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Sample records for achieve optimal smolt

  1. Optimism versus Pessimism and Academic Achievement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpaz-Itay, Yifat; Kaniel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This article integrates three central theories of optimism-pessimism (OP). The combination of the shared components of these theories--outcome expectancies, emotions, and behavioral intention--may produce an integrative academic achievement evaluation. Little has been written regarding the differentiation between general and domain-specific OP, a…

  2. The Effects of Academic Optimism on Elementary Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…

  3. Academic Optimism and Student Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Page A.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was two-fold: to demonstrate a general construct of schools called academic optimism and to show it was related to student achievement in urban elementary schools, even controlling for socioeconomic factors, and school size. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 99 urban elementary schools in Texas…

  4. Translational geroscience: emphasizing function to achieve optimal longevity.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R; Melov, Simon

    2014-09-01

    Among individuals, biological aging leads to cellular and organismal dysfunction and an increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and disability. This sequence of events in combination with the projected increases in the number of older adults will result in a worldwide healthcare burden with dire consequences. Superimposed on this setting are the adults now reaching traditional retirement ages--the baby boomers--a group that wishes to remain active, productive and physically and cognitively fit as they grow older. Together, these conditions are producing an unprecedented demand for increased healthspan or what might be termed "optimal longevity"-to live long, but well. To meet this demand, investigators with interests in the biological aspects of aging from model organisms to human epidemiology (population aging) must work together within an interactive process that we describe astranslational geroscience. An essential goal of this new investigational platform should be the optimization and preservation of physiological function throughout the lifespan, including integrative physical and cognitive function, which would serve to increase healthspan, compress morbidity and disability into a shorter period of late-life, and help achieve optimal longevity. To most effectively utilize this new approach, we must rethink how investigators and administrators working at different levels of the translational research continuum communicate and collaborate with each other, how best to train the next generation of scientists in this new field, and how contemporary biological-biomedical aging research should be organized and funded. PMID:25324468

  5. Translational Geroscience: Emphasizing function to achieve optimal longevity

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Douglas R.; Melov, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Among individuals, biological aging leads to cellular and organismal dysfunction and an increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and disability. This sequence of events in combination with the projected increases in the number of older adults will result in a worldwide healthcare burden with dire consequences. Superimposed on this setting are the adults now reaching traditional retirement ages--the baby boomers--a group that wishes to remain active, productive and physically and cognitively fit as they grow older. Together, these conditions are producing an unprecedented demand for increased healthspan or what might be termed “optimal longevity”—to live long, but well. To meet this demand, investigators with interests in the biological aspects of aging from model organisms to human epidemiology (population aging) must work together within an interactive process that we describe as translational geroscience. An essential goal of this new investigational platform should be the optimization and preservation of physiological function throughout the lifespan, including integrative physical and cognitive function, which would serve to increase healthspan, compress morbidity and disability into a shorter period of late-life, and help achieve optimal longevity. To most effectively utilize this new approach, we must rethink how investigators and administrators working at different levels of the translational research continuum communicate and collaborate with each other, how best to train the next generation of scientists in this new field, and how contemporary biological-biomedical aging research should be organized and funded. PMID:25324468

  6. Optimal achieved blood pressure in acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Wang, Xia; Woodward, Mark; Robinson, Thompson; Stapf, Christian; Parsons, Mark; Lavados, Pablo M.; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering according to baseline BP levels and optimal achieved BP levels in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: INTERACT2 was an open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial in 2,839 patients with ICH within 6 hours of onset and elevated systolic BP (SBP) (150–220 mm Hg) who were allocated to receive intensive (target SBP <140 mm Hg within 1 hour, with lower limit of 130 mm Hg for treatment cessation) or guideline-recommended (target SBP <180 mm Hg) BP-lowering treatment. Outcome was physical function across all 7 levels of the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. Results: Analysis of the randomized comparisons showed that intensive BP lowering produced comparable benefits on physical function at 90 days in 5 subgroups defined by baseline SBP of <160, 160–169, 170–179, 180–189, and ≥190 mm Hg (p homogeneity = 0.790). Analyses of achieved BP showed linear increases in the risk of physical dysfunction for achieved SBP above 130 mm Hg for both hyperacute (1–24 hours) and acute (2–7 days) phases while modest increases were also observed for achieved SBP below 130 mm Hg. Conclusions: Intensive BP lowering appears beneficial across a wide range of baseline SBP levels, and target SBP level of 130–139 mm Hg is likely to provide maximum benefit in acute ICH. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that the effect of intensive BP lowering on physical function is not influenced by baseline BP. PMID:25552575

  7. Optimized Delivery System Achieves Enhanced Endomyocardial Stem Cell Retention

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Atta; Latere, Jean-Pierre; Bartunek, Jozef; Homsy, Christian; Daro, Dorothee; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J.; Stalboerger, Paul G.; Steenwinckel, Valerie; Seron, Aymeric; Redfield, Margaret M.; Terzic, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Background Regenerative cell-based therapies are associated with limited myocardial retention of delivered stem cells. The objective of this study is to develop an endocardial delivery system for enhanced cell retention. Methods and Results Stem cell retention was simulated in silico using one and three-dimensional models of tissue distortion and compliance associated with delivery. Needle designs, predicted to be optimal, were accordingly engineered using nitinol – a nickel and titanium alloy displaying shape memory and super-elasticity. Biocompatibility was tested with human mesenchymal stem cells. Experimental validation was performed with species-matched cells directly delivered into Langendorff-perfused porcine hearts or administered percutaneously into the endocardium of infarcted pigs. Cell retention was quantified by flow cytometry and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Models, computing optimal distribution of distortion calibrated to favor tissue compliance, predicted that a 75°-curved needle featuring small-to-large graded side holes would ensure the highest cell retention profile. In isolated hearts, the nitinol curved needle catheter (C-Cath) design ensured 3-fold superior stem cell retention compared to a standard needle. In the setting of chronic infarction, percutaneous delivery of stem cells with C-Cath yielded a 37.7±7.1% versus 10.0±2.8% retention achieved with a traditional needle, without impact on biocompatibility or safety. Conclusions Modeling guided development of a nitinol-based curved needle delivery system with incremental side holes achieved enhanced myocardial stem cell retention. PMID:24326777

  8. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  9. WFH: closing the global gap--achieving optimal care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark W

    2012-07-01

    For 50 years, the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) has been working globally to close the gap in care and to achieve Treatment for All patients, men and women, with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders, regardless of where they might live. The WFH estimates that more than one in 1000 men and women has a bleeding disorder equating to 6,900,000 worldwide. To close the gap in care between developed and developing nations a continued focus on the successful strategies deployed heretofore will be required. However, in response to the rapid advances in treatment and emerging therapeutic advances on the horizon it will also require fresh approaches and renewed strategic thinking. It is difficult to predict what each therapeutic advance on the horizon will mean for the future, but there is no doubt that we are in a golden age of research and development, which has the prospect of revolutionizing treatment once again. An improved understanding of "optimal" treatment is fundamental to the continued evolution of global care. The challenges of answering government and payer demands for evidence-based medicine, and cost justification for the introduction and enhancement of treatment, are ever-present and growing. To sustain and improve care it is critical to build the body of outcome data for individual patients, within haemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), nationally, regionally and globally. Emerging therapeutic advances (longer half-life therapies and gene transfer) should not be justified or brought to market based only on the notion that they will be economically more affordable, although that may be the case, but rather more importantly that they will be therapeutically more advantageous. Improvements in treatment adherence, reductions in bleeding frequency (including microhemorrhages), better management of trough levels, and improved health outcomes (including quality of life) should be the foremost considerations. As part of a new WFH strategic plan

  10. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in

  11. The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.

  12. Aircraft optimization by a system approach: Achievements and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1992-01-01

    Recently emerging methodology for optimal design of aircraft treated as a system of interacting physical phenomena and parts is examined. The methodology is found to coalesce into methods for hierarchic, non-hierarchic, and hybrid systems all dependent on sensitivity analysis. A separate category of methods has also evolved independent of sensitivity analysis, hence suitable for discrete problems. References and numerical applications are cited. Massively parallel computer processing is seen as enabling technology for practical implementation of the methodology.

  13. Multidisciplinary optimization for engineering systems: Achievements and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1989-01-01

    The currently common sequential design process for engineering systems is likely to lead to suboptimal designs. Recently developed decomposition methods offer an alternative for coming closer to optimum by breaking the large task of system optimization into smaller, concurrently executed and, yet, coupled tasks, identified with engineering disciplines or subsystems. The hierarchic and non-hierarchic decompositions are discussed and illustrated by examples. An organization of a design process centered on the non-hierarchic decomposition is proposed.

  14. Achieving Optimal Privacy in Trust-Aware Social Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail

    Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.

  15. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, José Antonio; Quilis, Neus; Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Pascual, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention. To ensure treatment adherence it is necessary to explain to the patient what the objectives are. PMID:26977282

  16. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  17. Survey of large circular and octagonal tanks operated at Norwegian commercial smolt and post-smolt sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted to determine the geometry, operating parameters, and other key features of large circular or octagonal culture tanks used to produce Atlantic salmon smolt and post-smolt at six major Norwegian Atlantic salmon production companies. A total of 55 large tanks were reported at sev...

  18. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  19. Smolt Quality Assessment of Spring Chinook Salmon : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1991-04-01

    The physiological development and physiological condition of spring chinook salmon are being studied at several hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of the study is to determine whether any or several smolt indices can be related to adult recovery and be used to improve hatchery effectiveness. The tests conducted in 1989 on juvenile chinook salmon at Dworshak, Leavenworth, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries, and the Oregon State Willamette Hatchery assessed saltwater tolerance, gill ATPase, cortisol, insulin, thyroid hormones, secondary stress, fish morphology, metabolic energy stores, immune response, blood cell numbers, and plasma ion concentrations. The study showed that smolt development may have occurred before the fish were released from the Willamette Hatchery, but not from the Dworshak, Leavenworth, or Warm Springs Hatcheries. These results will be compared to adult recovery data when they become available, to determine which smolt quality indices may be used to predict adult recovery. The relative rankings of smolt quality at the different hatcheries do not necessarily reflect the competency of the hatchery managers and staff, who have shown a high degree of professionalism and expertise in fish rearing. We believe that the differences in smolt quality are due to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. One aim of this research is to identify factors that influence smolt development and that may be controlled through fish husbandry to regulate smolt development. 35 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Collective Responsibility, Academic Optimism, and Student Achievement in Taiwan Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that collective efficacy, faculty trust in students and parents, and academic emphasis together formed a single latent school construct, called academic optimism. In the U.S., academic optimism has been proven to be a powerful construct that could effectively predict student achievement even after controlling for…

  1. Differential hormonal responses of Atlantic salmon parr and smolt to increased daylength: A possible developmental basis for smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Shrimpton, J.M.; Moriyama, S.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2007-01-01

    In order to elucidate the developmental basis for smolting, Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, parr ( 12.5??cm) were exposed to natural daylength (LDN) and increased daylength (LD16:8) starting in late February and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and circulating hormone levels monitored from January to May. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity remained low and constant in both groups of parr. In smolts, gill Na+,K+-ATPase began increasing in late February in both photoperiods, but was significantly higher in the LD16:8 group from March through April. Smolts exposed to LD16:8 had dramatically elevated plasma GH within one week of increased daylength that remained high through April, whereas plasma GH of LDN smolts increased steadily beginning in late February and peaking in late April. Plasma GH levels of parr remained low in spring and did not respond to increased daylength. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels were substantially higher in smolts than parr in January. Plasma IGF-I levels of parr increased steadily from January to May, but there was no influence of increased daylength. In smolts, plasma IGF-I of LD16:8 fish initially decreased in early March then increased in late March and April, whereas plasma IGF-I of LDN smolts increased steadily to peak levels in early April. Plasma cortisol was low in parr throughout spring and did not differ between photoperiod treatments. Plasma cortisol of LD16:8 smolts increased in early March and remained elevated through April, whereas in LDN smolts plasma cortisol did not increase until early April and peaked in late April. Plasma thyroid hormones were generally higher in smolts than in parr, but there was no clear effect of increased daylength in parr or smolts. The greater capacity of the GH/IGF-I and cortisol axes to respond to increased daylength may be a critical factor underlying smolt development. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DOWNSTREAM MIGRATION OF SALMONID SMOLTS IN OREGON RIVERS AND ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migratory fish passage is an important designated use for many Oregon estuaries. Acoustic transmitters were implanted in coho smolts in 2004 and 2006 to evaluate how estuarine habitat, and habitat loss, might affect population health. Acoustic receivers that identified individu...

  3. Achieving optimal aesthetics for direct and indirect restorations with microhybrid composite resins.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Wynn H

    2005-04-01

    In aesthetic dentistry, material science has played a key role in the development of natural-appearing restorations. Despite the progress, there have been challenges in achieving a harmonious integration of direct and indirect posterior restorations. Although porcelain restorations provide natural aesthetics, ceramics cannot be applied via direct techniques. Consequently, composite resins are valuable alternatives for conservative posterior restorations. In addition, because of their differing physical and optical properties, optimal aesthetic blending with porcelain and resin cannot be routinely achieved. This article explores the potential of composite resins as a direct and indirect restorative option in achieving the most favorable natural blend in the posterior region. PMID:15974036

  4. Academic Optimism of High School Teachers: Its Relationship to Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Charles A.; DiPaola, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to build on an emergent research base for academic optimism by testing the construct and its relationship to student achievement and organizational citizenship behaviors in schools in a sample of public high schools. All participants in this study were full-time teachers, guidance counselors, and other full-time…

  5. Rock Island Dam Smolt Monitoring; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Robert

    1996-10-01

    Downstream migrating salmon and steelhead (Oncoryhnchus spp.) smolts were monitored at the Rock Island Dam bypass trap from April 1--August 31, 1996. This was the twelfth consecutive year that the bypass trap was monitored. Data collected included: (1) number of fish collected by species, (2) number of fin clipped and/or Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged fish caught by species, (3) total number of fish showing signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT), (4) percent of descaled fish, and (5) daily average river flow, powerhouse {number_sign}1 flow, powerhouse {number_sign}2 flow and daily average spill. These data were transmitted to the Fish Passage Center (FPC), which manages the Smolt Monitoring Program throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Smolt Monitoring Program is used to manage the water budget, releasing upstream reservoir water storage allocated to supplement river flows during the downstream migration of juvenile salmonids.

  6. Robust, integrated computational control of NMR experiments to achieve optimal assignment by ADAPT-NMR.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Arash; Tonelli, Marco; Sahu, Sarata C; Singarapu, Kiran K; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Markley, John L

    2012-01-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) represents a groundbreaking prototype for automated protein structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. With a [(13)C,(15)N]-labeled protein sample loaded into the NMR spectrometer, ADAPT-NMR delivers complete backbone resonance assignments and secondary structure in an optimal fashion without human intervention. ADAPT-NMR achieves this by implementing a strategy in which the goal of optimal assignment in each step determines the subsequent step by analyzing the current sum of available data. ADAPT-NMR is the first iterative and fully automated approach designed specifically for the optimal assignment of proteins with fast data collection as a byproduct of this goal. ADAPT-NMR evaluates the current spectral information, and uses a goal-directed objective function to select the optimal next data collection step(s) and then directs the NMR spectrometer to collect the selected data set. ADAPT-NMR extracts peak positions from the newly collected data and uses this information in updating the analysis resonance assignments and secondary structure. The goal-directed objective function then defines the next data collection step. The procedure continues until the collected data support comprehensive peak identification, resonance assignments at the desired level of completeness, and protein secondary structure. We present test cases in which ADAPT-NMR achieved results in two days or less that would have taken two months or more by manual approaches. PMID:22427982

  7. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Morrill, Charles; Ross, Doug; Mensik, Fred

    2000-01-01

    The 2000 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by lower than average spring flows and spill, low levels of debris, cool water temperatures, increased unclipped yearling and subyearling chinook smolts, and 8,300,546 smolts collected and transported compared to 5,882,872 in 1999. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above Lower Granite Dam, we can no longer accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. Although some table titles in this report still show ''wild'' column headings, the numbers in these columns for 1999 and 2000 include wild and unclipped hatchery origin smolts. The increases over previous years reflect the increased supplementation. A total of 8,300,546 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite Dam. Of these, 187,862 fish were bypassed back to the river and 7,950,648 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 7,778,853 by barge and 171,795 by truck. A total of 151,344 salmonids were examined in daily samples. Nine research projects conducted by four agencies impacted a total of 1,361,006 smolts (16.4% of the total collection).

  8. Preoperative treatment planning with intraoperative optimization can achieve consistent high-quality implants in prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Swanson, David A.; Bruno, Teresa L.; Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Frank, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in brachytherapy treatment planning systems have allowed the opportunity for brachytherapy to be planned intraoperatively as well as preoperatively. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been the subject of extensive debate, and some contend that the intraoperative approach is vital to the delivery of optimal therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-quality permanent prostate implants can be achieved consistently using a preoperative planning approach that allows for, but does not necessitate, intraoperative optimization. To achieve this purpose, we reviewed the records of 100 men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who had been prospectively treated with brachytherapy monotherapy between 2006 and 2009 at our institution. All patients were treated with iodine-125 stranded seeds; the planned target dose was 145 Gy. Only 8 patients required adjustments to the plan on the basis of intraoperative findings. Consistency and quality were assessed by calculating the correlation coefficient between the planned and implanted amounts of radioactivity and by examining the mean values of the dosimetric parameters obtained on preoperative and 30 days postoperative treatment planning. The amount of radioactivity implanted was essentially identical to that planned (mean planned radioactivity, 41.27 U vs. mean delivered radioactivity, 41.36 U; R{sup 2} = 0.99). The mean planned and day 30 prostate V100 values were 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The mean planned and day 30 prostate D90 values were 186.3 and 185.1 Gy, respectively. Consistent, high-quality prostate brachytherapy treatment plans can be achieved using a preoperative planning approach, mostly without the need for intraoperative optimization. Good quality assurance measures during simulation, treatment planning, implantation, and postimplant evaluation are paramount for achieving a high level of quality and consistency.

  9. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  10. On the Achievable Efficiency-Fairness Tradeoff in Utility-Optimal MAC Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang-Won; Chiang, Mung; Calderbank, A. Robert

    We use the network utility maximization (NUM) framework to create an efficient and fair medium access control (MAC) protocol for wireless networks. By adjusting the parameters in the utility objective functions of NUM problems, we control the tradeoff between efficiency and fairness of radio resource allocation through a rigorous and systematic design. In this paper, we propose a scheduling-based MAC protocol. Since it provides an upper-bound on the achievable performance, it establishes the optimality benchmarks for comparison with other algorithms in related work.

  11. Achieving optimal gingival esthetics around restored natural teeth and implants. Rationale, concepts, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Bichacho, N

    1998-10-01

    The role of prosthetic restorations in the final appearance of the surrounding soft tissues has long been recognized. Innovative prosthodontic concepts as described should be used to enhance the biologic as well as the esthetic data of the supporting tissues, in natural teeth and implants alike. Combined dental treatment modalities of different kinds (i.e., orthodontics, periodontal treatment) are often required for optimal results. Meticulous care and attention to the delicate soft tissues should be given throughout all phases of the treatment, with a view to achieving a functional, healthy, and esthetic oral environment. PMID:9891656

  12. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Morrill, Charles; Mensik, Fred

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows and spill, low levels of debris, cool water temperatures, increased hatchery chinook numbers, and an overall decrease in numbers of smolts collected and transported. A total of 5,882,872 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite. Of these, 5,466,057 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 5,232,105 by barge and 233,952 by truck. An additional 339,398 fish were bypassed back to the river. A total of 117,609 salmonids were examined in daily samples. Nine research projects conducted by four agencies impacted a total of 440,810 smolts (7.5% of the total collected) of which 247,268 were PIT tagged and 572 were recorded as incidental mortalities.

  13. Rock Island Dam Smolt Monitoring; 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Truscott, Keith B.; Fielder, Paul C.

    1995-10-01

    Downstream migrating salmon and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) smolts were monitored at the Rock Island Dam bypass trap from April 1 - August 31, 1954. This was the tenth consecutive year that the bypass trap was monitored. Data collected included: (1) number of fish caught by species, (2) number of adipose clipped and/or Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged fish caught by species, (3) daily average riverflow, (4) daily average powerhouse No. 1 and No. 2 flows and daily average spill. These data were transmitted to the Fish Passage Center, which manages the Smolt Monitoring Program throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Smolt Monitoring Program is used to manage the {open_quotes}water budget{close_quotes}, releasing upstream reservoir water storage allocated to supplement river flows to enhance survival of downstream migrating juvenile salmonids. The Rock Island Dam trapping facility collected 37,795 downstream migrating salmonids in 1994. Collected fish included 4 yearling and 4 sub-yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) that had been previously PIT tagged to help determine migration rates. Additionally, 1,132 sub-yearling chinook, 4,185 yearling chinook, 6,627 steelhead, (O. mykiss) and 422 sockeye (O. nerka) with clipped adipose fins were collected. The middle 80% of the 1994 spring migration (excluding sub-yearling chinooks) passed Rock Island Dam during a 34 day period, April 25 - May 28. Passage rates of chinook and steelhead smolts released from hatcheries and the downstream migration timing of all salmonids are presented. The spring migration timing of juvenile salmonids is strongly influenced by hatchery releases above Rock Island Dam.

  14. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Witalis, Shirley; Morrill, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The 1997 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows, extensive spill, cool spring and early summer water temperatures and comparatively low numbers of fish, particularly yearling chinook. The Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program is designed to provide a consistent, real-time database of fish passage and document the migrational characteristics of the many stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin.

  15. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Ross, Doug; Morrill, Charles

    1998-12-01

    The 1998 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by relatively moderate spring flows and spill, moderate levels of debris, cool spring, warm summer and fall water temperatures, and increased chinook numbers, particularly wild subyearling chinook collected and transported. The Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program is designed to provide a consistent, real-time database on fish passage and document the migrational characteristics of the many stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin.

  16. Smolting in coastal cutthroat trout Onchorhynchus clarkii clarkii.

    PubMed

    Zydlewski, J; Zydlewski, G; Kennedy, B; Gale, W

    2014-10-01

    Gill Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity, condition factor and seawater (SW) challenges were used to assess the development of smolt characteristics in a cohort of hatchery coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii from the Cowlitz River in Washington State, U.S.A. Gill Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity increased slightly in the spring, coinciding with an increase in hypo-osmoregulatory ability. These changes were of lesser magnitude than are observed in other salmonine species. Even at the peak of tolerance, these fish exhibited notable osmotic perturbations in full strength SW. Condition factor in these hatchery fish declined steadily through the spring. Wild captured migrants from four tributaries of the Columbia River had moderately elevated gill Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity, consistent with smolt development and with greater enzyme activity than autumn captured juveniles from one of the tributaries, Abernathy Creek. Migrant fish also had reduced condition factor. General linear models of 7 years of data from Abernathy Creek suggest that yearly variation, advancing photoperiod (as ordinal date) and fish size (fork length) were significant factors for predicting gill Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity in these wild fish. Both yearly variation and temperature were significant factors for predicting condition factor. These results suggest that coastal O. c. clarkii exhibit weakly developed characteristics of smolting. These changes are influenced by environmental conditions with great individual variation. The data suggest great physiological plasticity consistent with the variable life-history tactics observed in this species. PMID:25082434

  17. Reversible Masking Using Low-Molecular-Weight Neutral Lipids to Achieve Optimal-Targeted Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Nancy Smyth; Senzer, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous injection of therapeutics is required to effectively treat or cure metastatic cancer, certain cardiovascular diseases, and other acquired or inherited diseases. Using this route of delivery allows potential uptake in all disease targets that are accessed by the bloodstream. However, normal tissues and organs also have the potential for uptake of therapeutic agents. Therefore, investigators have used targeted delivery to attempt delivery solely to the target cells; however, use of ligands on the surface of delivery vehicles to target specific cell surface receptors is not sufficient to avoid nonspecific uptake. PEGylation has been used for decades to try to avoid nonspecific uptake but suffers from many problems known as “The PEGylation Dilemma.” We have solved this dilemma by replacing PEGylation with reversible masking using low-molecular-weight neutral lipids in order to achieve optimal-targeted delivery solely to target cells. Our paper will focus on this topic. PMID:22655199

  18. Downstream Migration of Masu Salmon Smolt at a Diversion Facility of Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, K.; Nii, H.; Kasuga, K.; Watanabe, K.

    2014-12-01

    A diversion facility was installed on the upstream of Pirika Dam in Northern Japan that produced a downstream flow into the fishway, thus allowing the fish to migrate to the sea. On the other hand, if the flow rate in the river was more than 7.00 m 3/s (design flow rate of diversion facility), masu salmon smolt were concerned about accessing the dam reservoir, because the smolt can't migrate to the sea through the diversion facility unfortunately. Therefore, the downstream migration of smolt was investigated around the diversion facility. The PIT tag system and radio transmitters as the biotelemetry were used to determine 1) whether masu salmon smolt were able to migrate downstream through the diversion facility and fishway at Pirika Dam, 2) when the smolt started to migrate downstream, 3) whether the downstream migration of smolt were affected by the flow increase in the river. It was clarified that 88% of the smolt were able to enter the diversion facility, and then 81% of the smolt were able to access the fishway. It was also clarified that smolt downstream migration had two peaks in a day (5:00 and 18:00). During the study period, although the flow rate was in the 2.21 m3/s to 30.44 m3/s range (average 6.70 m3/s), it was revealed that the diversion facility has a satisfactory function for the downstream migration of smolt as presented above. The survey clarified the downstream migration behavior of masu salmon by using two types of biotelemetry equipment. PIT tag and radio transmitter were found to be very effective in tracking the behavior of small fish such as smolt. PIT tags, in particular, require very little operating cost, because once they are inserted in the fish, they do not need human labor for tracking. It is desirable to actively introduce the biotelemetry as tracking equipment when surveying the fish migration in the river.

  19. EFFECTS OF AIR-SUPERSATURATED WATER ON SURVIVAL OF PACIFIC SALMON AND STEELHEAD SMOLTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and sockeye (O. nerka) salmon smolts and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) smolts were exposed to several concentrations of air-supersaturated water in the laboratory from March through June, 1974, the normal fish migration period in the Columbia River...

  20. Transcriptional profiling of the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Laura S.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The parr–smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a complex developmental process that culminates in the ability to migrate to and live in seawater. We used GRASP 16K cDNA microarrays to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the liver, gill, hypothalamus, pituitary, and olfactory rosettes of smolts compared to parr. Smolts had higher levels of gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, plasma cortisol and plasma thyroid hormones relative to parr. Across all five tissues, stringent microarray analyses identified 48 features that were differentially expressed in smolts compared to parr. Using a less stringent method we found 477 features that were differentially expressed at least 1.2-fold in smolts, including 172 features in the gill. Smolts had higher mRNA levels of genes involved in transcription, protein biosynthesis and folding, electron transport, oxygen transport, and sensory perception and lower mRNA levels for genes involved in proteolysis. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to confirm differential expression in select genes identified by microarray analyses and to quantify expression of other genes known to be involved in smolting. This study expands our understanding of the molecular processes that underlie smolting in Atlantic salmon and identifies genes for further investigation.

  1. Executive functioning in individuals with a history of ASDs who have achieved optimal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Troyb, Eva; Rosenthal, Michael; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Kelley, Elizabeth; Tyson, Katherine; Orinstein, Alyssa; Barton, Marianne; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) is examined among children and adolescents once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria. These individuals have average social and language skills, receive minimal school support and are considered to have achieved "optimal outcomes" (OOs). Since residual impairments in these individuals might be expected in deficits central to autism, and in developmentally advanced skills, EF was examined in 34 individuals who achieved OOs, 43 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. Groups were matched on age (M = 13.49), gender, and nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) but differed on verbal IQ (VIQ; HFA < TD, OO). On direct assessment, all three groups demonstrated average EF; however, the OO and HFA groups exhibited more impulsivity and less efficient planning and problem-solving than the TD group, and more HFA participants exhibited below average inhibition than did OO and TD participants. Parent-report measures revealed average EF among the OO and TD groups; however, the OO group exhibited more difficulty than the TD group on set-shifting and working memory. HFA participants demonstrated more difficulty on all parent-reported EF domains, with a clinical impairment in attention-shifting. Results suggest that EF in OO appears to be within the average range, even for functions that were impaired among individuals with HFA. Despite their average performance, however, the OO and TD groups differed on measures of impulsivity, set-shifting, problem-solving, working memory, and planning, suggesting that the OO group does not have the above-average EF scores of the TD group despite their high-average IQs. PMID:23731181

  2. Physiological geroscience: targeting function to increase healthspan and achieve optimal longevity.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R; Justice, Jamie N; LaRocca, Thomas J

    2016-04-15

    Most nations of the world are undergoing rapid and dramatic population ageing, which presents great socio-economic challenges, as well as opportunities, for individuals, families, governments and societies. The prevailing biomedical strategy for reducing the healthcare impact of population ageing has been 'compression of morbidity' and, more recently, to increase healthspan, both of which seek to extend the healthy period of life and delay the development of chronic diseases and disability until a brief period at the end of life. Indeed, a recently established field within biological ageing research, 'geroscience', is focused on healthspan extension. Superimposed on this background are new attitudes and demand for 'optimal longevity' - living long, but with good health and quality of life. A key obstacle to achieving optimal longevity is the progressive decline in physiological function that occurs with ageing, which causes functional limitations (e.g. reduced mobility) and increases the risk of chronic diseases, disability and mortality. Current efforts to increase healthspan centre on slowing the fundamental biological processes of ageing such as inflammation/oxidative stress, increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired proteostasis and reduced stress resistance. We propose that optimization of physiological function throughout the lifespan should be a major emphasis of any contemporary biomedical policy addressing global ageing. Effective strategies should delay, reduce in magnitude or abolish reductions in function with ageing (primary prevention) and/or improve function or slow further declines in older adults with already impaired function (secondary prevention). Healthy lifestyle practices featuring regular physical activity and ideal energy intake/diet composition represent first-line function-preserving strategies, with pharmacological agents, including existing and new pharmaceuticals and novel 'nutraceutical' compounds, serving as potential

  3. Academic abilities in children and adolescents with a history of autism spectrum disorders who have achieved optimal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Helt, Molly; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael; Fein, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the academic abilities of children and adolescents who were once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for this disorder. These individuals have achieved social and language skills within the average range for their ages, receive little or no school support, and are referred to as having achieved "optimal outcomes." Performance of 32 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes, 41 high-functioning individuals with a current autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (high-functioning autism), and 34 typically developing peers was compared on measures of decoding, reading comprehension, mathematical problem solving, and written expression. Groups were matched on age, sex, and nonverbal IQ; however, the high-functioning autism group scored significantly lower than the optimal outcome and typically developing groups on verbal IQ. All three groups performed in the average range on all subtests measured, and no significant differences were found in performance of the optimal outcome and typically developing groups. The high-functioning autism group scored significantly lower on subtests of reading comprehension and mathematical problem solving than the optimal outcome group. These findings suggest that the academic abilities of individuals who achieved optimal outcomes are similar to those of their typically developing peers, even in areas where individuals who have retained their autism spectrum disorder diagnoses exhibit some ongoing difficulty. PMID:24096312

  4. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project, 1987-1997 Project Review.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, Robin M.; Hans, Karen M.; Beeman, John W.

    1997-12-01

    The assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project (Bonneville Power Administration Project 87-401) monitored attributes of salmonid smolt physiology in the Columbia and Snake River basins from 1987 to 1997, under the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, in cooperation with the Smolt Monitoring Program of the Fish Passage Center. The primary goal of the project was to investigate the physiological development of juvenile salmonids related to migration rates. The assumption was made that the level of smolt development, interacting with environmental factos such as flow, would be reflected in travel times. The Fish Passage Center applied the physiological measurements of smolt condition to Water Budget management, to regulate flows so as to decrease travel time and increase survival.

  5. Role of well-being therapy in achieving a balanced and individualized path to optimal functioning.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Chiara; Fava, Giovanni A

    2012-01-01

    A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), based on Ryff's conceptual model, has been developed and tested in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life and a sense of self-determination. A decreased vulnerability to depression, mood swings and anxiety has been demonstrated after WBT in high-risk populations. School interventions based on the principles of WBT have been found to yield both promotion of well-being and decrease of distress compared with control groups. The differential technical characteristics and indications of WBT are described, with a special reference to the promotion of an individualized and balanced path to achieve optimal human functioning, avoiding the polarities in positive psychological dimensions. PMID:22570318

  6. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with a History of ASDs Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Studies of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) suggest that Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs) are particularly difficult to remediate. We examined present and past RRBs in 34 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes (OOs; lost their ASD diagnosis), 45 high-functioning individuals with ASD (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. The OO group exhibited minimal residual RRBs at the time of the study. All OO participants were reported to have at least one RRB in early childhood and almost 90% met the RRB cutoff for ASD in early childhood, but RRBs were not more present in the OO than the TD group at the time of the study. History of RRBs in the HFA and OO groups differed only in oversensitivity to noise and insistence on sameness. Reports of current behavior indicated that RRB’s had almost totally disappeared in the OO group. Thus, although RRB’s were present in the OO group in childhood, they resolved along with social and communication deficits. PMID:25030967

  7. Calibration of STUD+ parameters to achieve optimally efficient broadband adiabatic decoupling in a single transient

    PubMed

    Bendall; Skinner

    1998-10-01

    for a single sech/tanh pulse. Residual splitting of the centerband, normally associated with incomplete or inefficient decoupling, is not seen in sech/tanh decoupling and therefore cannot be used as a measure of adiabatic decoupling efficiency. The calibrated experimental performance levels achieved in this study are within 20% of theoretical performance levels derived previously for ideal sech/tanh decoupling at high power, indicating a small scope for further improvement at practical RF power levels. The optimization procedures employed here will be generally applicable to any good combination of adiabatic inversion pulse and phase cycle. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9761708

  8. Optimal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device for achieving high pyroelectric response of AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Bemnnet; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses research being conducted on aluminum nitride (AlN) as a pyroelectric material for use in detecting applications. AlN is being investigated because of its high pyroelectric coefficient, thermal stability, and high Curie temperature. In order to determine suitability of the pyroelectric properties of AlN for use as a detector, testing of several devices was conducted. These devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication processes; the devices were also designed to allow for voltage and current measurements. The deposited AlN films used were 150 nm - 300 nm in thickness. Thin-films were used to rapidly increase the temperature response after the thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material. This is important because the pyroelectric effect is directly proportional to the rate of temperature change. The design used was a face-electrode bridge that provides thermal isolation which minimizes heat loss to the substrate, thereby increasing operation frequency of the pyroelectric device. A thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material and the response was measured across the electrodes. A thermal imaging camera was used to monitor the changes in temperature. Throughout the testing process, the annealing temperatures, type of layers, and thicknesses were also varied. These changes resulted in improved MEMS designs, which were fabricated to obtain an optimal design configuration for achieving a high pyroelectric response. A pyroelectric voltage response of 38.9 mVp-p was measured without filtering, 12.45 mVp-p was measured in the infrared (IR) region using a Si filter, and 6.38 mVp-p was measured in the short wavelength IR region using a long pass filter. The results showed that AlN's pyroelectric properties can be used in detecting applications.

