened total balance time included weight transfer and stepping time, although duration increase in the latter was significant only at the largest lean angle. In contrast, step length, step velocity, and vertical ground reaction forces on the stepping foot were unaffected by arm swing. Future studies are required to investigate optimal movement strategies for the arms to coordinate with other body segments in balance recovery and injury reduction.

  7. Students' Goal Achievement: Exploring Individual and Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrer-Rendall, Nicola; Wesson, Caroline; Anderson, Lindsey; Bould, Emma

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary investigation of the individual and situational factors affecting goal achievement in a psychology student population. The impact of normative information on goal achievement is considered in relation to goal commitment, optimism, gender and academic setting. Method: Psychology students (n=121) from…

  8. Mass-based design and optimization of wave rotors for gas turbine engine enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S.; Liu, H.

    2017-03-01

    An analytic method aiming at mass properties was developed for the preliminary design and optimization of wave rotors. In the present method, we introduce the mass balance principle into the design and thus can predict and optimize the mass qualities as well as the performance of wave rotors. A dedicated least-square method with artificial weighting coefficients was developed to solve the over-constrained system in the mass-based design. This method and the adoption of the coefficients were validated by numerical simulation. Moreover, the problem of fresh air exhaustion (FAE) was put forward and analyzed, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated. Parameter analyses and optimization elucidated which designs would not only achieve the best performance, but also operate with minimum EGR and no FAE.

  9. Optimal Power Control in Wireless Powered Sensor Networks: A Dynamic Game-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haitao; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Long

    2017-01-01

    In wireless powered sensor networks (WPSN), it is essential to research uplink transmit power control in order to achieve throughput performance balancing and energy scheduling. Each sensor should have an optimal transmit power level for revenue maximization. In this paper, we discuss a dynamic game-based algorithm for optimal power control in WPSN. The main idea is to use the non-cooperative differential game to control the uplink transmit power of wireless sensors in WPSN, to extend their working hours and to meet QoS (Quality of Services) requirements. Subsequently, the Nash equilibrium solutions are obtained through Bellman dynamic programming. At the same time, an uplink power control algorithm is proposed in a distributed manner. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrate that our algorithm can obtain optimal power control and reach convergence for an infinite horizon. PMID:28282945

  10. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)

  11. Aging: Balancing regeneration and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beausejour, Christian M.; Campisi, Judith

    2006-08-24

    The proliferation of cells must balance the longevity assured by tissue renewal against the risk of developing cancer. The tumor-suppressor protein p16{sup INK4a} seems to act at the pivot of this delicate equilibrium.

  12. Skylab water balance error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the precision of the net water balance were obtained for the entire Skylab preflight and inflight phases as well as for the first two weeks of flight. Quantitative estimates of both total sampling errors and instrumentation errors were obtained. It was shown that measurement error is minimal in comparison to biological variability and little can be gained from improvement in analytical accuracy. In addition, a propagation of error analysis demonstrated that total water balance error could be accounted for almost entirely by the errors associated with body mass changes. Errors due to interaction between terms in the water balance equation (covariances) represented less than 10% of the total error. Overall, the analysis provides evidence that daily measurements of body water changes obtained from the indirect balance technique are reasonable, precise, and relaible. The method is not biased toward net retention or loss.

  13. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  14. Efficient, balanced, transmission line RF circuits by back propagation of common impedance nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markhasin, Evgeny; Hu, Jianping; Su, Yongchao; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.

    2013-06-01

    We present a new, efficient strategy for designing fully balanced transmission line RF circuits for solid state NMR probes based on back propagation of common impedance nodes (BPCIN). In this approach, the impedance node phenomenon is the sole means of achieving mutual RF isolation and balance in all RF channels. BPCIN is illustrated using a custom double resonance 3.2 mm MAS probe operating at 500 MHz (1H) and 125 MHz (13C). When fully optimized, the probe is capable of producing high homogeneity (810°/90° ratios of 86% and 89% for 1H and 13C, respectively) and high efficiency (γB1 = 100 kHz for 1H and 13C at 70 W and 180 W of RF input, respectively; up to 360 kHz for 1H). The probe's performance is illustrated by 2D MAS correlation spectra of microcrystals of the tripeptide N-f-MLF-OH and hydrated amyloid fibrils of the protein PI3-SH3.

  15. Dynamic load balancing of matrix-vector multiplications on roadrunner compute nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sancho Pitarch, Jose Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid architectures that combine general purpose processors with accelerators are being adopted in several large-scale systems such as the petaflop Roadrunner supercomputer at Los Alamos. In this system, dual-core Opteron host processors are tightly coupled with PowerXCell 8i processors within each compute node. In this kind of hybrid architecture, an accelerated mode of operation is typically used to offload performance hotspots in the computation to the accelerators. In this paper we explore the suitability of a variant of this acceleration mode in which the performance hotspots are actually shared between the host and the accelerators. To achieve this we have designed a new load balancing algorithm, which is optimized for the Roadrunner compute nodes, to dynamically distribute computation and associated data between the host and the accelerators at runtime. Results are presented using this approach for sparse and dense matrix-vector multiplications that show load-balancing can improve performance by up to 24% over solely using the accelerators.

