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Sample records for achieve optimal smolt

  1. A critical life stage of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: behaviour and survival during the smolt and initial post-smolt migration.

    PubMed

    Thorstad, E B; Whoriskey, F; Uglem, I; Moore, A; Rikardsen, A H; Finstad, B

    2012-07-01

    The anadromous life cycle of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar involves long migrations to novel environments and challenging physiological transformations when moving between salt-free and salt-rich waters. In this article, (1) environmental factors affecting the migration behaviour and survival of smolts and post-smolts during the river, estuarine and early marine phases, (2) how behavioural patterns are linked to survival and (3) how anthropogenic factors affect migration and survival are synthesized and reviewed based on published literature. The timing of the smolt migration is important in determining marine survival. The timing varies among rivers, most likely as a consequence of local adaptations, to ensure sea entry during optimal periods. Smolts and post-smolts swim actively and fast during migration, but in areas with strong currents, their own movements may be overridden by current-induced transport. Progression rates during the early marine migration vary between 0.4 and 3.0 body lengths s(-1) relative to the ground. Reported mortality is 0.3-7.0% (median 2.3) km(-1) during downriver migration, 0.6-36% (median 6.0) km(-1) in estuaries and 0.3-3.4% (median 1.4) km(-1) in coastal areas. Estuaries and river mouths are the sites of the highest mortalities, with predation being a common cause. The mortality rates varied more among studies in estuaries than in rivers and marine areas, which probably reflects the huge variation among estuaries in their characteristics. Behaviour and survival during migration may also be affected by pollution, fish farming, sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis, hydropower development and other anthropogenic activities that may be directly lethal, delay migration or have indirect effects by inhibiting migration. Total mortality reported during early marine migration (up to 5-230 km from the river mouths) in the studies available to date varies between 8 and 71%. Hence, the early marine migration is a life stage with high mortalities, due

  2. Translational Geroscience: Emphasizing function to achieve optimal longevity

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Douglas R.; Melov, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Among individuals, biological aging leads to cellular and organismal dysfunction and an increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and disability. This sequence of events in combination with the projected increases in the number of older adults will result in a worldwide healthcare burden with dire consequences. Superimposed on this setting are the adults now reaching traditional retirement ages--the baby boomers--a group that wishes to remain active, productive and physically and cognitively fit as they grow older. Together, these conditions are producing an unprecedented demand for increased healthspan or what might be termed “optimal longevity”—to live long, but well. To meet this demand, investigators with interests in the biological aspects of aging from model organisms to human epidemiology (population aging) must work together within an interactive process that we describe as translational geroscience. An essential goal of this new investigational platform should be the optimization and preservation of physiological function throughout the lifespan, including integrative physical and cognitive function, which would serve to increase healthspan, compress morbidity and disability into a shorter period of late-life, and help achieve optimal longevity. To most effectively utilize this new approach, we must rethink how investigators and administrators working at different levels of the translational research continuum communicate and collaborate with each other, how best to train the next generation of scientists in this new field, and how contemporary biological-biomedical aging research should be organized and funded. PMID:25324468

  3. Optimized Delivery System Achieves Enhanced Endomyocardial Stem Cell Retention

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Atta; Latere, Jean-Pierre; Bartunek, Jozef; Homsy, Christian; Daro, Dorothee; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J.; Stalboerger, Paul G.; Steenwinckel, Valerie; Seron, Aymeric; Redfield, Margaret M.; Terzic, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Background Regenerative cell-based therapies are associated with limited myocardial retention of delivered stem cells. The objective of this study is to develop an endocardial delivery system for enhanced cell retention. Methods and Results Stem cell retention was simulated in silico using one and three-dimensional models of tissue distortion and compliance associated with delivery. Needle designs, predicted to be optimal, were accordingly engineered using nitinol – a nickel and titanium alloy displaying shape memory and super-elasticity. Biocompatibility was tested with human mesenchymal stem cells. Experimental validation was performed with species-matched cells directly delivered into Langendorff-perfused porcine hearts or administered percutaneously into the endocardium of infarcted pigs. Cell retention was quantified by flow cytometry and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Models, computing optimal distribution of distortion calibrated to favor tissue compliance, predicted that a 75°-curved needle featuring small-to-large graded side holes would ensure the highest cell retention profile. In isolated hearts, the nitinol curved needle catheter (C-Cath) design ensured 3-fold superior stem cell retention compared to a standard needle. In the setting of chronic infarction, percutaneous delivery of stem cells with C-Cath yielded a 37.7±7.1% versus 10.0±2.8% retention achieved with a traditional needle, without impact on biocompatibility or safety. Conclusions Modeling guided development of a nitinol-based curved needle delivery system with incremental side holes achieved enhanced myocardial stem cell retention. PMID:24326777

  4. Using tailored methodical approaches to achieve optimal science outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingate, Lory M.

    2016-08-01

    The science community is actively engaged in research, development, and construction of instrumentation projects that they anticipate will lead to new science discoveries. There appears to be very strong link between the quality of the activities used to complete these projects, and having a fully functioning science instrument that will facilitate these investigations.[2] The combination of using internationally recognized standards within the disciplines of project management (PM) and systems engineering (SE) has been demonstrated to lead to achievement of positive net effects and optimal project outcomes. Conversely, unstructured, poorly managed projects will lead to unpredictable, suboptimal project outcomes ultimately affecting the quality of the science that can be done with the new instruments. The proposed application of these two specific methodical approaches, implemented as a tailorable suite of processes, are presented in this paper. Project management (PM) is accepted worldwide as an effective methodology used to control project cost, schedule, and scope. Systems engineering (SE) is an accepted method that is used to ensure that the outcomes of a project match the intent of the stakeholders, or if they diverge, that the changes are understood, captured, and controlled. An appropriate application, or tailoring, of these disciplines can be the foundation upon which success in projects that support science can be optimized.

  5. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  6. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in

  7. Movement, migration, and smolting of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Quinn, T.P.; Saunders, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    A variety of movements characterize the behavioral plasticity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in fresh water, including movements of fry from redds, establishment of feeding territories, spawning movements of sexually mature male parr, movement to and from winter habitat, and smolt migration in spring. Smolting is an adaptive specialization for downstream migration, seawater entry, and marine residence. While still in fresh water, smolts become silvery and streamlined, lose their positive rheotaxis and territoriality, and begin schooling. Physiological changes include increased salinity tolerance, olfactory sensitivity, metabolic rate, scope for growth, and altered hemoglobin and visual pigments. Through their impact on the neuroendocrine system, photoperiod and temperature regulate physiological changes, whereas temperature and water flow may initiate migration. Smolt survival is affected by a limited period of readiness (a physiological 'smolt window') and the timing of seawater entry with environmental conditions such as temperature, food, and predators (an ecological 'smolt window'). Smolt development is adversely affected by acidity, pollutants, and improper rearing conditions, and is often more sensitive than other life stages. Unfortunately, the migration corridor of smolts (mainstems of rivers and estuaries) are the most heavily impacted by pollution, dams, and other anthropogenic activities that may be directly lethal or increase mortality by delaying or inhibiting smolt migration.

  8. Smolt physiology and endocrinology: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    The parr-smolt transformation of anadromous salmonids is a suite of behavioral, morphological, and physiological changes that are preparatory for downstream migration and seawater entry. The timing of smolt development varies among species, occurring soon after hatching in pink and chum salmon and after one to several years in Atlantic salmon. In many species the transformation is size dependent and occurs in spring, mediated through photoperiod and temperature cues. Smolt development is stimulated by several hormones including growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, cortisol, and thyroid hormones, whereas prolactin is generally inhibitory. Increased salinity tolerance is one of the most important and tractable changes, and is caused by alteration in the function of the major osmoregulatory organs, the gill, gut, and kidney. Increased abundance of specific ion transporters (Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/Cl− cotransporter and apical Cl− channel) in gill ionocytes results in increased salt secretory capacity, increased growth and swimming performance in seawater, and higher marine survival.

  9. Multidisciplinary optimization for engineering systems: Achievements and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1989-01-01

    The currently common sequential design process for engineering systems is likely to lead to suboptimal designs. Recently developed decomposition methods offer an alternative for coming closer to optimum by breaking the large task of system optimization into smaller, concurrently executed and, yet, coupled tasks, identified with engineering disciplines or subsystems. The hierarchic and non-hierarchic decompositions are discussed and illustrated by examples. An organization of a design process centered on the non-hierarchic decomposition is proposed.

  10. Aircraft optimization by a system approach: Achievements and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1992-01-01

    Recently emerging methodology for optimal design of aircraft treated as a system of interacting physical phenomena and parts is examined. The methodology is found to coalesce into methods for hierarchic, non-hierarchic, and hybrid systems all dependent on sensitivity analysis. A separate category of methods has also evolved independent of sensitivity analysis, hence suitable for discrete problems. References and numerical applications are cited. Massively parallel computer processing is seen as enabling technology for practical implementation of the methodology.

  11. Achieving Optimal Privacy in Trust-Aware Social Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail

    Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.

  12. Survey of large circular and octagonal tanks operated at Norwegian commercial smolt and post-smolt sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted to determine the geometry, operating parameters, and other key features of large circular or octagonal culture tanks used to produce Atlantic salmon smolt and post-smolt at six major Norwegian Atlantic salmon production companies. A total of 55 large tanks were reported at sev...

  13. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure.

    PubMed

    Bernal, José Antonio; Quilis, Neus; Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Pascual, Eliseo

    2016-03-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention. To ensure treatment adherence it is necessary to explain to the patient what the objectives are.

  14. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, José Antonio; Quilis, Neus; Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Pascual, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention. To ensure treatment adherence it is necessary to explain to the patient what the objectives are. PMID:26977282

  15. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  16. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  17. Standardization and optimization of CT protocols to achieve low dose.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sigal; Pearson, Gregory D N; Chin, Cynthia; Cody, Dianna D; Gupta, Rajiv; Hess, Christopher P; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Kofler, James M; Krishnam, Mayil S; Einstein, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    The increase in radiation exposure due to CT scans has been of growing concern in recent years. CT scanners differ in their capabilities, and various indications require unique protocols, but there remains room for standardization and optimization. In this paper, the authors summarize approaches to reduce dose, as discussed in lectures constituting the first session of the 2013 UCSF Virtual Symposium on Radiation Safety and Computed Tomography. The experience of scanning at low dose in different body regions, for both diagnostic and interventional CT procedures, is addressed. An essential primary step is justifying the medical need for each scan. General guiding principles for reducing dose include tailoring a scan to a patient, minimizing scan length, use of tube current modulation and minimizing tube current, minimizing tube potential, iterative reconstruction, and periodic review of CT studies. Organized efforts for standardization have been spearheaded by professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Finally, all team members should demonstrate an awareness of the importance of minimizing dose.

  18. Effects of episodic acidification on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magee, J.A.; Obedzinski, M.; McCormick, S.D.; Kocik, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of episodic acidification on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt physiology and survival in fresh water (FW) and seawater (SW) was investigated. Smolts were held in either ambient (control, pH 6.0-6.6), acidified (chronic, pH 4.4-6.1), or episodically acidified (episodic, pH reduction from control levels to pH ???5.2 for 48 h once weekly) river water for 31 days and then transferred to 34??? SW. Smolts fed little while in acidified conditions and chronic smolts did not grow in length or weight. In FW, chronic smolts experienced increases in hematocrit and plasma potassium and reductions in plasma sodium and chloride. Upon transfer to SW, chronic and episodic smolts experienced reductions in hematocrit, increases in plasma sodium, chloride, and potassium levels, and suffered mortalities. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase and citrate synthase activities were reduced by exposure to acid. For most parameters, the effect of episodic acid exposure was less than that of chronic acidification. Exposure to acidic conditions, even when short in duration and followed by a 30-h recovery period in suitable water (pH 6.5), led to a 35% mortality of smolts upon transfer to SW. This study highlights the importance of measuring and assessing sublethal stresses in FW and their ultimate effects in marine ecosystems.

  19. Smolt Quality Assessment of Spring Chinook Salmon : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1991-04-01

    The physiological development and physiological condition of spring chinook salmon are being studied at several hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of the study is to determine whether any or several smolt indices can be related to adult recovery and be used to improve hatchery effectiveness. The tests conducted in 1989 on juvenile chinook salmon at Dworshak, Leavenworth, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries, and the Oregon State Willamette Hatchery assessed saltwater tolerance, gill ATPase, cortisol, insulin, thyroid hormones, secondary stress, fish morphology, metabolic energy stores, immune response, blood cell numbers, and plasma ion concentrations. The study showed that smolt development may have occurred before the fish were released from the Willamette Hatchery, but not from the Dworshak, Leavenworth, or Warm Springs Hatcheries. These results will be compared to adult recovery data when they become available, to determine which smolt quality indices may be used to predict adult recovery. The relative rankings of smolt quality at the different hatcheries do not necessarily reflect the competency of the hatchery managers and staff, who have shown a high degree of professionalism and expertise in fish rearing. We believe that the differences in smolt quality are due to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. One aim of this research is to identify factors that influence smolt development and that may be controlled through fish husbandry to regulate smolt development. 35 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  1. Differential hormonal responses of Atlantic salmon parr and smolt to increased daylength: A possible developmental basis for smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Shrimpton, J.M.; Moriyama, S.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2007-01-01

    In order to elucidate the developmental basis for smolting, Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, parr ( 12.5??cm) were exposed to natural daylength (LDN) and increased daylength (LD16:8) starting in late February and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and circulating hormone levels monitored from January to May. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity remained low and constant in both groups of parr. In smolts, gill Na+,K+-ATPase began increasing in late February in both photoperiods, but was significantly higher in the LD16:8 group from March through April. Smolts exposed to LD16:8 had dramatically elevated plasma GH within one week of increased daylength that remained high through April, whereas plasma GH of LDN smolts increased steadily beginning in late February and peaking in late April. Plasma GH levels of parr remained low in spring and did not respond to increased daylength. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels were substantially higher in smolts than parr in January. Plasma IGF-I levels of parr increased steadily from January to May, but there was no influence of increased daylength. In smolts, plasma IGF-I of LD16:8 fish initially decreased in early March then increased in late March and April, whereas plasma IGF-I of LDN smolts increased steadily to peak levels in early April. Plasma cortisol was low in parr throughout spring and did not differ between photoperiod treatments. Plasma cortisol of LD16:8 smolts increased in early March and remained elevated through April, whereas in LDN smolts plasma cortisol did not increase until early April and peaked in late April. Plasma thyroid hormones were generally higher in smolts than in parr, but there was no clear effect of increased daylength in parr or smolts. The greater capacity of the GH/IGF-I and cortisol axes to respond to increased daylength may be a critical factor underlying smolt development. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DOWNSTREAM MIGRATION OF SALMONID SMOLTS IN OREGON RIVERS AND ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migratory fish passage is an important designated use for many Oregon estuaries. Acoustic transmitters were implanted in coho smolts in 2004 and 2006 to evaluate how estuarine habitat, and habitat loss, might affect population health. Acoustic receivers that identified individu...

  3. Knowledge Visualizations: A Tool to Achieve Optimized Operational Decision Making and Data Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    and pedigree possess additive implications toward the quality of the data utilized within the DSS. F. SUMMARY Decision - making theories such as...VISUALIZATIONS: A TOOL TO ACHIEVE OPTIMIZED OPERATIONAL DECISION MAKING AND DATA INTEGRATION by Paul C. Hudson Jeffrey A. Rzasa June 2015 Thesis...TOOL TO ACHIEVE OPTIMIZED OPERATIONAL DECISION MAKING AND DATA INTEGRATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Paul C. Hudson, and Jeffrey A. Rzasa

  4. The Effects of Academic Optimism on Student Academic Achievement in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevel, Raymona King

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the effects of academic optimism on student academic achievement through measuring the individual and collective effects of academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in clients. Data for this study were obtained from the School Academic Optimism Scale and the reading section of the…

  5. Collective Responsibility, Academic Optimism, and Student Achievement in Taiwan Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that collective efficacy, faculty trust in students and parents, and academic emphasis together formed a single latent school construct, called academic optimism. In the U.S., academic optimism has been proven to be a powerful construct that could effectively predict student achievement even after controlling for…

  6. Seawater tolerance and post-smolt migration of wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar × brown trout S. trutta hybrid smolts.

    PubMed

    Urke, H A; Kristensen, T; Arnekleiv, J V; Haugen, T O; Kjærstad, G; Stefansson, S O; Ebbesson, L O E; Nilsen, T O

    2013-01-01

    High levels of hybridization between Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta have been reported in the River Driva. This study presents the underlying mechanisms of development of seawater (SW) tolerance and marine migration pattern for S. salar×S. trutta hybrids. Migrating S. salar×S. trutta hybrid smolts caught in the River Driva, Norway (a river containing Gyrodactylus salaris), displayed freshwater (FW) gill Na(+), K(+) -ATPase (NKA) activity levels of 11·8 µmol ADP mg protein h(-1), which were equal to or higher than activity levels observed in S. salar and S. trutta smolts. Following 4 days of SW exposure (salinity 32·3), enzyme activity remained high and plasma ion levels were maintained within the normal physiological range observed in S. salar smolts, indicating no signs of ion perturbations in S. salar×S. trutta hybrids. SW exposure induced an increase in NKA α1b-subunit mRNA levels with a concurrent decrease in α1a levels. Salmo salar×S. trutta post-smolts migrated rapidly through the fjord system, with increasing speed with distance from the river, as is often seen in S. salar smolts. The present findings suggest that S. salar×S. trutta smolts, as judged by the activity and transcription of the NKA system, regulation of plasma ion levels and migration speed more closely resemble S. salar than S. trutta.

  7. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with a History of ASDs Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggest that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are particularly difficult to remediate. We examined present and past RRBs in 34 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes (OOs; lost their ASD diagnosis), 45 high-functioning individuals with ASD (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. The OO…

  8. Academic Optimism, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, and Student Achievement at Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guvercin, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic optimism, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs), and student achievement in college preparatory charter schools. A purposeful sample of elementary school teachers from college preparatory charter schools (N = 226) in southeast Texas was solicited to complete the…

  9. Guidelines for conducting Smolt survival studies in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giorgi,; Skalski,; Pevin,; Smith,; Langeslay,; Counihan, Timothy D.; Perry, Russell W.; Bickford, Shane

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade, investigators from different research groups in the Pacific Northwest have been using electronic tags to estimate survival of salmonid smolts as they migrate seaward past hydroelectric dams and through impoundments on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Over the years, they have refined both analytical and field methods associated with such studies. In this collaborative paper, they synthesize years of experience to formulate a set of guidelines that may assist others with the design and execution of survival studies involving smolts during their migratory phase.

  10. Use of a Batch Reactive Distillation with Dynamic Optimization Strategy to Achieve Industrial Grade Ethyl Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakom, Kwantip; Saengchan, Aritsara; Kittisupakorn, Paisan; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.

    2011-08-01

    Industrial grade ethyl acetate is available with minimum purity of 85.0%. It is mostly produced by an ethanol esterification in a distillation process on both batch and continuous modes. However, researches on high purity production with short operating time are rarely achieved. Therefore, the objective in this work is to study an approach to produce ethyl acetate of 90.0% by 8 hours using a batch reactive distillation column. Based on open-loop simulations, the distillation with constant reflux ratio cannot achieve the product specification. Thus, the dynamic optimization strategy is proposed to handle this problem. For the process safety—preventing the dried column and fractured, a minimum reflux ratio must be determined in advance and then an optimal reflux profile is calculated to achieve optimal product yield. Simulation results show that the industrial grade ethyl acetate can be produced by the dynamic optimization programming with two or more time intervals. Besides, the increasing of time intervals can produce more distillate product.

  11. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Morrill, Charles; Ross, Doug; Mensik, Fred

    2000-01-01

    The 2000 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by lower than average spring flows and spill, low levels of debris, cool water temperatures, increased unclipped yearling and subyearling chinook smolts, and 8,300,546 smolts collected and transported compared to 5,882,872 in 1999. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above Lower Granite Dam, we can no longer accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. Although some table titles in this report still show ''wild'' column headings, the numbers in these columns for 1999 and 2000 include wild and unclipped hatchery origin smolts. The increases over previous years reflect the increased supplementation. A total of 8,300,546 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite Dam. Of these, 187,862 fish were bypassed back to the river and 7,950,648 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 7,778,853 by barge and 171,795 by truck. A total of 151,344 salmonids were examined in daily samples. Nine research projects conducted by four agencies impacted a total of 1,361,006 smolts (16.4% of the total collection).

  12. Robust, integrated computational control of NMR experiments to achieve optimal assignment by ADAPT-NMR.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Arash; Tonelli, Marco; Sahu, Sarata C; Singarapu, Kiran K; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Markley, John L

    2012-01-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) represents a groundbreaking prototype for automated protein structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. With a [(13)C,(15)N]-labeled protein sample loaded into the NMR spectrometer, ADAPT-NMR delivers complete backbone resonance assignments and secondary structure in an optimal fashion without human intervention. ADAPT-NMR achieves this by implementing a strategy in which the goal of optimal assignment in each step determines the subsequent step by analyzing the current sum of available data. ADAPT-NMR is the first iterative and fully automated approach designed specifically for the optimal assignment of proteins with fast data collection as a byproduct of this goal. ADAPT-NMR evaluates the current spectral information, and uses a goal-directed objective function to select the optimal next data collection step(s) and then directs the NMR spectrometer to collect the selected data set. ADAPT-NMR extracts peak positions from the newly collected data and uses this information in updating the analysis resonance assignments and secondary structure. The goal-directed objective function then defines the next data collection step. The procedure continues until the collected data support comprehensive peak identification, resonance assignments at the desired level of completeness, and protein secondary structure. We present test cases in which ADAPT-NMR achieved results in two days or less that would have taken two months or more by manual approaches.

  13. Growth and smolting in lower-mode Atlantic Salmon stocked into the Penobscot River, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; O'Malley, Andrew; Cox, Oliver; Ruksznis, Peter; Trial, Joan G.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar in Maine has relied on hatchery-produced fry and smolts for critical stocking strategies. Stocking fry minimizes domestication selection, but these fish have poor survival. Conversely, stocked smolts have little freshwater experience but provide higher adult returns. Lower-mode (LM) fish, those not growing fast enough to ensure smolting by the time of stocking, are a by-product of the smolt program and are an intermediate hatchery product. From 2002 to 2009, between 70,000 and 170,000 marked LM Atlantic Salmon were stocked into the Pleasant River (a tributary in the Penobscot River drainage, Maine) in late September to early October. These fish were recaptured as actively migrating smolts (screw trapping), as nonmigrants (electrofishing), and as returning adults to the Penobscot River (Veazie Dam trap). Fork length (FL) was measured and a scale sample was taken to retrospectively estimate FL at winter annulus one (FW1) using the intercept-corrected direct proportion model. The LM fish were observed to migrate as age-1, age-2, and infrequently as age-3 smolts. Those migrating as age-1 smolts had a distinctly larger estimated FL at FW1 (>112 mm) than those that remained in the river for at least one additional year. At the time of migration, age-2 and age-3 smolts were substantially larger than age-1 smolts. Returning adult Atlantic Salmon of LM origin had estimated FLs at FW1 that corresponded to smolt age (greater FL for age 1 than age 2). The LM product produces both age-1 and age-2 smolts that have greater freshwater experience than hatchery smolts and may have growth and fitness advantages. The data from this study will allow managers to better assess the probability of smolting age and manipulate hatchery growth rates to produce a targeted-size LM product.

  14. Achievements and challenges in automated parameter, shape and topology optimization for divertor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baelmans, M.; Blommaert, M.; Dekeyser, W.; Van Oevelen, T.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma edge transport codes play a key role in the design of future divertor concepts. Their long simulation times in combination with a large number of control parameters turn the design into a challenging task. In aerodynamics and structural mechanics, adjoint-based optimization techniques have proven successful to tackle similar design challenges. This paper provides an overview of achievements and remaining challenges with these techniques for complex divertor design. It is shown how these developments pave the way for fast sensitivity analysis and improved design from different perspectives.

  15. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Morrill, Charles; Mensik, Fred

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows and spill, low levels of debris, cool water temperatures, increased hatchery chinook numbers, and an overall decrease in numbers of smolts collected and transported. A total of 5,882,872 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite. Of these, 5,466,057 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 5,232,105 by barge and 233,952 by truck. An additional 339,398 fish were bypassed back to the river. A total of 117,609 salmonids were examined in daily samples. Nine research projects conducted by four agencies impacted a total of 440,810 smolts (7.5% of the total collected) of which 247,268 were PIT tagged and 572 were recorded as incidental mortalities.

  16. Rock Island Dam Smolt Monitoring; 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Truscott, Keith B.; Fielder, Paul C.

    1995-10-01

    Downstream migrating salmon and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) smolts were monitored at the Rock Island Dam bypass trap from April 1 - August 31, 1954. This was the tenth consecutive year that the bypass trap was monitored. Data collected included: (1) number of fish caught by species, (2) number of adipose clipped and/or Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged fish caught by species, (3) daily average riverflow, (4) daily average powerhouse No. 1 and No. 2 flows and daily average spill. These data were transmitted to the Fish Passage Center, which manages the Smolt Monitoring Program throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Smolt Monitoring Program is used to manage the {open_quotes}water budget{close_quotes}, releasing upstream reservoir water storage allocated to supplement river flows to enhance survival of downstream migrating juvenile salmonids. The Rock Island Dam trapping facility collected 37,795 downstream migrating salmonids in 1994. Collected fish included 4 yearling and 4 sub-yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) that had been previously PIT tagged to help determine migration rates. Additionally, 1,132 sub-yearling chinook, 4,185 yearling chinook, 6,627 steelhead, (O. mykiss) and 422 sockeye (O. nerka) with clipped adipose fins were collected. The middle 80% of the 1994 spring migration (excluding sub-yearling chinooks) passed Rock Island Dam during a 34 day period, April 25 - May 28. Passage rates of chinook and steelhead smolts released from hatcheries and the downstream migration timing of all salmonids are presented. The spring migration timing of juvenile salmonids is strongly influenced by hatchery releases above Rock Island Dam.

  17. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Witalis, Shirley; Morrill, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The 1997 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows, extensive spill, cool spring and early summer water temperatures and comparatively low numbers of fish, particularly yearling chinook. The Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program is designed to provide a consistent, real-time database of fish passage and document the migrational characteristics of the many stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin.

  18. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Ross, Doug; Morrill, Charles

    1998-12-01

    The 1998 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by relatively moderate spring flows and spill, moderate levels of debris, cool spring, warm summer and fall water temperatures, and increased chinook numbers, particularly wild subyearling chinook collected and transported. The Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program is designed to provide a consistent, real-time database on fish passage and document the migrational characteristics of the many stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin.

  19. Water chemistry and its effects on the physiology and survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liebich, T.; McCormick, S.D.; Kircheis, D.; Johnson, K.; Regal, R.; Hrabik, T.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological effects of episodic pH fluctuations on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in eastern Maine, U.S.A., were investigated. During this study, S. salar smolts were exposed to ambient stream-water chemistry conditions at nine sites in four catchments for 3 and 6 day intervals during the spring S. salar smolt migration period. Plasma chloride, plasma glucose, gill aluminium and gill Na+- and K+-ATPase levels in S. salar smolts were assessed in relation to ambient stream-water chemistry during this migration period. Changes in both plasma chloride and plasma glucose levels of S. salar smolts were strongly correlated with stream pH, and S. salar smolt mortality occurred in one study site with ambient stream pH between 5??6 and 5??8 during the study period. The findings from this study suggest that physiological effects on S. salar smolts are strongly correlated with stream pH and that in rivers and streams with low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations the threshold for physiological effects and mortality probably occurs at a higher pH and shorter exposure period than in rivers with higher DOC. Additionally, whenever an acidification event in which pH drops below 5??9 coincides with S. salar smolt migration in eastern Maine rivers, there is potential for a significant reduction in plasma ions of S. salar smolts. ?? 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Water chemistry and its effects on the physiology and survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Liebich, T; McCormick, S D; Kircheis, D; Johnson, K; Regal, R; Hrabik, T

    2011-08-01

    The physiological effects of episodic pH fluctuations on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in eastern Maine, U.S.A., were investigated. During this study, S. salar smolts were exposed to ambient stream-water chemistry conditions at nine sites in four catchments for 3 and 6 day intervals during the spring S. salar smolt migration period. Plasma chloride, plasma glucose, gill aluminium and gill Na(+)- and K(+)-ATPase levels in S. salar smolts were assessed in relation to ambient stream-water chemistry during this migration period. Changes in both plasma chloride and plasma glucose levels of S. salar smolts were strongly correlated with stream pH, and S. salar smolt mortality occurred in one study site with ambient stream pH between 5·6 and 5·8 during the study period. The findings from this study suggest that physiological effects on S. salar smolts are strongly correlated with stream pH and that in rivers and streams with low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations the threshold for physiological effects and mortality probably occurs at a higher pH and shorter exposure period than in rivers with higher DOC. Additionally, whenever an acidification event in which pH drops below 5·9 coincides with S. salar smolt migration in eastern Maine rivers, there is potential for a significant reduction in plasma ions of S. salar smolts.

  1. Smolting in coastal cutthroat trout Onchorhynchus clarkii clarkii.

    PubMed

    Zydlewski, J; Zydlewski, G; Kennedy, B; Gale, W

    2014-10-01

    Gill Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity, condition factor and seawater (SW) challenges were used to assess the development of smolt characteristics in a cohort of hatchery coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii from the Cowlitz River in Washington State, U.S.A. Gill Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity increased slightly in the spring, coinciding with an increase in hypo-osmoregulatory ability. These changes were of lesser magnitude than are observed in other salmonine species. Even at the peak of tolerance, these fish exhibited notable osmotic perturbations in full strength SW. Condition factor in these hatchery fish declined steadily through the spring. Wild captured migrants from four tributaries of the Columbia River had moderately elevated gill Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity, consistent with smolt development and with greater enzyme activity than autumn captured juveniles from one of the tributaries, Abernathy Creek. Migrant fish also had reduced condition factor. General linear models of 7 years of data from Abernathy Creek suggest that yearly variation, advancing photoperiod (as ordinal date) and fish size (fork length) were significant factors for predicting gill Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity in these wild fish. Both yearly variation and temperature were significant factors for predicting condition factor. These results suggest that coastal O. c. clarkii exhibit weakly developed characteristics of smolting. These changes are influenced by environmental conditions with great individual variation. The data suggest great physiological plasticity consistent with the variable life-history tactics observed in this species.

  2. Transcriptional profiling of the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Laura S.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The parr–smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a complex developmental process that culminates in the ability to migrate to and live in seawater. We used GRASP 16K cDNA microarrays to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the liver, gill, hypothalamus, pituitary, and olfactory rosettes of smolts compared to parr. Smolts had higher levels of gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, plasma cortisol and plasma thyroid hormones relative to parr. Across all five tissues, stringent microarray analyses identified 48 features that were differentially expressed in smolts compared to parr. Using a less stringent method we found 477 features that were differentially expressed at least 1.2-fold in smolts, including 172 features in the gill. Smolts had higher mRNA levels of genes involved in transcription, protein biosynthesis and folding, electron transport, oxygen transport, and sensory perception and lower mRNA levels for genes involved in proteolysis. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to confirm differential expression in select genes identified by microarray analyses and to quantify expression of other genes known to be involved in smolting. This study expands our understanding of the molecular processes that underlie smolting in Atlantic salmon and identifies genes for further investigation.

  3. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project, 1987-1997 Project Review.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, Robin M.; Hans, Karen M.; Beeman, John W.

    1997-12-01

    The assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project (Bonneville Power Administration Project 87-401) monitored attributes of salmonid smolt physiology in the Columbia and Snake River basins from 1987 to 1997, under the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, in cooperation with the Smolt Monitoring Program of the Fish Passage Center. The primary goal of the project was to investigate the physiological development of juvenile salmonids related to migration rates. The assumption was made that the level of smolt development, interacting with environmental factos such as flow, would be reflected in travel times. The Fish Passage Center applied the physiological measurements of smolt condition to Water Budget management, to regulate flows so as to decrease travel time and increase survival.

  4. Physiological geroscience: targeting function to increase healthspan and achieve optimal longevity.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R; Justice, Jamie N; LaRocca, Thomas J

    2016-04-15

    Most nations of the world are undergoing rapid and dramatic population ageing, which presents great socio-economic challenges, as well as opportunities, for individuals, families, governments and societies. The prevailing biomedical strategy for reducing the healthcare impact of population ageing has been 'compression of morbidity' and, more recently, to increase healthspan, both of which seek to extend the healthy period of life and delay the development of chronic diseases and disability until a brief period at the end of life. Indeed, a recently established field within biological ageing research, 'geroscience', is focused on healthspan extension. Superimposed on this background are new attitudes and demand for 'optimal longevity' - living long, but with good health and quality of life. A key obstacle to achieving optimal longevity is the progressive decline in physiological function that occurs with ageing, which causes functional limitations (e.g. reduced mobility) and increases the risk of chronic diseases, disability and mortality. Current efforts to increase healthspan centre on slowing the fundamental biological processes of ageing such as inflammation/oxidative stress, increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired proteostasis and reduced stress resistance. We propose that optimization of physiological function throughout the lifespan should be a major emphasis of any contemporary biomedical policy addressing global ageing. Effective strategies should delay, reduce in magnitude or abolish reductions in function with ageing (primary prevention) and/or improve function or slow further declines in older adults with already impaired function (secondary prevention). Healthy lifestyle practices featuring regular physical activity and ideal energy intake/diet composition represent first-line function-preserving strategies, with pharmacological agents, including existing and new pharmaceuticals and novel 'nutraceutical' compounds, serving as potential

  5. Effects of acidity and aluminim on the physiology and migratory behavior of Atlantic salmon smolts in Maina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magee, J.A.; Haines, T.A.; Kocik, J.F.; Beland, K.F.; McCormick, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts of hatchery origin were held for 5 to 16 days in ambient (pH 6.35, labile Al = 60 ??g L-1), limed (pH 6.72, labile Al = 58.4 ??g L-1), or acidified (pH 5.47, labile Al=96 ??g L-1) water from the Narraguagus River in Maine, USA. Wild smolts were captured in the same river in rotary traps and held for up to two days in ambient river water. Osmoregulatory ability was assessed by measuring Na+/K+ ATPase activity, hematocrit, and blood Cl concentration in freshwater, and after 24-hr exposure to seawater. Hatchery smolts exposed to acidic water and wild smolts displayed sub-lethal ionoregulatory stress both in fresh and seawater, with mortalities of wild smolts in seawater. Using ultrasonic telemetry, hatchery-reared ambient and acid-exposed, and wild smolts were tracked as they migrated through freshwater and estuarine sections of the river. The proportion of wild smolts migrating during daylight hours was higher than for hatchery-reared smolts. Wild smolts remained in the freshwater portions of the river longer than either group of hatchery smolts, although survival during migration to seawater was similar for all three treatments. Acid-exposed hatchery-origin and wild Narraguagus River smolts were both under ionoregulatory stress that may have affected their migratory behavior, but not their survival for the time and area in which we tracked them.

  6. Smolt Monitoring Activities at Little Goose Dam; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, Ann

    1997-07-01

    The juvenile fish facility at Little Goose Dam is operated seasonally to collect and bypass downstream migrating smolts and keep them from passing through the turbine blades. Fish are diverted from turbines by traveling screens as they sound in the forebay to pass the dam. A small percentage of the passing fish are sampled on a daily basis to provide information on fish condition, species composition, migration timing, and size distribution. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife personnel perform daily fish sampling and data collection. Physical operation of the facility is the responsibility of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Data is reported to the Fish Passage Center daily by means of electronic data transfer. Funding for this project was provided through the Smolt Monitoring Program administered by the Fish Passage Center. Overall, the number of fish collected and sampled in 1996 was a reduction from the previous years of operation. The 1996 migration season was characterized by higher than average flows and greater spill frequency at the dam. It was the first year that coho salmon were obtained in the sample. The predominant species collected was steelhead with hatchery fish outnumbering wild fish by a ratio of 8:1. An increased emphasis was placed on gas bubble trauma examination and a routine, consistent effort was implemented using a protocol established by the Fish Passage Center. The objective of the gas bubble trauma (GBT) examinations was to document the relative incidence of symptoms throughout the migration season.

  7. Endocrine and physiological changes in Atlantic salmon smolts following hatchery release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; O'Dea, M. F.; Moeckel, Amy M.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2003-01-01

    Physiological and endocrine changes during smolt development were examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared and released as part of a restoration program on the Connecticut River and its tributaries. Fish were reared in a cold water hatchery in Pittsford, VT and released into the Farmington River, CT (a major tributary of the Connecticut River) or into 'imprint ponds' fed by the Farmington River. Smelts were recaptured 10-20 days after their release at a smolt bypass facility 16 km downstream of their release site. Fish sampled at the hatchery from January to May had only moderate smolt development based on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and hormone profiles. In contrast, smolts released into the river or imprint ponds had higher salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and thyroxine than smolts that remained in the hatchery. These physiological and endocrine changes were nearly identical to those of smolts that had been released into the river 2 years earlier as fry and were captured as active migrants at the same bypass facility (stream-reared smolts). The stomach contents as a percent of body weight (primarily aquatic insects) varied greatly among individuals and were greater in hatchery-reared fish than stream-reared smolts. Results from the rearing of hatchery fish at temperatures similar to that of the Farmington River indicate that some of the physiological changes may be due to increased temperature after release, though other factors may also be involved. The results indicate that substantial physiological smolt development can occur after hatchery release, coincident with downstream migration. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Optimal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device for achieving high pyroelectric response of AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Bemnnet; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses research being conducted on aluminum nitride (AlN) as a pyroelectric material for use in detecting applications. AlN is being investigated because of its high pyroelectric coefficient, thermal stability, and high Curie temperature. In order to determine suitability of the pyroelectric properties of AlN for use as a detector, testing of several devices was conducted. These devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication processes; the devices were also designed to allow for voltage and current measurements. The deposited AlN films used were 150 nm - 300 nm in thickness. Thin-films were used to rapidly increase the temperature response after the thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material. This is important because the pyroelectric effect is directly proportional to the rate of temperature change. The design used was a face-electrode bridge that provides thermal isolation which minimizes heat loss to the substrate, thereby increasing operation frequency of the pyroelectric device. A thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material and the response was measured across the electrodes. A thermal imaging camera was used to monitor the changes in temperature. Throughout the testing process, the annealing temperatures, type of layers, and thicknesses were also varied. These changes resulted in improved MEMS designs, which were fabricated to obtain an optimal design configuration for achieving a high pyroelectric response. A pyroelectric voltage response of 38.9 mVp-p was measured without filtering, 12.45 mVp-p was measured in the infrared (IR) region using a Si filter, and 6.38 mVp-p was measured in the short wavelength IR region using a long pass filter. The results showed that AlN's pyroelectric properties can be used in detecting applications.