  9. Effects of acidity and aluminim on the physiology and migratory behavior of Atlantic salmon smolts in Maina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magee, J.A.; Haines, T.A.; Kocik, J.F.; Beland, K.F.; McCormick, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts of hatchery origin were held for 5 to 16 days in ambient (pH 6.35, labile Al = 60 ??g L-1), limed (pH 6.72, labile Al = 58.4 ??g L-1), or acidified (pH 5.47, labile Al=96 ??g L-1) water from the Narraguagus River in Maine, USA. Wild smolts were captured in the same river in rotary traps and held for up to two days in ambient river water. Osmoregulatory ability was assessed by measuring Na+/K+ ATPase activity, hematocrit, and blood Cl concentration in freshwater, and after 24-hr exposure to seawater. Hatchery smolts exposed to acidic water and wild smolts displayed sub-lethal ionoregulatory stress both in fresh and seawater, with mortalities of wild smolts in seawater. Using ultrasonic telemetry, hatchery-reared ambient and acid-exposed, and wild smolts were tracked as they migrated through freshwater and estuarine sections of the river. The proportion of wild smolts migrating during daylight hours was higher than for hatchery-reared smolts. Wild smolts remained in the freshwater portions of the river longer than either group of hatchery smolts, although survival during migration to seawater was similar for all three treatments. Acid-exposed hatchery-origin and wild Narraguagus River smolts were both under ionoregulatory stress that may have affected their migratory behavior, but not their survival for the time and area in which we tracked them.

  10. Robust Airfoil Optimization to Achieve Consistent Drag Reduction Over a Mach Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Huyse, Luc; Padula, Sharon; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We prove mathematically that in order to avoid point-optimization at the sampled design points for multipoint airfoil optimization, the number of design points must be greater than the number of free-design variables. To overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points, a robust airfoil optimization method (called the profile optimization method) is developed and analyzed. This optimization method aims at a consistent drag reduction over a given Mach range and has three advantages: (a) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (b) there is no random airfoil shape distortion for any iterate it generates, and (c) it allows a designer to make a trade-off between a truly optimized airfoil and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, we use the profile optimization method to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for 2-D airfoil in Euler flow with 20 free-design variables. A comparison with other airfoil optimization methods is also included.

  11. Smolt Monitoring Activities at Little Goose Dam; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, Ann

    1997-07-01

    The juvenile fish facility at Little Goose Dam is operated seasonally to collect and bypass downstream migrating smolts and keep them from passing through the turbine blades. Fish are diverted from turbines by traveling screens as they sound in the forebay to pass the dam. A small percentage of the passing fish are sampled on a daily basis to provide information on fish condition, species composition, migration timing, and size distribution. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife personnel perform daily fish sampling and data collection. Physical operation of the facility is the responsibility of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Data is reported to the Fish Passage Center daily by means of electronic data transfer. Funding for this project was provided through the Smolt Monitoring Program administered by the Fish Passage Center. Overall, the number of fish collected and sampled in 1996 was a reduction from the previous years of operation. The 1996 migration season was characterized by higher than average flows and greater spill frequency at the dam. It was the first year that coho salmon were obtained in the sample. The predominant species collected was steelhead with hatchery fish outnumbering wild fish by a ratio of 8:1. An increased emphasis was placed on gas bubble trauma examination and a routine, consistent effort was implemented using a protocol established by the Fish Passage Center. The objective of the gas bubble trauma (GBT) examinations was to document the relative incidence of symptoms throughout the migration season.

  12. Achieving Consistent Near-Optimal Pattern Recognition Accuracy Using Particle Swarm Optimization to Pre-Train Artificial Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikelshpur, Dmitry O.

    2014-01-01

    Similar to mammalian brains, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are universal approximators, capable of yielding near-optimal solutions to a wide assortment of problems. ANNs are used in many fields including medicine, internet security, engineering, retail, robotics, warfare, intelligence control, and finance. "ANNs have a tendency to get…

  13. A Study of the Relationships between Distributed Leadership, Teacher Academic Optimism and Student Achievement in Taiwanese Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, I-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between distributed leadership, teachers' academic optimism and student achievement in learning. The study targeted public elementary schools in Taiwan and adopted stratified random sampling to investigate 1500 teachers. Teachers' perceptions were collected by a self-report scale. In…

  14. Should Schools Be Optimistic? An Investigation of the Association between Academic Optimism of Schools and Student Achievement in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Tinneke; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in students and parents (3 school characteristics positively associated with student achievement) are assumed to form a higher order latent construct, "academic optimism" (Hoy, Tarter, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2006a, 2006b). The aim of the present study is to corroborate the latent…

  15. Endocrine and physiological changes in Atlantic salmon smolts following hatchery release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; O'Dea, M. F.; Moeckel, Amy M.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2003-01-01

    Physiological and endocrine changes during smolt development were examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared and released as part of a restoration program on the Connecticut River and its tributaries. Fish were reared in a cold water hatchery in Pittsford, VT and released into the Farmington River, CT (a major tributary of the Connecticut River) or into 'imprint ponds' fed by the Farmington River. Smelts were recaptured 10-20 days after their release at a smolt bypass facility 16 km downstream of their release site. Fish sampled at the hatchery from January to May had only moderate smolt development based on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and hormone profiles. In contrast, smolts released into the river or imprint ponds had higher salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and thyroxine than smolts that remained in the hatchery. These physiological and endocrine changes were nearly identical to those of smolts that had been released into the river 2 years earlier as fry and were captured as active migrants at the same bypass facility (stream-reared smolts). The stomach contents as a percent of body weight (primarily aquatic insects) varied greatly among individuals and were greater in hatchery-reared fish than stream-reared smolts. Results from the rearing of hatchery fish at temperatures similar to that of the Farmington River indicate that some of the physiological changes may be due to increased temperature after release, though other factors may also be involved. The results indicate that substantial physiological smolt development can occur after hatchery release, coincident with downstream migration. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Academic Optimism and Collective Responsibility: An Organizational Model of the Dynamics of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jason H.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the construct of academic optimism and its relationship with collective responsibility in a sample of Taiwan elementary schools. The construct of academic optimism was tested using confirmatory factor analysis, and the whole structural model was tested with a structural equation modeling analysis. The data were…

  17. Mortality of experimentally descaled smolts of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in fresh and salt water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, Gerald R.; Smith, Stanley D.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of slime from 25% of the body caused no deaths among smolts of coho salmon in fresh water or in seawater (28‰). Removal of slime and scales from the same percentage of body area caused no deaths in fresh water, but 75% mortality within 10 days in seawater. The 10-day median tolerance limit was 10% scale removal immediately before the smolts entered seawater. Mortality was highest when the scales were removed from the area of the rib cage. Recovery of smolts in fresh water from a loss of scales that would be lethal in seawater occurred rapidly; 90% of the fish regained tolerance to seawater within 1 day.

  18. 2004 AND 2006 COHO SMOLT MOVEMENT IN THE YAQUINA RIVER AND ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migratory fish passage is an important designated use for many Oregon estuaries. Acoustic transmitters were implanted in coho smolts in 2004 and 2006 to evaluate how estuarine habitat, and habitat loss, might affect population health. Acoustic receivers that identified individu...

  19. Survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts through the Penobscot River, Maine: A pre-restoration assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Kinnison, Michael T.; Holbrook, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Survival, distribution, and behavior of hatchery (n = 493) and naturally reared (n = 133) smolts of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar migrating through the Penobscot River and estuary in Maine were evaluated with acoustic telemetry in 2005 and 2006. Survival and use of a secondary migration path (the Stillwater Branch) were estimated with a multistate mark–recapture model. Higher rates of mortality per kilometer (range = 0.01–0.22) were observed near release sites and within reaches that contained three particular dams: Howland, West Enfield, and Milford dams. Estimated total survival of tagged hatchery smolts through entire individual reaches containing those dams ranged from 0.52 ( 0.18) to 0.94 ( 0.09), whereas survival through most of the reaches without dams exceeded 0.95. Of those smolts that survived to the Penobscot River–Stillwater Branch split at Marsh Island, most (≥74%) remained in the main stem around Marsh Island, where they experienced lower survival than fish that used the Stillwater Branch. Movement rates of hatchery-reared smolts were significantly lower through reaches containing dams than through reaches that lacked dams. Smolts arriving at dams during the day experienced longer delays than smolts arriving at night. Planned removal of two dams in this system is expected to enhance the passage of smolts through the main-stem corridor. However, the dams currently scheduled for removal (Great Works and Veazie dams) had less influence on smolt survival than some of the dams that will remain. This case study shows that by examining prerestoration migration dynamics throughout entire river systems rather than just in the vicinity of particular dams, tracking studies can help prioritize restoration efforts or predict the costs and benefits of future hydrosystem changes.

  20. Achieving Finite Element Mesh Quality via Optimization of the Jacobian Matrix Norm and Associated Quantities, Part 1 - A Framework for Surface Mesh Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Knupp, P.M.

    1999-01-18

    Structured mesh quality optimization methods are extended to optimization of unstructured triangular, quadrilateral, and mixed finite element meshes. N"ew interpretations of well-known nodally-bssed objective functions are made possible using matrices and matrix norms. The matrix perspective also suggests several new objective functions. Particularly significant is the interpretation of the Oddy metric and the Smoothness objective functions in terms of the condition number of the metric tensor and Jacobian matrix, respectively. Objective functions are grouped according to dimensionality to form weighted combinations. A simple unconstrained local optimum is computed using a modiiied N-ewton iteration. The optimization approach was implemented in the CUBIT mesh generation code and tested on several problems. Results were compared against several standard element-based quaIity measures to demonstrate that good mesh quality can be achieved with nodally-based objective functions.

  1. Optimal Experience and Reading Achievement in Virtual Environments among College Level Developmental Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    In this mixed methods study the potential for developmental readers to experience optimal experience (flow) within the multi-user virtual environment, "Second Life," was examined. In an educational context, "Second Life" provided a space for constructivist learning, socialization, exploration, discovery and creativity. The communicative, social…

  2. Achieving diverse and monoallelic olfactory receptor selection through dual-objective optimization design.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Hang; Sannerud, Jens; Xing, Jianhua

    2016-05-24

    Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at the organism level, the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation, and cannot explain recent observations in mutants, especially the reduced global diversity of expressed ORs in G9a/GLP knockouts. In this work we integrated existing information on OR expression, and constructed a comprehensive model that has all its components based on physical interactions. Analyzing the model reveals an evolutionarily optimized three-layer regulation mechanism, which includes zonal segregation, epigenetic barrier crossing coupled to a negative feedback loop that mechanistically differs from previous theoretical proposals, and a previously unidentified enhancer competition step. This model not only recapitulates monoallelic OR expression, but also elucidates how the olfactory system maximizes and maintains the diversity of OR expression, and has multiple predictions validated by existing experimental results. Through making an analogy to a physical system with thermally activated barrier crossing and comparative reverse engineering analyses, the study reveals that the olfactory receptor selection system is optimally designed, and particularly underscores cooperativity and synergy as a general design principle for multiobjective optimization in biology. PMID:27162367

  3. Optimization of Composite Material System and Lay-up to Achieve Minimum Weight Pressure Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Haris Hameed; Wang, Gang; Dar, Uzair Ahmed; Zhang, Weihong

    2013-10-01

    The use of composite pressure vessels particularly in the aerospace industry is escalating rapidly because of their superiority in directional strength and colossal weight advantage. The present work elucidates the procedure to optimize the lay-up for composite pressure vessel using finite element analysis and calculate the relative weight saving compared with the reference metallic pressure vessel. The determination of proper fiber orientation and laminate thickness is very important to decrease manufacturing difficulties and increase structural efficiency. In the present work different lay-up sequences for laminates including, cross-ply [ 0 m /90 n ] s , angle-ply [ ±θ] ns , [ 90/±θ] ns and [ 0/±θ] ns , are analyzed. The lay-up sequence, orientation and laminate thickness (number of layers) are optimized for three candidate composite materials S-glass/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy and Carbon/epoxy. Finite element analysis of composite pressure vessel is performed by using commercial finite element code ANSYS and utilizing the capabilities of ANSYS Parametric Design Language and Design Optimization module to automate the process of optimization. For verification, a code is developed in MATLAB based on classical lamination theory; incorporating Tsai-Wu failure criterion for first-ply failure (FPF). The results of the MATLAB code shows its effectiveness in theoretical prediction of first-ply failure strengths of laminated composite pressure vessels and close agreement with the FEA results. The optimization results shows that for all the composite material systems considered, the angle-ply [ ±θ] ns is the optimum lay-up. For given fixed ply thickness the total thickness of laminate is obtained resulting in factor of safety slightly higher than two. Both Carbon/epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy resulted in approximately same laminate thickness and considerable percentage of weight saving, but S-glass/epoxy resulted in weight increment.

  4. Achieving Optimal Self-Adaptivity for Dynamic Tuning of Organic Semiconductors through Resonance Engineering.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ye; Xu, Lijia; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Runfeng; Li, Huanhuan; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Chao; Huang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Current static-state explorations of organic semiconductors for optimal material properties and device performance are hindered by limited insights into the dynamically changed molecular states and charge transport and energy transfer processes upon device operation. Here, we propose a simple yet successful strategy, resonance variation-based dynamic adaptation (RVDA), to realize optimized self-adaptive properties in donor-resonance-acceptor molecules by engineering the resonance variation for dynamic tuning of organic semiconductors. Organic light-emitting diodes hosted by these RVDA materials exhibit remarkably high performance, with external quantum efficiencies up to 21.7% and favorable device stability. Our approach, which supports simultaneous realization of dynamically adapted and selectively enhanced properties via resonance engineering, illustrates a feasible design map for the preparation of smart organic semiconductors capable of dynamic structure and property modulations, promoting the studies of organic electronics from static to dynamic. PMID:27403886

  5. Effects of Handling and Crowding on the Stress Response and Viability of Chinook Salmon Parr and Smolts, 1984 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Congleton, James L.

    1985-02-01

    Transportation of migrating chinook salmon smolts from Snake River dams to the Columbia River estuary has not reversed a downward trend in Idaho stocks of this species that first became apparent in the late 1960s. Poor survival of transported smolts may be a consequence of physiological responses to stressful events during collection and transportation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the intensity of stress responses in transported smolts, to determine if stress responses decrease the viability of transported smolts, and to investigate ways of avoiding or mitigating stressful events during transportation. 34 refs., 58 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Optimal thickness of silicon membranes to achieve maximum thermoelectric efficiency: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Claudia; Neogi, Sanghamitra; Donadio, Davide

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanostructures with reduced dimensionality, such as nanowires, membranes, and thin films, are promising thermoelectric materials, as they exhibit considerably reduced thermal conductivity. Here, we utilize density functional theory and Boltzmann transport equation to compute the electronic properties of ultra-thin crystalline silicon membranes with thickness between 1 and 12 nm. We predict that an optimal thickness of ˜7 nm maximizes the thermoelectric figure of merit of membranes with native oxide surface layers. Further thinning of the membranes, although attainable in experiments, reduces the electrical conductivity and worsens the thermoelectric efficiency.

  7. Migration delays caused by anthropogenic barriers: modeling dams, temperature, and success on migrating salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Mather, Martha E.; Parrish, Donna; Allison, Gary W.; McMenemy, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption to migration is a growing problem for conservation and restoration of animal populations. Anthropogenic barriers along migration paths can delay or prolong migrations, which may result in a mismatch with migration-timing adaptations. To understand the interaction of dams (as barriers along a migration path), seasonally changing environmental conditions, timing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) downstream migration, and ultimate migration success, we used 10 years of river temperature and discharge data as a template upon which we simulated downstream movement of salmon. Atlantic salmon is a cool-water species whose downstream migrating smolts must complete migration before river temperatures become too warm. We found that dams had a local effect on survival as well as a survival effect that was spatially and temporally removed from the encounter with the dam. While smolts are delayed by dams, temperatures downstream can reach lethal or near-lethal temperatures; as a result, the match between completion of migration and the window of appropriate migration conditions can be disrupted. The strength of this spatially and temporally removed effect is at least comparable to the local effects of dams in determining smolt migration success in the presence of dams. We also considered smolts from different tributaries, varying in distance from the river mouth, to assess the potential importance of locally adapted migration timing on the effect of barriers. Migration-initiation temperature affected modeled smolt survival differentially across tributaries, with the success of smolts from upstream tributaries being much more variable across years than that of smolts with a shorter distance to travel. As a whole, these results point to the importance of broadening our spatial and temporal view when managing migrating populations. We must consider not only how many individuals never make it across migration barriers, but also the spatially and temporally removed

  8. Migration delays caused by anthropogenic barriers: Modeling dams, temperature, and success of migrating salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschall, E.A.; Mather, M. E.; Parrish, D.L.; Allison, G.W.; McMenemy, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption to migration is a growing problem for conservation and restoration of animal populations. Anthropogenic barriers along migration paths can delay or prolong migrations, which may result in a mismatch with migration-timing adaptations. To understand the interaction of dams (as barriers along a migration path), seasonally changing environmental conditions, timing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) downstream migration, and ultimate migration success, we used 10 years of river temperature and discharge data as a template upon which we simulated downstream movement of salmon. Atlantic salmon is a cool-water species whose downstream migrating smolts must complete migration before river temperatures become too warm. We found that dams had a local effect on survival as well as a survival effect that was spatially and temporally removed from the encounter with the dam. While smolts are delayed by dams, temperatures downstream can reach lethal or near-lethal temperatures;as a result, the match between completion of migration and the window of appropriate migration conditions can be disrupted. The strength of this spatially and temporally removed effect is at least comparable to the local effects of dams in determining smolt migration success in the presence of dams. We also considered smolts from different tributaries, varying in distance from the river mouth, to assess the potential importance of locally adapted migration timing on the effect of barriers. Migration-initiation temperature affected modeled smolt survival differentially across tributaries, with the success of smolts from upstream tributaries being much more variable across years than that of smolts with a shorter distance to travel. As a whole, these results point to the importance of broadening our spatial and temporal view when managing migrating populations. We must consider not only how many individuals never make it across migration barriers, but also the spatially and temporally removed

  9. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. S.; Qiu, S. R.; Zheng, L. L.; Schaffers, K. I.; Tassano, J. B.; Caird, J. A.; Zhang, H.

    2008-08-01

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb 3+:Sr 5(PO 4) 3F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF 2-rich melts often encounters cracks during the post-growth cool-down stage. To suppress cracking during cool-down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool-down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented, which produced high-quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  10. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H; Qiu, S; Kheng, L; Schaffers, K; Tassano, J; Caird, J; Zhang, H

    2007-08-20

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF{sub 2}-rich melts often encounter cracks during the post growth cool down stage. To suppress cracking during cool down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented and produced high quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  11. High direct drive illumination uniformity achieved by multi-parameter optimization approach: a case study of Shenguang III laser facility.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Liu, Dongxiao; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Weiwu; Zhang, Baohan; Gu, Yuqiu

    2015-05-01

    The uniformity of the compression driver is of fundamental importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In this paper, the illumination uniformity on a spherical capsule during the initial imprinting phase directly driven by laser beams has been considered. We aim to explore methods to achieve high direct drive illumination uniformity on laser facilities designed for indirect drive ICF. There are many parameters that would affect the irradiation uniformity, such as Polar Direct Drive displacement quantity, capsule radius, laser spot size and intensity distribution within a laser beam. A novel approach to reduce the root mean square illumination non-uniformity based on multi-parameter optimizing approach (particle swarm optimization) is proposed, which enables us to obtain a set of optimal parameters over a large parameter space. Finally, this method is applied to improve the direct drive illumination uniformity provided by Shenguang III laser facility and the illumination non-uniformity is reduced from 5.62% to 0.23% for perfectly balanced beams. Moreover, beam errors (power imbalance and pointing error) are taken into account to provide a more practical solution and results show that this multi-parameter optimization approach is effective. PMID:25969321

  12. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brenda C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2003-09-01

    Although vegetarian diets are generally lower in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than are nonvegetarian diets, they provide comparable levels of essential fatty acids. Vegetarian, especially vegan, diets are relatively low in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) compared with linoleic acid (LA) and provide little, if any, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Clinical studies suggest that tissue levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids are depressed in vegetarians, particularly in vegans. n-3 Fatty acids have numerous physiologic benefits, including potent cardioprotective effects. These effects have been demonstrated for ALA as well as EPA and DHA, although the response is generally less for ALA than for EPA and DHA. Conversion of ALA by the body to the more active longer-chain metabolites is inefficient: < 5-10% for EPA and 2-5% for DHA. Thus, total n-3 requirements may be higher for vegetarians than for nonvegetarians, as vegetarians must rely on conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA. Because of the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids, it is recommended that vegetarians make dietary changes to optimize n-3 fatty acid status. PMID:12936959

  13. Standardization and Optimization of Computed Tomography Protocols to Achieve Low-Dose

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Cynthia; Cody, Dianna D.; Gupta, Rajiv; Hess, Christopher P.; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Kofler, James M.; Krishnam, Mayil S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in radiation exposure due to CT scans has been of growing concern in recent years. CT scanners differ in their capabilities and various indications require unique protocols, but there remains room for standardization and optimization. In this paper we summarize approaches to reduce dose, as discussed in lectures comprising the first session of the 2013 UCSF Virtual Symposium on Radiation Safety in Computed Tomography. The experience of scanning at low dose in different body regions, for both diagnostic and interventional CT procedures, is addressed. An essential primary step is justifying the medical need for each scan. General guiding principles for reducing dose include tailoring a scan to a patient, minimizing scan length, use of tube current modulation and minimizing tube current, minimizing-tube potential, iterative reconstruction, and periodic review of CT studies. Organized efforts for standardization have been spearheaded by professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Finally, all team members should demonstrate an awareness of the importance of minimizing dose. PMID:24589403

  14. Assessment of the Optimal Stimulus Pattern to Achieve Rapid Dorsal Hippocampal Kindling in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Fatemeh; Sayyah, Mohammad; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Babapour, Vahab

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although hippocampus is the most famous brain area involved in temporal lobe epilepsy, hippocampal kindling (HK) develops very slowly. Hence, rapid kindling is usually preferred to the traditional kindling and it is widely used. In this article we aimed at finding the optimal stimulus pattern, which yields the fastest HK rate. Methods: Stimulus patterns with different duration (2, 3, 5 and 10 s) and inter-train interval (ITI) (5, 10 and 30 min) as well as number of trains in 24 h (8 and 12) were exerted to rats’ dorsal hippocampus. The stimuli were continued until appearance of 3 consecutive generalized seizures or maximum 7 days stimulations. Results: While the protocol with train duration of 10 s and ITI of 30 min caused the fastest kindling rate and the most growth of afterdischarges, the protocol with train duration of 5 s and ITI of 5 min was the most time-consuming protocol among protocols tested. Discussion: Rapid HK develops with a time course of days compared to weeks in traditional kindling. Train duration and inter-train interval are key factors for rapid HK. Among the patterns, 12 trains/24h of 50Hz monophasic square wave with 10 s duration and 30 min interval between trains, is the best stimulus pattern for eliciting rapid dorsal HK. PMID:27307955

  15. Molecular mechanisms of continuous light inhibition of Atlantic salmon parr-smolt transformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stefansson, S.O.; Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Wargelius, A.; Madsen, Steffen S.; Bjornsson, B. Th; McCormick, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) rely on changes in photoperiod for the synchronization of the developmental events constituting the parr-smolt transformation. In the absence of photoperiod cues, parr-smolt transformation is incomplete, and such 'pseudo-smolts' normally fail to adapt to seawater. The present study addresses the endocrine and molecular mechanisms controlling the development of hypo-osmoregulatory ability and how artificial photoperiod can disrupt these changes. Juvenile Atlantic salmon reared under constant light (LL) from first feeding, were separated into two groups, and exposed to either LL or simulated natural photoperiod (LDN) from October, eight months prior to the expected completion of smoltification. Juveniles reared on LL grew well, but failed to show the smolt-related reduction in condition factor in spring. Gill mRNA levels of Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) isoform ??1a decreased in LDN fish through completion of parr-smolt transformation, while levels remained unchanged in the LL group. In contrast, ??1b expression increased 6-fold in the LDN group between February and May, again with no change in the LL group. Further, Na+, K+, 2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC) showed a transient increase in expression in smolts on LDN between February and May, while no changes in mRNA levels were seen in juveniles under LL. Consequently, gill NKA activity and NKA ?? and NKCC protein abundance were significantly lower in juveniles on LL than in smolts on LDN. LL fish in spring had lower circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol. Gill GH-receptor mRNA levels, determined by quantitative PCR, were less than 50% of controls. In contrast, circulating levels of IGF-1 and gill IGF-1 receptor expression, were comparable to controls. Our findings show that continuous light prevents the completion of parr-smolt transformation at a very basic level, disrupting the natural up-regulation of key elements of the endocrine system involved in the

  16. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Frye, Richard E; Rossignol, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    the optimal treatments for these abnormalities. PMID:27330338

  17. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Rossignol, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    the optimal treatments for these abnormalities. PMID:27330338

  18. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges that developing organs face is scaling, that is, the adjustment of physical proportions during the massive increase in size. Although organ scaling is fundamental for development and function, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate it. Bone superstructures are projections that typically serve for tendon and ligament insertion or articulation and, therefore, their position along the bone is crucial for musculoskeletal functionality. As bones are rigid structures that elongate only from their ends, it is unclear how superstructure positions are regulated during growth to end up in the right locations. Here, we document the process of longitudinal scaling in developing mouse long bones and uncover the mechanism that regulates it. To that end, we performed a computational analysis of hundreds of three-dimensional micro-CT images, using a newly developed method for recovering the morphogenetic sequence of developing bones. Strikingly, analysis revealed that the relative position of all superstructures along the bone is highly preserved during more than a 5-fold increase in length, indicating isometric scaling. It has been suggested that during development, bone superstructures are continuously reconstructed and relocated along the shaft, a process known as drift. Surprisingly, our results showed that most superstructures did not drift at all. Instead, we identified a novel mechanism for bone scaling, whereby each bone exhibits a specific and unique balance between proximal and distal growth rates, which accurately maintains the relative position of its superstructures. Moreover, we show mathematically that this mechanism minimizes the cumulative drift of all superstructures, thereby optimizing the scaling process. Our study reveals a general mechanism for the scaling of developing bones. More broadly, these findings suggest an evolutionary mechanism that facilitates variability in bone morphology by controlling the activity of

  19. Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: how to achieve optimal results with simple punch technique.

    PubMed

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Tabatabaii Mohammadi, Sayed Ziaeddin; Sontou, Alain Fabrice; Farajzadeh Deroee, Armin; Boroojerdi, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EEDCR) has been popularized as a minimally invasive technique. Although preliminary reports revealed less success in comparison with external approaches, recent endonasal endoscopic surgeries on various types of DCR have preserved advantages of this technique while diminishing the failures. We described our experience on EEDCR, including the main advantages and disadvantages of it. Hundred consecutive cases of lachrymal problems underwent EEDCR utilizing simple punch removal of bone, instead of powered instrumentation or lasers. The medial aspect of the sac was removed in all of patients, while preserving normal mucosa around the sac. Hundred cases of EEDCR were performed on 81 patients, with 19 bilateral procedures. Nine procedures were performed under local anesthesia. Based on a mean 14 months follow-up, 95 cases were free of symptoms, revealing 95% success rate. The punch technique diminishes the expenses of powered or laser instrumentation with comparable results. It seems that preserving normal tissues and creating a patent rhinostomy with least surgical trauma and less subsequent scar, plays the most important role in achieving desirable results. PMID:22065173

  20. Differences in gene expression in Atlantic salmon parr and smolt after challenge with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Lill-Heidi; Dahle, Maria Krudtaa; Wessel, Øystein; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Løvoll, Marie; Røsæg, Magnus; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Rimstad, Espen; Krasnov, Aleksei

    2016-05-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) are a disease of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV). The disease appears mainly during the marine production phase. This study examined if smoltification and transfer to seawater could compromise immune responses to PRV. Parr and smolts of the same origin were challenged by cohabitation with intraperitoneally injected salmon. Peak levels of PRV in spleen of cohabitants were reached after 8 weeks, but at a lower level in parr compared to smolts. Thereafter the virus levels declined, but remained significantly lower in parr than in smolts. Both groups developed typical HSMI histopathological heart lesions, which were most prominent after 10 weeks. Microarray and qPCR analyses revealed slightly lower expression of immune genes in spleen and head kidney of smolts before challenge. Infected parr showed earlier induction of genes involved in innate antiviral immunity, as well as for genes related to B and T cell responses. Gene expression profiles also indicated stimulation of heme and iron metabolism and erythropoiesis in smolts, which may indicate replacement of PRV-infected erythrocytes. PMID:27101566

  1. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J T; Lerner, D T; O'Dea, M F; Regish, A M; Monette, M Y; Hawkes, J P; Nislow, K H; McCormick, S D

    2015-11-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine levels of gill aluminium as an index of acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the north-eastern U.S.A. along mainstem river migration corridors in several major river basins. Smolts emigrating from the Connecticut River, where most (but not all) tributaries were well buffered, had low or undetectable levels of gill aluminium and high gill Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, smolts emigrating from the upper Merrimack River basin where most tributaries are characterized by low pH and high inorganic aluminium had consistently elevated gill aluminium and lower gill NKA activity, which may explain the low adult return rates of S. salar stocked into the upper Merrimack catchment. In the Sheepscot, Narraguagus and Penobscot Rivers in Maine, river and year-specific effects on gill aluminium were detected that appeared to be driven by underlying geology and high spring discharge. The results indicate that episodic acidification is affecting S. salar smolts in poorly buffered streams in New England and may help explain variation in S. salar survival and abundance among rivers and among years, with implications for the conservation and recovery of S. salar in the north-eastern U.S.A. These results suggest that the physiological condition of outmigrating smolts may serve as a large-scale sentinel of landscape-level recovery of atmospheric pollution in this and other parts of the North Atlantic region. PMID:26399385

  2. A concept for improving Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt migration past hydro power intakes.

    PubMed

    Fjeldstad, H P; Uglem, I; Diserud, O H; Fiske, P; Forseth, T; Kvingedal, E; Hvidsten, N A; Økland, F; Järnegren, J

    2012-07-01

    In this study, cost effective (in terms of reducing loss of power production) measures for increasing bypass migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar were developed and tested by establishing statistical models for timing of smolt migration and favourable diversion of water to the bypass. Initial tracking of radio-tagged smolts showed very low bypass migration under normal hydropower operations. Bypass migration increased when bypass discharge was experimentally increased and a model was developed that described relationships between total river discharge, bypass diversion and smolt migration route. Further improvements were obtained by installing two strobe lights at the power-production tunnel entrance that increased bypass migration during the night, but not during daytime. According to the behaviour of radio-tagged fish, the implemented measures contributed to increasing the annual percentage of bypass migration from 11 to 64%, and according to model predictions to 60-74% when the hydropower facilities were operated according to the developed models. To ensure correct timing of discharge diversion a smolt migration model was developed based on environmental variables that could successfully predict the general pattern of migration timing. The concept presented for improving smolt migration past hydropower intakes should be applicable in many systems where migration past hydropower installations cannot easily be solved by screening systems. PMID:22803728

  3. Immune response genes and pathogen presence predict migration survival in wild salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Gale, Marika Kirstin; Clark, Timothy D; Lotto, Andrew G; Casselman, Matthew T; Li, Shaorong; Rechisky, Erin L; Porter, Aswea D; Welch, David W; Miller, Kristina M

    2014-12-01

    We present the first data to link physiological responses and pathogen presence with subsequent fate during migration of wild salmonid smolts. We tagged and non-lethally sampled gill tissue from sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts as they left their nursery lake (Chilko Lake, BC, Canada) to compare gene expression profiles and freshwater pathogen loads with migration success over the first ~1150 km of their migration to the North Pacific Ocean using acoustic telemetry. Fifteen per cent of smolts were never detected again after release, and these fish had gene expression profiles consistent with an immune response to one or more viral pathogens compared with fish that survived their freshwater migration. Among the significantly upregulated genes of the fish that were never detected postrelease were MX (interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx) and STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-alpha/beta), which are characteristic of a type I interferon response to viral pathogens. The most commonly detected pathogen in the smolts leaving the nursery lake was infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Collectively, these data show that some of the fish assumed to have died after leaving the nursery lake appeared to be responding to one or more viral pathogens and had elevated stress levels that could have contributed to some of the mortality shortly after release. We present the first evidence that changes in gene expression may be predictive of some of the freshwater migration mortality in wild salmonid smolts. PMID:25354752

  4. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt production: the relative importance of survival and body growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, G.E.; Letcher, B.H.; Bailey, M.M.; Kinnison, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The complex life history of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) coupled with interacting abiotic and biotic factors leads to extreme demographic variability across the species' range. Our goal was to evaluate the relative importance of survival and body growth in determining smolt production across space and time. We used passive integrated transponder tags and capture-mark-recapture analyses to estimate survival, emigration, and growth for six cohorts of presmolt Atlantic salmon in two streams (three cohorts per stream) in New England, USA. We observed remarkable among-cohort consistency in mean monthly survival during a 17-month period from age-0+ autumn to age-2+ spring yet high variability in monthly survival over shorter time intervals (seasons). Despite this latter variability, survival did not translate into amongcohort differences in proportions of age-2+ versus age-3+ smolts. Alternatively, the high variability across seasons and cohorts in mean individual growth rate did lead to differences in within-cohort proportions of age-2+ versus age-3+ smolts (regardless of stream). We conclude that in our two small study streams, variability in growth and size impacted smolt age and, ultimately, smolt production. Density-dependent effects on growth at the scale of the entire study site represent a possible mechanism underlying our observations.

  5. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (<500 ng/mL) on Day 8. In these patients, the frequency of posaconazole administration was increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was <200 ng/mL. This study shows that increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27234674

  6. Survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts through a hydropower complex.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Bailey, M M; Zydlewski, J D

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt survival through the lower Penobscot River, Maine, U.S.A., and characterized relative differences in proportional use and survival through the main-stem of the river and an alternative migration route, the Stillwater Branch. The work was conducted prior to removal of two main-stem dams and operational changes in hydropower facilities in the Stillwater Branch. Survival and proportional use of migration routes in the lower Penobscot were estimated from multistate (MS) models based on 6 years of acoustic telemetry data from 1669 smolts and 2 years of radio-telemetry data from 190 fish. A small proportion (0·12, 95% c.i. = 0·06-0·25) of smolts used the Stillwater Branch, and mean survival through the two operational dams in this part of the river was relatively high (1·00 and 0·97). Survival at Milford Dam, the dam that will remain in the main-stem of the Penobscot River, was relatively low (0·91), whereas survival through two dams that were removed was relatively high (0·99 and 0·98). Smolt survival could decrease in the Stillwater Branch with the addition of two new powerhouses while continuing to meet fish passage standards. The effects of removing two dams in the main-stem are expected to be negligible for smolt survival based on high survival observed from 2005 to 2012 at those locations. Survival through Milford Dam was been well below current regulatory standards, and thus improvement of passage at this location offers the best opportunity for improving overall smolt survival in the lower river. PMID:25130320

  7. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Matthews, Gene M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing. The authors PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1993, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary Dams during spring, summer, and fall 1994. This report details their findings.