  16. Efficient, balanced, transmission line RF circuits by back propagation of common impedance nodes.

    PubMed

    Markhasin, Evgeny; Hu, Jianping; Su, Yongchao; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G

    2013-06-01

    We present a new, efficient strategy for designing fully balanced transmission line RF circuits for solid state NMR probes based on back propagation of common impedance nodes (BPCIN). In this approach, the impedance node phenomenon is the sole means of achieving mutual RF isolation and balance in all RF channels. BPCIN is illustrated using a custom double resonance 3.2 mm MAS probe operating at 500 MHz ((1)H) and 125 MHz ((13)C). When fully optimized, the probe is capable of producing high homogeneity (810°/90° ratios of 86% and 89% for (1)H and (13)C, respectively) and high efficiency (γB1=100 kHz for (1)H and (13)C at 70 W and 180 W of RF input, respectively; up to 360 kHz for (1)H). The probe's performance is illustrated by 2D MAS correlation spectra of microcrystals of the tripeptide N-f-MLF-OH and hydrated amyloid fibrils of the protein PI3-SH3.

  17. Mass balance, energy and exergy analysis of bio-oil production by fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass, energy and exergy balances are analyzed for bio-oil production in a bench scale fast pyrolysis system developed by the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) for the processing of commodity crops to fuel intermediates. Because mass balance closure is difficult to achieve due, in part, to ...

  18. Seeking Balance in Cyber Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    14 CrossTalk—January/February 2015 SOFTWARE EDUCATION TODAY Commander Michael Bilzor, USN, PhD, U.S. Naval Academy Abstract. The future cyber...course. In the paragraphs that follow, we advocate for a balanced approach that maximizes educational value, in order to prepare those future cyber...warriors for the battles that lay ahead of them. Seeking Balance in Cyber Education Theory vs. Application • The Biba model, published in 1975, did

  19. Use of the Microsoft Kinect system to characterize balance ability during balance training.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dohyung; Kim, ChoongYeon; Jung, HoHyun; Jung, Dukyoung; Chun, Keyoung Jin

    2015-01-01

    The risk of falling increases significantly in the elderly because of deterioration of the neural musculature regulatory mechanisms. Several studies have investigated methods of preventing falling using real-time systems to evaluate balance; however, it is difficult to monitor the results of such characterizations in real time. Herein, we describe the use of Microsoft's Kinect depth sensor system to evaluate balance in real time. Six healthy male adults (25.5±1.8 years, 173.9±6.4 cm, 71.4±6.5 kg, and 23.6±2.4 kg/m(2)), with normal balance abilities and with no musculoskeletal disorders, were selected to participate in the experiment. Movements of the participants were induced by controlling the base plane of the balance training equipment in various directions. The dynamic motion of the subjects was measured using two Kinect depth sensor systems and a three-dimensional motion capture system with eight infrared cameras. The two systems yielded similar results for changes in the center of body mass (P>0.05) with a large Pearson's correlation coefficient of γ>0.60. The results for the two systems showed similarity in the mean lower-limb joint angle with flexion-extension movements, and these values were highly correlated (hip joint: within approximately 4.6°; knee joint: within approximately 8.4°) (0.40<γ<0.74) (P>0.05). Large differences with a low correlation were, however, observed for the lower-limb joint angle in relation to abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation motion (γ<0.40) (P<0.05). These findings show that clinical and dynamic accuracy can be achieved using the Kinect system in balance training by measuring changes in the center of body mass and flexion-extension movements of the lower limbs, but not abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation.

  20. Classroom Racial Balance and Students' Interracial Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslin, Sandra; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between classroom racial balance and third graders' interracial attitudes were analyzed. Interracial attitudes were more favorable in balanced than in unbalanced classes. Results suggest that classroom racial balance is strongly related to students' interracial attitudes. (Author)

  1. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees.

  2. Optimal control of Atlantic population Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauser, C.E.; Runge, M.C.; Cooch, E.G.; Johnson, F.A.; Harvey, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Management of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) can be a balance between providing sustained harvest opportunity while not allowing populations to become overabundant and cause damage. In this paper, we focus on the Atlantic population of Canada geese and use stochastic dynamic programming to determine the optimal harvest strategy over a range of plausible models for population dynamics. There is evidence to suggest that the population exhibits significant age structure, and it is possible to reconstruct age structure from surveys. Consequently the harvest strategy is a function of the age composition, as well as the abundance, of the population. The objective is to maximize harvest while maintaining the number of breeding adults in the population between specified upper and lower limits. In addition, the total harvest capacity is limited and there is uncertainty about the strength of density-dependence. We find that under a density-independent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at the highest acceptable abundance. However if harvest capacity is limited, then the optimal long-term breeding population size is lower than the highest acceptable level, to reduce the risk of the population growing to an unacceptably large size. Under the proposed density-dependent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at an intermediate level between the bounds on acceptable population size; limits to harvest capacity have little effect on the optimal long-term population size. It is clear that the strength of density-dependence and constraints on harvest significantly affect the optimal harvest strategy for this population. Model discrimination might be achieved in the long term, while continuing to meet management goals, by adopting an adaptive management strategy.