  9. Mortality of experimentally descaled smolts of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in fresh and salt water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, Gerald R.; Smith, Stanley D.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of slime from 25% of the body caused no deaths among smolts of coho salmon in fresh water or in seawater (28‰). Removal of slime and scales from the same percentage of body area caused no deaths in fresh water, but 75% mortality within 10 days in seawater. The 10-day median tolerance limit was 10% scale removal immediately before the smolts entered seawater. Mortality was highest when the scales were removed from the area of the rib cage. Recovery of smolts in fresh water from a loss of scales that would be lethal in seawater occurred rapidly; 90% of the fish regained tolerance to seawater within 1 day.

  10. Robust Airfoil Optimization to Achieve Consistent Drag Reduction Over a Mach Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Huyse, Luc; Padula, Sharon; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We prove mathematically that in order to avoid point-optimization at the sampled design points for multipoint airfoil optimization, the number of design points must be greater than the number of free-design variables. To overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points, a robust airfoil optimization method (called the profile optimization method) is developed and analyzed. This optimization method aims at a consistent drag reduction over a given Mach range and has three advantages: (a) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (b) there is no random airfoil shape distortion for any iterate it generates, and (c) it allows a designer to make a trade-off between a truly optimized airfoil and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, we use the profile optimization method to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for 2-D airfoil in Euler flow with 20 free-design variables. A comparison with other airfoil optimization methods is also included.

  11. A Study of the Relationships between Distributed Leadership, Teacher Academic Optimism and Student Achievement in Taiwanese Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, I-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between distributed leadership, teachers' academic optimism and student achievement in learning. The study targeted public elementary schools in Taiwan and adopted stratified random sampling to investigate 1500 teachers. Teachers' perceptions were collected by a self-report scale. In…

  12. Should Schools Be Optimistic? An Investigation of the Association between Academic Optimism of Schools and Student Achievement in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Tinneke; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in students and parents (3 school characteristics positively associated with student achievement) are assumed to form a higher order latent construct, "academic optimism" (Hoy, Tarter, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2006a, 2006b). The aim of the present study is to corroborate the latent…

  13. The Relationship of Mental Pressure with Optimism and Academic Achievement Motivation among Second Grade Male High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…

  14. Navy Strategy for Achieving Information Dominance, 2013-2017. Optimizing Navy’s Primacy in the Maritime and Information Domains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    and resources to optimize decision making and maximize warfighting effects, Navy Information Dominance has become a leading Service priority. In 2009...This Strategy for Achieving Information Dominance provides the framework through which the Navy s information capabilities will be mainstreamed into...the Navy s culture as a distinct warfighting discipline. The strategy focuses on the three fundamental Information Dominance capabilities of Assured

  15. Academic Optimism and Collective Responsibility: An Organizational Model of the Dynamics of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jason H.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the construct of academic optimism and its relationship with collective responsibility in a sample of Taiwan elementary schools. The construct of academic optimism was tested using confirmatory factor analysis, and the whole structural model was tested with a structural equation modeling analysis. The data were…

  16. Achieving Consistent Near-Optimal Pattern Recognition Accuracy Using Particle Swarm Optimization to Pre-Train Artificial Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikelshpur, Dmitry O.

    2014-01-01

    Similar to mammalian brains, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are universal approximators, capable of yielding near-optimal solutions to a wide assortment of problems. ANNs are used in many fields including medicine, internet security, engineering, retail, robotics, warfare, intelligence control, and finance. "ANNs have a tendency to get…

  17. A non-lethal measure of smolt status of juvenile steelhead based on body morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Rondorf, D.W.; Tilson, M.E.; Venditti, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    A nonlethal morphometric method to assess smolt status of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss was validated. Fish were collected from hatcheries before release and during their seaward migration in a large river system. Fifteen anatomical landmarks were digitized from photographs of each fish, resulting in 34 morphometric characters based on a truss network. Principal component and canonical discriminant function analyses were used to assess smolt status. A single canonical variate was significantly correlated with gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, a commonly used measure of smolt status. This nonlethal method may be a useful measure of smolt status when sacrificing fish is not desirable or possible; it requires little training to perform, but it does require a larger sample size than some other methods.

  18. 2004 AND 2006 COHO SMOLT MOVEMENT IN THE YAQUINA RIVER AND ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migratory fish passage is an important designated use for many Oregon estuaries. Acoustic transmitters were implanted in coho smolts in 2004 and 2006 to evaluate how estuarine habitat, and habitat loss, might affect population health. Acoustic receivers that identified individu...

  19. Physiological characteristics of wild Atlantic salmon post-smolts during estuarine and coastal migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stefansson, S.O.; Bjornsson, B. Th; Sundell, K.; Nyhammer, G.; McCormick, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    Changes were measured in some of the major physiological variables associated with seawater adaptability, growth and energetics in wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts and post-smolts migrating from the river and through the estuary, fjord and coastal areas in the River Orkla and the Trondheimsfjord, Norway during late May to early June. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity increased to levels of 12-16 ??mol ADP mg protein-1 h -1 in post-smolts caught in higher salinity zones, probably representing long-term levels of Atlantic salmon post-smolts in oceanic conditions. Muscle moisture was regulated within narrow limits (77.7-78.7%) in fish from all zones during both years, suggesting that post-smolts adapt to marine conditions without any long-term disturbance of hydro-mineral balance. Lipid and glycogen content showed a general trend towards depletion from the river, through the fjord and into the ocean. There was, however, no significant change in protein content. The present results confirm that smolts are naturally 'energy deficient' during downstream migration, and suggest that post-smolts also mobilize energy reserves during their early marine phase, while protein is allocated for somatic growth. Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels increased transiently during passage through the estuary and fjord, with lower levels observed in post-smolts caught off-shore, i.e. in fish which were feeding on marine prey and had adapted to the marine environment. These physiological changes may confer substantial selective advantages during the critical early marine phase of anadromous salmonids, and hence are adaptive for long-term survival in sea water. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Initiation of migration and movement rates of Atlantic salmon smolts in fresh water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stich, Daniel S.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Kocik, John F.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Timing of ocean entry is critical for marine survival of both hatchery and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts. Management practices and barriers to migration such as dams may constrain timing of smolt migrations resulting in suboptimal performance at saltwater entry. We modeled influences of stocking location, smolt development, and environmental conditions on (i) initiation of migration by hatchery-reared smolts and (ii) movement rate of hatchery- and wild-reared Atlantic salmon smolts in the Penobscot River, Maine, USA, from 2005 through 2014 using acoustic telemetry data. We also compared movement rates in free-flowing reaches with rates in reaches with hydropower dams and head ponds. We compared movement rates before and after (1) removal of two mainstem dams and (2) construction of new powerhouses. Initiation of movement by hatchery fish was influenced by smolt development, stocking location, and environmental conditions. Smolts with the greatest gill Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) activity initiated migration 24 h sooner than fish with the lowest gill NKA activity. Fish with the greatest cumulative thermal experience initiated migration 5 days earlier than those with lowest cumulative thermal experience. Smolts released furthest from the ocean initiated migration earlier than those released downstream, but movement rate increased by fivefold closer to the ocean, indicating behavioral trade-offs between initiation and movement rate. Dams had a strong effect on movement rate. Movement rate increased from 2.8 to 5.4 km·h−1 in reaches where dams were removed, but decreased from 2.1 to 0.1 km·h−1 in reaches where new powerhouses were constructed. Movement rate varied throughout the migratory period and was inversely related to temperature. Fish moved slower at extreme high or low discharge. Responses in fish movement rates to dam removal indicate the potential scope of recovery for these activities.

  1. Survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts through the Penobscot River, Maine: A pre-restoration assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Kinnison, Michael T.; Holbrook, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Survival, distribution, and behavior of hatchery (n = 493) and naturally reared (n = 133) smolts of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar migrating through the Penobscot River and estuary in Maine were evaluated with acoustic telemetry in 2005 and 2006. Survival and use of a secondary migration path (the Stillwater Branch) were estimated with a multistate mark–recapture model. Higher rates of mortality per kilometer (range = 0.01–0.22) were observed near release sites and within reaches that contained three particular dams: Howland, West Enfield, and Milford dams. Estimated total survival of tagged hatchery smolts through entire individual reaches containing those dams ranged from 0.52 ( 0.18) to 0.94 ( 0.09), whereas survival through most of the reaches without dams exceeded 0.95. Of those smolts that survived to the Penobscot River–Stillwater Branch split at Marsh Island, most (≥74%) remained in the main stem around Marsh Island, where they experienced lower survival than fish that used the Stillwater Branch. Movement rates of hatchery-reared smolts were significantly lower through reaches containing dams than through reaches that lacked dams. Smolts arriving at dams during the day experienced longer delays than smolts arriving at night. Planned removal of two dams in this system is expected to enhance the passage of smolts through the main-stem corridor. However, the dams currently scheduled for removal (Great Works and Veazie dams) had less influence on smolt survival than some of the dams that will remain. This case study shows that by examining prerestoration migration dynamics throughout entire river systems rather than just in the vicinity of particular dams, tracking studies can help prioritize restoration efforts or predict the costs and benefits of future hydrosystem changes.

  2. Effects of Handling and Crowding on the Stress Response and Viability of Chinook Salmon Parr and Smolts, 1984 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Congleton, James L.

    1985-02-01

    Transportation of migrating chinook salmon smolts from Snake River dams to the Columbia River estuary has not reversed a downward trend in Idaho stocks of this species that first became apparent in the late 1960s. Poor survival of transported smolts may be a consequence of physiological responses to stressful events during collection and transportation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the intensity of stress responses in transported smolts, to determine if stress responses decrease the viability of transported smolts, and to investigate ways of avoiding or mitigating stressful events during transportation. 34 refs., 58 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Optimal Experience and Reading Achievement in Virtual Environments among College Level Developmental Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    In this mixed methods study the potential for developmental readers to experience optimal experience (flow) within the multi-user virtual environment, "Second Life," was examined. In an educational context, "Second Life" provided a space for constructivist learning, socialization, exploration, discovery and creativity. The communicative, social…

  4. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t...

  5. Optimization of Composite Material System and Lay-up to Achieve Minimum Weight Pressure Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Haris Hameed; Wang, Gang; Dar, Uzair Ahmed; Zhang, Weihong

    2013-10-01

    The use of composite pressure vessels particularly in the aerospace industry is escalating rapidly because of their superiority in directional strength and colossal weight advantage. The present work elucidates the procedure to optimize the lay-up for composite pressure vessel using finite element analysis and calculate the relative weight saving compared with the reference metallic pressure vessel. The determination of proper fiber orientation and laminate thickness is very important to decrease manufacturing difficulties and increase structural efficiency. In the present work different lay-up sequences for laminates including, cross-ply [ 0 m /90 n ] s , angle-ply [ ±θ] ns , [ 90/±θ] ns and [ 0/±θ] ns , are analyzed. The lay-up sequence, orientation and laminate thickness (number of layers) are optimized for three candidate composite materials S-glass/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy and Carbon/epoxy. Finite element analysis of composite pressure vessel is performed by using commercial finite element code ANSYS and utilizing the capabilities of ANSYS Parametric Design Language and Design Optimization module to automate the process of optimization. For verification, a code is developed in MATLAB based on classical lamination theory; incorporating Tsai-Wu failure criterion for first-ply failure (FPF). The results of the MATLAB code shows its effectiveness in theoretical prediction of first-ply failure strengths of laminated composite pressure vessels and close agreement with the FEA results. The optimization results shows that for all the composite material systems considered, the angle-ply [ ±θ] ns is the optimum lay-up. For given fixed ply thickness the total thickness of laminate is obtained resulting in factor of safety slightly higher than two. Both Carbon/epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy resulted in approximately same laminate thickness and considerable percentage of weight saving, but S-glass/epoxy resulted in weight increment.

  6. Migration delays caused by anthropogenic barriers: modeling dams, temperature, and success on migrating salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Mather, Martha E.; Parrish, Donna; Allison, Gary W.; McMenemy, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption to migration is a growing problem for conservation and restoration of animal populations. Anthropogenic barriers along migration paths can delay or prolong migrations, which may result in a mismatch with migration-timing adaptations. To understand the interaction of dams (as barriers along a migration path), seasonally changing environmental conditions, timing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) downstream migration, and ultimate migration success, we used 10 years of river temperature and discharge data as a template upon which we simulated downstream movement of salmon. Atlantic salmon is a cool-water species whose downstream migrating smolts must complete migration before river temperatures become too warm. We found that dams had a local effect on survival as well as a survival effect that was spatially and temporally removed from the encounter with the dam. While smolts are delayed by dams, temperatures downstream can reach lethal or near-lethal temperatures; as a result, the match between completion of migration and the window of appropriate migration conditions can be disrupted. The strength of this spatially and temporally removed effect is at least comparable to the local effects of dams in determining smolt migration success in the presence of dams. We also considered smolts from different tributaries, varying in distance from the river mouth, to assess the potential importance of locally adapted migration timing on the effect of barriers. Migration-initiation temperature affected modeled smolt survival differentially across tributaries, with the success of smolts from upstream tributaries being much more variable across years than that of smolts with a shorter distance to travel. As a whole, these results point to the importance of broadening our spatial and temporal view when managing migrating populations. We must consider not only how many individuals never make it across migration barriers, but also the spatially and temporally removed

  7. Migration delays caused by anthropogenic barriers: Modeling dams, temperature, and success of migrating salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschall, E.A.; Mather, M. E.; Parrish, D.L.; Allison, G.W.; McMenemy, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption to migration is a growing problem for conservation and restoration of animal populations. Anthropogenic barriers along migration paths can delay or prolong migrations, which may result in a mismatch with migration-timing adaptations. To understand the interaction of dams (as barriers along a migration path), seasonally changing environmental conditions, timing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) downstream migration, and ultimate migration success, we used 10 years of river temperature and discharge data as a template upon which we simulated downstream movement of salmon. Atlantic salmon is a cool-water species whose downstream migrating smolts must complete migration before river temperatures become too warm. We found that dams had a local effect on survival as well as a survival effect that was spatially and temporally removed from the encounter with the dam. While smolts are delayed by dams, temperatures downstream can reach lethal or near-lethal temperatures;as a result, the match between completion of migration and the window of appropriate migration conditions can be disrupted. The strength of this spatially and temporally removed effect is at least comparable to the local effects of dams in determining smolt migration success in the presence of dams. We also considered smolts from different tributaries, varying in distance from the river mouth, to assess the potential importance of locally adapted migration timing on the effect of barriers. Migration-initiation temperature affected modeled smolt survival differentially across tributaries, with the success of smolts from upstream tributaries being much more variable across years than that of smolts with a shorter distance to travel. As a whole, these results point to the importance of broadening our spatial and temporal view when managing migrating populations. We must consider not only how many individuals never make it across migration barriers, but also the spatially and temporally removed

  8. Need for optimizing catalyst loading for achieving affordable microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderjeet; Chandra, Amreesh

    2013-08-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is a promising technology for electricity production together with simultaneous water treatment. Catalysts play an important role in deciding the MFC performance. In most reports, effect of catalyst - both type and quantity is not optimized. In this paper, synthesis of nanorods of MnO2-catalyst particles for application in Pt-free MFCs is reported. The effect of catalyst loading i.e., weight ratio, with respect to conducting element and binder has been optimized by employing large number of combinations. Using simple theoretical model, it is shown that too high (or low) concentration of catalysts result in loss of MFC performance. The operation of MFC has been investigated using domestic wastewater as source of bio-waste for obtaining real world situation. Maximum power density of ∼61 mW/m(2) was obtained when weight ratio of catalyst and conducting species was 1:1. Suitable reasons are given to explain the outcomes.

  9. Medication inhibits tolerance to seawater in coho salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, Gerald R.; Johnson, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Applications of 10 therapeutic and two anesthetic agents to healthy smolts of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) by conventional methods were followed by two different posttreatment circumstances. In condition I, fish were treated and then transferred directly to 28‰ seawater for 10 days; in condition II, fish were treated and held in fresh water for 4 days before their medium was gradually changed over a 4-hour period to 28‰ seawater. In condition I, no mortality occurred among fish treated with 2,4-D, trichlorofon, simazine, quinaldine, or light to moderate doses of MS-222. About 10% mortality occurred among fish treated with formalin and nifurpirinol. High mortality in seawater followed treatments with copper sulfate, hyamine 1622, potassium permanganate, malachite green (one protocol), and heavy doses of MS-222. In condition II, mortality was reduced but still high for copper sulfate and potassium permanganate, much lower for malachite green and hyamine 1622, and zero for the other agents. The results indicate that additional recovery time in fresh water is necessary between some treatments and exposure to salt water.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of continuous light inhibition of Atlantic salmon parr-smolt transformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stefansson, S.O.; Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Wargelius, A.; Madsen, Steffen S.; Bjornsson, B. Th; McCormick, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) rely on changes in photoperiod for the synchronization of the developmental events constituting the parr-smolt transformation. In the absence of photoperiod cues, parr-smolt transformation is incomplete, and such 'pseudo-smolts' normally fail to adapt to seawater. The present study addresses the endocrine and molecular mechanisms controlling the development of hypo-osmoregulatory ability and how artificial photoperiod can disrupt these changes. Juvenile Atlantic salmon reared under constant light (LL) from first feeding, were separated into two groups, and exposed to either LL or simulated natural photoperiod (LDN) from October, eight months prior to the expected completion of smoltification. Juveniles reared on LL grew well, but failed to show the smolt-related reduction in condition factor in spring. Gill mRNA levels of Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) isoform ??1a decreased in LDN fish through completion of parr-smolt transformation, while levels remained unchanged in the LL group. In contrast, ??1b expression increased 6-fold in the LDN group between February and May, again with no change in the LL group. Further, Na+, K+, 2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC) showed a transient increase in expression in smolts on LDN between February and May, while no changes in mRNA levels were seen in juveniles under LL. Consequently, gill NKA activity and NKA ?? and NKCC protein abundance were significantly lower in juveniles on LL than in smolts on LDN. LL fish in spring had lower circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol. Gill GH-receptor mRNA levels, determined by quantitative PCR, were less than 50% of controls. In contrast, circulating levels of IGF-1 and gill IGF-1 receptor expression, were comparable to controls. Our findings show that continuous light prevents the completion of parr-smolt transformation at a very basic level, disrupting the natural up-regulation of key elements of the endocrine system involved in the

  11. Optimized atomistic force fields for aqueous solutions of Magnesium and Calcium Chloride: Analysis, achievements and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfgen, Roman; Hülsmann, Marco; Krämer, Andreas; Köddermann, Thorsten; Kirschner, Karl N.; Reith, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Molecular simulations are an important tool in the study of aqueous salt solutions. To predict the physical properties accurately and reliably, the molecular models must be tailored to reproduce experimental data. In this work, a combination of recent global and local optimization tools is used to derive force fields for MgCl2 (aq) and CaCl2 (aq). The molecular models for the ions are based on a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential with a superimposed point charge. The LJ parameters are adjusted to reproduce the bulk density and shear viscosity of the different solutions at 1 bar and temperatures of 293.15, 303.15, and 318.15 K. It is shown that the σ-value of chloride consistently has the strongest influence on the system properties. The optimized force field for MgCl2 (aq) provides both properties in good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of salt concentrations. For CaCl2 (aq), a compromise was made between the bulk density and shear viscosity, since reproducing the two properties requires two different choices of the LJ parameters. This is demonstrated by studying metamodels of the simulated data, which are generated to visualize the correlation between the parameters and observables by using projection plots. Consequently, in order to derive a transferable force field, an error of ˜3% on the bulk density has to be tolerated to yield the shear viscosity in satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  12. A concept for improving Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt migration past hydro power intakes.

    PubMed

    Fjeldstad, H P; Uglem, I; Diserud, O H; Fiske, P; Forseth, T; Kvingedal, E; Hvidsten, N A; Økland, F; Järnegren, J

    2012-07-01

    In this study, cost effective (in terms of reducing loss of power production) measures for increasing bypass migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar were developed and tested by establishing statistical models for timing of smolt migration and favourable diversion of water to the bypass. Initial tracking of radio-tagged smolts showed very low bypass migration under normal hydropower operations. Bypass migration increased when bypass discharge was experimentally increased and a model was developed that described relationships between total river discharge, bypass diversion and smolt migration route. Further improvements were obtained by installing two strobe lights at the power-production tunnel entrance that increased bypass migration during the night, but not during daytime. According to the behaviour of radio-tagged fish, the implemented measures contributed to increasing the annual percentage of bypass migration from 11 to 64%, and according to model predictions to 60-74% when the hydropower facilities were operated according to the developed models. To ensure correct timing of discharge diversion a smolt migration model was developed based on environmental variables that could successfully predict the general pattern of migration timing. The concept presented for improving smolt migration past hydropower intakes should be applicable in many systems where migration past hydropower installations cannot easily be solved by screening systems.

  13. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J T; Lerner, D T; O'Dea, M F; Regish, A M; Monette, M Y; Hawkes, J P; Nislow, K H; McCormick, S D

    2015-11-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine levels of gill aluminium as an index of acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the north-eastern U.S.A. along mainstem river migration corridors in several major river basins. Smolts emigrating from the Connecticut River, where most (but not all) tributaries were well buffered, had low or undetectable levels of gill aluminium and high gill Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, smolts emigrating from the upper Merrimack River basin where most tributaries are characterized by low pH and high inorganic aluminium had consistently elevated gill aluminium and lower gill NKA activity, which may explain the low adult return rates of S. salar stocked into the upper Merrimack catchment. In the Sheepscot, Narraguagus and Penobscot Rivers in Maine, river and year-specific effects on gill aluminium were detected that appeared to be driven by underlying geology and high spring discharge. The results indicate that episodic acidification is affecting S. salar smolts in poorly buffered streams in New England and may help explain variation in S. salar survival and abundance among rivers and among years, with implications for the conservation and recovery of S. salar in the north-eastern U.S.A. These results suggest that the physiological condition of outmigrating smolts may serve as a large-scale sentinel of landscape-level recovery of atmospheric pollution in this and other parts of the North Atlantic region.

  14. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt production: the relative importance of survival and body growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, G.E.; Letcher, B.H.; Bailey, M.M.; Kinnison, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The complex life history of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) coupled with interacting abiotic and biotic factors leads to extreme demographic variability across the species' range. Our goal was to evaluate the relative importance of survival and body growth in determining smolt production across space and time. We used passive integrated transponder tags and capture-mark-recapture analyses to estimate survival, emigration, and growth for six cohorts of presmolt Atlantic salmon in two streams (three cohorts per stream) in New England, USA. We observed remarkable among-cohort consistency in mean monthly survival during a 17-month period from age-0+ autumn to age-2+ spring yet high variability in monthly survival over shorter time intervals (seasons). Despite this latter variability, survival did not translate into amongcohort differences in proportions of age-2+ versus age-3+ smolts. Alternatively, the high variability across seasons and cohorts in mean individual growth rate did lead to differences in within-cohort proportions of age-2+ versus age-3+ smolts (regardless of stream). We conclude that in our two small study streams, variability in growth and size impacted smolt age and, ultimately, smolt production. Density-dependent effects on growth at the scale of the entire study site represent a possible mechanism underlying our observations.

  15. Metal-binding sites are designed to achieve optimal mechanical and signaling properties

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Anindita; Bahar, Ivet

    2010-01-01

    Many proteins require bound metals to achieve their function. We take advantage of increasing structural data on metal-binding proteins to elucidate three properties: the involvement of metal-binding sites in the global dynamics of the protein, predicted by elastic network models, their exposure/burial to solvent, and their signal-processing properties indicated by Markovian stochastics analysis. Systematic analysis of a dataset of 145 structures reveals that the residues that coordinate metal ions enjoy remarkably efficient and precise signal transduction properties. These properties are rationalized in terms of their physical properties: participation in hinge sites that control the softest modes collectively accessible to the protein and occupancy of central positions minimally exposed to solvent. Our observations suggest that metal-binding sites may have been evolutionary selected to achieve optimum allosteric communication. They also provide insights into basic principles for designing metal-binding sites, which are verified to be met by recently designed de novo metal-binding proteins. PMID:20826340

  16. Achieving high lipid productivity of a thermotolerant microalga Desmodesmus sp. F2 by optimizing environmental factors and nutrient conditions.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lai, Yen-Ying; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2014-03-01

    The optimal conditions for cultivating the thermotolerant lipid-rich microalga Desmodesmus sp. F2 to achieve maximal lipid productivity were determined in this study. The conditions were light intensity, 700μmol/m(2)s; temperature, 35°C; cultivation nitrogen source, nitrate; initial nitrogen level, 6.6mM nitrogen. Carbon dioxide (2.5%, 0.2 vvm) was pumped into the cultures continuously. In the pre-optimized conditions, the maximal lipid productivity of this microalga was 113mg/L/d, which was raised to 263mg/L/d in the optimized conditions. This level of lipid productivity of microalgae is the highest ever reported in the literature. Fatty acid composition of the lipid produced by Desmodesmus sp. F2 in the optimal conditions was determined, in which C16 and C18 species accounted for 95% of the fatty acids. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids accounted for 38.9%, 33.1% and 22.6%, respectively. Based on the analysis, this lipid quality makes it a good feedstock for biodiesel production.

  17. High direct drive illumination uniformity achieved by multi-parameter optimization approach: a case study of Shenguang III laser facility.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Liu, Dongxiao; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Weiwu; Zhang, Baohan; Gu, Yuqiu

    2015-05-04

    The uniformity of the compression driver is of fundamental importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In this paper, the illumination uniformity on a spherical capsule during the initial imprinting phase directly driven by laser beams has been considered. We aim to explore methods to achieve high direct drive illumination uniformity on laser facilities designed for indirect drive ICF. There are many parameters that would affect the irradiation uniformity, such as Polar Direct Drive displacement quantity, capsule radius, laser spot size and intensity distribution within a laser beam. A novel approach to reduce the root mean square illumination non-uniformity based on multi-parameter optimizing approach (particle swarm optimization) is proposed, which enables us to obtain a set of optimal parameters over a large parameter space. Finally, this method is applied to improve the direct drive illumination uniformity provided by Shenguang III laser facility and the illumination non-uniformity is reduced from 5.62% to 0.23% for perfectly balanced beams. Moreover, beam errors (power imbalance and pointing error) are taken into account to provide a more practical solution and results show that this multi-parameter optimization approach is effective.

  18. Optimization of Oxidation Temperature for Commercially Pure Titanium to Achieve Improved Corrosion Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Rajesh; Singh, J. K.; Singh, Vakil; Singh, D. D. N.; Das, Parimal

    2017-03-01

    Thermal oxidation of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) was carried out at different temperatures, ranging from 200 to 900 °C to achieve optimum corrosion resistance of the thermally treated surface in simulated body fluid. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the oxides and assess their protective properties exposed in the test electrolyte. Maximum resistance toward corrosion was observed for samples oxidized at 500 °C. This was attributed to the formation of a composite layer of oxides at this temperature comprising Ti2O3 (titanium sesquioxide), anatase and rutile phases of TiO2 on the surface of cp-Ti. Formation of an intact and pore-free oxide-substrate interface also improved its corrosion resistance.

  19. Optimization of Oxidation Temperature for Commercially Pure Titanium to Achieve Improved Corrosion Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Rajesh; Singh, J. K.; Singh, Vakil; Singh, D. D. N.; Das, Parimal

    2017-02-01

    Thermal oxidation of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) was carried out at different temperatures, ranging from 200 to 900 °C to achieve optimum corrosion resistance of the thermally treated surface in simulated body fluid. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the oxides and assess their protective properties exposed in the test electrolyte. Maximum resistance toward corrosion was observed for samples oxidized at 500 °C. This was attributed to the formation of a composite layer of oxides at this temperature comprising Ti2O3 (titanium sesquioxide), anatase and rutile phases of TiO2 on the surface of cp-Ti. Formation of an intact and pore-free oxide-substrate interface also improved its corrosion resistance.

  20. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brenda C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2003-09-01

    Although vegetarian diets are generally lower in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than are nonvegetarian diets, they provide comparable levels of essential fatty acids. Vegetarian, especially vegan, diets are relatively low in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) compared with linoleic acid (LA) and provide little, if any, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Clinical studies suggest that tissue levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids are depressed in vegetarians, particularly in vegans. n-3 Fatty acids have numerous physiologic benefits, including potent cardioprotective effects. These effects have been demonstrated for ALA as well as EPA and DHA, although the response is generally less for ALA than for EPA and DHA. Conversion of ALA by the body to the more active longer-chain metabolites is inefficient: < 5-10% for EPA and 2-5% for DHA. Thus, total n-3 requirements may be higher for vegetarians than for nonvegetarians, as vegetarians must rely on conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA. Because of the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids, it is recommended that vegetarians make dietary changes to optimize n-3 fatty acid status.

  1. Identification and expressional analysis of NLRC5 inflammasome gene in smolting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Pontigo, Juan Pablo; Agüero, María José; Sánchez, Patricio; Oyarzún, Ricardo; Vargas-Lagos, Carolina; Mancilla, Jorge; Kossmann, Hans; Morera, Francisco J; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis

    2016-11-01

    The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) were recently identified as an intracellular pathogen recognition receptor family in vertebrates. While the immune system participation of NLRs has been characterized and analyzed in various mammalian models, few studies have considered NLRs in teleost species. Therefore, this study analyzed the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) NLRC5. Structurally, Atlantic salmon NLRC5 presented leucine-rich repeat subfamily genes. Phylogenetically, NLRC5 was moderately conserved between S. salar and other species. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed NLRC5 expression in almost all analyzed organs, with greatest expressions in the head kidney, spleen, and hindgut. Furthermore, NLRC5 gene expression decreased during smolt stage. These data suggest that NLRC5 participates in the Atlantic salmon immune response and is regulated, at least partly, by the smoltification process, suggesting that there is a depression of immune system from parr at smolt stage. This is the first report on the NLRC5 gene in salmonid smolts.

  2. Assessment of smolt condition: Biological and environmental interactions -- The impact of prey and predators on juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.; Schrock, Robin M.; Petersen, James H.; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Assessment of Smolt Condition project since 1987. During that time the project changed frequently to meet the information needs of fish managers by conducting studies throughout the Columbia River basin. Past research has examined the influence of smolt physiological development and health on migration rate; differences in development and migration rates of smolts of hatchery or wild origins; and the impacts of hatchery practices on smolt development. The Smolt Assessment Project will not continue beyond 2004, and here we report on the final study of the project in which we used bioenergetics modeling to investigate predation on juvenile salmonids by northern pikeminnow, smallmouth bass, and walleye in the lower Columbia River reservoirs.

  3. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance.

    PubMed

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  4. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Rossignol, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    the optimal treatments for these abnormalities. PMID:27330338

  5. Survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts through a hydropower complex.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Bailey, M M; Zydlewski, J D

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt survival through the lower Penobscot River, Maine, U.S.A., and characterized relative differences in proportional use and survival through the main-stem of the river and an alternative migration route, the Stillwater Branch. The work was conducted prior to removal of two main-stem dams and operational changes in hydropower facilities in the Stillwater Branch. Survival and proportional use of migration routes in the lower Penobscot were estimated from multistate (MS) models based on 6 years of acoustic telemetry data from 1669 smolts and 2 years of radio-telemetry data from 190 fish. A small proportion (0·12, 95% c.i. = 0·06-0·25) of smolts used the Stillwater Branch, and mean survival through the two operational dams in this part of the river was relatively high (1·00 and 0·97). Survival at Milford Dam, the dam that will remain in the main-stem of the Penobscot River, was relatively low (0·91), whereas survival through two dams that were removed was relatively high (0·99 and 0·98). Smolt survival could decrease in the Stillwater Branch with the addition of two new powerhouses while continuing to meet fish passage standards. The effects of removing two dams in the main-stem are expected to be negligible for smolt survival based on high survival observed from 2005 to 2012 at those locations. Survival through Milford Dam was been well below current regulatory standards, and thus improvement of passage at this location offers the best opportunity for improving overall smolt survival in the lower river.

  6. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Matthews, Gene M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing. The authors PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1993, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary Dams during spring, summer, and fall 1994. This report details their findings.

  7. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (<500 ng/mL) on Day 8. In these patients, the frequency of posaconazole administration was increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was <200 ng/mL. This study shows that increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy.

  8. Early discrimination of Atlantic salmon smolt age: Time course of the relative effectiveness of body size and shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstein, J.H.; Letcher, B.H.; Obedzinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the relative effectiveness of morphological measurements and body size in predicting the smolt age of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and to determine the time course of body size and shape differences between smolt ages. Analyses were conducted on age-0 to age-2 fish that were stocked as fry in the West Brook, Massachusetts and on laboratory-raised age-0 to age-1 fish. Using both body size and shape, we could partition the age-0 fish collected during fall into future early or late smolts, although the predictive ability of body shape was somewhat weaker than that of body size, especially in the laboratory. Classification success averaged 81% (size) and 79% (shape) in the field and 85% (size) and 73% (shape) in the laboratory. Despite differences in smolt age between the field and the laboratory, the relative timing of growth rate differences between future early and late smolts was similar in the field and the laboratory and peaked at 50-60% of development from fry to smolt. While body shape differed between early and late smolts well before smoltification, it did not improve classification based on size alone.

  9. Water discharge affects Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt production: a 27 year study in the River Orkla, Norway.

    PubMed

    Hvidsten, N A; Diserud, O H; Jensen, A J; Jensås, J G; Johnsen, B O; Ugedal, O

    2015-01-01

    A model that explains 48% of the annual variation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt production in the River Orkla, Norway, has been established. This variation could be explained by egg deposition, minimum daily discharge during the previous winter and minimum weekly discharge during the summer 3 years before smolt migration. All coefficients in the model were positive, which indicates that more eggs and higher minimum discharge levels during the winter before smolt migration and the summer after hatching benefit smolt production. Hence, when the spawning target of the river is reached, the minimum levels of river discharge, in both winter and summer, are the main bottlenecks for the parr survival, and hence for smolt production. The River Orkla was developed for hydropower production in the early 1980s by the construction of four reservoirs upstream of the river stretch accessible to S. salar. Although no water has been removed from the catchment, the dynamics of water flow has been altered, mainly by increasing discharges during winter and reducing spring floods. In spite of the higher than natural winter discharges, minimum winter discharge is still a determinant of smolt production. Hence, in regulated rivers, the maintenance of discharges to ensure that they are as high as possible during dry periods is an important means of securing high S. salar smolt production.

  10. The effect of nonylphenol on gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Laura S.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The parr–smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a complex developmental process that culminates in the ability to migrate to and live in seawater. Exposure to environmental contaminants like nonylphenol can disrupt smolt development and may be a contributing factor in salmon population declines. We used GRASP 16K cDNA microarrays to investigate the effects of nonylphenol on gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts. Nonylphenol exposure reduced gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity and plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine levels. Transcriptional responses were examined in gill, liver, olfactory rosettes, hypothalamus, and pituitary. Expression of 124 features was significantly altered in the liver of fish exposed to nonylphenol; little to no transcriptional effects were observed in other tissues. mRNA abundance of genes involved in protein biosynthesis, folding, modification, transport and catabolism; nucleosome assembly, cell cycle, cell differentiation, microtubule-based movement, electron transport, and response to stress increased in nonylphenol-treated fish. This study expands our understanding of the effect of nonylphenol on smolting and provides potential targets for development of biomarkers.

  11. Condition-dependent migratory behaviour of endangered Atlantic salmon smolts moving through an inland sea

    PubMed Central

    Crossin, Glenn T.; Hatcher, Bruce G.; Denny, Shelley; Whoriskey, Kim; Orr, Michael; Penney, Alicia; Whoriskey, Frederick G.

    2016-01-01

    The Bras d’Or Lake watershed of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada is a unique inland sea ecosystem, UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and home to a group of regionally distinct Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. Recent population decreases in this region have raised concern about their long-term persistence. We used acoustic telemetry to track the migrations of juvenile salmon (smolts) from the Middle River into the Bras d’Or Lake and, subsequently, into the Atlantic Ocean. Roughly half of the tagged smolts transited the Bras d’Or Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, using a migration route that took them through the Gulf of St Lawrence’s northern exit at the Strait of Belle Isle (∼650 km from the home river) towards feeding areas in the Labrador Sea and Greenland. However, a significant fraction spent >70 days in the Lakes, suggesting that this population has an alternative resident form, in which smolts limit their migrations within the Bras d’Or. Smolts in good relative condition (as determined from length-to-mass relationships) tended to be residents, whereas fish in poorer condition were ocean migrants. We also found a covarying effect of river temperature that helped to predict residence vs. ocean migration. We discuss these results relative to their bioenergetic implications and provide suggestions for future studies aimed at the conservation of declining salmon populations in Canada. PMID:27293765

  12. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    2001-08-01

    This report details the 2000 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

  13. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    2001-06-01

    This report details the 1999 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

  14. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Marsh, Douglas M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1994-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring and summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1991, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary Dams during spring and summer 1992. This report details our findings.

  15. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1997-07-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1995 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams during spring and summer 1996.

  16. Physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration and ocean entry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Sheehan, Timothy F.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Lipsky, Christine; Kocik, John F.; Regish, Amy M.; O'Dea, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Billions of hatchery salmon smolts are released annually in an attempt to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on freshwater habitats, often with limited success. Mortality of wild and hatchery fish is high during downstream and early ocean migration. To understand changes that occur during migration, we examined physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration, and early ocean entry in two successive years. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased in the hatchery during spring, increased further after river release, and was slightly lower after recapture in the ocean. Plasma growth hormone levels increased in the hatchery, were higher in the river, and increased further in the ocean. Plasma IGF-I remained relatively constant in the hatchery, increased in the river, then decreased in the ocean. Plasma thyroid hormones were variable in the hatchery, but increased in both river- and ocean-captured smolts. Naturally reared fish had lower condition factor, gill NKA activity, and plasma thyroxine than hatchery fish in the river but were similar in the ocean. This novel data set provides a vital first step in understanding the role and norms of endocrine function in smolts and the metrics of successful marine entry.

  17. Modeling stream network-scale variation in coho salmon overwinter survival and smolt size

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple regression and hierarchical mixed-effects models to examine spatial patterns of overwinter survival and size at smolting in juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in relation to habitat attributes across an extensive stream network in southwestern Oregon over ...

  18. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, Robin M; Beeman, John W; VanderKooi, Scott P

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis (ASCTTA) project provided information on the level of smoltification in Columbia River hatchery and wild salmonid stocks to the Fish Passage Center (FPC), for the primary purpose of in-river management of flows.