  8. Reduction of exposure to acrylamide: achievements, potential of optimization, and problems encountered from the perspectives of a Swiss enforcement laboratory.

    PubMed

    Grob, Koni

    2005-01-01

    The most important initiatives taken in Switzerland to reduce exposure of consumers to acrylamide are the separate sale of potatoes low in reducing sugars for roasting and frying, the optimization of the raw material and preparation of french fries, and campaigns to implement suitable preparation methods in the gastronomy and homes. Industry works on improving a range of other products. Although these measures can reduce high exposures by some 80%, they have little effect on the background exposure resulting from coffee, bread, and numerous other products for which no substantial improvement is in sight. At this stage, improvements should be achieved by supporting voluntary activity rather than legal limits. Committed and consistent risk communication is key, and the support of improvements presupposes innovative approaches. PMID:15759749

  9. Optimization Correction Strength Using Contra Bending Technique without Anterior Release Procedure to Achieve Maximum Correction on Severe Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Saleh, Ifran; Purnaning, Dyah; Kurniawati, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Posterior-only approach with rod and screw corrective manipulation to add strength of contra bending manipulation has correction achievement similar to that obtained by conventional combined anterior release and posterior approach. It also avoids the complications related to the thoracic approach. We reported a case of 25-year-old male adult idiopathic scoliosis with double curve. It consists of main thoracic curve of 150 degrees and lumbar curve of 89 degrees. His curve underwent direct contra bending posterior approach using rod and screw corrective manipulation technique to achieve optimal correction. After surgery the main thoracic Cobb angle becomes 83 degrees and lumbar Cobb angle becomes 40 degrees, with 5 days length of stay and less than 800 mL blood loss during surgery. There is no complaint at two months after surgery; he has already come back to normal activity with good functional activity. PMID:27064801

  10. Early discrimination of Atlantic salmon smolt age: Time course of the relative effectiveness of body size and shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstein, J.H.; Letcher, B.H.; Obedzinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the relative effectiveness of morphological measurements and body size in predicting the smolt age of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and to determine the time course of body size and shape differences between smolt ages. Analyses were conducted on age-0 to age-2 fish that were stocked as fry in the West Brook, Massachusetts and on laboratory-raised age-0 to age-1 fish. Using both body size and shape, we could partition the age-0 fish collected during fall into future early or late smolts, although the predictive ability of body shape was somewhat weaker than that of body size, especially in the laboratory. Classification success averaged 81% (size) and 79% (shape) in the field and 85% (size) and 73% (shape) in the laboratory. Despite differences in smolt age between the field and the laboratory, the relative timing of growth rate differences between future early and late smolts was similar in the field and the laboratory and peaked at 50-60% of development from fry to smolt. While body shape differed between early and late smolts well before smoltification, it did not improve classification based on size alone.

  11. Water discharge affects Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt production: a 27 year study in the River Orkla, Norway.

    PubMed

    Hvidsten, N A; Diserud, O H; Jensen, A J; Jensås, J G; Johnsen, B O; Ugedal, O

    2015-01-01

    A model that explains 48% of the annual variation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt production in the River Orkla, Norway, has been established. This variation could be explained by egg deposition, minimum daily discharge during the previous winter and minimum weekly discharge during the summer 3 years before smolt migration. All coefficients in the model were positive, which indicates that more eggs and higher minimum discharge levels during the winter before smolt migration and the summer after hatching benefit smolt production. Hence, when the spawning target of the river is reached, the minimum levels of river discharge, in both winter and summer, are the main bottlenecks for the parr survival, and hence for smolt production. The River Orkla was developed for hydropower production in the early 1980s by the construction of four reservoirs upstream of the river stretch accessible to S. salar. Although no water has been removed from the catchment, the dynamics of water flow has been altered, mainly by increasing discharges during winter and reducing spring floods. In spite of the higher than natural winter discharges, minimum winter discharge is still a determinant of smolt production. Hence, in regulated rivers, the maintenance of discharges to ensure that they are as high as possible during dry periods is an important means of securing high S. salar smolt production. PMID:25418585

  12. Condition-dependent migratory behaviour of endangered Atlantic salmon smolts moving through an inland sea.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Hatcher, Bruce G; Denny, Shelley; Whoriskey, Kim; Orr, Michael; Penney, Alicia; Whoriskey, Frederick G

    2016-01-01

    The Bras d'Or Lake watershed of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada is a unique inland sea ecosystem, UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and home to a group of regionally distinct Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. Recent population decreases in this region have raised concern about their long-term persistence. We used acoustic telemetry to track the migrations of juvenile salmon (smolts) from the Middle River into the Bras d'Or Lake and, subsequently, into the Atlantic Ocean. Roughly half of the tagged smolts transited the Bras d'Or Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, using a migration route that took them through the Gulf of St Lawrence's northern exit at the Strait of Belle Isle (∼650 km from the home river) towards feeding areas in the Labrador Sea and Greenland. However, a significant fraction spent >70 days in the Lakes, suggesting that this population has an alternative resident form, in which smolts limit their migrations within the Bras d'Or. Smolts in good relative condition (as determined from length-to-mass relationships) tended to be residents, whereas fish in poorer condition were ocean migrants. We also found a covarying effect of river temperature that helped to predict residence vs. ocean migration. We discuss these results relative to their bioenergetic implications and provide suggestions for future studies aimed at the conservation of declining salmon populations in Canada. PMID:27293765

  13. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    2001-08-01

    This report details the 2000 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

  14. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    2001-06-01

    This report details the 1999 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

  15. Physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration and ocean entry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Sheehan, Timothy F.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Lipsky, Christine; Kocik, John F.; Regish, Amy M.; O'Dea, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Billions of hatchery salmon smolts are released annually in an attempt to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on freshwater habitats, often with limited success. Mortality of wild and hatchery fish is high during downstream and early ocean migration. To understand changes that occur during migration, we examined physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration, and early ocean entry in two successive years. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased in the hatchery during spring, increased further after river release, and was slightly lower after recapture in the ocean. Plasma growth hormone levels increased in the hatchery, were higher in the river, and increased further in the ocean. Plasma IGF-I remained relatively constant in the hatchery, increased in the river, then decreased in the ocean. Plasma thyroid hormones were variable in the hatchery, but increased in both river- and ocean-captured smolts. Naturally reared fish had lower condition factor, gill NKA activity, and plasma thyroxine than hatchery fish in the river but were similar in the ocean. This novel data set provides a vital first step in understanding the role and norms of endocrine function in smolts and the metrics of successful marine entry.

  16. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Kamikawa, Daniel J.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    1995-01-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing.

  17. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1987-09-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smolts during the 1986 spring outmigration at two migrant traps, one each on the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Average migration rates for freeze-branded chinook salmon smolts were 28.2 km per day and 22.1 km per day for steelhead trout smolts between release sites and the head of Lower Granite Reservoir. The yearling chinook salmon migration begins in earnest when Salmon River discharge makes a significant rise in early to mid-April. Most yearling chinook salmon pass into Lower Granite Reservoir in April followed by passage of steelhead trout in May. Chinook salmon smolt recapture data from the Snake River trap suggest a strong dependence of migration rate on quantity of Snake and Salmon River discharge, although no statistical correlation exists at this time. Daily and seasonal descaling rates were calculated for each species at each trap. Rates were highest for hatchery steelhead trout, intermediate for yearling chinook salmon, and lowest for wild steelhead trout. Descaling rates were generally higher in 1986 than those observed in 1984 and 1985. 4 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Modeling stream network-scale variation in coho salmon overwinter survival and smolt size

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple regression and hierarchical mixed-effects models to examine spatial patterns of overwinter survival and size at smolting in juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in relation to habitat attributes across an extensive stream network in southwestern Oregon over ...

  19. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Marsh, Douglas M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1994-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring and summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1991, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary Dams during spring and summer 1992. This report details our findings.

  20. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1997-07-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1995 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams during spring and summer 1996.

  1. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, Robin M; Beeman, John W; VanderKooi, Scott P

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis (ASCTTA) project provided information on the level of smoltification in Columbia River hatchery and wild salmonid stocks to the Fish Passage Center (FPC), for the primary purpose of in-river management of flows.

  2. Condition-dependent migratory behaviour of endangered Atlantic salmon smolts moving through an inland sea

    PubMed Central

    Crossin, Glenn T.; Hatcher, Bruce G.; Denny, Shelley; Whoriskey, Kim; Orr, Michael; Penney, Alicia; Whoriskey, Frederick G.

    2016-01-01

    The Bras d’Or Lake watershed of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada is a unique inland sea ecosystem, UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and home to a group of regionally distinct Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. Recent population decreases in this region have raised concern about their long-term persistence. We used acoustic telemetry to track the migrations of juvenile salmon (smolts) from the Middle River into the Bras d’Or Lake and, subsequently, into the Atlantic Ocean. Roughly half of the tagged smolts transited the Bras d’Or Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, using a migration route that took them through the Gulf of St Lawrence’s northern exit at the Strait of Belle Isle (∼650 km from the home river) towards feeding areas in the Labrador Sea and Greenland. However, a significant fraction spent >70 days in the Lakes, suggesting that this population has an alternative resident form, in which smolts limit their migrations within the Bras d’Or. Smolts in good relative condition (as determined from length-to-mass relationships) tended to be residents, whereas fish in poorer condition were ocean migrants. We also found a covarying effect of river temperature that helped to predict residence vs. ocean migration. We discuss these results relative to their bioenergetic implications and provide suggestions for future studies aimed at the conservation of declining salmon populations in Canada. PMID:27293765

  3. Distinct effects of 4-nonylphenol and estrogen-17β on expression of estrogen receptor α gene in smolting sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Qiong; Ban, Massatoshi; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji K.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Urano, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    Xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) have been shown to affect the parr–smolt transformation, but their mechanisms of action are not known. We therefore examined effects of 4-NP and estradiol-17β (E2) on expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α gene in the liver, gill, pituitary and brain of sockeye salmon to elucidate molecular mechanisms of 4-NP and E2 and developmental differences in response during smolting. Fish were treated twice within a week with 4-NP (15 and 150 mg/kg BW), E2 (2 mg/kg BW) or only vehicle at three stages of smolting, pre-smolting in March, early smolting in April and late smolting in May. The absolute amounts of ERα mRNA were determined by real-time PCR. The basal amounts of ERα mRNA peaked in April in the liver, gill and pituitary. In March, E2 extensively increased the amounts in the liver, while 4-NP had no effects at this stage. In contrast, 4-NP (but not E2) decreased liver ERα mRNA in April. 4-NP also decreased the amount of ERα mRNA in the gill in April. In the pituitary, 4-NP increased ERα mRNA in March but decreased it in May. There were no significant effects in the brain. Changes in basal ERα mRNA observed in this study indicate that estrogen responsiveness of tissues may change during salmon smolting. Furthermore, 4-NP and E2 have different effects on expression of ERα gene in the liver and gill during smolting, and the response is dependent on smolt stage.

  4. Differential regulation of sodium-potassium pump isoforms during smolt development and seawater exposure of Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Regish, Amy M.; Christensen, Arne K.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater and seawater isoforms of the alpha subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) have previously been identified in gill ionocytes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In the present study we examine the abundance and cellular localization of these isoforms during the parr–smolt transformation, a developmental process that is preparatory for seawater entry. The abundance of NKAα1a was lower in smolts than in parr, remained relatively constant during spring and decreased in summer. NKAα1b increased tenfold in smolts during spring, peaking in late April, coincident with downstream migration and increased salinity tolerance. NKAα1b increased a further twofold after seawater exposure of smolts, whereas NKAα1a decreased by 98%. The abundance of NKAα1b-positive, and NKAα1b and NKAα1a co-labeled ionocytes increased during smolt development, whereas the number of NKAα1a cells decreased. After seawater exposure of smolts, NKAα1b-positive ionocytes increased, NKAα1a-positive cells decreased, and co-labeled cells disappeared. Plasma growth hormone and cortisol increased during spring in smolts, but not in parr, peaking just prior to the highest levels of NKAα1b. The results indicate that the increase in the abundance of NKAα1b during smolt development is directly linked to the increase in salinity tolerance that occurs at this stage, but that significant changes also occur after seawater exposure. Spring increases in circulating levels of growth hormone and cortisol indicate that these hormones may be instrumental in upregulating NKAα1b during smolt development.

  5. Thresholds for short-term acid and aluminum impacts on Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Lerner, Darrren T.; Regish, Amy M.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Monette, Michelle Y.

    2012-01-01

    Although the negative effects of acid and aluminum (Al) on smolt development have been known for some time, the thresholds for impact of short-term exposure of several days that may occur during episodic acidification have not been systematically examined. In order to determine the levels of acid and Al that impact juvenile Atlantic salmon, smolts and yolk-sac larvae were exposed to three pH levels (6.0, 5.7, and 5.3) and four added Al levels (0, 40, 80 and 175 μg/L total Al) for 48 h. Following this treatment, 10 smolts were sampled in freshwater and another 10 were subjected to a 24 h seawater challenge (35 ppt). Survival of yolk-sac larvae was > 96% in all acid and Al treatments. All smolts died within 48 h at pH 5.3, 175 μg L− 1 Al. There were some mortalities in freshwater at pH 5.3, 80 μg L− 1 Al and pH 5.7, 175 μg L− 1 Al, and further mortalities when these fish were transferred to seawater. Mortalities in these groups were associated with decreased plasma chloride in freshwater and higher plasma chloride in seawater, indicating that these smolts had lost seawater tolerance. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity decreased at pH 5.7, 175 μg L− 1 Al in freshwater, and further decreases were observed at more moderate pH and Al exposures after transfer to seawater. Hematocrit and plasma glucose were the most sensitive physiological responses, increasing at all Al treatments at pH 5.7 and 5.3 in freshwater. There was no detectable increase in gill Al levels at pH 6.0 with added Al, whereas substantial increases in gill Al were observed in all added Al groups at pH 5.7 and 5.3. Our results demonstrate a critical interaction between acid and Al in their effects on smolts, and that episodic acidification events will negatively impact smolt survival in freshwater and after seawater entry.

  6. Effects of freshwater exposure to arsenic trioxide on the parr-smolt transformation of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.W.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; Mayer, F.L.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Gregory, S.V.; Yasutake, W.T.; Smith, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic (6 months) exposure to arsenic trioxide in fresh water on the Parr-smolt transformation of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were evaluated. Exposure to 300 μg As/L (as As2O3) appeared to delay the onset of the normal increase in plasma thyroxine concentration and cause a transient reduction of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Fish exposed to 300 μg As/L also migrated to the sea less successfully than did nonexposed smolts, but there were no effects on the survival and growth of smolts held in 28‰ salt water for 6 months.

  7. Photoperiod control of downstream movements of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Stich, Daniel S.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first direct observations that photoperiod controls the initiation of downstream movement in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts. Under simulated natural day length (LDN) conditions and seasonal increases in temperature, smolts increased their downstream movements five-fold for a period of 1 month in late spring. Under the same conditions, parr did not show changes in downstream movement behaviour. When given a shortened day length (10L:14D) beginning in late winter, smolts did not increase the number of downstream movements. An early increase in day length (16L:8D) in late winter resulted in earlier initiation and termination of downstream movements compared to the LDN group. Physiological status and behaviour were related but not completely coincident: gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased in all treatments and thyroid hormone was elevated prior to movement in 16L:8D treatment. The most parsimonious model describing downstream movement of smolts included synergistic effects of photoperiod treatment and temperature, indicating that peak movements occurred at colder temperatures in the 16L:8D treatment than in LDN, and temperature did not influence movement of smolts in the 10L:14D treatment. The complicated interactions of photoperiod and temperature are not surprising since many organisms have evolved to rely on correlations among environmental cues and windows of opportunity to time behaviours associated with life-history transitions. These complicated interactions, however, have serious implications for phenological adjustments and persistence ofS. salar populations in response to climate change.

  8. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, John T; Lerner, Darrren T.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Regish, Amy M.; Monette, Michelle Y.; Hawkes, J.P.; Nislow, Keith H.; McCormick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine levels of gill aluminium as an index of acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the north-eastern U.S.A. along mainstem river migration corridors in several major river basins. Smolts emigrating from the Connecticut River, where most (but not all) tributaries were well buffered, had low or undetectable levels of gill aluminium and high gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, smolts emigrating from the upper Merrimack River basin where most tributaries are characterized by low pH and high inorganic aluminium had consistently elevated gill aluminium and lower gill NKA activity, which may explain the low adult return rates of S. salar stocked into the upper Merrimack catchment. In the Sheepscot, Narraguagus and Penobscot Rivers in Maine, river and year-specific effects on gill aluminium were detected that appeared to be driven by underlying geology and high spring discharge. The results indicate that episodic acidification is affecting S. salar smolts in poorly buffered streams in New England and may help explain variation in S. salar survival and abundance among rivers and among years, with implications for the conservation and recovery of S. salar in the north-eastern U.S.A. These results suggest that the physiological condition of outmigrating smolts may serve as a large-scale sentinel of landscape-level recovery of atmospheric pollution in this and other parts of the North Atlantic region.

  9. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts.

  10. Physiological preparedness and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in relation to behavioural salinity preferences and thresholds.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Zydlewski, G B; Zydlewski, J D

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the relationships between behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts to saltwater (SW) exposure and physiological characteristics of smolts in laboratory experiments. It concurrently described the behaviour of acoustically tagged smolts with respect to SW and tidal cycles during estuary migration. Salmo salar smolts increased their use of SW relative to fresh water (FW) from April to June in laboratory experiments. Mean preference for SW never exceeded 50% of time in any group. Preference for SW increased throughout the course of smolt development. Maximum continuous time spent in SW was positively related to gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and osmoregulatory performance in full-strength SW (measured as change in gill NKA activity and plasma osmolality). Smolts decreased depth upon reaching areas of the Penobscot Estuary where SW was present, and all fish became more surface oriented during passage from head of tide to the ocean. Acoustically tagged, migrating smolts with low gill NKA activity moved faster in FW reaches of the estuary than those with higher gill NKA activity. There was no difference in movement rate through SW reaches of the estuary based on gill NKA activity. Migrating fish moved with tidal flow during the passage of the lower estuary based on the observed patterns in both vertical and horizontal movements. The results indicate that smolts select low-salinity water during estuary migration and use tidal currents to minimize energetic investment in seaward migration. Seasonal changes in osmoregulatory ability highlight the importance of the timing of stocking and estuary arrival. PMID:26693828

  11. Variability in Migration Routes Influences Early Marine Survival of Juvenile Salmon Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Furey, Nathan B.; Vincent, Stephen P.; Hinch, Scott G.; Welch, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Variability in animal migratory behavior is expected to influence fitness, but few empirical examples demonstrating this relationship exist. The initial marine phase in the migration of juvenile salmon smolts has been identified as a potentially critical life history stage to overall population productivity, yet how fine-scale migration routes may influence survival are unknown. Large-scale acoustic telemetry studies have estimated survival rates of outmigrant Pacific salmon smolts through the Strait of Georgia (SOG) along the British Columbian coastline to the Pacific Ocean, but these data have not been used to identify and characterize fine-scale movements. Data collected on over 850 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts detected at an array in the Strait of Georgia in 2004–2008 and 2010–2013 were analyzed to characterize migration routes and link movements to subsequent survival at an array 250 km further along the marine migration pathway. Both species exhibited disproportionate use of the most eastern route in the Strait of Georgia (Malaspina Strait). While many smolts moved across the northern Strait of Georgia acoustic array with no indication of long-term milling or large-scale east-to-west movements, large proportions (20–40% of sockeye and 30–50% of steelhead) exhibited a different behavior, apparently moving in a westward or counterclockwise pattern. Variability in migratory behavior for both species was linked to subsequent survival through the Strait of Georgia. Survival for both species was influenced by initial east-to-west location, and sockeye were further influenced by migration timing and duration of time spent near the northern Strait of Georgia array. Westward movements result in a net transport of smolts from Malaspina Strait to the Strait of Georgia, particularly for steelhead. Counterclockwise movements may be due to the currents in this area during the time of outmigration, and the higher

  12. Variability in Migration Routes Influences Early Marine Survival of Juvenile Salmon Smolts.

    PubMed

    Furey, Nathan B; Vincent, Stephen P; Hinch, Scott G; Welch, David W

    2015-01-01

    Variability in animal migratory behavior is expected to influence fitness, but few empirical examples demonstrating this relationship exist. The initial marine phase in the migration of juvenile salmon smolts has been identified as a potentially critical life history stage to overall population productivity, yet how fine-scale migration routes may influence survival are unknown. Large-scale acoustic telemetry studies have estimated survival rates of outmigrant Pacific salmon smolts through the Strait of Georgia (SOG) along the British Columbian coastline to the Pacific Ocean, but these data have not been used to identify and characterize fine-scale movements. Data collected on over 850 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts detected at an array in the Strait of Georgia in 2004-2008 and 2010-2013 were analyzed to characterize migration routes and link movements to subsequent survival at an array 250 km further along the marine migration pathway. Both species exhibited disproportionate use of the most eastern route in the Strait of Georgia (Malaspina Strait). While many smolts moved across the northern Strait of Georgia acoustic array with no indication of long-term milling or large-scale east-to-west movements, large proportions (20-40% of sockeye and 30-50% of steelhead) exhibited a different behavior, apparently moving in a westward or counterclockwise pattern. Variability in migratory behavior for both species was linked to subsequent survival through the Strait of Georgia. Survival for both species was influenced by initial east-to-west location, and sockeye were further influenced by migration timing and duration of time spent near the northern Strait of Georgia array. Westward movements result in a net transport of smolts from Malaspina Strait to the Strait of Georgia, particularly for steelhead. Counterclockwise movements may be due to the currents in this area during the time of outmigration, and the higher proportion

  13. Evidence for cumulative temperature as an initiating and terminating factor in downstream migratory behavior of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, G.B.; Haro, A.; McCormick, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Temperature control of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt migration was tested using a novel technique allowing nearly continuous monitoring of behavior with complete control over environmental conditions. Parr and presmolts were implanted with passive integrated transponder tags, placed in simulated streams, and monitored for upstream and downstream movements. Beginning 18 April, temperature was increased 1??C every third day (advanced), fourth day (ambient), and tenth day (delayed). Smolt downstream movements were initially low, peaked in mid-May, and subsequently declined under all conditions. Parr downstream movements were significantly lower than those of smolts in all treatments (0.8 ?? 0.5 movement??day-1 versus 26.5 ?? 4.5 movements??day-1, mean ?? SE) and showed no increase. At delayed temperatures, smolts sustained downstream movements through July; those under ambient and advanced conditions ceased activity by mid-June. Initiation and termination of downstream movements occurred at significantly different temperatures but at the same number of degree-days in all treatments. Physiological changes associated with smolting (gill Na+,K +-ATPase activity and plasma thyroxine) were coincident with behavioral changes. This is the first evidence of a behavioral component to the smolt window. We found that temperature experience over time is more relevant to initiation and termination of downstream movement than a temperature threshold. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  14. Benefits of prescribed flows for salmon smolt survival enhancement vary longitudinally in a highly managed river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Courter, Ian; Garrison, Thomas; Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Child, David; Hubble, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The influence of streamflow on survival of emigrating juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. (smolts) is a major concern for water managers throughout the northeast Pacific Rim. However, few studies have quantified flow effects on smolt survival, and available information does not indicate a consistent flow–survival relationship within the typical range of flows under management control. In the Yakima Basin, Washington, the potential effects of streamflow alterations on smolt survival have been debated for over 20 years. Using a series of controlled flow releases from upper basin reservoirs and radiotelemetry, we quantified the relationship between flow and yearling Chinook salmon smolt survival in the 208 km reach between Roza Dam and the Yakima River mouth. A multistate mark–recapture model accounted for weekly variation in flow conditions experienced by tagged fish in four discrete river segments. Smolt survival was significantly associated with streamflow in the Roza Reach [river kilometre (rkm) 208–189] and marginally associated with streamflow in the Sunnyside Reach (rkm 169–77). However, smolt survival was not significantly associated with flow in the Naches and Prosser Reaches (rkm 189–169 and rkm 77–3). This discrepancy indicates potential differences in underlying flow-related survival mechanisms, such as predation or passage impediments. Our results clarify trade-offs between flow augmentation for fisheries enhancement and other beneficial uses, and our study design provides a framework for resolving uncertainties about streamflow effects on migratory fish survival in other river systems. 

  15. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Faler, Joyce C.

    1991-12-01

    As a part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program, the Fish Passage Center collects information on the migrational characteristics of juvenile salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus sp.) in the Columbia River basin. This information is collected through the Smolt Monitoring Program, and is used as a tool in the management and evaluation of the Water Budget. The Water Budget is a volume of water used to enhance environmental conditions (flows) to aid in the seaward migration of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Implicit in the Water Budget concept is that by augmenting flows, travel time of juvenile salmonids will be decreased, thereby increasing survival via reductions in delayed migration and exposure to predators. This study was initiated to (1) provide physiological information about the juvenile salmonids used for these travel time estimates, (2) to analyze the physiological data, and (3) to determine if an ``index`` of smolt condition could be developed to aid in management of the Water Budget.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Migration Patterns of Pacific Salmon Smolts in Rivers and Coastal Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Melnychuk, Michael C.; Welch, David W.; Walters, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Migrations allow animals to find food resources, rearing habitats, or mates, but often impose considerable predation risk. Several behavioural strategies may reduce this risk, including faster travel speed and taking routes with shorter total distance. Descriptions of the natural range of variation in migration strategies among individuals and populations is necessary before the ecological consequences of such variation can be established. Methodology/Principal Findings Movements of tagged juvenile coho, steelhead, sockeye, and Chinook salmon were quantified using a large-scale acoustic tracking array in southern British Columbia, Canada. Smolts from 13 watersheds (49 watershed/species/year combinations) were tagged between 2004–2008 and combined into a mixed-effects model analysis of travel speed. During the downstream migration, steelhead were slower on average than other species, possibly related to freshwater residualization. During the migration through the Strait of Georgia, coho were slower than steelhead and sockeye, likely related to some degree of inshore summer residency. Hatchery-reared smolts were slower than wild smolts during the downstream migration, but after ocean entry, average speeds were similar. In small rivers, downstream travel speed increased with body length, but in the larger Fraser River and during the coastal migration, average speed was independent of body length. Smolts leaving rivers located towards the northern end of the Strait of Georgia ecosystem migrated strictly northwards after ocean entry, but those from rivers towards the southern end displayed split-route migration patterns within populations, with some moving southward. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal a tremendous diversity of behavioural migration strategies used by juvenile salmon, across species, rearing histories, and habitats, as well as within individual populations. During the downstream migration, factors that had strong effects on travel

  17. Linking behavior, physiology, and survival of Atlantic Salmon smolts during estuary migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stich, Daniel S.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Kocik, John F.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Decreased marine survival is identified as a component driver of continued declines of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. However, estimates of marine mortality often incorporate loss incurred during estuary migration that may be mechanistically distinct from factors affecting marine mortality. We examined movements and survival of 941 smolts (141 wild and 800 hatchery-reared fish) released in freshwater during passage through the Penobscot River estuary, Maine, from 2005 to 2013. We related trends in estuary arrival date, movement rate, and survival to fish characteristics, migratory history, and environmental conditions in the estuary. Fish that experienced the warmest thermal history arrived in the estuary 8 d earlier than those experiencing the coolest thermal history during development. Estuary arrival date was 10 d later for fish experiencing high flow than for fish experiencing low flow. Fish released furthest upstream arrived in the estuary 3 d later than those stocked further downstream but moved 0.5 km/h faster through the estuary. Temporally, movement rate and survival in the estuary both peaked in mid-May. Spatially, movement rate and survival both decreased from freshwater to the ocean. Wild smolts arrived in the estuary later than hatchery fish, but we observed no change in movement rate or survival attributable to rearing history. Fish with the highest gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity incurred 25% lower mortality through the estuary than fish with the lowest gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Smolt survival decreased (by up to 40%) with the increasing number of dams passed (ranging from two to nine) during freshwater migration. These results underscore the importance of physiological preparedness on performance and the delayed, indirect effects of dams on survival of Atlantic Salmon smolts during estuary migration, ultimately affecting marine survival estimates.

  18. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1996-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1995 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River, Clearwater River, and Salmon River. The 1995 snowpack was below average through February. Heavy precipitation from the Salmon River drainage south, in March through May, provided the best runoff conditions in the Salmon River since the drought began in 1987.

  19. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, Richard J.; Buettner, Edwin W.

    1986-02-01

    Hatcheries released 9.3 million chinook salmon and 6.3 million steelhead smolts and presmolts upriver from Lower Granite Reservoir for migration in spring, 1984. Peak passage of yearling chinook salmon occurred the third week in April at both Whitebird and Snake River traps. Passage of steelhead was still increasing when high water stopped trapping in mid-May. Average migration rate between release sites and Snake River (the head of Lower Granite Reservoir) was 13.2 miles/day and from that point on through the reservoir to the dam, 1.9 miles/day. Salmon River discharge, when considered along with other environmental factors, had the greatest effect on migration rate of smolts branded both at hatcheries and at the Whitebird trap and migrating to the head of Lower Granite Reservoir. Migration rate for steelhead released from Dworshak Hatchery and recaptured at the Clearwater trap was 34 miles/day. Survival rates to the Snake River trap of branded chinook salmon smolts released at Hells Canyon Dam, Rapid River, South Fork Salmon and Decker Flat were 52%, 65%, 68% and 35%, respectively. Classical descaling, where at least 40% of the scales are missing from at least two of five areas on the side of a smolt, ranged from 0 to 5.3% at hatcheries for chinook salmon and was less than 1% for steelhead. Scattered descaling, where at least 10% of scales are missing from at least one side of a fish, was always more extensive than was classical descaling, ranging from 2.5 times greater for Clearwater hatchery steelhead to 6.8 times greater for Clearwater wild steelhead. Mean total length of chinook salmon yearlings was the same at all the traps, i.e., 128 mm (117 mm fork length) +- 1 mm.