  3. The Delicate Balance: Reconciling Privacy Protection with the Freedom of Information Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamus, John D.

    1986-01-01

    This comparison of freedom of information legislation in Canada and the United States focuses on the concern evident in both to protect personal privacy. Specific criteria for achieving a balance between access and privacy are articulated. (CLB)

  4. Optimal Hops-Based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Xin; Chen, Jian; Zhen, Shanshan; Kuo, Yonghong

    This paper proposes an optimal hops-based adaptive clustering algorithm (OHACA). The algorithm sets an energy selection threshold before the cluster forms so that the nodes with less energy are more likely to go to sleep immediately. In setup phase, OHACA introduces an adaptive mechanism to adjust cluster head and load balance. And the optimal distance theory is applied to discover the practical optimal routing path to minimize the total energy for transmission. Simulation results show that OHACA prolongs the life of network, improves utilizing rate and transmits more data because of energy balance.

  5. Different (key)strokes for different folks: How standard and nonstandard typists balance Fitts' law and Hick's law.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gordon D; Ulrich, Jana E; Lindsey, Dakota R B

    2016-12-01

    Fine motor skills like typing involve a mapping problem that trades Fitts' law against Hick's law. Eight fingers have to be mapped onto 26 keys. Movement time increases with distance, so Fitts' law is optimized by recruiting more fingers. Choice difficulty increases with the number of alternatives, so Hick's law is optimized by recruiting fewer fingers. The effect of the number of alternatives decreases with consistent practice, so skilled typists achieve a balance between Fitts' law and Hick's law through learning. We tested this hypothesis by comparing standard typists who use the standard QWERTY mapping consistently with nonstandard typists who use fewer fingers less consistently. Typing speed and accuracy were lower for nonstandard typists, especially when visual guidance was reduced by removing the letters from the keys or covering the keyboard. Regression analyses showed that accommodation to Fitts' law (number of fingers) and Hick's law (consistency) predicted typing speed and accuracy. We measured the automaticity of typing in both groups, testing for hierarchical control in 3 tasks: word priming, which measures parallel activation of keystrokes, keyboard recall, which measures explicit knowledge of letter locations, and hand cuing, which measures explicit knowledge of which hand types which letter. Standard and nonstandard typists showed similar degrees of hierarchical control in all 3 tasks, suggesting that nonstandard typists type as automatically as standard typists, but their suboptimal balance between Fitts' law and Hick's law limits their ability to type quickly and accurately. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Comparison of Iterative and Non-Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Load Calculation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of iterative and non-iterative strain-gage balance load calculation methods was compared using data from the calibration of a force balance. Two iterative and one non-iterative method were investigated. In addition, transformations were applied to balance loads in order to process the calibration data in both direct read and force balance format. NASA's regression model optimization tool BALFIT was used to generate optimized regression models of the calibration data for each of the three load calculation methods. This approach made sure that the selected regression models met strict statistical quality requirements. The comparison of the standard deviation of the load residuals showed that the first iterative method may be applied to data in both the direct read and force balance format. The second iterative method, on the other hand, implicitly assumes that the primary gage sensitivities of all balance gages exist. Therefore, the second iterative method only works if the given balance data is processed in force balance format. The calibration data set was also processed using the non-iterative method. Standard deviations of the load residuals for the three load calculation methods were compared. Overall, the standard deviations show very good agreement. The load prediction accuracies of the three methods appear to be compatible as long as regression models used to analyze the calibration data meet strict statistical quality requirements. Recent improvements of the regression model optimization tool BALFIT are also discussed in the paper.

  7. Women in orthodontics and work-family balance: challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sarah; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Amin, Maryam; Keenan, Louanne

    2012-01-01

    The number of women entering the orthodontic profession over the past few decades has increased dramatically. A review of the literature revealed the lack of research on achieving a work-family balance among female dentists and dental specialists. Work-family balance has been researched more extensively in the field of medicine; however, despite some critical differences, parallels between these 2 professions exist. This study identified issues that Canadian female orthodontists face and strategies they use to achieve a work-family balance. A phenomenological qualitative study was used to analyze the results of semi-structured telephone interviews of a purposive sample of 13 Canadian female orthodontists. The results strongly support the role-conflict theory about the competing pressures of maternal and professional roles. Female orthodontists described their challenges and strategies to minimize role conflict in their attempt to achieve a work-family balance. The women defined balance as having success and satisfaction in both their family life and professional life. They identified specific challenges of achieving a work-family balance that are unique to orthodontic practice and strategies for adapting to their maternal and professional roles. Achieving a work-family balance is of paramount importance to female orthodontists, and the results of this study may be applied to other specialties in dentistry.