  19. Distinct effects of 4-nonylphenol and estrogen-17β on expression of estrogen receptor α gene in smolting sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Qiong; Ban, Massatoshi; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji K.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Urano, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    Xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) have been shown to affect the parr–smolt transformation, but their mechanisms of action are not known. We therefore examined effects of 4-NP and estradiol-17β (E2) on expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α gene in the liver, gill, pituitary and brain of sockeye salmon to elucidate molecular mechanisms of 4-NP and E2 and developmental differences in response during smolting. Fish were treated twice within a week with 4-NP (15 and 150 mg/kg BW), E2 (2 mg/kg BW) or only vehicle at three stages of smolting, pre-smolting in March, early smolting in April and late smolting in May. The absolute amounts of ERα mRNA were determined by real-time PCR. The basal amounts of ERα mRNA peaked in April in the liver, gill and pituitary. In March, E2 extensively increased the amounts in the liver, while 4-NP had no effects at this stage. In contrast, 4-NP (but not E2) decreased liver ERα mRNA in April. 4-NP also decreased the amount of ERα mRNA in the gill in April. In the pituitary, 4-NP increased ERα mRNA in March but decreased it in May. There were no significant effects in the brain. Changes in basal ERα mRNA observed in this study indicate that estrogen responsiveness of tissues may change during salmon smolting. Furthermore, 4-NP and E2 have different effects on expression of ERα gene in the liver and gill during smolting, and the response is dependent on smolt stage.

  20. Differential regulation of sodium-potassium pump isoforms during smolt development and seawater exposure of Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Regish, Amy M.; Christensen, Arne K.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater and seawater isoforms of the alpha subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) have previously been identified in gill ionocytes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In the present study we examine the abundance and cellular localization of these isoforms during the parr–smolt transformation, a developmental process that is preparatory for seawater entry. The abundance of NKAα1a was lower in smolts than in parr, remained relatively constant during spring and decreased in summer. NKAα1b increased tenfold in smolts during spring, peaking in late April, coincident with downstream migration and increased salinity tolerance. NKAα1b increased a further twofold after seawater exposure of smolts, whereas NKAα1a decreased by 98%. The abundance of NKAα1b-positive, and NKAα1b and NKAα1a co-labeled ionocytes increased during smolt development, whereas the number of NKAα1a cells decreased. After seawater exposure of smolts, NKAα1b-positive ionocytes increased, NKAα1a-positive cells decreased, and co-labeled cells disappeared. Plasma growth hormone and cortisol increased during spring in smolts, but not in parr, peaking just prior to the highest levels of NKAα1b. The results indicate that the increase in the abundance of NKAα1b during smolt development is directly linked to the increase in salinity tolerance that occurs at this stage, but that significant changes also occur after seawater exposure. Spring increases in circulating levels of growth hormone and cortisol indicate that these hormones may be instrumental in upregulating NKAα1b during smolt development.

  1. Thresholds for short-term acid and aluminum impacts on Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Lerner, Darrren T.; Regish, Amy M.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Monette, Michelle Y.

    2012-01-01

    Although the negative effects of acid and aluminum (Al) on smolt development have been known for some time, the thresholds for impact of short-term exposure of several days that may occur during episodic acidification have not been systematically examined. In order to determine the levels of acid and Al that impact juvenile Atlantic salmon, smolts and yolk-sac larvae were exposed to three pH levels (6.0, 5.7, and 5.3) and four added Al levels (0, 40, 80 and 175 μg/L total Al) for 48 h. Following this treatment, 10 smolts were sampled in freshwater and another 10 were subjected to a 24 h seawater challenge (35 ppt). Survival of yolk-sac larvae was > 96% in all acid and Al treatments. All smolts died within 48 h at pH 5.3, 175 μg L− 1 Al. There were some mortalities in freshwater at pH 5.3, 80 μg L− 1 Al and pH 5.7, 175 μg L− 1 Al, and further mortalities when these fish were transferred to seawater. Mortalities in these groups were associated with decreased plasma chloride in freshwater and higher plasma chloride in seawater, indicating that these smolts had lost seawater tolerance. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity decreased at pH 5.7, 175 μg L− 1 Al in freshwater, and further decreases were observed at more moderate pH and Al exposures after transfer to seawater. Hematocrit and plasma glucose were the most sensitive physiological responses, increasing at all Al treatments at pH 5.7 and 5.3 in freshwater. There was no detectable increase in gill Al levels at pH 6.0 with added Al, whereas substantial increases in gill Al were observed in all added Al groups at pH 5.7 and 5.3. Our results demonstrate a critical interaction between acid and Al in their effects on smolts, and that episodic acidification events will negatively impact smolt survival in freshwater and after seawater entry.

  2. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1983-1984 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, Richard J.; Buettner, Edwin W.

    1985-12-01

    Hatcheries released 9.3 million chinook salmon and 6.3 million steelhead smolts and presmolts upriver from Lower Granite Reservoir for migration In spring, 1984. We operated smolt monitoring traps at Whitebird from March 14 to May 12, Snake River from March 22 to May 15 and Clearwater from March 29 to May 13. Peak passage of yearling chinook salmon occurred the third week In April at both Whitebird and Snake River traps. Passage of steelhead was still increasing when high water stopped trapping in mid-May. Median migration rates for branded chinook salmon between release sites and Whitebird were 3, 17 and 15 miles/day for Rapid River, South Fork Salmon and Decker Flat smolts, respectively, an average of 11.6 miles/day. Average migration rate for these three groups between Whitebird and Snake River trap was 28 miles/day. Average migration rate between release sites and Snake River (the head of Lower Granite Reservoir) was 13.2 miles/day and from that point on through the reservoir to the dam, 1.9 miles/day. Salmon River discharge, when considered along with other environmental factors, had the greatest effect on migration rate of smolts branded both at hatcheries and at the Whitebird trap and migrating to the head of Lower Granite Reservoir. Migration rate for steelhead released from Dworshak Hatchery and recaptured at the Clearwater trap was 34 miles/day. Survival rates to the Snake River trap of branded chinook salmon smolts released at Hells Canyon Dam, Rapid River, South Fork Salmon and Decker Flat were 52%, 65%, 68% and 35%, respectively. Classical descaling, where at least 40% of the scales are missing from at least two of five areas on the side of a smolt, ranged from 0 to 5.3% at hatcheries for chinook salmon and was less than 1% for steelhead. Descaling rate often Increased about 1% at release sites. Classical descaling at Whitebird, Clearwater and Snake River traps averaged 4.5, 2.5 and 1.5% for chinook salmon, 2.1, 0.4 and 1.4% for wild steelhead and 8

  3. Photoperiod control of downstream movements of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Stich, Daniel S.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first direct observations that photoperiod controls the initiation of downstream movement in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts. Under simulated natural day length (LDN) conditions and seasonal increases in temperature, smolts increased their downstream movements five-fold for a period of 1 month in late spring. Under the same conditions, parr did not show changes in downstream movement behaviour. When given a shortened day length (10L:14D) beginning in late winter, smolts did not increase the number of downstream movements. An early increase in day length (16L:8D) in late winter resulted in earlier initiation and termination of downstream movements compared to the LDN group. Physiological status and behaviour were related but not completely coincident: gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased in all treatments and thyroid hormone was elevated prior to movement in 16L:8D treatment. The most parsimonious model describing downstream movement of smolts included synergistic effects of photoperiod treatment and temperature, indicating that peak movements occurred at colder temperatures in the 16L:8D treatment than in LDN, and temperature did not influence movement of smolts in the 10L:14D treatment. The complicated interactions of photoperiod and temperature are not surprising since many organisms have evolved to rely on correlations among environmental cues and windows of opportunity to time behaviours associated with life-history transitions. These complicated interactions, however, have serious implications for phenological adjustments and persistence ofS. salar populations in response to climate change.

  4. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, John T; Lerner, Darrren T.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Regish, Amy M.; Monette, Michelle Y.; Hawkes, J.P.; Nislow, Keith H.; McCormick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine levels of gill aluminium as an index of acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the north-eastern U.S.A. along mainstem river migration corridors in several major river basins. Smolts emigrating from the Connecticut River, where most (but not all) tributaries were well buffered, had low or undetectable levels of gill aluminium and high gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, smolts emigrating from the upper Merrimack River basin where most tributaries are characterized by low pH and high inorganic aluminium had consistently elevated gill aluminium and lower gill NKA activity, which may explain the low adult return rates of S. salar stocked into the upper Merrimack catchment. In the Sheepscot, Narraguagus and Penobscot Rivers in Maine, river and year-specific effects on gill aluminium were detected that appeared to be driven by underlying geology and high spring discharge. The results indicate that episodic acidification is affecting S. salar smolts in poorly buffered streams in New England and may help explain variation in S. salar survival and abundance among rivers and among years, with implications for the conservation and recovery of S. salar in the north-eastern U.S.A. These results suggest that the physiological condition of outmigrating smolts may serve as a large-scale sentinel of landscape-level recovery of atmospheric pollution in this and other parts of the North Atlantic region.

  5. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts.

  6. Physiological preparedness and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in relation to behavioural salinity preferences and thresholds.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Zydlewski, G B; Zydlewski, J D

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the relationships between behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts to saltwater (SW) exposure and physiological characteristics of smolts in laboratory experiments. It concurrently described the behaviour of acoustically tagged smolts with respect to SW and tidal cycles during estuary migration. Salmo salar smolts increased their use of SW relative to fresh water (FW) from April to June in laboratory experiments. Mean preference for SW never exceeded 50% of time in any group. Preference for SW increased throughout the course of smolt development. Maximum continuous time spent in SW was positively related to gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and osmoregulatory performance in full-strength SW (measured as change in gill NKA activity and plasma osmolality). Smolts decreased depth upon reaching areas of the Penobscot Estuary where SW was present, and all fish became more surface oriented during passage from head of tide to the ocean. Acoustically tagged, migrating smolts with low gill NKA activity moved faster in FW reaches of the estuary than those with higher gill NKA activity. There was no difference in movement rate through SW reaches of the estuary based on gill NKA activity. Migrating fish moved with tidal flow during the passage of the lower estuary based on the observed patterns in both vertical and horizontal movements. The results indicate that smolts select low-salinity water during estuary migration and use tidal currents to minimize energetic investment in seaward migration. Seasonal changes in osmoregulatory ability highlight the importance of the timing of stocking and estuary arrival.

  7. Variability in Migration Routes Influences Early Marine Survival of Juvenile Salmon Smolts.

    PubMed

    Furey, Nathan B; Vincent, Stephen P; Hinch, Scott G; Welch, David W

    2015-01-01

    Variability in animal migratory behavior is expected to influence fitness, but few empirical examples demonstrating this relationship exist. The initial marine phase in the migration of juvenile salmon smolts has been identified as a potentially critical life history stage to overall population productivity, yet how fine-scale migration routes may influence survival are unknown. Large-scale acoustic telemetry studies have estimated survival rates of outmigrant Pacific salmon smolts through the Strait of Georgia (SOG) along the British Columbian coastline to the Pacific Ocean, but these data have not been used to identify and characterize fine-scale movements. Data collected on over 850 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts detected at an array in the Strait of Georgia in 2004-2008 and 2010-2013 were analyzed to characterize migration routes and link movements to subsequent survival at an array 250 km further along the marine migration pathway. Both species exhibited disproportionate use of the most eastern route in the Strait of Georgia (Malaspina Strait). While many smolts moved across the northern Strait of Georgia acoustic array with no indication of long-term milling or large-scale east-to-west movements, large proportions (20-40% of sockeye and 30-50% of steelhead) exhibited a different behavior, apparently moving in a westward or counterclockwise pattern. Variability in migratory behavior for both species was linked to subsequent survival through the Strait of Georgia. Survival for both species was influenced by initial east-to-west location, and sockeye were further influenced by migration timing and duration of time spent near the northern Strait of Georgia array. Westward movements result in a net transport of smolts from Malaspina Strait to the Strait of Georgia, particularly for steelhead. Counterclockwise movements may be due to the currents in this area during the time of outmigration, and the higher proportion

  8. Variability in Migration Routes Influences Early Marine Survival of Juvenile Salmon Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Furey, Nathan B.; Vincent, Stephen P.; Hinch, Scott G.; Welch, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Variability in animal migratory behavior is expected to influence fitness, but few empirical examples demonstrating this relationship exist. The initial marine phase in the migration of juvenile salmon smolts has been identified as a potentially critical life history stage to overall population productivity, yet how fine-scale migration routes may influence survival are unknown. Large-scale acoustic telemetry studies have estimated survival rates of outmigrant Pacific salmon smolts through the Strait of Georgia (SOG) along the British Columbian coastline to the Pacific Ocean, but these data have not been used to identify and characterize fine-scale movements. Data collected on over 850 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts detected at an array in the Strait of Georgia in 2004–2008 and 2010–2013 were analyzed to characterize migration routes and link movements to subsequent survival at an array 250 km further along the marine migration pathway. Both species exhibited disproportionate use of the most eastern route in the Strait of Georgia (Malaspina Strait). While many smolts moved across the northern Strait of Georgia acoustic array with no indication of long-term milling or large-scale east-to-west movements, large proportions (20–40% of sockeye and 30–50% of steelhead) exhibited a different behavior, apparently moving in a westward or counterclockwise pattern. Variability in migratory behavior for both species was linked to subsequent survival through the Strait of Georgia. Survival for both species was influenced by initial east-to-west location, and sockeye were further influenced by migration timing and duration of time spent near the northern Strait of Georgia array. Westward movements result in a net transport of smolts from Malaspina Strait to the Strait of Georgia, particularly for steelhead. Counterclockwise movements may be due to the currents in this area during the time of outmigration, and the higher

  9. Evidence for cumulative temperature as an initiating and terminating factor in downstream migratory behavior of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, G.B.; Haro, A.; McCormick, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Temperature control of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt migration was tested using a novel technique allowing nearly continuous monitoring of behavior with complete control over environmental conditions. Parr and presmolts were implanted with passive integrated transponder tags, placed in simulated streams, and monitored for upstream and downstream movements. Beginning 18 April, temperature was increased 1??C every third day (advanced), fourth day (ambient), and tenth day (delayed). Smolt downstream movements were initially low, peaked in mid-May, and subsequently declined under all conditions. Parr downstream movements were significantly lower than those of smolts in all treatments (0.8 ?? 0.5 movement??day-1 versus 26.5 ?? 4.5 movements??day-1, mean ?? SE) and showed no increase. At delayed temperatures, smolts sustained downstream movements through July; those under ambient and advanced conditions ceased activity by mid-June. Initiation and termination of downstream movements occurred at significantly different temperatures but at the same number of degree-days in all treatments. Physiological changes associated with smolting (gill Na+,K +-ATPase activity and plasma thyroxine) were coincident with behavioral changes. This is the first evidence of a behavioral component to the smolt window. We found that temperature experience over time is more relevant to initiation and termination of downstream movement than a temperature threshold. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  10. Benefits of prescribed flows for salmon smolt survival enhancement vary longitudinally in a highly managed river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Courter, Ian; Garrison, Thomas; Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Child, David; Hubble, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The influence of streamflow on survival of emigrating juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. (smolts) is a major concern for water managers throughout the northeast Pacific Rim. However, few studies have quantified flow effects on smolt survival, and available information does not indicate a consistent flow–survival relationship within the typical range of flows under management control. In the Yakima Basin, Washington, the potential effects of streamflow alterations on smolt survival have been debated for over 20 years. Using a series of controlled flow releases from upper basin reservoirs and radiotelemetry, we quantified the relationship between flow and yearling Chinook salmon smolt survival in the 208 km reach between Roza Dam and the Yakima River mouth. A multistate mark–recapture model accounted for weekly variation in flow conditions experienced by tagged fish in four discrete river segments. Smolt survival was significantly associated with streamflow in the Roza Reach [river kilometre (rkm) 208–189] and marginally associated with streamflow in the Sunnyside Reach (rkm 169–77). However, smolt survival was not significantly associated with flow in the Naches and Prosser Reaches (rkm 189–169 and rkm 77–3). This discrepancy indicates potential differences in underlying flow-related survival mechanisms, such as predation or passage impediments. Our results clarify trade-offs between flow augmentation for fisheries enhancement and other beneficial uses, and our study design provides a framework for resolving uncertainties about streamflow effects on migratory fish survival in other river systems. 

  11. Lipid Encapsulation Provides Insufficient Total-Tract Digestibility to Achieve an Optimal Transfer Efficiency of Fatty Acids to Milk Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle. Diets consisted of a control (no EEO); 1.5% of dry matter (DM) as EEO and 1.5% DM as encapsulation matrix; and 3% DM as EEO. The EEO was rumen-stable and had no effect on animal production. EEO-derived FA were incorporated into all plasma lipid fractions, with the highest proportion of n-3 FA observed in cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of EEO-derived FA ranged from 7–14%. Biohydrogenation products increased in milk, plasma, and feces with EEO supplementation. In conclusion, lipid-encapsulation provides inadequate digestibility to achieve an optimal transfer efficiency of n-3 FA to milk. PMID:27741299

  12. Standardized seawater rearing of chinook salmon smolts to evaluate hatchery practices showed low statistical power

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Elder, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    We examined, under standardized conditions, seawater survival of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at the smolt stage to evaluate the experimental hatchery practices applied to their rearing. The experimental rearing practices included rearing fish at different densities; attempting to control bacterial kidney disease with broodstock segregation, erythromycin injection, and an experimental diet; rearing fish on different water sources; and freeze branding the fish. After application of experimental rearing practices in hatcheries, smolts were transported to a rearing facility for about 2-3 months of seawater rearing. Of 16 experiments, 4 yielded statistically significant differences in seawater survival. In general we found that high variability among replicates, plus the low numbers of replicates available, resulted in low statistical power. We recommend including four or five replicates and using ?? = 0.10 in 1-tailed tests of hatchery experiments to try to increase the statistical power to 0.80.

  13. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Faler, Joyce C.

    1991-12-01

    As a part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program, the Fish Passage Center collects information on the migrational characteristics of juvenile salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus sp.) in the Columbia River basin. This information is collected through the Smolt Monitoring Program, and is used as a tool in the management and evaluation of the Water Budget. The Water Budget is a volume of water used to enhance environmental conditions (flows) to aid in the seaward migration of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Implicit in the Water Budget concept is that by augmenting flows, travel time of juvenile salmonids will be decreased, thereby increasing survival via reductions in delayed migration and exposure to predators. This study was initiated to (1) provide physiological information about the juvenile salmonids used for these travel time estimates, (2) to analyze the physiological data, and (3) to determine if an ``index`` of smolt condition could be developed to aid in management of the Water Budget.

  14. Migratory patterns of hatchery and stream-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the Connecticut River, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    McCormick, S D; Haro, A; Lerner, D T; O'Dea, M F; Regish, A M

    2014-10-01

    The timing of downstream migration and detection rates of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts and stream-reared smolts (stocked 2 years earlier as fry) were examined in the Connecticut River (U.S.A.) using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted into fish and then detected at a downstream fish bypass collection facility at Turners Falls, MA (river length 192 km). In two successive years, hatchery-reared smolts were released in mid-April and early May at two sites: the West River (river length 241 km) or the Passumpsic (river length 450 km). Hatchery-reared smolts released higher in the catchment arrived 7 to 14 days later and had significantly lower detection rates than smolts stocked lower in the catchment. Hatchery-reared smolts released 3 weeks apart at the same location were detected downstream at similar times, indicating that early-release smolts had a lower average speed after release and longer residence time. The size and gill Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) activity of smolts at the time of release were significantly greater for detected fish (those that survived and migrated) than for those that were not detected. Stream-reared pre-smolts (>11·5 cm) from four tributaries (length 261-551 km) were tagged in autumn and detected during smolt migration the following spring. Stream-reared smolts higher in the catchment arrived later and had significantly lower detection rates. The results indicate that both hatchery and stream-reared smolts from the upper catchment will arrive at the mouth of the river later and experience higher overall mortality than fish from lower reaches, and that both size and gill NKA activity are related to survival during downstream migration.

  15. Migratory patterns of hatchery and stream-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the Connecticut River, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Haro, Alexander; Lerner, Darren T.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Regish, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    The timing of downstream migration and detection rates of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts and stream-reared smolts (stocked 2 years earlier as fry) were examined in the Connecticut River (U.S.A.) using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted into fish and then detected at a downstream fish bypass collection facility at Turners Falls, MA (river length 192 km). In two successive years, hatchery-reared smolts were released in mid-April and early May at two sites: the West River (river length 241 km) or the Passumpsic (river length 450 km). Hatchery-reared smolts released higher in the catchment arrived 7 to 14 days later and had significantly lower detection rates than smolts stocked lower in the catchment. Hatchery-reared smolts released 3 weeks apart at the same location were detected downstream at similar times, indicating that early-release smolts had a lower average speed after release and longer residence time. The size and gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity of smolts at the time of release were significantly greater for detected fish (those that survived and migrated) than for those that were not detected. Stream-reared pre-smolts (>11·5 cm) from four tributaries (length 261–551 km) were tagged in autumn and detected during smolt migration the following spring. Stream-reared smolts higher in the catchment arrived later and had significantly lower detection rates. The results indicate that both hatchery and stream-reared smolts from the upper catchment will arrive at the mouth of the river later and experience higher overall mortality than fish from lower reaches, and that both size and gill NKA activity are related to survival during downstream migration.

  16. Linking behavior, physiology, and survival of Atlantic Salmon smolts during estuary migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stich, Daniel S.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Kocik, John F.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Decreased marine survival is identified as a component driver of continued declines of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. However, estimates of marine mortality often incorporate loss incurred during estuary migration that may be mechanistically distinct from factors affecting marine mortality. We examined movements and survival of 941 smolts (141 wild and 800 hatchery-reared fish) released in freshwater during passage through the Penobscot River estuary, Maine, from 2005 to 2013. We related trends in estuary arrival date, movement rate, and survival to fish characteristics, migratory history, and environmental conditions in the estuary. Fish that experienced the warmest thermal history arrived in the estuary 8 d earlier than those experiencing the coolest thermal history during development. Estuary arrival date was 10 d later for fish experiencing high flow than for fish experiencing low flow. Fish released furthest upstream arrived in the estuary 3 d later than those stocked further downstream but moved 0.5 km/h faster through the estuary. Temporally, movement rate and survival in the estuary both peaked in mid-May. Spatially, movement rate and survival both decreased from freshwater to the ocean. Wild smolts arrived in the estuary later than hatchery fish, but we observed no change in movement rate or survival attributable to rearing history. Fish with the highest gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity incurred 25% lower mortality through the estuary than fish with the lowest gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Smolt survival decreased (by up to 40%) with the increasing number of dams passed (ranging from two to nine) during freshwater migration. These results underscore the importance of physiological preparedness on performance and the delayed, indirect effects of dams on survival of Atlantic Salmon smolts during estuary migration, ultimately affecting marine survival estimates.

  17. Interaction between migration behaviour and estuarine mortality in cultivated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Vollset, K W; Mahlum, S; Davidsen, J G; Skoglund, H; Barlaup, B T

    2016-10-01

    Migration behaviour and estuarine mortality of cultivated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in a 16 km long estuary were studied using two methods: (1) acoustic telemetry and (2) group tagging in combination with trap nets. Progression rates of surviving individuals through the estuary were relatively slow using both methods [0·38 LT (total length) s(-1) v. 0·25 LT  s(-1) ]. In 2012, the progression rate was slow from the river to the estuary (0·55 LT  s(-1) ) and the first part of the estuary (0·31 LT  s(-1) ), but increased thereafter (1·45-2·21 LT  s(-1) ). In 2013, the progression rate was fast from the river to the estuary (4·31 LT  s(-1) ) but was slower thereafter (0·18-0·91 LT  s(-1) ). Survival to the fjord was higher in 2012 (47%) compared to 2013 (6%). Fast moving individuals were more likely to migrate successfully through the estuary compared to slower moving individuals. Adult recapture of coded-wire-tagged S. salar was generally low (0·00-0·04%). Mortality hot spots were related to topographically distinct areas such as the river outlet (in 2012) or the sill separating the estuary and the fjord (in 2013). At the sill, an aggregation of cod Gadus morhua predating on cultivated smolts was identified. The results indicate that slow progression rates through the estuary decreases the likelihood of smolts being detected outside the estuary. The highly stochastic and site-specific mortality patterns observed in this study highlight the complexity in extrapolating mortality patterns of single release groups to the entire smolt run of wild S. salar.

  18. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  19. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1996-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1995 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River, Clearwater River, and Salmon River. The 1995 snowpack was below average through February. Heavy precipitation from the Salmon River drainage south, in March through May, provided the best runoff conditions in the Salmon River since the drought began in 1987.

  20. Prediction of the optimum surface orientation angles to achieve maximum solar radiation using Particle Swarm Optimization in Sabha City Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, F. A.; Nizam, M.; Anwar, M.

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to predict the optimum surface orientation angles in solar panel installation to achieve maximum solar radiation. Incident solar radiation is calculated using koronakis mathematical model. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used as computational method to find optimum angle orientation for solar panel installation in order to get maximum solar radiation. A series of simulation has been carried out to calculate solar radiation based on monthly, seasonally, semi-yearly and yearly period. South-facing was calculated also as comparison of proposed method. South-facing considers azimuth of 0°. Proposed method attains higher incident predictions than South-facing that recorded 2511.03 kWh/m2for monthly. It were about 2486.49 kWh/m2, 2482.13 kWh/m2and 2367.68 kWh/m2 for seasonally, semi-yearly and yearly. South-facing predicted approximately 2496.89 kWh/m2, 2472.40 kWh/m2, 2468.96 kWh/m2, 2356.09 kWh/m2for monthly, seasonally, semi-yearly and yearly periods respectively. Semi-yearly is the best choice because it needs twice adjustments of solar panel in a year. Yet it considers inefficient to adjust solar panel position in every season or monthly with no significant solar radiation increase than semi-yearly and solar tracking device still considers costly in solar energy system. PSO was able to predict accurately with simple concept, easy and computationally efficient. It has been proven by finding the best fitness faster.

  1. Spring Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Veach, Eric R.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1998-10-01

    For the fourth consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A screw trap was used to collect emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Uncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 25 to June 27, 1997. A total of 270 natural chinook salmon, 10,616 hatchery chinook salmon, 864 natural steelhead trout (and 13 natural steelhead parr), and 7,345 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during emigration studies on the Imnaha River. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low: 0.37% for natural chinook, 0.11% for hatchery chinook, 0.11% for natural steelhead, and 0.39% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Natural chinook salmon smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River from February 25 to June 10 and had a mean length of 108 mm, average weight of 13 g, and mean condition factor of 1.02. The peak period of natural chinook smolt emigration, based on number of fish collected, occurred between March 25 and April 30. Hatchery reared chinook salmon smolts were collected from April 9 to May 9, with 99% of the smolts being caught within 10 days after release. Hatchery chinook smolts mean length, weight, and condition factor were 131 mm, 25.4 g, and 1.12, respectively. Emigration of natural steelhead smolts in the Imnaha River occurred between March 14 and June 25. Peak emigration occurred from May 1 to May 15. Natural steelhead smolts averaged 175 mm in fork length, 55.8 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 1 .OO. Hatchery steelhead smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River between April 15 and June 27. Hatchery steelhead smolts averaged 210 mm in fork length, 88 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 0.93. Spring runoff water conditions in 1997 provided above average flows for emigrating anadromous salmonid smolts. Imnaha River mean daily discharge during spring emigration ranged from 7

  2. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Physiological preparedness and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in relation to behavioural salinity preferences and thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stich, D.S.; Zydlewski, G.B.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon Salmo salarsmolts to saltwater (SW) exposure and physiological characteristics of smolts in laboratory experiments. It concurrently described the behaviour of acoustically tagged smolts with respect to SW and tidal cycles during estuary migration. Salmo salar smolts increased their use of SW relative to fresh water (FW) from April to June in laboratory experiments. Mean preference for SW never exceeded 50% of time in any group. Preference for SW increased throughout the course of smolt development. Maximum continuous time spent in SW was positively related to gill Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and osmoregulatory performance in full-strength SW (measured as change in gill NKA activity and plasma osmolality). Smolts decreased depth upon reaching areas of the Penobscot Estuary where SW was present, and all fish became more surface oriented during passage from head of tide to the ocean. Acoustically tagged, migrating smolts with low gill NKA activity moved faster in FW reaches of the estuary than those with higher gill NKA activity. There was no difference in movement rate through SW reaches of the estuary based on gill NKA activity. Migrating fish moved with tidal flow during the passage of the lower estuary based on the observed patterns in both vertical and horizontal movements. The results indicate that smolts select low-salinity water during estuary migration and use tidal currents to minimize energetic investment in seaward migration. Seasonal changes in osmoregulatory ability highlight the importance of the timing of stocking and estuary arrival.

  4. Effects of hexazinone and atrazine on the physiology and endocrinology of smolt development in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Puigdoller, Katherine; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D

    2007-08-15

    Exposure to hexazinone (HEX) and atrazine (ATZ), highly mobile and widely used herbicides along rivers in the United States, is potentially harmful to Atlantic salmon, which have been listed as an endangered species. To determine the effects of these contaminants on smolt development, juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed under flow-through conditions to 100 microgl(-1) HEX, 10 and 100 microgl(-1) ATZ in fresh water (FW) for 21 days at 10 degrees C beginning in mid-April. Twelve fish per treatment were sampled in FW, following a 24h seawater (SW) challenge and after growth for 3 months in SW. Exposure to 100 microgl(-1) HEX or 10microgl(-1) ATZ caused no mortalities of smolts in FW or after SW challenge, while 9% of the fish exposed to 100 microgl(-1) ATZ died during exposure. Fish exposed to 100 microgl(-1) ATZ reduced feeding after 10 days of exposure and had an impaired growth rate in FW and during the first month in SW; compensatory growth occurred in the second and third month in SW. HEX and ATZ at 10 microgl(-1) exposure had no effect on plasma levels of cortisol, growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor I (IGF-I), thyroxine (T(4)) and plasma 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)), Cl(-), Mg(2+), Na(+), Ca(2+) in FW or after SW challenge. FW smolts exposed to 100 microgl(-1) ATZ had decreased plasma Cl(-), Mg(2+), Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions and increased cortisol. No effect on plasma levels of GH, IGF-I, T(4) or T(3) was found in FW smolts exposed to 100 microgl(-1) ATZ. Following SW challenge, fish previously exposed to 100 microgl(-1) ATZ had significant increases in hematocrit, plasma cortisol, Cl(-), Mg(2+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and a decrease in T(4) and T(3). It is concluded that under the conditions imposed in this study, HEX does not affect salinity tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts, while ATZ causes ionoregulatory, growth and endocrine disturbance.

  5. Effects of hexazinone and atrazine on the physiology and endocrinology of smolt development in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nieves-Puigdoller, K.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to hexazinone (HEX) and atrazine (ATZ), highly mobile and widely used herbicides along rivers in the United States, is potentially harmful to Atlantic salmon, which have been listed as an endangered species. To determine the effects of these contaminants on smolt development, juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed under flow-through conditions to 100 ??g l-1 HEX, 10 and 100 ??g l-1 ATZ in fresh water (FW) for 21 days at 10 ??C beginning in mid-April. Twelve fish per treatment were sampled in FW, following a 24 h seawater (SW) challenge and after growth for 3 months in SW. Exposure to 100 ??g l-1 HEX or 10 ??g l-1 ATZ caused no mortalities of smolts in FW or after SW challenge, while 9% of the fish exposed to 100 ??g l-1 ATZ died during exposure. Fish exposed to 100 ??g l-1 ATZ reduced feeding after 10 days of exposure and had an impaired growth rate in FW and during the first month in SW; compensatory growth occurred in the second and third month in SW. HEX and ATZ at 10 ??g l-1 exposure had no effect on plasma levels of cortisol, growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor I (IGF-I), thyroxine (T4) and plasma 3,5,3???-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), Cl-, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ in FW or after SW challenge. FW smolts exposed to 100 ??g l-1 ATZ had decreased plasma Cl-, Mg2+, Na+ and Ca2+ ions and increased cortisol. No effect on plasma levels of GH, IGF-I, T4 or T3 was found in FW smolts exposed to 100 ??g l-1 ATZ. Following SW challenge, fish previously exposed to 100 ??g l-1 ATZ had significant increases in hematocrit, plasma cortisol, Cl-, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and a decrease in T4 and T3. It is concluded that under the conditions imposed in this study, HEX does not affect salinity tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts, while ATZ causes ionoregulatory, growth and endocrine disturbance. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1998-05-01

    In August 1996, we PIT tagged and released 1,360 wild chinook salmon parr in the South Fork of the Salmon River and two of its tributaries in Idaho. During spring and summer 1997, the overall adjusted percentage of PIT-tagged fish from Idaho detected at six downstream dams averaged 18.3% (range 16.0 to 27.3% depending on stream of origin). Peak detections of all wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts (from Idaho and Oregon) at Lower Granite Dam occurred during variable but increasing river flows in April. High river flows from mid-April to mid-May moved most of these fish through Lower Granite Dam, with 50 and 90% passage occurring on 24 April and 21 May, respectively. From 1989 to 1996, peak detections of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts were highly variable and generally independent of river flows before about 9 May at this dam; however, during these years (including 1997), peak detections of wild fish coincided with periods of peak flow at the dam from 9 May to the end of May. In both 1995 and 1996, in excess of 90% of the wild fish had migrated past Lower Granite Dam by the time peak flows occurred in June. In 1989, we observed a period of peak detections of wild fish that coincided with peak flows at the dam in June. After examining chinook salmon smolt passage timing at the dams over the last 9 years, it has become clear that flow is only one of several factors that influence passage timing. Other factors, such as annual climatic conditions, water temperature, turbidity, physiological development, variability in stock behavior, fish size, and other yet unknown conditions may equally affect wild smolt passage timing at dams. As additional environmental monitors and traps are installed in study streams, we will be able to more accurately monitor parr and smolt movements out of rearing areas and examine the relationships of these movements to environmental parameters within the streams. Mapped over time, this information will provide the basis for

  7. Use of allopurinol with low-dose 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease to achieve optimal active metabolite levels: A review of four cases and the literature

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Todd N; Ginsberg, Allen L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At least one-third of patients with inflammatory bowel disease do not respond or are intolerant to therapy with 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). A subgroup fails to attain optimal levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) and instead shunts to 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (6-MMPN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted, and four patients are described who had been previously unable to achieve optimal 6-TGN metabolite levels until allopurinol was added to their treatment. RESULTS: All four patients achieved optimal 6-TGN levels and undetectable 6-MMPN with a mean 6-MP dose of 0.49 mg/kg. Three achieved steroid-free clinical remission. Two of those three patients had normalization of liver enzymes; one patient had baseline normal liver enzymes despite an initial 6-MMPN level of 27,369 pmol/8×108 red blood cells. Two patients experienced reversible leukopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Combination allopurinol and low-dose 6-MP is an effective means to achieve optimal metabolite levels and steroid-free clinical remission in previously refractory patients. Caution is advised. PMID:18299738

  8. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmonid Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.; Osborne, Randall S.

    1996-04-01

    For the second consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 6 to June 20, 1995. We PIT tagged and released 421 wild chinook salmon smolts, 747 hatchery chinook salmon smolts (445 HxW and 302 HxH), 227 wild steelhead trout smolts and 1,296 hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 78.4% for wild chinook salmon, 58.9% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxW), 56.6% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxH), 76.2% for wild steelhead trout, and 69.2% for hatchery steelhead trout. Peak outmigration of NPT tagged wild Imnaha River chinook salmon smolts occurred from early to mid-May at Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental Dams. Median and 90% passage dates for wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam were May 1 and May 11, respectively. Continuous spill at Lower Granite Dam was initiated on May 3 and lasted for 51 days. The 90% passage date of wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam (May 11) preceded peak Snake River and Lower Granite (June 6) flows by 26 days. Although hatchery chinook salmon exhibited a shorter outmigration period through the Snake River than their wild counterparts, peak arrival for both groups occurred at approximately the same time. Median and 90% passage dates at Lower Granite Dam for other PIT tagged groups were: hatchery chinook salmon (NPT-HxW) - May 2 and May 13; hatchery chinook salmon (FPC-HxH) - May 8 and May 15; wild steelhead trout - May 2 and May 9; and hatchery steelhead trout (NPT and FPC) - May 31 and June 16. Hatchery steelhead trout displayed small peaks in arrival timing at Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams in mid-May to mid-June.

  9. Effects of aqueous exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) on physiology and behavior of smolt development of Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, D.T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread aquatic contaminant and are present in both wild and hatchery raised Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. The possible sub-lethal alterations in smolt physiology and behavior due to PCB exposure of salmon have not been widely examined. In this study, we examined the effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 on survival and smolt development of Atlantic salmon. In separate experiments, fish were exposed as yolk-sac larvae or as juveniles just prior to the parr-smolt transformation in April to 1 ??g l-1 (PCB-1) or 10 ??g l-1 (PCB-10) aqueous Aroclor 1254 (A1254), or vehicle for 21 days. After exposure, yolk-sac larvae were reared at ambient conditions for 1 year, until the peak of smolting the following May. Juveniles were sampled immediately after exposure. Both groups were assessed for behavioral, osmoregulatory, and endocrine disruption of smolt development at the peak of smolting. PCB-1 and PCB-10 treated yolk-sac larvae exhibited significant increases in the rate of opercular movement after 14 and 21 days of exposure. At the peak of smolting, prior exposure as yolk-sac larvae to PCB-1 did not affect behavior, while PCB-10 dramatically decreased volitional preference for seawater. Neither concentration of A1254 had long-term effects on the osmoregulatory or endocrine parameters measured in animals exposed as yolk-sac larvae. Juvenile fish exposed to PCB-1 or PCB-10 during smolting exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in preference for seawater. Fish treated with the higher dose of A1254 also exhibited a 50% decrease in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and a 10% decrease in plasma chloride levels in freshwater. In addition, plasma triiodothyronine was reduced 35-50% and plasma cortisol 58% in response to exposure to either concentration; whereas plasma thyroxine, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I levels were unaffected. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to A1254 may vary according to

  10. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2005-05-01

    In the spring of 2004 naturally produced smolts outmigrating from the Yakima River Basin were collected for the sixth year of pathogen screening. This component of the evaluation is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Since 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery has been releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. In 1998 and 2000 through 2004 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. Of these pathogens, only R. salmoninarum was detected in very low levels in the naturally produced smolts outmigrating in 2004. To date, only bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. There have been small variations each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuations in prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  11. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    PubMed

    Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R Scott; Schreck, Carl

    2008-10-28

    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  12. Dietary histidine requirement to reduce the risk and severity of cataracts is higher than the requirement for growth in Atlantic salmon smolts, independently of the dietary lipid source.

    PubMed

    Remø, S C; Hevrøy, E M; Olsvik, P A; Fontanillas, R; Breck, O; Waagbø, R

    2014-05-28

    The present study was carried out to investigate whether the dietary histidine requirement to reduce cataract development is higher than that for growth in Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.) after seawater transfer and whether dietary vegetable oils contribute to cataractogenesis. Duplicate groups of salmon smolts were fed ten experimental diets with either fish oil (FO) or a vegetable oil (VO) mix replacing 70 % FO and histidine at five target levels (10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 g His/kg diet) for 13 weeks after seawater transfer. The VO diet-fed fish exhibited somewhat inferior growth and feed intakes compared with the FO diet-fed fish, irrespective of the dietary histidine concentration. Both cataract prevalence and severity were negatively correlated with the dietary histidine concentration, while lens N-acetyl-histidine (NAH) concentrations were positively correlated with it. The fatty acid profiles of muscle, heart and lens reflected that of the dietary oils to a descending degree and did not affect the observed cataract development. Muscle, heart and brain histidine concentrations reflected dietary histidine concentrations, while the corresponding tissue imidazole (anserine, carnosine and NAH) concentrations appeared to saturate differently with time. The expression level of liver histidase was not affected by the dietary histidine concentration, while the liver antioxidant response was affected in the VO diet-fed fish on a transcriptional level. The lowest severity of cataracts could be achieved by feeding 13·4 g His/kg feed, independently of the dietary lipid source. However, the present study also suggests that the dietary histidine requirement to minimise the risk of cataract development is 14·4 g His/kg feed.