  20. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  1. Tracking wild sockeye salmon smolts to the ocean reveals distinct regions of nocturnal movement and high mortality.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy D; Furey, Nathan B; Rechisky, Erin L; Gale, Marika K; Jeffries, Ken M; Porter, Aswea D; Casselman, Matthew T; Lotto, Andrew G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Welch, David W; Hinch, Scott G

    2016-06-01

    Few estimates of migration rates or descriptions of behavior or survival exist for wild populations of out-migrating Pacific salmon smolts from natal freshwater rearing areas to the ocean. Using acoustic transmitters and fixed receiver arrays across four years (2010-2013), we tracked the migration of > 1850 wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts from Chilko Lake, British Columbia, to the coastal Pacific Ocean (> 1000 km distance). Cumulative survival to the ocean ranged 3-10% among years, although this may be slightly underestimated due to technical limitations at the final receiver array. Distinct spatial patterns in both behavior and survival were observed through all years. In small, clear, upper-river reaches, downstream migration largely occurred at night at speeds up to 50 km/d and coincided with poor survival. Among years, only 57-78% of smolts survived the first 80 km. Parallel laboratory experiments revealed excellent short-term survival and unhindered swimming performance of dummy-tagged smolts, suggesting that predators rather than tagging effects were responsible for the initial high mortality of acoustic-tagged smolts. Migration speeds increased in the Fraser River mainstem (~220 km/d in some years), diel movement patterns ceased, and smolt survival generally exceeded 90% in this segment. Marine movement rates and survival were variable across years, with among-year segment-specific survival being the most variable and lowest (19-61%) during the final (and longest, 240 km) marine migration segment. Osmoregulatory preparedness was not expected to influence marine survival, as smolts could maintain normal levels of plasma chloride when experimentally exposed to saltwater (30 ppt) immediately upon commencing their migration from Chilko Lake. Transportation of smolts downstream generally increased survival to the farthest marine array. The act of tagging may have affected smolts in the marine environment in some years as dummy-tagged fish had

  2. Reducing the Academic Risks of Over-Optimism: The Longitudinal Effects of Attributional Retraining on Cognition and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Tara L.; Ruthig, Joelle C.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2006-01-01

    Although optimism is generally regarded as a positive dispositional characteristic, unmitigated optimism can be problematic. The adaptiveness of overly optimistic expectations in novel or unfamiliar settings is questionable because individuals have little relevant experience on which to base such expectations. In this four-phase longitudinal…

  3. Spring Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Veach, Eric R.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1998-10-01

    For the fourth consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A screw trap was used to collect emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Uncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 25 to June 27, 1997. A total of 270 natural chinook salmon, 10,616 hatchery chinook salmon, 864 natural steelhead trout (and 13 natural steelhead parr), and 7,345 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during emigration studies on the Imnaha River. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low: 0.37% for natural chinook, 0.11% for hatchery chinook, 0.11% for natural steelhead, and 0.39% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Natural chinook salmon smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River from February 25 to June 10 and had a mean length of 108 mm, average weight of 13 g, and mean condition factor of 1.02. The peak period of natural chinook smolt emigration, based on number of fish collected, occurred between March 25 and April 30. Hatchery reared chinook salmon smolts were collected from April 9 to May 9, with 99% of the smolts being caught within 10 days after release. Hatchery chinook smolts mean length, weight, and condition factor were 131 mm, 25.4 g, and 1.12, respectively. Emigration of natural steelhead smolts in the Imnaha River occurred between March 14 and June 25. Peak emigration occurred from May 1 to May 15. Natural steelhead smolts averaged 175 mm in fork length, 55.8 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 1 .OO. Hatchery steelhead smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River between April 15 and June 27. Hatchery steelhead smolts averaged 210 mm in fork length, 88 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 0.93. Spring runoff water conditions in 1997 provided above average flows for emigrating anadromous salmonid smolts. Imnaha River mean daily discharge during spring emigration ranged from 7

  4. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: effects of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, J G; Rikardsen, A H; Halttunen, E; Thorstad, E B; Økland, F; Letcher, B H; Skardhamar, J; Naesje, T F

    2009-11-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97.0 to 99.5% km(-1). On average, the post-smolts spent 1.5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1.8 LF s(-1)) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3.0 LF s(-1)). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. PMID:20738643

  5. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1998-05-01

    In August 1996, we PIT tagged and released 1,360 wild chinook salmon parr in the South Fork of the Salmon River and two of its tributaries in Idaho. During spring and summer 1997, the overall adjusted percentage of PIT-tagged fish from Idaho detected at six downstream dams averaged 18.3% (range 16.0 to 27.3% depending on stream of origin). Peak detections of all wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts (from Idaho and Oregon) at Lower Granite Dam occurred during variable but increasing river flows in April. High river flows from mid-April to mid-May moved most of these fish through Lower Granite Dam, with 50 and 90% passage occurring on 24 April and 21 May, respectively. From 1989 to 1996, peak detections of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts were highly variable and generally independent of river flows before about 9 May at this dam; however, during these years (including 1997), peak detections of wild fish coincided with periods of peak flow at the dam from 9 May to the end of May. In both 1995 and 1996, in excess of 90% of the wild fish had migrated past Lower Granite Dam by the time peak flows occurred in June. In 1989, we observed a period of peak detections of wild fish that coincided with peak flows at the dam in June. After examining chinook salmon smolt passage timing at the dams over the last 9 years, it has become clear that flow is only one of several factors that influence passage timing. Other factors, such as annual climatic conditions, water temperature, turbidity, physiological development, variability in stock behavior, fish size, and other yet unknown conditions may equally affect wild smolt passage timing at dams. As additional environmental monitors and traps are installed in study streams, we will be able to more accurately monitor parr and smolt movements out of rearing areas and examine the relationships of these movements to environmental parameters within the streams. Mapped over time, this information will provide the basis for

  7. Effects of hexazinone and atrazine on the physiology and endocrinology of smolt development in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nieves-Puigdoller, K.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to hexazinone (HEX) and atrazine (ATZ), highly mobile and widely used herbicides along rivers in the United States, is potentially harmful to Atlantic salmon, which have been listed as an endangered species. To determine the effects of these contaminants on smolt development, juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed under flow-through conditions to 100 ??g l-1 HEX, 10 and 100 ??g l-1 ATZ in fresh water (FW) for 21 days at 10 ??C beginning in mid-April. Twelve fish per treatment were sampled in FW, following a 24 h seawater (SW) challenge and after growth for 3 months in SW. Exposure to 100 ??g l-1 HEX or 10 ??g l-1 ATZ caused no mortalities of smolts in FW or after SW challenge, while 9% of the fish exposed to 100 ??g l-1 ATZ died during exposure. Fish exposed to 100 ??g l-1 ATZ reduced feeding after 10 days of exposure and had an impaired growth rate in FW and during the first month in SW; compensatory growth occurred in the second and third month in SW. HEX and ATZ at 10 ??g l-1 exposure had no effect on plasma levels of cortisol, growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor I (IGF-I), thyroxine (T4) and plasma 3,5,3???-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), Cl-, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ in FW or after SW challenge. FW smolts exposed to 100 ??g l-1 ATZ had decreased plasma Cl-, Mg2+, Na+ and Ca2+ ions and increased cortisol. No effect on plasma levels of GH, IGF-I, T4 or T3 was found in FW smolts exposed to 100 ??g l-1 ATZ. Following SW challenge, fish previously exposed to 100 ??g l-1 ATZ had significant increases in hematocrit, plasma cortisol, Cl-, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and a decrease in T4 and T3. It is concluded that under the conditions imposed in this study, HEX does not affect salinity tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts, while ATZ causes ionoregulatory, growth and endocrine disturbance. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of hexazinone and atrazine on the physiology and endocrinology of smolt development in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Puigdoller, Katherine; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D

    2007-08-15

    Exposure to hexazinone (HEX) and atrazine (ATZ), highly mobile and widely used herbicides along rivers in the United States, is potentially harmful to Atlantic salmon, which have been listed as an endangered species. To determine the effects of these contaminants on smolt development, juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed under flow-through conditions to 100 microgl(-1) HEX, 10 and 100 microgl(-1) ATZ in fresh water (FW) for 21 days at 10 degrees C beginning in mid-April. Twelve fish per treatment were sampled in FW, following a 24h seawater (SW) challenge and after growth for 3 months in SW. Exposure to 100 microgl(-1) HEX or 10microgl(-1) ATZ caused no mortalities of smolts in FW or after SW challenge, while 9% of the fish exposed to 100 microgl(-1) ATZ died during exposure. Fish exposed to 100 microgl(-1) ATZ reduced feeding after 10 days of exposure and had an impaired growth rate in FW and during the first month in SW; compensatory growth occurred in the second and third month in SW. HEX and ATZ at 10 microgl(-1) exposure had no effect on plasma levels of cortisol, growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor I (IGF-I), thyroxine (T(4)) and plasma 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)), Cl(-), Mg(2+), Na(+), Ca(2+) in FW or after SW challenge. FW smolts exposed to 100 microgl(-1) ATZ had decreased plasma Cl(-), Mg(2+), Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions and increased cortisol. No effect on plasma levels of GH, IGF-I, T(4) or T(3) was found in FW smolts exposed to 100 microgl(-1) ATZ. Following SW challenge, fish previously exposed to 100 microgl(-1) ATZ had significant increases in hematocrit, plasma cortisol, Cl(-), Mg(2+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and a decrease in T(4) and T(3). It is concluded that under the conditions imposed in this study, HEX does not affect salinity tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts, while ATZ causes ionoregulatory, growth and endocrine disturbance. PMID:17610964

  9. Effects of aqueous exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) on physiology and behavior of smolt development of Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, D.T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread aquatic contaminant and are present in both wild and hatchery raised Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. The possible sub-lethal alterations in smolt physiology and behavior due to PCB exposure of salmon have not been widely examined. In this study, we examined the effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 on survival and smolt development of Atlantic salmon. In separate experiments, fish were exposed as yolk-sac larvae or as juveniles just prior to the parr-smolt transformation in April to 1 ??g l-1 (PCB-1) or 10 ??g l-1 (PCB-10) aqueous Aroclor 1254 (A1254), or vehicle for 21 days. After exposure, yolk-sac larvae were reared at ambient conditions for 1 year, until the peak of smolting the following May. Juveniles were sampled immediately after exposure. Both groups were assessed for behavioral, osmoregulatory, and endocrine disruption of smolt development at the peak of smolting. PCB-1 and PCB-10 treated yolk-sac larvae exhibited significant increases in the rate of opercular movement after 14 and 21 days of exposure. At the peak of smolting, prior exposure as yolk-sac larvae to PCB-1 did not affect behavior, while PCB-10 dramatically decreased volitional preference for seawater. Neither concentration of A1254 had long-term effects on the osmoregulatory or endocrine parameters measured in animals exposed as yolk-sac larvae. Juvenile fish exposed to PCB-1 or PCB-10 during smolting exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in preference for seawater. Fish treated with the higher dose of A1254 also exhibited a 50% decrease in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and a 10% decrease in plasma chloride levels in freshwater. In addition, plasma triiodothyronine was reduced 35-50% and plasma cortisol 58% in response to exposure to either concentration; whereas plasma thyroxine, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I levels were unaffected. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to A1254 may vary according to

  10. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmonid Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.; Osborne, Randall S.

    1996-04-01

    For the second consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 6 to June 20, 1995. We PIT tagged and released 421 wild chinook salmon smolts, 747 hatchery chinook salmon smolts (445 HxW and 302 HxH), 227 wild steelhead trout smolts and 1,296 hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 78.4% for wild chinook salmon, 58.9% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxW), 56.6% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxH), 76.2% for wild steelhead trout, and 69.2% for hatchery steelhead trout. Peak outmigration of NPT tagged wild Imnaha River chinook salmon smolts occurred from early to mid-May at Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental Dams. Median and 90% passage dates for wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam were May 1 and May 11, respectively. Continuous spill at Lower Granite Dam was initiated on May 3 and lasted for 51 days. The 90% passage date of wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam (May 11) preceded peak Snake River and Lower Granite (June 6) flows by 26 days. Although hatchery chinook salmon exhibited a shorter outmigration period through the Snake River than their wild counterparts, peak arrival for both groups occurred at approximately the same time. Median and 90% passage dates at Lower Granite Dam for other PIT tagged groups were: hatchery chinook salmon (NPT-HxW) - May 2 and May 13; hatchery chinook salmon (FPC-HxH) - May 8 and May 15; wild steelhead trout - May 2 and May 9; and hatchery steelhead trout (NPT and FPC) - May 31 and June 16. Hatchery steelhead trout displayed small peaks in arrival timing at Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams in mid-May to mid-June.

  11. Optimizing Performance on Linux Clusters Using Advanced Communication Protocols: Achieving Over 10 Teraflops on a 8.6 Teraflops Linpack-Rated Linux Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2005-04-26

    Advancements in high-performance networks (Quadrics, Infiniband or Myrinet) continue to improve the efficiency of modern clusters. However, the average application efficiency is as small fraction of the peak as the system’s efficiency. This paper describes techniques for optimizing application performance on Linux clusters using Remote Memory Access communication protocols. The effectiveness of these optimizations is presented in the context of an application kernel, dense matrix multiplication. The result was achieving over 10 teraflops on HP Linux cluster on which LINPACK performance is measured as 8.6 teraflops.

  12. Effects of feeding regimes and early maturation on migratory behaviour of landlocked hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Norrgård, J R; Bergman, E; Schmitz, M; Greenberg, L A

    2014-10-01

    The migratory behaviour of hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised under three different feeding regimes was monitored through the lower part of the River Klarälven, Sweden. The smolts were implanted with acoustic transmitters and released into the River Klarälven, 25 km upstream of the outlet in Lake Vänern. Early mature males, which had matured the previous autumn, were also tagged and released. To monitor migration of the fish, acoustic receivers were deployed along the migratory route. The proportion of S. salar that reached Lake Vänern was significantly greater for fish fed fat-reduced feed than for fish given rations with higher fat content, regardless of ration size. Fish from the early mature male group remained in the river to a greater extent than fish from the three feeding regimes. Smolt status (degree of silvering), as visually assessed, did not differ among the feeding regime groups, and moreover, fully-silvered fish, regardless of feeding regime, migrated faster and had a greater migration success than fish with less developed smolt characteristics. Also, successful migrants had a lower condition factor than unsuccessful ones. These results indicate that the migration success of hatchery-reared S. smolts released to the wild can be enhanced by relatively simple changes in feeding regimes and by matching stocking time with smolt development. PMID:25263187

  13. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-04-01

    Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB. PMID:25850396

  14. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2005-05-01

    In the spring of 2004 naturally produced smolts outmigrating from the Yakima River Basin were collected for the sixth year of pathogen screening. This component of the evaluation is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Since 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery has been releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. In 1998 and 2000 through 2004 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. Of these pathogens, only R. salmoninarum was detected in very low levels in the naturally produced smolts outmigrating in 2004. To date, only bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. There have been small variations each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuations in prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  15. Academic Abilities in Children and Adolescents with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Helt, Molly; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the academic abilities of children and adolescents who were once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for this disorder. These individuals have achieved social and language skills within the average range for their ages, receive little or no school support, and are referred to…

  16. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    PubMed

    Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R Scott; Schreck, Carl

    2008-10-28

    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River. PMID:18959485

  17. Smolt Monitoring Program, Part I, Estimation of Survival, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Passage Center

    1986-02-01

    The annual Smolt Monitoring Program is the result of implementation of Section 304(d)(2) of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. Survival was monitored for specific marked groups of steelhead and spring chinook. Survival through the mid-Columbia from Winthrop Hatchery and the Methow River to below Priest Rapids Dam was estimated. Estimation of survival of marked groups of steelhead from Little Goose Dam to below Ice Harbor Dam was attempted. Serious problems were evident in the Snake River survival data. A release strategy which avoids holding of control groups was tested with satisfactory results.

  18. Haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) in Norway: pathology and associated virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Nylund, A; Plarre, H; Hodneland, K; Devold, M; Aspehaug, V; Aarseth, M; Koren, C; Watanabe, K

    2003-03-17

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar pre-smolt, smolt and post-smolt, with clinical signs of haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) have been found in several locations along the Norwegian coast (Rogaland to Troms). Affected fish had pale gills and bleeding at the fin bases, but seemed to be in good physical condition with no obvious weight loss. The internal organs and body cavity showed distinct bleedings. Petechiae were found on the gastrointestinal tract, swim bladder and peritoneum, visceral adipose tissue, heart and somatic musculature. The liver was bright yellow and sometimes mottled with petechiae and ecchymoses. Acitic fluid was found in the visceral cavity and fluid was also present in the pericardial cavity. Histological examination revealed haemorrhage in most organs. The glomeruli were degenerated and the renal tubules were filled with erythrocytes. The aims of this study were to describe the pathology and discover, if possible, the aetiology of the HSS. Tissues were collected for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence (IFAT), reverse transcription (RT)-PCR diagnostics (screening for infectious salmon anaemia virus [ISAV], viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus [VHSV], salmon pancreas disease virus [SPDV], sleeping disease virus [SDV] and infectious haematopoetic necrosis virus [IHNV]), and tissue homogenates (heart, liver, kidney and spleen) were sterile-filtered and inoculated into cell cultures. Homogenates made from several tissues were also injected intraperitoneally into salmon and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The diagnostic tests revealed no consistent findings of any pathogens, with the exception of TEM which showed 2 types of virus-like particles: Type I was 50 to 60 nm in diameter and Type II about 50 nm in diameter. These virus-like particles were found in salmon from all farms affected by HSS and screened by TEM. Several different cells, blood vessel endothelial cells, endocardial cells, heart myofibres, and leukocytes

  19. Columbia River Salmonid Outmigration: McNary Dam Passage and Enhanced Smolt Quality, 1984 Second Year Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of the McNary Dam transportation system on emigrating fall and spring chinook smolts were evaluated using physiological indices of stress (e.g., plasma cortisol, hepatic glycogen, leucocrit, interrenal cell nuclear diameter) and performance tests (e.g., saltwater challenge, secondary stress challenge, disease resistance). Controlled experiments were conducted in a hatchery environment to characterize the fishes' physiological responses to stress, and disease resistance to allow a basis for judging the nature of the stress experienced by smolts at McNary Dam. 55 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994-1995 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    1996-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing.

  1. SU-E-T-387: Achieving Optimal Patient Setup Imaging and Treatment Workflow Configurations in Multi-Room Proton Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H; Prado, K; Langen, K; Yi, B; Mehta, M; Regine, W; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To simulate patient flow in proton treatment center under uncertainty and to explore the feasibility of treatment preparation rooms to improve patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Methods: Three center layout scenarios were modeled: (S1: In-Tx room imaging) patient setup and imaging (planar/volumetric) performed in treatment room, (S2: Patient setup in preparation room) each treatment room was assigned with preparation room(s) that was equipped with lasers only for patient setup and gross patient alignment, and (S3: Patient setup and imaging in preparation room) preparation room(s) was equipped with laser and volumetric imaging for patient setup, gross and fine patient alignment. A 'snap' imaging was performed in treatment room. For each scenario, the number of treatment rooms and the number of preparation rooms serving each treatment room were varied. We examined our results (average of 100 16-hour (two shifts) working days) by evaluating patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Results: When the number of treatment rooms increased ([from, to]) [1, 5], daily patient throughput increased [32, 161], [29, 184] and [27, 184] and cyclotron utilization increased [13%, 85%], [12%, 98%], and [11%, 98%] for scenarios S1, S2 and S3 respectively. However, both measures plateaued after 4 rooms. With the preparation rooms, the throughput and the cyclotron utilization increased by 14% and 15%, respectively. Three preparation rooms were optimal to serve 1-3 treatment rooms and two preparation rooms were optimal to serve 4 or 5 treatment rooms. Conclusion: Patient preparation rooms for patient setup may increase throughput and decrease the need for additional treatment rooms (cost effective). Optimal number of preparation rooms serving each gantry room varies as a function of treatment rooms and patient setup scenarios. A 5th treatment room may not be justified by throughput or utilization.

  2. Effect of daily oscillation in temperature and increased suspended sediment on growth and smolting in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shrimpton, J.M.; Zydlewski, J.D.; Heath, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of temperature oscillation and increased suspended sediment concentration on growth and smolting in juvenile ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fish were ponded on February 26; each treatment group had three replicates of 250 fish. Mean temperatures for the entire experiment were 12.3????C for all tanks with a total of 1348 and 1341 degree days for the constant temperature and oscillating temperature tanks, respectively. Daily fluctuation in temperature averaged 7.5????C in the variable temperature groups and less than 1????C for the constant temperature group. Starting on April 5, bentonite clay was added each day to tanks as a pulse event to achieve a suspended sediment concentration of 200??mg l- 1; clay cleared from the tanks within approximately 8??h. Fish were sampled at approximately two??week intervals from ponding until mid-June. On the last sample date, June 12, a single gill arch was removed and fixed for histological examination of gill morphology. By early May, significant differences were seen in size between the groups; control > temperature = sediment > (temperature ?? sediment). This relationship was consistent throughout the experiment except for the last sample date when the temperature group had a mean weight significantly greater than the sediment group. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was not affected by daily temperature oscillations, but groups subjected to increased suspended sediment had significantly lower enzyme activities compared to controls. Mean cell size for gill chloride cells did not differ between groups. Plasma cortisol increased significantly during the spring, but there were no significant differences between groups. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross, Doug

    2004-08-01

    The 2003 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam Juvenile Fish Facility (LGR) was characterized by water temperatures, total flows and spill that were below the five year average, low levels of debris, and increased smolt collection numbers compared to 2002 with the exception of unclipped sockeye/kokanee. There were 6,183,825 juvenile salmonids collected. Of these, 6,054,167 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 5,957,885 by barge and 96,282 by truck. An additional 102,340 fish were bypassed back to the river, primarily due to research projects with another 62,122 bypassed through the PIT-tag bypass system. According to the PTAGIS database, 152,268 PIT-tagged fish were detected at Lower Granite Dam. Of these, Smolt Monitoring Staff recorded 345 PIT-tagged raceway and sample mortalities. Of the 6,183,825 total fish collected, 113,290 were PIT-tagged or radio tagged and 380 were sacrificed by researchers. The collection included 836,885 fish that had hatchery marks other than clipped fins (elastomer, freeze brands or Coded Wire Tags). An estimated 54,857 incidental fish were collected with an additional 8,730 adult salmonids removed from the separator.

  4. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Wagner, Eric J.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1989-03-01

    Estimates of migration rates and travel times of juvenile salmonids within index reaches of the Columbia River basin are collected through the Smolt Monitoring Program for use by the Fish Passage Center. With increased reliance upon travel time estimates in 1988 by the Fish Passage Center, this study was implemented to monitor the biological attributes of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss used for the travel time estimates. The physiological ability of fish to respond to stress was assessed by measuring levels of plasma cortisol, glucose, and chloride before and after a stress-challenge test. The development of smoltification was evaluated by measuring gill Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase, plasma thyroxine, purines, and body morphology. Most groups were similar at the hatcheries but differed as the migration to McNary Dam proceeded. The prevalence of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in spring chinook salmon was evaluated using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Prevalence of BKD in groups tested using the ELISA method was as high as 99% at some downstream locations. A review of indices is presented as a guide to the development of an index of smolt condition and preliminary data are presented. An index could be used as a tool to synthesize information on fish condition to assist with management and evaluation of the Water Budget.

  5. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2003-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elem Hatchery began releasing spring chinook smolts into the upper Yakima River for restoration and supplementation. This project was designed to evaluate whether introduction of intensively reared hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Approximately 200 smolts were collected at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River during 1998, 2000 and 2001 and 130 smolts were collected in 2002 for monitoring for specific pathogens. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. In addition the fish were tested for Ceratomyxa shasta spores in 2000 and 2001 (a correction from the 2001 report). To date, the only changes have been in the levels the bacterial pathogens in the naturally produced smolts and they have been minimal. These changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence.

  6. Passing a seawater challenge test is not indicative of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts performing as well at sea as their naturally produced conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A J; Berg, M; Bremset, G; Finstad, B; Hvidsten, N A; Jensås, J G; Johnsen, B O; Lund, E

    2016-06-01

    Despite satisfactory reactions to seawater challenge tests indicative of appropriate physiological state, hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts stocked in the Eira River in Norway between 2001 and 2011 performed less well at sea in terms of growth, age at maturity and survival than smolts of natural origin. The mean rates of return to the river for hatchery-reared and naturally produced S. salar were 0·98 and 2·35%. In the Eira River, c. 50 000 hatchery-reared S. salar smolts of local origin were stocked annually to compensate for reduced natural smolt production following regulation for hydroelectric purposes, while a mean of 17 262 smolts were produced naturally in the river. This study demonstrates that, although captive S. salar perform well in seawater challenge tests, hatchery-reared smolts are not necessarily as adaptable to marine life as their naturally produced counterparts. These findings suggest that production of hatchery-reared smolts more similar to naturally produced individuals in morphology, physiology and behaviour will be necessary to improve success of hatchery releases. Where possible, supplementary or alternative measures, including habitat restoration, could be implemented to ensure the long-term viability of wild stocks. PMID:27133912

  7. Evaluation of partial water reuse systems used for Atlantic salmon smolt production at the White River National Fish Hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight of the existing 9.1 m (30 ft) diameter circular culture tanks at the White River National Fish Hatchery in Bethel, Vermont, were retrofitted and plumbed into two 8,000 L/min partial water reuse systems to help meet the region's need for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt production. The part...

  8. Growth, smoltification, and smolt-to-adult return of spring chinook salmon from hatcheries on the Deschutes river, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Sharpe, C.; Hirtzel, S.; Schrock, R.; Larsen, D.A.; Ewing, R.D.; Palmisano, A.; Schreck, C.B.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between smoltification and smolt-to-adult return (SAR) of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Deschutes River, Oregon, was examined for four release groups in each of three successive years. Fish were reared, marked with coded wire tags, and released from Round Butte Hatchery, Pelton Ladder rearing facility, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Smolt releases occurred in nearly the same place at similar times, allowing a direct comparison of SAR to several characters representing smolt quality. Return rates varied significantly among facilities, varying over an order of magnitude each year. The highest average SAR was from Pelton Ladder, the lowest was from Warm Springs. Each of the characters used as metrics of smoltification - fish size, spring growth rate (February-April), condition factor, plasma hormone concentration (thyroxine, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]), stress challenge, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and liver glycogen concentration - varied significantly among facilities and seasonally within hatchery groups. However, only spring growth rate, gill ATPase activity, and plasma IGF-I concentration showed significant relationships to SAR. These characters and SAR itself were consistently lower for fish released from Warm Springs Hatchery than for fish from Round Butte Hatchery and Pelton Ladder. This demonstrates that differences in the quality of fish released by facilities may have profound effects on subsequent survival and suggests that manipulations of spring growth rate may be used to influence the quality of smolts released from facilities.

  9. Gill Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance and location in Atlantic salmon: Effects of seawater and smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelis, R.M.; Zydlewski, J.; McCormick, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance and location was examined in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during seawater acclimation and smolting. Western blots revealed three bands centered at 285, 160, and 120 kDa. The Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter was colocalized with Na+-K+-ATPase to chloride cells on both the primary filament and secondary lamellae. Parr acclimated to 30 parts per thousand seawater had increased gill Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance, large and numerous Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter immunoreactive chloride cells on the primary filament, and reduced numbers on the secondary lamellae. Gill Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter levels were low in presmolts (February) and increased 3.3-fold in smolts (May), coincident with elevated seawater tolerance. Cotransporter levels decreased below presmolt values in postsmolts in freshwater (June). The size and number of immunoreactive chloride cells on the primary filament increased threefold during smolting and decreased in postsmolts. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance increased in parallel during both seawater acclimation and smolting. These data indicate a direct role of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter in salt secretion by gill chloride cells of teleost fish.

  10. Evaluation of Fishway Designs for Downstream Passage of Spring Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Congleton, J.L.; Wagner, E.J.; Ringe, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    The stress response of chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts to passage through three different flumes was tested by assaying plasma cortisol concentrations before and after flume passage. In addition, descaling of fish was recorded before and after flume passage, and the ability of the flumes to pass adult chinook salmon and debris was determined. The three flumes were a corrugated metal flume (CMF), a 4- foot wide baffled flume (BF4), and a 2-foot wide baffled flume (BF2). Each flume was tested under conditions: 1) at night, 2) during the day with a perforated metal cover, which reduced the amount of light entering the flume by about half (partially darkened), and 3) during the day with the perforated cover and additional double layer of black plastic (completely darkened). Plasma cortisol concentrations were not significantly elevated in chinook salmon smolts after passage through any of the flumes (P>0.2, ANOVA). In daytime tests of partially and completely darkened flumes cortisol concentrations were consistently decreased following flume passage. We attribute this to pre-test stress (holding of fish in small tanks) and to the absence of a strong stress response to flume passage. Flume design did not have a significant effect on cortisol concentrations (P=0.9).Total darkening of the flumes during daytime was beneficial: cortisol concentrations were lower (P=0.03) in chinook salmon smolts passing through completely darkened flumes than in smolts passing through partially darkened flumes. 16 refs., 15 figs.

  11. Rod Visual Pigment Optimizes Active State to Achieve Efficient G Protein Activation as Compared with Cone Visual Pigments*

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Keiichi; Imamoto, Yasushi; Maeda, Ryo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Most vertebrate retinas contain two types of photoreceptor cells, rods and cones, which show different photoresponses to mediate scotopic and photopic vision, respectively. These cells contain different types of visual pigments, rhodopsin and cone visual pigments, respectively, but little is known about the molecular properties of cone visual pigments under physiological conditions, making it difficult to link the molecular properties of rhodopsin and cone visual pigments with the differences in photoresponse between rods and cones. Here we prepared bovine and mouse rhodopsin (bvRh and mRh) and chicken and mouse green-sensitive cone visual pigments (cG and mG) embedded in nanodiscs and applied time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to compare their Gt activation efficiencies. Rhodopsin exhibited greater Gt activation efficiencies than cone visual pigments. Especially, the Gt activation efficiency of mRh was about 2.5-fold greater than that of mG at 37 °C, which is consistent with our previous electrophysiological data of knock-in mice. Although the active state (Meta-II) was in equilibrium with inactive states (Meta-I and Meta-III), quantitative determination of Meta-II in the equilibrium showed that the Gt activation efficiency per Meta-II of bvRh was also greater than those of cG and mG. These results indicated that efficient Gt activation by rhodopsin, resulting from an optimized active state of rhodopsin, is one of the causes of the high amplification efficiency of rods. PMID:24375403

  12. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts require more than two weeks to recover from acidic water and aluminium exposure.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Tom O; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Handeland, Sigurd O; Kroglund, Frode; Finstad, Bengt; Angotzi, Anna R; Stefansson, Sigurd O

    2013-10-15

    The detrimental effects of acid rain and aluminium (Al) on salmonids have been extensively studied, yet knowledge about the extent and rate of potential recovery after exposures to acid and Al episodes is limited. Atlantic salmon smolts in freshwater (FW) were exposed for 2 and 7-day episodes (ACID2 and ACID7, respectively) to low pH (5.7±0.2) and inorganic aluminium (Ali; 40±4 μg) and then transferred to good water quality, control water (CW; pH 6.8±0.1; <14±2 μg Ali). Al accumulation on gills after 2 and 7 days of acid/Al exposure was 35.3±14.1 and 26.6±1.8 μg g(-1) dry weight, respectively. These elevated levels decreased 2 days post transfer to CW and remained higher than in control (CON; 5-10 μg Ali) for two weeks. Plasma Na(+) levels in ACID2 and ACID7 smolts decreased to 141±0.8 and 138.6±1.4mM, respectively, and remained significantly lower than CON levels for two weeks post transfer to CW. Similarly, plasma Cl(-) levels in ACID7 smolts (124.3±2.8mM) were significantly lower than in CON, with Cl(-) levels remaining significantly lower in ACID7 (126.2±4.8 mM) and ACID2 (127.6±3.7 mM) than in CON following 9 and 14 days post-transfer to CW, respectively. ACID2 and ACID7 smolts sustained elevated plasma glucose levels post transfer to CW suggesting elevated stress for more than a week following exposure. While gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity was only slightly affected in ACID2 and not in ACID7 smolts in FW, acid/Al exposure resulted in a transient decrease in NKA activity following SW exposure in both groups. Acid/Al episodes had limited impact on isoform specific NKA α-subunit mRNA during exposure. However, the transfer of ACID2 and ACID7 smolts to CW showed an increase in NKAα1a mRNA (the FW isoform) and inhibited the up-regulation of NKAα1b (the SW isoform), probably resulting in higher abundance of the enzyme favouring ion uptake. Gill caspase 3B gene transcription did not change in acid/Al treated smolts, indicating no increased

  13. A Floating Bridge Disrupts Seaward Migration and Increases Mortality of Steelhead Smolts in Hood Canal, Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Megan; Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, Eugene P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges) can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity. Methodology/Principal Findings The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts. Conclusions/Significance This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation. PMID:24039937

  14. Strategies to optimize lithium-ion supercapacitors achieving high-performance: Cathode configurations, lithium loadings on anode, and types of separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wanjun; Li, Yangxing; Fitch, Brian; Shih, Jonathan; Doung, Tien; Zheng, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The Li-ion capacitor (LIC) is composed of a lithium-doped carbon anode and an activated carbon cathode, which is a half Li-ion battery (LIB) and a half electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). LICs can achieve much more energy density than EDLC without sacrificing the high power performance advantage of capacitors over batteries. LIC pouch cells were assembled using activated carbon (AC) cathode and hard carbon (HC) + stabilized lithium metal power (SLMP®) anode. Different cathode configurations, various SLMP loadings on HC anode, and two types of separators were investigated to achieve the optimal electrochemical performance of the LIC. Firstly, the cathode binders study suggests that the PTFE binder offers improved energy and power performances for LIC in comparison to PVDF. Secondly, the mass ratio of SLMP to HC is at 1:7 to obtain the optimized electrochemical performance for LIC among all the various studied mass ratios between lithium loading amounts and active anode material. Finally, compared to the separator Celgard PP 3501, cellulose based TF40-30 is proven to be a preferred separator for LIC.

  15. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on Phase I and Phase II activities. The furnace sensors were procured and installed in February 2003. Baseline testing was performed following the sensor installation. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. Process design activities were performed to support design of the equipment installed and to develop specifications for the overfire air system. The overfire air system preliminary engineering design was initiated.

  16. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  17. Correlation of Biological Characteristics of Smolts with Survival and Travel Time, 1987 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Beeman, John W.; Free, Mary E.

    1988-06-01

    The biological characteristics of smolts were examined to determine their effect on estimates of survival in the Columbia and Snake rivers. Freeze branded groups of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) from Lyons Ferry State Fish Hatchery (SFH) and Wells SFH and spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Winthrop National Fish Hatchery (NFH) were used to estimate survival. Past estimates of survival, using a ratio of test and control fish recaptured at McNary Dam, have resulted in estimates > 100%, presumably due to some unknown bias. Study objectives were to determine if stress and descaling, degree of smoltification, and prevalence of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) differed among test and control groups of fish, thereby biasing survival estimates. 19 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  19. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  20. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  1. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Axel, Gordon A.

    2000-12-01

    This reports details the 1998 study results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends observed in the cumulative data resulting from this project; data has been collected from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after 3 years of detection data from PIT-tags (passive-integrated-transponder tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish. Data showing these patterns had originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate a smolt transportation program conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish for this project. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam. We continued to tag fish from Idaho in all years subsequent to 1992. Principal results from our tagging and interrogation efforts during 1997-1998 are given.

  2. Low temperature limits photoperiod control of smolting in atlantic salmon through endocrine mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Moriyama, S.

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the interaction of photoperiod and temperature in regulating the parr-smolt transformation and its endocrine control. Atlantic salmon juveniles were reared at a constant temperature of 10??C or ambient temperature (2??C from January to April followed by seasonal increase) under simulated natural day length. At 10??C, an increase in day length [16 h of light and 8 h of darkness (LD 16:8)] in February accelerated increases in gill Na+K+-ATPase activity, whereas fish at ambient temperature did not respond to increased day length. Increases in gill Na+K+-ATPase activity under both photoperiods occurred later at ambient temperature than at 10??C. Plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor, and thyroxine increased within 7 days of increased day length at 10??C and remained elevated for 5-9 wk; the same photoperiod treatment at 2??C resulted in much smaller increases of shorter duration. Plasma cortisol increased transiently 3 and 5 wk after LD 16:8 at 10??C and ambient temperature, respectively. Plasma thyroxine was consistently higher at ambient temperature than at 10??C. Plasma triiodothyronine was initially higher at 10??C than at ambient temperature, and there was no response to LD 16:8 under either temperature regimen. There was a strong correlation between gill Na+K+-ATPase activity and plasma GH; correlations were weaker with other hormones. The results provide evidence that low temperature limits the physiological response to increased day length and that GH, insulin-like growth factor I, cortisol, and thyroid hormones mediate the environmental control of the parr-smolt transformation.

  3. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross Doug

    2005-11-01

    The 2004 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by above average water temperatures, below average flows and spill, low levels of debris. The number of smolts collected for all species groups (with the exception of clipped and unclipped sockeye/kokanee) exceeded all previous collection numbers. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook, steelhead and sockeye above LGR, we can not accurately distinguish wild chinook, wild steelhead and wild sockeye/kokanee from hatchery reared unclipped chinook and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. Wild steelhead can be identified from hatchery steelhead by the eroded dorsal and pectoral fins exhibited on unclipped hatchery steelhead. The numbers in the wild columns beginning in 1998 include wild and unclipped hatchery origin smolts. This season a total of 11,787,539 juvenile salmonids was collected at LGR. Of these, 11,253,837 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 11,164,132 by barge and 89,705 by truck. An additional 501,395 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways and for research purposes. According to the PTAGIS database, 177,009 PIT-tagged fish were detected at LGR in 2004. Of these, 105,894 (59.8%) were bypassed through the PIT-tag diversion system, 69,130 (39.1%) were diverted to the raceways to be transported, 1,640 (0.9%) were diverted to the sample tank, sampled and then transported, 345 (0.2%) were undetected at any of the bypass, raceway or sample exit monitors.

  4. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, William R.

    1999-04-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1997 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1997. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 49% of the 1996 number but only 6% of the 1995 catch. The wild chinook catch was 77% of the 1996 but was only 13% of 1995. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 18% of 1996 numbers but only 7% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 22% of 1996 but only 11% of the 1995 numbers. The Snake River trap collected eight age-0 chinook salmon and one sockeye/kokanee salmon O. nerka. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 8 and were out of operation for 23 d due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 37% and wild chinook salmon catch was 60% of 1996 numbers but only 5% and 11% of 1995 catch, respectively. The 1997 hatchery steelhead trout collection was 13% of the 1996 catch and 32% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1997 was 21% of the 1996 catch and 13% of the 1995 numbers. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 7 and were out of operation for 19 d due to high flow and debris.

  5. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2001-06-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 1999 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1999. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 440% of the 1998 number. The wild chinook catch was 603% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 93% of 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 68% of 1998 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 62 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998 the Snake River trap captured 173 hatchery and 37 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 130 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 25. The trap was out of operation for 18 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 214%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 384% of 1998 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 210% of the 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 203% of the 1998 catch. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 21. The trap was out of operation for 17 d during the season due to high flow and debris.