  8. Agent Based Modeling of “Crowdinforming” as a Means of Load Balancing at Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Neighbour, Ryan; Oppenheimer, Luis; Mukhi, Shamir N.; Friesen, Marcia R.; McLeod, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This work extends ongoing development of a framework for modeling the spread of contact-transmission infectious diseases. The framework is built upon Agent Based Modeling (ABM), with emphasis on urban scale modelling integrated with institutional models of hospital emergency departments. The method presented here includes ABM modeling an outbreak of influenza-like illness (ILI) with concomitant surges at hospital emergency departments, and illustrates the preliminary modeling of ‘crowdinforming’ as an intervention. ‘Crowdinforming’, a component of ‘crowdsourcing’, is characterized as the dissemination of collected and processed information back to the ‘crowd’ via public access. The objective of the simulation is to allow for effective policy evaluation to better inform the public of expected wait times as part of their decision making process in attending an emergency department or clinic. In effect, this is a means of providing additional decision support garnered from a simulation, prior to real world implementation. The conjecture is that more optimal service delivery can be achieved under balanced patient loads, compared to situations where some emergency departments are overextended while others are underutilized. Load balancing optimization is a common notion in many operations, and the simulation illustrates that ‘crowdinforming’ is a potential tool when used as a process control parameter to balance the load at emergency departments as well as serving as an effective means to direct patients during an ILI outbreak with temporary clinics deployed. The information provided in the ‘crowdinforming’ model is readily available in a local context, although it requires thoughtful consideration in its interpretation. The extension to a wider dissemination of information via a web service is readily achievable and presents no technical obstacles, although political obstacles may be present. The ‘crowdinforming’ simulation is not limited to

  9. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  10. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  11. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  12. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  13. Cross-Modal Calibration of Vestibular Afference for Human Balance

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, Martin E; Law, Tammy C. Y.; Fitzpatrick, Richard C.; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    To determine how the vestibular sense controls balance, we used instantaneous head angular velocity to drive a galvanic vestibular stimulus so that afference would signal that head movement was faster or slower than actual. In effect, this changed vestibular afferent gain. This increased sway 4-fold when subjects (N = 8) stood without vision. However, after a 240 s conditioning period with stable balance achieved through reliable visual or somatosensory cues, sway returned to normal. An equivalent galvanic stimulus unrelated to sway (not driven by head motion) was equally destabilising but in this situation the conditioning period of stable balance did not reduce sway. Reflex muscle responses evoked by an independent, higher bandwidth vestibular stimulus were initially reduced in amplitude by the galvanic stimulus but returned to normal levels after the conditioning period, contrary to predictions that they would decrease after adaptation to increased sensory gain and increase after adaptation to decreased sensory gain. We conclude that an erroneous vestibular signal of head motion during standing has profound effects on balance control. If it is unrelated to current head motion, the CNS has no immediate mechanism of ignoring the vestibular signal to reduce its influence on destabilising balance. This result is inconsistent with sensory reweighting based on disturbances. The increase in sway with increased sensory gain is also inconsistent with a simple feedback model of vestibular reflex action. Thus, we propose that recalibration of a forward sensory model best explains the reinterpretation of an altered reafferent signal of head motion during stable balance. PMID:25894558

  14. Optimal refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Hovhannisyan, Karen; Mahler, Guenter

    2010-05-01

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two n -level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures Th and Tc , respectively (θ≡Tc/Th<1) . The refrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and vice versa. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two systems. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by ζCA=(1)/(1-θ)-1 (an analog of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency ζC=(1)/(1-θ)-1 . The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit θ→1 . The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for lnn≫1 . If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by ζCA and converges to it for n≫1 .

  15. An energy balance concept for habitability.

    PubMed

    Hoehler, Tori M

    2007-12-01

    Habitability can be formulated as a balance between the biological demand for energy and the corresponding potential for meeting that demand by transduction of energy from the environment into biological process. The biological demand for energy is manifest in two requirements, analogous to the voltage and power requirements of an electrical device, which must both be met if life is to be supported. These requirements exhibit discrete (non-zero) minima whose magnitude is set by the biochemistry in question, and they are increased in quantifiable fashion by (i) deviations from biochemically optimal physical and chemical conditions and (ii) energy-expending solutions to problems of resource limitation. The possible rate of energy transduction is constrained by (i) the availability of usable free energy sources in the environment, (ii) limitations on transport of those sources into the cell, (iii) upper limits on the rate at which energy can be stored, transported, and subsequently liberated by biochemical mechanisms (e.g., enzyme saturation effects), and (iv) upper limits imposed by an inability to use "power" and "voltage" at levels that cause material breakdown. A system is habitable when the realized rate of energy transduction equals or exceeds the biological demand for energy. For systems in which water availability is considered a key aspect of habitability (e.g., Mars), the energy balance construct imposes additional, quantitative constraints that may help to prioritize targets in search-for-life missions. Because the biological need for energy is universal, the energy balance construct also helps to constrain habitability in systems (e.g., those envisioned to use solvents other than water) for which little constraint currently exists.