  13. Smolt Monitoring Program, Part I, Estimation of Survival, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Passage Center

    1986-02-01

    The annual Smolt Monitoring Program is the result of implementation of Section 304(d)(2) of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. Survival was monitored for specific marked groups of steelhead and spring chinook. Survival through the mid-Columbia from Winthrop Hatchery and the Methow River to below Priest Rapids Dam was estimated. Estimation of survival of marked groups of steelhead from Little Goose Dam to below Ice Harbor Dam was attempted. Serious problems were evident in the Snake River survival data. A release strategy which avoids holding of control groups was tested with satisfactory results.

  14. Haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) in Norway: pathology and associated virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Nylund, A; Plarre, H; Hodneland, K; Devold, M; Aspehaug, V; Aarseth, M; Koren, C; Watanabe, K

    2003-03-17

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar pre-smolt, smolt and post-smolt, with clinical signs of haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) have been found in several locations along the Norwegian coast (Rogaland to Troms). Affected fish had pale gills and bleeding at the fin bases, but seemed to be in good physical condition with no obvious weight loss. The internal organs and body cavity showed distinct bleedings. Petechiae were found on the gastrointestinal tract, swim bladder and peritoneum, visceral adipose tissue, heart and somatic musculature. The liver was bright yellow and sometimes mottled with petechiae and ecchymoses. Acitic fluid was found in the visceral cavity and fluid was also present in the pericardial cavity. Histological examination revealed haemorrhage in most organs. The glomeruli were degenerated and the renal tubules were filled with erythrocytes. The aims of this study were to describe the pathology and discover, if possible, the aetiology of the HSS. Tissues were collected for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence (IFAT), reverse transcription (RT)-PCR diagnostics (screening for infectious salmon anaemia virus [ISAV], viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus [VHSV], salmon pancreas disease virus [SPDV], sleeping disease virus [SDV] and infectious haematopoetic necrosis virus [IHNV]), and tissue homogenates (heart, liver, kidney and spleen) were sterile-filtered and inoculated into cell cultures. Homogenates made from several tissues were also injected intraperitoneally into salmon and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The diagnostic tests revealed no consistent findings of any pathogens, with the exception of TEM which showed 2 types of virus-like particles: Type I was 50 to 60 nm in diameter and Type II about 50 nm in diameter. These virus-like particles were found in salmon from all farms affected by HSS and screened by TEM. Several different cells, blood vessel endothelial cells, endocardial cells, heart myofibres, and leukocytes

  15. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994-1995 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    1996-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing.

  16. Columbia River Salmonid Outmigration: McNary Dam Passage and Enhanced Smolt Quality, 1984 Second Year Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of the McNary Dam transportation system on emigrating fall and spring chinook smolts were evaluated using physiological indices of stress (e.g., plasma cortisol, hepatic glycogen, leucocrit, interrenal cell nuclear diameter) and performance tests (e.g., saltwater challenge, secondary stress challenge, disease resistance). Controlled experiments were conducted in a hatchery environment to characterize the fishes' physiological responses to stress, and disease resistance to allow a basis for judging the nature of the stress experienced by smolts at McNary Dam. 55 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with "optimal outcomes" (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the…

  18. Exquisite Moments: Achieving Optimal Flow in Three Activity-Based Groups Regardless of Early-Childhood Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S. Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Flow experiences (also known as optimal performance) occur when people engage in activities they enjoy. The authors discuss such events in their study that examined a number of healthy, active individuals (performing artists, athletes, and others engaged in a range of recreational activities) and divided these into three groups based on adverse…

  19. Academic Abilities in Children and Adolescents with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Helt, Molly; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the academic abilities of children and adolescents who were once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for this disorder. These individuals have achieved social and language skills within the average range for their ages, receive little or no school support, and are referred to…

  20. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Wagner, Eric J.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1989-03-01

    Estimates of migration rates and travel times of juvenile salmonids within index reaches of the Columbia River basin are collected through the Smolt Monitoring Program for use by the Fish Passage Center. With increased reliance upon travel time estimates in 1988 by the Fish Passage Center, this study was implemented to monitor the biological attributes of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss used for the travel time estimates. The physiological ability of fish to respond to stress was assessed by measuring levels of plasma cortisol, glucose, and chloride before and after a stress-challenge test. The development of smoltification was evaluated by measuring gill Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase, plasma thyroxine, purines, and body morphology. Most groups were similar at the hatcheries but differed as the migration to McNary Dam proceeded. The prevalence of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in spring chinook salmon was evaluated using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Prevalence of BKD in groups tested using the ELISA method was as high as 99% at some downstream locations. A review of indices is presented as a guide to the development of an index of smolt condition and preliminary data are presented. An index could be used as a tool to synthesize information on fish condition to assist with management and evaluation of the Water Budget.

  1. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross, Doug

    2004-08-01

    The 2003 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam Juvenile Fish Facility (LGR) was characterized by water temperatures, total flows and spill that were below the five year average, low levels of debris, and increased smolt collection numbers compared to 2002 with the exception of unclipped sockeye/kokanee. There were 6,183,825 juvenile salmonids collected. Of these, 6,054,167 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 5,957,885 by barge and 96,282 by truck. An additional 102,340 fish were bypassed back to the river, primarily due to research projects with another 62,122 bypassed through the PIT-tag bypass system. According to the PTAGIS database, 152,268 PIT-tagged fish were detected at Lower Granite Dam. Of these, Smolt Monitoring Staff recorded 345 PIT-tagged raceway and sample mortalities. Of the 6,183,825 total fish collected, 113,290 were PIT-tagged or radio tagged and 380 were sacrificed by researchers. The collection included 836,885 fish that had hatchery marks other than clipped fins (elastomer, freeze brands or Coded Wire Tags). An estimated 54,857 incidental fish were collected with an additional 8,730 adult salmonids removed from the separator.

  2. Effect of daily oscillation in temperature and increased suspended sediment on growth and smolting in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shrimpton, J.M.; Zydlewski, J.D.; Heath, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of temperature oscillation and increased suspended sediment concentration on growth and smolting in juvenile ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fish were ponded on February 26; each treatment group had three replicates of 250 fish. Mean temperatures for the entire experiment were 12.3????C for all tanks with a total of 1348 and 1341 degree days for the constant temperature and oscillating temperature tanks, respectively. Daily fluctuation in temperature averaged 7.5????C in the variable temperature groups and less than 1????C for the constant temperature group. Starting on April 5, bentonite clay was added each day to tanks as a pulse event to achieve a suspended sediment concentration of 200??mg l- 1; clay cleared from the tanks within approximately 8??h. Fish were sampled at approximately two??week intervals from ponding until mid-June. On the last sample date, June 12, a single gill arch was removed and fixed for histological examination of gill morphology. By early May, significant differences were seen in size between the groups; control > temperature = sediment > (temperature ?? sediment). This relationship was consistent throughout the experiment except for the last sample date when the temperature group had a mean weight significantly greater than the sediment group. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was not affected by daily temperature oscillations, but groups subjected to increased suspended sediment had significantly lower enzyme activities compared to controls. Mean cell size for gill chloride cells did not differ between groups. Plasma cortisol increased significantly during the spring, but there were no significant differences between groups. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SU-E-T-387: Achieving Optimal Patient Setup Imaging and Treatment Workflow Configurations in Multi-Room Proton Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H; Prado, K; Langen, K; Yi, B; Mehta, M; Regine, W; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To simulate patient flow in proton treatment center under uncertainty and to explore the feasibility of treatment preparation rooms to improve patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Methods: Three center layout scenarios were modeled: (S1: In-Tx room imaging) patient setup and imaging (planar/volumetric) performed in treatment room, (S2: Patient setup in preparation room) each treatment room was assigned with preparation room(s) that was equipped with lasers only for patient setup and gross patient alignment, and (S3: Patient setup and imaging in preparation room) preparation room(s) was equipped with laser and volumetric imaging for patient setup, gross and fine patient alignment. A 'snap' imaging was performed in treatment room. For each scenario, the number of treatment rooms and the number of preparation rooms serving each treatment room were varied. We examined our results (average of 100 16-hour (two shifts) working days) by evaluating patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Results: When the number of treatment rooms increased ([from, to]) [1, 5], daily patient throughput increased [32, 161], [29, 184] and [27, 184] and cyclotron utilization increased [13%, 85%], [12%, 98%], and [11%, 98%] for scenarios S1, S2 and S3 respectively. However, both measures plateaued after 4 rooms. With the preparation rooms, the throughput and the cyclotron utilization increased by 14% and 15%, respectively. Three preparation rooms were optimal to serve 1-3 treatment rooms and two preparation rooms were optimal to serve 4 or 5 treatment rooms. Conclusion: Patient preparation rooms for patient setup may increase throughput and decrease the need for additional treatment rooms (cost effective). Optimal number of preparation rooms serving each gantry room varies as a function of treatment rooms and patient setup scenarios. A 5th treatment room may not be justified by throughput or utilization.

  4. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2003-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elem Hatchery began releasing spring chinook smolts into the upper Yakima River for restoration and supplementation. This project was designed to evaluate whether introduction of intensively reared hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Approximately 200 smolts were collected at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River during 1998, 2000 and 2001 and 130 smolts were collected in 2002 for monitoring for specific pathogens. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. In addition the fish were tested for Ceratomyxa shasta spores in 2000 and 2001 (a correction from the 2001 report). To date, the only changes have been in the levels the bacterial pathogens in the naturally produced smolts and they have been minimal. These changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence.

  5. Growth, smoltification, and smolt-to-adult return of spring chinook salmon from hatcheries on the Deschutes river, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Sharpe, C.; Hirtzel, S.; Schrock, R.; Larsen, D.A.; Ewing, R.D.; Palmisano, A.; Schreck, C.B.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between smoltification and smolt-to-adult return (SAR) of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Deschutes River, Oregon, was examined for four release groups in each of three successive years. Fish were reared, marked with coded wire tags, and released from Round Butte Hatchery, Pelton Ladder rearing facility, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Smolt releases occurred in nearly the same place at similar times, allowing a direct comparison of SAR to several characters representing smolt quality. Return rates varied significantly among facilities, varying over an order of magnitude each year. The highest average SAR was from Pelton Ladder, the lowest was from Warm Springs. Each of the characters used as metrics of smoltification - fish size, spring growth rate (February-April), condition factor, plasma hormone concentration (thyroxine, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]), stress challenge, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and liver glycogen concentration - varied significantly among facilities and seasonally within hatchery groups. However, only spring growth rate, gill ATPase activity, and plasma IGF-I concentration showed significant relationships to SAR. These characters and SAR itself were consistently lower for fish released from Warm Springs Hatchery than for fish from Round Butte Hatchery and Pelton Ladder. This demonstrates that differences in the quality of fish released by facilities may have profound effects on subsequent survival and suggests that manipulations of spring growth rate may be used to influence the quality of smolts released from facilities.

  6. Impacts of episodic acidification on in-stream survival and physiological impairment of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Keyes, A.; Nislow, K.H.; Monette, M.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted field studies to determine the levels of acid and aluminum (Al) that affect survival, smolt development, ion homeostasis, and stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in restoration streams of the Connecticut River in southern Vermont, USA. Fish were held in cages in five streams encompassing a wide range of acid and Al levels for two 6-day intervals during the peak of smolt development in late April and early May. Physiological parameters were unchanged from initial sampling at the hatchery and the high water quality reference site (pH > 7.0, inorganic Al < 12 μg·L-1). Mortality, substantial loss of plasma chloride, and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and elevated gill Al occurred at sites with the lowest pH (5.4-5.6) and highest inorganic Al (50-80 μg·L-1). Moderate loss of plasma chloride, increased plasma cortisol and glucose, and moderately elevated gill Al occurred at less severely impacted sites. Gill Al was a better predictor of integrated physiological impacts than water chemistry alone. The results indicate that Al and low pH under field conditions in some New England streams can cause mortality and impair smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon and provide direct evidence that episodic acidification is impacting conservation and recovery of Atlantic salmon in the northeastern USA.

  7. Evaluation of Fishway Designs for Downstream Passage of Spring Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Congleton, J.L.; Wagner, E.J.; Ringe, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    The stress response of chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts to passage through three different flumes was tested by assaying plasma cortisol concentrations before and after flume passage. In addition, descaling of fish was recorded before and after flume passage, and the ability of the flumes to pass adult chinook salmon and debris was determined. The three flumes were a corrugated metal flume (CMF), a 4- foot wide baffled flume (BF4), and a 2-foot wide baffled flume (BF2). Each flume was tested under conditions: 1) at night, 2) during the day with a perforated metal cover, which reduced the amount of light entering the flume by about half (partially darkened), and 3) during the day with the perforated cover and additional double layer of black plastic (completely darkened). Plasma cortisol concentrations were not significantly elevated in chinook salmon smolts after passage through any of the flumes (P>0.2, ANOVA). In daytime tests of partially and completely darkened flumes cortisol concentrations were consistently decreased following flume passage. We attribute this to pre-test stress (holding of fish in small tanks) and to the absence of a strong stress response to flume passage. Flume design did not have a significant effect on cortisol concentrations (P=0.9).Total darkening of the flumes during daytime was beneficial: cortisol concentrations were lower (P=0.03) in chinook salmon smolts passing through completely darkened flumes than in smolts passing through partially darkened flumes. 16 refs., 15 figs.

  8. Gill Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance and location in Atlantic salmon: Effects of seawater and smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelis, R.M.; Zydlewski, J.; McCormick, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance and location was examined in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during seawater acclimation and smolting. Western blots revealed three bands centered at 285, 160, and 120 kDa. The Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter was colocalized with Na+-K+-ATPase to chloride cells on both the primary filament and secondary lamellae. Parr acclimated to 30 parts per thousand seawater had increased gill Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance, large and numerous Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter immunoreactive chloride cells on the primary filament, and reduced numbers on the secondary lamellae. Gill Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter levels were low in presmolts (February) and increased 3.3-fold in smolts (May), coincident with elevated seawater tolerance. Cotransporter levels decreased below presmolt values in postsmolts in freshwater (June). The size and number of immunoreactive chloride cells on the primary filament increased threefold during smolting and decreased in postsmolts. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance increased in parallel during both seawater acclimation and smolting. These data indicate a direct role of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter in salt secretion by gill chloride cells of teleost fish.

  9. Using ant colony optimization on the quadratic assignment problem to achieve low energy cost in geo-distributed data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, Richard

    There are many problems associated with operating a data center. Some of these problems include data security, system performance, increasing infrastructure complexity, increasing storage utilization, keeping up with data growth, and increasing energy costs. Energy cost differs by location, and at most locations fluctuates over time. The rising cost of energy makes it harder for data centers to function properly and provide a good quality of service. With reduced energy cost, data centers will have longer lasting servers/equipment, higher availability of resources, better quality of service, a greener environment, and reduced service and software costs for consumers. Some of the ways that data centers have tried to using to reduce energy costs include dynamically switching on and off servers based on the number of users and some predefined conditions, the use of environmental monitoring sensors, and the use of dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), which enables processors to run at different combinations of frequencies with voltages to reduce energy cost. This thesis presents another method by which energy cost at data centers could be reduced. This method involves the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) on a Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) in assigning user request to servers in geo-distributed data centers. In this paper, an effort to reduce data center energy cost involves the use of front portals, which handle users' requests, were used as ants to find cost effective ways to assign users requests to a server in heterogeneous geo-distributed data centers. The simulation results indicate that the ACO for Optimal Server Activation and Task Placement algorithm reduces energy cost on a small and large number of users' requests in a geo-distributed data center and its performance increases as the input data grows. In a simulation with 3 geo-distributed data centers, and user's resource request ranging from 25,000 to 25,000,000, the ACO algorithm was able

  10. Assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis. Annual report 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rondorf, D.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Faler, J.C.; Free, M.E.; Wagner, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of migration rates and travel times of juvenile salmonids within index reaches of the Columbia River basin are collected through the Smolt Monitoring Program for use by the Fish Passage Center. With increased reliance upon travel time estimates in 1988 by the Fish Passage Center, this study was implemented to monitor the biological attributes of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout 0.- mykiss used for the travel time estimates, The physiological ability of fish to respond to stress was assessed by measuring levels of plasma cortisol, glucose, and chloride before and after a stress-challenge test. Most mid-Columbia and Snake river groups responded normally to the stress challenge exhibiting an increase in plasma glucose and cortisol and a slight decrease in chloride. Fish trucked to release sites were more stressed than those released directly from the hatchery, but most still responded to the stress challenge test normally. An abnormal or extreme stress response occurred when there were deviations from preferred protocol, disease problems at hatcheries, or when fish were trucked over long periods (7h). The development of smoltification was evaluated by measuring gill Na+K+-ATPase, plasma thyroxine, purines, and body morphology. Most groups were similar at the hatcheries but differed as the migration to McNary Dam proceeded. Gill ATPase activity increased 2-3 fold during the first 20 days of migration, after which it changed little. Fish with longer in-river travel times appeared to be more smolted than those which were in the river for a shorter period of time. The prevalence of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in spring chinook salmon was evaluated using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Prevalence of BKD in groups tested using the ELISA method was as high as 99% at some downstream locations. A review of indices is presented as a guide, to the development of an index of

  11. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on completion of Phase I and Phase II activities. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. During this reporting period, optimization tests were performed to evaluate system performance and identify optimum operating conditions for the installed equipment. The overfire air system process design activities and preliminary engineering design were completed.

  12. Technology for monitoring shot-level light source performance data to achieve high-optimization of lithography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Masato; Ochiai, Hideyuki; Watabe, Yoshinobu; Ishida, Keisuke; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Youichi; Kumazaki, Takahito; Kurosu, Akihiko; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2014-03-01

    Gigaphoton has developed a new monitoring system that provides shot-level light source performance data to FDC systems during exposure time. The system provides basic monitoring data (e.g. Energy, Wavelength, Bandwidth, etc.) and beam performance data, such as Beam Profile, Pointing, Divergence, Polarization can also be monitored using a new metrology tool called the Beam Performance Monitor (BPM) module. During exposure time the system automatically identifies the start and end timing of the wafer and each shot based on the burst of firing signals from the scanner, and stores the measured data in sequence. The stored data is sorted by wafer or by shot, and sent to REDeeM Piece which in turn converts the data to the user's protocol and send it to the FDC system. The user also has the option to directly view or download the stored data using a GUI. Through this monitoring system, users can manage light sources data at the shot or reticle level to facilitate optimization of performance and running cost of the light source for each process. This monitoring system can be easily retrofitted to Gigaphoton's current ArF laser light sources. The beam splitter of the BPM was specially designed to bend only a small fraction of the source beam, so we are able to simply install the BPM without the need for special optical alignment.

  13. Imaging Live Cells at the Nanometer-Scale with Single-Molecule Microscopy: Obstacles and Achievements in Experiment Optimization for Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Beth L.; Matson, Jyl S.; DiRita, Victor J.; Biteen, Julie S.

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy enables biological investigations inside living cells to achieve millisecond- and nanometer-scale resolution. Although single-molecule-based methods are becoming increasingly accessible to non-experts, optimizing new single-molecule experiments can be challenging, in particular when super-resolution imaging and tracking are applied to live cells. In this review, we summarize common obstacles to live-cell single-molecule microscopy and describe the methods we have developed and applied to overcome these challenges in live bacteria. We examine the choice of fluorophore and labeling scheme, approaches to achieving single-molecule levels of fluorescence, considerations for maintaining cell viability, and strategies for detecting single-molecule signals in the presence of noise and sample drift. We also discuss methods for analyzing single-molecule trajectories and the challenges presented by the finite size of a bacterial cell and the curvature of the bacterial membrane. PMID:25123183

  14. Evaluation of stream flow effects on smolt survival in the Yakima River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Courter,; Garrison,; Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.

    2012-01-01

    Yearling Chinook smolt survival and travel time estimates from 2012 suggest that migration rates and survival rates in the Roza Reach may be associated with stream flow, water temperature, release timing (i.e. migratory disposition), and fish size, but the extent to which each variable influenced survival is yet to be determined. The lowest survival rate (61%) and longest travel time (median 2.26 days) was observed in Release Group 1, which had the smallest size distribution and experienced the lowest flows, lowest temperatures, and earliest release date among the three groups. Release Groups 2 and 3 survived at 96% and 98% respectively and traveled through the Roza Reach in less than eight hours. The primary focus of years two and three of this study will be to collect data that minimizes the effect of confounding explanatory variables, so that flow effects on emigration survival can be quantified independent of these other influential factors.

  15. Correlation of Biological Characteristics of Smolts with Survival and Travel Time, 1987 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Beeman, John W.; Free, Mary E.

    1988-06-01

    The biological characteristics of smolts were examined to determine their effect on estimates of survival in the Columbia and Snake rivers. Freeze branded groups of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) from Lyons Ferry State Fish Hatchery (SFH) and Wells SFH and spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Winthrop National Fish Hatchery (NFH) were used to estimate survival. Past estimates of survival, using a ratio of test and control fish recaptured at McNary Dam, have resulted in estimates > 100%, presumably due to some unknown bias. Study objectives were to determine if stress and descaling, degree of smoltification, and prevalence of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) differed among test and control groups of fish, thereby biasing survival estimates. 19 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  17. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  18. Low temperature limits photoperiod control of smolting in atlantic salmon through endocrine mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Moriyama, S.

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the interaction of photoperiod and temperature in regulating the parr-smolt transformation and its endocrine control. Atlantic salmon juveniles were reared at a constant temperature of 10??C or ambient temperature (2??C from January to April followed by seasonal increase) under simulated natural day length. At 10??C, an increase in day length [16 h of light and 8 h of darkness (LD 16:8)] in February accelerated increases in gill Na+K+-ATPase activity, whereas fish at ambient temperature did not respond to increased day length. Increases in gill Na+K+-ATPase activity under both photoperiods occurred later at ambient temperature than at 10??C. Plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor, and thyroxine increased within 7 days of increased day length at 10??C and remained elevated for 5-9 wk; the same photoperiod treatment at 2??C resulted in much smaller increases of shorter duration. Plasma cortisol increased transiently 3 and 5 wk after LD 16:8 at 10??C and ambient temperature, respectively. Plasma thyroxine was consistently higher at ambient temperature than at 10??C. Plasma triiodothyronine was initially higher at 10??C than at ambient temperature, and there was no response to LD 16:8 under either temperature regimen. There was a strong correlation between gill Na+K+-ATPase activity and plasma GH; correlations were weaker with other hormones. The results provide evidence that low temperature limits the physiological response to increased day length and that GH, insulin-like growth factor I, cortisol, and thyroid hormones mediate the environmental control of the parr-smolt transformation.

  19. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Axel, Gordon A.

    2000-12-01

    This reports details the 1998 study results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends observed in the cumulative data resulting from this project; data has been collected from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after 3 years of detection data from PIT-tags (passive-integrated-transponder tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish. Data showing these patterns had originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate a smolt transportation program conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish for this project. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam. We continued to tag fish from Idaho in all years subsequent to 1992. Principal results from our tagging and interrogation efforts during 1997-1998 are given.

  20. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2001-06-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 1999 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1999. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 440% of the 1998 number. The wild chinook catch was 603% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 93% of 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 68% of 1998 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 62 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998 the Snake River trap captured 173 hatchery and 37 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 130 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 25. The trap was out of operation for 18 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 214%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 384% of 1998 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 210% of the 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 203% of the 1998 catch. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 21. The trap was out of operation for 17 d during the season due to high flow and debris.

  1. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross Doug

    2005-11-01

    The 2004 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by above average water temperatures, below average flows and spill, low levels of debris. The number of smolts collected for all species groups (with the exception of clipped and unclipped sockeye/kokanee) exceeded all previous collection numbers. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook, steelhead and sockeye above LGR, we can not accurately distinguish wild chinook, wild steelhead and wild sockeye/kokanee from hatchery reared unclipped chinook and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. Wild steelhead can be identified from hatchery steelhead by the eroded dorsal and pectoral fins exhibited on unclipped hatchery steelhead. The numbers in the wild columns beginning in 1998 include wild and unclipped hatchery origin smolts. This season a total of 11,787,539 juvenile salmonids was collected at LGR. Of these, 11,253,837 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 11,164,132 by barge and 89,705 by truck. An additional 501,395 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways and for research purposes. According to the PTAGIS database, 177,009 PIT-tagged fish were detected at LGR in 2004. Of these, 105,894 (59.8%) were bypassed through the PIT-tag diversion system, 69,130 (39.1%) were diverted to the raceways to be transported, 1,640 (0.9%) were diverted to the sample tank, sampled and then transported, 345 (0.2%) were undetected at any of the bypass, raceway or sample exit monitors.

  2. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    PubMed

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems.

  3. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  4. A comparative study of the response to repeated chasing stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr and post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Madaro, Angelico; Olsen, Rolf Erik; Kristiansen, Tore S; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Flik, Gert; Gorissen, Marnix

    2016-02-01

    When Atlantic salmon parr migrate from fresh water towards the sea, they undergo extensive morphological, neural, physiological and behavioural changes. Such changes have the potential to affect their responsiveness to various environmental factors that impose stress. In this study we compared the stress responses in parr and post-smolt salmon following exposure to repeated chasing stress (RCS) for three weeks. At the end of this period, all fish were challenged with a novel stressor and sampled before (T0) and after 1h (T1). Parr had a higher growth rate than post-smolts. Plasma cortisol declined in the RCS groups within the first week suggesting a rapid habituation/desensitisation of the endocrine stress axis. As a result of the desensitised HPI axis, RCS groups showed a reduced cortisol response when exposed to the novel stressor. In preoptic area (POA) crf mRNA levels were higher in all post-smolt groups compared to parr. 11βhsd2 decreased by RCS and by the novel stressor in post-smolt controls (T1), whereas no effect of either stress was seen in parr. The grs were low in all groups except for parr controls. In pituitary, parr controls had higher levels of crf1r mRNA than the other parr and post-smolt groups, whilst pomcb was higher in post-smolt control groups. Overall, 11βhsd2 transcript abundance in parr was lower than post-smolt groups; after the novel stressor pomcs, grs and mr were up-regulated in parr control (T1). In summary, we highlight differences in the central stress response between parr and post-smolt salmon following RCS.

  5. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on Phase I and Phase II activities. The furnace sensors were procured and installed in February 2003. Baseline testing was performed following the sensor installation. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. Process design activities were performed to support design of the equipment installed and to develop specifications for the overfire air system. The overfire air system preliminary engineering design was initiated.

  6. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 6 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2004-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. In 1998 and 2000 through 2003 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. To date, only the bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. Prevalences have varied each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  7. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Thomas, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    The change in pathogens prevalence to wild fish is probably the least studied ecological interaction associated with hatchery operations. In 1999, the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to evaluate whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Approximately 200 smolts were collected at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River during 1998, 2000 and 2001 and monitored for specific pathogens. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. In addition, the fish were tested for Ceratomyxa shasta spores in 2001. Not all testing has been completed for every year, but to date, there have only been minimal changes in levels of the bacterial pathogens in the naturally produced smolts. At this point, due to the limited testing so far, these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence.

  8. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

    2013-03-01

    The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice.

  9. Effects of an advanced temperature cycle on smolt development and endocrinology indicate that temperature is not a zeitgeber for smolting in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Shrimpton, J.M.; Moriyama, S.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2002-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) juveniles were reared under simulated conditions of normal photoperiod (LDN) or short days (LD 9:15) and ambient temperature (AMB: normal temperature increases in April) or an advanced temperature cycle (ADV: temperature increases in February). Under both photoperiod conditions, the timing of increased and peak levels of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity were not altered by temperature, although the rate of increase was initially greater under ADV. ADV/LD 9:15 resulted in peak gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity that was half of that seen under normal photoperiod and temperature conditions. Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels increased threefold in late March under ADV/LDN, but not under ADV/LD 9:15, indicating that there is a photoperiod-dependent effect of temperature on levels of this hormone. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased in spring in all groups, with increases occurring significantly earlier in the ADV/LDN group. In each photoperiod condition, the advanced temperature cycle resulted in large decreases in plasma thyroxine (T4) levels in March, which subsequently recovered, whereas plasma 3,5,3???-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) levels were not substantially affected by either photoperiod or temperature. There was no consistent pattern of change in plasma cortisol levels. The results do not provide support for the role of temperature as a zeitgeber, but do indicate that temperature has a role in the timing of smolting by affecting the rate of development and interacting with the photoperiod.

  10. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam; Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Entities, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2003-06-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2001 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2001 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11% of the 2000 numbers. The wild chinook catch was 3% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 49% of 2000 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 69% of 2000 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 28 age-0 chinook salmon. During 2001 the Snake River trap captured zero hatchery and zero wild/natural sockeye salmon and six hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant reduction in catch during 2001 was due to a reduction in hatchery chinook production (60% of 2000 release) and due to extreme low flows. Trap operations began on March 11 and were terminated on June 29. The trap was out of operation for a total of two days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 47% and wild chinook salmon catch was 67% of 2000 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2001 was 178% of the 2000 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2001 was 145% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 11 and were terminated on June 8 due to the end of the smolt monitoring season. There were no days where the trap was out of operation due to high flow or debris. The decrease in hatchery chinook catch in 2001 was due to a

  11. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  12. Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  13. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  14. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Axel, Gordon A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2002-07-01

    This report details the 2001 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these data in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  15. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Miller, Alan C.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began a smolt monitoring study on the Imnaha River in cooperation with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from March 1 to June 15, 1994. We PIT tagged and released 956 wild chinook salmon, 661 hatchery chinook salmon, 1,432 wild steelhead trout and 2,029 hatchery steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 62.2% for wild chinook salmon, 45.2% for hatchery chinook salmon, 51.3% for wild steelhead trout, and 34.3% for hatchery steelhead trout.

  16. Evaluation of stream flow effects on smolt survival in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, 2012-2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Courter, Ian; Garrison, Tommy; Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of stream flow on survival of emigrating juvenile (smolts) Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead trout O. mykiss is of key management interest. However, few studies have quantified flow effects on smolt migration survival, and available information does not indicate a consistent flow-survival relationship within the typical range of flows under management control. It is hypothesized that smolt migration and dam passage survival are positively correlated with stream flow because higher flows increase migration rates, potentially reducing exposure to predation, and reduce delays in reservoirs. However, available empirical data are somewhat equivocal concerning the influence of flow on smolt survival and the underlying mechanisms driving this relationship. Stream flow effects on survival of emigrating anadromous salmonids in the Yakima Basin have concerned water users and fisheries managers for over 20 years, and previous studies do not provide sufficient information at the resolution necessary to inform water operations, which typically occur on a small spatiotemporal scale. Using a series of controlled flow releases from 2012-2014, combined with radio telemetry, we quantified the relationship between flow and smolt survival from Roza Dam 208 km downstream to the Yakima River mouth, as well as for specific routes of passage at Roza Dam. A novel multistate mark-recapture model accounted for weekly variation in flow conditions experienced by radio-tagged fish. Groups of fish were captured and radio-tagged at Roza Dam and released at two locations, upstream at the Big Pines Campground (river kilometer [rkm] 211) and downstream in the Roza Dam tailrace (rkm 208). A total of 904 hatchery-origin yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha were captured in the Roza Dam fish bypass, radio-tagged and released upstream of Roza Dam. Two hundred thirty seven fish were released in the tailrace of Roza Dam. Fish released in the tailrace of Roza Dam were tagged

  17. Sex biased survival and differences in migration of wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from two coastal Oregon rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Neil F.; Leblanc, Camille A.; Romer, Jeremy D.; Schreck, Carl B.; Blouin, Michael S.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2016-01-01

    In salmonids with partial migration, females are more likely than males to undergo smoltification and migrate to the ocean (vs. maturing in freshwater). However, it is not known whether sex affects survivorship during smolt migration (from fresh water to entry into the ocean). We captured wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts in two coastal Oregon rivers (USA) and collected fin tissue samples for genetic sex determination (2009; N = 70 in the Alsea and N = 69 in the Nehalem, 2010; N = 25 in the Alsea). We implanted acoustic tags and monitored downstream migration and survival until entry in to the Pacific Ocean. Survival was defined as detection at an estuary/ocean transition array. We found no effect of sex on smolt survivorship in the Nehalem River in 2009, or in the Alsea River in 2010. However, males exhibited significantly lower survival than females in the Alsea River during 2009. Residency did not influence this result as an equal proportion of males and females did not reach the estuary entrance (11% of males, 9% of females). The sexes did not differ in timing or duration of migration, so those variables seem unlikely to explain sex-biased survivorship. Larger males had higher odds of survival than smaller males in 2009, but the body size of females did not affect survivorship. The difference in survivorship between years in the Alsea River could be due to flow conditions, which were higher in 2010 than in 2009. Our findings suggest that sex may affect steelhead smolt survival during migration, but that the difference in survivorship may be weak and not a strong factor influencing adult sex ratios.

  18. McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William

    1997-07-01

    The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

  19. Interactive effects of cortisol treatment and ambient seawater challenge on gill Na+,K+-ATPase and CFTR expression in two strains of Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, T.D.; Finstad, B.; McCormick, S.D.; Wiseman, S.B.; Schulte, P.M.; McKinley, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    During peak smoltification, the interactive effects of cortisol and ambient seawater challenge were compared in two strains of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts: a domesticated strain, AquaGen and a native River Imsa strain. Tissue and blood samples were taken from untreated fish on 20 May. Fish were then transferred to experimental tanks, allowed to recover for 24 h and cortisol (50 mg kg body mass-1), dissolved in vegetable oil, or vegetable oil alone (sham) was implanted. Samples were taken 5 days post implantation. Fish were then exposed to 24 h ambient seawater challenge (FW-SW) or freshwater to freshwater replacement (FW-FW) and sampled as before. Sham implantation had no significant impact on any of the measured parameters. Cortisol implantation significantly elevated plasma cortisol in FW-FW Imsa smolts, while no effect was observed in FW-SW Imsa smolts. Cortisol implantation had no effect on the plasma cortisol levels of AquaGen smolts regardless of FW-SW challenge. Increased plasma cortisol corresponded with significantly higher plasma glucose levels in FW-FW Imsa smolts. Plasma Na+ and Cl- levels were not affected by cortisol implantation but were significantly increased in FW-SW smolts of both strains. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity increased in response to cortisol implantation in only FW-FW smolts but not FW-SW smolts. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase ??-subunit mRNA levels were not affected by strain, cortisol injection or transfer protocol, while both CFTR I and CFTR II mRNA levels were significantly higher in AquaGen versus Imsa smolts regardless of treatment. CFTR I mRNA was elevated following cortisol implantation in FW-FW smolts from both strains suggesting CFTR I expression is under the control of cortisol. These findings also suggest that plasma cortisol levels are regulated differently between strains and that cortisol implantation and ambient FW-SW challenge interact, interfering with the individual effects of each of these factors. ?? 2003 Published by

  20. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303,769 hatchery

  1. Seasonal changes in androgen levels in stream- and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon parr and their relationship to smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shrimpton, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2002-01-01

    In stream-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, plasma androgens were significantly greater in mature male parr than immature males and females in October, but had declined by January and did not differ significantly from immature fish throughout the spring. Immature fish in March were significantly larger and had greater gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity than their previously mature counterparts. Bimodal growth distribution was seen in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon and a proportion of the male fish in the lower mode matured. Plasma testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were significantly elevated from September to December in mature male (1+ year) parr. In January, plasma androgens had declined in mature males and did not differ significantly from immature fish. By May all the hatchery fish were large enough to smolt and a proportion of the previously mature males had increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Therefore elevated androgens in the previous autumn do not prevent smolting. Parr with higher plasma T and 11-KT in April and May, that are presumably beginning to mature, had lower gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, indicating that future maturation and associated increases in androgens may inhibit smolting. ?? 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategy to Achieve Highly Porous/Biocompatible Macroscale Cell Blocks, Using a Collagen/Genipin-bioink and an Optimal 3D Printing Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Bok; Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-11-30

    Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting process for obtaining a cell-laden structure has been widely applied because of its ability to fabricate biomimetic complex structures embedded with and without cells. To successfully obtain a cell-laden porous block, the cell-delivering vehicle, bioink, is one of the significant factors. Until now, various biocompatible hydrogels (synthetic and natural biopolymers) have been utilized in the cell-printing process, but a bioink satisfying both biocompatibility and print-ability requirements to achieve a porous structure with reasonable mechanical strength has not been issued. Here, we propose a printing strategy with optimal conditions including a safe cross-linking procedure for obtaining a 3D porous cell block composed of a biocompatible collagen-bioink and genipin, a cross-linking agent. To obtain the optimal processing conditions, we modified the 3D printing machine and selected an optimal cross-linking condition (∼1 mM and 1 h) of genipin solution. To show the feasibility of the process, 3D pore-interconnected cell-laden constructs were manufactured using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and human adipose stem cells (hASCs). Under these processing conditions, a macroscale 3D collagen-based cell block of 21 × 21 × 12 mm(3) and over 95% cell viability was obtained. In vitro biological testing of the cell-laden 3D porous structure showed that the embedded cells were sufficiently viable, and their proliferation was significantly higher; the cells also exhibited increased osteogenic activities compared to the conventional alginate-based bioink (control). The results indicated the fabrication process using the collagen-bioink would be an innovative platform to design highly biocompatible and mechanically stable cell blocks.