  6. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  7. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    PubMed

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems. PMID:25494841

  8. Using optimal combination of teaching-learning methods (open book assignment and group tutorials) as revision exercises to improve learning outcome in low achievers in biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Suryapriya, R; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2016-07-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving the learning outcome. About 143 graduate medical students were classified into low (<50%: group 1, n = 23), medium (50-75%: group 2, n = 74), and high (>75%: group 3, n = 46) achievers, based on their internal assessment marks. After the regular teaching module on the topics "Vitamins and Enzymology", all the students attempted an open book assignment without peer consultation. Then all the students participated in group tutorials. The effects on the groups were evaluated by pre and posttests at the end of each phase, with the same set of MCQs. Gain from group tutorials and overall gain was significantly higher in the low achievers, compared to other groups. High and medium achievers obtained more gain from open book assignment, than group tutorials. The overall gain was significantly higher than the gain obtained from open book assignment or group tutorials, in all three groups. All the three groups retained the gain even after 1 week of the exercise. Hence, optimal use of novel T-L methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) as revision exercises help in strengthening concepts in Biochemistry in this oft neglected group of low achievers in graduate medical education. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):321-325, 2016. PMID:26891594

  9. A comparative study of the response to repeated chasing stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr and post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Madaro, Angelico; Olsen, Rolf Erik; Kristiansen, Tore S; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Flik, Gert; Gorissen, Marnix

    2016-02-01

    When Atlantic salmon parr migrate from fresh water towards the sea, they undergo extensive morphological, neural, physiological and behavioural changes. Such changes have the potential to affect their responsiveness to various environmental factors that impose stress. In this study we compared the stress responses in parr and post-smolt salmon following exposure to repeated chasing stress (RCS) for three weeks. At the end of this period, all fish were challenged with a novel stressor and sampled before (T0) and after 1h (T1). Parr had a higher growth rate than post-smolts. Plasma cortisol declined in the RCS groups within the first week suggesting a rapid habituation/desensitisation of the endocrine stress axis. As a result of the desensitised HPI axis, RCS groups showed a reduced cortisol response when exposed to the novel stressor. In preoptic area (POA) crf mRNA levels were higher in all post-smolt groups compared to parr. 11βhsd2 decreased by RCS and by the novel stressor in post-smolt controls (T1), whereas no effect of either stress was seen in parr. The grs were low in all groups except for parr controls. In pituitary, parr controls had higher levels of crf1r mRNA than the other parr and post-smolt groups, whilst pomcb was higher in post-smolt control groups. Overall, 11βhsd2 transcript abundance in parr was lower than post-smolt groups; after the novel stressor pomcs, grs and mr were up-regulated in parr control (T1). In summary, we highlight differences in the central stress response between parr and post-smolt salmon following RCS. PMID:26549876

  10. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 6 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2004-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. In 1998 and 2000 through 2003 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. To date, only the bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. Prevalences have varied each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  11. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Thomas, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    The change in pathogens prevalence to wild fish is probably the least studied ecological interaction associated with hatchery operations. In 1999, the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to evaluate whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Approximately 200 smolts were collected at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River during 1998, 2000 and 2001 and monitored for specific pathogens. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. In addition, the fish were tested for Ceratomyxa shasta spores in 2001. Not all testing has been completed for every year, but to date, there have only been minimal changes in levels of the bacterial pathogens in the naturally produced smolts. At this point, due to the limited testing so far, these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence.

  12. Effects of an advanced temperature cycle on smolt development and endocrinology indicate that temperature is not a zeitgeber for smolting in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Shrimpton, J.M.; Moriyama, S.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2002-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) juveniles were reared under simulated conditions of normal photoperiod (LDN) or short days (LD 9:15) and ambient temperature (AMB: normal temperature increases in April) or an advanced temperature cycle (ADV: temperature increases in February). Under both photoperiod conditions, the timing of increased and peak levels of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity were not altered by temperature, although the rate of increase was initially greater under ADV. ADV/LD 9:15 resulted in peak gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity that was half of that seen under normal photoperiod and temperature conditions. Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels increased threefold in late March under ADV/LDN, but not under ADV/LD 9:15, indicating that there is a photoperiod-dependent effect of temperature on levels of this hormone. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased in spring in all groups, with increases occurring significantly earlier in the ADV/LDN group. In each photoperiod condition, the advanced temperature cycle resulted in large decreases in plasma thyroxine (T4) levels in March, which subsequently recovered, whereas plasma 3,5,3???-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) levels were not substantially affected by either photoperiod or temperature. There was no consistent pattern of change in plasma cortisol levels. The results do not provide support for the role of temperature as a zeitgeber, but do indicate that temperature has a role in the timing of smolting by affecting the rate of development and interacting with the photoperiod.

  13. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam; Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Entities, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2003-06-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2001 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2001 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11% of the 2000 numbers. The wild chinook catch was 3% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 49% of 2000 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 69% of 2000 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 28 age-0 chinook salmon. During 2001 the Snake River trap captured zero hatchery and zero wild/natural sockeye salmon and six hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant reduction in catch during 2001 was due to a reduction in hatchery chinook production (60% of 2000 release) and due to extreme low flows. Trap operations began on March 11 and were terminated on June 29. The trap was out of operation for a total of two days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 47% and wild chinook salmon catch was 67% of 2000 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2001 was 178% of the 2000 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2001 was 145% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 11 and were terminated on June 8 due to the end of the smolt monitoring season. There were no days where the trap was out of operation due to high flow or debris. The decrease in hatchery chinook catch in 2001 was due to a

  14. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  15. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Axel, Gordon A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2002-07-01

    This report details the 2001 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these data in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  16. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  17. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  18. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Miller, Alan C.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began a smolt monitoring study on the Imnaha River in cooperation with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from March 1 to June 15, 1994. We PIT tagged and released 956 wild chinook salmon, 661 hatchery chinook salmon, 1,432 wild steelhead trout and 2,029 hatchery steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 62.2% for wild chinook salmon, 45.2% for hatchery chinook salmon, 51.3% for wild steelhead trout, and 34.3% for hatchery steelhead trout.

  19. McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William

    1997-07-01

    The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

  20. The first months at sea: marine migration and habitat use of sea trout Salmo trutta post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Flaten, A C; Davidsen, J G; Thorstad, E B; Whoriskey, F; Rønning, L; Sjursen, A D; Rikardsen, A H; Arnekleiv, J V

    2016-09-01

    The early migration and habitat use of brown trout Salmo trutta post-smolts tagged with acoustic transmitters (n = 50) were investigated in a fjord system in central Norway from 30 April to 26 November 2014. The main aims were to investigate return rate, marine residence time and spatial use of the fjord system. Median seaward migration and return to fresh water dates were 22 May and 4 July, respectively. Of the 40 seaward migrating smolts, 26 returned to fresh water, giving a minimum return rate to fresh water of 65%. Entrance to the fjord from the river occurred mainly at night (80% of the S. trutta), however, no such diurnal pattern was observed during the return migration. Mean marine residence time was 38 days, but with large individual variation (22-99 days). The innermost parts of the study area were more utilized than the outer part of the fjord system during the sea residency, and with more use of the near shore habitat than the open, pelagic areas. Many post-smolts also utilized the outer part of the fjord system, however, and 94% of the post-smolts were recorded at least 14 km from the home river mouth. Marine survival and distribution in the fjord were size dependent with the largest individuals utilizing outer fjord areas and having higher return rates to fresh water. As far as is known, this is the first published study on temporal and spatial behaviour in the marine environment of first-time S. trutta migrants during the full course of their first trip to sea. PMID:27339771

  1. Sex biased survival and differences in migration of wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from two coastal Oregon rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Neil F.; Leblanc, Camille A.; Romer, Jeremy D.; Schreck, Carl B.; Blouin, Michael S.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2016-01-01

    In salmonids with partial migration, females are more likely than males to undergo smoltification and migrate to the ocean (vs. maturing in freshwater). However, it is not known whether sex affects survivorship during smolt migration (from fresh water to entry into the ocean). We captured wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts in two coastal Oregon rivers (USA) and collected fin tissue samples for genetic sex determination (2009; N = 70 in the Alsea and N = 69 in the Nehalem, 2010; N = 25 in the Alsea). We implanted acoustic tags and monitored downstream migration and survival until entry in to the Pacific Ocean. Survival was defined as detection at an estuary/ocean transition array. We found no effect of sex on smolt survivorship in the Nehalem River in 2009, or in the Alsea River in 2010. However, males exhibited significantly lower survival than females in the Alsea River during 2009. Residency did not influence this result as an equal proportion of males and females did not reach the estuary entrance (11% of males, 9% of females). The sexes did not differ in timing or duration of migration, so those variables seem unlikely to explain sex-biased survivorship. Larger males had higher odds of survival than smaller males in 2009, but the body size of females did not affect survivorship. The difference in survivorship between years in the Alsea River could be due to flow conditions, which were higher in 2010 than in 2009. Our findings suggest that sex may affect steelhead smolt survival during migration, but that the difference in survivorship may be weak and not a strong factor influencing adult sex ratios.

  2. Interactive effects of cortisol treatment and ambient seawater challenge on gill Na+,K+-ATPase and CFTR expression in two strains of Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, T.D.; Finstad, B.; McCormick, S.D.; Wiseman, S.B.; Schulte, P.M.; McKinley, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    During peak smoltification, the interactive effects of cortisol and ambient seawater challenge were compared in two strains of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts: a domesticated strain, AquaGen and a native River Imsa strain. Tissue and blood samples were taken from untreated fish on 20 May. Fish were then transferred to experimental tanks, allowed to recover for 24 h and cortisol (50 mg kg body mass-1), dissolved in vegetable oil, or vegetable oil alone (sham) was implanted. Samples were taken 5 days post implantation. Fish were then exposed to 24 h ambient seawater challenge (FW-SW) or freshwater to freshwater replacement (FW-FW) and sampled as before. Sham implantation had no significant impact on any of the measured parameters. Cortisol implantation significantly elevated plasma cortisol in FW-FW Imsa smolts, while no effect was observed in FW-SW Imsa smolts. Cortisol implantation had no effect on the plasma cortisol levels of AquaGen smolts regardless of FW-SW challenge. Increased plasma cortisol corresponded with significantly higher plasma glucose levels in FW-FW Imsa smolts. Plasma Na+ and Cl- levels were not affected by cortisol implantation but were significantly increased in FW-SW smolts of both strains. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity increased in response to cortisol implantation in only FW-FW smolts but not FW-SW smolts. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase ??-subunit mRNA levels were not affected by strain, cortisol injection or transfer protocol, while both CFTR I and CFTR II mRNA levels were significantly higher in AquaGen versus Imsa smolts regardless of treatment. CFTR I mRNA was elevated following cortisol implantation in FW-FW smolts from both strains suggesting CFTR I expression is under the control of cortisol. These findings also suggest that plasma cortisol levels are regulated differently between strains and that cortisol implantation and ambient FW-SW challenge interact, interfering with the individual effects of each of these factors. ?? 2003 Published by

  3. Seasonal changes in androgen levels in stream- and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon parr and their relationship to smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shrimpton, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2002-01-01

    In stream-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, plasma androgens were significantly greater in mature male parr than immature males and females in October, but had declined by January and did not differ significantly from immature fish throughout the spring. Immature fish in March were significantly larger and had greater gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity than their previously mature counterparts. Bimodal growth distribution was seen in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon and a proportion of the male fish in the lower mode matured. Plasma testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were significantly elevated from September to December in mature male (1+ year) parr. In January, plasma androgens had declined in mature males and did not differ significantly from immature fish. By May all the hatchery fish were large enough to smolt and a proportion of the previously mature males had increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Therefore elevated androgens in the previous autumn do not prevent smolting. Parr with higher plasma T and 11-KT in April and May, that are presumably beginning to mature, had lower gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, indicating that future maturation and associated increases in androgens may inhibit smolting. ?? 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Does size matter? A test of size-specific mortality in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts tagged with acoustic transmitters.

    PubMed

    Newton, M; Barry, J; Dodd, J A; Lucas, M C; Boylan, P; Adams, C E

    2016-09-01

    Mortality rates of wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters were assessed to determine if mortality was size dependent. The routinely accepted, but widely debated, '2% transmitter mass: body mass' rule in biotelemetry was tested by extending the transmitter burden up to 12·7% of body mass in small [mean fork length (LF ) 138·3 mm, range 115-168 mm] downstream migrating S. salar smolts. Over the short timescale of emigration (range 11·9-44·5 days) through the lower river and estuary, mortality was not related to S. salar size, nor was a relationship found between mortality probability and transmitter mass: body mass or transmitter length: LF ratios. This study provides further evidence that smolt migration studies can deviate from the '2% rule' of thumb, to more appropriate study-specific measures, which enables the use of fishes representative of the body size in natural populations without undue effects. PMID:27352823

  5. Impacts of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) physiology: A direct comparison of parr and smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monette, M.Y.; McCormick, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Ali) is known to impact anadromous salmonids and has been identified as a possible cause of Atlantic salmon population decline. Sensitive life-stages such as smolts may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of short-term (days–week) acid/Al exposure, however the extent and mechanism(s) of this remain unknown. To determine if Atlantic salmon smolts are more sensitive than parr to short-term acid/Al, parr and smolts held in the same experimental tanks were exposed to control (pH 6.3–6.6, 11–37 μg l−1 Ali) and acid/Al (pH 5.0–5.4, 43–68 μg l−1 Ali) conditions in the lab, and impacts on ion regulation, stress response and gill Al accumulation were examined after 2 and 6 days. Parr and smolts were also held in cages for 2 and 6 days in a reference (Rock River, RR) and an acid/Al-impacted tributary (Ball Mountain Brook, BMB) of the West River in Southern Vermont. In the lab, losses in plasma Cl− levels occurred in both control parr and smolts as compared to fish sampled prior to the start of the study, however smolts exposed to acid/Al experienced additional losses in plasma Cl− levels (9–14 mM) after 2 and 6 days, and increases in plasma cortisol (4.3-fold) and glucose (2.9-fold) levels after 6 days, whereas these parameters were not significantly affected by acid/Al in parr. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity was not affected by acid/Al in either life-stage. Both parr and smolts held at BMB (but not RR) exhibited declines in plasma Cl−, and increases in plasma cortisol and glucose levels; these differences were significantly greater in smolts after 2 days but similar in parr and smolts after 6 days. Gill NKA activity was reduced 45–54% in both life-stages held at BMB for 6 days compared to reference fish at RR. In both studies, exposure to acid/Al resulted in gill Al accumulation in parr and smolts, with parr exhibiting two-fold greater gill Al than smolts after 6

  6. Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Duane D.

    2009-11-14

    This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for Statement

  7. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam; Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Entities, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2002-08-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2000 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2000 the Nez Perce Tribe released significant numbers of hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 36% of the 1999 number. The wild chinook catch was 34% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 121% of 1999 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 139% of 1999 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 689 age-0 chinook salmon. During 2000, the Snake River trap captured 40 hatchery and 92 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 159 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 13 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on June 16. There were no down days due to high flows or debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 96%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 66% of 1999 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2000 was 90% of the 1999 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2000 was 147% of the previous years catch. Trap operations began on March 13 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 22. There were no days where the trap was out of operation due to high flow or debris. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, were affected by discharge. For fish

  8. Distribution of Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus in watersheds of Puget Sound Based on smolt monitoring data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Hays, Richard; Rubin, Stephen P.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Hallock, Molly; Cook-Tabor, Carrie; Luzier, Christina W.; Moser, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Lamprey populations are in decline worldwide and the status of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is a topic of current interest. They and other lamprey species cycle nutrients and serve as prey in riverine ecosystems. To determine the current distribution of Pacific lamprey in major watersheds flowing into Puget Sound, Washington, we sampled lamprey captured during salmonid smolt monitoring that occurred from late winter to mid-summer. We found Pacific lamprey in 12 of 18 watersheds and they were most common in southern Puget Sound watersheds and in watersheds draining western Puget Sound (Hood Canal). Two additional species, western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) and river lamprey (L. ayresii) were more common in eastern Puget Sound watersheds. Few Pacific lamprey macrophthalmia were found, suggesting that the majority of juveniles migrated seaward during other time periods. In addition, “dwarf” adult Pacific lamprey (< 300 mm) were observed in several watersheds and may represent an alternate life history for some Puget Sound populations. Based on genetic data, the use of visual techniques to identify lamprey ammocoetes as Entosphenus or Lampetra was successful for 97% (34 of 35) of the samples we evaluated.

  9. Odorant receptor gene expression changes during the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Dukes, J P; Deaville, R; Bruford, M W; Youngson, A F; Jordan, W C

    2004-09-01

    The ability of salmon to home accurately to their natal stream to spawn has long intrigued biologists and has important consequences for the maintenance of population structure in these species. It is known that olfaction is crucial to homing, and that the transition from the freshwater to the marine environment (the parr-smolt transformation; PST) is a period of increased olfactory sensitivity and learning, resulting in a permanent memory of natal site odours that is retained, at least in part, in peripheral sensory neurones. These odours are then used as cues by sexually maturing fish on their homeward migration. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques to demonstrate transient increases in expression of odorant receptor transcripts (of up to fifty-fold over pre-PST levels) coincident with PST. Both olfactory (SORB) and vomeronasal receptors (SVRA and SVRC) are involved, which suggests that the fish learn both environmental odours and semiochemicals (pheromones). Receptor expression varies between families and changes over time indicating both genetic differences in odour stimuli and multiple periods of olfactory sensitivity. We suggest that changes in OR gene expression may have a role in homing behaviour and thus the maintenance of population structure in Atlantic salmon. PMID:15315695

  10. Experimental induction of gill disease in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts with Tenacibaculum maritimum.

    PubMed

    Powell, Mark; Carson, Jeremy; van Gelderen, Rebecca

    2004-11-01

    An experimentally induced bacterial infection of marine Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt gills was developed using strains of Tenacibaculum maritimum originally isolated from disease outbreaks in Tasmania. The gills of salmon were inoculated with a high concentration of bacteria (4 x 10(11) cells per fish) of either strain 00/3280 or 89/4747 T. maritimum. Gentle abrasion of the gills was used to enhance the progression of gill disease. One strain (00/3280) was highly pathogenic, causing morbidity and mortality within 24 h post-inoculation, and produced acute focal branchial necrosis associated with significant increases in plasma osmolality and lactate concentration compared with controls (non-inoculated) or strain 89/4747-inoculated fish. There were no differences in the whole body net ammonium flux between control (non-inoculated) and strain 00/3820-inoculated fish. Gill abrasion resulted in acute telangiectasis and focal lamellar hyperplasia in all fish regardless of bacterial inoculation. This work provides the basis of a challenge model suitable for investigating the pathophysiological processes associated with acute branchial necrosis in marine fish, suggesting that osmoregulatory and possibly respiratory dysfunction are the primary consequences of infection. PMID:15609873

  11. Experimentally induced marine flexibacteriosis in Atlantic salmon smolts Salmo salar. I. Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, Rebecca; Carson, Jeremy; Nowak, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    Tenacibaculum maritimum causes marine flexibacteriosis in many cultured fish species, including Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Tasmania, Australia. Several aspects of the pathogenicity of this bacterium were investigated in naive Atlantic salmon smolts using different isolates, growth conditions and doses to produce a model of infection. We found that T. maritimum is pathogenic to Atlantic salmon using either marine Shieh's or marine Ordal's culture medium. The use of aeration in broth culture produced a dose effect in challenge due to a 'clumping' of the bacteria during culture. The virulence of a strain appears to be connected with this 'clumping'; the more adherent the cells, the more pathogenic the strain. Differences in virulence between 3 strains was apparent, with 1 of the strains (89/4747) being non-pathogenic and unable to produce disease in the host. The 2 other strains (89/4762, 00/3280) were highly virulent, resulting in 100% mortalities within 3 d. A reproducible model of infection has been established in the present study using strain 89/4762. Results from the present study provide a better insight into the nature of the disease. PMID:21387991

  12. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1990-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smolts during the 1988 spring outmigration at two migrant traps; one each on the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Due to the low runoff year, chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was very low. Steelhead trout catch was higher than normal, probably due to trap modifications and because the trap was moved to the east side of the river. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1987. Total cumulative recovery of PIT tagged fish at the three dams, with PIT tag detection systems was: 55% for chinook salmon, 73% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 75% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three fold, and steelhead trout travel time decreased two fold. There was a statistical difference between estimates of travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged and freeze branded steelhead trout, but not for chinook salmon. These differences may be related to the estimation techniques used for PIT tagged and freeze branded groups, rather than real differences in travel time. 10 figs, 15 tabs.

  13. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Schrock, Robin M.

    1994-05-01

    Regression techniques were used to determine the effects of several biotic and abiotic variables on the migration rates of juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake rivers. Comparisons of the effects of river flow and smoltification, assessed using gill Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity, were of primary interest. Day of the year, water temperature, change in flow, condition factor, and fork length were also considered as independent variables. Groups of fish were sampled to assess smoltification 2-3 times per week during the spring outmigrations during 1989-1992. These groups were assumed to be representative of other fish which were PIT-tagged and released as a part of the Smolt Monitoring Program in the Columbia Basin. River flow, gill ATPase activity, condition factor, water temperature, and change in flow were significant variables in regressions predicting the time for juvenile spring chinook salmon to travel between specific points (travel time), whereas river flow was the only significant contributor to models describing travel times of steelhead. Predicted travel times of wild steelhead were shorter than those of hatchery steelhead. River flow was the only variable common to all regression equations. Based on the characteristic, changes in river flow would be the most logical means to decrease travel times of both juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake rivers.

  14. Smolt Responses to Hydrodynamic Conditions in Forebay Flow Nets of Surface Flow Outlets, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Hedgepeth, J. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Deng, Zhiqun; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Serkowski, John A.; Steinbeck, John R.

    2009-04-01

    This study provides information on juvenile salmonid behaviors at McNary and The Dalles dams that can be used by the USACE, fisheries resource managers, and others to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance fish passage. We researched smolt movements and ambient hydrodynamic conditions using a new approach combining simultaneous acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic imaging device (AID) measurements at surface flow outlets (SFO) at McNary and The Dalles dams on the Columbia River during spring and summer 2007. Because swimming effort vectors could be computed from the simultaneous fish and flow data, fish behavior could be categorized as passive, swimming against the flow (positively rheotactic), and swimming with the flow (negatively rheotactic). We present bivariate relationships to provide insight into fish responses to particular hydraulic variables that engineers might consider during SFO design. The data indicate potential for this empirical approach of simultaneous water/fish measurements to lead to SFO design guidelines in the future.

  15. Designing a Monitoring Program to Estimate Estuarine Survival of Anadromous Salmon Smolts: Simulating the Effect of Sample Design on Inference

    PubMed Central

    Romer, Jeremy D.; Gitelman, Alix I.; Clements, Shaun; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses) and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging) across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt migration. These data

  16. Experimental Transmission of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus from the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis, to Cohabitating Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Pietrak, Michael R.; Bricknell, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) reduces the environmental impacts of commercial aquaculture systems by combining the cultivation of fed species with extractive species. Shellfish play a critical role in IMTA systems by filter-feeding particulate-bound organic nutrients. As bioaccumulating organisms, shellfish may also increase disease risk on farms by serving as reservoirs for important finfish pathogens such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The ability of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to bioaccumulate and transmit IPNV to naive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts was investigated. To determine the ability of mussels to filter and accumulate viable IPNV, mussels were held in water containing log 4.6 50% tissue culture infective dose(s) (TCID50) of the West Buxton strain of IPNV ml−1. Viable IPNV was detected in the digestive glands (DGs) of IPNV-exposed mussels as early as 2 h postexposure. The viral load in mussel DG tissue significantly increased with time and reached log 5.35 ± 0.25 TCID50 g of DG tissue−1 after 120 h of exposure. IPNV titers never reached levels that were significantly greater than that in the water. Viable IPNV was detected in mussel feces out to 7 days postdepuration, and the virus persisted in DG tissues for at least 18 days of depuration. To determine whether IPNV can be transmitted from mussels to Atlantic salmon, IPNV-exposed mussels were cohabitated with naive Atlantic salmon smolts. Transmission of IPNV did occur from mussels to smolts at a low frequency. The results demonstrate that a nonenveloped virus, such as IPNV, can accumulate in mussels and be transferred to naive fish. PMID:23872575

  17. Designing a Monitoring Program to Estimate Estuarine Survival of Anadromous Salmon Smolts: Simulating the Effect of Sample Design on Inference.

    PubMed

    Romer, Jeremy D; Gitelman, Alix I; Clements, Shaun; Schreck, Carl B

    2015-01-01

    A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses) and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging) across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt migration. These data

  18. Designing a monitoring program to estimate estuarine survival of anadromous salmon smolts: simulating the effect of sample design on inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romer, Jeremy D.; Gitelman, Alix I.; Clements, Shaun; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses) and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging) across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt migration. These data

  19. Growth and survival of pacific coho salmon smolts exposed as juveniles to pesticides within urban streams in western Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J; Conquest, Loveday L

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams, with concentrations often exceeding those reported in surface waters within agricultural areas. The authors studied growth, survival, and return rates of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts exposed to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of the pesticides most frequently reported within urban streams in western Washington State, USA, in fall through early spring. Exposure concentrations were selected to represent a reasonable worst-case scenario based on field monitoring data. Smolts were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail either from fertilization through swim-up (2007-2008) or from fertilization through smoltification (2007-2008 and 2008-2009), coded wire tagged, and released in 2008 and 2009. Pre-release endpoints (growth, survival, sex ratio, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, and gonado- and hepatosomatic indices) were not affected. However, the number of returning adults exposed to the cocktail to swim-up (0.90%, n = 42) was more than double that of unexposed controls (0.38%, n = 26) in 2008, whereas in 2009, fish exposed through smoltification returned in lower numbers (0.15%, n = 18) than controls (0.37%, n = 30). Variability in return rates among treatments between years was comparable to that observed in previous whole life cycle studies with Pacific salmon and other contaminants. Results suggest that exposure to pesticides in urban streams does not directly impair early life stages of coho salmon, and that additional studies incorporating releases of larger numbers of smolts across several years are necessary to adequately quantify effects on return rates. PMID:24687230

  20. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    2000-04-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka, during the 1998 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake and Salmon rivers. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam 19 1998 were marked with a fin-clip. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 226% of the 1997 number and 110% of the 1996 catch. The wild chinook catch was 120% of the 1997 catch but was only 93% of 1996. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 501% of 1997 numbers but only 90% of the 1996 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 569% of 1997 and 125% of the 1996 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 106 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998, for the first time, the Snake River trap captured a significant number of hatchery sockeye salmon (1,552) and hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch (166). Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 8 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on June 12. The trap was out of operation for 34 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 476% and wild chinook salmon catch was 137% of 1997 numbers and 175% and 82% of 1996 catch, respectively. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1998 was 96% of the 1997 catch and 13% of the 1996 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1998 was 170% of the 1997 catch and 37% of the 1996 numbers. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir were affected by discharge. For fish tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis of 1998 detected a significant relation between migration rate and discharge. For hatchery and

  1. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1994-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1994 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River, Clearwater River, and Salmon River. The 1994 snowpack was among the lowest since the beginning of the present drought, and the subsequent runoff was very poor. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1994. Total annual (hatchery + wild) chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.5 times greater than in 1993. Hatchery and wild steelhead trout catches were similar to 1993. The Snake River trap collected 30 age 0 chinook salmon. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was 3.5 times higher than in 1993, and wild chinook salmon catch was 4.2 times higher. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was less than half of 1993 numbers because the trap was fishing near the north shore during the majority of the hatchery steelhead movement due to flow augmentations from Dworshak. Wild steelhead trout trap catch was 2 times higher than in 1993. The Salmon River trap was operated for about a month longer in 1994 than in 1993 due to extremely low flows. Hatchery chinook salmon catch was 1.4 times greater in 1994 than the previous year. Wild chinook salmon catch was slightly less in 1994. The 1994 hatchery steelhead trout collection did not change significantly from 1993 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1994 was 59% of the 1993 catch. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993, cumulative interrogation data is not comparable with the prior five years (1988-1992).

  2. An efficient smolt trap for sandy and debris-laden streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scace, J.G.; Letcher, B.H.; Noreika, J.

    2007-01-01

    Tripod weir and box traps are traditionally used to capture and enumerate out-migrating salmonid smolts in short-term studies and in streams where temporary or portable traps are the only practical option. Although traditional traps can be effective when conditions are ideal, they are often unable to withstand high-discharge events in streams containing a large amount of debris or sandy substrates. We created a rotary-screw trap and resistance board weir hybrid design that we evaluated along with a tripod weir and box trap, both in a 6.1-m-wide flume and in the field. The new design outperformed the tripod weir in both situations. The tripod weir failed in 10 min in the flume trial, whereas the new design was still operating at the conclusion of an 8-h trial under the same conditions. The new design operated continuously in the field during a high-discharge event that caused the tripod weir to fail. The new design also required less frequent cleaning than the tripod weir. The trap efficiency of the new design was estimated by using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antennas and radiotelemetry. The trap was 80% efficient (n = 40) in capturing migrating PIT-tagged individuals detected at an antenna upstream of the trap and 87.5% efficient (n = 48) at recapturing fish that had been tagged and released upstream. With its high efficiency and increased resiliency over the tripod weir, the new trap design will benefit management and research efforts in streams where traditional traps are unsuitable. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  3. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monette, M.Y.; Yada, T.; Matey, V.; McCormick, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired ion regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts following acute acid and aluminum (Al) exposure. Smolts were exposed to: control (pH 6.5, 3.4??gl-1 Al), acid and low Al (LAl: pH 5.4, 11??gl-1 Al), acid and moderate Al (MAl: pH 5.3, 42??gl-1 Al), and acid and high Al (HAl: pH 5.4, 56??gl-1 Al) for two and six days. At each time-point, smolts were sampled directly from freshwater treatment tanks and after a 24h seawater challenge. Exposure to acid/MAl and acid/HAl led to accumulation of gill Al, substantial alterations in gill morphology, reduced gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity, and impaired ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. Exposure to acid/MAl for six days also led to a decrease in gill mRNA expression of the apical Cl- channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I), increased apoptosis upon seawater exposure, an increase in the surface expression of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) within the filament epithelium of the gill, but reduced abundance of gill NKA-positive MRCs. By contrast, smolts exposed to acid and the lowest Al concentration exhibited minor gill Al accumulation, slight morphological modifications in the gill, and impaired seawater tolerance in the absence of a detectable effect on freshwater ion regulation. These impacts were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, a slight increase in the surface expression of MRCs within the filament epithelium, but no impact on gill apoptosis or total MRC abundance was observed. However, MRCs in the gills of smolts exposed to acid/LAl exhibited morphological alterations including decreased size, staining intensity, and shape factor. We demonstrate that the seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts is extremely sensitive to acute exposure to acid and low levels of Al, and that the mechanisms underlying this depend on the time-course and severity of Al exposure. We propose that when smolts are

  4. The digestibility and accumulation of dietary phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt fed diets with replacement plant oils.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Phytosterols occur in high concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) and other vegetable oils such as from the borage plant Echium (Echium plantagineum L.). We investigated if Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) digest and accumulate dietary phytosterols in significant amounts in muscle and liver. Phytosterols are lipid soluble, lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in humans. We aimed to determine if fatty fish, such as salmon, can be used as a delivery source of this functional food component. Three diets containing canola oil (CO), Echium oil (EO) and fish oil (FO) were fed to Atlantic salmon smolt over 9 weeks. The digestibility of natural abundances of phytosterols by Atlantic salmon was poor compared to cholesterol. However, phytosterols accumulated in liver and muscle of fish. Significantly increased concentrations of 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and total phytosterol occurred in livers of EO fed fish compared to FO fed fish. Campesterol concentrations increased in CO fed fish compared to the FO fed fish. We demonstrated that natural abundances of dietary phytosterols are digested by and accumulated in liver and white muscle of Atlantic salmon smolt. However, phytosterol levels in salmon muscle will not be a major source of phytosterols in human diets and would not be expected to significantly effect human cardiovascular health. PMID:18408959

  5. Physiological status of naturally reared juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River: Seasonal dynamics and changes associated with smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Larsen, D.A.; Sharpe, C.; Lee-Pawlak, B.; Schreck, C.B.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    Two year-classes of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Yakima River, Washington, were sampled from July (3-4 months postemergence) through May (yearling smolt out-migration). Physiological characters measured included liver glycogen, body lipid, gill Na+-K+ ATPase, plasma thyroxine (T4), and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Distinct physiological changes were found that corresponded to season. Summer and fall were characterized by relatively high body lipid and condition factor. Winter was characterized by decreases in body lipid, condition factor, and plasma hormones. An increase in condition factor and body lipid was found in February and March. Finally, April and May were characterized by dramatic changes characteristic of smolting, including increased gill Na+-K+ ATPase activity, plasma T4, and IGF-I and decreased condition factor, body lipid, and liver glycogen. These results create a physiological template for juvenile spring chinook salmon in the drainage that provides a baseline for comparison with other years, populations, and life history types. In addition, this baseline provides a standard for controlled laboratory experiments and a target for fish culturists who rear juvenile spring chinook salmon for release from conservation hatcheries. The implications of these results for juvenile chinook salmon ecology and life history are discussed.

  6. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achond, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    2003-07-01

    This report details the 2002 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these differences in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam.

  7. Conceptual model for quantifying pre-smolt production from flow-dependent physical habitat and water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, S. C.; Bartholow, J. M.; Stalnaker, C. B.

    1993-01-01

    A conceptual model has been developed to test river regulation concepts by linking physical habitat and water temperature with salmonid population and production in cold water streams. Work is in progress to examine numerous questions as part of flow evaluation and habitat restoration programmes in the Trinity River of California and elsewhere. For instance, how much change in pre-smolt chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production in the Trinity River would result from a different annual instream allocation (i.e. up or down from 271 × 106 m3 released in the late 1980s) and how much change in pre-smolt production would result from a different release pattern (i.e. different from the 8.5 m3 s−1 year-round release). The conceptual model is being used to: design, integrate and improve young-of-year population data collection efforts; test hypotheses that physical habitat significantly influences movement, growth and mortality of salmonid fishes; and analyse the relative severity of limiting factors during each life stage. The conceptual model, in conjunction with previously developed tools in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology, should provide the means to more effectively manage a fishery resource below a regulated reservoir and to provide positive feedback to planning of annual reservoir operations.

  8. Smolt Passage Behavior and Flow-Net Relationships in the Forebay of John Day Dam, 1983 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.

    1984-04-01

    During 1983, the research program had three separate but complementary phases - monitoring current patterns in the forebay, defining fish distribution with purse seine sampling, and describing the migration routes of salmonid smolts using radio tracking techniques. Preliminary results from the radio-tracking and purse seining operations in FY 1983 suggest that the discharge from the John Day River and the turbid plume it forms in the forebay may have a pronounced effect on the distribution of smolts, especially chinook and sockeye salmon, as they approach the dam. The implication of these data is that the plume may be shunting salmon toward the Washington (spill) side of the river where they would be more susceptible to spill passage. This resulted in higher spill passage of tagged chinook salmon than the proportion of water being spilled. In contrast, sillway passage of steelhead not influenced by the plume is approximately the same as the proportion of water being spilled. These findings are based on limited data and must be considered preliminary at this time. Data describing the current patterns have just recently been reduced to a usable format and have not yet been correlated with findings from radio tracking and purse seining. Such data will be icorporated into an overall analysis of the relations of current patterns and John Day River discharge to fish migration patterns. Representative examples of prevailing current patterns during the spring migration have been completed and are included in this document. 10 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2004-04-01

    Prior to 1992, decisions on dam operations and use of stored water relied on recoveries of branded hatchery fish, index counts at traps and dams, and flow patterns at the dams. The advent of PIT-tag technology provided the opportunity to precisely track the smolt migrations of many wild stocks as they pass through the hydroelectric complex and other monitoring sites on their way to the ocean. With the availability of the PIT tag, a more complete approach to these decisions was undertaken starting in 1992 with the addition of PIT-tag detections of several wild spring and summer chinook salmon stocks at Lower Granite Dam. Using data from these detections, we initiated development of a database on wild fish, addressing several goals of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Conservation Act (NPPC 1980). Section 304(d) of the program states, ''The monitoring program will provide information on the migrational characteristics of the various stocks of salmon and steelhead within the Columbia Basin.'' Further, Section 201(b) urges conservation of genetic diversity, which will be possible only if wild stocks are preserved. Section 5.9A.1 of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program states that field monitoring of smolt movement will be used to determine the best timing for water storage releases and Section 5.8A.8 states that continued research is needed on survival of juvenile wild fish before they reach the first dam with special attention to water quantity, quality, and several other factors. The goals of this ongoing study are as follows (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence these patterns. (4) Characterize the migrational behavior and estimate survival of

  10. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program; Expansion of Existing Smolt Trapping Program in Nason Creek, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Prevatte, Scott A.