  16. Optimal pre-scheduling of problem remappings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Saltz, Joel H.

    1987-01-01

    A large class of scientific computational problems can be characterized as a sequence of steps where a significant amount of computation occurs each step, but the work performed at each step is not necessarily identical. Two good examples of this type of computation are: (1) regridding methods which change the problem discretization during the course of the computation, and (2) methods for solving sparse triangular systems of linear equations. Recent work has investigated a means of mapping such computations onto parallel processors; the method defines a family of static mappings with differing degrees of importance placed on the conflicting goals of good load balance and low communication/synchronization overhead. The performance tradeoffs are controllable by adjusting the parameters of the mapping method. To achieve good performance it may be necessary to dynamically change these parameters at run-time, but such changes can impose additional costs. If the computation's behavior can be determined prior to its execution, it can be possible to construct an optimal parameter schedule using a low-order-polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm. Since the latter can be expensive, the performance is studied of the effect of a linear-time scheduling heuristic on one of the model problems, and it is shown to be effective and nearly optimal.

  17. The Balance Super Learner: A robust adaptation of the Super Learner to improve estimation of the average treatment effect in the treated based on propensity score matching.

    PubMed

    Pirracchio, Romain; Carone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Consistency of the propensity score estimators rely on correct specification of the propensity score model. The propensity score is frequently estimated using a main effect logistic regression. It has recently been shown that the use of ensemble machine learning algorithms, such as the Super Learner, could improve covariate balance and reduce bias in a meaningful manner in the case of serious model misspecification for treatment assignment. However, the loss functions normally used by the Super Learner may not be appropriate for propensity score estimation since the goal in this problem is not to optimize propensity score prediction but rather to achieve the best possible balance in the covariate distribution between treatment groups. In a simulation study, we evaluated the benefit of a modification of the Super Learner by propensity score estimation geared toward achieving covariate balance between the treated and untreated after matching on the propensity score. Our simulation study included six different scenarios characterized by various degrees of deviation from the usual main term logistic model for the true propensity score and outcome as well as the presence (or not) of instrumental variables. Our results suggest that the use of this adapted Super Learner to estimate the propensity score can further improve the robustness of propensity score matching estimators.

  18. Macroscopic balance model for wave rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for multi-port wave rotors is described. The wave processes that effect energy exchange within the rotor passage are modeled using one-dimensional gas dynamics. Macroscopic mass and energy balances relate volume-averaged thermodynamic properties in the rotor passage control volume to the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes at the ports. Loss models account for entropy production in boundary layers and in separating flows caused by blade-blockage, incidence, and gradual opening and closing of rotor passages. The mathematical model provides a basis for predicting design-point wave rotor performance, port timing, and machine size. Model predictions are evaluated through comparisons with CFD calculations and three-port wave rotor experimental data. A four-port wave rotor design example is provided to demonstrate model applicability. The modeling approach is amenable to wave rotor optimization studies and rapid assessment of the trade-offs associated with integrating wave rotors into gas turbine engine systems.

  19. BALANCING THE LOAD: A VORONOI BASED SCHEME FOR PARALLEL COMPUTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Elad; Yalinewich, Almog; Sari, Re'em; Duffell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    One of the key issues when running a simulation on multiple CPUs is maintaining a proper load balance throughout the run and minimizing communications between CPUs. We propose a novel method of utilizing a Voronoi diagram to achieve a nearly perfect load balance without the need of any global redistributions of data. As a show case, we implement our method in RICH, a two-dimensional moving mesh hydrodynamical code, but it can be extended trivially to other codes in two or three dimensions. Our tests show that this method is indeed efficient and can be used in a large variety of existing hydrodynamical codes.

  20. Balancing Training Techniques for Flight Controller Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Training of ground control teams has been a difficult task in space operations. There are several intangible skills that must be learned to become the steely eyed men and women of mission control who respond to spacecraft failures that can lead to loss of vehicle or crew if handled improperly. And as difficult as training is, it can also be costly. Every day, month or year an operator is in training, is a day that not only they are being trained without direct benefit to the organization, but potentially an instructor or mentor is also being paid for hours spent assisting them. Therefore, optimization of the training flow is highly desired. Recently the Expedition Division (DI) at Johnson Space Flight Center has recreated their training flows for the purpose of both moving to an operator/specialist/instructor hierarchy and to address past inefficiencies in the training flow. This paper will discuss the types of training DI is utilizing in their new flows, and the balance that has been struck between the ideal learning environments and realistic constraints. Specifically, the past training flow for the ISS Attitude Determination and Control Officer will be presented, including drawbacks that were encountered. Then the new training flow will be discussed and how a new approach utilizes more training methods and teaching techniques. We will look at how DI has integrated classes, workshops, checkouts, module reviews, scenarios, OJT, paper sims, Mini Sims, and finally Integrated Sims to balance the cost and timing of training a new flight controller.