  3. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  4. Impacts of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) physiology: A direct comparison of parr and smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monette, M.Y.; McCormick, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Ali) is known to impact anadromous salmonids and has been identified as a possible cause of Atlantic salmon population decline. Sensitive life-stages such as smolts may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of short-term (days–week) acid/Al exposure, however the extent and mechanism(s) of this remain unknown. To determine if Atlantic salmon smolts are more sensitive than parr to short-term acid/Al, parr and smolts held in the same experimental tanks were exposed to control (pH 6.3–6.6, 11–37 μg l−1 Ali) and acid/Al (pH 5.0–5.4, 43–68 μg l−1 Ali) conditions in the lab, and impacts on ion regulation, stress response and gill Al accumulation were examined after 2 and 6 days. Parr and smolts were also held in cages for 2 and 6 days in a reference (Rock River, RR) and an acid/Al-impacted tributary (Ball Mountain Brook, BMB) of the West River in Southern Vermont. In the lab, losses in plasma Cl− levels occurred in both control parr and smolts as compared to fish sampled prior to the start of the study, however smolts exposed to acid/Al experienced additional losses in plasma Cl− levels (9–14 mM) after 2 and 6 days, and increases in plasma cortisol (4.3-fold) and glucose (2.9-fold) levels after 6 days, whereas these parameters were not significantly affected by acid/Al in parr. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity was not affected by acid/Al in either life-stage. Both parr and smolts held at BMB (but not RR) exhibited declines in plasma Cl−, and increases in plasma cortisol and glucose levels; these differences were significantly greater in smolts after 2 days but similar in parr and smolts after 6 days. Gill NKA activity was reduced 45–54% in both life-stages held at BMB for 6 days compared to reference fish at RR. In both studies, exposure to acid/Al resulted in gill Al accumulation in parr and smolts, with parr exhibiting two-fold greater gill Al than smolts after 6

  5. Optimal and safe standard doses of midazolam and propofol to achieve patient and doctor satisfaction with dental treatment: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Mutsumi; Nishimura, Akiko; Gotoh, Kinuko; Oka, Shuichirou; Iijima, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidences of morbidity and mortality caused by pharmacosedation for dental treatment have not yet reached zero. Adverse events are related to inappropriate respiratory management, mostly originating from an overdose of sedatives. Since sedation is utilized for the satisfaction of both the dentist and the patient, the optimal dose should be minimized to prevent adverse events. We attempted to define the optimal doses of midazolam and propofol required to achieve high levels of patient and dentist satisfaction. Methods One thousand dental patients, including those undergoing third molar extractions, were enrolled in this study. A dose of 1 mg of midazolam was administered at 1-minute intervals until adequate sedation was achieved. Propofol was then infused continuously to maintain the sedation level. Both the patients and the dentists were subsequently interviewed and asked to complete a questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors that contributed to patient and dentist satisfaction. Results The peak midazolam dose resulting in the highest percentage of patient satisfaction was 3 mg. Both a lower dose and a higher dose reduced patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction increased with an increasing dosage of propofol up until 4 mg/kg/hr, reaching a peak of 78.6%. The peak midazolam dose resulting in the highest percentage of dentist satisfaction (78.8%) was 2 mg. Incremental propofol doses reduced dentist satisfaction, in contrast to their effect on patient satisfaction. The strongest independent predictors of patient satisfaction and dentist satisfaction were no intraoperative memory (OR, 5.073; 95% CI, 3.532–7.287; P<0.001) and unintentional movements by the patient (OR, 0.035; 95% CI, 0.012–0.104; P<0.001), respectively. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion We found that 3 mg of midazolam and 3 mg/kg/hr of propofol may be the optimal doses for maximizing both patient and dentist

  6. Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Duane D.

    2009-11-14

    This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for Statement

  7. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam; Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Entities, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2002-08-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2000 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2000 the Nez Perce Tribe released significant numbers of hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 36% of the 1999 number. The wild chinook catch was 34% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 121% of 1999 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 139% of 1999 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 689 age-0 chinook salmon. During 2000, the Snake River trap captured 40 hatchery and 92 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 159 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 13 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on June 16. There were no down days due to high flows or debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 96%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 66% of 1999 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2000 was 90% of the 1999 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2000 was 147% of the previous years catch. Trap operations began on March 13 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 22. There were no days where the trap was out of operation due to high flow or debris. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, were affected by discharge. For fish

  8. Pharmacodynamic effects of cangrelor and clopidogrel: the platelet function substudy from the cangrelor versus standard therapy to achieve optimal management of platelet inhibition (CHAMPION) trials.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Schneider, David J; Bhatt, Deepak L; French, William J; Price, Matthew J; Saucedo, Jorge F; Shaburishvili, Tamaz; Huber, Kurt; Prats, Jayne; Liu, Tiepu; Harrington, Robert A; Becker, Richard C

    2012-07-01

    Cangrelor is an intravenous antagonist of the P2Y(12) receptor characterized by rapid, potent, predictable, and reversible platelet inhibition. However, cangrelor was not superior to clopidogrel in reducing the incidence of ischemic events in the cangrelor versus standard therapy to achieve optimal management of platelet inhibition (CHAMPION) trials. A prospectively designed platelet function substudy was performed in a selected cohort of patients to provide insight into the pharmacodynamic effects of cangrelor, particularly in regard to whether cangrelor therapy may interfere with the inhibitory effects of clopidogrel. This pre-defined substudy was conducted in a subset of patients from the CHAMPION-PCI trial (n = 230) comparing cangrelor with 600 mg of clopidogrel administered before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and from the CHAMPION-PLATFORM trial (n = 4) comparing cangrelor at the time of PCI and 600 mg clopidogrel given after the PCI. Pharmacodynamic measures included P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) assessed by VerifyNow P2Y12 testing (primary endpoint marker), platelet aggregation by light transmittance aggregometry following 5 and 20 μmol/L adenosine diphosphate stimuli, and markers of platelet activation determined by flow cytometry. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients who achieved <20 % change in PRU between baseline and >10 h after PCI. The main trial was stopped early limiting enrollment in the platelet substudy. A total of 167 patients had valid pharmacodynamic assessments for the primary endpoint. The percent of individuals achieving <20 % change in PRU between baseline and >10 h after PCI was higher with cangrelor + clopidogrel (32/84, 38.1 %) compared with placebo + clopidogrel (21/83, 25.3 %), but this was not statistically significant (difference:12.79 %, 95 % CI: -1.18 %, 26.77 %;p = 0.076). All pharmacodynamic markers as well as the prevalence of patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity were significantly lower

  9. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1990-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smolts during the 1988 spring outmigration at two migrant traps; one each on the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Due to the low runoff year, chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was very low. Steelhead trout catch was higher than normal, probably due to trap modifications and because the trap was moved to the east side of the river. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1987. Total cumulative recovery of PIT tagged fish at the three dams, with PIT tag detection systems was: 55% for chinook salmon, 73% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 75% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three fold, and steelhead trout travel time decreased two fold. There was a statistical difference between estimates of travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged and freeze branded steelhead trout, but not for chinook salmon. These differences may be related to the estimation techniques used for PIT tagged and freeze branded groups, rather than real differences in travel time. 10 figs, 15 tabs.

  10. Distribution of Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus in watersheds of Puget Sound Based on smolt monitoring data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Hays, Richard; Rubin, Stephen P.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Hallock, Molly; Cook-Tabor, Carrie; Luzier, Christina W.; Moser, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Lamprey populations are in decline worldwide and the status of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is a topic of current interest. They and other lamprey species cycle nutrients and serve as prey in riverine ecosystems. To determine the current distribution of Pacific lamprey in major watersheds flowing into Puget Sound, Washington, we sampled lamprey captured during salmonid smolt monitoring that occurred from late winter to mid-summer. We found Pacific lamprey in 12 of 18 watersheds and they were most common in southern Puget Sound watersheds and in watersheds draining western Puget Sound (Hood Canal). Two additional species, western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) and river lamprey (L. ayresii) were more common in eastern Puget Sound watersheds. Few Pacific lamprey macrophthalmia were found, suggesting that the majority of juveniles migrated seaward during other time periods. In addition, “dwarf” adult Pacific lamprey (< 300 mm) were observed in several watersheds and may represent an alternate life history for some Puget Sound populations. Based on genetic data, the use of visual techniques to identify lamprey ammocoetes as Entosphenus or Lampetra was successful for 97% (34 of 35) of the samples we evaluated.

  11. Triploidy alters brain morphology in pre-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: possible implications for behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fraser, T W K; Fjelldal, P G; Skjæraasen, J E; Hansen, T; Mayer, I

    2012-12-01

    Total brain mass and the volumes of five specific brain regions in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon Salmo salar pre-smolts were measured using digital images. There were no significant differences (P > 0·05) in total brain mass when corrected for fork length, or the volumes of the optic tecta or hypothalamus when corrected for brain mass, between diploids and triploids. There was a significant effect (P < 0·01) of ploidy on the volume of the olfactory bulb, with it being 9·0% larger in diploids compared with triploids. The cerebellum and telencephalon, however, were significantly larger, 17 and 8% respectively, in triploids compared with diploids. Sex had no significant effect (P > 0·05) on total brain mass or the volumes of any measured brain region. As the olfactory bulbs, cerebellum and telencephalon are implicated in a number of functions, including foraging ability, aggression and spatial cognition, these results may explain some of the behavioural differences previously reported between diploids and triploids.

  12. Smolt Responses to Hydrodynamic Conditions in Forebay Flow Nets of Surface Flow Outlets, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Hedgepeth, J. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Deng, Zhiqun; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Serkowski, John A.; Steinbeck, John R.

    2009-04-01

    This study provides information on juvenile salmonid behaviors at McNary and The Dalles dams that can be used by the USACE, fisheries resource managers, and others to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance fish passage. We researched smolt movements and ambient hydrodynamic conditions using a new approach combining simultaneous acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic imaging device (AID) measurements at surface flow outlets (SFO) at McNary and The Dalles dams on the Columbia River during spring and summer 2007. Because swimming effort vectors could be computed from the simultaneous fish and flow data, fish behavior could be categorized as passive, swimming against the flow (positively rheotactic), and swimming with the flow (negatively rheotactic). We present bivariate relationships to provide insight into fish responses to particular hydraulic variables that engineers might consider during SFO design. The data indicate potential for this empirical approach of simultaneous water/fish measurements to lead to SFO design guidelines in the future.

  13. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Schrock, Robin M.

    1994-05-01

    Regression techniques were used to determine the effects of several biotic and abiotic variables on the migration rates of juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake rivers. Comparisons of the effects of river flow and smoltification, assessed using gill Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity, were of primary interest. Day of the year, water temperature, change in flow, condition factor, and fork length were also considered as independent variables. Groups of fish were sampled to assess smoltification 2-3 times per week during the spring outmigrations during 1989-1992. These groups were assumed to be representative of other fish which were PIT-tagged and released as a part of the Smolt Monitoring Program in the Columbia Basin. River flow, gill ATPase activity, condition factor, water temperature, and change in flow were significant variables in regressions predicting the time for juvenile spring chinook salmon to travel between specific points (travel time), whereas river flow was the only significant contributor to models describing travel times of steelhead. Predicted travel times of wild steelhead were shorter than those of hatchery steelhead. River flow was the only variable common to all regression equations. Based on the characteristic, changes in river flow would be the most logical means to decrease travel times of both juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake rivers.

  14. Diurnal expression of clock genes in pineal gland and brain and plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol in Atlantic salmon parr and smolts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tien-sheng; Ruoff, Peter; Fjelldal, Per G

    2010-10-01

    In Atlantic salmon, the preadaptation to a marine life, i.e., parr-smolt transformation, and melatonin production in the pineal gland are regulated by the photoperiod. However, the clock genes have never been studied in the pineal gland of this species. The aim of the present study was to describe the diurnal expression of clock genes (Per1-like, Cry2, and Clock) in the pineal gland and brain of Atlantic salmon parr and smolts in freshwater, as well as plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol. By employing an out-of-season smolt production model, the parr-smolt transformation was induced by subjecting triplicate groups of parr to 6 wks (wks 0 to 6) under a 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) regime followed by 6 wks (wks 6 to 12) of continuous light (LL). The measured clock genes in both pineal gland and brain and the plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol showed significant daily variations in parr under LD in wk 6, whereas these rhythms were abolished in smolts under LL in wk 12. In parr, the pineal Per1-like and Cry2 expression peaked in the dark phase, whereas the pineal Clock expression was elevated during the light phase. Although this study presents novel findings on the clock gene system in the teleost pineal gland, the role of this system in the regulation of smoltification needs to be studied in more detail.

  15. Outmigration of landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts and effectiveness of an angled trash rack/fish bypass structure at a small scale hydroelectric facility. [Salmo salar

    SciTech Connect

    Nettles, D.C.; Gloss, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Modes of downstream passage (penstock, spillway, diversion chute) by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts were monitored using radio telemetry to assess the effectiveness of an angled trash rack/fish bypass structure at a small hydroelectric dam on the Boquet River, New York. Telemetry of 170 Atlantic salmon smolts and visual observations of stocked smolts were used to determine aspects of Atlantic salmon outmigration behavior. Smolts initiated mass migrations after river temperatures reached or exceeded 10/sup 0/C. Many radio-tagged smolts interrupted movements upon reaching ponded waters and/or the dam. River flow did not (P > .05) affect the frequency of migratory movements, passages, or rate of movement. Migrations were of approximately 30 days duration. Passages at the dam occurred primarily at night (61%) with diurnal passages (17%) and crepuscular passages (17%) of secondary importance. Timing of 5% of the passages was undetermined. All passages which occurred when angled trash racks were in place were through the bypass or over the spillway. Six (6) passages occurred when trash racks perpendicular to the penstock were in place: 3 of these were penstock passages. The angled trash rack and bypass structure served to reduce entrainment.

  16. Assessment of the Flow-Survival Relationship Obtained by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    There has been much debate recently among fisheries professionals over the data and functional relationships used by Sims and Ossiander to describe the effects of flow in the Snake River on the survival and travel time of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts. The relationships were based on mark and recovery experiments conducted at various Snake and Columbia River sites between 1964 and 1979 to evaluate the effects of dams and flow regulation on the migratory characteristic`s chinook sa mon and steelhead trout smolts. The reliability of this information is crucial because it forms the logical basis for many of the flow management options being considered today to protect,upriver populations of chinook salmon and steelhead trout. In this paper I evaluate the primary data, assumptions, and calculations that underlie the flow-survival relationship derived by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for chinook salmon smolts.

  17. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    2000-04-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka, during the 1998 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake and Salmon rivers. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam 19 1998 were marked with a fin-clip. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 226% of the 1997 number and 110% of the 1996 catch. The wild chinook catch was 120% of the 1997 catch but was only 93% of 1996. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 501% of 1997 numbers but only 90% of the 1996 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 569% of 1997 and 125% of the 1996 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 106 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998, for the first time, the Snake River trap captured a significant number of hatchery sockeye salmon (1,552) and hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch (166). Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 8 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on June 12. The trap was out of operation for 34 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 476% and wild chinook salmon catch was 137% of 1997 numbers and 175% and 82% of 1996 catch, respectively. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1998 was 96% of the 1997 catch and 13% of the 1996 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1998 was 170% of the 1997 catch and 37% of the 1996 numbers. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir were affected by discharge. For fish tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis of 1998 detected a significant relation between migration rate and discharge. For hatchery and

  18. Designing a monitoring program to estimate estuarine survival of anadromous salmon smolts: simulating the effect of sample design on inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romer, Jeremy D.; Gitelman, Alix I.; Clements, Shaun; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses) and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging) across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt migration. These data

  19. The effect of hatchery release strategy on marine migratory behaviour and apparent survival of Seymour River steelhead smolts (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Balfry, Shannon; Welch, David W; Atkinson, Jody; Lill, Al; Vincent, Stephen

    2011-03-29

    Early marine migratory behaviour and apparent survival of hatchery-reared Seymour River steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts was examined over a four year period (2006-2009) to assess the impact of various management strategies on improving early marine survival. Acoustically tagged smolts were released to measure their survival using estuary and coastal marine receivers forming components of the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Early marine survival was statistically indistinguishable between releases of summer run and winter run steelhead races, night and day releases, and groups released 10 days apart. In 2009, the survival of summer run steelhead released into the river was again trialed against groups released directly into the ocean at a distance from the river mouth. Apparent survival was improved significantly for the ocean released groups. The health and physiological status of the various release groups were monitored in years 2007-2009, and results indicate that the fish were in good health, with no clinical signs of disease at the time of release. The possibility of a disease event contributing to early marine mortality was further examined in 2009 by vaccinating half of the released fish against common fish diseases (vibriosis, furunculosis). The results suggest that marine survival may be enhanced using this approach, although not to the extent observed when the smolts were transported away from the river mouth before release. In summary, direct experimental testing of different release strategies using the POST array to measure ocean survival accelerated the scientific process by allowing rapid collection of data which enabled the rejection of several existing theories and allowed tentative identification of several new alternative approaches that might improve early marine survival of Seymour River steelhead.

  20. Designing a Monitoring Program to Estimate Estuarine Survival of Anadromous Salmon Smolts: Simulating the Effect of Sample Design on Inference.

    PubMed

    Romer, Jeremy D; Gitelman, Alix I; Clements, Shaun; Schreck, Carl B

    2015-01-01

    A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses) and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging) across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt migration. These data

  1. An efficient smolt trap for sandy and debris-laden streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scace, J.G.; Letcher, B.H.; Noreika, J.

    2007-01-01

    Tripod weir and box traps are traditionally used to capture and enumerate out-migrating salmonid smolts in short-term studies and in streams where temporary or portable traps are the only practical option. Although traditional traps can be effective when conditions are ideal, they are often unable to withstand high-discharge events in streams containing a large amount of debris or sandy substrates. We created a rotary-screw trap and resistance board weir hybrid design that we evaluated along with a tripod weir and box trap, both in a 6.1-m-wide flume and in the field. The new design outperformed the tripod weir in both situations. The tripod weir failed in 10 min in the flume trial, whereas the new design was still operating at the conclusion of an 8-h trial under the same conditions. The new design operated continuously in the field during a high-discharge event that caused the tripod weir to fail. The new design also required less frequent cleaning than the tripod weir. The trap efficiency of the new design was estimated by using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antennas and radiotelemetry. The trap was 80% efficient (n = 40) in capturing migrating PIT-tagged individuals detected at an antenna upstream of the trap and 87.5% efficient (n = 48) at recapturing fish that had been tagged and released upstream. With its high efficiency and increased resiliency over the tripod weir, the new trap design will benefit management and research efforts in streams where traditional traps are unsuitable. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  2. Migratory delay leads to reduced passage success of Atlantic salmon smolts at a hydroelectric dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel Nyqvist,; Greenberg, L.; Goerig, E.; Calles, O.; Bergman, E.; William Ardren,; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Passage of fish through hydropower dams is associated with mortality, delay, increased energy expenditure and migratory failure for migrating fish and the need for remedial measures for both upstream and downstream migration is widely recognised. A functional fish passage must ensure safe and timely passage routes that a substantial portion of migrating fish will use. Passage solutions must address not only the number or percentage of fish that successfully pass a barrier, but also the time it takes to pass. Here, we used radiotelemetry to study the functionality of a fish bypass for downstream-migrating wild-caught and hatchery-released Atlantic salmon smolts. We used time-to-event analysis to model the influence of fish characteristics and environmental variables on the rates of a series of events associated with dam passage. Among the modelled events were approach rate to the bypass entry zone, retention rates in both the forebay and the entry zone and passage rates. Despite repeated attempts, only 65% of the tagged fish present in the forebay passed the dam. Fish passed via the bypass (33%), via spill (18%) and via turbines (15%). Discharge was positively related to approach, passage and retention rates. We did not detect any differences between wild and hatchery fish. Even though individual fish visited the forebay and the entry zone on multiple occasions, most fish passed during the first exposures to these zones. This study underscores the importance of timeliness to passage success and the usefulness of time-to-event analysis for understanding factors governing passage performance.

  3. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1994-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1994 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River, Clearwater River, and Salmon River. The 1994 snowpack was among the lowest since the beginning of the present drought, and the subsequent runoff was very poor. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1994. Total annual (hatchery + wild) chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.5 times greater than in 1993. Hatchery and wild steelhead trout catches were similar to 1993. The Snake River trap collected 30 age 0 chinook salmon. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was 3.5 times higher than in 1993, and wild chinook salmon catch was 4.2 times higher. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was less than half of 1993 numbers because the trap was fishing near the north shore during the majority of the hatchery steelhead movement due to flow augmentations from Dworshak. Wild steelhead trout trap catch was 2 times higher than in 1993. The Salmon River trap was operated for about a month longer in 1994 than in 1993 due to extremely low flows. Hatchery chinook salmon catch was 1.4 times greater in 1994 than the previous year. Wild chinook salmon catch was slightly less in 1994. The 1994 hatchery steelhead trout collection did not change significantly from 1993 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1994 was 59% of the 1993 catch. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993, cumulative interrogation data is not comparable with the prior five years (1988-1992).

  4. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  5. Reduced marine survival of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon post-smolts exposed to aluminium and moderate acidification in freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstad, Eva B.; Uglem, Ingebrigt; Finstad, Bengt; Kroglund, Frode; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg Eir; Kristensen, Torstein; Diserud, Ola; Arechavala-Lopez, Pablo; Mayer, Ian; Moore, Andy; Nilsen, Rune; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Økland, Finn

    2013-06-01

    Short-term Al-exposure and moderate acidification increased initial marine mortality in migrating post-smolts, and can thereby reduce viability of Atlantic salmon stocks. The delayed impact of short-term aluminium (Al) exposure on hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolt in moderately acidified freshwater (pH 5.88-5.98) was investigated during the first 37 km of the marine migration. Smolts were tagged with acoustic tags and exposed to low (28.3 ± 4.6 μg l-1 labile Al, 90 h) or high (48.5 ± 6.4 μg l-1 labile Al, 90 or 48 h) Al concentrations within the hatchery. Thereafter their movements, together with a control group, were monitored throughout the marine fjord. Al-exposure resulted in increased gill-Al and compromised hypoosmoregulatory capacity, as shown by elevated mortality in laboratory seawater challenge tests and reduced Na+, K+-ATPase activity levels. Further, Al-exposure resulted in decreased plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), while the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) was unaffected. There was a significant mortality in the 90 h high-Al group during exposure, and those surviving until release died during the first 3.6 km of the marine migration. Physiological stress and mortality were not only a result of the Al-concentrations, but also dependent on exposure duration, as shown by results from the 48 h high-Al group. Elevated mortality was not recorded in freshwater or after entering the sea for this group, which highly contrasts to the 100% mortality in the 90 h high-Al group, despite both groups having similarly high gill-Al levels. The low-Al group showed a 20% higher mortality compared to the control group during the first 10 km of the marine migration, but during the next 28 km, mortality rates did not differ. Hence, post-smolts surviving the first 10 km subsequently showed no differences in mortality compared to controls. At least one third of the mortality in both the low-Al and control groups were due to predation by marine fishes

  6. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  7. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monette, M.Y.; Yada, T.; Matey, V.; McCormick, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired ion regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts following acute acid and aluminum (Al) exposure. Smolts were exposed to: control (pH 6.5, 3.4??gl-1 Al), acid and low Al (LAl: pH 5.4, 11??gl-1 Al), acid and moderate Al (MAl: pH 5.3, 42??gl-1 Al), and acid and high Al (HAl: pH 5.4, 56??gl-1 Al) for two and six days. At each time-point, smolts were sampled directly from freshwater treatment tanks and after a 24h seawater challenge. Exposure to acid/MAl and acid/HAl led to accumulation of gill Al, substantial alterations in gill morphology, reduced gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity, and impaired ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. Exposure to acid/MAl for six days also led to a decrease in gill mRNA expression of the apical Cl- channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I), increased apoptosis upon seawater exposure, an increase in the surface expression of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) within the filament epithelium of the gill, but reduced abundance of gill NKA-positive MRCs. By contrast, smolts exposed to acid and the lowest Al concentration exhibited minor gill Al accumulation, slight morphological modifications in the gill, and impaired seawater tolerance in the absence of a detectable effect on freshwater ion regulation. These impacts were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, a slight increase in the surface expression of MRCs within the filament epithelium, but no impact on gill apoptosis or total MRC abundance was observed. However, MRCs in the gills of smolts exposed to acid/LAl exhibited morphological alterations including decreased size, staining intensity, and shape factor. We demonstrate that the seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts is extremely sensitive to acute exposure to acid and low levels of Al, and that the mechanisms underlying this depend on the time-course and severity of Al exposure. We propose that when smolts are

  8. Pups of dams fed low-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation showed strong preference for high-fat diet to achieve optimal growth.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoko; Sato, Akie

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the causes why pups of dams fed a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet (LFD) showed a strong preference for fat, three groups of dams were fed one of three diets during pregnancy and lactation: the LFD, a control diet (CTD) or a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet (HFD). After weaning, pups of each of the three groups were divided into two equal subgroups (Pair 1 and Pair 2), for a total of six pup subgroups. Each subgroup was placed on a two-choice diet program of the LFD and the HFD (Pair 1), or the LFD and a HFDLE (with cellulose added to maintain the same energy concentration as the LFD) (Pair 2), for 3 wk. Although the energy intake of dams fed the LFD during the nursing period was lower than that of the HFD group, no significant difference in body weight was observed among the three groups. At weaning, the body weight of pups nursed by dams fed the LFD was lower than that of the other groups. In Pair 1, the HFD intake ratio of the LFD and the HFD groups during the self-selection period was higher than that of the CTD group. In Pair 2, the HFDLE intake ratio of the LFD and the CTD groups was lower than that of the HFD group. At the end of the self-selection period, no significant difference in body weight was observed among the three groups of Pair 1. However, in Pair 2, the body weight of the LFD group was lower than that of the other groups. Therefore, it was supposed that pups of dams fed the LFD showed strong preference for the HFD containing high energy in order to achieve optimal growth.

  9. Toxicity of forest fire retardant chemicals to stream-type chinook salmon undergoing parr-smolt transformation.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Joseph P; Myers, Mark S; Strickland, Stacy A; Van Gaest, Ahna; Arkoosh, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    Long-term fire retardants are used to prevent the spread of wildland fires. These products are normally applied by aircraft and are intended specifically for terrestrial application, but fire retardants have entered aquatic habitats by misapplication and/or accidental spills and have resulted in fish mortalities. The authors examined the toxicity of two fire retardant products, PHOS-CHEK 259F and LC-95A, to salmon undergoing parr-smolt transformation. Yearling stream-type chinook salmon at the smolt stage were exposed to eight concentrations of each retardant in freshwater and a no-PHOS-CHEK control for 96 h to determine acute toxicity. Concentrations of the products that caused 50% mortality were 140.5 and 339.8 mg/L for 259F and LC-95A, respectively, and could occur during accidental drops into aquatic habitats. Damage to gill tissues seen in histopathological sections was attributed to fire retardant exposure. Un-ionized ammonia levels, from 259F, were sufficient to cause acute mortality; but additional factors, indicated by increased phagosome prevalence in the gills, might have contributed to mortality during LC-95A exposure. Seawater and disease challenges were performed to determine sublethal effects of product exposures on fish health. Although PHOS-CHEK exposure did not adversely affect chinook salmon's susceptibility to Listonella anguillarum, exposure did significantly reduce seawater survival. Reduced salmon survival resulting from prior fire retardant exposure during their transition from freshwater rearing environments to seawater may decrease the abundance of salmon populations.

  10. Physiological status of naturally reared juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River: Seasonal dynamics and changes associated with smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Larsen, D.A.; Sharpe, C.; Lee-Pawlak, B.; Schreck, C.B.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    Two year-classes of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Yakima River, Washington, were sampled from July (3-4 months postemergence) through May (yearling smolt out-migration). Physiological characters measured included liver glycogen, body lipid, gill Na+-K+ ATPase, plasma thyroxine (T4), and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Distinct physiological changes were found that corresponded to season. Summer and fall were characterized by relatively high body lipid and condition factor. Winter was characterized by decreases in body lipid, condition factor, and plasma hormones. An increase in condition factor and body lipid was found in February and March. Finally, April and May were characterized by dramatic changes characteristic of smolting, including increased gill Na+-K+ ATPase activity, plasma T4, and IGF-I and decreased condition factor, body lipid, and liver glycogen. These results create a physiological template for juvenile spring chinook salmon in the drainage that provides a baseline for comparison with other years, populations, and life history types. In addition, this baseline provides a standard for controlled laboratory experiments and a target for fish culturists who rear juvenile spring chinook salmon for release from conservation hatcheries. The implications of these results for juvenile chinook salmon ecology and life history are discussed.

  11. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achond, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    2003-07-01

    This report details the 2002 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these differences in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam.

  12. Conceptual model for quantifying pre-smolt production from flow-dependent physical habitat and water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, S. C.; Bartholow, J. M.; Stalnaker, C. B.

    1993-01-01

    A conceptual model has been developed to test river regulation concepts by linking physical habitat and water temperature with salmonid population and production in cold water streams. Work is in progress to examine numerous questions as part of flow evaluation and habitat restoration programmes in the Trinity River of California and elsewhere. For instance, how much change in pre-smolt chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production in the Trinity River would result from a different annual instream allocation (i.e. up or down from 271 × 106 m3 released in the late 1980s) and how much change in pre-smolt production would result from a different release pattern (i.e. different from the 8.5 m3 s−1 year-round release). The conceptual model is being used to: design, integrate and improve young-of-year population data collection efforts; test hypotheses that physical habitat significantly influences movement, growth and mortality of salmonid fishes; and analyse the relative severity of limiting factors during each life stage. The conceptual model, in conjunction with previously developed tools in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology, should provide the means to more effectively manage a fishery resource below a regulated reservoir and to provide positive feedback to planning of annual reservoir operations.

  13. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2004-04-01

    Prior to 1992, decisions on dam operations and use of stored water relied on recoveries of branded hatchery fish, index counts at traps and dams, and flow patterns at the dams. The advent of PIT-tag technology provided the opportunity to precisely track the smolt migrations of many wild stocks as they pass through the hydroelectric complex and other monitoring sites on their way to the ocean. With the availability of the PIT tag, a more complete approach to these decisions was undertaken starting in 1992 with the addition of PIT-tag detections of several wild spring and summer chinook salmon stocks at Lower Granite Dam. Using data from these detections, we initiated development of a database on wild fish, addressing several goals of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Conservation Act (NPPC 1980). Section 304(d) of the program states, ''The monitoring program will provide information on the migrational characteristics of the various stocks of salmon and steelhead within the Columbia Basin.'' Further, Section 201(b) urges conservation of genetic diversity, which will be possible only if wild stocks are preserved. Section 5.9A.1 of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program states that field monitoring of smolt movement will be used to determine the best timing for water storage releases and Section 5.8A.8 states that continued research is needed on survival of juvenile wild fish before they reach the first dam with special attention to water quantity, quality, and several other factors. The goals of this ongoing study are as follows (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence these patterns. (4) Characterize the migrational behavior and estimate survival of

  14. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program; Expansion of Existing Smolt Trapping Program in Nason Creek, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Prevatte, Scott A.

    2006-03-01

    In the fall of 2004, as one part of a Basin-Wide Monitoring Program developed by the Upper Columbia Regional Technical Team and Upper Columbia Salmon Recovery Board, the Yakama Nation Fisheries Resource Management program began monitoring downstream migration of ESA listed Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and Upper Columbia River steelhead in Nason Creek, a tributary to the Wenatchee River. This report summarizes juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout migration data collected in Nason Creek during 2005 and also incorporates data from 2004. We used species enumeration at the trap and efficiency trials to describe emigration timing and to estimate population size. Data collection was divided into spring/early summer and fall periods with a break during the summer months occurring due to low stream flow. Trapping began on March 1st and was suspended on July 29th when stream flow dropped below the minimum (30 cfs) required to rotate the trap cone. The fall period began on September 28th with increased stream flow and ended on November 23rd when snow and ice began to accumulate on the trap. During the spring and early summer we collected 311 yearling (2003 brood) spring chinook salmon, 86 wild steelhead smolts and 453 steelhead parr. Spring chinook (2004 brood) outgrew the fry stage of fork length < 60 mm during June and July, 224 were collected at the trap. Mark-recapture trap efficiency trials were performed over a range of stream discharge stages whenever ample numbers of fish were being collected. A total of 247 spring chinook yearlings, 54 steelhead smolts, and 178 steelhead parr were used during efficiency trials. A statically significant relationship between stream discharge and trap efficiency has not been identified in Nason Creek, therefore a pooled trap efficiency was used to estimate the population size of both spring chinook (14.98%) and steelhead smolts (12.96%). We estimate that 2,076 ({+-} 119 95%CI) yearling spring chinook and 688

  15. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1993-11-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout 0. mykiss smolts during the 1992 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River and the Clearwater River. Annual chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was the second lowest since the beginning of this project. The low trap catch wall due to extremely poor trap efficiency associated with severe low flows. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was similar to 1988 through 1991. Wild steelhead trout catch was 35% less than in 1991. Operations at the Snake River trap and a new screw trap were extended through the end of July to collect summer-migrating age-0 chinook. The differentiation of age-0 chinook from spring and Bummer chinook (age-1) using physical characteristics was again employed in 1992. The Snake River trap and the screw trap collected 20 and 18 age-0 chinook salmon, respectively, due to extremely low discharge. Chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was the highest since trap operation began in 1984. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was 23% lower than in 1991. Wild steelhead trout trap catch wall the highest since trap operation began. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at three dams with PIT-tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary dams). Cumulative interrogation, for fish marked at the Snake River trap, was not calculated for chinook salmon due to a lack of data over the entire migration season. The rates for hatchery steelhead trout and wild steelhead trout were 44.9% and 72.9% respectively. Cumulative interrogation at the three dams for fish PIT-tagged at the Clearwater River trap was 55.1% for chinook salmon, 60.4% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 73.1% for wild steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogations for hatchery steelhead tagged at the Snake River trap and recovered at the downstream dams was about 50% less than in previous years.

  16. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross, Doug

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by average water temperatures, below average flows, above average spill, low levels of debris and the record number of smolts collected compared to the previous five years. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above LGR, we cannot accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. For the purposes of this report we will designate fish as clipped and unclipped. This season a total of 13,030,967 juvenile salmonids were collected at LGR. Of these, 12,099,019 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 12,032,623 by barge and 66,396 by truck. An additional 898,235 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways, barges or trucks and for research purposes. This was the first season of summer spill at LGR. Spill was initiated at 12:01am June 20 as directed by the ruling set forth by Judge James Redden of the United States District Court (Order CV 01-640-RE). In addition, the Lower Granite project also conducted a summer spill test alternating spill and spill patterns between spill to the gas cap without the removable spillway weir (RSW) and spill with up to 20 kcfs utilizing the RSW. Because of the forecast low flow this year, most hatchery reared subyearling fall chinook were released up to three weeks early. With the unexpected high flows in late May and early June, more than 90% of the subyearling chinook were collected prior to the initiation of the court ordered summer spill program. Collection number fluctuations reflect river flow and project operations for any given year. For example, low flow years (2001, 2004 and 2005) result in higher collection numbers. Court ordered spill throughout the summer migration will directly affect collection of fall subyearling chinook collection numbers. The editors of this report urge the reader to use caution when comparing fish collection numbers

  17. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Menski, Fred

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by average water temperatures, below average flows, above average spill, low levels of debris and the record number of smolts collected compared to the previous five years. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above LGR, we cannot accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. For the purposes of this report we will designate fish as clipped and unclipped. This season a total of 13,030,967 juvenile salmonids were collected at LGR. Of these, 12,099,019 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 12,032,623 by barge and 66,396 by truck. An additional 898,235 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways, barges or trucks and for research purposes. This was the first season of summer spill at LGR. Spill was initiated at 12:01am June 20 as directed by the ruling set forth by Judge James Redden of the United States District Court (Order CV 01-640-RE). In addition, the Lower Granite project also conducted a summer spill test alternating spill and spill patterns between spill to the gas cap without the removable spillway weir (RSW) and spill with up to 20 kcfs utilizing the RSW. Because of the forecast low flow this year, most hatchery reared subyearling fall chinook were released up to three weeks early. With the unexpected high flows in late May and early June, more than 90% of the subyearling chinook were collected prior to the initiation of the court ordered summer spill program. Collection number fluctuations reflect river flow and project operations for any given year. For example, low flow years (2001, 2004 and 2005) result in higher collection numbers. Court ordered spill throughout the summer migration will directly affect collection of fall subyearling chinook collection numbers. The editors of this report urge the reader to use caution when comparing fish collection numbers

  18. Development of a short-term in situ caging methodology to assess long-term effects of industrial and municipal discharges on salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Timothy D; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Fairchild, Wayne L; Chaput, Gerald; Brown, Scott B

    2005-11-01

    Trial experiments to develop an in situ method for determining effects of short-term exposure to contaminants on salmon during the sensitive smolt stage were carried out. Wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts were caged at various estuarine locations in northeast New Brunswick, Canada at different levels of anthropogenic impact in 2000 and 2001. Survival, growth (weight and K), and feeding (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) parameters were measured following summer grow-out at a hatchery. A summary of distributions of the four parameters indicated that smolts caged at locations receiving lower levels of industrial and municipal discharges feed and grow better than those caged at sites receiving higher levels. The findings, however, were not repeatable between the 2 years studied. The observed inconsistency between years may be a consequence of the relatively low concentrations of alkylphenolic contaminants (putative causative agents) and overall steroidogenic potency in river water at the time of caging. Differences in temperature and salinity from 2000 to 2001 may have further confounded comparisons across treatments and between years. In future studies, caging in closer proximity to industrial and municipal discharges or in systems with higher concentrations of waterborne contaminants or impoundments would help further the assessment and applicability of this methodology and allow a more robust comparison of smolt feeding and growth among reference and exposure sites.

  19. Investigating the influence of nitrate nitrogen on post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reproductive physiology in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An 8-month trial was carried out to assess the effects of NO3-N on a variety of performance and physiological outcomes in post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (initial weight 102 plus or minus 1 g) reared in six replicated laboratory-scale water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Three RAS r...

  20. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Collis, Ken; Lyons, Donald E.

    2009-07-08

    This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern

  1. Research Plan to Determine Timing, Location, Magnitude and Cause of Mortality for Wild and Hatchery Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts Above Lower Granite Dam. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lower Granite Migration Study Steering Committee

    1993-10-01

    From 1966 to 1968, Raymond estimated an average survival rate of 89% for yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from trap sites on the Salmon River to Ice Harbor Dam, which was then the uppermost dam on the Snake River. During the 1970s, the estimated survival rate declined as the proportion of hatchery fish increased and additional dams were constructed. Recent survival indices for yearling chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin indicate that substantial mortalities are occurring en route to Lower Granite Dam, now the uppermost dam on the Snake River. Detection rates for wild and hatchery PIT-tagged smolts at Lower Granite Dam have been much lower than expected. However, for wild fish, there is considerable uncertainty whether overwinter mortality or smolt loss during migration is the primary cause for low survival. Efforts to rebuild these populations will have a better chance of success after the causes of mortality are identified and addressed. Information on the migrational characteristics and survival of wild fish are especially needed. The goal of this initial planning phase is to develop a research plan to outline potential investigations that will determine the timing, location, magnitude, and cause of smolt mortality above Lower Granite Dam.

  2. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Collis, Ken; Lyons, Donald E.