    2006-03-01

    In the fall of 2004, as one part of a Basin-Wide Monitoring Program developed by the Upper Columbia Regional Technical Team and Upper Columbia Salmon Recovery Board, the Yakama Nation Fisheries Resource Management program began monitoring downstream migration of ESA listed Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and Upper Columbia River steelhead in Nason Creek, a tributary to the Wenatchee River. This report summarizes juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout migration data collected in Nason Creek during 2005 and also incorporates data from 2004. We used species enumeration at the trap and efficiency trials to describe emigration timing and to estimate population size. Data collection was divided into spring/early summer and fall periods with a break during the summer months occurring due to low stream flow. Trapping began on March 1st and was suspended on July 29th when stream flow dropped below the minimum (30 cfs) required to rotate the trap cone. The fall period began on September 28th with increased stream flow and ended on November 23rd when snow and ice began to accumulate on the trap. During the spring and early summer we collected 311 yearling (2003 brood) spring chinook salmon, 86 wild steelhead smolts and 453 steelhead parr. Spring chinook (2004 brood) outgrew the fry stage of fork length < 60 mm during June and July, 224 were collected at the trap. Mark-recapture trap efficiency trials were performed over a range of stream discharge stages whenever ample numbers of fish were being collected. A total of 247 spring chinook yearlings, 54 steelhead smolts, and 178 steelhead parr were used during efficiency trials. A statically significant relationship between stream discharge and trap efficiency has not been identified in Nason Creek, therefore a pooled trap efficiency was used to estimate the population size of both spring chinook (14.98%) and steelhead smolts (12.96%). We estimate that 2,076 ({+-} 119 95%CI) yearling spring chinook and 688

  11. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross, Doug

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by average water temperatures, below average flows, above average spill, low levels of debris and the record number of smolts collected compared to the previous five years. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above LGR, we cannot accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. For the purposes of this report we will designate fish as clipped and unclipped. This season a total of 13,030,967 juvenile salmonids were collected at LGR. Of these, 12,099,019 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 12,032,623 by barge and 66,396 by truck. An additional 898,235 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways, barges or trucks and for research purposes. This was the first season of summer spill at LGR. Spill was initiated at 12:01am June 20 as directed by the ruling set forth by Judge James Redden of the United States District Court (Order CV 01-640-RE). In addition, the Lower Granite project also conducted a summer spill test alternating spill and spill patterns between spill to the gas cap without the removable spillway weir (RSW) and spill with up to 20 kcfs utilizing the RSW. Because of the forecast low flow this year, most hatchery reared subyearling fall chinook were released up to three weeks early. With the unexpected high flows in late May and early June, more than 90% of the subyearling chinook were collected prior to the initiation of the court ordered summer spill program. Collection number fluctuations reflect river flow and project operations for any given year. For example, low flow years (2001, 2004 and 2005) result in higher collection numbers. Court ordered spill throughout the summer migration will directly affect collection of fall subyearling chinook collection numbers. The editors of this report urge the reader to use caution when comparing fish collection numbers

  12. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1991-05-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mvkiss smolts during the 1990 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River and the Clearwater River. Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was similar to 1987 and 1988, drought years, but considerably less than 1989, a near normal flow year. Trapping effort was the same during the four years. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was similar to 1988 and 1989. Wild steelhead trout catch was greater than in any previous year. Chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was slightly less than in 1987 or 1988 and considerably higher than in 1989. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was 3 to 26 times greater than in previous years. Wild steelhead trout trap catch was 2 to 11 times greater than in previous years. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were recovered at the three dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary dams). Cumulative recovery at the three dams for fish marked at the Snake River trap was 64.4% for chinook salmon, 83.1% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 79.0% for wild steelhead trout. Cumulative recovery at the three dams for fish PIT-tagged at the Clearwater River trap was 54.6% for chinook salmon, 77.6% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 70.4% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time (days) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that a two-fold increase in discharge increased migration rate by 2.2 times for PIT-tagged chinook salmon released from the Snake River trap and 1.8 times for chinook salmon released from the Clearwater River trap. A two-fold increase in discharge increased migration rate by 3.1 times for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead trout released from the Snake River trap

  13. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Menski, Fred

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by average water temperatures, below average flows, above average spill, low levels of debris and the record number of smolts collected compared to the previous five years. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above LGR, we cannot accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. For the purposes of this report we will designate fish as clipped and unclipped. This season a total of 13,030,967 juvenile salmonids were collected at LGR. Of these, 12,099,019 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 12,032,623 by barge and 66,396 by truck. An additional 898,235 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways, barges or trucks and for research purposes. This was the first season of summer spill at LGR. Spill was initiated at 12:01am June 20 as directed by the ruling set forth by Judge James Redden of the United States District Court (Order CV 01-640-RE). In addition, the Lower Granite project also conducted a summer spill test alternating spill and spill patterns between spill to the gas cap without the removable spillway weir (RSW) and spill with up to 20 kcfs utilizing the RSW. Because of the forecast low flow this year, most hatchery reared subyearling fall chinook were released up to three weeks early. With the unexpected high flows in late May and early June, more than 90% of the subyearling chinook were collected prior to the initiation of the court ordered summer spill program. Collection number fluctuations reflect river flow and project operations for any given year. For example, low flow years (2001, 2004 and 2005) result in higher collection numbers. Court ordered spill throughout the summer migration will directly affect collection of fall subyearling chinook collection numbers. The editors of this report urge the reader to use caution when comparing fish collection numbers

  14. Research Plan to Determine Timing, Location, Magnitude and Cause of Mortality for Wild and Hatchery Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts Above Lower Granite Dam. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lower Granite Migration Study Steering Committee

    1993-10-01

    From 1966 to 1968, Raymond estimated an average survival rate of 89% for yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from trap sites on the Salmon River to Ice Harbor Dam, which was then the uppermost dam on the Snake River. During the 1970s, the estimated survival rate declined as the proportion of hatchery fish increased and additional dams were constructed. Recent survival indices for yearling chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin indicate that substantial mortalities are occurring en route to Lower Granite Dam, now the uppermost dam on the Snake River. Detection rates for wild and hatchery PIT-tagged smolts at Lower Granite Dam have been much lower than expected. However, for wild fish, there is considerable uncertainty whether overwinter mortality or smolt loss during migration is the primary cause for low survival. Efforts to rebuild these populations will have a better chance of success after the causes of mortality are identified and addressed. Information on the migrational characteristics and survival of wild fish are especially needed. The goal of this initial planning phase is to develop a research plan to outline potential investigations that will determine the timing, location, magnitude, and cause of smolt mortality above Lower Granite Dam.

  15. Mucous lysozyme levels in hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) early in the parr-smolt transformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrock, R.M.; Smith, S.D.; Maule, A.G.; Doulos, S.K.; Rockowski, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Mucous lysozyme concentrations were determined in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) to establish reference levels during the time associated with the parr-smolt transformation. The first reported naris and vent mucous lysozyme levels are provided for spring chinook salmon and coho salmon. Naris mucous lysozyme levels ranged between 300 and 700 ??g ml-1, vent mucous lysozyme from 100 to 300 ??g ml-1, and skin mucous lysozyme levels were below 130 ??g ml-1. Lysozyme levels in the two species showed the same relationship with the highest levels in naris mucous, and the lowest in skin mucous. A seasonal decrease occurred in both species with a significant decrease in naris mucous lysozyme between February and March. Gill ATPase levels used to monitor smolt development during the same period did not reach ranges reported for smolts for either species during emigration. Identification of seasonal levels of lysozyme activity in mucous provides an alternative determination of developmental status prior to release of fish from the hatchery when salmonids are still undergoing the parr-smolt transformation. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Investigating the influence of nitrate nitrogen on post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reproductive physiology in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An 8-month trial was carried out to assess the effects of NO3-N on a variety of performance and physiological outcomes in post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (initial weight 102 plus or minus 1 g) reared in six replicated laboratory-scale water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Three RAS r...

  17. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Collis, Ken; Lyons, Donald E.

    2009-07-08

    This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern

  18. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Collis, Ken; Lyons, Donald E.

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a

  19. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2002 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2002 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11.4 times greater in 2002 than in 2001. The wild Chinook catch was 15.5 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 2.9 times greater than in 2001. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.8 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 3,996 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2002, the Snake River trap captured 69 hatchery and 235 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 114 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant increase in catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery Chinook production and a more normal spring runoff. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on June 7. The trap was out of operation for a total of four days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 4.2 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 2.4 times greater than in 2001. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the 2001 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on May 29 due to high flows. The trap was out of operation for four days due to high flow or debris. The increase

  20. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2004 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2004 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.1 times greater in 2004 than in 2003. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.2 times greater than in 2003. Wild steelhead trout catch was 1.6 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 978 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2004, the Snake River trap captured 23 hatchery and 18 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 60 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on June 4. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 10.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 19.0% less than in 2003. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2004 was 20.0% less and wild steelhead trout collection was 22.3% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on May 28 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because wild Chinook catch was very low, hatchery Chinook catch was very high, and the weekly quota of PIT tagged hatchery Chinook had been met. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km

  1. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2005 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2005 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, the age-1 and older fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Age-0 Chinook salmon are more difficult to distinguish between wild and non-adclipped hatchery fish and therefore classified as unknown rearing. The total annual hatchery spring/summer Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 0.34 times greater in 2005 than in 2004. The wild spring/summer Chinook catch was 0.34 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 0.67 times less than in 2004. Wild steelhead trout catch was 0.72 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 1,152 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2005, the Snake River trap captured 219 hatchery and 44 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 110 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 6 and were terminated on June 3. The trap was out of operation for a total of one day due to heavy debris. FPC requested that the trap be restarted on June 15 through June 22 to collect and PIT tag age-0 Chinook salmon. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 1.06 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.26 times greater than in 2004. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2005 was 1.41 times greater and wild steelhead trout collection was 1.27 times greater than the previous year. Trap operations

  2. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2003 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2003 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 2.1 times less in 2003 than in 2002. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.7 times less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.1 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 579 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2003, the Snake River trap captured five hatchery and 13 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 36 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant differences in catch between 2003 and the previous year were due mainly to low flows during much of the trapping season and then very high flows at the end of the season, which terminated the trapping season 12 days earlier than in 2002. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 27. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 16.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.7 times greater than in 2002. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2003 was 5.6% less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout collection was 19.2% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 24 due to high

  3. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303,769 hatchery

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Bonneville Project: Tailrace Spill Patterns for Low Flows and Corner Collector Smolt Egress

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2003, an extension of the existing ice and trash sluiceway was added at Bonneville Powerhouse 2 (B2). This extension started at the existing corner collector for the ice and trash sluiceway adjacent to Bonneville Powerhouse 2 and the new sluiceway was extended to the downstream end of Cascade Island. The sluiceway was designed to improve juvenile salmon survival by bypassing turbine passage at B2, and placing these smolt in downstream flowing water minimizing their exposure to fish and avian predators. In this study, a previously developed computational fluid dynamics model was modified and used to characterized tailrace hydraulics and sluiceway egress conditions for low total river flows and low levels of spillway flow. STAR-CD v4.10 was used for seven scenarios of low total river flow and low spill discharges. The simulation results were specifically examined to look at tailrace hydraulics at 5 ft below the tailwater elevation, and streamlines used to compare streamline pathways for streamlines originating in the corner collector outfall and adjacent to the outfall. These streamlines indicated that for all higher spill percentage cases (25% and greater) that streamlines from the corner collector did not approach the shoreline at the downstream end of Bradford Island. For the cases with much larger spill percentages, the streamlines from the corner collector were mid-channel or closer to the Washington shore as they moved downstream. Although at 25% spill at 75 kcfs total river, the total spill volume was sufficient to "cushion" the flow from the corner collector from the Bradford Island shore, areas of recirculation were modeled in the spillway tailrace. However, at the lowest flows and spill percentages, the streamlines from the B2 corner collector pass very close to the Bradford Island shore. In addition, the very flow velocity flows and large areas of recirculation greatly increase potential predator exposure of the spillway passed smolt. If there is

  5. Optimization of self-coherent reflective PON to achieve a new record 42 dB ODN power budget after 100 km at 1.25 Gbps.

    PubMed

    Straullu, S; Forghieri, F; Ferrero, V; Gaudino, R

    2012-12-31

    We demonstrate a greater than 42 dB optical distribution network power budget in the upstream of a 1.25 Gbps self-coherent reflective PON after 100 km of installed fibers, using off-the-shelf optoelectronic components, improving our previous result by 4 dB. We discuss all system optimizations introduced in the setup in order to reach such a result, including 8B/10B high-pass filtering and Faraday rotation at the ONU. PMID:23388785

  6. Smolt Monitoring Program, Part II, Volume I, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Seelhead Trout, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Passage Center

    1986-02-01

    The annual Smolt Monitoring Program is the result of implementation of Section 304(d)(2) of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. This is the second year of the annual systemwide program conducted by the Fish Passage Center (formerly Water Budget Center). Index reaches have been established. Travel time indices are calculated for year to year comparison. Marked groups of steelhead, spring chinook, fall chinook, and summer chinook are monitored at sampling points throughout the system. Because this program is intended to be representative of the juvenile migration, marked groups represent major hatchery production stocks. Arrival time and duration of marked groups are reported. Annual travel time indices are reported from Rock Island Dam to McNary Dam, and from Lower Granite Dam to McNary Dam. Hatchery and brand release information is reported.

  7. Abundance, Timing of Migration, and Egg-to-Smolt Survival of Juvenile Chum Salmon, Kwethluk River, Alaska, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.; U.S. Geological Survey; Gillikin, Daniel; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    2010-01-01

    To better understand and partition mortality among life stages of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), we used inclined-plane traps to monitor the migration of juveniles in the Kwethluk River, Alaska in 2007 and 2008. The migration of juvenile chum salmon peaked in mid-May and catch rates were greatest when water levels were rising. Movement of chum salmon was diurnal with highest catch rates occurring during the hours of low light (that is, 22:00 to 10:00). Trap efficiency ranged from 0.37 to 4.04 percent (overall efficiency = 1.94 percent). Total abundance of juvenile chum salmon was estimated to be 2.0 million fish in 2007 and 2.9 million fish in 2008. On the basis of the estimate of chum salmon females passing the Kwethluk River weir and age-specific fecundity, we estimated the potential egg deposition (PED) upstream of the weir and trapping site. Egg-to-smolt survival, calculated by dividing the estimate of juvenile chum salmon emigrating past the weir site by the estimate of PED, was 4.6 percent in 2007 and 5.2 percent in 2008. In addition to chum salmon, Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), as well as ten other fish species, were captured in the traps. As with chum salmon, catch of these species increased during periods of increasing discharge and peaked during hours of low light. This study successfully determined the characteristics of juvenile salmon migrations and estimated egg-to-smolt survival for chum salmon. This is the first estimate of survival for any juvenile salmon in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region of Alaska and demonstrates an approach that can help to partition mortality between freshwater and marine life stages, information critical to understanding the dynamics of salmon in this region.

  8. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (Steelhead; Oncorhynchus mykiss) Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon from 5 October 2006 to 21 June 2007, Annual Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, Brian; Espinosa, Neal

    2009-02-18

    This report summarizes the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) Department of Fisheries Resources Management (DFRM) results for the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Hatchery Evaluation studies and the Imnaha River Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 2007 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies are closely coordinated and provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery spring/summer Naco x (Chinook Salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (steelhead; O. mykiss) biological characteristics, emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam (MCD) on the Columbia River. These studies provide information on listed Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) for the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (NMFS 2000). The Lower Snake River Compensation Plan program's goal is to maintain a hatchery production program of 490,000 Naco x (Chinook salmon) and 330,000 Heeyey (steelhead) for annual release in the Imnaha River (Carmichael et al. 1998, Whitesel et al. 1998). These hatchery releases occur to compensate for fish losses due to the construction and operation of the four lower Snake River hydroelectric facilities. One of the aspects of the LSRCP hatchery evaluation studies in the Imnaha River is to determine natural and hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolt performance, emigration characteristics and survival (Kucera and Blenden 1998). A long term monitoring effort was established to document smolt emigrant timing and post release survival within the Imnaha River, estimate smolt survival downstream to McNary Dam, compare natural and hatchery smolt performance, and collect smolt-to-adult return information. This project collects information for, and is part of, a larger effort entitled Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Agencies (BPA Project No. 198712700). This larger project provides data on movement of smolts out of major drainages

  9. Sub-optimal achievement of guideline-derived lipid goals in management of diabetes patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, despite high use of evidence-based therapies.

    PubMed

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Akosah, Kwame O; Simpson, Allan G; Barbieri, Kirk E; Megginson, Gregory C; Goldberg, Randal I; Beller, George A

    2012-04-01

    Guidelines recommend aggressive goals for lipid and blood pressure reduction for high risk patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic coronary disease. However, it remains unclear how many patients achieve treatment goals versus the number of people merely placed on treatment. We conducted an observational study in an academic cardiology clinic. A total of 926 patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and concomitant diabetes mellitus met criteria. Mean age was 68.4 ± 10.2, 65.6% were male, and 86.8% were Caucasian. By the last visit a high percentage of patients were receiving recommended medications. Mean LDL-cholesterol achieved was 80.4 mg/dl with 40.9% reaching ≤ 70 mg/dl, and 61.7% reaching SBP ≤ 130 mmHg. Many patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are prescribed recommended medications; however, few achieve guidelines-specified therapeutic goals for LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure. Studies evaluating performance improvement should include percentage of patients reaching treatment goals. Mechanisms underlying the treatment gap need to be identified and addressed. PMID:22234950

  10. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  11. Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monette, M.Y.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Ali) is known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and has been implicated as a possible cause of population decline. To determine the extent and mechanism(s) by which short-term acid/Al exposure compromises smolt development, Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to either control (pH 6.7-6.9) or acid/Al (pH 5.4-6.3, 28-64 ??g l-1 Ali) conditions for 2 and 5 days, and impacts on freshwater (FW) ion regulation, seawater (SW) tolerance, plasma hormone levels and stress response were examined. Gill Al concentrations were elevated in all smolts exposed to acid/Al relative to controls confirming exposure to increased Ali. There was no effect of acid/Al on plasma ion concentrations in FW however, smolts exposed to acid/Al followed by a 24 h SW challenge exhibited greater plasma Cl- levels than controls, indicating reduced SW tolerance. Loss of SW tolerance was accompanied by reductions in gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and Na+,K+,2Cl- (NKCC) cotransporter protein abundance. Acid/Al exposure resulted in decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and 3,3???,5???-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) levels, whereas no effect of treatment was seen on plasma cortisol, growth hormone (GH), or thyroxine (T4) levels. Acid/Al exposure resulted in increased hematocrit and plasma glucose levels in FW, but both returned to control levels after 24 h in SW. The results indicate that smolt development and SW tolerance are compromised by short-term exposure to acid/Al in the absence of detectable impacts on FW ion regulation. Loss of SW tolerance during short-term acid/Al exposure likely results from reductions in gill NKA and NKCC, possibly mediated by decreases in plasma IGF-I and T3. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Achievement of Optimal Medical Therapy Goals for US Adults with Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Todd M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Bittner, Vera; Brenner, David A.; Cushman, Mary; Goff, David C.; Glasser, Stephen; Muntner, Paul; Tabereaux, Paul B.; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a non-clinical trial setting, to determine the proportion of individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) with optimal risk factor levels based on the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial. Background In COURAGE, the addition of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to optimal medical therapy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction in stable CAD patients but resulted in more revascularization procedures. Methods REGARDS is a national prospective cohort study of 30,239 African American and White community-dwelling individuals aged >45 years enrolled in 2003-7. We calculated the proportion of 3,167 participants with self-reported CAD meeting 7 risk factor goals based on COURAGE: 1) aspirin use, 2) systolic blood pressure <130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <85 mmHg (<80 mmHg if diabetic), 3) low density lipoprotein cholesterol <85 mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 mg/dL, and triglycerides <150 mg/dL, 4) fasting glucose <126 mg/dL, 5) nonsmoking status, 6) body mass index <25 kg/m,2 and 7) exercise ≥4 days per week. Results The mean age of participants was 69±9 years, 33% were African American, and 35% were female. Overall, the median number of goals met was 4. Less than a quarter met ≥5 of the 7 goals, and 16% met all 3 goals for aspirin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. Older age, white race, higher income, more education, and higher physical functioning were independently associated with meeting more goals. Conclusions There is substantial room for improvement in risk factor reduction among US individuals with CAD. PMID:24534599

  13. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Abdulla, Salim; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ndong, Alice; Falade, Catherine O; Sagara, Issaka; Mulure, Nathan; Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem®) has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat. As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat) results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat). African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals) supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans) and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30–60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day). Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15–30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat) or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5–59 months have shown similar high cure rates to those observed

  14. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Abdulla, Salim; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ndong, Alice; Falade, Catherine O; Sagara, Issaka; Mulure, Nathan; Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem(R)) has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat.As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat) results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat). African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals) supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans) and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30-60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day). Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15-30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat) or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5-59 months have shown similar high cure rates to those observed in

  15. Evaluation of infrasound and strobe lights for redistributing migrant salmon smolts in the McNary Juvenile Bypass: 1997. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.N.; Ploskey, G.R.

    1998-12-01

    The authors assessed the use of infrasound and strobe lights for redistributing yearling and subyearling migrant salmonids away from dewatering screens in the McNary Juvenile Bypass System. Infrasound signals were generated using two devices: a pump with a rotary valve and reciprocating pistons. They evaluated the former device operating at 20 Hz in spring based upon differences in mean counts of migrant smolts across the channel during hourly sound-on and sound-off treatments (-on = 20). They evaluated the piston device operating at about 8 Hz in summer based on differences in mean counts of migrant smolts near the side dewatering screen during hourly sound-on and sound-off treatments (-on = 9). They also tested three separate strobe light applications. In spring, they initially installed one strobe head (Flash Technologies AGL Series) in midchannel at the elevation of the top screen panels and aimed it toward the screened wall. Later in the spring, they deployed two strobe heads on the screened wall 4.3 and 7.3 m upchannel, respectively, from the downstream edge of the side dewatering screens. The authors evaluated effectiveness by comparing mean counts of migrant smolts across the channel during hourly strobe-on and strobe-off treatments (-on = 18 for both applications). In summer, they installed two strobe heads behind the dewatering screens 7.3 and 11 m upchannel, respectively, from the downstream edge of the side dewatering screens. They evaluated performance based on differences in mean counts of smolts near the side dewatering screen during hourly sound-on and sound-off treatments.

  16. Evaluation of the prototype surface bypass for salmonid smolts in Spring 1996 and 1997 at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.E.; Adams, N.S.; Johnson, R.L.; Rondorf, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Barila, T.Y.

    2000-01-01

    In spring 1996 and 1997, we studied the prototype surface bypass and collector (SBC) at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River in Washington. Our objectives were to determine the most efficient SBC configuration and to describe smolt movements and swimming behavior in the forebay. To do this, we used hydroacoustic and radiotelemetry techniques. The SBC was retrofitted onto the upstream face of the north half of the powerhouse to test the surface bypass method of diverting smolts from turbines. The SBC had three entrances, with mean velocities ranging from 0.37 to 1.92 m/s, and it discharged 113 m3/s through its outlet at Spill Bay 1, which was adjacent to the powerhouse. Different SBC configurations were created by altering the size and shape of entrances. During spring 1996 and 1997, river discharge was well above normal (123 and 154% of average, respectively). Powerhouse operations caused a strong downward component of flow upstream of the SBC. Many smolts (primarily steelhead and secondarily chinook salmon) were observed actively swimming upward in the water column. There were four times as many smolts diverted from turbines per unit volume of water with SBC flow than with spill flow, which indicated that the SBC may be an especially important bypass consideration in moderate- or low-flow years. The highest SBC efficiency (the proportion of total fish passing through the north half of the powerhouse by all routes that passed through the SBC) for any configuration tested was about 40%. Although no single SBC configuration stood out as the most efficient, the horizontal surface and maximum area configurations, or some combination of the two, are worth further investigation because they were moderately efficient.

  17. Achieving Finite Element Mesh Quality via Optimization of the Jacobian Matrix Norm and Associated Quantities, Part II - A Framework for Volume Mesh Optimization and the Condition Number of the Jacobian Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Knupp, P.M.

    1999-03-26

    Three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral and hexahedral finite element mesh optimization is studied from a theoretical perspective and by computer experiments to determine what objective functions are most effective in attaining valid, high quality meshes. The approach uses matrices and matrix norms to extend the work in Part I to build suitable 3D objective functions. Because certain matrix norm identities which hold for 2 x 2 matrices do not hold for 3 x 3 matrices. significant differences arise between surface and volume mesh optimization objective functions. It is shown, for example, that the equivalence in two-dimensions of the Smoothness and Condition Number of the Jacobian matrix objective functions does not extend to three dimensions and further. that the equivalence of the Oddy and Condition Number of the Metric Tensor objective functions in two-dimensions also fails to extend to three-dimensions. Matrix norm identities are used to systematically construct dimensionally homogeneous groups of objective functions. The concept of an ideal minimizing matrix is introduced for both hexahedral and tetrahedral elements. Non-dimensional objective functions having barriers are emphasized as the most logical choice for mesh optimization. The performance of a number of objective functions in improving mesh quality was assessed on a suite of realistic test problems, focusing particularly on all-hexahedral ''whisker-weaved'' meshes. Performance is investigated on both structured and unstructured meshes and on both hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Although several objective functions are competitive, the condition number objective function is particularly attractive. The objective functions are closely related to mesh quality measures. To illustrate, it is shown that the condition number metric can be viewed as a new tetrahedral element quality measure.

  18. Endocrine disruption of parr-smolt transformation and seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon by 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Moeckel, Amy M.; Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2005-01-01

    Sex steroids are known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of anadromous salmonids, and environmental estrogens such as nonylphenol have recently been implicated in reduced returns of Atlantic salmon in the wild. To determine the endocrine pathways by which estrogenic compounds affect smolt development and seawater tolerance, groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon were injected with one of five doses (0.5, 2, 10, 40 or 150 μg g−1) of branched 4-nonylphenol (NP), 2 μg g−1 of 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, during the parr-smolt transformation in April, and the treatment was repeated 4, 8, and 11 days after the first injection. Plasma was obtained for biochemical analysis 7 and 14 days after initiation of treatment. After 14 days of treatment, additional fish from each treatment group were exposed to seawater for 24 h to assess salinity tolerance. The E2 treatment and the highest NP dose resulted in lower salinity tolerance and decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, along with elevated levels of plasma vitellogenin and total calcium. Plasma growth hormone levels were elevated at intermediate NP doses only, and not affected by E2. After 7 days, plasma thyroxine (T4) levels decreased in a strong, dose-dependent manner in response to nonylphenol, but after 14 days, this suppressive effect of T4 occurred at the highest NP dose only. Similarly, E2 decreased plasma T4 levels at 7, but not 14 days. Plasma 3,3′,5-triodo-l-thyronine was reduced by E2 and the highest NP dose after 7 and 14 days of treatment. Plasmacortisol levels were not affected by any of the treatments. The results indicate that the parr-smolt transformation and salinity tolerance can be compromised by exposure to estrogenic compounds. Suppression of plasma IGF-I levels is a likely endocrine pathway for the effects of estrogenic compounds on hypo-osmoregulatory capacity, and the detrimental effects of E2 and NP on thyroid hormone levels are

  19. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, October 20, 1999 to June 15, 2000 : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.

    2002-12-01

    This report details the smolt performance of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead from the Imnaha River to the Snake River and Columbia River dams during migration year 2000. Flow conditions in the Imnaha River and Snake River were appreciably lower during May and June in 2000, compared to historic levels at gauging stations, but flow conditions in the Imnaha and Snake River were above average during April. Overall, water conditions for the entire Columbia River were characterized by the Fish Passage Center as below normal levels. Spill occurred continuously at Lower Granite Dam (LGR), Little Goose Dam (LGO), and Lower Monumental Dam (LMO) from April 5, April 10, and April 4, respectively, to June 20, and encompassed the periods of migration of Imnaha River juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead, with a few exceptions. Outflow in the tailraces of LGR, LGO, and LMO decreased in May and June while temperatures increased. Chinook salmon and steelhead were captured using rotary screw traps at river kilometer (rkm) 74 and 7 during the fall from October 20 to November 24, 1999, and during the spring period from February 26 to June 15, 2000, at rkm 7. Spring trapping information was reported weekly to the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program. A portion of these fish were tagged weekly with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and were detected migrating past interrogation sites at Snake River and Columbia River dams. Survival of PIT tagged fish was estimated with the Survival Using Proportional Hazards model (SURPH model). Estimated survival of fall tagged natural chinook (with {+-} 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis) from the upper Imnaha (rkm 74) to LGR was 29.6% ({+-} 2.8 ). Natural chinook salmon tagged in the fall in the lower Imnaha River at rkm 7, which over wintered in the Snake River, had an estimated survival of 36.8% ({+-} 2.9%) to LGR. Spring tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower site had an estimated survival of 84

  20. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Smolt Monitoring Program; Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, Washington, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Ross, Doug; Morrill, Charles

    1996-10-01

    The 1996 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows, spill, cool spring and early summer water temperatures and comparatively low numbers of fish, particularly yearling chinook, collected and transported. A total of 5,227,672 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite, the fewest since 1986. Of these, 5,117,685 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 4,990,798 by barge and 126,887 by truck. An additional 102,430 fish were bypassed back to the river, most of these being part of the National Marine Fisheries Service transportation evaluation study. New extended length submersible bar screens (ESBS) and new vertical barrier screens were installed in all units and a prototype surface collector was installed in front of units 4, 5 and 6 and operated from 23 April through 3 June. Smolt Monitoring Program and National Biologic Survey biologists examined 4,581 fish, collected at the separator, for symptoms of Gas Bubble Disease.

  1. Transportation of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, smolts in the Columbia River and effects on adult returns

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, were captured at Little Goose Dam in the Snake River during their seaward migration and transported 400 km downstream to the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Their survival was increased from 1.1 to 15 times as compared with control fish which passed by seven mainstem low-level dams and reservoirs. Variations in survival were mainly dependent on species and environmental conditions in the river during the period fish were transported. The homing ability of the adult fish was not significantly diminished; less than 0.2% of strays occurred among adult returns from groups transported. Transportation did not affect ocean age or size of returning adult steelhead, but ocean age of returning adult chinook salmon may have been affected. Steelhead returned to Little Goose Dam at a substantially higher rate (1.4 to 2.7%) than chinook salmon (0.1 to 0.8%) from groups transported. The timing of adult returns of both species to Little Goose Dam was not related to the time of capture and downstream release of smolts.

  2. Renibacterium salmoninarum in spring-summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Jackson, L.M.; Matthews, G.M.; Harmon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated Renibacterium salmoninarum infection in smolts of hatchery and wild spring-summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sampled during most of the out-migration at Little Goose (1988) and Lower Granite dams (1988-1991) on the Snake River and at Priest Rapids and McNary dams on the Columbia River (1988-1990). We sampled 860-2,178 fish per dam each year. Homogenates of kidney-spleen tissue from all fish were tested for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homogenates from 10% of the fish were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Although only 1-11% of fish sampled at a given dam during any 1 year exhibited lesions characteristic of bacterial kidney disease, 86-100% of the fish tested positive for R. salmoninarum antigen by ELISA, whereas 4-17% of the fish tested positive by the FAT. During most years, a majority (68-87%) of fish testing positive by the ELISA had low R. salmoninarum antigen levels, but in 1989, 53% of positive fish from Lower Granite Dam and 52% from McNary Dam showed medium-to-high antigen levels. For most years, the highest mean antigen levels were measured in fish sampled after 75% of the total out-migrants had passed a given dam. When the largest numbers of fish were being collected for bypass or downriver transportation, mean antigen levels were relatively low.

  3. Achieving optimal SERS through enhanced experimental design

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, Heidi; Westley, Chloe; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the current limitations surrounding surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is the perceived lack of reproducibility. SERS is indeed challenging, and for analyte detection, it is vital that the analyte interacts with the metal surface. However, as this is analyte dependent, there is not a single set of SERS conditions that are universal. This means that experimental optimisation for optimum SERS response is vital. Most researchers optimise one factor at a time, where a single parameter is altered first before going onto optimise the next. This is a very inefficient way of searching the experimental landscape. In this review, we explore the use of more powerful multivariate approaches to SERS experimental optimisation based on design of experiments and evolutionary computational methods. We particularly focus on colloidal‐based SERS rather than thin film preparations as a result of their popularity. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Thin sheets achieve optimal wrapping of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Joseph; Démery, Vincent; Davidovitch, Benny; Santangelo, Christian; Russell, Thomas; Menon, Narayanan

    2015-03-01

    A liquid drop can wrap itself in a sheet using capillary forces [Py et al., PRL 98, 2007]. However, the efficiency of ``capillary origami'' at covering the surface of a drop is hampered by the mechanical cost of bending the sheet. Thinner sheets deform more readily by forming small-scale wrinkles and stress-focussing patterns, but it is unclear how coverage efficiency competes with mechanical cost as thickness is decreased, and what wrapping shapes will emerge. We place a thin (~ 100 nm) polymer film on a drop whose volume is gradually decreased so that the sheet covers an increasing fraction of its surface. The sheet exhibits a complex sequence of axisymmetric and polygonal partially- and fully- wrapped shapes. Remarkably, the progression appears independent of mechanical properties. The gross shape, which neglects small-scale features, is correctly predicted by a simple geometric approach wherein the exposed area is minimized. Thus, simply using a thin enough sheet results in maximal coverage.

  5. Achieving Optimal Enrollments and Tuition Revenues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihlanfeldt, William

    A modern marketing approach to student recruitment is offered as a means of facilitating institutional planning, enhancing communication with prospective students, improving enrollment forecasting, and eliminating unexpected shortfalls in tuition income. Marketing is distinguished from mere salesmanship and discussed in a practical program of…

  6. Using Attitudinal Questionnaires to Achieve Benefits Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Lundsgaarde, Henry P.; Gardner, Reed M.; Menlove, Ron L.