  1. Calcium Mass Balance during Citrate Hemodialysis: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Normal and Low Ionized Calcium Target Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Orsag, Alesa; Ponikvar, Rafael; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Background Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) during hemodialysis interferes with calcium homeostasis. Optimal ionized calcium (iCa) target range during RCA and consequent calcium balance are unknown. Methods In a randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12613001029785) 30 chronic hemodialysis patients were assigned to normal (1.1–1.2 mmol/) or low (0.95–1.05 mmol/l) iCa target range during a single hemodialysis with RCA. The primary outcome was calcium mass balance during the procedure, using a partial spent dialysate collection method; magnesium mass balance was also measured. Intact parathormone (iPTH), total calcium (tCa) and magnesium were measured before and after procedures. Results Mean iCa during procedures was significantly different in the two groups (1.12±0.06 in normal and 1.06±0.07 mmol/l in low iCa group, p <0.001), resulting in different tCa (2.18±0.22 vs. 1.95±0.17, p = 0.003) after the procedure. Mean delivered calcium during the procedure was 58.3±4.8 mmol in the normal and 51.5±8.2 mmol in the low iCa group (p = 0.010), which resulted in a significantly higher mean positive calcium mass balance of 14.6±8.3 mmol (584±333 mg) per procedure in normal as compared to 7.2±8.5 mmol (290±341 mg) in low iCa group (p = 0.024). Linear mixed effects model showed a significant interaction effect of time and iCa target range group on iPTH, i.e. a significant increase in iPTH in the low as compared to normal iCa target group (p = 0.008). Magnesium mass balance was mildly negative and comparable in both groups. Conclusions Low iCa target range resulted in a significantly less positive calcium mass balance, but in a significant increase in iPTH. To achieve a more neutral calcium balance, we recommend allowing a mild hypocalcemia during hemodialysis with RCA, especially when it is used for prolonged periods. PMID:28030601

  2. Development of a simplified urban water balance model (WABILA).

    PubMed

    Henrichs, M; Langner, J; Uhl, M

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, water sensitive urban design (WSUD) has become more and more accepted. However, there is not any simple tool or option available to evaluate the influence of these measures on the local water balance. To counteract the impact of new settlements, planners focus on mitigating increases in runoff through installation of infiltration systems. This leads to an increasing non-natural groundwater recharge and decreased evapotranspiration. Simple software tools which evaluate or simulate the effect of WSUD on the local water balance are still needed. The authors developed a tool named WABILA (Wasserbilanz) that could support planners for optimal WSUD. WABILA is an easy-to-use planning tool that is based on simplified regression functions for established measures and land covers. Results show that WSUD has to be site-specific, based on climate conditions and the natural water balance.

  3. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  4. Tandem polymer solar cells: simulation and optimization through a multiscale scheme

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fanan; Yao, Ligang; Lan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, polymer solar cells with a tandem structure were investigated and optimized using a multiscale simulation scheme. In the proposed multiscale simulation, multiple aspects – optical calculation, mesoscale simulation, device scale simulation and optimal power conversion efficiency searching modules – were studied together to give an optimal result. Through the simulation work, dependencies of device performance on the tandem structures were clarified by tuning the thickness, donor/acceptor weight ratio as well as the donor–acceptor distribution in both active layers of the two sub-cells. Finally, employing searching algorithms, we optimized the power conversion efficiency of the tandem polymer solar cells and located the optimal device structure parameters. With the proposed multiscale simulation strategy, poly(3-hexylthiophene)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b]dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)])/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester based tandem solar cells were simulated and optimized as an example. Two configurations with different sub-cell sequences in the tandem photovoltaic device were tested and compared. The comparison of the simulation results between the two configurations demonstrated that the balance between the two sub-cells is of critical importance for tandem organic photovoltaics to achieve high performance. Consistency between the optimization results and the reported experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed simulation scheme. PMID:28144571

  5. Tandem polymer solar cells: simulation and optimization through a multiscale scheme.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fanan; Yao, Ligang; Lan, Fei; Li, Guangyong; Liu, Lianqing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, polymer solar cells with a tandem structure were investigated and optimized using a multiscale simulation scheme. In the proposed multiscale simulation, multiple aspects - optical calculation, mesoscale simulation, device scale simulation and optimal power conversion efficiency searching modules - were studied together to give an optimal result. Through the simulation work, dependencies of device performance on the tandem structures were clarified by tuning the thickness, donor/acceptor weight ratio as well as the donor-acceptor distribution in both active layers of the two sub-cells. Finally, employing searching algorithms, we optimized the power conversion efficiency of the tandem polymer solar cells and located the optimal device structure parameters. With the proposed multiscale simulation strategy, poly(3-hexylthiophene)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b]dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)])/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester based tandem solar cells were simulated and optimized as an example. Two configurations with different sub-cell sequences in the tandem photovoltaic device were tested and compared. The comparison of the simulation results between the two configurations demonstrated that the balance between the two sub-cells is of critical importance for tandem organic photovoltaics to achieve high performance. Consistency between the optimization results and the reported experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed simulation scheme.

  6. Achieving food security in times of crisis.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S

    2010-11-30

    In spite of several World Food Summits during the past decade, the number of people going to bed hungry is increasing and now exceeds one billion. Food security strategies should therefore be revisited. Food security systems should begin with local communities who can develop and manage community gene, seed, grain and water banks. At the national level, access to balanced diet and clean drinking water should become a basic human right. Implementation of the right to food will involve concurrent attention to production, procurement, preservation and public distribution. Higher production in perpetuity should be achieved through an ever-green revolution based on the principles of conservation and climate-resilient farming. This will call for a blend of traditional ecological prudence with frontier technologies, particularly biotechnology and information communication technologies.