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a

  3. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2005 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2005 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, the age-1 and older fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Age-0 Chinook salmon are more difficult to distinguish between wild and non-adclipped hatchery fish and therefore classified as unknown rearing. The total annual hatchery spring/summer Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 0.34 times greater in 2005 than in 2004. The wild spring/summer Chinook catch was 0.34 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 0.67 times less than in 2004. Wild steelhead trout catch was 0.72 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 1,152 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2005, the Snake River trap captured 219 hatchery and 44 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 110 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 6 and were terminated on June 3. The trap was out of operation for a total of one day due to heavy debris. FPC requested that the trap be restarted on June 15 through June 22 to collect and PIT tag age-0 Chinook salmon. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 1.06 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.26 times greater than in 2004. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2005 was 1.41 times greater and wild steelhead trout collection was 1.27 times greater than the previous year. Trap operations

  4. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2003 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2003 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 2.1 times less in 2003 than in 2002. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.7 times less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.1 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 579 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2003, the Snake River trap captured five hatchery and 13 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 36 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant differences in catch between 2003 and the previous year were due mainly to low flows during much of the trapping season and then very high flows at the end of the season, which terminated the trapping season 12 days earlier than in 2002. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 27. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 16.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.7 times greater than in 2002. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2003 was 5.6% less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout collection was 19.2% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 24 due to high

  5. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2004 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2004 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.1 times greater in 2004 than in 2003. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.2 times greater than in 2003. Wild steelhead trout catch was 1.6 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 978 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2004, the Snake River trap captured 23 hatchery and 18 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 60 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on June 4. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 10.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 19.0% less than in 2003. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2004 was 20.0% less and wild steelhead trout collection was 22.3% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on May 28 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because wild Chinook catch was very low, hatchery Chinook catch was very high, and the weekly quota of PIT tagged hatchery Chinook had been met. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km

  6. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2002 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2002 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11.4 times greater in 2002 than in 2001. The wild Chinook catch was 15.5 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 2.9 times greater than in 2001. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.8 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 3,996 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2002, the Snake River trap captured 69 hatchery and 235 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 114 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant increase in catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery Chinook production and a more normal spring runoff. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on June 7. The trap was out of operation for a total of four days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 4.2 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 2.4 times greater than in 2001. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the 2001 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on May 29 due to high flows. The trap was out of operation for four days due to high flow or debris. The increase

  7. Recovery of sockeye salmon in the Elwha River, Washington, after dam removal: Dependence of smolt production on the resumption of anadromy by landlocked kokanee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Adam G.; Gardner, Jennifer R.; Beauchamp, David A.; Paradis, Rebecca; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. are adept at colonizing habitat that has been reopened to anadromous passage. Sockeye Salmon O. nerka are unique in that most populations require lakes to fulfill their life history. Thus, for Sockeye Salmon to colonize a system, projects like dam removals must provide access to lakes. However, if the lakes contain landlocked kokanee (lacustrine Sockeye Salmon), the recovery of Sockeye Salmon could be mediated by interactions between the two life history forms and the processes associated with the resumption of anadromy. Our objective was to evaluate the extent to which estimates of Sockeye Salmon smolt production and recovery are sensitive to the resumption of anadromy by kokanee after dam removal. We informed the analysis based on the abiotic and biotic features of Lake Sutherland, which was recently opened to passage after dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington. We first developed maximum expectations for the smolt-producing capacity of Lake Sutherland by using two predictive models developed from Sockeye Salmon populations in Alaska and British Columbia: one model was based on the mean seasonal biomass of macrozooplankton, and the other was based on the euphotic zone volume of the lake. We then constructed a bioenergetics-based simulation model to evaluate how the capacity of Lake Sutherland to rear yearling smolts could change with varying degrees of anadromy among O. nerka fry. We demonstrated that (1) the smolt-producing capacity of a nursery lake for juvenile Sockeye Salmon changes in nonlinear ways with changes in smolt growth, mortality, and the extent to which kokanee resume anadromy after dam removal; (2) kokanee populations may be robust to changes in abundance after dam removal, particularly if lakes are located higher in the watershed on tributaries separate from where dams were removed; and (3) the productivity of newly establishing Sockeye Salmon can vary considerably depending on whether the population becomes

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Bonneville Project: Tailrace Spill Patterns for Low Flows and Corner Collector Smolt Egress

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2003, an extension of the existing ice and trash sluiceway was added at Bonneville Powerhouse 2 (B2). This extension started at the existing corner collector for the ice and trash sluiceway adjacent to Bonneville Powerhouse 2 and the new sluiceway was extended to the downstream end of Cascade Island. The sluiceway was designed to improve juvenile salmon survival by bypassing turbine passage at B2, and placing these smolt in downstream flowing water minimizing their exposure to fish and avian predators. In this study, a previously developed computational fluid dynamics model was modified and used to characterized tailrace hydraulics and sluiceway egress conditions for low total river flows and low levels of spillway flow. STAR-CD v4.10 was used for seven scenarios of low total river flow and low spill discharges. The simulation results were specifically examined to look at tailrace hydraulics at 5 ft below the tailwater elevation, and streamlines used to compare streamline pathways for streamlines originating in the corner collector outfall and adjacent to the outfall. These streamlines indicated that for all higher spill percentage cases (25% and greater) that streamlines from the corner collector did not approach the shoreline at the downstream end of Bradford Island. For the cases with much larger spill percentages, the streamlines from the corner collector were mid-channel or closer to the Washington shore as they moved downstream. Although at 25% spill at 75 kcfs total river, the total spill volume was sufficient to "cushion" the flow from the corner collector from the Bradford Island shore, areas of recirculation were modeled in the spillway tailrace. However, at the lowest flows and spill percentages, the streamlines from the B2 corner collector pass very close to the Bradford Island shore. In addition, the very flow velocity flows and large areas of recirculation greatly increase potential predator exposure of the spillway passed smolt. If there is

  9. Smolt Monitoring Program, Part II, Volume I, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Seelhead Trout, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Passage Center

    1986-02-01

    The annual Smolt Monitoring Program is the result of implementation of Section 304(d)(2) of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. This is the second year of the annual systemwide program conducted by the Fish Passage Center (formerly Water Budget Center). Index reaches have been established. Travel time indices are calculated for year to year comparison. Marked groups of steelhead, spring chinook, fall chinook, and summer chinook are monitored at sampling points throughout the system. Because this program is intended to be representative of the juvenile migration, marked groups represent major hatchery production stocks. Arrival time and duration of marked groups are reported. Annual travel time indices are reported from Rock Island Dam to McNary Dam, and from Lower Granite Dam to McNary Dam. Hatchery and brand release information is reported.

  10. Abundance, Timing of Migration, and Egg-to-Smolt Survival of Juvenile Chum Salmon, Kwethluk River, Alaska, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.; ,; Gillikin, Daniel; ,

    2010-01-01

    To better understand and partition mortality among life stages of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), we used inclined-plane traps to monitor the migration of juveniles in the Kwethluk River, Alaska in 2007 and 2008. The migration of juvenile chum salmon peaked in mid-May and catch rates were greatest when water levels were rising. Movement of chum salmon was diurnal with highest catch rates occurring during the hours of low light (that is, 22:00 to 10:00). Trap efficiency ranged from 0.37 to 4.04 percent (overall efficiency = 1.94 percent). Total abundance of juvenile chum salmon was estimated to be 2.0 million fish in 2007 and 2.9 million fish in 2008. On the basis of the estimate of chum salmon females passing the Kwethluk River weir and age-specific fecundity, we estimated the potential egg deposition (PED) upstream of the weir and trapping site. Egg-to-smolt survival, calculated by dividing the estimate of juvenile chum salmon emigrating past the weir site by the estimate of PED, was 4.6 percent in 2007 and 5.2 percent in 2008. In addition to chum salmon, Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), as well as ten other fish species, were captured in the traps. As with chum salmon, catch of these species increased during periods of increasing discharge and peaked during hours of low light. This study successfully determined the characteristics of juvenile salmon migrations and estimated egg-to-smolt survival for chum salmon. This is the first estimate of survival for any juvenile salmon in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region of Alaska and demonstrates an approach that can help to partition mortality between freshwater and marine life stages, information critical to understanding the dynamics of salmon in this region.

  11. Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monette, M.Y.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Ali) is known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and has been implicated as a possible cause of population decline. To determine the extent and mechanism(s) by which short-term acid/Al exposure compromises smolt development, Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to either control (pH 6.7-6.9) or acid/Al (pH 5.4-6.3, 28-64 ??g l-1 Ali) conditions for 2 and 5 days, and impacts on freshwater (FW) ion regulation, seawater (SW) tolerance, plasma hormone levels and stress response were examined. Gill Al concentrations were elevated in all smolts exposed to acid/Al relative to controls confirming exposure to increased Ali. There was no effect of acid/Al on plasma ion concentrations in FW however, smolts exposed to acid/Al followed by a 24 h SW challenge exhibited greater plasma Cl- levels than controls, indicating reduced SW tolerance. Loss of SW tolerance was accompanied by reductions in gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and Na+,K+,2Cl- (NKCC) cotransporter protein abundance. Acid/Al exposure resulted in decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and 3,3???,5???-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) levels, whereas no effect of treatment was seen on plasma cortisol, growth hormone (GH), or thyroxine (T4) levels. Acid/Al exposure resulted in increased hematocrit and plasma glucose levels in FW, but both returned to control levels after 24 h in SW. The results indicate that smolt development and SW tolerance are compromised by short-term exposure to acid/Al in the absence of detectable impacts on FW ion regulation. Loss of SW tolerance during short-term acid/Al exposure likely results from reductions in gill NKA and NKCC, possibly mediated by decreases in plasma IGF-I and T3. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a residual risk factor associated with long-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease who achieve optimal control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shinya; Kurata, Takeshi; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is recognized an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Clinical trials have shown that statins significantly reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statin. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established coronary risk factor that is independent of LDL-C levels. We evaluated the impact of HDL-C on long-term mortality in diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieved optimal LDL-C. We enrolled 438 consecutive diabetic patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention between 2004 and 2007 at our institution. We identified 165 patients who achieved target LDL-C <100 mg/dl. Patients were stratified into two groups according to HDL-C levels (low HDL-C group, baseline HDL-C <40 mg/dl; high HDL-C group, ≥40 mg/dl). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) that included all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome, and target lesion revascularization were evaluated between the two groups. The median follow-up period was 946 days. The rate of MACE was significantly higher in diabetic patients with low-HDL-C who achieved optimal LDL-C (6.9 vs 17.9 %, log-rank P = 0.030). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C is significantly associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for MACE 1.33, 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.75, P = 0.042). Low HDL-C is a residual risk factor that is significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieve optimal LDL-C levels.

  13. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  14. High-performance n-type organic semiconductors: incorporating specific electron-withdrawing motifs to achieve tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun Woo; Kim, Jong H; Shin, Seunghoon; Yang, Hoichang; An, Byeong-Kwan; Yang, Lin; Park, Soo Young

    2012-02-14

    Novel π–conjugated cyanostilbene-based semiconductors (Hex-3,5-TFPTA and Hex-4-TFPTA) with tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels are synthesized. Hex-4-TFPTA exhibits high-performance n-type organic field-effect transistor (OFET) properties with electron mobilities as high as 2.14 cm2 V−1s−1 and on-off current ratios

  15. Ultralong, small-diameter TiOTiO₂ nanotubes achieved by an optimized two-step anodization for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Wang, Xiu

    2014-02-12

    An optimized two-step anodization is developed to fabricate ultralong, small-diameter TiO2 nanotubes, that is, with tube length of up to 31 μm and pore diameter of about 35 nm in this work. This overcomes the length limitation of small diameter tubes that usually presents in conventional one-step anodization. The small tubes with lengths of 23 μm yield a conversion efficiency of 5.02% in dye-sensitized solar cells under nonoptimized conditions.

  16. Evaluation of the prototype surface bypass for salmonid smolts in Spring 1996 and 1997 at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.E.; Adams, N.S.; Johnson, R.L.; Rondorf, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Barila, T.Y.

    2000-01-01

    In spring 1996 and 1997, we studied the prototype surface bypass and collector (SBC) at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River in Washington. Our objectives were to determine the most efficient SBC configuration and to describe smolt movements and swimming behavior in the forebay. To do this, we used hydroacoustic and radiotelemetry techniques. The SBC was retrofitted onto the upstream face of the north half of the powerhouse to test the surface bypass method of diverting smolts from turbines. The SBC had three entrances, with mean velocities ranging from 0.37 to 1.92 m/s, and it discharged 113 m3/s through its outlet at Spill Bay 1, which was adjacent to the powerhouse. Different SBC configurations were created by altering the size and shape of entrances. During spring 1996 and 1997, river discharge was well above normal (123 and 154% of average, respectively). Powerhouse operations caused a strong downward component of flow upstream of the SBC. Many smolts (primarily steelhead and secondarily chinook salmon) were observed actively swimming upward in the water column. There were four times as many smolts diverted from turbines per unit volume of water with SBC flow than with spill flow, which indicated that the SBC may be an especially important bypass consideration in moderate- or low-flow years. The highest SBC efficiency (the proportion of total fish passing through the north half of the powerhouse by all routes that passed through the SBC) for any configuration tested was about 40%. Although no single SBC configuration stood out as the most efficient, the horizontal surface and maximum area configurations, or some combination of the two, are worth further investigation because they were moderately efficient.

  17. Effects of feed quality and quantity on growth, early maturation and smolt development in hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Norrgård, J R; Bergman, E; Greenberg, L A; Schmitz, M

    2014-10-01

    The effects of feed quality and quantity on growth, early male parr maturation and development of smolt characteristics were studied in hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The fish were subjected to two levels of feed rations and two levels of lipid content from first feeding until release in May of their second year. Salmo salar fed high rations, regardless of lipid content, grew the most and those fed low lipid feed with low rations grew the least. In addition, fish fed low lipid feed had lower body lipid levels than fish fed high lipid feed. Salmo salar from all treatments showed some reduction in condition factor (K) and lipid levels during their second spring. Smolt status was evaluated using both physiological and morphological variables. These results, based on gill Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase (NKA) enzyme activity, saltwater tolerance challenges and visual assessments, were consistent with each other, showing that S. salar from all treatments, except the treatment in which the fish were fed low rations with low lipid content, exhibited characteristics associated with smolting at 2 years of age. Sexually mature male parr from the high ration, high lipid content treatment were also subjected to saltwater challenge tests, and were found to be unable to regulate plasma sodium levels. The proportion of sexually mature male parr was reduced when the fish were fed low feed rations, but was not affected by the lipid content of the feed. Salmo salar fed low rations with low lipid content exhibited the highest degree of severe fin erosion.

  18. Endocrine disruption of parr-smolt transformation and seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon by 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Moeckel, Amy M.; Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2005-01-01

    Sex steroids are known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of anadromous salmonids, and environmental estrogens such as nonylphenol have recently been implicated in reduced returns of Atlantic salmon in the wild. To determine the endocrine pathways by which estrogenic compounds affect smolt development and seawater tolerance, groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon were injected with one of five doses (0.5, 2, 10, 40 or 150 μg g−1) of branched 4-nonylphenol (NP), 2 μg g−1 of 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, during the parr-smolt transformation in April, and the treatment was repeated 4, 8, and 11 days after the first injection. Plasma was obtained for biochemical analysis 7 and 14 days after initiation of treatment. After 14 days of treatment, additional fish from each treatment group were exposed to seawater for 24 h to assess salinity tolerance. The E2 treatment and the highest NP dose resulted in lower salinity tolerance and decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, along with elevated levels of plasma vitellogenin and total calcium. Plasma growth hormone levels were elevated at intermediate NP doses only, and not affected by E2. After 7 days, plasma thyroxine (T4) levels decreased in a strong, dose-dependent manner in response to nonylphenol, but after 14 days, this suppressive effect of T4 occurred at the highest NP dose only. Similarly, E2 decreased plasma T4 levels at 7, but not 14 days. Plasma 3,3′,5-triodo-l-thyronine was reduced by E2 and the highest NP dose after 7 and 14 days of treatment. Plasmacortisol levels were not affected by any of the treatments. The results indicate that the parr-smolt transformation and salinity tolerance can be compromised by exposure to estrogenic compounds. Suppression of plasma IGF-I levels is a likely endocrine pathway for the effects of estrogenic compounds on hypo-osmoregulatory capacity, and the detrimental effects of E2 and NP on thyroid hormone levels are

  19. Endocrine disruption of parr-smolt transformation and seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon by 4-nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Stephen D; O'dea, Michael F; Moeckel, Amy M; Lerner, Darren T; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2005-07-01

    Sex steroids are known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of anadromous salmonids, and environmental estrogens such as nonylphenol have recently been implicated in reduced returns of Atlantic salmon in the wild. To determine the endocrine pathways by which estrogenic compounds affect smolt development and seawater tolerance, groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon were injected with one of five doses (0.5, 2, 10, 40 or 150 microg g(-1)) of branched 4-nonylphenol (NP), 2 microg g(-1) of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), or vehicle, during the parr-smolt transformation in April, and the treatment was repeated 4, 8, and 11 days after the first injection. Plasma was obtained for biochemical analysis 7 and 14 days after initiation of treatment. After 14 days of treatment, additional fish from each treatment group were exposed to seawater for 24h to assess salinity tolerance. The E(2) treatment and the highest NP dose resulted in lower salinity tolerance and decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, along with elevated levels of plasma vitellogenin and total calcium. Plasma growth hormone levels were elevated at intermediate NP doses only, and not affected by E(2). After 7 days, plasma thyroxine (T(4)) levels decreased in a strong, dose-dependent manner in response to nonylphenol, but after 14 days, this suppressive effect of T(4) occurred at the highest NP dose only. Similarly, E(2) decreased plasma T(4) levels at 7, but not 14 days. Plasma 3,3',5-triodo-l-thyronine was reduced by E(2) and the highest NP dose after 7 and 14 days of treatment. Plasma cortisol levels were not affected by any of the treatments. The results indicate that the parr-smolt transformation and salinity tolerance can be compromised by exposure to estrogenic compounds. Suppression of plasma IGF-I levels is a likely endocrine pathway for the effects of estrogenic compounds on hypo-osmoregulatory capacity, and the detrimental effects of E(2) and NP on thyroid hormone levels are

  20. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, October 20, 1999 to June 15, 2000 : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.

    2002-12-01

    This report details the smolt performance of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead from the Imnaha River to the Snake River and Columbia River dams during migration year 2000. Flow conditions in the Imnaha River and Snake River were appreciably lower during May and June in 2000, compared to historic levels at gauging stations, but flow conditions in the Imnaha and Snake River were above average during April. Overall, water conditions for the entire Columbia River were characterized by the Fish Passage Center as below normal levels. Spill occurred continuously at Lower Granite Dam (LGR), Little Goose Dam (LGO), and Lower Monumental Dam (LMO) from April 5, April 10, and April 4, respectively, to June 20, and encompassed the periods of migration of Imnaha River juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead, with a few exceptions. Outflow in the tailraces of LGR, LGO, and LMO decreased in May and June while temperatures increased. Chinook salmon and steelhead were captured using rotary screw traps at river kilometer (rkm) 74 and 7 during the fall from October 20 to November 24, 1999, and during the spring period from February 26 to June 15, 2000, at rkm 7. Spring trapping information was reported weekly to the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program. A portion of these fish were tagged weekly with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and were detected migrating past interrogation sites at Snake River and Columbia River dams. Survival of PIT tagged fish was estimated with the Survival Using Proportional Hazards model (SURPH model). Estimated survival of fall tagged natural chinook (with {+-} 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis) from the upper Imnaha (rkm 74) to LGR was 29.6% ({+-} 2.8 ). Natural chinook salmon tagged in the fall in the lower Imnaha River at rkm 7, which over wintered in the Snake River, had an estimated survival of 36.8% ({+-} 2.9%) to LGR. Spring tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower site had an estimated survival of 84

  1. Transportation of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, smolts in the Columbia River and effects on adult returns

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, were captured at Little Goose Dam in the Snake River during their seaward migration and transported 400 km downstream to the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Their survival was increased from 1.1 to 15 times as compared with control fish which passed by seven mainstem low-level dams and reservoirs. Variations in survival were mainly dependent on species and environmental conditions in the river during the period fish were transported. The homing ability of the adult fish was not significantly diminished; less than 0.2% of strays occurred among adult returns from groups transported. Transportation did not affect ocean age or size of returning adult steelhead, but ocean age of returning adult chinook salmon may have been affected. Steelhead returned to Little Goose Dam at a substantially higher rate (1.4 to 2.7%) than chinook salmon (0.1 to 0.8%) from groups transported. The timing of adult returns of both species to Little Goose Dam was not related to the time of capture and downstream release of smolts.

  2. Renibacterium salmoninarum in spring-summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Jackson, L.M.; Matthews, G.M.; Harmon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated Renibacterium salmoninarum infection in smolts of hatchery and wild spring-summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sampled during most of the out-migration at Little Goose (1988) and Lower Granite dams (1988-1991) on the Snake River and at Priest Rapids and McNary dams on the Columbia River (1988-1990). We sampled 860-2,178 fish per dam each year. Homogenates of kidney-spleen tissue from all fish were tested for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homogenates from 10% of the fish were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Although only 1-11% of fish sampled at a given dam during any 1 year exhibited lesions characteristic of bacterial kidney disease, 86-100% of the fish tested positive for R. salmoninarum antigen by ELISA, whereas 4-17% of the fish tested positive by the FAT. During most years, a majority (68-87%) of fish testing positive by the ELISA had low R. salmoninarum antigen levels, but in 1989, 53% of positive fish from Lower Granite Dam and 52% from McNary Dam showed medium-to-high antigen levels. For most years, the highest mean antigen levels were measured in fish sampled after 75% of the total out-migrants had passed a given dam. When the largest numbers of fish were being collected for bypass or downriver transportation, mean antigen levels were relatively low.

  3. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Smolt Monitoring Program; Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, Washington, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Ross, Doug; Morrill, Charles

    1996-10-01

    The 1996 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows, spill, cool spring and early summer water temperatures and comparatively low numbers of fish, particularly yearling chinook, collected and transported. A total of 5,227,672 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite, the fewest since 1986. Of these, 5,117,685 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 4,990,798 by barge and 126,887 by truck. An additional 102,430 fish were bypassed back to the river, most of these being part of the National Marine Fisheries Service transportation evaluation study. New extended length submersible bar screens (ESBS) and new vertical barrier screens were installed in all units and a prototype surface collector was installed in front of units 4, 5 and 6 and operated from 23 April through 3 June. Smolt Monitoring Program and National Biologic Survey biologists examined 4,581 fish, collected at the separator, for symptoms of Gas Bubble Disease.

  4. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (Steelhead; Oncorhynchus mykiss) Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon from 5 October 2006 to 21 June 2007, Annual Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, Brian; Espinosa, Neal

    2009-02-18

    This report summarizes the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) Department of Fisheries Resources Management (DFRM) results for the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Hatchery Evaluation studies and the Imnaha River Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 2007 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies are closely coordinated and provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery spring/summer Naco x (Chinook Salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (steelhead; O. mykiss) biological characteristics, emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam (MCD) on the Columbia River. These studies provide information on listed Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) for the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (NMFS 2000). The Lower Snake River Compensation Plan program's goal is to maintain a hatchery production program of 490,000 Naco x (Chinook salmon) and 330,000 Heeyey (steelhead) for annual release in the Imnaha River (Carmichael et al. 1998, Whitesel et al. 1998). These hatchery releases occur to compensate for fish losses due to the construction and operation of the four lower Snake River hydroelectric facilities. One of the aspects of the LSRCP hatchery evaluation studies in the Imnaha River is to determine natural and hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolt performance, emigration characteristics and survival (Kucera and Blenden 1998). A long term monitoring effort was established to document smolt emigrant timing and post release survival within the Imnaha River, estimate smolt survival downstream to McNary Dam, compare natural and hatchery smolt performance, and collect smolt-to-adult return information. This project collects information for, and is part of, a larger effort entitled Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Agencies (BPA Project No. 198712700). This larger project provides data on movement of smolts out of major drainages

  5. Effects of production intensity and production strategies in commercial Atlantic salmon smolt (Salmo salar L.) production on subsequent performance in the early sea stage.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, T; Haugen, T O; Rosten, T; Fjellheim, A; Atland, A; Rosseland, B O

    2012-02-01

    A data set from commercial Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) producers on production intensity and production strategies in smolt tanks (N = 63-94) was obtained during 1999-2006. The effects of production intensity on subsequent fish mortality and growth during the early sea phase (90 days) were examined by principal component analysis and subsequent generalized linear model analysis. Levels of accumulated metabolites (CO(2), total ammonia nitrogen and NH(3)), and information provided by producers (production density (kg fish m(3-1)), specific water use (l kg fish(-1) min(-1)) and oxygen drop (mg l(-1)) from tank inlet to tank outlet), were used as predictor variables. In addition, several other welfare relevant variables such as disease history, temperature during freshwater and sea stage; season (S1) or off-season (S0) smolt production; and the use of seawater addition during the freshwater stage were analyzed. No strong intensity effects on mortality or growth were found. CO(2) levels alone (P < 0.001, R(2) = 0.16), and in combination with specific water use (R(2) = 0.20), had the strongest effect on mortality. In both cases, mortality decreased with increasing density. For growth, the intensity model with the most support (R(2) = 0.17) was O(2) drop, density and their interaction effects, resulting in the best growth at low and high intensity, and poorer growth at intermediate levels. Documented viral disease outbreaks (infectious pancreatic necrosis and two cases of pancreas disease) in the sea phase resulted in significantly higher mortalities at 90 days compared with undiagnosed smolt groups, although mortalities were highly variable in both categories. The temperature difference between the freshwater stage and seawater had a small, but significant, effect on growth with the best growth in groups stocked to warmer seawater (P = 0.04, R(2) = 0.06). S0 and S1 smolt groups did not differ significantly in growth, but the mortality was significantly (P = 0

  6. Hepatic insulin-like growth-factor binding protein (igfbp) responses tofood restriction in Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breves, Jason P.; Phipps-Costin, Silas K.; Fujimoto, Chelsea K.; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg E.; Regish, Amy M.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) system plays a central role in the regulation of growth in fishes. However, the roles of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) in coordinating responses to food availability are unresolved, especially in anadromous fishes preparing for seaward migration. We assayed plasma Gh, Igf1, thyroid hormones and cortisol along with igfbp mRNA levels in fasted and fed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ). Fish were fasted for 3 or 10 days near the peak of smoltification (late April to early May). Fasting reduced plasma glucose by 3 days and condition factor by 10 days. Plasma Gh, cortisol, and thyroxine (T 4 ) were not altered in response to fasting, whereas Igf1 and 3,5,3′-triiodo- l -thyronine (T 3 ) were slightly higher and lower than controls, respectively. Hepatic igfbp1b1 , - 1b2 , - 2a , - 2b1 and - 2b2 mRNA levels were not responsive to fasting, but there were marked increases in igfbp1a1 following 3 and 10 days of fasting. Fasting did not alter hepatic igf1or igf2 ; however, muscle igf1 was diminished by 10 days of fasting. There were no signs that fasting compromised branchial ionoregulatory functions, as indicated by unchanged Na + /K + -ATPase activity and ion pump/transporter mRNA levels. We conclude that dynamic hepatic igfbp1a1 and muscle igf1 expression participate in the modulation of Gh/Igf signaling in smolts undergoing catabolism.

  7. Assessment and Analysis of Smolt Condition in the Columbia River Basin, 1999 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, Robin M.; Jones, Ray

    1999-12-01

    The primary objective of the study was to increase the number of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery that outmigrate by promoting smoltification in a larger proportion of the production release. To achieve this goal, growth was reduced during the winter to produce a smaller size range of fish to eliminate the production of large fish that residualize. A period of accelerated growth prior to release was designed to promote smoltification in all fish, regardless of size. Decreased winter growth was achieved with a combination of reduced ration and short, intermittent feeding periods. Growth rates were not reduced to the expected level in the modified feeding schedule treatment group, control group, or general production fish reared in the same system. Although significant differences in length, weight and condition factor developed between treatment and control groups during December and January, compensatory growth of the treatment fish after return to full rations resulted in fish of the same size from both groups for release. Migration rates of the treatment group were higher than that of the control group, although the difference was not significant. Growth and survival during extended seawater rearing did not differ between the two groups. Smoltification, as measured by gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase and seawater survival, were unaffected by a reduction in feed during winter months.

  8. Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida, causal agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish, from the tank effluent of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, D; Mooney, J; Ryan, D; Powell, E; Hiney, M; Smith, P R; Powell, R

    1994-01-01

    The fish pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida, could be detected only by bacteriological culture from the kidney of dead or moribund fish in one tank in a hatchery rearing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts. However, by using a DNA probe specific for this species, allied to a PCR assay, the pathogen could be detected in water, feces and effluent samples taken from this fish tank. Also, the presence of the pathogen was found in effluent samples from two fish tanks containing apparently healthy fish. Subsequently, the presence of pathogen in these tanks was confirmed by an increase in the daily mortality rate and by a plate culture from moribund fish. Images PMID:7527205

  9. Thin sheets achieve optimal wrapping of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Joseph; Démery, Vincent; Davidovitch, Benny; Santangelo, Christian; Russell, Thomas; Menon, Narayanan

    2015-03-01

    A liquid drop can wrap itself in a sheet using capillary forces [Py et al., PRL 98, 2007]. However, the efficiency of ``capillary origami'' at covering the surface of a drop is hampered by the mechanical cost of bending the sheet. Thinner sheets deform more readily by forming small-scale wrinkles and stress-focussing patterns, but it is unclear how coverage efficiency competes with mechanical cost as thickness is decreased, and what wrapping shapes will emerge. We place a thin (~ 100 nm) polymer film on a drop whose volume is gradually decreased so that the sheet covers an increasing fraction of its surface. The sheet exhibits a complex sequence of axisymmetric and polygonal partially- and fully- wrapped shapes. Remarkably, the progression appears independent of mechanical properties. The gross shape, which neglects small-scale features, is correctly predicted by a simple geometric approach wherein the exposed area is minimized. Thus, simply using a thin enough sheet results in maximal coverage.

  10. Pilot study to access the role of Ceratomyxa shasta infection in mortality of fall-run Chinook smolts migrating through the lower Klamath River in 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foott, Scott; Stutzer, Greg; Fogerty, R.; Hansel, Hal; Juhnke, Steven; Beeman, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Apparent survival and migration rate of radio-tagged hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon released at Iron Gate Hatchery was monitored in the Klamath River to see if the timing of mortality coincided with observations of ceratomyxosis in re-captured coded wire tag cohorts. Despite rapid emigration, these relatively large (mean fork length 92 mm) smolts had a cumulative apparent survival to the estuary of 0.074 (SE 0.024) and standardized rates of survival per 100 km tended to decrease linearly with distance from the hatchery. The last fish detection occurred 26 days after release but median travel time between Iron Gate Hatchery (rkm 309) and the last receiver near the Klamath estuary (Blake’s Riffle rkm 13) was about 10 days. The majority of apparent mortality (8-10 d post-release) occurred before disease from Ceratomyxa shasta infection is expected after exposure to infectious waters. Despite numerous observations of ceratomyxosis in the Klamath R. during June, an obvious link between disease and apparent survival was not present in this study. Future studies should examine the acute (e.g., predator types and densities) and chronic (e.g., swimming performance impairment due to disease) mortality factors for juvenile Chinook salmon smolts in the Klamath River.

  11. Development of an Effective Transport Media for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon to Mitigate Stress and Improve Smolt Survival During Columbia River Fish Hauling Operations, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1985-02-01

    Selected transport media consisting of mineral salt additions (Na/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, Ca/sup + +/, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and Mg/sup + +/), mineral salts plus tranquilizing concentrations of tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222), or MS-222 alone were tested for their ability to mitigate stress and increase smolt survival during single and mixed species hauling of Columbia River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Successful stress mitigation was afforded by several formulations as indicated by protection against life-threatening osmoregulatory and other physiological dysfunctions, and against immediate and delayed hauling mortality. Effects on the seawater survival and growth of smolts hauled in transport media were used as the overall criterion of success. Of the fourteen chemical formulations tested, 10 ppM MS-222 emerged as top-rated in terms of ability to mitigate physiological stress during single and mixed species transport of juvenile spring chinook salmon at hauling densities of 0.5 or 1.0 lb/gallon. Immediate and delayed mortalities from hauling stress were also reduced, but benefits to early marine growth and survival were limited to about the first month in seawater. The two physical factors tested (reduced light intensity and water temperature) were generally less effective than mineral salt additions in mitigating hauling stress, but the degree of protection afforded by reduced light intensity was nevertheless judged to be physiologically beneficial. 36 refs., 1 fig., 19 tabs.

  12. Annotated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a searchable data resource

    PubMed Central

    Adzhubei, Alexei A; Vlasova, Anna V; Hagen-Larsen, Heidi; Ruden, Torgeir A; Laerdahl, Jon K; Høyheim, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    Background To identify as many different transcripts/genes in the Atlantic salmon genome as possible, it is crucial to acquire good cDNA libraries from different tissues and developmental stages, their relevant sequences (ESTs or full length sequences) and attempt to predict function. Such libraries allow identification of a large number of different transcripts and can provide valuable information on genes expressed in a particular tissue at a specific developmental stage. This data is important in constructing a microarray chip, identifying SNPs in coding regions, and for future identification of genes in the whole genome sequence. An important factor that determines the usefulness of generated data for biologists is efficient data access. Public searchable databases play a crucial role in providing such service. Description Twenty-three Atlantic salmon cDNA libraries were constructed from 15 tissues, yielding nearly 155,000 clones. From these libraries 58,109 ESTs were generated, of which 57,212 were used for contig assembly. Following deletion of mitochondrial sequences 55,118 EST sequences were submitted to GenBank. In all, 20,019 unique sequences, consisting of 6,424 contigs and 13,595 singlets, were generated. The Norwegian Salmon Genome Project Database has been constructed and annotation performed by the annotation transfer approach. Annotation was successful for 50.3% (10,075) of the sequences and 6,113 sequences (30.5%) were annotated with Gene Ontology terms for molecular function, biological process and cellular component. Conclusion We describe the construction of cDNA libraries from juvenile/pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), EST sequencing, clustering, and annotation by assigning putative function to the transcripts. These sequences represents 97% of all sequences submitted to GenBank from the pre-smoltification stage. The data has been grouped into datasets according to its source and type of annotation. Various data query options are offered

  13. Antioxidant nutrition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr and post-smolt, fed diets with high inclusion of plant ingredients and graded levels of micronutrients and selected amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Sissener, Nini H.; Lock, Erik-Jan; Olsvik, Pål A.; Espe, Marit; Torstensen, Bente E.; Silva, Joana; Waagbø, Rune; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    The shift from marine to plant-based ingredients in fish feeds affects the dietary concentrations and bioavailability of micronutrients, amino acids and lipids and consequently warrants a re-evaluation of dietary nutrient recommendations. In the present study, an Atlantic salmon diet high in plant ingredients was supplemented with graded levels of nutrient premix (NP), containing selected amino acids, taurine, cholesterol, vitamins and minerals. This article presents the results on the antioxidant nutrients vitamin C, E and selenium (Se), and effects on tissue redox status. The feed ingredients appeared to contain sufficient levels of vitamin E and Se to cover the requirements to prevent clinical deficiency symptoms. The body levels of α-tocopherol (TOH) in parr and that of Se in parr and post-smolt showed a linear relationship with dietary concentration, while α-TOH in post-smolt seemed to be saturable with a breakpoint near 140 mg kg−1. Ascorbic acid (Asc) concentration in the basal feed was below the expected minimum requirement, but the experimental period was probably too short for the fish to develop visible deficiency symptoms. Asc was saturable in both parr and post-smolt whole body at dietary concentrations of 190 and 63–89 mg kg−1, respectively. Maximum whole body Asc concentration was approximately 40 mg kg−1 in parr and 14 mg kg−1 in post-smolt. Retention ranged from 41 to 10% in parr and from −206 to 12% in post-smolt with increasing NP supplementation. This indicates that the post-smolts had an extraordinarily high consumption of Asc. Analyses of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) concentrations and the calculated GSH based redox potentials in liver and muscle tissue, indicated only minor effects of diets on redox regulation. However, the post-smolt were more oxidized than the parr. This was supported by the high consumption of Asc and high expression of gpx1 and gpx3 in liver. Based on the present trials, the

  14. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  15. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 μg L-1 NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 μg L-1 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long term, “organizational” effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  16. Transcriptional effects of metal-rich acid drainage water from the abandoned Løkken Mine on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Ulvund, John B; Teien, Hans C; Urke, Henning A; Lie, Kai K; Kristensen, Torstein

    2016-01-01

    Runoff of metals represents one of the major environmental challenges related to historic and ongoing mining activity. In this study, transcriptomics (direct RNA sequencing [RNA-seq] and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction [RT-qPCR]) was used to predict toxicity of metal-rich acid mine drainage (AMD) water collected in the abandoned copper (Cu) mine called Løkken Mine on Atlantic salmon liver and kidney, the main target organs of Cu-induced toxicity in fish. Smolts were exposed to control and diluted AMD water, which contains a mixture of metals but is especially enriched with Cu, at 4 concentrations in freshwater (FW) for 96 h, and then were transferred to and kept in seawater (SW) for another 24 h. Significant accumulation of Cu was observed in the gills, but not liver and kidney tissues, after 96 h of exposure. Short-term exposure to metal-rich ADM (high exposure group) significantly upregulated 3201 transcripts and downregulated 3782 transcripts in liver. The strongest effect attributed to exposure was observed on the KEGG pathway "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum," followed by "steroid biosynthesis." Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that exposure predominantly affected "protein folding," possibly by disrupting disulfide bonds as a result of endoplasmic-reticulum-generated stress, and "sterol biosynthetic processes." Transfer to uncontaminated SW for 24 h amended the transcription of several genes, suggesting a transient effect of treatment on some mechanisms. In conclusion, the data show that trace metals in AMD from abandoned pyrite mines might disturb molecular mechanisms linked to protein folding in Atlantic salmon smolt endoplasmic reticulum.