    1989-01-01

    The evaluation of complex hospital medical and management information systems presents many complex methodological and logistical problems. Many studies, best characterized as outcome or summative evaluations, customarily document failures and successes associated with system implementation. We approach system implementation as an indeterminable process and evaluation as a management tool that can provide essential and timely feedback to both system developers and users. This paper discusses our ongoing and formative evaluation study of the transplacement of the HELP system from the LDS hospital in Salt Lake City to the McKay-Dee Hospital in Ogden, Utah. Surveys of future system users did not show any significant differences between three major groups of respondents (physicians, nurses, and staff) in terms of preferences for user education methods. The results of our work suggest that a formative evaluation study can facilitate system adoption and utilization without compromising concurrent needs of scientific objectivity.

  7. Hepatic insulin-like growth-factor binding protein (igfbp) responses tofood restriction in Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breves, Jason P.; Phipps-Costin, Silas K.; Fujimoto, Chelsea K.; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg E.; Regish, Amy M.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) system plays a central role in the regulation of growth in fishes. However, the roles of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) in coordinating responses to food availability are unresolved, especially in anadromous fishes preparing for seaward migration. We assayed plasma Gh, Igf1, thyroid hormones and cortisol along with igfbp mRNA levels in fasted and fed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ). Fish were fasted for 3 or 10 days near the peak of smoltification (late April to early May). Fasting reduced plasma glucose by 3 days and condition factor by 10 days. Plasma Gh, cortisol, and thyroxine (T 4 ) were not altered in response to fasting, whereas Igf1 and 3,5,3′-triiodo- l -thyronine (T 3 ) were slightly higher and lower than controls, respectively. Hepatic igfbp1b1 , - 1b2 , - 2a , - 2b1 and - 2b2 mRNA levels were not responsive to fasting, but there were marked increases in igfbp1a1 following 3 and 10 days of fasting. Fasting did not alter hepatic igf1or igf2 ; however, muscle igf1 was diminished by 10 days of fasting. There were no signs that fasting compromised branchial ionoregulatory functions, as indicated by unchanged Na + /K + -ATPase activity and ion pump/transporter mRNA levels. We conclude that dynamic hepatic igfbp1a1 and muscle igf1 expression participate in the modulation of Gh/Igf signaling in smolts undergoing catabolism.

  8. Hepatic insulin-like growth-factor binding protein (igfbp) responses to food restriction in Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Breves, Jason P; Phipps-Costin, Silas K; Fujimoto, Chelsea K; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg E; Regish, Amy M; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D

    2016-07-01

    The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) system plays a central role in the regulation of growth in fishes. However, the roles of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) in coordinating responses to food availability are unresolved, especially in anadromous fishes preparing for seaward migration. We assayed plasma Gh, Igf1, thyroid hormones and cortisol along with igfbp mRNA levels in fasted and fed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish were fasted for 3 or 10days near the peak of smoltification (late April to early May). Fasting reduced plasma glucose by 3days and condition factor by 10days. Plasma Gh, cortisol, and thyroxine (T4) were not altered in response to fasting, whereas Igf1 and 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) were slightly higher and lower than controls, respectively. Hepatic igfbp1b1, -1b2, -2a, -2b1 and -2b2 mRNA levels were not responsive to fasting, but there were marked increases in igfbp1a1 following 3 and 10days of fasting. Fasting did not alter hepatic igf1 or igf2; however, muscle igf1 was diminished by 10days of fasting. There were no signs that fasting compromised branchial ionoregulatory functions, as indicated by unchanged Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and ion pump/transporter mRNA levels. We conclude that dynamic hepatic igfbp1a1 and muscle igf1 expression participate in the modulation of Gh/Igf signaling in smolts undergoing catabolism. PMID:27210270

  9. Assessment and Analysis of Smolt Condition in the Columbia River Basin, 1999 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, Robin M.; Jones, Ray

    1999-12-01

    The primary objective of the study was to increase the number of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery that outmigrate by promoting smoltification in a larger proportion of the production release. To achieve this goal, growth was reduced during the winter to produce a smaller size range of fish to eliminate the production of large fish that residualize. A period of accelerated growth prior to release was designed to promote smoltification in all fish, regardless of size. Decreased winter growth was achieved with a combination of reduced ration and short, intermittent feeding periods. Growth rates were not reduced to the expected level in the modified feeding schedule treatment group, control group, or general production fish reared in the same system. Although significant differences in length, weight and condition factor developed between treatment and control groups during December and January, compensatory growth of the treatment fish after return to full rations resulted in fish of the same size from both groups for release. Migration rates of the treatment group were higher than that of the control group, although the difference was not significant. Growth and survival during extended seawater rearing did not differ between the two groups. Smoltification, as measured by gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase and seawater survival, were unaffected by a reduction in feed during winter months.

  10. Development of an Effective Transport Media for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon to Mitigate Stress and Improve Smolt Survival During Columbia River Fish Hauling Operations, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1985-02-01

    Selected transport media consisting of mineral salt additions (Na/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, Ca/sup + +/, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and Mg/sup + +/), mineral salts plus tranquilizing concentrations of tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222), or MS-222 alone were tested for their ability to mitigate stress and increase smolt survival during single and mixed species hauling of Columbia River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Successful stress mitigation was afforded by several formulations as indicated by protection against life-threatening osmoregulatory and other physiological dysfunctions, and against immediate and delayed hauling mortality. Effects on the seawater survival and growth of smolts hauled in transport media were used as the overall criterion of success. Of the fourteen chemical formulations tested, 10 ppM MS-222 emerged as top-rated in terms of ability to mitigate physiological stress during single and mixed species transport of juvenile spring chinook salmon at hauling densities of 0.5 or 1.0 lb/gallon. Immediate and delayed mortalities from hauling stress were also reduced, but benefits to early marine growth and survival were limited to about the first month in seawater. The two physical factors tested (reduced light intensity and water temperature) were generally less effective than mineral salt additions in mitigating hauling stress, but the degree of protection afforded by reduced light intensity was nevertheless judged to be physiologically beneficial. 36 refs., 1 fig., 19 tabs.

  11. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin Volume VIII : Comparison of the RPA Testing Rules, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John; Ngouenet, Roger

    2002-08-01

    The 2000 FCRPS Biological Opinion (BO) suggested two statistical hypothesis tests to assess the RPA compliance by the years 2005 and 2008. With the decision rules proposed in the BO, Skalski and Ngouenet (2001) developed a compliance framework based on classical t-tests and used Monte-Carlo simulations to calculate power curves. Unfortunately, the two-sample t tests proposed in the BO only have moderate-to-low probability of correctly assessing the true status of the smolt survival recovery. We have developed a superior two-phase regression statistical model for testing the RPA compliance. The two-phase regression model improves the statistical power over the standard two-sample t-tests. In addition, the two-phase regression model has a higher probability of correctly assessing the true status of the smolt survival recovery. These classical statistical power curve approaches do not incorporate prior knowledge into the decision process. Therefore, we propose to examine Bayesian methods that complement classical statistics in situations where uncertainty must be taken into account. The Bayesian analysis will incorporate scientific/biological knowledge/expertise to thoroughly assess the RPA compliance in 2005 and 2008.

  12. Smolt Passage Behavior and Flow-Net Relationships in the Forebay of John Day Dam, 1983 [Amended] Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.

    1984-04-01

    During 1983, the research program had three separate but complementary phases--monitoring current patterns in the forebay, defining fish distribution with purse seine sampling, and describing the migration routes of salmonid smolts using radio tracking techniques. Preliminary results from the radio-tracking and purse seining operations in FY83 suggest that the discharge from the John Day River and the turbid plume it forms in the forebay may have a pronounced effect on the distribution of smolts, especially chinook and sockeye salmon, as they approach the dam. The implication of these data is that the plume may be shunting salmon toward the Washington (spill) side of the river where they would be more susceptible to spill passage. This resulted in higher spill passage of tagged chinook salmon than the proportion of water being spilled. In contrast, spillway passage of steelhead not influenced by the plume is approximately the same as the proportion of water being spilled. These findings are based on limited data and must be considered preliminary at this time. Data describing the current patterns have just recently been reduced to a usable format and have not yet been correlated with findings from radio tracking and purse seining. Such data will be incorporated into an overall analysis of the relations of current patterns and John Day River discharge to fish migration patterns. Representative examples of prevailing current patterns during the spring migration have been completed and are included in this document.

  13. Annotated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a searchable data resource

    PubMed Central

    Adzhubei, Alexei A; Vlasova, Anna V; Hagen-Larsen, Heidi; Ruden, Torgeir A; Laerdahl, Jon K; Høyheim, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    Background To identify as many different transcripts/genes in the Atlantic salmon genome as possible, it is crucial to acquire good cDNA libraries from different tissues and developmental stages, their relevant sequences (ESTs or full length sequences) and attempt to predict function. Such libraries allow identification of a large number of different transcripts and can provide valuable information on genes expressed in a particular tissue at a specific developmental stage. This data is important in constructing a microarray chip, identifying SNPs in coding regions, and for future identification of genes in the whole genome sequence. An important factor that determines the usefulness of generated data for biologists is efficient data access. Public searchable databases play a crucial role in providing such service. Description Twenty-three Atlantic salmon cDNA libraries were constructed from 15 tissues, yielding nearly 155,000 clones. From these libraries 58,109 ESTs were generated, of which 57,212 were used for contig assembly. Following deletion of mitochondrial sequences 55,118 EST sequences were submitted to GenBank. In all, 20,019 unique sequences, consisting of 6,424 contigs and 13,595 singlets, were generated. The Norwegian Salmon Genome Project Database has been constructed and annotation performed by the annotation transfer approach. Annotation was successful for 50.3% (10,075) of the sequences and 6,113 sequences (30.5%) were annotated with Gene Ontology terms for molecular function, biological process and cellular component. Conclusion We describe the construction of cDNA libraries from juvenile/pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), EST sequencing, clustering, and annotation by assigning putative function to the transcripts. These sequences represents 97% of all sequences submitted to GenBank from the pre-smoltification stage. The data has been grouped into datasets according to its source and type of annotation. Various data query options are offered

  14. Self-Beliefs and Student Goal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caroline J.; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students' levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are…

  15. Quantification of ventricular β2 -adrenoceptor density and ligand binding affinity in wild sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts using a novel modification to the tritiated ligand technique.

    PubMed

    Goulding, A T; Farrell, A P

    2016-05-01

    A new, image-based, tritiated ligand technique for measuring cardiac β2 -adrenoceptor (β2 -AR) binding characteristics was developed and validated with adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss hearts so that the tissue limitation of traditional receptor binding techniques could be overcome and measurements could be made in hearts nearly 14-times smaller than previously used. The myocardial cell-surface (functional) β2 -AR density of O. nerka smolts sampled at the headwaters of the Chilko River was 54·2 fmol mg protein(-1) and about half of that previously found in return migrating adults of the same population, but still more than twice that of adult hatchery O. mykiss (21·1 fmol mg protein(-1) ). This technique now opens the possibility of investigating cardiac receptor density in a much wider range of fish species and life stages. PMID:27095288

  16. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 μg L-1 NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 μg L-1 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long term, “organizational” effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  17. Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR gill expression after seawater transfer in smolts (0+) of different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mackie, P.M.; Gharbi, K.; Ballantyne, J.S.; McCormick, S.D.; Wright, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoltification involves morphological and physiological changes in the gills that prepare anadromous salmonids to osmoregulate efficiently in seawater. In a previous study, we found that different families of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts vary in their ability to osmoregulate when abruptly transferred to cold seawater and that these differences are correlated with gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity. Here we extend these findings to test whether other key transport proteins, namely Na+/K+/2Cl- contransporter (NKCC) and the Cl- channel or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), play a significant role in osmoregulatory differences between families. To facilitate molecular analysis of NKCC, we first isolated a gill cDNA containing the complete coding region (1147 aa) of an isoform previously reported as a partial sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this isoform is most closely related to isoforms of the NKCC1a subfamily found in European eel and Mozambique tilapia. In a second step, we quantified NKCC protein abundance as well as mRNA expression levels for NKCC1a and two CFTR isoforms (CFTRI and CFTRII) in 0+ smolts from three families prior to and following seawater transfer. The family with the lowest salinity tolerance also showed significant increases in gill NKCC1a mRNA after seawater transfer. Taken together with our previous study, these data indicate that family differences in expression of transport proteins are in part related to salinity tolerance, although the best indicator of osmoregulatory performance between families may be gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity and CFTR I mRNA levels, rather than Na+/K+ ATPase and NKCC1a mRNA levels or NKCC protein abundance. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptional effects of metal-rich acid drainage water from the abandoned Løkken Mine on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Ulvund, John B; Teien, Hans C; Urke, Henning A; Lie, Kai K; Kristensen, Torstein

    2016-01-01

    Runoff of metals represents one of the major environmental challenges related to historic and ongoing mining activity. In this study, transcriptomics (direct RNA sequencing [RNA-seq] and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction [RT-qPCR]) was used to predict toxicity of metal-rich acid mine drainage (AMD) water collected in the abandoned copper (Cu) mine called Løkken Mine on Atlantic salmon liver and kidney, the main target organs of Cu-induced toxicity in fish. Smolts were exposed to control and diluted AMD water, which contains a mixture of metals but is especially enriched with Cu, at 4 concentrations in freshwater (FW) for 96 h, and then were transferred to and kept in seawater (SW) for another 24 h. Significant accumulation of Cu was observed in the gills, but not liver and kidney tissues, after 96 h of exposure. Short-term exposure to metal-rich ADM (high exposure group) significantly upregulated 3201 transcripts and downregulated 3782 transcripts in liver. The strongest effect attributed to exposure was observed on the KEGG pathway "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum," followed by "steroid biosynthesis." Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that exposure predominantly affected "protein folding," possibly by disrupting disulfide bonds as a result of endoplasmic-reticulum-generated stress, and "sterol biosynthetic processes." Transfer to uncontaminated SW for 24 h amended the transcription of several genes, suggesting a transient effect of treatment on some mechanisms. In conclusion, the data show that trace metals in AMD from abandoned pyrite mines might disturb molecular mechanisms linked to protein folding in Atlantic salmon smolt endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27484142

  19. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Darren T; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D

    2007-06-15

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 microg L(-1) NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 microg L(-1) 17beta-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long-term, "organizational" effects on life-history events in salmonids. PMID:17626455

  20. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  1. Variation in Patient Profiles and Outcomes in US and Non-US Subgroups of the Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Harrington, Robert A.; Stone, Gregg W.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Gibson, C. Michael; Hamm, Christian W.; Price, Matthew J.; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; White, Harvey D.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition (CHAMPION) PHOENIX trial demonstrated superiority of cangrelor in reducing ischemic events at 48 hours in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention compared with clopidogrel. Methods and Results— We analyzed all patients included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis in US (n=4097; 37.4%) and non-US subgroups (n=6845; 62.6%). The US cohort was older, had a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors, and had more frequently undergone prior cardiovascular procedures. US patients more frequently underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina (77.9% versus 46.2%). Almost all US patients (99.1%) received clopidogrel loading doses of 600 mg, whereas 40.5% of non-US patients received 300 mg. Bivalirudin was more frequently used in US patients (56.7% versus 2.9%). At 48 hours, rates of the primary composite end point were comparable in the US and non-US cohorts (5.5% versus 5.2%; P=0.53). Cangrelor reduced rates of the primary composite end point compared with clopidogrel in US (4.5% versus 6.4%; odds ratio 0.70 [95% confidence interval 0.53–0.92]) and in non-US patients (4.8% versus 5.6%; odds ratio 0.85 [95% confidence interval 0.69–1.05]; interaction P=0.26). Similarly, rates of the key secondary end point, stent thrombosis, were reduced by cangrelor in both regions. Rates of Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO)–defined severe bleeding were low and not significantly increased by cangrelor in either region. Conclusions— Despite broad differences in clinical profiles and indications for percutaneous coronary intervention by region in a large global cardiovascular clinical trial, cangrelor consistently reduced rates of ischemic end points compared with clopidogrel without an excess in severe bleeding in both the US and non-US subgroups. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http

  2. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G.; Carter, Chris G.; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  3. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts.

    PubMed

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G; Carter, Chris G; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  4. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  5. Intestinal barrier function of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post smolts is reduced by common sea cage environments and suggested as a possible physiological welfare indicator

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fish farmed under high intensity aquaculture conditions are subjected to unnatural environments that may cause stress. Therefore awareness of how to maintain good health and welfare of farmed fish is important. For Atlantic salmon held in sea cages, water flow, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature will fluctuate over time and the fish can at times be exposed to detrimentally low DO levels and high temperatures. This experimental study investigates primary and secondary stress responses of Atlantic salmon post smolts to long-term exposure to reduced and fluctuating DO levels and high water temperatures, mimicking situations in the sea cages. Plasma cortisol levels and cortisol release to the water were assessed as indicators of the primary stress response and intestinal barrier integrity and physiological functions as indicators of secondary responses to changes in environmental conditions. Results Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in fish exposed to low (50% and 60% saturation) DO levels and low temperature (9°C), at days 9, 29 and 48. The intestinal barrier function, measured as electrical resistance (TER) and permeability of mannitol at the end of the experiment, were reduced at 50% DO, in both proximal and distal intestine. When low DO levels were combined with high temperature (16°C), plasma cortisol levels were elevated in the cyclic 1:5 h at 85%:50% DO group and fixed 50% DO group compared to the control (85% DO) group at day 10 but not at later time points. The intestinal barrier function was clearly disturbed in the 50% DO group; TER was reduced in both intestinal regions concomitant with increased paracellular permeability in the distal region. Conclusions This study reveals that adverse environmental conditions (low water flow, low DO levels at low and high temperature), that can occur in sea cages, elicits primary and secondary stress responses in Atlantic salmon post smolts. The intestinal barrier function was significantly

  6. Gear optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Ning-Tian

    1988-01-01

    The use of formal numerical optimization methods for the design of gears is investigated. To achieve this, computer codes were developed for the analysis of spur gears and spiral bevel gears. These codes calculate the life, dynamic load, bending strength, surface durability, gear weight and size, and various geometric parameters. It is necessary to calculate all such important responses because they all represent competing requirements in the design process. The codes developed here were written in subroutine form and coupled to the COPES/ADS general purpose optimization program. This code allows the user to define the optimization problem at the time of program execution. Typical design variables include face width, number of teeth and diametral pitch. The user is free to choose any calculated response as the design objective to minimize or maximize and may impose lower and upper bounds on any calculated responses. Typical examples include life maximization with limits on dynamic load, stress, weight, etc. or minimization of weight subject to limits on life, dynamic load, etc. The research codes were written in modular form for easy expansion and so that they could be combined to create a multiple reduction optimization capability in future.

  7. Comparative seawater performance and deformity prevalence in out-of-season diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, E; Taylor, J F; Fison, D; Fjelldal, P G; Diez-Padrisa, M; Hansen, T; Migaud, H

    2011-01-01

    The use of sterile triploid stock in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L) farming industry is the only commercially available means to prevent the ecological impact of domesticated escapees. This study compared the seawater (SW) performance and deformity prevalence of diploid and triploid post-smolts from 2 full-sib families produced out-of-season. Triploids completed smoltification 4 weeks earlier and at a significantly higher body-weight. Growth and survival in SW were not significantly affected by ploidy. The incidence of external deformities, dominated by jaw malformation, was ~12% in triploids and below 5% in diploids. Vertebral deformities were more prevalent in the fastest growing triploid family only. Heart morphometry differed between ploidies which may relate to a higher cardiac workload in triploids. No clear alteration of the gill apparatus was detected. The most significant detrimental effect of triploidy was on the rate and severity of cataract that were observed from August onward (50% and 92% of diploids and triploids respectively affected after 1-year in SW). At that time, cataracts were diagnosed by histological examinations as irreversible with a probable osmotic origin which could arise from factors such as water quality, nutritional deficiencies or thermal variations. This study warrants further research aiming at adapting rearing practices to the needs of triploid stocks as to improve their performance and welfare. PMID:20883809

  8. Prevalence and levels of Renibacterium salmoninarum in spring-summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Jackson, L.M.; Mathews, G.M.; Harmon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated Renibaeterium salmoninarum infection in smolts of hatchery and wild spring-summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sampled during most of the outmigration at Little Goose (1988) and Lower Granite dams (1988–1991) on the Snake River and at Priest Rapids and McNary dams on the Columbia River (1988–1990). We sampled 860–2,178 fish per dam each year. Homogenates of kidney–spleen tissue from all fish were tested for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homogenates from 10% of the fish were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Although only 1–11% of fish sampled at a given dam during any l year exhibited lesions characteristic of bacterial kidney disease, 86–100% of the fish tested positive for R. salmoninarum antigen by ELISA, whereas 4–17% of the fish tested positive by the FAT. During most years, a majority (68–87%) of fish testing positive by the ELISA had low R. salmoninarum antigen levels, but in 1989, 53% of positive fish from Lower Granite Dam and 52% from McNary Dam showed medium-to-high antigen levels. For most years, the highest mean antigen levels were measured in fish sampled after 75% of the total out-migrants had passed a given dam. When the largest numbers of fish were being collected for bypass or downriver transportation, mean antigen levels were relatively low.

  9. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  10. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  11. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  12. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  13. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  14. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout 0. mykiss adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects.

  15. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects.

  16. Nutritional Evaluation of an EPA-DHA Oil from Transgenic Camelina sativa in Feeds for Post-Smolt Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Betancor, Mónica B; Sprague, Matthew; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Metochis, Christoforos; Campbell, Patrick J; Napier, Johnathan A; Tocher, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils (VO) are possible substitutes for fish oil in aquafeeds but their use is limited by their lack of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). However, oilseed crops can be modified to produce n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, representing a potential option to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil with around 15% total n-3 LC-PUFA to potentially substitute for fish oil in salmon feeds. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed for 11-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either fish oil (FO), wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or transgenic Camelina oil (DCO) as added lipid source to evaluate fish performance, nutrient digestibility, tissue n-3 LC-PUFA, and metabolic impact determined by liver transcriptome analysis. The DCO diet did not affect any of the performance or health parameters studied and enhanced apparent digestibility of EPA and DHA compared to the WCO diet. The level of total n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in all the tissues of DCO-fed fish than in WCO-fed fish with levels in liver similar to those in fish fed FO. Endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic activity was observed in fish fed both the Camelina oil diets as indicated by the liver transcriptome and levels of intermediate metabolites such as docosapentaenoic acid, with data suggesting that the dietary combination of EPA and DHA inhibited desaturation and elongation activities. Expression of genes involved in phospholipid and triacylglycerol metabolism followed a similar pattern in fish fed DCO and WCO despite the difference in n-3 LC-PUFA contents. PMID:27454884

  17. Nutritional Evaluation of an EPA-DHA Oil from Transgenic Camelina sativa in Feeds for Post-Smolt Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, Mónica B.; Sprague, Matthew; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Metochis, Christoforos; Campbell, Patrick J.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Tocher, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils (VO) are possible substitutes for fish oil in aquafeeds but their use is limited by their lack of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). However, oilseed crops can be modified to produce n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, representing a potential option to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil with around 15% total n-3 LC-PUFA to potentially substitute for fish oil in salmon feeds. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed for 11-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either fish oil (FO), wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or transgenic Camelina oil (DCO) as added lipid source to evaluate fish performance, nutrient digestibility, tissue n-3 LC-PUFA, and metabolic impact determined by liver transcriptome analysis. The DCO diet did not affect any of the performance or health parameters studied and enhanced apparent digestibility of EPA and DHA compared to the WCO diet. The level of total n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in all the tissues of DCO-fed fish than in WCO-fed fish with levels in liver similar to those in fish fed FO. Endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic activity was observed in fish fed both the Camelina oil diets as indicated by the liver transcriptome and levels of intermediate metabolites such as docosapentaenoic acid, with data suggesting that the dietary combination of EPA and DHA inhibited desaturation and elongation activities. Expression of genes involved in phospholipid and triacylglycerol metabolism followed a similar pattern in fish fed DCO and WCO despite the difference in n-3 LC-PUFA contents. PMID:27454884

  18. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  19. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  20. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  1. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  2. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  3. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  17. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  18. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  19. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  2. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  3. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  4. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  5. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  6. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt. PMID:22128889

  7. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  8. CEBAF accelerator achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Y.C. Chao, M. Drury, C. Hovater, A. Hutton, G.A. Krafft, M. Poelker, C. Reece, M. Tiefenback

    2011-06-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  9. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  10. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  11. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  12. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  13. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  14. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  15. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  16. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  17. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  18. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  19. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  20. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  1. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  2. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  3. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  4. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  5. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  6. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  7. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  8. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  9. Optimization of evaporative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackett, C. A.; Bradley, C. C.; Hulet, R. G.

    1997-05-01

    Recent experiments have used forced evaporative cooling to produce Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases. The evaporative cooling process can be optimized to provide the maximum phase-space density with a specified number of atoms remaining. We show that this global optimization is approximately achieved by locally optimizing the cooling efficiency at each instant. We discuss how this method can be implemented, and present the results for our 7Li trap. The predicted behavior of the gas is found to agree well with experiment.

  10. Denver airport pumping systems achieve optimal [Delta] T's

    SciTech Connect

    Mannion, G.F.; Krist, G.D. )

    1994-07-01

    This article describes how the pumping and generating systems at the new Denver Airport operate efficiently with the user loops in the buildings producing design temperature rise at all load levels. Fifteen miles east of Denver's Stapleton International Airport lies the newly completed Denver International Airport (DIA)--the world's largest and most high-tech airport. Besides being one of the largest construction projects in the works, it has many of the latest technical innovations available. Of particular interest to the HVAC industry is the design of the heating and cooling water systems. These systems provide environmental cooling and heating water to the three concourses, the airport office building, and the main terminal. The mechanical engineers for the project were all from the Denver area. The central plant design was the work of Behrent Engineering Co.; the three concourses were designed by Swanson-Rink Associates; and the main terminal and administrative office building were designed by Abeyta Engineering Consultants. The overall system concept was developed during the initial design phase by engineers from these firms, members of the DIA staff, and application engineers from several manufacturers.

  11. Earning the Stamp of Approval: How To Achieve Optimal Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makar, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the redesign of the Web site at the virtual library of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Discusses usability problems with the original site, including navigation difficulties; focus groups to determine user needs; usability testing for the new Web site; and the importance of customer input. (LRW)

  12. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  13. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. This project to date has developed good information on the relationship between adult chinook salmon escapement and smolt production at low to medium seeding levels. This information for steelhead includes a fair estimate of carrying capacity. To date, we have been unable to accurately estimate egg-to-parr survival for steelhead. Future efforts will include determining the relationship between adult steelhead trout escapement and age 1 + parr production, determining environmental and habitat factors that affect smolt production, and developing project results to help the region make good management decisions for anadromous fish.

  14. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook salmon and steelhead trout adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and develop habitat enhancement mitigation accounting based on increases in wild/natural smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. The project to date has developed good information on the relationship between chinook salmon adult escapement and smolt production at low to medium seeding levels. Adult chinook salmon escapements have been too low for us to test carrying capacity. For steelhead trout, they have developed a relationship between parr populations and smolt production at low to high seeding levels, with limited information on carrying capacity.

  15. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, Annual Reports 1993, 1994, 1995 : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Timothy R.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This reports on the second, third, and fourth years of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally produced spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulational and interannual variation in several early life history parameters of naturally produced spring and summer chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project will provide information to assist chinook salmon population recovery efforts. Specific populations included in the study are: (1) Catherine Creek; (2) Upper Grande Ronde River; (3) Lostine River; (4) Imnaha River; (5) Wenaha River; and (6) Minam River. In this document, the authors present findings and activities from research completed in 1993, 1994, and 1995.

  16. Optimal refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Hovhannisyan, Karen; Mahler, Guenter

    2010-05-01

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two n -level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures Th and Tc , respectively (θ≡Tc/Th<1) . The refrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and vice versa. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two systems. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by ζCA=(1)/(1-θ)-1 (an analog of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency ζC=(1)/(1-θ)-1 . The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit θ→1 . The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for lnn≫1 . If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by ζCA and converges to it for n≫1 .

  17. Optimal refrigerator.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Hovhannisyan, Karen; Mahler, Guenter

    2010-05-01

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two n -level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures T h and T c, respectively (θ ≡ T c/T h < 1). The refrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and vice versa. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two systems. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by [formula: see text] (an analog of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency [formula: see text]. The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit θ → 1. The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for ln n > 1. If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by ζ CA and converges to it for n > 1. PMID:20866207

  18. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  19. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  20. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  1. Dynamic Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Philip

    1992-01-01

    We distinguish static and dynamic optimization of programs: whereas static optimization modifies a program before runtime and is based only on its syntactical structure, dynamic optimization is based on the statistical properties of the input source and examples of program execution. Explanation-based generalization is a commonly used dynamic optimization method, but its effectiveness as a speedup-learning method is limited, in part because it fails to separate the learning process from the program transformation process. This paper describes a dynamic optimization technique called a learn-optimize cycle that first uses a learning element to uncover predictable patterns in the program execution and then uses an optimization algorithm to map these patterns into beneficial transformations. The technique has been used successfully for dynamic optimization of pure Prolog.

  2. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  3. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  4. Students' Goal Achievement: Exploring Individual and Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrer-Rendall, Nicola; Wesson, Caroline; Anderson, Lindsey; Bould, Emma

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary investigation of the individual and situational factors affecting goal achievement in a psychology student population. The impact of normative information on goal achievement is considered in relation to goal commitment, optimism, gender and academic setting. Method: Psychology students (n=121) from…

  5. Assisting Pupils in Mathematics Achievement (The Common Core Standards)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics teachers must expect reasonably high standards of achievement from pupils. Too frequently, pupils attain at a substandard level and more optimal achievement is necessary. Thus, pupils should have self esteem needs met in the school and classroom setting. Thus, learners feel that mathematics is worthwhile and effort must be put forth to…

  6. RF Gun Optimization Study

    SciTech Connect

    A. S. Hofler; P. Evtushenko; M. Krasilnikov

    2007-08-01

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. RF and SRF gun design is further complicated because the bunches are space charge dominated and require additional emittance compensation. A genetic algorithm has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs for Cornell* and Jefferson Lab**, and we propose studying how the genetic algorithm techniques can be applied to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize gun designs that have been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

  7. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  8. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  9. Critical Pedagogy for Transformative Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This essay critically highlights the main features of a study that attaches importance to the concepts of time and optimism and their effects on the achievement and goals of high and low achievers in a North American and a Brazilian context. The focus on the time factor that serves as a leitmotif throughout the study gives this work its…

  10. Parametric Design Optimization By Integrating CAD Systems And Optimization Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan, M.; Olabi, A. G.

    2009-11-01

    Designing a cost effective product in minimum time is a complex process. In order to achieve this goal the requirement of optimum designs are becoming more important. One of the time consuming factor in the design optimization cycle is the modifications of Computer Aided Design (CAD) model after optimization. In conventional design optimization techniques the design engineer has to update the CAD model after receiving optimum design from optimization tools. It is worthwhile using parametric design optimization process to minimize the optimization cycle time. This paper presents a comprehensive study to integrate the optimization parameters between CAD system and optimization tools which were driven from a single user environment. Finally, design optimization of a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) cylinder was implemented as case study. In this case study the optimization tools were fully integrated with CAD system, therefore, all the deliverables including; part design, drawings and assembly can be automatically updated after achieving the optimum geometry having minimum volume and satisfying all imposed constraints.

  11. MPQC: Performance Analysis and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Sarje, Abhinav; Williams, Samuel; Bailey, David

    2012-11-30

    MPQC (Massively Parallel Quantum Chemistry) is a widely used computational quantum chemistry code. It is capable of performing a number of computations commonly occurring in quantum chemistry. In order to achieve better performance of MPQC, in this report we present a detailed performance analysis of this code. We then perform loop and memory access optimizations, and measure performance improvements by comparing the performance of the optimized code with that of the original MPQC code. We observe that the optimized MPQC code achieves a significant improvement in the performance through a better utilization of vector processing and memory hierarchies.

  12. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  13. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  14. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  15. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  16. Utility Theory for Evaluation of Optimal Process Condition of SAW: A Multi-Response Optimization Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Saurav; Biswas, Ajay; Bhaumik, Swapan; Majumdar, Gautam

    2011-01-17

    Multi-objective optimization problem has been solved in order to estimate an optimal process environment consisting of optimal parametric combination to achieve desired quality indicators (related to bead geometry) of submerged arc weld of mild steel. The quality indicators selected in the study were bead height, penetration depth, bead width and percentage dilution. Taguchi method followed by utility concept has been adopted to evaluate the optimal process condition achieving multiple objective requirements of the desired quality weld.

  17. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  18. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  19. Thermoacoustic Refrigerator's Stack Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fawal, Mawahib Hassan; Mohd-Ghazali, Normah; Yaacob, Mohd. Shafik; Darus, Amer Nordin

    2010-06-01

    The standing wave thermoacoustic refrigerator, which uses sound generation to transfer heat, was developed rapidly during the past four decades. It was regarded as a new, promising and environmentally benign alternative to conventional compression vapor refrigerators, although it was not competitive regarding the coefficient of performance (COP) yet. Thus the aim of this paper is to enhance thermoacoustic refrigerator's stack performance through optimization. A computational optimization procedure of thermoacoustic stack design was fully developed. The procedure was designed to achieve optimal coefficient of performance based on most of the design and operating parameters. Cooling load and acoustic power governing equations were set assuming the linear thermoacoustic theory. Lagrange multipliers method was used as an optimization technique tool to solve the governing equations. Numerical analyses results of the developed design procedure are presented. The results showed that the stack design parameters are the most significant parameters for the optimal overall performance. The coefficient of performance obtained increases by about 48.8% from the published experimental optimization methods. The results are in good agreement with past established studies.

  20. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  1. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  2. Process validation: achieving the Operational Qualification phase.

    PubMed

    Buffaloe, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The OQ phase of process validation is very important and is where the complete understanding of the process is determined by experimentation. This understanding is useful to: * establish optimal process parameters * understand variation that affect the process * aid in investigating process deviations. OQ is an important part of the entire process validation activity and essential to understanding a manufacturing process. The benefits of completing the OQ and overall process validation are the reasons that it makes business sense and receive the long-term benefits of producing high quality product and achieving customer satisfaction. PMID:15521514

  3. Dispositional Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Optimism is a cognitive construct (expectancies regarding future outcomes) that also relates to motivation: optimistic people exert effort, whereas pessimistic people disengage from effort. Study of optimism began largely in health contexts, finding positive associations between optimism and markers of better psychological and physical health. Physical health effects likely occur through differences in both health-promoting behaviors and physiological concomitants of coping. Recently, the scientific study of optimism has extended to the realm of social relations: new evidence indicates that optimists have better social connections, partly because they work harder at them. In this review, we examine the myriad ways this trait can benefit an individual, and our current understanding of the biological basis of optimism. PMID:24630971

  4. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  5. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  6. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  7. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  8. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  9. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  10. Distributed Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macready, William; Wolpert, David

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a new framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems, by solving constrained optimization problems with an algorithm based on that framework. The framework is ar. information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to allow bounded rational agents. The associated optimization algorithm is a game in which agents control the variables of the optimization problem. They do this by jointly minimizing a Lagrangian of (the probability distribution of) their joint state. The updating of the Lagrange parameters in that Lagrangian is a form of automated annealing, one that focuses the multi-agent system on the optimal pure strategy. We present computer experiments for the k-sat constraint satisfaction problem and for unconstrained minimization of NK functions.