  7. Energy Balance during Taekwondo Practice in Elite Male Taekwondo Players

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Ok; Garber, Carol Ewing; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure and dietary intake of nutrients during Taekwondo practice in elite Korean male Taekwondo players. Methods: Elite Korean male high school (high school player: HP; n = 59) and college players (college player: CP; n = 58) wore an accelerometer to measure energy expenditure and recorded their daily dietary intake for nutritional analysis over the course of five days. Results: Nutritional adequacy ratios for total energy (0.82), vitamin C (0.97), calcium (0.78), and folate (0.75) were below recommended levels for all players. When comparing daily nutrient intake and energy expenditure between HP and CP, the HP group had significantly higher total calorie intake (402.7 kcal, p < 0.001), calcium (126.3 mg, p = 0.018), phosphorus (198.0 mg, p = 0.002), iron (1.3 mg, p = 0.002), and vitamin B2 (0.4 mg, p < 0.001) than the CP group. Although there was no significant difference in the estimated energy requirement during Taekwondo practice, the total energy expenditure (151.2 kcal, p = 0.001), total activity counts (130,674 counts, p = 0.038) and energy expenditure during Taekwondo practice (257.7 kcal, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the HP than in the CP. Conclusion: The results indicate that a sports nutrition program based on energy balance is necessary to achieve optimal health and performance in elite male Taekwondo players. PMID:26064838

  8. Long term dynamics and optimal control of nano-satellite deorbit using a short electrodynamic tether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, R.; Zhu, Z. H.

    2013-10-01

    This paper studies the long term dynamics and optimal control of a nano-satellite deorbit by a short electrodynamic tether. The long term deorbit process is discretized into intervals and within each interval a two-phase optimal control law is proposed to achieve libration stability and fast deorbit simultaneously. The first-phase formulates an open-loop fast-deorbit control trajectory by a simplified model that assumes the slow-varying orbital elements of electrodynamic tethered system as constant and ignores perturbation forces other than the electrodynamic force. The second phase tracks the optimal trajectory derived in the first phase by a finite receding horizon control method while considering a full dynamic model of electrodynamic tether system. Both optimal control problems are solved by direct collocation method base on the Hermite-Simpson discretization schemes with coincident nodes. The resulting piecewise nonlinear programing problems in the sequential intervals reduces the problem size and improve the computational efficiency, which enable an on-orbit control application. Numerical results for deorbit control of a short electrodynamic tethered nano-satellite system in both equatorial and highly inclined orbits demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed control method. An optimal balance between the libration stability and a fast deorbit of satellite with minimum control efforts is achieved.

  9. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  10. Active model-based balancing strategy for self-reconfigurable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchhima, Nejmeddine; Schnierle, Marc; Schulte, Sascha; Birke, Kai Peter

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a novel balancing strategy for self-reconfigurable batteries where the discharge and charge rates of each cell can be controlled. While much effort has been focused on improving the hardware architecture of self-reconfigurable batteries, energy equalization algorithms have not been systematically optimized in terms of maximizing the efficiency of the balancing system. Our approach includes aspects of such optimization theory. We develop a balancing strategy for optimal control of the discharge rate of battery cells. We first formulate the cell balancing as a nonlinear optimal control problem, which is modeled afterward as a network program. Using dynamic programming techniques and MATLAB's vectorization feature, we solve the optimal control problem by generating the optimal battery operation policy for a given drive cycle. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy efficiently balances the cells over the life of the battery, an obvious advantage that is absent in the other conventional approaches. Our algorithm is shown to be robust when tested against different influencing parameters varying over wide spectrum on different drive cycles. Furthermore, due to the little computation time and the proved low sensitivity to the inaccurate power predictions, our strategy can be integrated in a real-time system.

  11. Recurring two-stage evolutionary programming: a novel approach for numeric optimization.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Islam, Md Monirul; Yao, Xin; Murase, Kazuyuki

    2011-10-01

    In the application of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to complex problem solving, it is essential to maintain proper balance between global exploration and local exploitation to achieve a good near-optimum solution to the problem. This paper presents a recurring two-stage evolutionary programming (RTEP) to balance the explorative and exploitative features of the conventional EAs. Unlike most previous works, RTEP is based on repeated and alternated execution of two different stages, namely, the exploration and exploitation stages, each with its own mutation operator, selection strategy, and explorative/exploitative objective. Both analytical and empirical studies have been carried out to understand the necessity of repeated and alternated exploration and exploitation operations in EAs. A suite of 48 benchmark numerical optimization problems has been used in the empirical studies. The experimental results show the remarkable effectiveness of the repeated exploration and exploitation operations employed by RTEP.