  17. Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR gill expression after seawater transfer in smolts (0+) of different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mackie, P.M.; Gharbi, K.; Ballantyne, J.S.; McCormick, S.D.; Wright, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoltification involves morphological and physiological changes in the gills that prepare anadromous salmonids to osmoregulate efficiently in seawater. In a previous study, we found that different families of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts vary in their ability to osmoregulate when abruptly transferred to cold seawater and that these differences are correlated with gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity. Here we extend these findings to test whether other key transport proteins, namely Na+/K+/2Cl- contransporter (NKCC) and the Cl- channel or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), play a significant role in osmoregulatory differences between families. To facilitate molecular analysis of NKCC, we first isolated a gill cDNA containing the complete coding region (1147 aa) of an isoform previously reported as a partial sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this isoform is most closely related to isoforms of the NKCC1a subfamily found in European eel and Mozambique tilapia. In a second step, we quantified NKCC protein abundance as well as mRNA expression levels for NKCC1a and two CFTR isoforms (CFTRI and CFTRII) in 0+ smolts from three families prior to and following seawater transfer. The family with the lowest salinity tolerance also showed significant increases in gill NKCC1a mRNA after seawater transfer. Taken together with our previous study, these data indicate that family differences in expression of transport proteins are in part related to salinity tolerance, although the best indicator of osmoregulatory performance between families may be gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity and CFTR I mRNA levels, rather than Na+/K+ ATPase and NKCC1a mRNA levels or NKCC protein abundance. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  19. Variation in Patient Profiles and Outcomes in US and Non-US Subgroups of the Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Harrington, Robert A.; Stone, Gregg W.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Gibson, C. Michael; Hamm, Christian W.; Price, Matthew J.; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; White, Harvey D.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX trial demonstrated superiority of cangrelor in reducing ischemic events at 48 hours in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention compared with clopidogrel. Methods and Results— We analyzed all patients included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis in US (n=4097; 37.4%) and non-US subgroups (n=6845; 62.6%). The US cohort was older, had a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors, and had more frequently undergone prior cardiovascular procedures. US patients more frequently underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina (77.9% versus 46.2%). Almost all US patients (99.1%) received clopidogrel loading doses of 600 mg, whereas 40.5% of non-US patients received 300 mg. Bivalirudin was more frequently used in US patients (56.7% versus 2.9%). At 48 hours, rates of the primary composite end point were comparable in the US and non-US cohorts (5.5% versus 5.2%; P=0.53). Cangrelor reduced rates of the primary composite end point compared with clopidogrel in US (4.5% versus 6.4%; odds ratio 0.70 [95% confidence interval 0.53–0.92]) and in non-US patients (4.8% versus 5.6%; odds ratio 0.85 [95% confidence interval 0.69–1.05]; interaction P=0.26). Similarly, rates of the key secondary end point, stent thrombosis, were reduced by cangrelor in both regions. Rates of Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO)–defined severe bleeding were low and not significantly increased by cangrelor in either region. Conclusions— Despite broad differences in clinical profiles and indications for percutaneous coronary intervention by region in a large global cardiovascular clinical trial, cangrelor consistently reduced rates of ischemic end points compared with clopidogrel without an excess in severe bleeding in both the US and non-US subgroups. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http

  20. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G.; Carter, Chris G.; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  1. Intestinal barrier function of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post smolts is reduced by common sea cage environments and suggested as a possible physiological welfare indicator

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fish farmed under high intensity aquaculture conditions are subjected to unnatural environments that may cause stress. Therefore awareness of how to maintain good health and welfare of farmed fish is important. For Atlantic salmon held in sea cages, water flow, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature will fluctuate over time and the fish can at times be exposed to detrimentally low DO levels and high temperatures. This experimental study investigates primary and secondary stress responses of Atlantic salmon post smolts to long-term exposure to reduced and fluctuating DO levels and high water temperatures, mimicking situations in the sea cages. Plasma cortisol levels and cortisol release to the water were assessed as indicators of the primary stress response and intestinal barrier integrity and physiological functions as indicators of secondary responses to changes in environmental conditions. Results Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in fish exposed to low (50% and 60% saturation) DO levels and low temperature (9°C), at days 9, 29 and 48. The intestinal barrier function, measured as electrical resistance (TER) and permeability of mannitol at the end of the experiment, were reduced at 50% DO, in both proximal and distal intestine. When low DO levels were combined with high temperature (16°C), plasma cortisol levels were elevated in the cyclic 1:5 h at 85%:50% DO group and fixed 50% DO group compared to the control (85% DO) group at day 10 but not at later time points. The intestinal barrier function was clearly disturbed in the 50% DO group; TER was reduced in both intestinal regions concomitant with increased paracellular permeability in the distal region. Conclusions This study reveals that adverse environmental conditions (low water flow, low DO levels at low and high temperature), that can occur in sea cages, elicits primary and secondary stress responses in Atlantic salmon post smolts. The intestinal barrier function was significantly

  2. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  3. Prevalence and levels of Renibacterium salmoninarum in spring-summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Jackson, L.M.; Mathews, G.M.; Harmon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated Renibaeterium salmoninarum infection in smolts of hatchery and wild spring-summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sampled during most of the outmigration at Little Goose (1988) and Lower Granite dams (1988–1991) on the Snake River and at Priest Rapids and McNary dams on the Columbia River (1988–1990). We sampled 860–2,178 fish per dam each year. Homogenates of kidney–spleen tissue from all fish were tested for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homogenates from 10% of the fish were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Although only 1–11% of fish sampled at a given dam during any l year exhibited lesions characteristic of bacterial kidney disease, 86–100% of the fish tested positive for R. salmoninarum antigen by ELISA, whereas 4–17% of the fish tested positive by the FAT. During most years, a majority (68–87%) of fish testing positive by the ELISA had low R. salmoninarum antigen levels, but in 1989, 53% of positive fish from Lower Granite Dam and 52% from McNary Dam showed medium-to-high antigen levels. For most years, the highest mean antigen levels were measured in fish sampled after 75% of the total out-migrants had passed a given dam. When the largest numbers of fish were being collected for bypass or downriver transportation, mean antigen levels were relatively low.

  4. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  5. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  6. Prospective Optimization.

    PubMed

    Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J

    2014-05-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications.

  7. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  8. The pituitary-thyroid axis during the parr-smolt transformation of Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch: quantification of TSH β mRNA, TSH, and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Donald A; Swanson, Penny; Dickhoff, Walton W

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this investigation was to quantify pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) β mRNA, pituitary and plasma TSH and plasma thyroid hormone levels during the parr-smolt transformation of Coho salmon that occurs in spring from February to May. The status of the pituitary-thyroid axis was assessed using an RNase protection assay for pituitary TSH β mRNA and radioimmunoassays for salmon pituitary and plasma TSH and thyroid hormones. TSH β mRNA was highest during late winter (February) (4.9 pg/μg DNA) and gradually declined during spring (2.3 pg/μg DNA). In contrast, pituitary and plasma TSH levels showed a small, but statistically non-significant change during smoltification. Despite minimal change in plasma TSH levels, characteristically large increases in plasma T4 (January-3.3 ng/ml to April-10.2 ng/ml) and significant, but modest increases in plasma T3 (February-2.4 ng/ml to April-5.8 ng/ml) were observed. Regression analysis showed a significant positive relationship between plasma T4 and T3 and negative relationship between plasma T3 and pituitary TSH β mRNA. However, all other relations were not significant. These data suggest a significant role for peripheral regulation (i.e. T4-T3 conversion, change in tissue sensitivity, hormone degradation rate) as well as evidence of central regulation via negative feedback at the level of the pituitary gland in regulation of thyroid activity in salmon. Furthermore, the increased thyroid sensitivity to TSH (shown previously), in the face of relatively constant plasma TSH levels, may be the major factor responsible for the increased thyroid activity observed during smoltification.

  9. Nutritional Evaluation of an EPA-DHA Oil from Transgenic Camelina sativa in Feeds for Post-Smolt Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, Mónica B.; Sprague, Matthew; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Metochis, Christoforos; Campbell, Patrick J.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Tocher, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils (VO) are possible substitutes for fish oil in aquafeeds but their use is limited by their lack of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). However, oilseed crops can be modified to produce n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, representing a potential option to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil with around 15% total n-3 LC-PUFA to potentially substitute for fish oil in salmon feeds. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed for 11-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either fish oil (FO), wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or transgenic Camelina oil (DCO) as added lipid source to evaluate fish performance, nutrient digestibility, tissue n-3 LC-PUFA, and metabolic impact determined by liver transcriptome analysis. The DCO diet did not affect any of the performance or health parameters studied and enhanced apparent digestibility of EPA and DHA compared to the WCO diet. The level of total n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in all the tissues of DCO-fed fish than in WCO-fed fish with levels in liver similar to those in fish fed FO. Endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic activity was observed in fish fed both the Camelina oil diets as indicated by the liver transcriptome and levels of intermediate metabolites such as docosapentaenoic acid, with data suggesting that the dietary combination of EPA and DHA inhibited desaturation and elongation activities. Expression of genes involved in phospholipid and triacylglycerol metabolism followed a similar pattern in fish fed DCO and WCO despite the difference in n-3 LC-PUFA contents. PMID:27454884

  10. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  11. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  12. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  13. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  14. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  15. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  16. Gear optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Ning-Tian

    1988-01-01

    The use of formal numerical optimization methods for the design of gears is investigated. To achieve this, computer codes were developed for the analysis of spur gears and spiral bevel gears. These codes calculate the life, dynamic load, bending strength, surface durability, gear weight and size, and various geometric parameters. It is necessary to calculate all such important responses because they all represent competing requirements in the design process. The codes developed here were written in subroutine form and coupled to the COPES/ADS general purpose optimization program. This code allows the user to define the optimization problem at the time of program execution. Typical design variables include face width, number of teeth and diametral pitch. The user is free to choose any calculated response as the design objective to minimize or maximize and may impose lower and upper bounds on any calculated responses. Typical examples include life maximization with limits on dynamic load, stress, weight, etc. or minimization of weight subject to limits on life, dynamic load, etc. The research codes were written in modular form for easy expansion and so that they could be combined to create a multiple reduction optimization capability in future.

  17. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects.

  18. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout 0. mykiss adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects.

  19. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  20. Achieving real-time performance in FIESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, William; Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Quillin, Robert; Carlisle, Candace

    1988-01-01

    The Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA) is targeted for operation in a real-time online environment. Initial stages of the prototype development concentrated on acquisition and representation of the knowledge necessary to isolate faults in the TDRSS Network. Recent efforts focused on achieving real-time performance including: a discussion of the meaning of FIESTA real-time requirements, determination of performance levels (benchmarking) and techniques for optimization. Optimization techniques presented include redesign of critical relations, filtering of redundant data and optimization of patterns used in rules. Results are summarized.

  1. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  2. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  3. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-11-01

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark simulated annealing on a class of maximum-2-satisfiability (MAX2SAT) problems. We also compare the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer to the Hamze-Freitas-Selby (HFS) solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low-tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N =1098 variables, the D-Wave device is 2 orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver, and, modulo known caveats related to suboptimal annealing times, exhibits identical scaling with problem size.

  4. A global study of the unmet need for glycemic control and predictor factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have achieved optimal fasting plasma glucose control on basal insulin

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Engels; Colagiuri, Stephen; Gaàl, Zsolt; Lavalle, Fernando; Mkrtumyan, Ashot; Nikonova, Elena; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Vidal, Josep; Davies, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This study used data from different sources to identify the extent of the unmet need for postprandial glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after the initiation of basal insulin therapy in Europe, Asia Pacific, the United States, and Latin America. Methods Different levels of evidence were used as available for each country/region, with data extracted from seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), three clinical trial registries (CTRs), and three electronic medical record (EMR) databases. Glycemic status was categorized as “well controlled” (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] at target [<7%]), “residual hyperglycemia” (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] but not HbA1c at target [FPG <7.2/7.8 mmol/L, <130/140 mg/dL, depending on country‐specific recommendations]), or “uncontrolled” (both FPG and HbA1c above target). Predictor factors were identified from the RCT data set using logistic regression analysis. Results RCT data showed that 16.9% to 28.0%, 42.7% to 54.4%, and 16.9% to 38.1% of patients with T2DM had well‐controlled glycemia, residual hyperglycemia, and uncontrolled hyperglycemia, respectively. In CTRs, respective ranges were 21.8% to 33.6%, 31.5% to 35.6%, and 30.7% to 46.8%, and in EMR databases were 4.4% to 21.0%, 23.9% to 31.8%, and 53.6% to 63.8%. Significant predictor factors of residual hyperglycemia identified from RCT data included high baseline HbA1c (all countries/regions except Brazil), high baseline FPG (United Kingdom/Japan), longer duration of diabetes (Brazil), and female sex (Europe/Latin America). Conclusions Irrespective of intrinsic differences between data sources, 24% to 54% of patients with T2DM globally had residual hyperglycemia with HbA1c not at target, despite achieving FPG control, indicating a significant unmet need for postprandial glycemic control. PMID:27606888

  5. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  6. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  7. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  8. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  9. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  10. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  11. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  12. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  13. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  14. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  15. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  16. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  17. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  18. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  19. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  20. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Y. C.; Drury, M.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G. A.; Poelker, M.; Reece, C.; Tiefenback, M.

    2011-05-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  1. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  2. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  3. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook salmon and steelhead trout adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and develop habitat enhancement mitigation accounting based on increases in wild/natural smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. The project to date has developed good information on the relationship between chinook salmon adult escapement and smolt production at low to medium seeding levels. Adult chinook salmon escapements have been too low for us to test carrying capacity. For steelhead trout, they have developed a relationship between parr populations and smolt production at low to high seeding levels, with limited information on carrying capacity.

  4. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. This project to date has developed good information on the relationship between adult chinook salmon escapement and smolt production at low to medium seeding levels. This information for steelhead includes a fair estimate of carrying capacity. To date, we have been unable to accurately estimate egg-to-parr survival for steelhead. Future efforts will include determining the relationship between adult steelhead trout escapement and age 1 + parr production, determining environmental and habitat factors that affect smolt production, and developing project results to help the region make good management decisions for anadromous fish.

  5. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, Annual Reports 1993, 1994, 1995 : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Timothy R.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This reports on the second, third, and fourth years of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally produced spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulational and interannual variation in several early life history parameters of naturally produced spring and summer chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project will provide information to assist chinook salmon population recovery efforts. Specific populations included in the study are: (1) Catherine Creek; (2) Upper Grande Ronde River; (3) Lostine River; (4) Imnaha River; (5) Wenaha River; and (6) Minam River. In this document, the authors present findings and activities from research completed in 1993, 1994, and 1995.

  6. Achieving optimal outcomes with all-zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Christensen, John Juel

    2014-01-01

    All-zirconia crowns are enjoying an unprecedented popularity. Dental laboratories are acquiring new equipment and adopting novel techniques, some of which require a learning curve. As a result, some crowns fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology may come back to the dentist with unsatisfactory features. Dentists should carefully examine each crown under magnification prior to delivery to the patient. The dentist and dental laboratory should establish a close partnership with clear communication to yield the most favorable outcome for the patient.

  7. Earning the Stamp of Approval: How To Achieve Optimal Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makar, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the redesign of the Web site at the virtual library of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Discusses usability problems with the original site, including navigation difficulties; focus groups to determine user needs; usability testing for the new Web site; and the importance of customer input. (LRW)

  8. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  9. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  10. Optimized solar module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santala, T.; Sabol, R.; Carbajal, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The minimum cost per unit of power output from flat plate solar modules can most likely be achieved through efficient packaging of higher efficiency solar cells. This paper outlines a module optimization method which is broadly applicable, and illustrates the potential results achievable from a specific high efficiency tandem junction (TJ) cell. A mathematical model is used to assess the impact of various factors influencing the encapsulated cell and packing efficiency. The optimization of the packing efficiency is demonstrated. The effect of encapsulated cell and packing efficiency on the module add-on cost is shown in a nomograph form.

  11. Students' Goal Achievement: Exploring Individual and Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrer-Rendall, Nicola; Wesson, Caroline; Anderson, Lindsey; Bould, Emma

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary investigation of the individual and situational factors affecting goal achievement in a psychology student population. The impact of normative information on goal achievement is considered in relation to goal commitment, optimism, gender and academic setting. Method: Psychology students (n=121) from…

  12. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  13. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  14. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  15. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  16. Optimal refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Hovhannisyan, Karen; Mahler, Guenter

    2010-05-01

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two n -level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures Th and Tc , respectively (θ≡Tc/Th<1) . The refrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and vice versa. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two systems. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by ζCA=(1)/(1-θ)-1 (an analog of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency ζC=(1)/(1-θ)-1 . The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit θ→1 . The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for lnn≫1 . If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by ζCA and converges to it for n≫1 .

  17. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  18. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  19. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  20. Optimal Control of Electrodynamic Tethers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    method.46 Even though the derivation that produced Eq. (11) required integration over a hypothetical integer number of revolutions, the optimizer ... approach to multi-revolution, long time scale optimal control of an electrodynamic tether is investigated for a tethered satellite system in Low Earth...time scale approach is used to capture the effects of the Earth’s rotating tilted magnetic field. Optimal control solutions are achieved using a

  1. RF Gun Optimization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko

    2007-07-03

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

  2. Optimizing influenza vaccine distribution.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P

    2009-09-25

    The criteria to assess public health policies are fundamental to policy optimization. Using a model parametrized with survey-based contact data and mortality data from influenza pandemics, we determined optimal vaccine allocation for five outcome measures: deaths, infections, years of life lost, contingent valuation, and economic costs. We find that optimal vaccination is achieved by prioritization of schoolchildren and adults aged 30 to 39 years. Schoolchildren are most responsible for transmission, and their parents serve as bridges to the rest of the population. Our results indicate that consideration of age-specific transmission dynamics is paramount to the optimal allocation of influenza vaccines. We also found that previous and new recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention both for the novel swine-origin influenza and, particularly, for seasonal influenza, are suboptimal for all outcome measures.

  3. Process validation: achieving the Operational Qualification phase.

    PubMed

    Buffaloe, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The OQ phase of process validation is very important and is where the complete understanding of the process is determined by experimentation. This understanding is useful to: * establish optimal process parameters * understand variation that affect the process * aid in investigating process deviations. OQ is an important part of the entire process validation activity and essential to understanding a manufacturing process. The benefits of completing the OQ and overall process validation are the reasons that it makes business sense and receive the long-term benefits of producing high quality product and achieving customer satisfaction.

  4. Critical Pedagogy for Transformative Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This essay critically highlights the main features of a study that attaches importance to the concepts of time and optimism and their effects on the achievement and goals of high and low achievers in a North American and a Brazilian context. The focus on the time factor that serves as a leitmotif throughout the study gives this work its…

  5. Optimizing Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Anette

    2006-11-01

    In this talk we will discuss two optimization topics related to low Reynolds number locomotion: optimal stroke patterns in linked swimmers and optimal fluid material properties in adhesive locomotion. In contrast to many optimization problems, we do not consider geometry, rather we optimize the swimming kinematics or fluid material properties for a given geometrical configuration. In the first case, we begin by optimizing stroke patterns for Purcell's 3-link swimmer. We model the swimmer as a jointed chain of three slender links moving in an inertialess flow. The swimmer is optimized for both efficiency and speed. In the second case, we analyze the adhesive locomotion used by common gastropods such as snails and slugs. Such organisms crawl on a solid substrate by propagating muscular waves of shear stress on a viscoelastic mucus. Using a simple mechanical model, we derive criteria for favorable fluid material properties to lower the energetic cost of locomotion.

  6. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  7. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  8. Utility Theory for Evaluation of Optimal Process Condition of SAW: A Multi-Response Optimization Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Saurav; Biswas, Ajay; Bhaumik, Swapan; Majumdar, Gautam

    2011-01-17

    Multi-objective optimization problem has been solved in order to estimate an optimal process environment consisting of optimal parametric combination to achieve desired quality indicators (related to bead geometry) of submerged arc weld of mild steel. The quality indicators selected in the study were bead height, penetration depth, bead width and percentage dilution. Taguchi method followed by utility concept has been adopted to evaluate the optimal process condition achieving multiple objective requirements of the desired quality weld.

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.

    2007-12-07

    In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the

  10. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation.

  11. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally-Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, 1996 Annual Report : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovich, Paul; Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifth year of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally-produced chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), from northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulation and interannual variation in several early life history characteristics of naturally-produced chinook salmon from the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project provides information useful in the recovery of listed Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. Specific populations included in the study are (1) Catherine Creek, (2) upper Grande Ronde River, (3) Lostine River, (4) Imnaha River, (5) Wenaha River, and (6) Minam River. In this document, we present findings from research completed in 1996. Naturally-produced chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins have declined drastically in recent years due in part to habitat alterations and hydropower development. Declines have continued despite extensive mitigation efforts, including fish passage improvements, artificial production, supplementation, and habitat modification (BPA Division of Fish and Wildlife 1990). Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (hereafter referred to as chinook salmon), which include naturally-produced chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins, have been listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as threatened or endangered since 1992.

  12. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT AND THE NAVAJO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAAS, JOHN; MELVILLE, ROBERT

    A STUDY WAS DEVISED TO APPRAISE THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF NAVAJO STUDENTS LIVING IN DORMITORIES AWAY FROM THE INDIAN RESERVATION. THE FOLLOWING SEVEN FACTORS WERE CHOSEN TO BE INVESTIGATED AS BEING DIRECTLY RELATED TO ACHIEVEMENT--(1) INTELLIGENCE, (2) READING ABILITY, (3) ANXIETY, (4) SELF-CONCEPT, (5) MOTIVATION, (6) VERBAL DEVELOPMENT, (7)…

  13. Sociocultural Origins of Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theoretical review of work on sociocultural influences on achievement, focusing on a critical evaluation of the work of David McClellan. Offers an alternative conception of achievement motivation which stresses the role of contextual and situational factors in addition to personality factors. Available from: Transaction Periodicals…

  14. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do…

  15. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  16. Early Intervention and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hormes, Mridula T.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Education has been rigorous in holding all states accountable with regard to student achievement. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 clearly laid out federal mandates for all schools to follow. K-12 leaders of public schools are very aware of the fact that results in terms of student achievement need to improve…

  17. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  18. Asperger Syndrome and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…

  19. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  20. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  1. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  2. Enhanced Ocean Predictability Through Optimal Observing Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    oceanographic applications. Second, use these methods to design optimal observing strategies with special emphasis on drifter deployments that achieve...to assess the predictability of the optimal deployment strategy . The original idea was to use ensemble methods for this analysis. However, a...Enhanced Ocean Predictability Through Optimal Observing Strategies PI: A. D. Kirwan, Jr. College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware

  3. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  4. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  5. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  6. Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34" ’■■"■" 1 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations by Richard Fliss Col. Richard M. Meinhart Project...government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES IN ARMY INSTALLATIONS BY RICHARD FLISS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved...for public release. Distribution is unlimited. DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED & USAWC CLASS OF 1998 U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050

  7. Optimization of modified volume Fresnel zone plates.

    PubMed

    Srisungsitthisunti, Pornsak; Ersoy, Okan K; Xu, Xianfan

    2009-10-01

    Modified volume Fresnel zone plates (MVFZPs) fabricated with laser direct writing were optimized for higher diffraction efficiencies. The Fresnel radii in each layer of a volume zone plate were iteratively adjusted by a simulation-based direct search optimization. The results show that optimization is effective but depends strongly on the starting diffraction efficiencies determined by the MVFZP parameters. The simulations indicate that the optimized MVFZP can achieve 93% diffraction efficiency.

  8. Distributed Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macready, William; Wolpert, David

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a new framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems, by solving constrained optimization problems with an algorithm based on that framework. The framework is ar. information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to allow bounded rational agents. The associated optimization algorithm is a game in which agents control the variables of the optimization problem. They do this by jointly minimizing a Lagrangian of (the probability distribution of) their joint state. The updating of the Lagrange parameters in that Lagrangian is a form of automated annealing, one that focuses the multi-agent system on the optimal pure strategy. We present computer experiments for the k-sat constraint satisfaction problem and for unconstrained minimization of NK functions.

  9. Achievements and tasks for active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Jiri

    This short survey attempted to highlight some achievements of the latest active control applications. Except for the active control of a one-dimensional sound field in ducts and active headphones, the applications for active control technology are still being developed. Although the principles of active control are simple, their applications still require substantial research and modeling of the sound fields to find optimal solutions. There is no doubt that active control of sound field triggered extensive research of the fundamental properties of the sound field which goes beyond the textbook simplifications. Also, new hardware, particularly actuators, are under development. As more realism is brought into assessment of applicability of active control, we will see in the future increasing confidence of industry to adopt this new technology.

  10. Electrodialysis simulation to achieve optimum current density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Cal C.

    1993-01-01

    Electrodialysis is used to remove salts from waste or other water streams, to yield a concentrated brine and a substatially deionized product water. During the electrodialysis process, the boundary layer adjacent to the ion selective membrane can become depleted of ions, resulting in severe pH changes sometimes accompanied by precipitation, and power losses, by a process known as water splitting. In order to optimize the applied electric current density, to achieve maximum deionization without exceeding the limiting current at any point along the path, a simulation program has been created to plot ion concentrations and fluxes, and cell current densities and voltages along the electrodialysis path. A means for tapering the current density along the path is recommended.

  11. Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The paper describes the optimization formulation in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor aerodynamic performance optimization for minimum hover horsepower, rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

    2008-12-03

    The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon release groups

  13. Childhood vaccination: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ndumbe, P

    1996-09-01

    As the goal of eradicating smallpox was being met, the World Health Organization created its Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in 1974 and reached its initial goal of achieving full vaccination of 80% of the world's children by 1990. This effort was aided by the creation of "cold chain" delivery systems and resulted in the annual saving of 3.5 million children in less-developed countries. Current EPI vaccination goals include 1) eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000, 2) elimination of neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, 3) control of measles and hepatitis B, and 4) immunization of 90% of the world's children 1 year or younger by the year 2000. Goals of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (formed in 1991) include 1) provision of an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and effective vaccines; 2) production of improved and new vaccines; and 3) simplification of the logistics of vaccine delivery. Future challenges are to sustain high vaccination coverage, reach the unreached, achieve proper storage of vaccines and reduce waste, integrate new vaccines into national programs, and achieve vaccine self-sufficiency. The fact that these challenges will be difficult to achieve is illustrated by the situation in Africa where the high immunization levels achieved in 1990 have dropped dramatically. Those who must act to implement immunization programs are health personnel, families, governments, and development partners. In order to achieve equity in health, every child must be reached, governments must be made accountable for programs, health workers must convince families of the importance of vaccination, delivery systems must be in place to take advantage of the new vaccines being delivered, and a multisectoral approach must be taken to assure sustainability.

  14. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  15. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…

  16. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  17. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  18. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  19. Student Achievement, 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangino, Evangelina

    This report summarizes results of student achievement in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) tests in 1986-87. Major findings indicate the following: (1) 99.4% of AISD seniors to graduate in May 1987 passed the Exit-Level TEAMS tests, with only 17 denied diplomas in…

  20. Sociocultural Variation in Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the variations in literacy achievement among native and non-native upper primary school children (grades three to six) in the Netherlands. Various measures of word decoding, reading literacy and writing skill were collected from 1091 native Dutch children, 753 children with a former Dutch colonial…

  1. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  2. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  3. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  4. Grouping Students for Increased Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews results of four recent studies exploring the effects of various student-grouping schemes on academic achievement. Grouping plans included multiage classrooms, full-time ability grouping, and within-classroom grouping. Two studies investigated administrator attitudes toward student grouping. Several studies found that grouping plans…

  5. Achievement, Hedonism and the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    The problem of poor school achievement is in part because students lack work and discipline values. The article suggests moral and ethical teachings inspire students to be better scholars and people; and teacher education must prepare teachers to be moral educators by reintroducing moral education into the curriculum. (SM)

  6. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  7. Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C.

    This paper discusses ways that institutions can change the higher education system and environment to accommodate more minority students. The first section, "Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement," presents an overview of the problems facing colleges and universities with respect to recruiting and retaining minority students. In the…

  8. Faculty Development: Assessing Learner Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; Overfield, Karen

    This study addressed the challenges of developing a faculty professional development workshop on assessment, measurement, and evaluation of achievement in adult learners. The setting for the workshop was a system of postsecondary career colleges throughout the United States. The curriculum development model of D. Kirkpatrick (1994) was used as a…

  9. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  10. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  11. Teacher Dispositions and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Kathleen Adams

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to close the achievement gap between students of minority and majority populations and between students in higher and lower economic circumstances, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) added instruction and evaluation of teacher dispositions to its requirements for credentialing prospective teachers.…

  12. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  13. Housing Affordability And Children's Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Newman, Sandra; Holupka, C Scott

    2016-11-01

    Housing cost burden-the fraction of income spent on housing-is the most prevalent housing problem affecting the healthy development of millions of low- and moderate-income children. By affecting disposable income, a high burden affects parents' expenditures on both necessities for and enrichment of their children, as well as investments in their children. Reducing those expenditures and investments, in turn, can affect children's development, including their cognitive skills and physical, social, and emotional health. This article summarizes the first empirical evidence of the effects of housing affordability on children's cognitive achievement and on one factor that appears to contribute to these effects: the larger expenditures on child enrichment by families in affordable housing. We found that housing cost burden has the same relationship to both children's cognitive achievement and enrichment spending on children, exhibiting an inverted U shape in both cases. The maximum benefit occurs when housing cost burden is near 30 percent of income-the long-standing rule-of-thumb definition of affordable housing. The effect of the burden is stronger on children's math ability than on their reading comprehension and is more pronounced with burdens above the 30 percent standard. For enrichment spending, the curve is "shallower" (meaning the effect of optimal affordability is less pronounced) but still significant.

  14. Optimal quantum cloning via spin networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Qing; Cheng Jianhua; Wang Kelin; Du Jiangfeng

    2006-09-15

    In this paper we demonstrate that optimal 1{yields}M phase-covariant cloning quantum cloning is available via free dynamical evolution of spin networks. By properly designing the network and the couplings between spins, we show that optimal 1{yields}M phase-covariant cloning can be achieved if the initial state is prepared as a specific symmetric state. Especially, when M is an odd number, the optimal phase-covariant cloning can be achieved without ancillas. Moreover, we demonstrate that the same framework is capable for optimal 1{yields}2 universal cloning.

  15. Risk modelling in portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. H.; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-09-01

    Risk management is very important in portfolio optimization. The mean-variance model has been used in portfolio optimization to minimize the investment risk. The objective of the mean-variance model is to minimize the portfolio risk and achieve the target rate of return. Variance is used as risk measure in the mean-variance model. The purpose of this study is to compare the portfolio composition as well as performance between the optimal portfolio of mean-variance model and equally weighted portfolio. Equally weighted portfolio means the proportions that are invested in each asset are equal. The results show that the portfolio composition of the mean-variance optimal portfolio and equally weighted portfolio are different. Besides that, the mean-variance optimal portfolio gives better performance because it gives higher performance ratio than the equally weighted portfolio.

  16. Optimal Fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Optimal fluoridation has been defined as that fluoride exposure which confers maximal cariostasis with minimal toxicity and its values have been previously determined to be 0.5 to 1 mg per day for infants and 1 to 1.5 mg per day for an average child. Total fluoride ingestion and urine excretion were studied in Marin County, California, children in 1973 before municipal water fluoridation. Results showed fluoride exposure to be higher than anticipated and fulfilled previously accepted criteria for optimal fluoridation. Present and future water fluoridation plans need to be reevaluated in light of total environmental fluoride exposure. PMID:1130041

  17. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  18. The incongruous achiever in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kline, S A; Golombek, H

    1974-06-01

    The authors wished to study some of the internal psychological dynamics of achievement in a nonpatient identified high school population. Questionnaires were administered to the Grade 13 students and their parents in a large high school. A number of students whose achievement and educational plans were not congruous with their general background were selected for interview. The findings suggest that a wide variety of ages and developmental stages can be discerned as critical points in the development of a student's attitude toward higher education. These students have many values in common, and their values appear related to a positive or negative identification with parental values. The students themselves show a wide range of personality integration. They relate in a special way to a wide variety of teachers' personalities.

  19. Beam cooling: Principles and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Mohl, Dieter; Sessler, Andrew M.

    2003-05-18

    After a discussion of Liouville's theorem, and its implications for beam cooling, a brief description is given of each of the various methods of beam cooling: stochastic, electron, radiation, laser, ionization, etc. For each, we present the type of particle for which it is appropriate, its range of applicability, and the currently achieved degree of cooling. For each method we also discuss the present applications and, also, possible future developments and further applications.

  20. Predicting educational achievement from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Selzam, S; Krapohl, E; von Stumm, S; O'Reilly, P F; Rimfeld, K; Kovas, Y; Dale, P S; Lee, J J; Plomin, R

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide polygenic score (GPS), derived from a 2013 genome-wide association study (N=127,000), explained 2% of the variance in total years of education (EduYears). In a follow-up study (N=329,000), a new EduYears GPS explains up to 4%. Here, we tested the association between this latest EduYears GPS and educational achievement scores at ages 7, 12 and 16 in an independent sample of 5825 UK individuals. We found that EduYears GPS explained greater amounts of variance in educational achievement over time, up to 9% at age 16, accounting for 15% of the heritable variance. This is the strongest GPS prediction to date for quantitative behavioral traits. Individuals in the highest and lowest GPS septiles differed by a whole school grade at age 16. Furthermore, EduYears GPS was associated with general cognitive ability (~3.5%) and family socioeconomic status (~7%). There was no evidence of an interaction between EduYears GPS and family socioeconomic status on educational achievement or on general cognitive ability. These results are a harbinger of future widespread use of GPS to predict genetic risk and resilience in the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27431296

  1. Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The optimization formulation is described in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.

  2. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  3. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency.

  4. Multidisciplinary optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, J.; Lewis, R.M.; Cramer, E.J.; Frank, P.M.; Shubin, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    This talk will use aeroelastic design and reservoir characterization as examples to introduce some approaches to MDO, or Multidisciplinary Optimization. This problem arises especially in engineering design, where it is considered of paramount importance in today`s competitive global business climate. It is interesting to an optimizer because the constraints involve coupled dissimilar systems of parameterized partial differential equations each arising from a different discipline, like structural analysis, computational fluid dynamics, etc. Usually, these constraints are accessible only through pde solvers rather than through algebraic residual calculations as we are used to having. Thus, just finding a multidisciplinary feasible point is a daunting task. Many such problems have discrete variable disciplines, multiple objectives, and other challenging features. After discussing some interesting practical features of the design problem, we will give some standard ways to formulate the problem as well as some novel ways that lend themselves to divide-and-conquer parallelism.

  5. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  7. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  8. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1988-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  9. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1989-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  10. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  11. Optimized entanglement-assisted quantum error correction

    SciTech Connect

    Taghavi, Soraya; Brun, Todd A.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-10-15

    Using convex optimization, we propose entanglement-assisted quantum error-correction procedures that are optimized for given noise channels. We demonstrate through numerical examples that such an optimized error-correction method achieves higher channel fidelities than existing methods. This improved performance, which leads to perfect error correction for a larger class of error channels, is interpreted in at least some cases by quantum teleportation, but for general channels this interpretation does not hold.

  12. The effects of chronic achievement motivation and achievement primes on the activation of achievement and fun goals.

    PubMed

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-12-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.

  13. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  14. Achievements and challenges of EUV mask imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, Natalia; van Setten, Eelco; de Kruif, Robert; Connolly, Brid; Fukugami, Norihito; Kodera, Yutaka; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Sakata, Yo; Kotani, Jun; Kondo, Shinpei; Imoto, Tomohiro; Rolff, Haiko; Ullrich, Albrecht; Lammers, Ad; Schiffelers, Guido; van Dijk, Joep

    2014-07-01

    The impact of various mask parameters on CDU combined in a total mask budget is presented, for 22 nm lines, for reticles used for NXE:3300 qualification. Apart from the standard mask CD measurements, actinic spectrometry of multilayer is used to qualify reflectance uniformity over the image field; advanced 3D metrology is applied for absorber profile characterization including absorber height and side wall angle. The predicted mask impact on CDU is verified using actual exposure data collected on multiple NXE:3300 scanners. Mask 3D effects are addressed, manifesting themselves in best focus shifts for different structures exposed with off-axis illumination. Experimental NXE:3300 results for 16 nm dense lines and 20 nm (semi-)isolated spaces are shown: best focus range reaches 24 nm. A mitigation strategy by absorber height optimization is proposed based on experimental results of a special mask with varying absorber heights. Further development of a black image border for EUV mask is considered. The image border is a pattern free area surrounding image field preventing exposure the image field neighborhood on wafer. Normal EUV absorber is not suitable for this purpose as it has 1-3% EUV reflectance. A current solution is etching of ML down to substrate reducing EUV reflectance to <0.05%. A next step in the development of the black border is the reduction of DUV Out-of-Band reflectance (<1.5%) in order to cope with DUV light present in EUV scanners. Promising results achieved in this direction are shown.

  15. The VIZIER project: overview; expectations; and achievements.

    PubMed

    Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno

    2010-08-01

    VIZIER is an acronym for a research project entitled "Comparative Structural Genomics of Viral Enzymes Involved in Replication" funded by the European Commission between November 1st, 2004 and April 30th, 2009. It involved 25 partners from 12 countries. In this paper, we describe the organization of the project and the culture created by its multidisciplinary essence. We discuss the main thematic sections of the project and the strategy adopted to optimize the integration of various scientific fields into a common objective: to obtain crystal structures of the widest variety of RNA virus replication enzymes documented and validated as potential drug targets. We discuss the thematic sections and their overall organization, their successes and bottlenecks around the protein production pipeline, the "low hanging fruit" strategy, and measures directed to problem solving. We discuss possible future options for such large-scale projects in the area of antiviral drug design. In a series of accompanying papers in Antiviral Research, the project and its achievements are presented for each virus family.

  16. Optimal shutdown management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Croce, A.; Riboldi, C. E. D.

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents a novel approach for the synthesis of the open-loop pitch profile during emergency shutdowns. The problem is of interest in the design of wind turbines, as such maneuvers often generate design driving loads on some of the machine components. The pitch profile synthesis is formulated as a constrained optimal control problem, solved numerically using a direct single shooting approach. A cost function expressing a compromise between load reduction and rotor overspeed is minimized with respect to the unknown blade pitch profile. Constraints may include a load reduction not-to-exceed the next dominating loads, a not-to-be-exceeded maximum rotor speed, and a maximum achievable blade pitch rate. Cost function and constraints are computed over a possibly large number of operating conditions, defined so as to cover as well as possible the operating situations encountered in the lifetime of the machine. All such conditions are simulated by using a high-fidelity aeroservoelastic model of the wind turbine, ensuring the accuracy of the evaluation of all relevant parameters. The paper demonstrates the capabilities of the novel proposed formulation, by optimizing the pitch profile of a multi-MW wind turbine. Results show that the procedure can reliably identify optimal pitch profiles that reduce design-driving loads, in a fully automated way.

  17. Schedule path optimization for adiabatic quantum computing and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lishan; Zhang, Jun; Sarovar, Mohan

    2016-04-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing and optimization have garnered much attention recently as possible models for achieving a quantum advantage over classical approaches to optimization and other special purpose computations. Both techniques are probabilistic in nature and the minimum gap between the ground state and first excited state of the system during evolution is a major factor in determining the success probability. In this work we investigate a strategy for increasing the minimum gap and success probability by introducing intermediate Hamiltonians that modify the evolution path between initial and final Hamiltonians. We focus on an optimization problem relevant to recent hardware implementations and present numerical evidence for the existence of a purely local intermediate Hamiltonian that achieve the optimum performance in terms of pushing the minimum gap to one of the end points of the evolution. As a part of this study we develop a convex optimization formulation of the search for optimal adiabatic schedules that makes this computation more tractable, and which may be of independent interest. We further study the effectiveness of random intermediate Hamiltonians on the minimum gap and success probability, and empirically find that random Hamiltonians have a significant probability of increasing the success probability, but only by a modest amount.

  18. Competency-Based Achievement System

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N.; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents’ competence in “soft” skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. Objective of program To develop a method to assess residents’ competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. Program description The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents’ knowledge of and competence in important skills. Conclusion By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence. PMID:21918129

  19. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees

    PubMed Central

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F.; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010–July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502

  20. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.