  11. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  12. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  13. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally-Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, 1996 Annual Report : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovich, Paul; Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifth year of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally-produced chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), from northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulation and interannual variation in several early life history characteristics of naturally-produced chinook salmon from the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project provides information useful in the recovery of listed Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. Specific populations included in the study are (1) Catherine Creek, (2) upper Grande Ronde River, (3) Lostine River, (4) Imnaha River, (5) Wenaha River, and (6) Minam River. In this document, we present findings from research completed in 1996. Naturally-produced chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins have declined drastically in recent years due in part to habitat alterations and hydropower development. Declines have continued despite extensive mitigation efforts, including fish passage improvements, artificial production, supplementation, and habitat modification (BPA Division of Fish and Wildlife 1990). Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (hereafter referred to as chinook salmon), which include naturally-produced chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins, have been listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as threatened or endangered since 1992.

  14. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation. PMID:25952887

  15. Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The paper describes the optimization formulation in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor aerodynamic performance optimization for minimum hover horsepower, rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.

  16. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  18. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  19. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  20. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  1. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  2. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  5. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  6. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  7. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  8. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  9. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  10. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  11. SWOC: Spectral Wavelength Optimization Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchti, G. R.

    2016-06-01

    SWOC (Spectral Wavelength Optimization Code) determines the wavelength ranges that provide the optimal amount of information to achieve the required science goals for a spectroscopic study. It computes a figure-of-merit for different spectral configurations using a user-defined list of spectral features, and, utilizing a set of flux-calibrated spectra, determines the spectral regions showing the largest differences among the spectra.

  12. Methods to optimize selective hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Thomas M.; Bailey, Christopher A.; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2003-07-01

    Laser immunotherapy, a novel therapy for breast cancer, utilizes selective photothermal interaction to raise the temperature of tumor tissue above the cell damage threshold. Photothermal interaction is achieved with intratumoral injection of a laser absorbing dye followed by non-invasive laser irradiation. When tumor heating is used in combination with immunoadjuvant to stimulate an immune response, anti-tumor immunity can be achieved. In our study, gelatin phantom simulations were used to optimize therapy parameters such as laser power, laser beam radius, and dye concentration to achieve maximum heating of target tissue with the minimum heating of non-targeted tissue. An 805-nm diode laser and indocyanine green (ICG) were used to achieve selective photothermal interactions in a gelatin phantom. Spherical gelatin phantoms containing ICG were used to simulate the absorption-enhanced target tumors, which were embedded inside gelatin without ICG to simulate surrounding non-targeted tissue. Different laser powers and dye concentrations were used to treat the gelatin phantoms. The temperature distributions in the phantoms were measured, and the data were used to determine the optimal parameters used in selective hyperthermia (laser power and dye concentration for this case). The method involves an optimization coefficient, which is proportional to the difference between temperatures measured in targeted and non-targeted gel. The coefficient is also normalized by the difference between the most heated region of the target gel and the least heated region. A positive optimization coefficient signifies a greater temperature increase in targeted gelatin when compared to non-targeted gelatin, and therefore, greater selectivity. Comparisons were made between the optimization coefficients for varying laser powers in order to demonstrate the effectinvess of this method in finding an optimal parameter set. Our experimental results support the proposed use of an optimization

  13. Optimal Fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Optimal fluoridation has been defined as that fluoride exposure which confers maximal cariostasis with minimal toxicity and its values have been previously determined to be 0.5 to 1 mg per day for infants and 1 to 1.5 mg per day for an average child. Total fluoride ingestion and urine excretion were studied in Marin County, California, children in 1973 before municipal water fluoridation. Results showed fluoride exposure to be higher than anticipated and fulfilled previously accepted criteria for optimal fluoridation. Present and future water fluoridation plans need to be reevaluated in light of total environmental fluoride exposure. PMID:1130041

  14. Optimal quantum cloning via spin networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Qing; Cheng Jianhua; Wang Kelin; Du Jiangfeng

    2006-09-15

    In this paper we demonstrate that optimal 1{yields}M phase-covariant cloning quantum cloning is available via free dynamical evolution of spin networks. By properly designing the network and the couplings between spins, we show that optimal 1{yields}M phase-covariant cloning can be achieved if the initial state is prepared as a specific symmetric state. Especially, when M is an odd number, the optimal phase-covariant cloning can be achieved without ancillas. Moreover, we demonstrate that the same framework is capable for optimal 1{yields}2 universal cloning.

  15. Risk modelling in portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. H.; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-09-01

    Risk management is very important in portfolio optimization. The mean-variance model has been used in portfolio optimization to minimize the investment risk. The objective of the mean-variance model is to minimize the portfolio risk and achieve the target rate of return. Variance is used as risk measure in the mean-variance model. The purpose of this study is to compare the portfolio composition as well as performance between the optimal portfolio of mean-variance model and equally weighted portfolio. Equally weighted portfolio means the proportions that are invested in each asset are equal. The results show that the portfolio composition of the mean-variance optimal portfolio and equally weighted portfolio are different. Besides that, the mean-variance optimal portfolio gives better performance because it gives higher performance ratio than the equally weighted portfolio.

  16. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  17. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  18. Designing Sensor Networks by a Generalized Highly Optimized Tolerance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyano, Takaya; Yamakoshi, Miyuki; Higashino, Sadanori; Tsutsui, Takako

    A variant of the highly optimized tolerance model is applied to a toy problem of bioterrorism to determine the optimal arrangement of hypothetical bio-sensors to avert epidemic outbreak. Nonlinear loss function is utilized in searching the optimal structure of the sensor network. The proposed method successfully averts disastrously large events, which can not be achieved by the original highly optimized tolerance model.

  19. Revision of Achievement Goal Theory: Necessary and Illuminating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Pintrich, Paul R.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Thrash, Todd M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses three reasons to revise achievement goal theory: the importance of separating approach from avoidance strivings, the positive potential of performance-approach goals, and identification of the ways performance-approach goals can combine with mastery approach goals to promote optimal motivation. Reviews theory and research to substantiate…

  20. Electrodialysis simulation to achieve optimum current density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Cal C.

    1993-01-01

    Electrodialysis is used to remove salts from waste or other water streams, to yield a concentrated brine and a substatially deionized product water. During the electrodialysis process, the boundary layer adjacent to the ion selective membrane can become depleted of ions, resulting in severe pH changes sometimes accompanied by precipitation, and power losses, by a process known as water splitting. In order to optimize the applied electric current density, to achieve maximum deionization without exceeding the limiting current at any point along the path, a simulation program has been created to plot ion concentrations and fluxes, and cell current densities and voltages along the electrodialysis path. A means for tapering the current density along the path is recommended.

  1. Primary Mental Abilities and Metropolitan Readiness Tests as Predictors of Achievement in the First Primary Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The prediction of achievement provides teachers with necessary information to help children attain optimal achievement. If some skill prerequistites to learning which are not fully developed can be identified and strengthened, higher levels of achievement may result. The Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) are routinely given to all University City…

  2. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  3. Central Iowa Low Achiever Mathematics Project - Low Achiever Motivational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joseph T.

    The materials in this booklet are designed especially for the low achieving student in mathematics. Containing some materials from a course in general mathematics, the booklet is intended to be used in conjunction with conventional textbook materials and is designed to serve as a source of new ideas for teachers and to relieve the teacher of much…

  4. Optimal design of plate-fin heat exchangers by particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, M.; Darus, A. N.

    2011-12-01

    This study explores the application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for optimization of a cross-flow plate fin heat exchanger. Minimization total annual cost is the target of optimization. Seven design parameters, namely, heat exchanger length at hot and cold sides, fin height, fin frequency, fin thickness, fin-strip length and number of hot side layers are selected as optimization variables. A case study from the literature proves the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in case of achieving more accurate results.

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

    2008-12-03

    The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon release groups

  6. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.

    2007-12-07

    In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the

  7. Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The optimization formulation is described in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.

  8. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  9. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  10. The Achievement-Assessment Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    The recent recession, school budget cuts, and predictions of school libraries' demise because of technology advances put pressure on school librarians to prove the utility, relevance, and value of school libraries to student learning. While national studies document that school libraries increase student achievement, school librarians must…

  11. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  12. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  13. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  14. Teacher Certification and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Patricia Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine if there is a significant difference between the achievement of students who are taught by traditionally prepared teachers and that of students who are taught by alternatively prepared teachers. The study further addressed the perspectives of both groups of teachers regarding selected…

  15. Achieving Safety through Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, John

    Whilst the achievement of safety objectives may not be possible purely through the administration of an effective Information Security Management System (ISMS), your job as safety manager will be significantly eased if such a system is in place. This paper seeks to illustrate the point by drawing a comparison between two of the prominent standards within the two disciplines of security and safety management.

  16. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  17. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  18. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  19. Measuring and Recording Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Measuring and Recording Student Achievement Scoping Group was established by Universities UK and the Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP), with the support of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in October 2003 to review the recommendations from the UK Government White Paper "The Future of Higher Education" relating…

  20. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  1. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  2. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  3. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  4. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  5. Believing and Achieving. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerald, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    This research brief takes a look at the role of teacher efficacy-how teachers' beliefs in their own abilities affect student achievement. The brief examines the influence of perceived efficacy and building teacher confidence (social persuasion, collegiality, and shared decision making). It concludes by asserting that more positive steps must be…

  6. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  7. Achieving Ideological Change within Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Dennis R.

    Psychologists who are interested in the nature of ideology and the achievement of social change generally focus their primary theoretical and empirical attention on those people outside academia who are trying to change or to prevent change in one political sphere or another. There may be some value in looking at psychology and psychologists as…

  8. Five Standards and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, R. William; Hilberg, R. Soleste; Pinal, America; Tharp, Roland G.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examine the influence of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy on student achievement gains. Participants were 15 teachers and 266 students (grades 3 to 5) in a public elementary school serving predominantly low-income Latino English Language Learners (ELLs). Implications for teaching practice and research are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  9. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  10. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  11. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  12. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  13. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  14. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  15. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  16. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  17. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1989-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  18. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1988-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  19. Optimized entanglement-assisted quantum error correction

    SciTech Connect

    Taghavi, Soraya; Brun, Todd A.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-10-15

    Using convex optimization, we propose entanglement-assisted quantum error-correction procedures that are optimized for given noise channels. We demonstrate through numerical examples that such an optimized error-correction method achieves higher channel fidelities than existing methods. This improved performance, which leads to perfect error correction for a larger class of error channels, is interpreted in at least some cases by quantum teleportation, but for general channels this interpretation does not hold.

  20. Optimal control of sun tracking solar concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the modern control theory to derive an optimal sun tracking control for a point focusing solar concentrator is presented. A standard tracking problem converted to regulator problem using a sun rate input achieves an almost zero steady state tracking error with the optimal control formulation. However, these control techniques are costly because optimal type algorithms require large computing systems, thus they will be used mainly as comparison standards for other types of control algorithms and help in their development.

  1. Neutralizer optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Mohajeri, Kayhan

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary results of a test program to optimize a neutralizer design for 30 cm xenon ion thrusters are discussed. The impact of neutralizer geometry, neutralizer axial location, and local magnetic fields on neutralizer performance is discussed. The effect of neutralizer performance on overall thruster performance is quantified, for thruster operation in the 0.5-3.2 kW power range. Additionally, these data are compared to data published for other north-south stationkeeping (NSSK) and primary propulsion xenon ion thruster neutralizers.

  2. Optimal swimming of a sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D.; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  3. Optimization of a thermomagnetic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapanese, Marco; Cipriani, Giovanni; Di Dio, Vincenzo; Franzitta, Vincenzo; Viola, Alessia

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an approach towards the optimization of the Curie motor is presented. The approach is based on a thermal-magnetic coupled dynamic model of the motor, which is obtained by assuming the use of a ferromagnetic material working at temperatures near the Curie point. An analytical expression of the generated torque, which links this quantity to the magnetic, thermal, and geometrical parameters of the generated torque, is given. The expressions of speed and torque are derived and related to the thermal properties of the machine and are used as optimization indexes in an optimization procedure. The aim of the optimization process is to obtain a machine able to rotate constantly at the maximum achievable power. A design of a machine, based on this theory, is proposed and the related performances are numerically simulated. A preliminary experimental verification of the performances is reported.

  4. Dosimetry robustness with stochastic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohadani, Omid; Seco, Joao; Martin, Benjamin C.; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    All radiation therapy treatment planning relies on accurate dose calculation. Uncertainties in dosimetric prediction can significantly degrade an otherwise optimal plan. In this work, we introduce a robust optimization method which handles dosimetric errors and warrants for high-quality IMRT plans. Unlike other dose error estimations, we do not rely on the detailed knowledge about the sources of the uncertainty and use a generic error model based on random perturbation. This generality is sought in order to cope with a large variety of error sources. We demonstrate the method on a clinical case of lung cancer and show that our method provides plans that are more robust against dosimetric errors and are clinically acceptable. In fact, the robust plan exhibits a two-fold improved equivalent uniform dose compared to the non-robust but optimized plan. The achieved speedup will allow computationally extensive multi-criteria or beam-angle optimization approaches to warrant for dosimetrically relevant plans.

  5. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  6. Schedule path optimization for adiabatic quantum computing and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lishan; Zhang, Jun; Sarovar, Mohan

    2016-04-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing and optimization have garnered much attention recently as possible models for achieving a quantum advantage over classical approaches to optimization and other special purpose computations. Both techniques are probabilistic in nature and the minimum gap between the ground state and first excited state of the system during evolution is a major factor in determining the success probability. In this work we investigate a strategy for increasing the minimum gap and success probability by introducing intermediate Hamiltonians that modify the evolution path between initial and final Hamiltonians. We focus on an optimization problem relevant to recent hardware implementations and present numerical evidence for the existence of a purely local intermediate Hamiltonian that achieve the optimum performance in terms of pushing the minimum gap to one of the end points of the evolution. As a part of this study we develop a convex optimization formulation of the search for optimal adiabatic schedules that makes this computation more tractable, and which may be of independent interest. We further study the effectiveness of random intermediate Hamiltonians on the minimum gap and success probability, and empirically find that random Hamiltonians have a significant probability of increasing the success probability, but only by a modest amount.

  7. [SIAM conference on optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-10

    Abstracts are presented of 63 papers on the following topics: large-scale optimization, interior-point methods, algorithms for optimization, problems in control, network optimization methods, and parallel algorithms for optimization problems.

  8. Optimization criteria for SRAM design: lithography contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Daniel C.; Bula, Orest; Conrad, Edward W.; Coops, Daniel S.; Leipold, William C.; Mann, Randy W.; Oppold, Jeffrey H.

    1999-07-01

    Here we discuss the use of well calibrated resist and etch bias models, in conjunction with a fast microlithography aerial image simulator, to predict and 'optimize' the printed shapes through all critical levels in a dense SRAM design. Our key emphasis here is on 'optimization criteria', namely, having achieved good predictability for printability with lithography models, how to use this capability in conjunction of best electrical performance, yield, and density. The key lithography/design optimization issues discussed here are: (1) tightening of gate width variation by reducing spatial curvature in the source and drain regions, (2) achieving sufficient contact areas, (3) maximizing process window for overlay, (4) reducing leakage mechanisms by reducing contributions of stress and strain due to the printed shape of oxide isolation regions, (5) examining topological differences in design during the optimization process, (6) accounting for mask corner rounding, and (7) designing for scalability to smaller dimensions to achieve optical design reusability issues without hardware.

  9. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski. PMID:20624042

  10. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency. PMID:16846117

  11. Geometric optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Hinker, P.; Hansen, C.

    1993-09-01

    An algorithm is presented which describes an application independent method for reducing the number of polygonal primitives required to faithfully represent an object. Reducing polygon count without a corresponding reduction in object detail is important for: achieving interactive frame rates in scientific visualization, reducing mass storage requirements, and facilitating the transmission of large, multi-timestep geometric data sets. This paper shows how coplanar and nearly coplanar polygons can be merged into larger complex polygons and re-triangulated into fewer simple polygons than originally required. The notable contributions of this paper are: (1) a method for quickly grouping polygons into nearly coplanar sets, (2) a fast approach for merging coplanar polygon sets and, (3) a simple, robust triangulation method for polygons created by 1 and 2. The central idea of the algorithm is the notion of treating polygonal data as a collection of segments and removing redundant segments to quickly form polygon hulls which represent the merged coplanar sets.

  12. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22753040

  13. Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) office of Research and Evaluation presents Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82 (BSA). The BSA answers the following questions: (1) How does AISD student achievement compare to student achievement nationwide? (2) How does AISD's 1981-82 student achievement compare to the achievement of students in past…

  14. Pixelated source optimization for optical lithography via particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Sikun; Wang, Xiangzhao; Yan, Guanyong; Yang, Chaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Source optimization is one of the key techniques for achieving higher resolution without increasing the complexity of mask design. An efficient source optimization approach is proposed on the basis of particle swarm optimization. The pixelated sources are encoded into particles, which are evaluated by using the pattern error as the fitness function. Afterward, the optimization is implemented by updating the velocities and positions of these particles. This approach is demonstrated using three mask patterns, including a periodic array of contact holes, a vertical line/space design, and a complicated pattern. The pattern errors are reduced by 69.6%, 51.5%, and 40.3%, respectively. Compared with the source optimization approach via genetic algorithm, the proposed approach leads to faster convergence while improving the image quality at the same time. Compared with the source optimization approach via gradient descent method, the proposed approach does not need the calculation of gradients, and it has a strong adaptation to various lithographic models, fitness functions, and resist models. The robustness of the proposed approach to initial sources is also verified.

  15. Portfolio optimization with mean-variance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoe, Lam Weng; Siew, Lam Weng

    2016-06-01

    Investors wish to achieve the target rate of return at the minimum level of risk in their investment. Portfolio optimization is an investment strategy that can be used to minimize the portfolio risk and can achieve the target rate of return. The mean-variance model has been proposed in portfolio optimization. The mean-variance model is an optimization model that aims to minimize the portfolio risk which is the portfolio variance. The objective of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using the mean-variance model. The data of this study consists of weekly returns of 20 component stocks of FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (FBMKLCI). The results of this study show that the portfolio composition of the stocks is different. Moreover, investors can get the return at minimum level of risk with the constructed optimal mean-variance portfolio.

  16. Achieving Anterior Aesthetics in a Full-Arch Implant Case.

    PubMed

    Javaheri, Dino

    2016-01-01

    The proper approach to achieving the best possible smile for any aesthetic case must start with a full-smile analysis. Only when the practitioner determines the ideal final position of the teeth can the restorative phase begin. In this case, using provisional restorations and a transferable wax-up resulted in a final restoration that yielded optimal aesthetics, excellent function, and a very satisfied patient. PMID:26846060

  17. Storage Ring Based EDM Search — Achievements and Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrach, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes the experimental achievements of the JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations) Collaboration to exploit and demonstrate the feasibility of charged particle Electric Dipole Moment searches with storage rings at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Recent experimental results, design and optimization of critical accelerator elements, progress in beam and spin tracking, and future goals of the R & D program at COSY are presented.

  18. Achieving the Holevo bound via a bisection decoding protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, Matteo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-06-01

    We present a new decoding protocol to realize transmission of classical information through a quantum channel at asymptotically maximum capacity, achieving the Holevo bound and thus the optimal communication rate. At variance with previous proposals, our scheme recovers the message bit by bit, making use of a series of "yes-no" measurements, organized in bisection fashion, thus determining which codeword was sent in log2 N steps, N being the number of codewords.

  19. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  20. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  1. [Optimization of radiological scoliosis assessment].

    PubMed

    Enríquez, Goya; Piqueras, Joaquim; Catalá, Ana; Oliva, Glòria; Ruiz, Agustí; Ribas, Montserrat; Duran, Carmina; Rodrigo, Carlos; Rodríguez, Eugenia; Garriga, Victoria; Maristany, Teresa; García-Fontecha, César; Baños, Joan; Muchart, Jordi; Alava, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Most scoliosis are idiopathic (80%) and occur more frequently in adolescent girls. Plain radiography is the imaging method of choice, both for the initial study and follow-up studies but has the disadvantage of using ionizing radiation. The breasts are exposed to x-ray along these repeated examinations. The authors present a range of recommendations in order to optimize radiographic exam technique for both conventional and digital x-ray settings to prevent unnecessary patients' radiation exposure and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients with scoliosis. With analogue systems, leaded breast protectors should always be used, and with any radiographic equipment, analog or digital radiography, the examination should be performed in postero-anterior projection and optimized low-dose techniques. The ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) rule should always be followed to achieve diagnostic quality images with the lowest feasible dose. PMID:25128362

  2. Framework for computationally efficient optimal irrigation scheduling using ant colony optimization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general optimization framework is introduced with the overall goal of reducing search space size and increasing the computational efficiency of evolutionary algorithm application for optimal irrigation scheduling. The framework achieves this goal by representing the problem in the form of a decisi...

  3. The expanded invasive weed optimization metaheuristic for solving continuous and discrete optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Josiński, Henryk; Kostrzewa, Daniel; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Switoński, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature. PMID:24955420

  4. NEMO Oceanic Model Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epicoco, I.; Mocavero, S.; Murli, A.; Aloisio, G.

    2012-04-01

    NEMO is an oceanic model used by the climate community for stand-alone or coupled experiments. Its parallel implementation, based on MPI, limits the exploitation of the emerging computational infrastructures at peta and exascale, due to the weight of communications. As case study we considered the MFS configuration developed at INGV with a resolution of 1/16° tailored on the Mediterranenan Basin. The work is focused on the analysis of the code on the MareNostrum cluster and on the optimization of critical routines. The first performance analysis of the model aimed at establishing how much the computational performance are influenced by the GPFS file system or the local disks and wich is the best domain decomposition. The results highlight that the exploitation of local disks can reduce the wall clock time up to 40% and that the best performance is achieved with a 2D decomposition when the local domain has a square shape. A deeper performance analysis highlights the obc_rad, dyn_spg and tra_adv routines are the most time consuming routines. The obc_rad implements the evaluation of the open boundaries and it has been the first routine to be optimized. The communication pattern implemented in obc_rad routine has been redesigned. Before the introduction of the optimizations all processes were involved in the communication, but only the processes on the boundaries have the actual data to be exchanged and only the data on the boundaries must be exchanged. Moreover the data along the vertical levels are "packed" and sent with only one MPI_send invocation. The overall efficiency increases compared with the original version, as well as the parallel speed-up. The execution time was reduced of about 33.81%. The second phase of optimization involved the SOR solver routine, implementing the Red-Black Successive-Over-Relaxation method. The high frequency of exchanging data among processes represent the most part of the overall communication time. The number of communication is

  5. Fuel consumption in optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Jim; Silverberg, Larry

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for comparing three optimal control strategies based on fuel consumption. A general cost function minimization procedure was developed by applying two theorems associated with convex sets. Three cost functions associated with control saturation, pseudofuel, and absolute fuel are introduced and minimized. The first two cost functions led to the bang-bang and continuous control strategies, and the minimization of absolute fuel led to an impulsive strategy. The three control strategies were implemented on two elementary systems and a comparison of fuel consumption was made. The impulse control strategy consumes significantly less fuel than the continuous and bang-bang control strategies. This comparison suggests a potential for fuel savings in higher-order systems using impulsive control strategies. However, since exact solutions to fuel-optimal control for large-order systems are difficult if not impossible to achieve, the alternative is to develop near-optimal control strategies.

  6. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  7. Optimization Methods in Sherpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Nguyen, Dan T.; Doe, Stephen M.; Refsdal, Brian L.

    2009-09-01

    Forward fitting is a standard technique used to model X-ray data. A statistic, usually assumed weighted chi^2 or Poisson likelihood (e.g. Cash), is minimized in the fitting process to obtain a set of the best model parameters. Astronomical models often have complex forms with many parameters that can be correlated (e.g. an absorbed power law). Minimization is not trivial in such setting, as the statistical parameter space becomes multimodal and finding the global minimum is hard. Standard minimization algorithms can be found in many libraries of scientific functions, but they are usually focused on specific functions. However, Sherpa designed as general fitting and modeling application requires very robust optimization methods that can be applied to variety of astronomical data (X-ray spectra, images, timing, optical data etc.). We developed several optimization algorithms in Sherpa targeting a wide range of minimization problems. Two local minimization methods were built: Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was obtained from MINPACK subroutine LMDIF and modified to achieve the required robustness; and Nelder-Mead simplex method has been implemented in-house based on variations of the algorithm described in the literature. A global search Monte-Carlo method has been implemented following a differential evolution algorithm presented by Storn and Price (1997). We will present the methods in Sherpa and discuss their usage cases. We will focus on the application to Chandra data showing both 1D and 2D examples. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  8. Code Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    MAGEE,GLEN I.

    2000-08-03

    Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.

  9. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502

  10. Competency-Based Achievement System

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N.; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents’ competence in “soft” skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. Objective of program To develop a method to assess residents’ competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. Program description The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents’ knowledge of and competence in important skills. Conclusion By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence. PMID:21918129

  11. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  12. An overview of the optimization modelling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    2012-10-01

    SummaryThe optimal use of available resources is of paramount importance in the backdrop of the increasing food, fiber, and other demands of the burgeoning global population and the shrinking resources. The optimal use of these resources can be determined by employing an optimization technique. The comprehensive reviews on the use of various programming techniques for the solution of different optimization problems have been provided in this paper. The past reviews are grouped into nine sections based on the solutions of the theme-based real world problems. The sections include: use of optimization modelling for conjunctive use planning, groundwater management, seawater intrusion management, irrigation management, achieving optimal cropping pattern, management of reservoir systems operation, management of resources in arid and semi-arid regions, solid waste management, and miscellaneous uses which comprise, managing problems of hydropower generation and sugar industry. Conclusions are drawn where gaps exist and more research needs to be focused.

  13. The Cognitive Determinants of Achieving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    A cognitive explanation of achievement-related behavior is developed. It is suggested that high and low achievers diverge behaviorally in the achievement situation because they conceptualize the causes of success and failure in different ways. The results of a study are presented which show that subjects high in achievement needs tend to attribute…

  14. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  15. Affiliation Motivation and Hawaiian-American Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Ronald

    1974-01-01

    Fantasy "n" affiliation (nAff) was correlated with reading achievement test scores, but not math achievement test scores, for a sample of 67 Hawaiian-American high school students. There was no relationship between "n" Ach and achievement test scores. The process linking "n" Aff and Hawaiian American achievement was suggested to involve…

  16. Closing the Achievement Gap: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robards, Shirley N.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap between low- and high-achieving public school students is an important goal of public education. This article explores background information and research and discusses examples of best practices to close the achievement gap. Several plans have been proposed as ways to enhance the achievement of under-represented…

  17. Optimal BLS: Optimizing transit-signal detection for Keplerian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofir, Aviv

    2015-08-01

    Transit surveys, both ground- and space-based, have already accumulated a large number of light curves that span several years. We optimize the search for transit signals for both detection and computational efficiencies by assuming that the searched systems can be described by Keplerian, and propagating the effects of different system parameters to the detection parameters. Importnantly, we mainly consider the information content of the transit signal and not any specific algorithm - and use BLS (Kovács, Zucker, & Mazeh 2002) just as a specific example.We show that the frequency information content of the light curve is primarily determined by the duty cycle of the transit signal, and thus the optimal frequency sampling is found to be cubic and not linear. Further optimization is achieved by considering duty-cycle dependent binning of the phased light curve. By using the (standard) BLS, one is either fairly insensitive to long-period planets or less sensitive to short-period planets and computationally slower by a significant factor of ~330 (for a 3 yr long dataset). We also show how the physical system parameters, such as the host star's size and mass, directly affect transit detection. This understanding can then be used to optimize the search for every star individually.By considering Keplerian dynamics explicitly rather than implicitly one can optimally search the transit signal parameter space. The presented Optimal BLS enhances the detectability of both very short and very long period planets, while allowing such searches to be done with much reduced resources and time. The Matlab/Octave source code for Optimal BLS is made available.

  18. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  19. Particle swarm optimization for discrete-time inverse optimal control of a doubly fed induction generator.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cruz, Riemann; Sanchez, Edgar N; Ornelas-Tellez, Fernando; Loukianov, Alexander G; Harley, Ronald G

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the authors propose a particle swarm optimization (PSO) for a discrete-time inverse optimal control scheme of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). For the inverse optimal scheme, a control Lyapunov function (CLF) is proposed to obtain an inverse optimal control law in order to achieve trajectory tracking. A posteriori, it is established that this control law minimizes a meaningful cost function. The CLFs depend on matrix selection in order to achieve the control objectives; this matrix is determined by two mechanisms: initially, fixed parameters are proposed for this matrix by a trial-and-error method and then by using the PSO algorithm. The inverse optimal control scheme is illustrated via simulations for the DFIG, including the comparison between both mechanisms. PMID:24273145

  20. Achieving Maximal Speed of Solution Exchange for Patch Clamp Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Auzmendi, Jerónimo; Fernández Do Porto, Darío; Pallavicini, Carla; Moffatt, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Background Resolving the kinetics of agonist binding events separately from the subsequent channel gating processes requires the ability of applying and removing the agonist before channel gating occurs. No reported system has yet achieved pulses shorter than 100 µs, necessary to study nicotinic ACh receptor or AMPA receptor activation. Methodology/Principal Findings Solution exchange systems deliver short agonist pulses by moving a sharp interface between a control and an experimental solution across a channel preparation. We achieved shorter pulses by means of an exchange system that combines a faster flow velocity, narrower partition between the two streams, and increased velocity and bandwidth of the movement of the interface. The measured response of the entire system was fed back to optimize the voltage signal applied to the piezoelectric actuator overcoming the spurious oscillations arising from the mechanical resonances when a high bandwidth driving function was applied. Optimization was accomplished by analyzing the transfer function of the solution exchange system. When driven by optimized command pulses the enhanced system provided pulses lasting 26 ± 1 µs and exchanging 93 ± 1% of the solution, as measured in the open tip of a patch pipette. Conclusions/Significance Pulses of this duration open the experimental study of the molecular events that occur between the agonist binding and the opening of the channel. PMID:22879927

  1. Heterostructure optimization for increasing LED efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Oleg; Legotin, Sergey; Didenko, Sergey; Yakimov, Evgeniy; Osipov, Yuriy; Fedorchenko, Irina

    2016-05-01

    Computer simulations were performed to increase the quantum efficiency of LED by optimizing the nanoheterostructure (NH). Furthermore, the InGaN and AlGaP NHs for LEDs were optimized. On the basis of the optimum NH, ways to further increase the efficiency and the influence of impurities and indium atoms doped into barriers between quantum wells were investigated. The optimum impurity and indium atom concentrations to achieve higher flux were determined.

  2. The Relationship among Achievement Motivation Orientations, Achievement Goals, and Academic Achievement and Interest: A Multiple Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; Patrick, Rosan R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships among achievement motivation orientations and academic achievement and interest and whether achievement goals mediate these relationships. A sample of 503 students aged 14-16 years from 8 secondary schools in two Australia cities responded to a questionnaire package, comprising measures…

  3. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  4. DSP code optimization based on cache

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chengfa; Li, Chengcheng; Tang, Bin

    2013-03-01

    DSP program's running efficiency on board is often lower than which via the software simulation during the program development, which is mainly resulted from the user's improper use and incomplete understanding of the cache-based memory. This paper took the TI TMS320C6455 DSP as an example, analyzed its two-level internal cache, and summarized the methods of code optimization. Processor can achieve its best performance when using these code optimization methods. At last, a specific algorithm application in radar signal processing is proposed. Experiment result shows that these optimization are efficient.

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  6. The Intersection of Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background. The…

  7. Property Value and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Is there a relationship between the dollar value of property behind each student in a school district and student achievement on standardized tests (or achievement in general)? This paper explains that probably due to the relationship between property taxes and school funding, there is a strong link between property value and student achievement.…

  8. School District Organization and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidwell, Charles E.; Kasarda, John D.

    1975-01-01

    Study examines determinants of organizational effectiveness. Results indicate that pupil-teacher ratio and administrative intensity depress median levels of achievement; whereas, staff qualifications foster student achievement. The percentage of non-whites is said to have a consistently significant direct effect on median achievement level.…

  9. The Influence of Poverty on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt, poverty has a negative influence on student achievement, especially when achievement is measured by state-mandated standardized tests. However, some bureaucrats, such as state commissioners of education and even state governors, continue to downplay the influence of poverty on student achievement. New Jersey's Governor Chris…

  10. Reducing Measurement Error in Student Achievement Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero; Gori, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The achievement level is a variable measured with error, that can be estimated by means of the Rasch model. Teacher grades also measure the achievement level but they are expressed on a different scale. This paper proposes a method for combining these two scores to obtain a synthetic measure of the achievement level based on the theory developed…

  11. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  13. The Ohio Vocational Education Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Instructional Materials Lab.

    The Ohio Vocational Achievement Tests are specially designed instruments for use by teachers, supervisors, and administrators to evaluate and diagnose vocational achievement for improving instruction in secondary vocational programs at the 11th and 12th grade levels. This guide explains the Ohio Vocational Achievement Tests and how they are used.…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  15. Examining the Stability of Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Edwards, Ordene

    2009-01-01

    We examined stability and change in students' achievement goal orientations over varying tasks. Two naturalistic longitudinal studies were conducted in undergraduate courses. Students completed self-reports designed to measure their achievement goals. Achievement goals were measured four times: prior to two assignments and two exams. Four…

  16. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  17. A competitive swarm optimizer for large scale optimization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ran; Jin, Yaochu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a novel competitive swarm optimizer (CSO) for large scale optimization is proposed. The algorithm is fundamentally inspired by the particle swarm optimization but is conceptually very different. In the proposed CSO, neither the personal best position of each particle nor the global best position (or neighborhood best positions) is involved in updating the particles. Instead, a pairwise competition mechanism is introduced, where the particle that loses the competition will update its position by learning from the winner. To understand the search behavior of the proposed CSO, a theoretical proof of convergence is provided, together with empirical analysis of its exploration and exploitation abilities showing that the proposed CSO achieves a good balance between exploration and exploitation. Despite its algorithmic simplicity, our empirical results demonstrate that the proposed CSO exhibits a better overall performance than five state-of-the-art metaheuristic algorithms on a set of widely used large scale optimization problems and is able to effectively solve problems of dimensionality up to 5000. PMID:24860047

  18. Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks

    SciTech Connect

    Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

    2000-05-01

    The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

  19. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  20. Aerial image retargeting (AIR): achieving litho-friendly designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehia Hamouda, Ayman; Word, James; Anis, Mohab; Karim, Karim S.

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we present a new technique to detect non-Litho-Friendly design areas based on their Aerial Image signature. The aerial image is calculated for the litho target (pre-OPC). This is followed by the fixing (retargeting) the design to achieve a litho friendly OPC target. This technique is applied and tested on 28 nm metal layer and shows a big improvement in the process window performance. For an optimized Aerial-Image-Retargeting (AIR) recipe is very computationally efficient and its runtime doesn't consume more than 1% of the OPC flow runtime.