  12. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  13. Optimal Control of Electrodynamic Tethers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    method.46 Even though the derivation that produced Eq. (11) required integration over a hypothetical integer number of revolutions, the optimizer ... approach to multi-revolution, long time scale optimal control of an electrodynamic tether is investigated for a tethered satellite system in Low Earth...time scale approach is used to capture the effects of the Earth’s rotating tilted magnetic field. Optimal control solutions are achieved using a

  14. Energy-balanced algorithm for RFID estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jumin; Wang, Fangyuan; Li, Dengao; Yan, Lijuan

    2016-10-01

    RFID has been widely used in various commercial applications, ranging from inventory control, supply chain management to object tracking. It is necessary for us to estimate the number of RFID tags deployed in a large area periodically and automatically. Most of the prior works use passive tags to estimate and focus on designing time-efficient algorithms that can estimate tens of thousands of tags in seconds. But for a RFID reader to access tags in a large area, active tags are likely to be used due to their longer operational ranges. But these tags use their own battery as energy supplier. Hence, conserving energy for active tags becomes critical. Some prior works have studied how to reduce energy expenditure of a RFID reader when it reads tags IDs. In this paper, we study how to reduce the amount of energy consumed by active tags during the process of estimating the number of tags in a system and make the energy every tag consumed balanced approximately. We design energy-balanced estimation algorithm that can achieve our goal we mentioned above.

  15. Strike a balance with flexible working arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-12-15

    Monthly Economic Diversity column for the Tri-City Herald - Topic: Telworking - Excerpt below: As the holiday season kicks into high gear, work-life balance is on many of our minds. How can I meet all of my work commitments this month when no one will be in the office, and still strategically use very little vacation time to stretch the holiday break from four days to fourteen? Am I right? I think most all of us want to stay engaged with our professional lives while maintaining the freedom to prioritize our personal lives. And many employers have come up with ways to help us achieve that balance. Teleworking is not a brand new concept, but is certainly gaining steam as employers and employees alike try to find ways to meet a variety of wants and needs. There are benefits to both sides when it comes to offering flexible working arrangements such as teleworking. For businesses attempting to meet sustainability targets by reducing employee commuting and associated impacts to energy and environment, the benefits of this option can really add up.

  16. Multivariable Harmonic Balance for Central Pattern Generators.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    2008-12-01

    The central pattern generator (CPG) is a nonlinear oscillator formed by a group of neurons, providing a fundamental control mechanism underlying rhythmic movements in animal locomotion. We consider a class of CPGs modeled by a set of interconnected identical neurons. Based on the idea of multivariable harmonic balance, we show how the oscillation profile is related to the connectivity matrix that specifies the architecture and strengths of the interconnections. Specifically, the frequency, amplitudes, and phases are essentially encoded in terms of a pair of eigenvalue and eigenvector. This basic principle is used to estimate the oscillation profile of a given CPG model. Moreover, a systematic method is proposed for designing a CPG-based nonlinear oscillator that achieves a prescribed oscillation profile.

  17. Decisional balance: Alcohol decisional balance intervention for heavy drinking undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated a decisional balance intervention among heavy drinking undergraduates and compared a non-weighted decisional balance proportion (DBP; Collins, Carey, & Otto, 2009) to a participant-weighted DBP with weights based on relative importance of items. We expected: 1) the intervention to decrease drinking compared to control; 2) the weighted intervention to be more effective compared to the non-weighted or control in reducing drinking; and 3) intervention efficacy to be moderated by initial DBP. Method Participants (N =162, Mean age = 24.37, SD = 6.81, 27% male) were randomly assigned to an alcohol intervention wherein they were either asked to assign weights of importance to pros and cons (weighted intervention), or not (non-weighted intervention), or to control. Participants completed web-based questionnaires at baseline and again during a one month follow-up assessment. Results Consistent with expectations, the non-weighted intervention was associated with reduced follow-up weekly drinking, and the weighted intervention was associated with reductions in drinking frequency. Results further indicated that initial decisional balance did not moderate intervention efficacy. Discussion Findings suggest that the decisional balance procedure can reduce drinking but there was not compelling evidence for the addition of weights. This study lays the groundwork for enhancing future interventions by increasing empirical knowledge of the role motivation plays in heavy alcohol use. PMID:26555004

  18. BALANCER: A Computer Program for Balancing Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, R. David; Schwab, A. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Describes the theory and operation of a computer program which was written to balance chemical equations. Software consists of a compiled file of 46K for use under MS-DOS 2.0 or later on IBM PC or compatible computers. Additional specifications of courseware and availability information are included. (Author/RT)

  19. RF Gun Optimization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko

    2007-07-03

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

  20. Optimizing influenza vaccine distribution.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P

    2009-09-25

    The criteria to assess public health policies are fundamental to policy optimization. Using a model parametrized with survey-based contact data and mortality data from influenza pandemics, we determined optimal vaccine allocation for five outcome measures: deaths, infections, years of life lost, contingent valuation, and economic costs. We find that optimal vaccination is achieved by prioritization of schoolchildren and adults aged 30 to 39 years. Schoolchildren are most responsible for transmission, and their parents serve as bridges to the rest of the population. Our results indicate that consideration of age-specific transmission dynamics is paramount to the optimal allocation of influenza vaccines. We also found that previous and new recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention both for the novel swine-origin influenza and, particularly, for seasonal influenza, are suboptimal for all outcome measures.