  1. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robards, Shirley N.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap between low- and high-achieving public school students is an important goal of public education. This article explores background information and research and discusses examples of best practices to close the achievement gap. Several plans have been proposed as ways to enhance the achievement of under-represented…

  3. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  4. Evaluating Longitudinal Mathematics Achievement Growth: Modeling and Measurement Considerations for Assessing Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring and modeling academic achievement growth is critical to support educational policy and practice. Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, this study compared various models of mathematics achievement growth on the basis of both practical utility and optimal statistical fit and explored relationships within and…

  5. [SIAM conference on optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-10

    Abstracts are presented of 63 papers on the following topics: large-scale optimization, interior-point methods, algorithms for optimization, problems in control, network optimization methods, and parallel algorithms for optimization problems.

  6. Portfolio optimization with mean-variance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoe, Lam Weng; Siew, Lam Weng

    2016-06-01

    Investors wish to achieve the target rate of return at the minimum level of risk in their investment. Portfolio optimization is an investment strategy that can be used to minimize the portfolio risk and can achieve the target rate of return. The mean-variance model has been proposed in portfolio optimization. The mean-variance model is an optimization model that aims to minimize the portfolio risk which is the portfolio variance. The objective of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using the mean-variance model. The data of this study consists of weekly returns of 20 component stocks of FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (FBMKLCI). The results of this study show that the portfolio composition of the stocks is different. Moreover, investors can get the return at minimum level of risk with the constructed optimal mean-variance portfolio.

  7. [Optimization of radiological scoliosis assessment].

    PubMed

    Enríquez, Goya; Piqueras, Joaquim; Catalá, Ana; Oliva, Glòria; Ruiz, Agustí; Ribas, Montserrat; Duran, Carmina; Rodrigo, Carlos; Rodríguez, Eugenia; Garriga, Victoria; Maristany, Teresa; García-Fontecha, César; Baños, Joan; Muchart, Jordi; Alava, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Most scoliosis are idiopathic (80%) and occur more frequently in adolescent girls. Plain radiography is the imaging method of choice, both for the initial study and follow-up studies but has the disadvantage of using ionizing radiation. The breasts are exposed to x-ray along these repeated examinations. The authors present a range of recommendations in order to optimize radiographic exam technique for both conventional and digital x-ray settings to prevent unnecessary patients' radiation exposure and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients with scoliosis. With analogue systems, leaded breast protectors should always be used, and with any radiographic equipment, analog or digital radiography, the examination should be performed in postero-anterior projection and optimized low-dose techniques. The ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) rule should always be followed to achieve diagnostic quality images with the lowest feasible dose.

  8. Framework for computationally efficient optimal irrigation scheduling using ant colony optimization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general optimization framework is introduced with the overall goal of reducing search space size and increasing the computational efficiency of evolutionary algorithm application for optimal irrigation scheduling. The framework achieves this goal by representing the problem in the form of a decisi...

  9. The Relationship among Achievement Motivation Orientations, Achievement Goals, and Academic Achievement and Interest: A Multiple Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; Patrick, Rosan R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships among achievement motivation orientations and academic achievement and interest and whether achievement goals mediate these relationships. A sample of 503 students aged 14-16 years from 8 secondary schools in two Australia cities responded to a questionnaire package, comprising measures…

  10. Optimal energy growth and optimal control in swept Hiemenz flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guégan, Alan; Schmid, Peter J.; Huerre, Patrick

    2006-11-01

    The objective of the study is first to examine the optimal transient growth of Görtler Hämmerlin perturbations in swept Hiemenz flow. This configuration constitutes a model of the flow in the attachment-line boundary layer at the leading-edge of swept wings. The optimal blowing and suction at the wall which minimizes the energy of the optimal perturbations is then determined. An adjoint-based optimization procedure applicable to both problems is devised, which relies on the maximization or minimization of a suitable objective functional. The variational analysis is carried out in the framework of the set of linear partial differential equations governing the chordwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations. Energy amplifications of up to three orders of magnitude are achieved at low spanwise wavenumbers (k {˜} 0.1) and large sweep Reynolds number (textit{Re} {˜} 2000). Optimal perturbations consist of spanwise travelling chordwise vortices, with a vorticity distribution which is inclined against the sweep. Transient growth arises from the tilting of the vorticity distribution by the spanwise shear via a two-dimensional Orr mechanism acting in the basic flow dividing plane. Two distinct regimes have been identified: for k {≤sssim} 0.25, vortex dipoles are formed which induce large spanwise perturbation velocities; for k {gtrsim} 0.25, dipoles are not observed and only the Orr mechanism remains active. The optimal wall blowing control yields for instance an 80% decrease of the maximum perturbation kinetic energy reached by optimal disturbances at textit{Re} {=} 550 and k {=} 0.25. The optimal wall blowing pattern consists of spanwise travelling waves which follow the naturally occurring vortices and qualitatively act in the same manner as a more simple constant gain feedback control strategy.

  11. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  12. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  15. The Intersection of Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background.…

  16. The Influence of Poverty on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt, poverty has a negative influence on student achievement, especially when achievement is measured by state-mandated standardized tests. However, some bureaucrats, such as state commissioners of education and even state governors, continue to downplay the influence of poverty on student achievement. New Jersey's Governor Chris…

  17. Optimization Methods in Sherpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Nguyen, Dan T.; Doe, Stephen M.; Refsdal, Brian L.

    2009-09-01

    Forward fitting is a standard technique used to model X-ray data. A statistic, usually assumed weighted chi^2 or Poisson likelihood (e.g. Cash), is minimized in the fitting process to obtain a set of the best model parameters. Astronomical models often have complex forms with many parameters that can be correlated (e.g. an absorbed power law). Minimization is not trivial in such setting, as the statistical parameter space becomes multimodal and finding the global minimum is hard. Standard minimization algorithms can be found in many libraries of scientific functions, but they are usually focused on specific functions. However, Sherpa designed as general fitting and modeling application requires very robust optimization methods that can be applied to variety of astronomical data (X-ray spectra, images, timing, optical data etc.). We developed several optimization algorithms in Sherpa targeting a wide range of minimization problems. Two local minimization methods were built: Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was obtained from MINPACK subroutine LMDIF and modified to achieve the required robustness; and Nelder-Mead simplex method has been implemented in-house based on variations of the algorithm described in the literature. A global search Monte-Carlo method has been implemented following a differential evolution algorithm presented by Storn and Price (1997). We will present the methods in Sherpa and discuss their usage cases. We will focus on the application to Chandra data showing both 1D and 2D examples. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  18. An overview of the optimization modelling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    2012-10-01

    SummaryThe optimal use of available resources is of paramount importance in the backdrop of the increasing food, fiber, and other demands of the burgeoning global population and the shrinking resources. The optimal use of these resources can be determined by employing an optimization technique. The comprehensive reviews on the use of various programming techniques for the solution of different optimization problems have been provided in this paper. The past reviews are grouped into nine sections based on the solutions of the theme-based real world problems. The sections include: use of optimization modelling for conjunctive use planning, groundwater management, seawater intrusion management, irrigation management, achieving optimal cropping pattern, management of reservoir systems operation, management of resources in arid and semi-arid regions, solid waste management, and miscellaneous uses which comprise, managing problems of hydropower generation and sugar industry. Conclusions are drawn where gaps exist and more research needs to be focused.

  19. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  20. Multiple Satellite Trajectory Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    SOLVING OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS ........................................5...OPTIMIZATION A. SOLVING OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS The driving principle used to solve optimal control problems was first formalized by the Soviet...methods and processes of solving optimal control problems , this section will demonstrate how the formulations work as expected. Once coded, the

  1. Optimal BLS: Optimizing transit-signal detection for Keplerian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofir, Aviv

    2015-08-01

    Transit surveys, both ground- and space-based, have already accumulated a large number of light curves that span several years. We optimize the search for transit signals for both detection and computational efficiencies by assuming that the searched systems can be described by Keplerian, and propagating the effects of different system parameters to the detection parameters. Importnantly, we mainly consider the information content of the transit signal and not any specific algorithm - and use BLS (Kovács, Zucker, & Mazeh 2002) just as a specific example.We show that the frequency information content of the light curve is primarily determined by the duty cycle of the transit signal, and thus the optimal frequency sampling is found to be cubic and not linear. Further optimization is achieved by considering duty-cycle dependent binning of the phased light curve. By using the (standard) BLS, one is either fairly insensitive to long-period planets or less sensitive to short-period planets and computationally slower by a significant factor of ~330 (for a 3 yr long dataset). We also show how the physical system parameters, such as the host star's size and mass, directly affect transit detection. This understanding can then be used to optimize the search for every star individually.By considering Keplerian dynamics explicitly rather than implicitly one can optimally search the transit signal parameter space. The presented Optimal BLS enhances the detectability of both very short and very long period planets, while allowing such searches to be done with much reduced resources and time. The Matlab/Octave source code for Optimal BLS is made available.

  2. Telemedicine and diabetes: achievements and prospects.

    PubMed

    Franc, S; Daoudi, A; Mounier, S; Boucherie, B; Dardari, D; Laroye, H; Neraud, B; Requeda, E; Canipel, L; Charpentier, G

    2011-12-01

    Health authorities currently have high expectations for telemedicine (TM), as it addresses several major challenges: to improve access to healthcare (especially for patients in underserved or remote areas); to overcome the scarcity of specialists faced with epidemic disease; and to reduce the costs of healthcare while improving quality. The aims of TM in the field of diabetes differ according to the type of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes (T1DM) associated with complex insulin regimens, the goal of TM is to help patients achieve better control of their blood glucose levels through accurate adjustment of insulin doses. In type 2 diabetes (T2DM), while therapeutic adjustments may be necessary, improvement in blood glucose control is based primarily on behavioural changes (reduced calorie and carbohydrate intakes, increased physical activity). Many TM studies focusing on management of blood glucose levels have been published, but most failed to demonstrate any superiority of TM vs traditional care. While previously published meta-analyses have shown a slight advantage at best for TM, these meta-analyses included a mix of studies of varying durations and different populations (both T1DM and T2DM patients, adults and children), and tested systems of inconsistent quality. Studies published to date on TM suggest two currently promising approaches. First, handheld communicating devices, such as smartphones, loaded with software to apply physicians' prescriptions, have been shown to improve glycaemic control. These systems provide immediate assistance to the patient (such as insulin-dose calculation and food choice optimization at meals), and all data stored in the smartphone can be transmitted to authorized caregivers, enabling remote monitoring and even teleconsultation. These systems, initially developed for T1DM, appear to offer many possibilities for T2DM, too. Second, systems combining an interactive Internet system (or a mobile phone coupled to a remote server) with a

  3. Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization for the optimal design of photovoltaic grid-connected systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kornelakis, Aris

    2010-12-15

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a highly efficient evolutionary optimization algorithm. In this paper a multiobjective optimization algorithm based on PSO applied to the optimal design of photovoltaic grid-connected systems (PVGCSs) is presented. The proposed methodology intends to suggest the optimal number of system devices and the optimal PV module installation details, such that the economic and environmental benefits achieved during the system's operational lifetime period are both maximized. The objective function describing the economic benefit of the proposed optimization process is the lifetime system's total net profit which is calculated according to the method of the Net Present Value (NPV). The second objective function, which corresponds to the environmental benefit, equals to the pollutant gas emissions avoided due to the use of the PVGCS. The optimization's decision variables are the optimal number of the PV modules, the PV modules optimal tilt angle, the optimal placement of the PV modules within the available installation area and the optimal distribution of the PV modules among the DC/AC converters. (author)

  4. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  5. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  6. Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Caprara, G V; Barbaranelli, C; Pastorelli, C; Bandura, A; Zimbardo, P G

    2000-07-01

    The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

  7. Achieving Information Dominance: Seven Imperatives for Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    ACHIEVING INFORMATION DOMINANCE : SEVEN IMPERATIVES FOR SUCCESS Topical Area: C4ISR and Space Dr. Tom Kaye and Mr. George Galdorisi Dr. Tom Kaye Mr...00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Achieving Information Dominance : Seven Imperatives for Success 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...time. 3 ACHIEVING INFORMATION DOMINANCE : SEVEN IMPERATIVES FOR SUCCESS by Dr. Tom Kaye and Mr. George Galdorisi An integrated joint and combined C4ISR

  8. An Initial Model of Latina Achievement: Acculturation, Biculturalism, and Achieving Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Maria J.; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationship between acculturation and achieving styles for 244 undergraduate Latinas. Acculturation predicted use of six of nine achieving styles. Hispanicism was positively related to six styles, whereas Americanism was related to four styles. The more bicultural, wider the repertoire of achieving styles. Achieving styles differed…

  9. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  10. Integrating epidemiology, psychology, and economics to achieve HPV vaccination targets.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Chapman, Gretchen B; Galvani, Alison P

    2008-12-02

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide an opportunity to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Optimization of cervical cancer prevention programs requires anticipation of the degree to which the public will adhere to vaccination recommendations. To compare vaccination levels driven by public perceptions with levels that are optimal for maximizing the community's overall utility, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of HPV vaccination. The model is parameterized with survey data on actual perceptions regarding cervical cancer, genital warts, and HPV vaccination collected from parents of vaccine-eligible children in the United States. The results suggest that perceptions of survey respondents generate vaccination levels far lower than those that maximize overall health-related utility for the population. Vaccination goals may be achieved by addressing concerns about vaccine risk, particularly those related to sexual activity among adolescent vaccine recipients. In addition, cost subsidizations and shifts in federal coverage plans may compensate for perceived and real costs of HPV vaccination to achieve public health vaccination targets.

  11. Equitable mitigation to achieve the Paris Agreement goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robiou Du Pont, Yann; Jeffery, M. Louise; Gütschow, Johannes; Rogelj, Joeri; Christoff, Peter; Meinshausen, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarks to guide countries in ratcheting-up ambition, climate finance, and support in an equitable manner are critical but not yet determined in the context of the Paris Agreement. We identify global cost-optimal mitigation scenarios consistent with the Paris Agreement goals and allocate their emissions dynamically to countries according to five equity approaches. At the national level, China's Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) is weaker than any of the five equity approaches, India's NDC is aligned with two, and the EU's and the USA's with three. Most developing countries' conditional (Intended) NDCs (INDCs) are more ambitious than the average of the five equity approaches under the 2 °C goal. If the G8 and China adopt the average of the five approaches, the gap between conditional INDCs and 2 °C-consistent pathways could be closed. For an equitable, cost-optimal achievement of the 1.5 °C target, emissions in 2030 are 21% lower (relative to 2010) than for 2 °C for the G8 and China combined, and 39% lower for remaining countries. Equitably limiting warming to 1.5 °C rather than 2 °C requires that individual countries achieve mitigation milestones, such as peaking or reaching net-zero emissions, around a decade earlier.

  12. Youth Perspectives of Achievement: Is Money Everything?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matope, Jasmine; Badroodien, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    This article draws from a qualitative research project completed at Victoria High School (pseudonym) in Cape Town in 2012 which explored 13 learners' perspectives of achievement and its influence on their lives and thinking. The piece problematises and analyses taken-for-granted connections between money, achievement, youth aspirations and views…

  13. Exploring the Psychological Predictors of Programming Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Aydin, Emin; Kabaca, Tolga

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to explore the predictors of programming achievement. With this aim in mind, the students' success in the programming courses is specified as the dependent variable and creativity, problem solving, general aptitudes, computer attitudes and mathematics achievement are specified as the independent variables. A…

  14. Collective Leadership Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Mascall, Blair

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the impact of collective, or shared, leadership on key teacher variables and on student achievement. As well, it inquired about the relative contribution of different sources of such leadership and whether differences among patterns of collective leadership were related to differences in student achievement.…

  15. Program for Area Concentration Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Anthony J.

    The Program for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT) produces the cooperative assessment instrument known as the Area Concentration Achievement Test (ACAT). The ACAT uses a model designed specifically to measure curricular strengths and weaknesses and to provide this information at the departmental level. PACAT has developed 57…

  16. Multimedia Technology and Students' Achievement in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this study done at a community college in South Florida, the achievements of students who spoke English as their second language who had attended their K-12 education outside the United States in their home countries, in a U.S. college course on world geography are compared with the achievements of students in the same classes who spoke English…

  17. Using Records of Achievement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison, Ed.; Shaw, Eileen, Ed.

    This collection of 22 essays examines the use of records of achievement (student profiles or portfolios) in higher and vocational education in the United Kingdom. They include: (1) "Records of Achievement: Background, Definitions, and Uses" (Alison Assiter and Eileen Shaw); (2) "Profiling in Higher Education" (Alison Assiter…

  18. Socioeconomic Status, Academic Achievement and Teacher Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakiba-Nejad, Hadi; Yellin, David

    A recent study examined the socioeconomic status (SES), parent participation, teacher awareness, and academic achievement of 76 elementary school students. Results were obtained through interpretation of data and review of relevant literature. A strong positive correlation was found between a student's SES and academic achievement in school. Some…

  19. A Better Way to Motivate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Many low income, minority schools in California are within 100 points of closing the achievement gap, a prize worth working for no matter how inconvenient, uncomfortable, or risky. In this article, the author describes a better way to motivate educators to try new things that will accelerate student learning and close the achievement gap. The…

  20. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication for parents and community leaders from the Office of Communications and Outreach, U.S. Department of Education. This issue contains the following articles: (1) President Seeks to Build on Law's Results; (2) Bridging the Gap: Ohio Charter School Surmounts Age, Achievement Barriers; (3) Spellings'…

  1. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  2. Stability and Change in Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, James W.; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The present research examined the nature of stability and change in achievement goal endorsement over time, using 4 complementary data-analytic approaches (differential continuity, mean-level change, individual-level change, and ipsative continuity). Three longitudinal studies were conducted in college classrooms; in each study, achievement goals…

  3. Six Motivational Reasons for Low School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Reiss ("The normal personality: a new way of thinking about people." Cambridge University Press, New York, 2008) empirically derived a reliable and valid taxonomy of 16 life motives ("psychological needs"). The model suggests six motivational reasons for low achievement in school. Low achievement may be motivated by fear of failure (high need for…

  4. School Achievement Strongly Predicts Midlife IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, Ruth; Arndt, Stephan; Caspers, Kristin; Yucuis, Rebecca; McKirgan, L. William; Pfalzgraf, Christopher; Waterman, Elijah

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between measures of IQ and standardized school achievement tests is well established at around r~0.5 when the two are measured in close proximity. The current paper examined the stability of this correlation when comparing elementary school achievement (grades 3-8) and midlife IQ. Iowa Adoption Study participants who had…

  5. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  8. Health and Nutrition: Preconditions for Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    This paper discusses the importance of maternal and infant health for children's educational achievement. Education, health, and nutrition are so closely related that changes in one causes changes in the others. Improvement of maternal and preschooler health and nutrition is a precondition for improved educational achievement. Although parental…

  9. Teaching for Successful Intelligence Raises School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Torff, Bruce; Grigorenko, Elena

    1998-01-01

    A "successful intelligence" intervention improved school achievement for a group of 225 ethnically diverse third-graders, both on performance assessments measuring analytical, creative, and practical achievements and on conventional multiple-choice memory assessments. Teaching for triarchic thinking facilitates factual recall, because learning…

  10. RESOURCE LETTER AT-1 ON ACHIEVEMENT TESTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRUGLAK, HAYM

    SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE MEASUREMENT OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN COLLEGE PHYSICS ARE PRESENTED. DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARIES INCLUDE COMPLETE CITATIONS OF PERTINENT DOCUMENTS PUBLISHED PRIOR TO 1965 AND ARE GROUPED IN CATEGORIES WHICH INCLUDE (1) BACKGROUND REFERENCES, (2) THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY IN TEST CONSTRUCTION, (3) ACHIEVEMENT TESTING, (4)…

  11. A Multivariate Model of Achievement in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, MarLynn; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that several key variables influence student achievement in geometry, but no research has been conducted to determine how these variables interact. A model of achievement in geometry was tested on a sample of 102 high school students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among…

  12. Relationships among Piagetian, IQ, and Achievement Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta

    Relationships between school achievement and two theoretically different measures of intelligence, Piagetian and psychometric, are explored in 143 bright, average, and retarded elementary school students. Factor analyses of the California Test of Mental Maturity, the Metropolitan Achievement Test, the Stanford-Binet, and fifteen Piaget-type tasks…

  13. Student Achievement and Accountability. Annual Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Legislation passed during the 2001 Iowa legislative session established the Student Achievement and Teacher Quality Program, Iowa Code Section 284.12(1). This legislation requires the Iowa Department of Education (DE) to annually report the statewide progress on the following: (1) Student achievement scores in mathematics and reading at the fourth…

  14. Professional Learning Communities Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jan L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the Professional Learning Community model on student achievement in the state of California. Specifically, the study compared student achievement between two school types: Professional Learning Community schools and Non Professional Learning schools. The research utilized existing API scores for California schools…

  15. Achievement and Its Correlates: Symposium III A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Maznah; And Others

    This symposium contains a report of a study which (1) examined the relationship between Malaysian children's perception of control and their academic achievement, by Maznah Ismail and Choo Piang Foong, and two abstracts of studies which (2) investigated achievement motivation and attribution of success in rural and urban Malaysian ethnic groups,…

  16. The Constraints of Poverty on High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Beilke, Jayne R.

    2008-01-01

    Research studies on school success often focus on the impact of discrete elements such as race, culture, ethnicity, gender, language, or school location on high achievement. The condition of poverty, however, may be the most important of all student differences in relation to high achievement; although not all schools have racial diversity, nearly…

  17. Sex Differences in Adults' Motivation to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA) for ordered categorical data was used…

  18. Gifted Student Academic Achievement and Program Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Katrina Ann Woolsey

    2010-01-01

    Gifted academic achievement has been identified as a major area of interest for educational researchers. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there was a relation between the quality of gifted programs as perceived by teachers, coordinators and supervisors of the gifted and the achievement of the same gifted students in 6th and 7th…

  19. Achieve inventory reduction and improve customer service?

    PubMed

    Moody, M C

    2000-05-01

    Is it really possible to achieve significant reductions in your manufacturing inventories while improving customer service? If you really want to achieve significant inventory reductions, focus on the root causes, and develop countermeasures and a work plan, to execute your countermeasures. Include measurements for recording your progress, and deploy your countermeasures until they are no longer required, or until new ones are needed.

  20. Modern Elementary Science Curricula and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ben Afton

    Comparisons of the growth in science achievement of 2,000 elementary science students in six elementary science programs used in Southwestern Michigan were made. Relationships between students' ranking in class, the type of school, sex and growth in achievement were sought, as well as relationships among teacher variables (pre-service science…

  1. Debating Values: Race, Class and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The relationships among race, class and academic achievement are complex, yet have been well documented in Canada for the last thirty years. Generations of students have experienced them--lowered expectations for achievement, gross generalizations about parents' backgrounds and aspirations, negative stereotypes of communities, and curricula that…

  2. Chapter 4: Adult Descriptions of Public Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Adult volunteers who work as experiential educators in Public Achievement (PA) told us about their experiences, and we contrasted these with the stated aims of Public Achievement, young peoples' experiences, and what it is like to be an adult volunteer. PA coaches reflected that there was a significant disjuncture between the official aims of PA…

  3. Student Achievement and National Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Luo, Xiaowei; Schofer, Evan; Meyer, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Educational policy around the world has increasingly focused on improving aggregate student achievement as a means to increase economic growth. In the last two decades, attention has focused especially on the importance of achievement in science and mathematics. Yet, the policy commitments involved have not been based on research evidence. The…

  4. Maryland's Achievements in Public Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents Maryland's achievements in public education for 2011. Maryland's achievements include: (1) Maryland's public schools again ranked #1 in the nation in Education Week's 2011 Quality Counts annual report; (2) Maryland ranked 1st nationwide for a 3rd year in a row in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on…

  5. Razalas' Grouping Method and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to raise the achievement level of students in Integral Calculus using Direct Instruction with Razalas' Method of Grouping. The study employed qualitative and quantitative analysis relative to data generated by the Achievement Test and Math journal with follow-up interview. Within the framework of the limitations of the study, the…

  6. Systemic Reform and Minority Student High Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treisman, Philip Uri; Surles, Stephanie A.

    The under-representation of African American and Hispanic American students among high achievers on standardized tests, honors graduates of most colleges, and practitioners of mathematics and science professions is well-documented. This paper explores the extent to which the current educational reform movement is achieving the goal of…

  7. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  8. Self Regulated Learning of High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathod, Ami

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on high achievers of Senior Secondary school. Main objectives were to identify the self regulated learners among the high achievers, to find out dominant components and characteristics operative in self regulated learners and to compare self regulated learning of learners with respect to their subject (science and non…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Mississippi, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Mississippi for 2010. Mississippi made changes to its state testing program in the 2007-08 school year. Therefore, subgroup and achievement gap trends could not be calculated because fewer than three consecutive years of data were available, too short a period to constitute a…

  10. Black Students: Psychosocial Issues and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Gordon LaVern, Ed.; Asamen, Joy Keiko, Ed.

    This collection examines the history and current status of the economic, political, social, and psychological factors that influence the academic achievement of low-income African Americans. The introduction, "Afro-American Students and Academic Achievement" (J. K. Asamen), outlines the historical development of black education and…

  11. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  12. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  14. Heifer body weight gain and reproductive achievement in response to protein and energy supplementation while grazing dormant range forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifers grazing winter range require supplemental nutrients to compliment dormant forage to achieve optimal growth and performance. A study was conducted to evaluate nutritional environment and effect of different supplementation strategies for developing heifers grazing dormant winter range. Eigh...

  15. Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks

    SciTech Connect

    Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

    2000-05-01

    The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

  16. What grades and achievement tests measure

    PubMed Central

    Borghans, Lex; Golsteyn, Bart H. H.; Heckman, James J.; Humphries, John Eric

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence quotient (IQ), grades, and scores on achievement tests are widely used as measures of cognition, but the correlations among them are far from perfect. This paper uses a variety of datasets to show that personality and IQ predict grades and scores on achievement tests. Personality is relatively more important in predicting grades than scores on achievement tests. IQ is relatively more important in predicting scores on achievement tests. Personality is generally more predictive than IQ on a variety of important life outcomes. Both grades and achievement tests are substantially better predictors of important life outcomes than IQ. The reason is that both capture personality traits that have independent predictive power beyond that of IQ. PMID:27830648

  17. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma achieves better outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Che

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital mainly relies on live donor LT (LDLT). Owing to taking the risk of LD, we are obligated to adopt strict selection criteria for HCC patients and optimize the pre-transplant conditions to ensure a high disease-free survival similar to those without HCC, even better than deceased donor LT (DDLT). Better outcomes are attributed to excellent surgical results and optimal patient selection. The hospital mortality of primary and salvage LDLT are lower than 2% in our center. Although Taiwan Health Insurance Policy extended the Milan to University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria in 2006, selection criteria will not be consolidated to take into account only by the morphologic size/number of tumors but also by their biology. The criteria are divided into modifiable image morphology, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and positron emission tomography (PET) scan with standard uptake value (SUV) and unmodifiable unfavorable pathology such as HCC combined with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), sarcomatoid type, and poor differentiation. Downstaging therapy is necessary for HCC patients beyond criteria to fit all modifiable standards. The upper limit of downstaging treatment seems to be extended by more effective drug eluting transarterial chemoembolization in cases without absolute contraindications. In contrast, the pitfall of unmodifiable tumor pathology should be excluded by the findings of pretransplant core biopsy/resection if possible. More recently, achieving complete tumor necrosis in explanted liver could almost predict no recurrence after transplant. Necrotizing therapy is advised if possible before transplant even the tumor status within criteria to minimize the possibility of tumor recurrence. LDLT with low surgical mortality in experienced centers provides the opportunities of optimizing the pre-transplant tumor conditions and timing of transplant to achieve better

  18. Optimizing municipal wastewater treatment plants using an improved multi-objective optimization method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Xie, Wen-Ming; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei

    2014-04-01

    An improved multi-objective optimization (MOO) model was established and used for simultaneously optimizing the treatment cost and multiple effluent quality indexes (including effluent COD, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N) of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Compared with previous models that were mainly based on the use of fixed decision factors and did not taken into account the treatment cost, this model introduces a relationship model based on back propagation algorithm to determine the set of decision factors according to the expected optimization targets. Thus, a more flexible and precise optimization of the treatment process was allowed. Moreover, a MOO of conflicting objectives (i.e., treatment cost and effluent quality) was achieved. Applying this method, an optimal balance between operating cost and effluent quality of a WWTP can be found. This model may offer a useful tool for optimized design and control of practical WWTPs.

  19. Optimization of composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Structural optimization is introduced and examples which illustrate potential problems associated with optimized structures are presented. Optimized structures may have very low load carrying ability for an off design condition. They tend to have multiple modes of failure occurring simultaneously and can, therefore, be sensitive to imperfections. Because composite materials provide more design variables than do metals, they allow for more refined tailoring and more extensive optimization. As a result, optimized composite structures can be especially susceptible to these problems.

  20. Optimizing Requirements Decisions with KEYS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalali, Omid; Menzies, Tim; Feather, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Recent work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has allowed for external access to five of JPL's real-world requirements models, anonymized to conceal proprietary information, but retaining their computational nature. Experimentation with these models, reported herein, demonstrates a dramatic speedup in the computations performed on them. These models have a well defined goal: select mitigations that retire risks which, in turn, increases the number of attainable requirements. Such a non-linear optimization is a well-studied problem. However identification of not only (a) the optimal solution(s) but also (b) the key factors leading to them is less well studied. Our technique, called KEYS, shows a rapid way of simultaneously identifying the solutions and their key factors. KEYS improves on prior work by several orders of magnitude. Prior experiments with simulated annealing or treatment learning took tens of minutes to hours to terminate. KEYS runs much faster than that; e.g for one model, KEYS ran 13,000 times faster than treatment learning (40 minutes versus 0.18 seconds). Processing these JPL models is a non-linear optimization problem: the fewest mitigations must be selected while achieving the most requirements. Non-linear optimization is a well studied problem. With this paper, we challenge other members of the PROMISE community to improve on our results with other techniques.

  1. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  2. Optimal designs for copula models

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, E.; Müller, W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Copula modelling has in the past decade become a standard tool in many areas of applied statistics. However, a largely neglected aspect concerns the design of related experiments. Particularly the issue of whether the estimation of copula parameters can be enhanced by optimizing experimental conditions and how robust all the parameter estimates for the model are with respect to the type of copula employed. In this paper an equivalence theorem for (bivariate) copula models is provided that allows formulation of efficient design algorithms and quick checks of whether designs are optimal or at least efficient. Some examples illustrate that in practical situations considerable gains in design efficiency can be achieved. A natural comparison between different copula models with respect to design efficiency is provided as well. PMID:27453616

  3. Safety optimization through risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K.; Peltonen, P.

    The paper discusses the overall process of system safety optimization in the space program environment and addresses in particular methods that enhance the efficiency of this activity. Effective system safety optimization is achieved by concentrating the available engineering and safety assurance resouces on the main risk contributors. The qualitative risk contributor identification by means of the hazard analyses and the FMECA constitute the basis for the system safety process. The risk contributors are ranked firstly on a qualitative basis according to the consequence severities. This ranking is then refined by mishap propagation/recovery time considerations and by probabilistic means (PRA). Finally, in order to broaden and extend the use of risk contributor ranking as a managerial tool in project resource assignment, quality, manufacturing and operations related critical characteristics, i.e. risk influencing factors, are identified for managerial visibility.

  4. Sensor placement optimization in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Tisato, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this work we address the problem of optimal sensor placement for a given region and task. An important issue in designing sensor arrays is the appropriate placement of the sensors such that they achieve a predefined goal. There are many problems that could be considered in the placement of multiple sensors. In this work we focus on the four problems identified by Hörster and Lienhart. To solve these problems, we propose an algorithm based on Direct Search, which is able to approach the global optimal solution within reasonable time and memory consumption. The algorithm is experimentally evaluated and the results are presented on two real floorplans. The experimental results show that our DS algorithm is able to improve the results given by the most performing heuristic introduced in. The algorithm is then extended to work also on continuous solution spaces, and 3D problems.

  5. Optimal broadcasting of mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dang Guifang; Fan Heng

    2007-08-15

    The N to M (M{>=}N) universal quantum broadcasting of mixed states {rho}{sup xN} is proposed for a qubit system. The broadcasting of mixed states is universal and optimal in the sense that the shrinking factor is independent of the input state and achieves the upper bound. The quantum broadcasting of mixed qubits is a generalization of the universal quantum cloning machine for identical pure input states. A pure state decomposition of the identical mixed qubits {rho}{sup xN} is obtained.

  6. Industrial cogeneration optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

  7. Optimally Squeezed Spin States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Alberto

    2004-03-01

    We consider optimally spin-squeezed states that maximize the sensitivity of the Ramsey spectroscopy, and for which the signal to noise ratio scales as the number of particles N. Using the variational principle we prove that these states are eigensolutions of the Hamiltonian H(λ)=λ S_z^2-S_x, and that, for large N, the states become equivalent to the quadrature squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. We present numerical results that illustrate the validity of the equivalence. We also present results of spin squeezing via atom-field interactions within the context of the Tavis-Cummings model. An ensemble of N two-level atoms interacts with a quantized cavity field. For all the atoms initially in their ground states, it is shown that spin squeezing of both the atoms and the field can be achieved provided the initial state of the cavity field has coherence between number states differing by 2. Most of the discussion is restricted to the case of a cavity field initially in a coherent state, but initial squeezed states for the field are also discussed. An analytic solution is found that is valid in the limit that the number of atoms is much greater than unity. References: A. G. Rojo, Phys. Rev A, 68, 013807 (2003); Claudiu Genes, P. R. Berman, and A. G. Rojo Phys. Rev. A 68, 043809 (2003).

  8. Effects of Performance Objectives on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Napoleon, Jr.; Anderson, Hans A.

    1972-01-01

    Effects of performance objectives on achievement of black inner city pupils were studied. Two groups of trained and untrained teachers in preparing performance objectives were formed. Results showed positive effects of teachers trained in the use of performance objectives. (PS)

  9. Academic Achievement and Minimal Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Philip; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The investigation provided no evidence that a diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction based on a pediatric neurological evaluation and/or visual-motor impairment as measured by the Bender-Gestalt, is a useful predictor of academic achievement. (Author)

  10. Creativity, Intelligence, and Achievement Among Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruininks, Robert H.; Feldman, David H.

    1970-01-01

    The major findings of the study was that Torrance's tests of creativity acted as a suppressor variable, increasing the relation between IQ and achievement among the disadvantaged children sampled. (Author)

  11. Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Finn, Amy S.; Leonard, Julia A.; Jacoby Senghor, Drew S.; West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F.O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the difference in academic achievement between higher- and lower-income students (i.e., the income achievement gap) is substantial and growing. Here, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of this gap in adolescents (n = 58) in whom academic achievement was measured by statewide standardized testing. Cortical gray matter volume was significantly greater in students from higher-income backgrounds (n = 35) compared to students from lower-income backgrounds (n = 23), but cortical white matter volume and total cortical surface area did not differ between groups. Cortical thickness in all lobes of the brain was greater in students from higher-income than lower-income backgrounds. Thicker cortex, particularly in temporal and occipital lobes, was associated with better test performance. These results represent the first evidence that cortical thickness differs across broad swaths of the brain between higher- and lower-income students, and that cortical thickness is related to academic achievement test scores. PMID:25896418

  12. Closing the Minority Achievement Gap in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Minority students face numerous academic barriers for achievement in the classroom as well as outside the school. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) suggests six principles for maintaining the standard of school mathematics.

  13. Indochinese Refugee Families and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Nathan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The children of the Southeast Asian boat people excel in the U.S. school system. A review of the factors underlying this achievement suggests that the U.S. educational crisis is more social than academic. (KR)

  14. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  15. Information Management Challenges in Achieving Coalition Interoperability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    SEINE CEDEX, FRANCE RTO MEETING PROCEEDINGS 64 Information Management Challenges in Achieving Coalition Interoperability (les Défis de la gestion de...CEDEX, FRANCE RTO MEETING PROCEEDINGS 64 Information Management Challenges in Achieving Coalition Interoperability (les Défis de la gestion de...collection of papers presented, and the resultant discussions. iii les Défis de la gestion de l’information dans la mise en œuvre de

  16. Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox is a library of evolutionary optimization tools developed in the MATLAB environment. The algorithms contained in the library include a genetic algorithm (GA), a single-objective particle swarm optimizer (SOPSO), and a multi-objective particle swarm optimizer (MOPSO). Development focused on both the SOPSO and MOPSO. A GA was included mainly for comparison purposes, and the particle swarm optimizers appeared to perform better for a wide variety of optimization problems. All algorithms are capable of performing unconstrained and constrained optimization. The particle swarm optimizers are capable of performing single and multi-objective optimization. The SOPSO and MOPSO algorithms are based on swarming theory and bird-flocking patterns to search the trade space for the optimal solution or optimal trade in competing objectives. The MOPSO generates Pareto fronts for objectives that are in competition. A GA, based on Darwin evolutionary theory, is also included in the library. The GA consists of individuals that form a population in the design space. The population mates to form offspring at new locations in the design space. These offspring contain traits from both of the parents. The algorithm is based on this combination of traits from parents to hopefully provide an improved solution than either of the original parents. As the algorithm progresses, individuals that hold these optimal traits will emerge as the optimal solutions. Due to the generic design of all optimization algorithms, each algorithm interfaces with a user-supplied objective function. This function serves as a "black-box" to the optimizers in which the only purpose of this function is to evaluate solutions provided by the optimizers. Hence, the user-supplied function can be numerical simulations, analytical functions, etc., since the specific detail of this function is of no concern to the optimizer. These algorithms were originally developed to support entry

  17. Aristos Optimization Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ridzal, Danis

    2007-03-01

    Aristos is a Trilinos package for nonlinear continuous optimization, based on full-space sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods. Aristos is specifically designed for the solution of large-scale constrained optimization problems in which the linearized constraint equations require iterative (i.e. inexact) linear solver techniques. Aristos' unique feature is an efficient handling of inexactness in linear system solves. Aristos currently supports the solution of equality-constrained convex and nonconvex optimization problems. It has been used successfully in the area of PDE-constrained optimization, for the solution of nonlinear optimal control, optimal design, and inverse problems.

  18. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  19. Achievement after Failure: The Role of Achievement Goals and Negative Self-Related Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Claudia; Buch, Susanne R.; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Theory on achievement goals favours a trichotomous model encompassing learning goals, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. Performance-avoidance goals are associated with lower achievement compared to performance-approach and learning goals. The present study investigated the predictions of this model as regards achievement after…

  20. Trajectories of Achievement within Race/Ethnicity: "Catching Up" in Achievement across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Jager, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap has long been the focus of educational research, policy, and intervention. The authors took a new approach to examining the achievement gap by examining achievement trajectories within each racial group. To identify these trajectories they used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, which is a nationally…